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Sample records for subclinical positive psychotic

  1. Cannabis use and subclinical positive psychotic experiences in early adolescence : findings from a Dutch survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Willemijn A; Wigman, Johanna T W; Monshouwer, Karin; Kahn, René S; van Os, Jim; Boks, Marco P M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    AIMS: To investigate the association between early cannabis use and subclinical psychotic experiences, distinguishing between five levels of use: never used, discontinued use (life-time users who did not use in the preceding year), experimental use, regular use and heavy use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional

  2. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

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    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Concurrent and Sustained Cumulative Effects of Adolescent Marijuana Use on Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

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    Bechtold, Jordan; Hipwell, Alison; Lewis, David A; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents who regularly use marijuana may be at heightened risk of developing subclinical and clinical psychotic symptoms. However, this association could be explained by reverse causation or other factors. To address these limitations, the current study examined whether adolescents who engage in regular marijuana use exhibit a systematic increase in subclinical psychotic symptoms that persists during periods of sustained abstinence. The sample comprised 1,009 boys who were recruited in 1st and 7th grades. Self-reported frequency of marijuana use, subclinical psychotic symptoms, and several time-varying confounds (e.g., other substance use, internalizing/externalizing problems) were recorded annually from age 13 to 18. Fixed-effects (within-individual change) models examined whether adolescents exhibited an increase in their subclinical psychotic symptoms as a function of their recent and/or cumulative history of regular marijuana use and whether these effects were sustained following abstinence. Models controlled for all time-stable factors (default) and several time-varying covariates as potential confounds. For each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their expected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms rose by 21% and their expected odds of experiencing subsequent subclinical paranoia or hallucinations rose by 133% and 92%, respectively. The effect of prior regular marijuana use on subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms persisted even when adolescents stopped using marijuana for a year. These effects were after controlling for all time-stable and several time-varying confounds. No support was found for reverse causation. These results suggest that regular marijuana use may significantly increase the risk that an adolescent will experience persistent subclinical psychotic symptoms.

  4. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

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    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A.; Wotruba, Diana; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1) most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2) magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3) similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4) ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings indicated that

  5. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A; Wotruba, Diana; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20-60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1) most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2) magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3) similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4) ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings indicated that

  6. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Unterrassner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ. The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1 most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2 magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3 similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4 ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings

  7. Positive and negative subclinical symptoms and MCCB performance in non-psychiatric controls

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    Cole Korponay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable data support the phenomenological and temporal continuity between subclinical psychosis and psychotic disorders. In recent years, neurocognitive deficits have increasingly been recognized as a core feature of psychotic illness but there are few data seeking to elucidate the relationship between subclinical psychosis and neurocogntive deficits in non-clinical samples. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between subclinical positive and negative symptoms, as measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB in a large (n = 303 and demographically diverse non-clinical sample. We found that compared to participants with low levels of subclinical positive symptoms, participants with high levels of subclinical positive symptoms performed significantly better in the domains of working memory (p < .001, verbal learning (p = .007 and visual learning (p = .014. Although comparison of participants with high and low levels of subclinical negative symptoms revealed no differences in MCCB performance, we found that individuals with high levels of subclinical negative symptoms performed significantly better on a measure of estimated IQ (WRAT-3 Reading subtest; p = .02 than those with low levels of subclinical negative symptoms. These results are at odds with prior reports that have generally shown a negative relationship between neurocognitive functioning and severity of subclinical psychotic symptoms, and suggest some potential discontinuities between clinically significant psychotic symptoms and sub-syndromal manifestations of psychosis.

  8. Distribution of response time, cortical, and cardiac correlates during emotional interference in persons with subclinical psychotic symptoms

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    Lisa Kathinka Barbara Holper

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of clinical detection. The study aimed to investigate whether subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated with deficits in controlling emotional interference, and whether cortical brain and cardiac correlates of these deficits can be detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. A data set derived from a community sample was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services. 174 subjects (mean age 29.67 ± 6.41, 91 females were assigned to four groups ranging from low to high levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms (derived from the Symptom Checklist-90-R. Emotional interference was assessed using the emotional Stroop task comprising neutral, positive, and negative conditions. Statistical distributional methods based on delta plots (behavioral response time data and quantile analysis (fNIRS data were applied to evaluate the emotional interference effects.Results showed that both interference effects and disorder-specific (i.e., group-specific effects could be detected, based on behavioral response times, cortical hemodynamic signals (brain correlates, and heart rate variability (cardiac correlates. Subjects with high compared to low subclinical psychotic symptoms revealed significantly reduced amplitudes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (interference effect, p < 0.001 and middle temporal gyrus (disorder-specific group effect, p < 0.001, supported by behavioral and heart rate results. The present findings indicate that distributional analyses methods can support the detection of emotional interference effects in the emotional Stroop. The results suggested that subjects with high subclinical psychosis exhibit enhanced emotional interference effects. Based on these observations, subclinical psychosis may therefore prove to represent a valid extension of the clinical psychosis phenotype.

  9. Distribution of Response Time, Cortical, and Cardiac Correlates during Emotional Interference in Persons with Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

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    Holper, Lisa K B; Aleksandrowicz, Alekandra; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Hagenmuller, Florence; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-01

    A psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of clinical detection. The study aimed to investigate whether subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated with deficits in controlling emotional interference, and whether cortical brain and cardiac correlates of these deficits can be detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A data set derived from a community sample was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services. 174 subjects (mean age 29.67 ± 6.41, 91 females) were assigned to four groups ranging from low to high levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms (derived from the Symptom Checklist-90-R). Emotional interference was assessed using the emotional Stroop task comprising neutral, positive, and negative conditions. Statistical distributional methods based on delta plots [behavioral response time (RT) data] and quantile analysis (fNIRS data) were applied to evaluate the emotional interference effects. Results showed that both interference effects and disorder-specific (i.e., group-specific) effects could be detected, based on behavioral RTs, cortical hemodynamic signals (brain correlates), and heart rate variability (cardiac correlates). Subjects with high compared to low subclinical psychotic symptoms revealed significantly reduced amplitudes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (interference effect, p < 0.001) and middle temporal gyrus (disorder-specific group effect, p < 0.001), supported by behavioral and heart rate results. The present findings indicate that distributional analyses methods can support the detection of emotional interference effects in the emotional Stroop. The results suggested that subjects with high subclinical psychosis exhibit enhanced emotional interference effects. Based on these observations, subclinical psychosis may therefore prove to represent a valid extension of the clinical psychosis phenotype.

  10. Language, motor and speed of processing deficits in adolescents with subclinical psychotic symptoms.

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    Blanchard, Mathieu M; Jacobson, Sarah; Clarke, Mary C; Connor, Dearbhla; Kelleher, Ian; Garavan, Hugh; Harley, Michelle; Cannon, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Neuropsychological impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia. Adolescents reporting subclinical psychotic symptoms are considered to be at greater risk of developing a psychotic illness later in life than adolescents who do not report such symptoms and, thus, may represent an at-risk group for further study. We wished to investigate neuropsychological functioning in early adolescence in relation to reports of psychotic symptoms. Participants were recruited from local primary schools after a two-stage screening and parental consent process. In brief, 277 adolescents were screened and 37 attended for testing. Seventeen adolescents who were deemed to report 'definite' psychotic symptoms after clinical interview and 20 control adolescents underwent a clinical interview and a one-hour neuropsychological battery. Adolescents who report psychotic symptoms exhibited significant impairments in receptive language (as measured by the British Picture Vocabulary Scale), motor function (as measured by the Pegboard test) and executive function/speed of processing (as measured by the Trail-Making test). There were no significant differences between the groups on measures of attention, memory or expressive language, abstract reasoning or overall scholastic ability. Taken together with the results from birth cohort, genetic high risk and prodromal studies, these findings are consistent with a neural inefficiency/disconnectivity hypothesis in those at risk for psychosis. These results highlight the need to investigate developmental brain circuits subserving language and motor function and processing speed and how these change over time in at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between processing speed and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population: focusing on sex differences.

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    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Kawohl, Wolfram; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is growing that persons along the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e., those who also display subclinical psychotic symptoms, exhibit deficits across a broad range of neuropsychological domains. Because sex differences in the association between cognitive deficits and psychosis have thus far been mostly neglected, we believe that ours is the first study specifically focused upon those differences when examining the relationship between subclinical psychosis and processing speed. Using a sample of 213 persons from the general population from Zurich, Switzerland, psychotic symptoms were assessed with three different questionnaires including the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, an adaptation of the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies, and the Paranoia Checklist. Processing speed was assessed with the WAIS digit-symbol coding test. Two higher-order psychosis domains were factor-analytically derived from the various psychosis subscales and then subjected to a series of linear regression analyses. The results demonstrate that in both men and women associations between subclinical psychosis domains and processing speed were weak to moderate (β ranging from -0.18 to -0.27; all p0.30). In conclusion, it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves only at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) and not across the sub-threshold range. The small magnitude of the effects reported herein conforms to the etiopathology of the disorder. Since schizophrenia and related disorders from the spectrum are assumed to be multifactorial diseases, it follows that many etiological components of small effect are involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The relation between bullying and subclinical psychotic experiences and the influence of the bully climate of school classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrevorts, Esther M B; Monshouwer, Karin; Wigman, Johanna T W; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association between the bully climate of school classes and the prevalence of subclinical psychotic experiences among students who are involved in bullying (either as bully or as victim). Data were derived from the Dutch health behavior in school-aged children survey

  13. Positive emotions from social company in women with persisting subclinical psychosis: lessons from daily life.

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    Collip, D; Wigman, J T W; van Os, J; Oorschot, M; Jacobs, N; Derom, C; Thiery, E; Peeters, F; Wichers, M; Myin-Germeys, I

    2014-03-01

    Altered social reward functioning is associated with psychosis irrespective of stage and severity. Examining the role of social reward functioning prospectively in relation to psychotic experiences before these become persistent and potentially disabling can aid in elucidating social mechanisms that induce shifts toward more severe psychotic states, without the confounding effects of clinical disorder. In a longitudinal general population sample (N = 566), the experience sampling method (repetitive random sampling of momentary emotions and social context) was used to assess daily life social functioning at baseline. Persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences was based on the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences assessed three times over 14 months. Analyses examined to what degree i) social context and ii) appreciation thereof differentiated between those who did and did not develop persistent psychotic experiences. Although individuals with persistent psychotic experiences did not differ in overall level of positive effect, the amount of time spent alone or the level of social satisfaction compared to individuals without persistent psychotic experiences, they were more sensitive to the rewarding effects of social company. Alterations in social reward experience may form one of the mechanisms that precede the development of the extended psychosis phenotype over time. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Typologies of positive psychotic symptoms in methamphetamine dependence

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    Bousman, Chad A.; McKetin, Rebecca; Burns, Richard; Woods, Steven Paul; Morgan, Erin E.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Everall, Ian P.; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Understanding methamphetamine associated psychotic (MAP) symptom typologies could aid in identifying individuals at risk of progressing to schizophrenia and guide early intervention. Methods Latent class analysis (LCA) of psychotic symptoms collected from 40 methamphetamine dependent individuals with a history of psychotic symptoms but no history of a primary psychotic disorder. Results Three typologies were identified. In one, persecutory delusions dominated (Type 1), in another persecutory delusions were accompanied by hallucinations (Type 2), and in the third a high frequency of all the assessed hallucinatory and delusional symptoms was observed (Type 3). Discussion and Conclusion MAP is a heterogeneous syndrome with positive symptom typologies. Scientific Significance This study represents the first attempt at identifying typologies of MAP and highlights the potential utility of LCA in future large-scale studies. PMID:25864598

  15. Attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and social anxiety: Along a psychotic continuum or different constructs?

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    Cooper, Shanna; Klugman, Joshua; Heimberg, Richard G; Anglin, Deidre M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2016-01-30

    Social anxiety commonly occurs across the course of schizophrenia, including in the premorbid and prodromal phases of psychotic disorders. Some have posited that social anxiety may exist on a continuum with paranoia; however, empirical data are lacking. The study aim was to determine whether attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are related to social anxiety. Young adults (N=1378) were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), which measures attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), which measures a subset of social anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to address the extent to which social anxiety and APPS tap distinct dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses support the existence of a separate social anxiety factor scale and four separate, though interrelated, APPS factor domains (unusual thought content, paranoia/suspiciousness, disorganized thinking, and perceptual abnormalities). Additionally, social anxiety was significantly, but not differently related to each APPS domain, although the magnitude was reduced between social anxiety and distressing APPS. The current study suggests that social anxiety and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are separable constructs, but are significantly associated with each other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood trauma as a risk factor for the onset of subclinical psychotic experiences: Exploring the mediating effect of stress sensitivity in a cross-sectional epidemiological community study.

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    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rodgers, Stephanie; Haker, Helene; Müller, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Childhood trauma is a risk factor for the onset of schizophrenic psychosis. Because the psychosis phenotype can be described as a continuum with varying levels of severity and persistence, childhood trauma might likewise increase the risk for psychotic experiences below the diagnostic threshold. But the impact of stressful experiences depends upon its subjective appraisal. Therefore, varying degrees of stress sensitivity possibly mediate how childhood trauma impacts in the end upon the occurrence of subclinical psychotic experiences. We investigated this research question in a representative community cohort of 1500 participants. A questionnaire, comprising five domains of physical and emotional neglect, as well as physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, was used to assess childhood trauma. Based on different symptoms of subclinical psychotic experiences, we conducted a latent profile analysis (LPA) to derive distinct profiles for such experiences. Path modeling was performed to identify the direct and indirect (via stress sensitivity) pathways from childhood trauma to subclinical psychotic experiences. The LPA revealed four classes - unaffected, anomalous perceptions, odd beliefs and behavior, and combined anomalous perceptions/odd beliefs and behavior, that - except for sexual abuse - were all linked to childhood trauma. Moreover, except for physical abuse, childhood trauma was significantly associated with stress sensitivity. Thus, our results revealed that the pathways from emotional neglect/abuse and physical neglect to subclinical psychotic experiences were mediated by stress sensitivity. In conclusion, we can state that subclinical psychotic experiences are affected by childhood traumatic experiences in particular through the pathway of a heightened subjective stress appraisal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Subclinical psychotic experiences and bipolar spectrum features in depression : association with outcome of psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, J. T. W.; van Os, J.; Abidi, L.; Huibers, M. J. H.; Roelofs, J.; Arntz, A.; Kelleher, I.; Peeters, F. P. M. L.

    Background Subthreshold psychotic and bipolar experiences are common in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unknown if effectiveness of psychotherapy is altered in depressed patients who display such features compared with those without. The current paper aimed to investigate the impact

  18. Psychotic-like symptoms and positive schizotypy are associated with mixed and ambiguous handedness in an adolescent community sample.

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    Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette; Navarro, Blas; Vicens-Vilanova, Jordi; Obiols, Jordi; Kwapil, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    The objective of this study was to replicate the association between atypical handedness and psychosis-proneness in a representative sample of adolescents from the general population. It expands previous studies by (1) analyzing a variety of atypical handedness indexes (left, mixed, ambiguous, and inconsistent), (2) measuring comprehensively the multidimensionality of psychosis-proneness, and (3) analyzing the association of different patterns of atypical handedness with nonclinical dimensions of both trait (schizotypy) and sub-clinical symptom (psychotic-like experiences) levels. Seven hundred and twenty-eight adolescents were assessed for handedness by the 12-item self-report Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire and for psychosis-proneness by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scales. Writing-hand alone did not detect associations between laterality and psychosis-proneness. Mixed- rather than left-handedness was related to psychosis-proneness, and this was more evident when analyzing subjects with ambiguous handedness exclusively. When analysis was restricted to subjects with non-ambiguous handedness, strong left-handedness was related to psychosis-proneness. The positive dimension showed a stronger association than the negative one with atypical handedness. Results partially support mixed-handedness as a marker of developmental disorders underlying both atypical lateralization and psychosis-proneness. Among various possible mixed-handedness patterns, inconsistent hand use across primary actions, and for the same action across time, seems particularly related to psychosis-proneness and thus requires further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Isolated Positive Psychotic and Catatonic Symptoms.

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    Parmar, Arpit; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare slowly progressing neurological illness. Although patients with SSPE initially present with symptoms such as myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline, and personality/behavioral changes usually, rarely pure psychiatric symptoms (e.g., mania, psychosis, and catatonia) have also been reported during the initial course of the illness. We report an unusual case of an adolescent with SSPE presenting with prominent positive psychotic and catatonic symptoms with the absence of classical symptoms of SSPE in initial course of illness and further discussed the relevant literature.

  20. Disruption of frontal θ coherence by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is associated with positive psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Paul D; Nottage, Judith; Stone, James M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Tunstall, Nigel; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Holt, David; Wilson, Daniel; Sumich, Alex; McGuire, Philip; Murray, Robin M; Kapur, Shitij; Ffytche, Dominic H

    2011-03-01

    The main ingredient in cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can elicit acute psychotic reactions in healthy individuals and precipitate relapse in schizophrenic patients. However, the neural mechanism of this is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that THC psychopathology is related to changes in electroencephalography (EEG) power or inter-regional coherence. In a within-subjects design, participants (n=16) were given intravenous THC (1.25 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions, during EEG recordings. Using fast-Fourier transform, EEG data were analyzed for power and coherence in the delta (1-3.5 Hz), theta (3.5-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (14-25 Hz), low-gamma (30-40 Hz), and high-gamma (60-70 Hz) bands during engagement in the n-back test of working memory (WM). Compared with placebo, THC evoked positive and negative psychotic symptoms, as measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale (pimpairment. Coherence between bi-frontal electrodes in the theta band was also reduced by THC (pimpaired network dynamics with impaired communication between the right and left frontal lobes.

  1. From epidemiology to daily life: linking daily life stress reactivity to persistence of psychotic experiences in a longitudinal general population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Collip

    Full Text Available Subclinical psychotic experiences at the level of the general population are common, forming an extended psychosis phenotype with clinical psychosis. Persistence of subclinical experiences is associated with transition to later mental disorder. Increased daily life stress reactivity is considered an endophenotype for psychotic disorders. We examined, in a longitudinal framework, whether baseline momentary assessment markers of stress reactivity would predict persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences over time. In a general population sample of female twins (N = 566, the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; repetitive random sampling of momentary emotions, psychotic experiences and context was used to assess (emotional and psychotic daily life stress reactivity. Persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences was based on the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE, assessed three times over 14 months post-baseline. It was investigated whether baseline daily life emotional and psychotic stress reactivity predicted persistence of psychotic experiences over time. Higher levels of emotional stress reactivity (a decrease in positive and an increase in negative affect in response to stress, and increased psychotic reactivity to daily stress was found in individuals with persistent psychotic experiences over time compared to individuals with transient psychotic experiences. The results suggest that markers of daily life stress reactivity may predict "macro-level" persistence of normally transient expression of psychotic liability over time. Linking daily life markers of altered reactivity in terms of emotions and psychotic experiences to longitudinal persistence of psychotic experiences, associated with increased risk of transition to overt mental disorder, may contribute to earlier and more accurate diagnosis of risk.

  2. Positivity Effect Specific to Older Adults with Subclinical Memory Impairment

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    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that older adults preferentially remember positive information ("positivity effect"), however others have reported mixed results. One potential source of conflict is that aging is not a unitary phenomenon and individual differences exist. We modified a standard neuropsychological test to vary emotional…

  3. Positive life change and remission of non-psychotic mental illness - A competing outcomes approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J

    Background: Episode duration in non-psychotic mental illness is associated with personal characteristics of patients, like age or personality. Part of these links may be mediated by life change, a predictor of episode duration in its own right. Methods: In 170 primary care patients who suffered 4171

  4. Impact of positive thyroid autoimmunity on pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

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    López-Tinoco, Cristina; Rodríguez-Mengual, Amparo; Lara-Barea, Almudena; Barcala, Julia; Larrán, Laura; Saez-Benito, Ana; Aguilar-Diosdado, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The impact of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and thyroid autoimmunity on obstetric and perinatal complications continues to be a matter of interest and highly controversial. To assess the impact of SH and autoimmunity in early pregnancy on the obstetric and perinatal complications in our population. A retrospective cohort study in 435 women with SH (TSH ranging from 3.86 and 10 μIU/mL and normal FT4 values) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Epidemiological and clinical parameters were analyzed and were related to obstetric and perinatal complications based on the presence of autoimmunity (thyroid peroxidase antibodies [TPO] > 34 IU/mL). Mean age was 31.3 years (SD 5.2). Seventeen percent of patients had positive TPO antibodies. Presence of positive autoimmunity was associated to a family history of hypothyroidism (P=.04) and a higher chance of miscarriage (P=.009). In the multivariate analysis, positive TPO antibodies were associated to a 10.25-fold higher risk of miscarriage. No statistically significant associations were found with all other obstetric and perinatal complications. In our region, pregnant women with SH and thyroid autoimmunity had a higher risk of miscarriage but not of other obstetric and perinatal complications. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Autistic traits and positive psychotic experiences modulate the association of psychopathic tendencies with theory of mind in opposite directions.

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    Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Abu-Akel, Ahmad M

    2017-07-25

    Various clinical disorders, including psychopathy, and autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, have been linked with impairments in Theory of Mind (ToM). However, although these conditions can co-occur in the same individual, the effect of their inter-play on ToM abilities has not been investigated. Here we assessed ToM abilities in 55 healthy adults while performing a naturalistic ToM task, requiring participants to watch a short film and judge the actors' mental states. The results reveal for the first time that autistic traits and positive psychotic experiences interact with psychopathic tendencies in opposite directions to predict ToM performance-the interaction of psychopathic tendencies with autism traits was associated with a decrement in performance, whereas the interaction of psychopathic tendencies and positive psychotic experiences was associated with improved performance. These effects were specific to cognitive rather than affective ToM. These results underscore the importance of the simultaneous assessment of these dimensions within clinical settings. Future research in these clinical populations may benefit by taking into account such individual differences.

  6. Positive emotions from social company in women with persisting subclinical psychosis : lessons from daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collip, D.; Wigman, J. T. W.; Van Os, J.; Oorschot, M.; Jacobs, N.; Derom, C.; Thiery, E.; Peeters, F.; Wichers, M.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    ObjectiveAltered social reward functioning is associated with psychosis irrespective of stage and severity. Examining the role of social reward functioning prospectively in relation to psychotic experiences before these become persistent and potentially disabling can aid in elucidating social

  7. Stress sensitivity mediates the relationship between traumatic life events and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms differentially by gender in a college population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lauren E; Anglin, Deidre M; Klugman, Joshua T; Reeves, Lauren E; Fineberg, Anna M; Maxwell, Seth D; Kerns, Connor M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stress sensitivity mediates the relationship between traumatic life events and total attenuated positive psychotic symptoms, as well as the relationship between traumatic life events and endorsement of 8 or more attenuated positive psychotic symptoms as distressing (a threshold that has been associated with higher risk for psychosis in clinical groups). Participants (n = 671, aged 17-35, 29% male) were college students who were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Life Events Checklist. Bootstrapping results indicated that stress sensitivity significantly mediated the relationships between traumatic life events and the number of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms endorsed and between traumatic life events and those who endorsed 8 or more distressing attenuated positive psychotic symptoms. Stratified gender analyses indicated the findings were specific to females. Results suggest that stress sensitivity may represent a specific vulnerability factor for risk of attenuated psychotic symptoms in those previously exposed to traumatic life events and that this liability appears stronger in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus supportive therapy for persistent positive symptoms in psychotic disorders: The POSITIVE Study, a multicenter, prospective, single-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartory Gudrun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT has a moderate effect on symptom reduction and on general well being of patients suffering from psychosis. However, questions regarding the specific efficacy of CBT, the treatment safety, the cost-effectiveness, and the moderators and mediators of treatment effects are still a major issue. The major objective of this trial is to investigate whether CBT is specifically efficacious in reducing positive symptoms when compared with non-specific supportive therapy (ST which does not implement CBT-techniques but provides comparable therapeutic attention. Methods/Design The POSITIVE study is a multicenter, prospective, single-blind, parallel group, randomised clinical trial, comparing CBT and ST with respect to the efficacy in reducing positive symptoms in psychotic disorders. CBT as well as ST consist of 20 sessions altogether, 165 participants receiving CBT and 165 participants receiving ST. Major methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance (e.g. on-site monitoring with source data verification, regular query process, advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment, checks of adherence and competence of therapists. Research relating the psychotherapy process with outcome, neurobiological research addressing basic questions of delusion formation using fMRI and neuropsychological assessment and treatment research investigating adaptations of CBT for adolescents is combined in this network. Problems of transfer into routine clinical care will be identified and addressed by a project focusing on cost efficiency. Discussion This clinical trial is part of efforts to intensify psychotherapy research in the field of psychosis in Germany, to contribute to the

  9. Late gadolinium enhancement and subclinical cardiac dysfunction on cardiac MRI in asymptomatic HIV-positive men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Loy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and related clinical events. While traditional risk factors play an important role in the pathology of cardiovascular disease, HIV infection and its sequelae of immune activation and inflammation may have significant effects on the myocardium before becoming clinically evident. Cardiac MRI (CMR can be used to detect the pattern of these subclinical changes. This will lead to a better understanding of risk factors contributing to cardiovascular disease prior to it becoming clinically significant in HIV-positive patients. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 127 asymptomatic HIV-positive men on ART compared to 35 matched controls. Baseline demographics, HIV parameters, 12-lead ECG, routine biochemistry, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Images were acquired on a 3T Achieva Philips MRI scanner with 5 channel phase array cardiac coil and weight-based IV gadolinium was given at 0.15 mmol/kg dose with post-contrast inversion recovery imaging after 10 minutes. Results: 6/127 (4.7% of asymptomatic HIV-positive men had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE on MRI verses 1/35 (2.9% in the control group. In 3/6 (50% of cases this was in a classical infarction pattern with subendocardial involvement. 3/6 (50% were consistent with prior myocarditis. There was no significant difference in mean LVEF (66.93% vs 65.18%, LVMI (60.05g/m2 vs 55.94g/m2 or posterolateral wall thickness (8.28 mm and 8.16 mm between cases and controls respectively. There was significantly more diastolic dysfunction, E:A ratio < 1, found in the HIV-positive group, 18% vs 7% of controls (p = 0.037. Framingham risk did not predict either of these outcomes. Conclusions: There is an increased incidence of LGE detected on CMR in this asymptomatic HIV-positive cohort. Two distinct pathological processes were identifed as causing these changes, myocardial infarction and myocarditis

  10. Selective deficits in semantic verbal fluency in patients with a first affective episode with psychotic symptoms and a positive history of mania.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kravariti, Eugenia

    2009-05-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is likely to represent a trait characteristic of bipolar disorder, but the extent to which it comprises \\'core\\' deficits as opposed to those secondary to longstanding illness or intellectual decline is unclear. We investigated neuropsychological performance in an epidemiologically derived sample of patients with a first affective episode with psychotic symptoms and a positive history of mania, compared to community controls.

  11. Visual-spatial processing and working-memory load as a function of negative and positive psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akel, A; Reniers, R L E P; Wood, S J

    2016-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in working-memory and visual-spatial processing, but little is known about the dynamic interplay between the two. To provide insight into this important question, we examined the effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults on perceptual processing while concurrently performing a working-memory task that requires the allocations of various degrees of cognitive resources. The effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults (N = 91) on perceptual processing was examined in a dual-task paradigm of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) under three conditions of cognitive load: a baseline condition (with no concurrent working-memory demand), a low VSWM load condition, and a high VSWM load condition. Participants overall performed more efficiently (i.e., faster) with increasing cognitive load. This facilitation in performance was unrelated to symptom expressions. However, participants with high-negative, low-positive symptom expressions were less accurate in the low VSWM condition compared to the baseline and the high VSWM load conditions. Attenuated, subclinical expressions of psychosis affect cognitive performance that is impaired in schizophrenia. The "resource limitations hypothesis" may explain the performance of the participants with high-negative symptom expressions. The dual-task of visual-spatial processing and working memory may be beneficial to assessing the cognitive phenotype of individuals with high risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  12. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. Method A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis research study (TOP) were included at first treatment. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess present symptoms. Premorbid adjustment was measured with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Results Premorbid social adjustment was significantly related to lower self-esteem and explained a significant proportion of the variance in self-esteem. Self-esteem was significantly associated with the levels of persecutory delusions and hallucinations experienced by the patient and explained a significant proportion of the variance even after adjusting for premorbid functioning and depression. Conclusion There are reasons to suspect that premorbid functioning is an important aspect in the development of self- esteem, and, furthermore, that self-esteem is associated with the development of delusions and hallucinations. PMID:21854599

  13. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. Method A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis research study (TOP were included at first treatment. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS was used to assess present symptoms. Premorbid adjustment was measured with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. Results Premorbid social adjustment was significantly related to lower self-esteem and explained a significant proportion of the variance in self-esteem. Self-esteem was significantly associated with the levels of persecutory delusions and hallucinations experienced by the patient and explained a significant proportion of the variance even after adjusting for premorbid functioning and depression. Conclusion There are reasons to suspect that premorbid functioning is an important aspect in the development of self- esteem, and, furthermore, that self-esteem is associated with the development of delusions and hallucinations.

  14. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  15. From epidemiology to daily life : Linking daily life stress reactivity to persistence of psychotic experiences in a longitudinal general population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collip, Dina; Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Wichers, Marieke; van Os, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic experiences at the level of the general population are common, forming an extended psychosis phenotype with clinical psychosis. Persistence of subclinical experiences is associated with transition to later mental disorder. Increased daily life stress reactivity is considered an

  16. [Comparison of the effect of different diagnostic criteria of subclinical hypothyroidism and positive TPO-Ab on pregnancy outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiping; He, Tongqiang; Wang, Yanxia; Xu, Zhao; Xu, Yehong; Wu, Yiqing; Ji, Jing; Mi, Yang

    2014-11-01

    To explore the effect of different diagnositic criteria of subclinical hypothyroidism using thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) on the pregnancy outcomes. 3 244 pregnant women who had their antenatal care and delivered in Child and Maternity Health Hospital of Shannxi Province August from 2011 to February 2013 were recruited prospectively. According to the standard of American Thyroid Association (ATA), pregnant women with normal serum free thyroxine (FT4) whose serum TSH level> 2.50 mU/L were diagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy (foreign standard group). According to the Guideline of Diagnosis and Therapy of Prenatal and Postpartum Thyroid Disease made by Chinese Society of Endocrinology and Chinese Society of Perinatal Medicine in 2012, pregnant women with serum TSH level> 5.76 mU/L, and normal FT4 were diagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy(national standard group). Pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism whose serum TSH levels were between 2.50-5.76 mU/L were referred as the study observed group; and pregnant women with serum TSH levelTPO- Ab were referred as the control group. Positive TPO-Ab results and the pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. (1) There were 635 cases in the foreign standard group, with the incidence of 19.57% (635/3 244). And there were 70 cases in the national standard group, with the incidence of 2.16% (70/3 244). There were statistically significant difference between the two groups (P 0.05) when compared with the foreign standard group. (2) Among the 3 244 cases, 402 cases had positive TPO-Ab. 318 positive cases were in the foreign standard group, and the incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 79.10% (318/402). There were 317 negative cases in the foreign standard group, with the incidence of 11.15% (317/2 842). The difference was statistically significant (P TPO-Ab, with the incidence of 11.44% (46/402), and 24 cases had negative result, with the

  17. Relationship between the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in psychotic patients: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagiarelli, Mario; Roma, Paolo; Comparelli, Anna; Andraos, Maria Paola; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Corigliano, Valentina; Curto, Martina; Masters, Grace Allison; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-02-28

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the validity of the Rorschach Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) in the assessment of reality testing in patients with psychosis. We evaluated the relationship between the PTI criteria and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in 98 psychotic disorder affected patients. Thirty four were evaluated during the acute episode (AP) and 64 were chronically treated and stable (CP). The PANSS positive score resulted significantly higher in AP than in CP group, but no significant difference was found in the PTI score. The PTI positively correlated with the PANSS total score. The PTI1 and PTI2 criteria significantly correlated with the PANSS negative score, the PTI4 and PTI5 with the positive. The Rorschach variable X-% significantly correlated with the negative symptoms; the WSum6 with thought disorders; and the M- with delusions. PTI score, X-% and WSum6 predicted impaired judgment and insight. These results suggest that PTI is a valid instrument to assess impairment in reality testing, regardless of the patient׳s current psychiatric presentation. The presence of conceptual disorganization, delusions, lack of judgment and insight don׳t have effects on the PTI, supporting its strength as an assessment tool for psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression: psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Modinos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Support Vector Machine (SVM to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II. Two groups were subsequently formed: (i subclinical (mild mood disturbance (n = 17 and (ii no mood disturbance (n = 17. Participants also completed a self-report questionnaire on subclinical psychotic symptoms, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences Questionnaire (CAPE positive subscale. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm entailed passive viewing of negative emotional and neutral scenes. The pattern of brain activity during emotional processing allowed correct group classification with an overall accuracy of 77% (p = 0.002, within a network of regions including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. However, further analysis suggested that the classification accuracy could also be explained by subclinical psychotic symptom scores (correlation with SVM weights r = 0.459, p = 0.006. Psychosis proneness may thus be a confounding factor for neuroimaging studies in subclinical depression.

  19. Psychotic-Like Experiences at the Healthy End of the Psychosis Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Unterrassner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence pointing toward a continuous distribution of psychotic symptoms and accompanying factors between subclinical and clinical populations. However, for the construction of continuum models, a more detailed knowledge of different types of psychotic-like experiences (PLE and their associations with distress, functional impairment, and demographic variables is needed. We investigated PLE in a sample of healthy adults (N = 206 incorporating the recently developed revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire (PAGE-R. For the first time, the PAGE-R was cross validated with PLE, disorganized-, and negative-like symptoms [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS]. We subjected the PAGE-R to exploratory factor analyses and examined the resulting subtypes of EE for specific associations with contextual factors, valence ratings, socio-demographic variables, and general psychological burden (Revised Symptom-Checklist-90. Correlational cross-validation suggested that the PAGE-R measures facets of PLE. Importantly, we (1 identified three types of exceptional experiences (EE: Odd beliefs, dissociative anomalous perceptions, and hallucinatory anomalous perceptions. Further, the results suggested that even in healthy individuals (2 PLE and EE are indicative of reduced functioning, as reflected by increased psychological burden and lower educational achievement. Moreover, (3 similar sex-differences might exist as in psychotic patients with women reporting more positive-like symptoms and EE but less disorganized-like symptoms than men. Importantly, (4 EE might be differentially implicated in psychological functioning. We suggest that the PAGE-R holds the potential to complement the current assessment of sub-clinical psychosis. However, whereas our results might point toward a continuity of psychotic symptoms with EE and normal experiences, they require replication in larger samples as well as equivalence

  20. Psychotic-Like Experiences at the Healthy End of the Psychosis Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A; Wotruba, Diana; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence pointing toward a continuous distribution of psychotic symptoms and accompanying factors between subclinical and clinical populations. However, for the construction of continuum models, a more detailed knowledge of different types of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) and their associations with distress, functional impairment, and demographic variables is needed. We investigated PLE in a sample of healthy adults (N = 206) incorporating the recently developed revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire (PAGE-R). For the first time, the PAGE-R was cross validated with PLE, disorganized-, and negative-like symptoms [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS)]. We subjected the PAGE-R to exploratory factor analyses and examined the resulting subtypes of EE for specific associations with contextual factors, valence ratings, socio-demographic variables, and general psychological burden (Revised Symptom-Checklist-90). Correlational cross-validation suggested that the PAGE-R measures facets of PLE. Importantly, we (1) identified three types of exceptional experiences (EE): Odd beliefs, dissociative anomalous perceptions, and hallucinatory anomalous perceptions. Further, the results suggested that even in healthy individuals (2) PLE and EE are indicative of reduced functioning, as reflected by increased psychological burden and lower educational achievement. Moreover, (3) similar sex-differences might exist as in psychotic patients with women reporting more positive-like symptoms and EE but less disorganized-like symptoms than men. Importantly, (4) EE might be differentially implicated in psychological functioning. We suggest that the PAGE-R holds the potential to complement the current assessment of sub-clinical psychosis. However, whereas our results might point toward a continuity of psychotic symptoms with EE and normal experiences, they require replication in larger samples as well as equivalence testing

  1. Reduced positive emotion and underarousal are uniquely associated with subclinical depression symptoms: Evidence from psychophysiology, self-report, and symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Stephen D; Ait Oumeziane, Belel

    2017-07-01

    Multiple models of aberrant emotional processing in depression have been advanced. However, it is unclear which of these models best applies to emotional disturbances in subclinical depressive symptoms. The current study employed a battery of psychophysiological measures and emotional ratings in a picture-viewing paradigm to examine whether the underarousal, low positive emotion, heightened negative emotion, or emotion context insensitivity model of emotional dysfunction in subclinical depressive symptoms received greatest support. Postauricular reflex and skin conductance response potentiation for pleasant minus neutral pictures (measuring low positive emotion), overall skin conductance magnitude and late positive potential (LPP) amplitude (measuring underarousal), and pleasant minus aversive valence ratings (measuring emotion context insensitivity) and aversive minus neutral arousal ratings (measuring heightened negative emotionality) were all negatively related to depressive symptomatology. Of these, postauricular reflex potentiation and overall LPP amplitude were incrementally associated with depressive symptoms over the other measures. Postauricular reflex potentiation, overall skin conductance magnitude, and aversive minus neutral arousal ratings were incrementally associated with depressive symptomatology after controlling for other symptoms of internalizing disorders. Though no model was unequivocally superior, the low positive emotion and underarousal models received the most support from physiological measures and symptom reports, with self-report data matching patterns consistent with the emotion context insensitivity model. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Is subclinical gambling really subclinical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; April, Laura M; Kallmi, Selmi

    2017-10-01

    Gambling disorder and substance use disorders (SUD) overlap in terms of etiology and diagnostic constructs (e.g., preoccupation, loss of control), yet diagnostic thresholds for the disorders are different. Currently, endorsing 2-3 gambling disorder criteria does not warrant a diagnosis while endorsing 2-3 SUD criteria does. The aim of this study was to examine whether subclinical gamblers (i.e., endorsing 2-3 gambling disorder criteria) experience psychosocial dysfunction equivalent to individuals who are diagnosed with mild severity SUD (i.e., 2-3 SUD criteria) and whether this level of dysfunction is significantly different from individuals with no psychopathology. Data are from the first wave of Quinte Longitudinal Study, a large epidemiological sample (N=4121). Psychometrically supported measures assessed for psychosocial functioning and the presence of Axis-I psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional analysis examined 7 domains of psychosocial functioning using ANCOVA, which allowed for the inclusion of covariates, to test for difference between subclinical gamblers and individuals with no psychopathology and individuals with mild severity SUD. Equivalency testing compared subclinical gamblers in relation to mild severity SUD. Subclinical gamblers reported significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in relation to individuals endorsing no current psychopathology. Subclinical gamblers were also equivalent to and not significantly different from individuals with mild severity SUD. Subclinical gamblers experience similar psychosocial impairment to those individuals who endorse mild severity SUD, and this significantly differed from healthy individuals. The threshold for diagnosis of gambling disorder therefore warrants re-examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated...... with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. METHODS: First, 90...... follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...

  4. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....

  5. Associations between social cognition, skills, and function and subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, A; Jepsen, J M R; Schmock, H

    2016-01-01

    symptoms, respectively, in a young cohort of 22q11.2DS not diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: The level of social impairment was addressed using questionnaires and objective measures of social functioning (The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System), skills (Social Responsiveness Scale), and cognition......BACKGROUND: Identification of the early signs of schizophrenia would be a major achievement for the early intervention and prevention strategies in psychiatry. Social impairments are defining features of schizophrenia. Impairments of individual layers of social competencies are frequently described...... in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), who have high risk of schizophrenia. It is unclear whether and to what extent social impairments associate with subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11.2DS, and which layer of social impairments are more correlated with schizophrenia...

  6. Subclinical Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍS M.T.R. LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and those non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed comprise a significant group compared to those diagnosed. Accumulated scientific evidence indicate that the current diagnostic markers (fasting glycemia, 2h glycemia after an oral glucose load and HbA1c are indeed late diagnostic criteria when considering the incidence of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities, which are also at high risk in some groups among normoglycemic individuals. Additionally, the earlier identification of future risk of diabetes is desirable since it would allow better adherence to preventive actions such as lifestyle intervention, ultimately avoiding complications and minimizing the economic impact/burden on health care expenses. Insulin resistance and hyperhormonemia (insulin, amylin, glucagon are non-disputable hallmarks of T2DM, which already takes place among these normoglycemic, otherwise health subjects, characterizing a state of subclinical diabetes. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can be computed from fasting plasma insulin as an independent variable in normoglycemia. An overview of the current diagnostic criteria, disease onset, complications, comorbidities and perspectives on lifestyle interventions are presented. A proposal for early detection of subclinical diabetes from routine evaluation of fasting plasma insulin, which is affordable and robust and thus applicable for the general population, is further suggested.

  7. Evidence for a Shared Etiological Mechanism of Psychotic Symptoms and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Patients with Psychotic Disorders and Their Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swets, Marije; Van Dael, Frank; Roza, Sabine; Schoevers, Robert; Myin-Germeys, Inez; de Haan, Lieuwe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in subjects with psychotic disorder is much higher than in the general population. The higher than chance co-occurrence has also been demonstrated at the level of subclinical expression of both phenotypes. Both extended phenotypes have been shown to

  8. Associations between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and psychotic experiences in patients with psychotic disorders, their siblings and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Verweij, Kim; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2013-12-15

    Earlier studies indicated that personality characteristics contribute to symptomatic outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to further explore this connection by examining the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and a dimensional liability for psychosis. FFM traits according to the NEO-FFI and levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms according to the CAPE were assessed in 217 patients with psychotic disorders, 281 of their siblings and 176 healthy controls. Psychotic symptoms according to the PANSS were assessed in the patient group. Patients differed from siblings and controls on four of the five FFM traits, all but Openness. Siblings reported higher levels of Neuroticism than controls, but lower levels than patients. Particularly lower Agreeableness, and to a lesser degree, higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion were associated with more severe symptoms in patients. Furthermore, higher Neuroticism and higher Openness were associated with higher levels of subclinical psychotic experiences in all three groups. Associations were strongest in patients. Our findings suggest that levels of Neuroticism increase with the level of familial risk for psychosis. Levels of Openness may reflect levels of impairment that distinguish clinical from subclinical symptomatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales...... and a number of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD. METHOD: The psychometric properties of the rating scales were evaluated based on data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression. RESULTS: A rating scale consisting of the 6-item......'s correlation coefficient between change in HAMD-BPRS11 and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scores = -0.74--0.78) and unidimensionality (Loevinger's coefficient of homogeneity = 0.41) in the evaluation of PD. The HAM-D6 fulfilled the same criteria, whereas the full 17-item Hamilton Depression...

  10. Delaying Thyroxine Until Positive Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is Safe for Patients Receiving Fertility Therapy: Applying New ATA Guidelines to Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alyse S; Sujana Kumar, Shoba; Greenblatt, Ellen; Lega, Iliana C; Shapiro, Heather

    2017-09-08

    This study sought to examine the effect of changing TSH threshold recommendations from 2.5 to 4 mIU/L before fertility therapy on the prevalence of early gestational subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) (TSH2 >2.5 mIU/L) and to evaluate implications on progression to clinical pregnancy (defined as detection of cardiac activity on ultrasound). A retrospective chart review was performed in an academic fertility clinic on all patients with a measured pre-treatment TSH (TSH1) and positive beta-human chorionic gonadotropin following fertility treatment. The study assessed the effect of TSH2 on ongoing pregnancy, both in patients newly diagnosed with SCH and in patients previously receiving LT4, stratified by initial TSH. Of 482 women included in the study, baseline TSH (TSH1) was pregnancy (TSH2) was clinical pregnancy between women with a TSH2 of 2.5-4 mIU/L compared with women with a TSH2 clinical pregnancy (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.28-2.86). Rate of progression to clinical pregnancy was equivalent between women with an early pregnancy TSH (TSH2) pregnancy, as opposed to pre-pregnancy if the TSH remains above cut-off because there does not appear to be a difference in in early pregnancy outcomes if treatment is delayed. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Major depression with psychotic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000933.htm Major depression with psychotic features To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Major depression with psychotic features is a mental disorder in ...

  12. Sun Exposure and Psychotic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pilecka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSun exposure is considered the single most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sun exposure and psychotic experiences (PEs in a general population sample of Swedish women.MethodsThe study population included participants from The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study. The 20-item community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPEs was administered between ages 30 and 50 to establish PEs. Sun exposure as measured by (1 sunbathing holidays and (2 history of sunburn was measured between ages 10 and 39. The association between sun exposure and PEs was evaluated by quantile regression models.Results34,297 women were included in the analysis. Women who reported no sunbathing holidays and 2 or more weeks of sunbathing holidays scored higher on the CAPE scale than women exposed to 1 week of sunbathing holidays across the entire distribution, when adjusting for age and education. Similarly, compared with women who reported a history of one sunburn, the women with none or two or more sunburns showed higher scores on the CAPE scale.ConclusionThe results of the present study suggest that, in a population-based cohort of middle aged women, both low and high sun exposure is associated with increased level of positive PEs.

  13. Default mode network connectivity as a function of familial and environmental risk for psychotic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne C T Peeters

    Full Text Available Research suggests that altered interregional connectivity in specific networks, such as the default mode network (DMN, is associated with cognitive and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. In addition, frontal and limbic connectivity alterations have been associated with trauma, drug use and urban upbringing, though these environmental exposures have never been examined in relation to DMN functional connectivity in psychotic disorder.Resting-state functional MRI scans were obtained from 73 patients with psychotic disorder, 83 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 72 healthy controls. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC seed-based correlation analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity within the DMN. DMN functional connectivity was examined in relation to group (familial risk, group × environmental exposure (to cannabis, developmental trauma and urbanicity and symptomatology.There was a significant association between group and PCC connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule (IPL, the precuneus (PCu and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC. Compared to controls, patients and siblings had increased PCC connectivity with the IPL, PCu and MPFC. In the IPL and PCu, the functional connectivity of siblings was intermediate to that of controls and patients. No significant associations were found between DMN connectivity and (subclinical psychotic/cognitive symptoms. In addition, there were no significant interactions between group and environmental exposures in the model of PCC functional connectivity.Increased functional connectivity in individuals with (increased risk for psychotic disorder may reflect trait-related network alterations. The within-network "connectivity at rest" intermediate phenotype was not associated with (subclinical psychotic or cognitive symptoms. The association between familial risk and DMN connectivity was not conditional on environmental exposure.

  14. Psychotic speech: a neurolinguistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, A; Wales, R J

    1994-06-01

    The existence of an aphasia-like language disorder in psychotic speech has been the subject of much debate. This paper argues that a discrete language disorder could be an important cause of the disturbance seen in psychotic speech. A review is presented of classical clinical descriptions and experimental studies that have explored the similarities between psychotic language impairment and aphasic speech. The paper proposes neurolinguistic tasks which may be used in future studies to elicit subtle language impairments in psychotic speech. The usefulness of a neurolinguistic model for further research in the aetiology and treatment of psychosis is discussed.

  15. Relevance of Five-Factor Model personality traits for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders and their un-affected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van der Valk, Renate; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2015-02-28

    High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and the liability for OCS in patients with psychotic disorders and in their un-affected siblings. FFM traits, occurrence and severity of OCS and (subclinical) psychotic symptoms were assessed in 208 patients and in 281 siblings. Differences in FFM traits between participants with vs. without comorbid OCS were examined and the predictive value of FFM traits on group categorization was evaluated. Associations between FFM traits and OCS severity were investigated. Patients and siblings with OCS showed significantly higher Neuroticism compared to their counterparts without OCS. Neuroticism was positively associated with higher OCS severity and significantly predicted group assignment in both patients and in siblings. Patients with comorbid OCS presented with lower scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Higher Neuroticism, and to a lesser degree lower Extraversion and Conscientiousness might add to the vulnerability of patients with a psychotic disorder to also develop OCS. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate proposed personality-psychopathology interrelations and possible mediating factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychotic symptoms in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, M; Weissman, M M; Leon, A C; Farber, L; Sheehan, D V

    1996-11-01

    Psychotic symptoms include a variety of disturbances in perception, reality testing, speech, and behavior. We examine the prevalence, distribution, treatment, and functional impairment associated with psychotic symptoms in primary care patients. Data are drawn from a recent study of adult primary care patients (N = 1001) in a large, urban, prepaid group practice. At the medical visit, patients completed a questionnaire that probed demographic characteristics, health status, and mental health care utilization. Following the visit, patients received a telephone-administered, structured psychiatric interview that included 11 psychotic symptoms. Medication prescription data were also available. Comparisons are presented of patients with and without psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven (3.7%) patients reported one or more psychotic symptoms, most commonly a belief that others were spying on or following them (n = 16). As compared with patients without psychotic symptoms, a larger proportion of the patients with psychotic symptoms reported mental health-related work loss (54.1% vs 17.9%, P < .0001), suicidal ideation (21.6% vs 2.6%, P < .0001), major depressive disorder (32.4% vs 6.3%, P < .0001), bipolar disorder (29.7% vs 1.2%, P < .0001), and several other mental disorders. An antipsychotic medication had been prescribed during the previous 17 to 20 months for only two (5.4%) of the patients with psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms were relatively common (3.7%) in this practice and were strongly associated with functional impairment and affective, anxiety, or substance use disorders. Primary care physicians are encouraged to examine patients with these mental disorders for the presence of psychotic symptoms.

  17. Psychotic-like Experiences and Substance Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-03-02

    Psychotic disorders, as well as psychotic-like experiences and substance use, have been found to be associated. The main goal of the present study was to analyse the relationship between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in college students. The simple comprised a total of 660 participants (M = 20.3 years, SD = 2.6). The results showed that 96% of the sample reported some delusional experience, while 20.3% reported at least one positive psychotic-like experience. Some substance use was reported by 41.1% of the sample, differing in terms of gender. Substance users reported more psychoticlike experiences than non-users, especially in the positive dimension. Also, alcohol consumption predicted in most cases extreme scores on measures of delusional ideation and psychotic experiences. The association between these two variables showed a differentiated pattern, with a stronger relationship between substance use and cognitive-perceptual psychotic-like experiences. To some extent, these findings support the dimensional models of the psychosis phenotype and contribute a better understanding of the links between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in young adults. Future studies should further explore the role of different risk factors for psychotic disorders and include models of the gene-environment interaction.

  18. Are Psychotic Experiences Related to Poorer Reflective Reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Mækelæ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive biases play an important role in the formation and maintenance of delusions. These biases are indicators of a weak reflective mind, or reduced engaging in reflective and deliberate reasoning. In three experiments, we tested whether a bias to accept non-sense statements as profound, treat metaphorical statements as literal, and suppress intuitive responses is related to psychotic-like experiences.Methods: We tested deliberate reasoning and psychotic-like experiences in the general population and in patients with a former psychotic episode. Deliberate reasoning was assessed with the bullshit receptivity scale, the ontological confabulation scale and the cognitive reflection test (CRT. We also measured algorithmic performance with the Berlin numeracy test and the wordsum test. Psychotic-like experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE-42 scale.Results: Psychotic-like experiences were positively correlated with a larger receptivity toward bullshit, more ontological confabulations, and also a lower score on the CRT but not with algorithmic task performance. In the patient group higher psychotic-like experiences significantly correlated with higher bullshit receptivity.Conclusion: Reduced deliberate reasoning may contribute to the formation of delusions, and be a general thinking bias largely independent of a person's general intelligence. Acceptance of bullshit may be facilitated the more positive symptoms a patient has, contributing to the maintenance of the delusions.

  19. Frontal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive psychotic symptoms and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Svarer, Claus

    2006-01-01

    with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using the D(2/3)-receptor ligand [123I]epidepride. RESULTS: In the hitherto largest study on extrastriatal D(2/3) receptors we detected a significant correlation between frontal D(2/3) BP values and positive schizophrenic symptoms in the larger group...... of male schizophrenic patients, higher frontal BP values in male (n = 17) compared to female (n = 8) patients, and - in accordance with this - significantly fewer positive schizophrenic symptoms in the female patients. No significant differences in BP values were observed between patients and controls......; the patients, however, had significantly higher BP in the right compared to the left thalamus, whereas no significant hemispheric imbalances were observed in the healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The present data are the first to confirm a significant correlation between frontal D(2/3) receptor BP values...

  20. [Effect of the treatment acceptance on the perinatal outcomes in women with subclinical hypothyroidism, positive thyroid gland peroxidase antibody in early pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junjuan; Guo, Huafeng; Ding, Shugui; Tao, Beibei; Zhang, Xinhua

    2015-09-01

    To investigate if women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), positive thyroid gland peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in early pregnancy accepted treatment or not had effect on perinatal outcomes. 15 000 pregnant women who delivered in Women and Infants Hospital of Zhengzhou from January 1, 2013 to June 30, 2014 were recruited retrospectively. Among them, 2 042 women had SCH in early pregnancy. The diagnostic standard of SCH was serum free thyroxine (FT4) between 12.91-22.35 pmol/L and TSH level between 5.22-10.00 mU/L. TPOAb level ≥ 34 U/L was defined as positive result. The 2 042 patients with SCH were divided into the treated group (1 236 cases) and the untreated group (806 cases), according to whether or not women accepted the levothyroxine treatment. Meanwhile, the 2 042 patients with SCH were divided into the TPOAb (+) treated group (1 021 cases), the TPOAb (+) untreated group (201 cases), the TPOAb (-) treated group (215 cases) and the TPOAb (-) untreated group (605 cases), according to the TPOAb result and acceptance the levothyroxine treatment. 2 000 pregnant women with normal thyroid function who delivered in the same period were selected as the control group. Perinatal outcomes were analyzed. (1) The incidence of SCH in early pregnancy was 13.61% (2 042/15 000). 60.53% (1 236/2 042) accepted levothyroxine treatment and 39.47% (806/2 042) did not. (2) The incidence of abortion (5.71%, 46/806), premature delivery (6.20%, 50/806), gestational hypertension disease (13.90%, 112/806), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; 6.58%, 53/806), fetal growth restriction (FGR; 12.28%, 99/806) and low birth weight infants (10.17%, 82/806) in the untreated group were higher than those in the treated group [3.96% (49/1 236), 4.21% (52/1 236), 10.76% (133/1 236), 4.13% (51/1 236), 8.90% (110/1 236), 7.52% (93/1 236), respectively] and the control group [3.60% (72/2 000), 4.00% (80/2 000), 10.70% (214/2 000), 3.80% (76/2 000), 9.60% (192/2 000), 7.50% (150/2 000), respectively

  1. The treatment of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leadholm, Anne Katrine K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Nolen, Willem A

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a prevalent, severe, under-diagnosed and often inadequately treated mental disorder, which has received disproportionally little attention by clinicians, researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, the evidence base for optimal clinical practice regarding...

  2. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Demidova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We observed 20 women suffering from adiposity and subclinical hypothyroidism. Lipid spectrum, carbohydrate metabolism, BP and insulinresistance, the extent and variants of fat tissue distribution, a test with physical exercise, all research in dynamics (in the beginning and 6 months after normalization of TSH level against the background of substitution therapy with L-T4 were evaluated. The positive shifts revealed during the afore mentioned research allow us to express our opinion in favour of carrying out substitution therapy with L-T4 at subclinical hypothyroidism .

  3. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  4. Psychotic Depression and Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Kristin J; Schoeyen, Helle K; Johannessen, Jan O; Walby, Fredrik A; Davidson, Larry; Schaufel, Margrethe A

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how severely depressed individuals experienced the relationship between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of nine inpatients from a psychiatric university hospital between September 2012 and May 2013 fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a psychotic depressive episode as part of a unipolar or bipolar disorder. Analysis was conducted using systematic text condensation. Participants experienced (1) being directed to perform impulsive potentially fatal actions, (2) feeling hounded to death, (3) becoming trapped in an inescapable darkness, and (4) being left bereft of mental control. They described how impulsivity directed by delusions and hallucinations resulted in unpredictable actions with only moments from decision to conduct. Suicide was seen as an escape not only from life problems but also from psychotic experiences and intense anxiety. Participants reported being in a chaotic state, unable to think rationally or anticipate the consequences of their actions. Their ability to identify and communicate psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior was compromised, leaving them to struggle alone with these terrifying experiences. Suicide risk assessments based on verbal reports from individuals with psychotic depression may not always be valid due to potential impulsivity and underreporting of suicidal ideation. It may be important for clinicians to explore the delusional content of such patients' experiences to assess the possibility of suicide as a result of shame, guilt, remorse, or altruistic intentions to save others from harm.

  5. Lipids in newly discovered subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive correlation between the levels of TSH and cholesterol levels, while levels between TSH levels triglicrerida negative correlation with the clinical and subclinical form of reduced thyroid function.

  6. Measuring treatment response in psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, Barnett S; Flint, Alastair J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no established psychometric instrument dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new composite rating scale, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), covering both the psychotic and the d...

  7. Pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, Jaap; Lijmer, Jeroen; Burger, Huibert; Cipriani, Andrea; Geddes, John; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the most effective pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression: combination of an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic, monotherapy with an antidepressant or monotherapy with an antipsychotic. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and

  8. Pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, Jaap; Lijmer, Jeroen; Burger, Huibert; Geddes, John; Nolen, Willem A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the most effective pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression: combination of an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic, monotherapy with an antidepressant or monotherapy with an antipsychotic. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and

  9. Data Gathering Bias: Trait Vulnerability to Psychotic Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catalan

    Full Text Available Jumping to conclusions (JTC is associated with psychotic disorder and psychotic symptoms. If JTC represents a trait, the rate should be (i increased in people with elevated levels of psychosis proneness such as individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, and (ii show a degree of stability over time.The JTC rate was examined in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP, BPD patients and controls, using the Beads Task. PANSS, SIS-R and CAPE scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. Four WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ.A total of 61 FEP, 26 BPD and 150 controls were evaluated. 29 FEP were revaluated after one year. 44% of FEP (OR = 8.4, 95% CI: 3.9-17.9 displayed a JTC reasoning bias versus 19% of BPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-7.8 and 9% of controls. JTC was not associated with level of psychotic symptoms or specifically delusionality across the different groups. Differences between FEP and controls were independent of sex, educational level, cannabis use and IQ. After one year, 47.8% of FEP with JTC at baseline again displayed JTC.JTC in part reflects trait vulnerability to develop disorders with expression of psychotic symptoms.

  10. Aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, and interview-rated psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Docherty, Anna R; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2015-02-01

    Many social-cognitive models of psychotic-like symptoms posit a role for self-concept and aberrant salience. Previous work has shown that the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity is associated with self-reported psychotic-like experiences. In the current research with two structured interviews, the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found to be associated with interview-rated psychotic-like experiences. The interaction was associated with psychotic-like experiences composite scores, delusional ideation, grandiosity, and perceptual anomalies. In all cases, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with psychotic-like experiences at high levels of aberrant salience, but unassociated with psychotic-like experiences at low levels of aberrant salience. The interaction was specific to positive psychotic-like experiences and not present for negative or disorganized ratings. The interaction was not mediated by self-esteem levels. These results provide further evidence that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity play an important role in the generation of psychotic-like experiences.

  11. Management of subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Pascual-Corrales, Eider; Galofre, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient's medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves' disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels. We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment. In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation).

  12. Management of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Pascual-Corrales, Eider; Galofre, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient’s medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves’ disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels. We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment. In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation). PMID:23843809

  13. Quantitative exploration of factors influencing psychotic disorder ailments in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale O. Adejumo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, records on demographic data, family problem issues, as well as results of medical tests from five major classes of psychotic disorder namely: bipolar; vascular dementia, minimal brain dysfunction; insomnia; and schizophrenia, were collected on 500 psychotic patients carefully selected from the pool of medical records of Yaba Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, for the period of 5 years, between January 2010 and December 2014, were examined. X-squared Statistic was used to examine each of psychotic disorders to identify demographic (age, gender, religion, marital status, and occupation and family issues (loss of parent, history of such ailment in the family (family status, divorce, head injury, and heredity of such ailment (genetic factors that influence them. A clear description on each of these psychotic disorders (bipolar; vascular dementia, minimal brain dysfunction (MBD, insomnia and Schizophrenia was considered separately using tables and bar diagrams. Data analysis results are as follows: firstly, 40.2%, of the 500 psychotic patients tested positive to bipolar, 40.6% to insomnia, 75.0% to schizophrenia, 43.6% to MBD and 69.2% to vascular dementia. Secondly, female patients were more prone to all the psychotic indicators than their male counterpart except in MBD. Thirdly, the oldest age group (> 60 years is more prone to bipolar and insomnia ailments, while the mid age group (30 – 60 years is prone to schizophrenia and vascular dementia, and the youngest group (< 30 years is prone to MBD. Lastly, the factors that influence the ailments are listed: bipolar (age, occupation, marital status, divorce, and spiritual consultation; insomnia (age, occupation, marital status, divorce, and spiritual consultation; schizophrenia (age, occupation, religion, marital status, hereditary, and divorce; MBD (gender, age, occupation, and marital status; and vascular dementia (history of the ailment and spiritual consultation. Bipolar

  14. Recognition Memory in Psychotic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ellis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary data are reported from experiments in which Warrington's (1984 Recognition Memory Tests were given to patients with misidentification delusions including the Capgras type and to psychotic patients. The results showed a profound impairment on face recognition for most groups, especially those with the Capgras delusion. It was rare to find a patent whose score on the word test was anything but normal.

  15. Adoption, family relations and psychotic symptoms among Palauan adolescents who are genetically at risk for developing schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierago, Laura; Malsol, Cynthia; Singeo, Techong; Kishigawa, Yuri; Blailes, Francisca; Ord, Lisa; Florsheim, Paul; Phillips, Lisa; Kuartei, Stevenson; Tiobech, Josepha; Watson, Berrymoon; Ngiralmau, Hilda

    2010-12-01

    This paper focuses on the role of adoption and family relations as moderators of genetic risk for psychotic disorders. Participants included 184 adolescents in the Republic of Palau identified to be at genetic risk for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Palau is an island nation in Micronesia with a lifetime prevalence of 1.99% for schizophrenia and 2.67% for psychotic disorders more broadly defined. In Palauan culture, kinship adoption is a common cultural practice; 47 of the 184 participants had been adopted at an early age. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that adoption would function as a protective factor among Palauan youth at genetic risk for the development of psychotic symptoms. Participants were evaluated for psychotic and other psychiatric symptoms using KSADS-PL. Concurrently, the Youth Self Report was used to assess the perceived quality of family relationships. Results indicated that adopted adolescents were more likely to develop psychotic symptoms than non-adopted adolescents. However, perceived family relations moderated the association between adoption status and psychotic symptoms, such that adopted adolescents with poorer family relations reported disproportionately higher rates of psychotic symptoms. Family relations also moderated the association between level of genetic risk and psychotic symptoms, independently of adoption status. Consistent with previous research, adolescents at high genetic risk who reported more positive family relations also reported fewer psychotic symptoms.

  16. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation.

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  18. Relation between psychotic symptoms, parental care and childhood trauma in severe mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan, Ana; Angosto, Virxina; Díaz, Aida; Valverde, Cristina; de Artaza, Maider Gonzalez; Sesma, Eva; Maruottolo, Claudio; Galletero, Iñaki; Bustamante, Sonia; Bilbao, Amaia; van Os, Jim; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel

    2017-05-01

    A relation between different types of parental care, trauma in childhood and psychotic symptoms in adulthood has been proposed. The nature of this association is not clear and if it is more related to psychotic disorders per se or to a cluster of symptoms such as positive psychotic symptoms remains undefined. We have analysed the presence of childhood trauma using the CTQ scale and types of parental care using the PBI scale in three groups of subjects: borderline personality disorder patients (n=36), first psychotic episode patients (n=61) and healthy controls (n=173). Positive psychotic symptomatology was assessed with the CAPE scale. General linear models were used to study the relation between positive psychotic symptomatology and variables of interest. BPD patients had the highest rate of any kind of trauma, followed by FEP patients. We found a positive relationship between psychotic symptomatology and the existence of trauma in childhood in all groups. Moreover, an affectionless control rearing style was directly associated with the existence of trauma. Furthermore, subjects with trauma presented less probability of having an optimal parenting style in childhood. The relation between psychotic symptoms and trauma remained statistically significant after adjusting for other variables including parental rearing style. There seems to be a link between trauma in childhood and psychotic symptomatology across different populations independently of psychiatric diagnosis. Taking into account that there is an association between trauma and psychosis and that trauma is a modifiable factor, clinicians should pay special attention to these facts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychotic-like or unusual subjective experiences? The role of certainty in the appraisal of the subclinical psychotic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio; Cella, Matteo; Raballo, Andrea; Vellante, Marcello

    2012-12-30

    The multi-dimensional features of Unusual Subjective Experiences (USEs) may be more accurate indicators of psychosis-proneness than simple frequency count. We tested whether subjective certainty or uncertainty of the occurrence of USEs can influence perceived wellbeing. Five hundred and four undergraduate students completed measures of delusion- and hallucination-proneness, general health and emotional processing. Participants' responses on the delusion- and hallucination-proneness scales were dichotomized on the basis of their certainty level. Results showed that, USEs rated with certainty were associated with poor self-perceived health and difficult emotional processing, while those rated with uncertainty were not. Certainty of USEs was associated with increased distress and may be important in characterizing psychopathological significance. Specific characteristics associated with USEs may be more important than their frequency in predicting psychosis risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijkstra, Jaap; Lijmer, Jeroen; Burger, Huibert; Cipriani, Andrea; Geddes, John; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-07-30

    Evidence is limited regarding the most effective pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression: combination of an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic, monotherapy with an antidepressant or monotherapy with an antipsychotic. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and last updated in 2009. 1. To compare the clinical efficacy of pharmacological treatments for patients with an acute psychotic depression: antidepressant monotherapy, antipsychotic monotherapy and the combination of an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic, compared with each other and/or with placebo.2. To assess whether differences in response to treatment in the current episode are related to non-response to prior treatment. A search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group Register (CCDANCTR) was carried out (to 12 April 2013). These registers include reports of randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: EMBASE (1970-), MEDLINE (1950-) and PsycINFO (1960-). Reference lists of all studies and related reviews were screened and key authors contacted. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included participants with acute major depression with psychotic features, as well as RCTs consisting of participants with acute major depression with or without psychotic features, that reported separately on the subgroup of participants with psychotic features. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included studies, according to the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Data were entered into RevMan 5.1. We used intention-to-treat data. For dichotomous efficacy outcomes, the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. For continuously distributed outcomes, it was not possible to extract data from the RCTs. Regarding the primary outcome of harm, only overall dropout rates were available for all

  1. Treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Andreassen, Mikkel; Petersen, Claus L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate structure and function of the heart in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) before and after obtaining euthyroidism by radioactive iodine treatment, using high precision and observer-independent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. METHODS......: Cardiac MRI was performed before and after euthyroidism was obtained by radioactive iodine treatment in 12 otherwise healthy patients (11 women and one man, mean age 59 years, range 44-71 years) with a nodular goiter and SH, and compared with eight healthy controls investigated at baseline. Cardiac data...... were expressed as an index, as per body surface area, except for heart rate (HR) and ejection fraction. RESULTS: Post-treatment cardiac MRI was performed in median 139 days after a normalized serum TSH value had been recorded. During treatment, serum TSH increased from (median (range)) 0.01 (0...

  2. The role of aberrant salience and self-concept clarity in psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Docherty, Anna R; Kerns, John G

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and oversampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be a result of neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict two other SPD criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms.

  3. Natural Course of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Sytch

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this retrospective study were to evaluate the natural course of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH and to estimate possible predictable factors of overt hypothyroidism. Population of the study was selected from the patients with spontaneously elevated thyrotropin (TSH and normal free thyroxin (fT4 levels. Overall 87 patients (12 male, 75 female with SH without any therapy with thyroid hormones or iodide drugs or without previous thyroid surgery, thyrostatic therapy, or radioactive iodine therapy were included in the analysis. Results: the main risk factors of overt hypothyroidism in this population were positive thyroid antibodies (odds ratio = 3.99 and high initial level of TSH (>8 mU/l (odds ratio = 4.77. Patient’s age, gender or duration of SH did not affect significantly the risk of overt hypothyroidism. Conclusions: rational substitutive therapy with thyroid hormones was not discussed in this study, however the data suggest that positive thyroid antibodies and relatively high TSH level may be useful to decide upon such therapy in individuals with SH. Key words: hypothyroidism, Hashimotos, thyroiditis, thyrotropin.

  4. Adjunctive Treatment of Psychotic Disorders with Micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Mainguy, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) on adult psychosis when added to conventional medications by using a placebo-controlled randomized design with a 1-month open-label run-in. Longitudinal comparison study following a randomized, controlled trial that had failed because participants declined to undergo randomization. Setting/Locations: Rural primary care and psychiatry clinic in northern New England (town of 16,000 people). People older than age 18 years diagnosed with a psychotic disorder who were receiving medications. Fifty consecutive clients seen in 1 month's time were invited to participate; 19 completed a 1-month open-label phase of the addition of a micronutrient to their medication regimen; all 19 then withdrew rather than risk randomization to a placebo. This finding itself was important, so the study was restructured to compare the response of those 19 patients during 24 months of micronutrients + medication to the response of the 31 people who declined participation, enriched by an additional 28 consecutive patients recruited over the second month of the study. This yielded a total of 59 patients who received medication without micronutrients. All clients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and the Clinical Global Impression scale at study baseline and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Psychosis was confirmed with clinical interview by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision, criteria. All participants had normal physical examinations and laboratory studies. Outcomes were similar for both groups until 15 months, although the micronutrient group used significantly less antipsychotic medication throughout that time (p micronutrients + medication group exhibited significantly fewer symptoms than the medication-only group, a difference that was even stronger at 24 months. Micronutrients may appear to be a beneficial long-term, adjunctive

  5. Sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis--results from a community study over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Angst, Jules

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in schizophrenia have long been reported. They are found within almost all aspects of the disease, from incidence and prevalence, age of onset, symptomatology, and course to its psycho-social outcome. Many sex-related hypotheses have been developed about the biology, psychology, or sociology of that disease. A further approach to study sex differences would be to examine such differences in sub-clinical psychotic states as well. If factors related to full-blown psychosis were equally meaningful over the entire psychosis continuum, we should expect that "true" sex differences could also be identified in sub-clinical psychosis. Here, we studied sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis within a community cohort in Zurich, Switzerland. This population was followed for over 30 years and included males and females between the ages of 20/21 and 49/50. We applied two different measures of sub-clinical psychosis representing schizotypal signs and schizophrenia nuclear symptoms. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we found no significant sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis over time with respect to age of onset, symptomatology, course, or psycho-social outcome. Thus it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) rather than within the sub-threshold range. Possibly males and females have separate thresholds for certain symptoms because they are differently vulnerable or exposed to various risk factors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Validation of the Portuguese version of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS)

    OpenAIRE

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Barbosa-Rocha, Nuno; Gama-Marques, João; Moreira, Ana L; Alves-Moreira, Cátia; Saraiva, Sérgio; Antunes, Filipa; Almeida, Carolina; Machado, Sérgio; Haddock, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of delusions and hallucinations in patients with psychosis. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the PSYRATS. A sample of 92 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms was assessed using the PSYRATS and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS...

  7. Subclinical heart failure in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a consequence of chronic inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada S Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Our findings indicate the presence of subclinical heart failure in these patients. JIA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis, with systemic disease, and with active disease are at greatest risk of developing subclinical heart failure.

  8. [Therapeutic strategies in the first psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douki, S; Taktak, M J; Ben Zineb, S; Cheour, M

    1999-11-01

    A first psychotic episode includes a wide range of disorders with different outcomes: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, brief reactive psychosis, organic psychoses and delusional disorder. The course and outcome of a first psychotic episode is greatly dependent on its initial management. Major clinical, etiopathogenic and therapeutic advances have been achieved in this field and have allowed specific management strategies to be adopted. The primary task of therapists involved in the management of patients who have experienced a first episode of psychosis is promotion of recovery and prevention of secondary morbidity, relapse and persistent disability. The main guidelines of an early psychosis management are:--to keep in mind that early psychosis is not early schizophrenia. Thus, clinicians and therapists should avoid an early diagnosis of schizophrenia. Diagnosis in early psychosis can be highly unstable. A diagnosis of schizophrenia, with its implications of pessimism, relapse and disability, does not contribute anything positive in terms of guiding treatment. On the contrary, such a diagnosis may damage the patient and family by stigmatizing them and affecting the way they are viewed and managed by healthcare professionals.--To integrate biological, psychological and social interventions: effective medications is useful in reducing the risk of relapse, but is not a guarantee against it. Psychological and social interventions can greatly help promote recovery.--To tailor the various strategies to met the needs of an individual: as an example, it is important to formulate appropriate strategies for the different stages of the illness (prodromal phase, acute phase, early recovery phase and late recovery phase) because patients have different therapeutic needs at each stage.--In the acute treatment, not to concentrate on short-term goals in indicating antipsychotic treatment: prescribing

  9. Assessing sub-clinical psychosis phenotypes in the general population--a multidimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that expression of a psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of its clinical detection. To date, however, no conceptual certainty has been reported for the validity and reliability of sub-clinical psychosis. Our main objectives were to assess the prevalence rates and severity of various psychosis symptoms in a representative community sample. Furthermore, we wanted to analyze which latent factors are depicted by several currently used psychosis questionnaires. We also examined how those latent factors for sub-clinical psychosis are linked to psychosocial factors, normal personality traits, and coping abilities related to chronic stress. Most of the eight subscales from the Paranoia Checklist and the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies had a very similar type of distribution, i.e., an inverse Gaussian (Wald) distribution. This supported the notion of a continuity of psychotic symptoms, which we would expect to find for continuously distributed symptoms within the general population. Sub-clinical psychosis can be reduced to two different factors - one representing odd beliefs about the world and odd behavior, and the other one representing anomalous perceptions (such as hallucinations). Persons with odd beliefs and behavior are under greater burden and more susceptible to psychosocial risks than are persons with anomalous perceptions. These sub-clinical psychosis syndromes are also related to stable personality traits. In conclusion, we obtained strong support for the notion that there is no natural cut-off separating psychotic illness from good health. Sub-clinical psychosis of any kind is not trivial because it is associated with various types of social disability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M; Dashe, Jodi S; Wells, C Edward; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2006-02-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism has long-term sequelae that include osteoporosis, cardiovascular morbidity, and progression to overt thyrotoxicosis or thyroid failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal free thyroxine (fT(4)) levels. All women who presented to Parkland Hospital for prenatal care between November 1, 2000, and April 14, 2003, underwent thyroid screening by chemiluminescent TSH assay. Women with TSH values at or below the 2.5th percentile for gestational age and whose serum fT(4) levels were 1.75 ng/dL or less were identified to have subclinical hyperthyroidism. Those women screened and delivered of a singleton infant weighing 500 g or more were analyzed. Pregnancy outcomes in women identified with subclinical hyperthyroidism were compared with those in women whose TSH values were between the 5th and 95th percentiles. A total of 25,765 women underwent thyroid screening and were delivered of singleton infants. Of these, 433 (1.7%) were considered to have subclinical hyperthyroidism, which occurred more frequently in African-American and/or parous women. Pregnancies in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism were less likely to be complicated by hypertension (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.98). All other pregnancy complications and perinatal morbidity or mortality were not increased in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our results indicate that identification of subclinical hyperthyroidism and treatment during pregnancy is unwarranted. II-2.

  11. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than

  12. Psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression compared to non-psychotic mania and non-psychotic bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Louise B; Horsdal, Henriette T; Mors, Ole; Gasse, Christiane; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-09-01

    An evidence base for the treatment of mania and bipolar depression with psychotic symptoms is lacking. Nevertheless, clinicians may have a preference for treating episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms in different ways, which is likely to reflect notions of differential efficacy of treatments between these subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether the psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic episodes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, differs in clinical practice. We conducted a register-based study assessing the psychopharmacological treatment of all individuals receiving their first diagnosis of mania or bipolar depression between 2010 and 2012. The psychopharmacological treatment within 3 months following the time of diagnosis was considered. Potential differences in psychopharmacological treatment between the psychotic and non-psychotic subtypes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, were investigated by means of Pearson's χ(2) test and logistic regression adjusted for sex and age at diagnosis of bipolar disorder. A total of 827 patients were included in the analyses. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for treatment with an antipsychotic was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.48, Pbipolar depression. The aOR for treatment with the combination of an antipsychotic and an anticonvulsant was 1.60 (95% CI: 1.06-2.43, Pbipolar psychotic depression. It would be of interest to conduct studies evaluating whether antipsychotics represent the superior pharmacological treatment for psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Neurocysticercosis masquerading psychotic disorder: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachita Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychotic manifestations are uncommon in neurocysticercosis. This article describes a ten year girl presented with manic–psychotic manifestation for which she was under treatment with antipsychotics for eight months. Eventually she developed generalized tonic clonic seizure and CT scan of brain revealed small isodense right posterior parietal lesion of 5 mm size with perifocal edema. CECT revealed intense nodular post contrast enhancement. This highlights the possible misdiagnosis of a case of neurocysticercosis as an organic psychotic disorder so it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological as well as psychiatric manifestations in endemic area like India.

  14. Confirming mental health care in acute psychiatric wards, as narrated by persons experiencing psychotic illness: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebergsen, Karina; Norberg, Astrid; Talseth, Anne-Grethe

    2016-01-01

    It is important that mental health nurses meet the safety, security and care needs of persons suffering from psychotic illness to enhance these persons' likelihood of feeling better during their time in acute psychiatric wards. Certain persons in care describe nurses' mental health care as positive, whereas others report negative experiences and express a desire for improvements. There is limited research on how persons with psychotic illness experience nurses' mental health care acts and how such acts help these persons feel better. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore, describe and understand how the mental health nurses in acute psychiatric wards provide care that helps persons who experienced psychotic illness to feel better, as narrated by these persons. This study had a qualitative design; 12 persons participated in qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed, content analysed and interpreted using Martin Buber's concept of confirmation. The results of this study show three categories of confirming mental health care that describe what helped the participants to feel better step-by-step: first, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of endurance; second, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of decreased psychotic symptoms; and third, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of support in daily life. The underlying meaning of the categories and of subcategories were interpreted and formulated as the theme; confirming mental health care to persons experiencing psychotic illness. Confirming mental health care acts seem to help persons to feel better in a step-wise manner during psychotic illness. Nurses' openness and sensitivity to the changing care needs of persons who suffer from psychotic illness create moments of confirmation within caring acts that concretely help the persons to feel better and that may enhance their health. The results show the

  15. What Is an Attenuated Psychotic Symptom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Raballo, Andrea; Parnas, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) are the key criteria to identify the individuals at enhanced risk of developing psychotic disorders. Competing clinicians-rated or self-rated psychometric instruments can also be used to detect APS, which makes it difficult to interpret their actual clinical...... significance. This article summarizes the empirical differences between the clinicians-rated and self-rated interviews and explores the impact of the context (referral pathways, settings, and assessment procedures) on the clinical significance of the APS....

  16. Role of Micronutrients on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Micronutrients in Subclinical Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Duygu; Gurses, Kadri Murat; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Tokgozoglu, Lale

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) leading to coronary heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Nutrition is one of the key factors in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Micronutrient supplements are widely used to prevent many chronic diseases including atherosclerosis. However, scientific evidence regarding this issue is still insufficient and current data on the association of dietary micronutrients and CVD risk is contradictory. Most of the randomized studies have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of micronutrient supplementation on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this review, role of each micronutrient on subclinical atherosclerosis will be evaluated thoroughly.

  17. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2011-03-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  18. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  19. Relational memory in psychotic bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Julia M; Williams, Lisa E; Cohen, Neal; Heckers, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research has highlighted the phenotypic and genetic overlap of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder parallel those seen in schizophrenia, particularly for bipolar disorder patients with a history of psychotic features. Here we explored whether relational memory deficits, which are prominent in schizophrenia, are also present in patients with psychotic bipolar disorder. Methods We tested 25 patients with psychotic bipolar disorder on a relational memory paradigm previously employed to quantify deficits in schizophrenia. During the training, participants learned to associate a set of faces and background scenes. During the testing, participants viewed a single background overlaid by three trained faces and were asked to recall the matching face, which was either present (Match trials) or absent (Non-Match trials). Explicit recognition and eye-movement data were collected and compared to 28 schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy subjects from a previously published dataset. Results Contrary to our prediction, we found psychotic bipolar disorder patients were less impaired in relational memory than schizophrenia subjects. Bipolar disorder subjects showed eye-movement behavior similar to healthy controls, whereas schizophrenia subjects were impaired relative to both groups. However, bipolar disorder patients with current delusions and/or hallucinations were more impaired than bipolar disorder patients not currently experiencing these symptoms. Conclusions We found that patients with psychotic bipolar disorder had better relational memory performance than schizophrenia patients, indicating that a history of psychotic symptoms does not lead to a significant relational memory deficit. PMID:22834462

  20. Brain microstructure of subclinical apathy phenomenology in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Piras, Fabrizio

    2013-12-01

    Although apathy has been extensively studied in relation to neuropsychiatric disorders, it is still unclear whether, in healthy people, it should be considered as a physiological phenomenon or whether it is a risk factor for progression to clinical disturbances. Here, we investigated subclinical apathy phenomenology and its brain microstructural correlates in healthy individuals. We submitted 72 participants to a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution structural MRI and a diffusion tensor imaging scan protocol. Data of individual microstructural (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) variations were processed across genders in relation to the Apathy Rating Scale score. In females, subclinical apathy phenomenology was associated with microstructural variation of the bilateral thalami, the anterior thalamic radiation, the forceps major, and the corona radiate. These are white matter areas mostly connecting the thalami to the frontal and occipital cortices, regions that are known to be implicated in the expression of apathy in clinical samples. No significant relationship with brain microstructure was found in males who showed a positive correlation between subclinical apathy and somatic phenomenology of depression. In conclusion, our results show that in healthy individuals subclinical apathy phenomenology is associated with different mechanisms across genders, and raise the issue about whether brain microstructural changes associated with subclinical apathy in healthy females could be a precocious marker useful in the prediction of progression to more severe apathetic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Some Paths Towards Psychotic Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Franco

    2017-12-01

    In this paper I use the term alienation to describe the mind's detachment from psychic reality and its withdrawal into an alien world that leads to progressive dehumanization. In spite of this phenomenon having a psychodynamic nosography and descriptive models that effectively reveal it in detail, mental alienation is still mysterious and unsettling, especially when it manifests all of a sudden in clinical work. Alienating withdrawal into sensory fantasizing, which causes increasing loss of contact with human reality, is often preceded by a long period of time spent in a dissociated world that has gradually replaced psychic reality. However, prior to the human world being completely replaced by the alien world, both worlds coexisted for a considerable length of time in the patient's mind. My hypothesis is that the dissociation from psychic reality that underlies the future state of psychotic alienation occurs in psychic withdrawal that begins in infancy. This mental state is particularly obvious in small children who constantly live in a fantasy world.

  2. Kynurenic acid and psychotic symptoms and personality traits in twins with psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Magdalena E; Johansson, Viktoria; Wetterberg, Lennart; Bhat, Maria; Schwieler, Lilly; Cannon, Tyrone D; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Engberg, Göran; Landén, Mikael; Hultman, Christina M; Erhardt, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins. Ratings of psychotic symptoms and personality traits were made using the Scales for Assessment of Negative and Positive symptoms, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Axis II Disorders, and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief. A total score for psychotic symptoms and personality traits was constructed for analysis. CSF KYNA was associated with the score for psychotic symptom and personality traits. TNF-α and IL-8 were associated, and the intra-pair differences scores of TNF-α and IL-8 were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations indicated genetic influences on CSF KYNA, TRP, IL-8 and TNF-α. The association between KYNA and psychotic symptoms further supports a role of KYNA in psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychotic-like experiences and their cognitive appraisal under short-term sensory deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eDaniel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to establish and compare the effects of brief sensory deprivation on individuals differing in trait hallucination proneness. Method: 18 participants selected for high hallucination-proneness were compared against 18 participants rating low on this trait. The presence of psychotic-like experiences, and participants’ cognitive appraisals of these, was evaluated in three different settings: at baseline, in a ‘secluded office’ environment, and in light-and-sound sensory deprivation.Results: Psychotic-like experiences were experienced significantly more often in sensory deprivation for both groups. In particular both experienced slight increases in perceptual distortions and anhedonia in seclusion, and these increased further during sensory deprivation. Highly hallucination prone individuals showed a significantly greater increase in perceptual distortions in sensory deprivation than did non-prone individuals suggesting a state-trait interaction. Their appraisals of these anomalous experiences were compared to both clinical and non-clinical individuals experiencing psychotic symptoms in everyday life.Conclusion: Short-term sensory deprivation is a potentially useful paradigm to model psychotic experiences, as it is a non-pharmacological tool for temporarily inducing psychotic-like states and is entirely safe at short duration. Experiences occur more frequently, though not exclusively, in those at putative risk of a psychotic disorder. The appraisals of anomalous experiences arising are largely consistent with previous observations of non-clinical individuals though importantly lacked the general positivity of the latter.

  4. Subclinical mastitis causes alterations in nitric oxide, total oxidant and antioxidant capacity in cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakisi, Onur; Oral, Hasan; Atakisi, Emine; Merhan, Oguz; Metin Pancarci, S; Ozcan, Ayla; Marasli, Saban; Polat, Bulent; Colak, Armagan; Kaya, Semra

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate total antioxidant (TAC), and oxidant capacity (TOC) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. Brown Swiss and Holstein breed cows were screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) to determine mammary glands with subclinical mastitis. Moreover, somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined electronically in all milk samples. Mammary quarters were classified as healthy (n=25) or subclinical mastitis (n=35) based on CMT scores and somatic cell count (SCC: 200,000/ml) in milk. Nitric oxide, TOC and SCC levels were significantly higher (pmastitis compared to those from healthy mammary quarters. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis results in higher NO concentrations, TOC and SCC, and NO and TOC were positively correlated with SCC. Moreover, alterations in NO levels and TOC in milk could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to screen for subclinical mastitis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism: how should it be managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatourechi, Vahab

    2002-01-01

    The term 'subclinical hypothyroidism' applies to patients who have mildly increased levels of serum thyrotropin hormone (TSH) and normal levels of thyroxine and liothyronine (triiodiothyronine). This very common condition, also called 'mild thyroid failure', accounts for 75% of patients who have increased serum TSH. For patients with sustained increases above 10 mIU/L, there is uniform agreement that thyroxine therapy is indicated. Therapy for milder forms of hypothyroidism is controversial. Some randomized clinical trials favor therapy for mild thyroid failure, but they are inconclusive because they lack stratification for the subgroup of patients with TSH levels below 10 mIU/L. For this subgroup, we recommend individualized management. The presence of goiter, positive thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies, manic-depressive disorder, fertility problems, or pregnancy or the anticipation of pregnancy favors the initiation of therapy. Positive TPO antibodies are a strong indication for therapy because of the high likelihood in these patients of progression to overt hypothyroidism; patients who are already receiving thyroxine should have adjustments of their dosage. Children and adolescents with mild thyroid failure should also be treated because of possible adverse effects on growth and development. It has been suggested that subclinical hypothyroidism is a cardiovascular risk factor, however further investigation is needed. The controversy surrounding therapy will not be resolved until more randomized studies are available for the subgroup of patients with TSH <10 mIU/L, and until the question of cardiovascular risk factors is further clarified.

  6. [Motivational interviewing for cannabis users with psychotic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsack, C; Montagrin, Y; Favrod, J; Gibellini, S; Conus, P

    2007-10-01

    People suffering from psychiatric disorders abuse alcohol or illicit substances twice as frequently as the general population. This problem is even more frequent in the early phase of psychotic disorders where prevalence of substance abuse ranges, according to various studies, from 35 to 65% during first psychotic episode. Cannabis is currently the most frequently used substance, and although its impact is often minimised, many data suggest it constitutes a risk for psychosis at three levels: (a) possible toxic psychosis in healthy individuals, (b) relapse of positive symptoms in schizophrenia and (c) raises the risk of schizophrenia when used early during adolescence. Despite a persistent controversy regarding some of these findings, they have constituted a sufficient body of evidence to support the development of specific interventions for psychotic patients. Various authors have described the fundamental elements of such dual diagnosis treatments, and some intervention programs have recently been developed. However, their relative complexity and the long duration of such interventions are often not well adapted to patients with limited motivation and low level of insight. Moreover, many obstacles arise that complicate their application to early psychotic disorders: minimisation of deleterious effect of cannabis by young people, distrust linked to psychotic symptoms, cognitive disturbances, stigmatisation of psychiatry, and use of cannabis as a means to socialise with peers. It is therefore important to adapt interventions to the specific needs of such patients and particularly to adopt a realistic attitude, aiming at increasing motivation to change habits and minimising associated risks rather than total abstinence. Our objective is to develop a pragmatic, non-judgemental approach, based on motivational interviewing techniques that is adapted to early psychosis with comorbid cannabis abuse, aimed at reducing the risks associated with abuse. In this article, we

  7. Psychotic Experiences and Neuropsychological Functioning in a Population-based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Josephine; David, Anthony S; Morgan, Craig; Frissa, Souci; Glahn, David; Pilecka, Izabela; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    experiences showed medium to large impairments in neuropsychological functioning (mean [SD]) on measures of IQ (81.22 [15.97] vs 91.28 [14.31]; Cohen d, -0.70), verbal knowledge (28.31 [13.83] vs 38.51 [11.50]; Cohen d, -0.88), working memory (19.11 [4.77] vs 21.99 [3.42]; Cohen d, -0.82), and memory (39.17 [8.23] vs 44.09 [6.51]; Cohen d, -0.45) after adjusting for socioeconomic status, cannabis use, and common mental disorders. Medium impairments (mean [SD]) on measures of working memory (21.27 [3.64] vs 22.62 [2.97]; Cohen d, -0.45) and memory (44.32 [5.84] vs 46.91 [5.74]; Cohen d, -0.45) were seen in those aged 35 to 49 years and on a measure of verbal knowledge (30.81 [14.17] vs 37.60 [10.48]; Cohen d, -0.62) in those aged 16 to 24 years. First-degree relatives of adults with psychotic experiences showed a small impairment on a measure of verbal knowledge (34.71 [12.10] vs 38.63 [10.97]; Cohen d, -0.36; P = .02), and unrelated cohabitants showed no neuropsychological impairment. The profile of cognitive impairment in adults with psychotic experiences differed from that seen in adults with psychotic disorders, suggesting important differences between subclinical and clinical psychosis.

  8. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...... for risk discrimination, calibration and reclassification; and (ii) the economic costs and health benefits associated with measuring markers of subclinical organ damage....

  9. Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C.E. Vianni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em cocos Gram-positivos catalase negativos (21 amostras de Lactococcus garvieae e 6 de Enterococcus gallinarum, isoladas do leite de fêmeas com mastite subclínica e pertencentes a uma população composta por seis rebanhos bubalinos localizados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O teste utilizado foi o da difusão de discos em agar Müller Hinton, segundo recomendações do National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS, tendo sido testados discos com ampicilina (10mg, cefalotina (30mg, cefotaxima (30mg, cefoxitina (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromicina (15mg, gentamicina (10mg, nitrofurantoína (300mg, norfloxacina (10mg, penicilina (10 UI, tetraciclina (30mg e vancomicina (30mg. Os resultados evidenciaram que em se tratando de Lactococcus garvieae, o antimicrobiano mais eficiente foi o nitrofurantoína com 85,71% de sensibilidade, seguido da cefotaxima (61,90%, vancomicina (52,38%, norfloxacina (47,62% e cefalotina (47,62%. A maior resistência foi desenvolvida frente a penicilina e ampicilina, com 95,24% de resistênciapara os dois antimicrobianos testados. O perfil de susceptibilidade desenvolvido pelas amostras de Enterococcus gallinarum, mostrou baixa sensibilidade frente aos antimicrobianos testados, onde os maiores índices foram observados frente eritromicina e gentamicina, com 33,34% de sensibilidade para ambos; quanto à resistência desenvolvida, foi possível observar 100% de resistência com relação a vancomicina e tetraciclina, seguindo-se cloranfenicol, penicilina, ampicilina, cefoxitina, cefalotina, cefotaxima, norfloxacina e nitrofurantoína, todas evidenciando uma resistência de 83,33% das amostras testadas.The susceptibility of antimicrobials was studied in Gram positive and catalase negative cocci (21 samples of Lactococcus garvieae and 6 Enterococcus gallinarum, isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis, belonging to six buffalo herds in

  10. EAMJ May Subclinical.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-02

    May 2, 2009 ... EL-Safty, I.A.M., GadalIah, M., Shouman, A.E. and. Nessim, D.E. Subclinical nephrotoxicity caused by smoking and occupational silica exposure among. Egyptian industrial workers. Arch. Med. Res. 2003;. 34: 415-421. 4. Ivandic, M., Hofmann, W. and Guder, W.G. The use of knowledge-based systems to ...

  11. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood obesity and its correlation with lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emokpae, M A; Adeleke, S I; Uwumarongie, H O

    2011-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on body mass index. The objectives of the study were (i) to determine whether levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are elevated in obese children, (ii) to compare the serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in obese with non-obese and (iii) to examine the association of subclinical hypothyroidism with lipoproteins and body mass index. Fifty six obese children/adolescent girls aged 10.5 +/- 4.3 years, BMI 31.2 +/- 2.2 kg/m2 and apparently healthy children aged 11.2 +/- 5.2 years, BMI 21.0 +/- 2.1 kg/m2 were evaluated. Serum T3, T4 and TSH were measured using ELECSYS 1010 autoanalyzer while serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and glucose were measured using enzyme catalyzed colorimetric techniques. Subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in 10.7% of obese subjects. Significantly increase levels of T3 (p obese than control subjects. TSH and triglyceride correlated positively with body mass index. Subclinical hypothyroidism was present in 10.7% of obese children. TSH and triglyceride correlated positively with body mass index in childhood/adolescent obesity. There is need for this group ofsubjects to be evaluated for thyroid hormones so that those requiring therapy can be diagnosed and treated.

  12. Influence of subclinical mastitis during early lactation on reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrick, F N; Hockett, M E; Saxton, A M; Lewis, M J; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    2001-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of mastitis during early lactation on the reproductive performance of Jersey cows. From 1986 to 1997, quarter foremilk samples were collected every 4 to 8 wk during lactation, at drying off, near calving, and when clinical mastitis was diagnosed and were evaluated microbiologically to identify causative bacteria. Services per conception, days open, and days to first service were obtained from DHIA records on 752 cows. Cows were separated by mastitis type (clinical, n = 186; subclinical, n = 240; control, uninfected or infected after confirmed pregnancy, n = 326). Cows were reclassified based on the time of clinical or subclinical mastitis as follows: period 1, before first service (n = 374); period 2, between first service and pregnancy (n = 52); and period 3, after confirmed pregnancy or uninfected (control; n = 326). Milk production did not differ for any group separations. Reproductive performance did not differ between gram-negative or gram-positive mastitis pathogens. Cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis before first service had increased days to first service (77.3+/-2.7 and 74.8+/-2.7 d), days open (110.0+/-6.9 and 107.7+/-6.9 d), and services per conception (2.1+/-0.2 and 2.1+/-0.2) compared with controls (67.8+/-2.2 d, 85.4+/-5.8 d, 1.6+/-0.2; P < 0.05). Days to first service were not increased in cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis during period 2 (70.6+/-3.3 and 61.2+/-7.8 d). However, days open (143.6+/-8.5 d) and services per conception (3.0+/-0.2) were increased (P < 0.05) in cows with clinical mastitis during period 2, but not in cows with subclinical mastitis (90.9+/-20.2 d and 2.1+/-0.5). Cows initially diagnosed subclinical that became clinical during period 2 exhibited increased days to first service (93.9+/-10.1 d), days open (196.0+/-26.2 d), and services per conception (4.3+/-0.7) compared with control animals (P < 0.05). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis reduced reproductive

  13. The Role of Aberrant Salience and Self-Concept Clarity in Psychotic-Like Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Docherty, Anna R.; Kerns, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of social-cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two social-cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and over-sampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be due to neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict to other schizotypal personality disorder criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several social-cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms. PMID:22452775

  14. Major depressive disorder with psychotic features may lead to misdiagnosis of dementia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerhardt S; McClintock, Shawn M; Rosenquist, Peter B; McCall, W Vaughn; Kahn, David A

    2011-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic features is relatively frequent in patients with greater depressive symptom severity and is associated with a poorer course of illness and greater functional impairment than MDD without psychotic features. Multiple studies have found that patients with psychotic mood disorders demonstrate significantly poorer cognitive performance in a variety of areas than those with nonpsychotic mood disorders. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Dementia Rating Scale, Second Edition (DRS-2) are widely used to measure cognitive functions in research on MDD with psychotic features. Established total raw score cut-offs of 24 on the MMSE and 137 on the DRS-2 in published manuals suggest possible global cognitive impairment and dementia, respectively. Limited research is available on these suggested cut-offs for patients with MDD with psychotic features. We document the therapeutic benefit of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which is usually associated with short-term cognitive impairment, in a 68-year-old woman with psychotic depression whose MMSE and DRS-2 scores initially suggested possible global cognitive impairment and dementia. Over the course of four ECT treatments, the patient's MMSE scores progressively increased. After the second ECT treatment, the patient no longer met criteria for global cognitive impairment. With each treatment, depression severity, measured by the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, improved sequentially. Thus, the suggested cut-off scores for the MMSE and the DRS-2 in patients with MDD with psychotic features may in some cases produce false-positive indications of dementia.

  15. Induced Psychotic Reactions among College Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As it may prolong energy and mental alertness, khat has gained popularity among college students. However, many undesirable psychoactive effects khat use are not reported. A dorm-to-dorm survey was carried out from May 5-15, 2006 to investigate the prevalence of khat –induced psychotic reactions among habitual ...

  16. Psychotic symptoms in older people without dementia from a Brazilian community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Walter Barbalho; Ribeiz, Salma Rose I; Bassitt, Débora P; De Oliveira, Melaine C; Bottino, Cássio M C

    2015-05-01

    The international prevalence of psychotic symptoms in older subjects without dementia varies from 0.9% to 8.0%. However, an analysis of these symptoms in developing countries has not been undertaken. To determine the prevalence and to correlate these symptoms with socioeconomic and clinical characteristics. A community-based sample aged 60 years and older was evaluated. Those who screened positive for dementia, cognitive and functional impairment or significant depressive symptoms were excluded, resulting in 1125 individuals. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 9.1% (visual/tactile hallucinations, 7.8%; auditive hallucinations, 7.5%; persecutory delusions, 2.9%). Subjects with psychotic symptoms had lower Mini Mental State Examination and The Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale scores, fewer years of schooling, belonged to lower socioeconomic classes compared with non-psychotic subjects, and 80% had clinical comorbidities. The prevalence was in the upper range of international data. Significant relationships were found between psychotic symptoms and lower Mini Mental State Examination score, fewer years of schooling and lower socioeconomic class. Clinical comorbidity was also very frequent. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The cognitive-behavioural treatment of low self-esteem in psychotic patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pauline L; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    Low self esteem in individuals with a psychotic disorder is common and may be related to poorer clinical outcomes. However, there has been little research on devising treatment methods to improve self-esteem either generally or in psychotic patients in particular. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of a simple cognitive behavioural intervention to improve self esteem in psychotic patients who scored poorly on a self-esteem measure. This pilot study was a randomised control trial with a convenience sample of chronic psychotic inpatients. The cognitive behavioural self-esteem intervention, as an adjunct to treatment as usual (TAU), was compared to TAU alone in patients with psychosis. The individual self-esteem intervention as described by Tarrier (The use of coping strategies and self-regulation in the treatment of psychosis. (2001)) consisted of working with participants to elicit positive self-attributes and then identify specific behavioural examples to provide evidence of this attribute. Emphasis was given to any consequential change in the patient's belief that they had the attribute. The results indicated that this cognitive behavioural treatment for self-esteem used as an adjunct treatment in psychosis, resulted in clinical benefits in terms of increased self-esteem, decreased psychotic symptomatology and improved social functioning. These benefits were largely maintained at 3-month follow-up.

  18. Clinicopathological significance of psychotic experiences in non-psychotic young people: evidence from four population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiological research has shown that hallucinations and delusions, the classic symptoms of psychosis, are far more prevalent in the population than actual psychotic disorder. These symptoms are especially prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal research has demonstrated that psychotic symptoms in adolescence increase the risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood. There has been a lack of research, however, on the immediate clinicopathological significance of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

  19. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii......) investigated which and how many markers to measure and (iv) finally discussed whether measuring subclinical organ damage provided benefits beyond risk prediction. In conclusion, more studies and if possible randomized studies are needed to investigate (i) the importance of markers of subclinical organ damage...

  20. Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens.

  1. Psychotic experiences and aggression inoutpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some authors report that aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia is of heterogeneous sources, for example, aggression may be an impulsive action and even deliberate behaviour designed to intimidate others. Violence and aggressive behaviour may also be associated with psychotic experiences, such as delusions or hallucinations. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychotic experiences and the intensiveness of hostility and aggression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Material and method: Seventy outpatients (35 men and 35 women with paranoid schizophrenia were examined. Relevant scales, subscales and indices of the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were used. Results: The analysis of correlation and the factor analysis revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between the scores of the scales assessing psychotic experiences and those assessing the intensiveness of hostility and aggression. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the presence of a number of relationships between psychotic experiences and felt hostility and aggression. Psychotic symptoms and indices of aggressiveness created five factors: “psychoticism,” “hostility,” “psychopathic aggression,” “poignancy,” “persecutory ideas.” Important for the felt hostility and aggressiveness in patients turned out to be experienced anxiety about their mental health because of the sense of the unreality of what is going on and because of the sense of alienation of their own thoughts. Another important factor turned out to be a sense of being wronged by life, misunderstood by others, and the belief that people have a grudge and try to harm. In contrast, characteristics, attitudes and behaviour which are the opposite of paranoid disorders, i.e. faith in people and optimistic attitude towards them, are an important factor for the inhibition of aggression.

  2. Psychotic-like symptoms as a risk factor of violent recidivism in detained male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colins, O.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.; Noom, M.; Broekaert, E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychotic-like symptoms (PLSs) are positively associated with violent recidivism and whether this relation is stronger when PLSs co-occur with substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 224 detained male adolescents from all youth

  3. Sub-clinical psychosis symptoms in young adults are risk factors for subsequent common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Gamma, Alex; Angst, Jules

    2011-09-01

    Not all persons identified in the early stages to be at risk for psychosis eventually cross the threshold for a psychotic illness. However, sub-clinical symptoms may not only indicate a specific risk but also suggest a more general, underlying psychopathology that predisposes one to various common mental disorders. Analyzing data from the prospective Zurich Cohort Study, we used two psychosis subscales - "schizotypal signs" and "schizophrenia nuclear symptoms" - derived from the SCL-90-R checklist that measured sub-clinical psychosis symptoms in 1979. We also assessed 10 different diagnoses of common mental disorders through seven interview waves between 1979 and 2008. This 30-year span, covering participant ages of 19/20 to 49/50, encompasses the period of highest risk for the occurrence of such disorders. Both psychosis scales from 1979, but especially "schizotypal signs", were significantly correlated with most mental disorders over the subsequent test period. Higher values on both subscales were associated with an increasing number of co-occurring disorders. Our data demonstrate that sub-clinical psychosis generally represents a risk factor for the development of common mental disorders and a liability for co-occurring disorders. This refers in particular to dysthymia, bipolar disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Proneness to psychosis could signal a fundamental tendency toward common mental disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of attenuated psychotic symptoms and their relationship with DSM-IV diagnoses in a general psychiatric outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) is being proposed for inclusion in Section III of DSM-5 for those impaired by subthreshold psychotic symptoms that are not better accounted for by another diagnosis and not meeting criteria for a psychotic disorder. The rationale is to identify patients who are at high risk for transition to a psychotic disorder in the near future. However, the potential impact of using this new diagnosis in routine clinical practice settings has not been carefully examined. As part of the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, a treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatient sample (n = 1,257) recruited from June 1997 to June 2002 completed a self-report measure of psychiatric symptoms and afterward were administered structured clinical interviews. For the current post hoc study, we investigated the prevalence rate of endorsing attenuated psychotic experiences to identify patients who could potentially meet criteria for APS. After the exclusion of those with lifetime DSM-IV psychotic disorders, psychotic experiences remained highly prevalent in the sample (28% reported at least 1 psychotic experience during the past 2 weeks), and rates were similar across all major DSM-IV diagnostic categories. Only 1 patient (0.08%) reported psychotic experiences but did not meet criteria for another current DSM disorder; however, this individual endorsed other nonpsychotic symptoms of greater severity. Psychotic experience endorsement was positively correlated with nearly all other nonpsychotic symptom domains, and multivariate analysis showed that general clinical severity predicted endorsement of psychotic experiences (P values < .001). We could not identify any patients who clearly met criteria for APS alone in our sample. Psychotic experiences appear to be common in outpatients and represent nonspecific indicators of psychopathology. Diagnosing APS in the community could result in high rates of false-positives or high

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciąkowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  6. [Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek-Trzciąkowska, Aleksandra; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2013-08-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  7. Impact of Cannabis Use on the Development of Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2014-01-01

    The link between cannabis use and psychosis comprises three distinct relationships: acute psychosis associated with cannabis intoxication, acute psychosis that lasts beyond the period of acute intoxication, and persistent psychosis not time-locked to exposure. Experimental studies reveal that cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and synthetic cannabinoids reliably produce transient positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in healthy volunteers. Case-studies indicate that cannabinoids can induce acute psychosis which lasts beyond the period of acute intoxication but resolves within a month. Exposure to cannabis in adolescence is associated with a risk for later psychotic disorder in adulthood; this association is consistent, temporally related, shows a dose-response, and is biologically plausible. However, cannabis is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause a persistent psychotic disorder. More likely it is a component cause that interacts with other factors to result in psychosis. The link between cannabis and psychosis is moderated by age at onset of cannabis use, childhood abuse and genetic vulnerability. While more research is needed to better characterize the relationship between cannabinoid use and the onset and persistence of psychosis, clinicians should be mindful of the potential risk of psychosis especially in vulnerable populations, including adolescents and those with a psychosis diathesis. PMID:25767748

  8. Subclinical Hypercorticism: the Necessity of Diagnostic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.N. Kvacheniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering certain difficulties in subclinical hypercorticism diagnosis, the object of this work is to focus attention of doctors in different areas on the necessity of thorough examination of patients with pathological conditions that may be the manifestation of Cushing’s syndrome (arterial hypertension, obesity, impaired carbohydrate metabolism and osteoporosis. The laboratory diagnosis is the instrument for early subclinical hypercorticism detection.

  9. Psychotic symptoms due to topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Oğuz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate is an antiepileptic drug prescribed in the treatment of numerous psychiatric disorders and in epilepsy. Topiramate exerts its antiepileptic effect through different mechanisms, such as by the blockage of sodium channels, increasing GABAergic neurotransmission, antagonizing excitatory amino acid receptors (glutamate or blocking calcium channels. Its prescription in psychiatric diseases has increased in recent years and psychotic symptom development due to the usage of topiramate has been observed in some studies. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the patient for psychotic symptoms while using topiramate. This article presents a case of a 37-year-old woman who developed depression, anxiety and auditory hallucinations during the treatment with 150 mg of topiramate. After stopping topiramate, 5 mg of olanzapine bid was started and the symptoms gradually decreased and finally disappeared.

  10. Key factors of recovery in psychotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    García-Álvarez, Leticia; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; Ordóñez-Camblor, Nuria; Paino, Mercedes; Burón-Fernández, Patricia; Vallina-Fernández, Óscar; Fernández-Iglesias, Purificación; Solares-Vázquez, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The research about recovery in psychosis could be consideredas a process that involves the illness management. It means, the development of coping skills, the disorder knowledge and a healthy lifestyle. Theobjective of this research is to study what factors are important in personal recovery in a sample of Spanish patients with psychosis. Methods: The sample consisted of 95 patients (males 70,5%) who had at least one psychotic episode. Results: The lowest level of recovery corre...

  11. Sexual minority status and psychotic symptoms: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Studies (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevonden, M J; Selten, J P; Myin-Germeys, I; de Graaf, R; ten Have, M; van Dorsselaer, S; van Os, J; Veling, W

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic minority position is associated with increased risk for psychotic outcomes, which may be mediated by experiences of social exclusion, defeat and discrimination. Sexual minorities are subject to similar stressors. The aim of this study is to examine whether sexual minorities are at increased risk for psychotic symptoms and to explore mediating pathways. A cross-sectional survey was performed assessing cumulative incidence of psychotic symptoms with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two separate random general population samples (NEMESIS-1 and NEMESIS-2). Participants were sexually active and aged 18-64 years (n = 5927, n = 5308). Being lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) was defined as having sexual relations with at least one same-sex partner during the past year. Lifetime experience of any psychotic symptom was analysed using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, educational level, urbanicity, foreign-born parents, living without a partner, cannabis use and other drug use. The rate of any psychotic symptom was elevated in the LGB population as compared with the heterosexual population both in NEMESIS-1 [odds ratio (OR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-3.84] and NEMESIS-2 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.42-3.71). Childhood trauma, bullying and experience of discrimination partly mediated the association. The finding that LGB orientation is associated with psychotic symptoms adds to the growing body of literature linking minority status with psychosis and other mental health problems, and suggests that exposure to minority stress represents an important mechanism.

  12. Replicated evidence of absence of association between serum S100B and (risk of psychotic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine van der Leeuw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: S100B is a potential marker of neurological and psychiatric illness. In schizophrenia, increased S100B levels, as well as associations with acute positive and persisting negative symptoms, have been reported. It remains unclear whether S100B elevation, which possibly reflects glial dysfunction, is the consequence of disease or compensatory processes, or whether it is an indicator of familial risk. METHODS: Serum samples were acquired from two large independent family samples (n = 348 and n = 254 in the Netherlands comprising patients with psychotic disorder (n = 140 and n = 82, non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder (n = 125 and n = 94 and controls (n = 83 and n = 78. S100B was analyzed with a Liaison automated chemiluminescence system. Associations between familial risk of psychotic disorder and S100B were examined. RESULTS: Results showed that S100B levels in patients (P and siblings (S were not significantly different from controls (C (dataset 1: P vs. C: B = 0.004, 95% CI -0.005 to 0.013, p = 0.351; S vs. C: B = 0.000, 95% CI -0.009 to 0.008, p = 0.926; and dataset 2: P vs. C: B = 0.008, 95% CI -0.011 to 0.028, p = 0.410; S vs. C: B = 0.002, 95% CI -0.016 to 0.021, p = 0.797. In patients, negative symptoms were positively associated with S100B (B = 0.001, 95% CI 0.000 to 0.002, p = 0.005 in one of the datasets, however with failure of replication in the other. There was no significant association between S100B and positive symptoms or present use or type of antipsychotic medication. CONCLUSIONS: S100B is neither an intermediate phenotype, nor a trait marker for psychotic illness.

  13. LIVING WITH THE PSYCHOTIC IN THE FAMILIAR POINT OF VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Mariza Hildebrandt; Lilian Konageski Stumm; Cíntia Nasi

    2004-01-01

    A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause sufferingboth for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in thefamiliar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, thisresearch has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It isabout a qualitative, explorative and descriptive stud...

  14. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  15. [Homicide committed by psychotic defendants in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, M C A; Vinkers, D J

    2012-01-01

    Psychotic patients are 10 to 20 times more likely to commit homicide than persons in the general population. Internationally, the incidence of homicides committed by psychotic defendants is 0.02-0.36 per 100.000 inhabitants. So far, no-one has determined the nature and incidence of homicide by individuals with a psychotic disorder in the Netherlands. To describe the nature and incidence of homicides committed by people with a psychotic disorder in the Netherlands in the period 2000-2006. We analysed the forensic mental health reports of all Dutch nationals suspected of committing homicide and found to be suffering from a psychotic disorder at the time of the offence. According to the mental health reports, in the period under study 61 homicides were committed by people with a psychotic illness (8.7 annually), the average rate being 0.05 per 100,000. The majority of suspects did not have a violent criminal past and were not receiving treatment at the time of the crime. Homicide committed by psychotic patients is relatively rare in the Netherlands, but it does occur. Early, continuous treatment of psychotic illness might help to prevent patients with a psychotic disorder from committing homicide.

  16. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures are unclear and clinical trials are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of subclinical thyroid dysfunction with hip, nonspine, spine, or any fractures. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The databases of MEDLINE...... and EMBASE (inception to March 26, 2015) were searched without language restrictions for prospective cohort studies with thyroid function data and subsequent fractures. DATA EXTRACTION: Individual participant data were obtained from 13 prospective cohorts in the United States, Europe, Australia, and Japan....... Levels of thyroid function were defined as euthyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.45-4.49 mIU/L), subclinical hyperthyroidism (TSH

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Moniek; Hop-de Groot, Rianne J; Sweep, Fred C G J; Ross, H Alec; den Heijer, Martin; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2013-01-01

    Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions. In 372 women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy, we assessed thyroid function. Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 73/372 women (19.6%). It occurred more often when pregnancy ended before 32 weeks of gestation (p = 0.008). In this cohort, subclinical hypothyroidism is more common after very preterm delivery. It may contribute to the elevated risk of remote cardiovascular disease.

  18. Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Agalactiae: Subclinical Mastitis Causes in Dairy Cow and Dairy Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Ratna Winata, Lucia Ratna Winata

    2017-01-01

    - Abstract This study aims to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aereus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in subclinical mastitis infection in dairy cows and buffalo in Enrekang (region in South Sulawesi). Subclinical mastitis was pre-examined using California Mastitis Test (CMT) reagent and 33 samples were positively detected. The positive samples were then isolated with culture test on the Baird Parker Agar media (BPA), identified with catalyst, Gram...

  19. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder with psychotic features: psychopathological and personological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to analyze psychopathological relations between obsessive-compulsive and psychotic symptoms in a group of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and to verify if the obsessive subgroup with psychotic features can be considered as a distinct OCD subtype. The study sample included 68 patients with OCD who were divided into two different groups (OCD with and without psychotic features). All subjects completed the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV). Twenty subjects (29.4%) were affected by OCD with psychotic features. They were characterized by an earlier onset of obsessive illness (pobsessive-compulsive symptomatology (with poor insight and anxiety) (ppersonality disorder (pobsessive-compulsive disorder, characterized by a set of specific psychopathological and personological features. However, the finding that these subjects have a higher prevalence of schizotypal personality disorder seems to suggest that they can be considered as a peculiar clinical subset belonging to the schizophrenia-spectrum disorders rather than a group of obsessive individuals placed on the most serious clinical extreme of the OCD spectrum.

  20. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Reappraisal of the interplay between psychosis and depression symptoms in the pathogenesis of psychotic syndromes: results from a twenty-year prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Haker, Helene; Stulz, Niklaus; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2011-02-01

    The interplay of psychotic and affective symptoms is a crucial challenge in understanding the pathogenesis of psychosis. In this study, we analyzed the interplay between two subclinical psychosis symptoms dimensions, and one depression symptoms dimension, using longitudinal data from Zurich. The Zurich study started in 1979 with a representative sample of 591 participants who were aged 20/21. Follow-up interviews were conducted at age 23, 28, 30, 35, and 41. The psychiatric symptoms were assessed with a semi-structured interview and the SCL 90-R. In this study, we analyzed three SCL-90-R subscales: the depression symptoms dimension and two distinct symptoms dimensions of subclinical psychosis, one representing a schizophrenia nuclear symptom dimension, the other representing a schizotypal symptoms dimension. Modeling was done with hybrid latent growth models, thereby including simultaneous and cross-lagged effects. The interplay between the two subclinical psychosis symptoms dimensions and the depression symptoms dimension includes several intertwined pathways. The schizotypal symptoms dimension has strong direct effects on the schizophrenia nuclear symptoms dimension, but also on the depression symptoms dimension. The latter has for its part an effect on the schizophrenia nuclear symptoms dimension. The main driving force within the dynamic interplay between depression and psychosis symptoms is a schizotypal symptoms dimension, which represents social and interpersonal deficiencies, ideas of reference, suspiciousness, paranoid ideation, and odd behavior. It does not only directly influence subclinical nuclear schizophrenia symptoms but also the symptoms of depression.

  2. Suicide as escape from psychotic panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Mark J; Ronningstam, Elsa; Schechter, Mark; Herbstman, Benjamin; Maltsberger, John T

    2016-01-01

    Suicides of patients in states of acute persecutory panic may be provoked by a subjective experience of helpless terror threatening imminent annihilation or dismemberment. These patients are literally scared to death and try to run away. They imagine suicide is survivable and desperately attempt to escape from imaginary enemies. These states of terror occur in a wide range of psychotic illnesses and are often associated with command hallucinations and delusions. In this article, the authors consider the subjective experience of persecutory panic and the suicide response as an attempt to flee from danger.

  3. Subclinical ketosis: prevalence and associations with production and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R; Martin, S W

    1984-01-01

    Cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds were monitored for subclinical ketosis for a period of two and one half years. Milk samples were routinely collected and the level of milk ketone bodies determined by the use of a commercial nitroprusside based test powder (reactions scored as negative, +1 or +2). Approximately 92% of positive reactions were observed in the first 65 days of lactation and for that time period the prevalence of ketosis was 12.1%. Based on this prevalence, the minimum possible duration of subclinical ketosis would be 7.9 days and the minimum possible lactational incidence rate would be 12.1%. The prevalence during the first 65 days of lactation in individual herds ranged from 0 to 33.9%. Subclinical ketosis was more likely to be found in cows experiencing metritis than in unaffected cows. Detection of elevated levels of milk ketones also indicated that the cow had a significantly higher risk of having clinical ketosis, metritis or cystic ovaries diagnosed within the following four days. Milk ketone scores of +1 and +2 were found to be associated with a reduction in daily milk production of 1.0 and 1.4 kg of milk respectively. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6713247

  4. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  5. A case of psychotic disorder, not otherwise specified: cycloid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... will obscure the identity and heterogenous psychotic disorders while awaiting more precise classification of psychiatric disorders based on sound scientific investigations. An illustrative case in a Nigerian woman is presented. Key Words: Psychotic, Cycloid, Episodic. Journal of Biomedical Investigation Vol.2(2) 2004: 46- ...

  6. School Mobility during Childhood Predicts Psychotic Symptoms in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter; Bryson, Alex; Thompson, Andrew; Singh, Swaran P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, school mobility was identified as a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in early adolescence. The extent to which this risk continues into late adolescence and the trajectories via which this risk manifests remain unexplored. Methods: Psychotic symptoms in 4,720 adolescents aged 18 were ascertained by trained psychologists…

  7. The attribution of psychotic symptoms to jinn in Islamic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Anastasia; Hoek, Hans W.; Blom, Jan Dirk

    Patients with an Islamic background who suffer from hallucinations or other psychotic symptoms may attribute these experiences to jinn (i.e., invisible spirits). In this paper, we review the medical literature on jinn as an explanatory model in the context of psychotic disorders. We conducted a

  8. Early non-psychotic deviant behaviour as an endophenotypic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    affective disorder (N=31) and non-psychotic bipolar disorder. (N=68), demonstrated that impaired premorbid intellectual, language, and behavioural functioning were specific to future schizophrenia patients compared to future non- psychotic bipolar disorders.4 In a large longitudinal popula- tion-based study of 50 087 male ...

  9. Psychotic symptoms in post traumatic stress disorder: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been suggested that psychotic symptoms may be over-represented in the Hispanic population. In this manuscript, we describe a case to illustrate this relationship and we review the current literature on the relationship of psychotic symptoms among PTSD patients. The implications regarding diagnosis, treatment, ...

  10. Psychotic disorder, khat abuse and aggressive behavior in Somalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychotic exacerbation prior to this incident was accompanied by an increase of khat intake. Co-morbid khat abuse can lead to the deterioration of psychotic disorders, can facilitate aggressive acts and complicates treatment. The medical and legal system of the countries where khat use reaches highest levels are not ...

  11. Direct Cost of Treating Acute Psychotic Episodes in Nnewi, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Major psychotic disorders such as the schizophrenias consume a high proportion of health budgets in developed countries. The economic implications of ... Aim: To estimate the direct cost of treating patients with acute psychotic episodes in a mental health unit in Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods: Forty one ...

  12. Shared Etiology of Psychotic Experiences and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Helena M S; Eley, Thalia C; McGuire, Philip; Plomin, Robert; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-09-01

    Psychotic disorders and major depression, both typically adult-onset conditions, often co-occur. At younger ages psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms are often reported in the community. We used a genetically sensitive longitudinal design to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A representative community sample of twins from England and Wales was employed. Self-rated depressive symptoms, paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms were collected when the twins were age 16 (N = 9618) and again on a representative subsample 9 months later (N = 2873). Direction and aetiology of associations were assessed using genetically informative cross-lagged models. Depressive symptoms were moderately correlated with paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization. Lower correlations were observed between depression and anhedonia, and depression and parent-rated negative symptoms. Nonsignificant correlations were observed between depression and grandiosity. Largely the same genetic effects influenced depression and paranoia, depression and hallucinations, and depression and cognitive disorganization. Modest overlap in environmental influences also played a role in the associations. Significant bi-directional longitudinal associations were observed between depression and paranoia. Hallucinations and cognitive disorganization during adolescence were found to impact later depression, even after controlling for earlier levels of depression. Our study shows that psychotic experiences and depression, as traits in the community, have a high genetic overlap in mid-adolescence. Future research should test the prediction stemming from our longitudinal results, namely that reducing or ameliorating positive and cognitive psychotic experiences in adolescence would decrease later depressive symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  13. Subclinical Inflammatory Status in Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been advocated as a possible common central mechanism for developmental cognitive impairment. Rett syndrome (RTT is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2. Here, we investigated plasma acute phase response (APR in stage II (i.e., “pseudo-autistic” RTT patients by routine haematology/clinical chemistry and proteomic 2-DE/MALDI-TOF analyses as a function of four major MECP2 gene mutation types (R306C, T158M, R168X, and large deletions. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate values (median 33.0 mm/h versus 8.0 mm/h, P<0.0001 were detectable in RTT, whereas C-reactive protein levels were unchanged (P=0.63. The 2-DE analysis identified significant changes for a total of 17 proteins, the majority of which were categorized as APR proteins, either positive (n=6 spots or negative (n=9 spots, and to a lesser extent as proteins involved in the immune system (n=2 spots, with some proteins having overlapping functions on metabolism (n=7 spots. The number of protein changes was proportional to the severity of the mutation. Our findings reveal for the first time the presence of a subclinical chronic inflammatory status related to the “pseudo-autistic” phase of RTT, which is related to the severity carried by the MECP2 gene mutation.

  14. Missed diagnosis of psychotic depression at 4 academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Anthony J; Winer, Jesse; Flint, Alastair J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Whyte, Ellen M; Heo, Moonseong; Fratoni, Susan; Gabriele, Michelle; Kasapinovic, Sonja; Meyers, Barnett S

    2008-08-01

    Major depressive disorder with psychotic features (psychotic depression), though occurring relatively frequently in the general population, is a commonly missed psychiatric diagnosis. To ascertain accuracy of diagnosis of psychotic depression among inpatients at 4 academic medical centers and explore whether presenting symptoms, treatment setting, and physician's level of training affect the accuracy of diagnosis. The medical records of 65 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for psychotic depression following systematic assessment were analyzed to ascertain the concordance between chart diagnoses and research diagnoses arrived at using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The patients were participants in the National Institute of Mental Health Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression, conducted from December 28, 2002, through June 18, 2004, at 4 academic medical centers. For each patient's hospital visit, separate standardized data forms were completed on the basis of each physician's assessment of the patient prior to screening for the study. Hospital records from the emergency room and from admission to psychiatric units were reviewed. Among these 65 patients, 130 chart diagnoses had been made. Psychotic depression had not been diagnosed prior to research assessments for 27% of the 130 diagnoses in our sample. The 3 most common diagnoses assigned to patients meeting research criteria for psychotic depression were major depressive disorder without psychotic features, depression not otherwise specified, and mood disorder not otherwise specified. Failure to identify psychotic depression was more likely when symptoms of depressed mood, hallucinations, or delusions were not noted in the medical record (all p depression is frequently missed in emergency room and inpatient settings. The findings of this study are sobering given the serious morbidity and mortality of psychotic depression and the implications for treatment if an inaccurate diagnosis is made

  15. LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLINICAL LAMINITIS AND DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC EXAM IN HOLSTEIN COWS IN THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Amaral Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical laminitis has been responsible for economic losses in dairy industry; thus, its diagnostic    is very important to prevent negative responses to milk production industry. The aim of this study  was to identify lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period with presence or absence of radiographic signs linked to this disease in Holstein cows. The cows were evaluated during the transition period and categorized into two groups (with and without laminitis according to the lesions associated with this subclinical disease. The radiological dynamic was performed in two target points during the transition period (prepartum and postpartum, with the objective of determining capsular position possible alterations and third phalanx bone degeneration (F3. There was no effect of the presence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis regarding the position of the third phalanx to the hoof wall (p>0.05. Significant radiographic angular differences (p0.05. Overall, this study did not show radiographic signs of phalangeal misalignment in the hoof of dairy cows with lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period . Keywords:  aseptic pododermatitis; bovines; complementary exams; hoof.

  16. Childhood trauma and psychotic experiences in a general population sample: A prospective study on the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, T M; Marin, N; Jaya, E S

    2017-05-01

    The causal role of childhood trauma for psychosis is well established, but the mechanisms that link trauma to psychosis are largely unknown. Since childhood trauma is known to cause difficulties in emotion regulation (ER) and patients with psychosis show impaired ER, we hypothesize that impaired ER explains why people with a background of trauma are prone to psychotic experiences. The study used a longitudinal cohort design based on a community sample (N=562) from Germany, Indonesia, and the United States. Childhood trauma was assessed at baseline. ER and psychotic experiences (defined as positive symptom frequency and related distress) were measured repeatedly at a 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up. Cross-lagged panel and longitudinal mediation analyses with structural equation modeling were used to test the predictive value of ER on psychotic experiences and its mediating role in the association of childhood trauma and psychotic experiences. The cross-lagged paths from impaired ER to symptom distress (but not frequency) were significant. However, there was also evidence for the reverse causation from symptom frequency and distress to impaired ER. ER partially mediated the significant prospective paths from childhood trauma to symptom distress. The findings demonstrate that ER plays a role in translating childhood trauma into distressing psychotic experiences in later life. Moreover, the findings point to a maintenance mechanism in which difficulties in ER and symptom distress exacerbate each other. Thus, ER could be a promising target for interventions aimed at prevention of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Filicide, attempted filicide, and psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Alexandre M; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Nascimento, Isabella; Nardi, Antonio E

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to describe and discuss the cases of two women who faced criminal charges, one for attempting to murder her three children and the other for killing her 1-year-old boy. After a forensic psychiatric assessment of their level of criminal responsibility, these patients were considered not guilty by reason of insanity and were committed to forensic mental hospitals. These two patients received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. In both cases, psychotic symptoms were present before the manifestation of violent behavior, in the form of persecutory delusions, auditory hallucinations, and pathological impulsivity. The investigation into cases of filicide may contribute powerfully to expand our understanding of motivational factors underlying this phenomenon and enhance the odds for effective prevention. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... disorders, and eliminate the classic subtypes of schizophrenia. A dimensional assessment will be measured on a 0-4 point scale. It is recommended that the concept of attenuated psychosis syndrome is further investigated. The propositions affecting characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia might increase...... stigmatization and pharmacological treatment on poor indication. The introduction of dimensional assessments may make schizophrenia subtyping redundant and has the potential to enrich clinical practice and bridge communication between child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. The most recent guidelines...

  19. Mentally Disordered Non-Psychotic Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background: By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures...... as sanctions in criminal cases, the court will request a psychiatric report. They may furthermore ask a medical expert consultation board, the Danish Medico-Legal Council, for an opinion on the mental status of the defendant. Aims: To describe a sample of offenders falling under §69 and the use of the section...... in sentencing offenders to treatment instead of punishment. Methods: All 298 opinions given by the Medico-Legal Council between April 1, 2005 and December 31, 2007 of defendants definitely or possibly falling under §69 of the Danish Penal Code were rated together with the psychiatric assessment reports...

  20. Sexual minority status and psychotic symptoms : findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Studies (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, M J; Selten, J P; Myin-Germeys, I; de Graaf, R; ten Have, M; van Dorsselaer, S; van Os, J; Veling, W

    BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority position is associated with increased risk for psychotic outcomes, which may be mediated by experiences of social exclusion, defeat and discrimination. Sexual minorities are subject to similar stressors. The aim of this study is to examine whether sexual minorities are at

  1. Subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereflican, M; Sereflican, B; Dagistan, E; Goksugur, N; Kizildag, B

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent aphtous stomatitis (RAS) is an inflammatory oral mucosal disease. It has been known that inflammatory cascade plays important role in the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical atherosclerotic findings and a systemic inflammatory disease, RAS. In total, 32 patients with RAS were matched with 30 control subjects on the basis of age, sex, and major cardiovascular risk factors. Laboratory parameters including lipid profiles were determined for patients and controls. B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess carotid extra-medial thickness (cEMT) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Both cEMT and cIMT in the RAS group were significantly higher than in the control group (P = 0.002 and 0.013, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between cIMT and cEMT (r = 0.381, P = 0.034). cIMT was positively correlated with age, triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure, while cEMT was positively correlated with age in patients with RAS. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study to evaluate cEMT and cIMT in patients with RAS. This study presents morphological evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RAS. Further studies investigating the relationship between atherosclerosis and RAS are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Multiethnic Exome-Wide Association Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Bis, Joshua C; Bielak, Lawrence F; Cox, Amanda J; Dörr, Marcus; Feitosa, Mary F; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Isaacs, Aaron; Jhun, Min A; Kavousi, Maryam; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Marioni, Riccardo E; Schminke, Ulf; Stitziel, Nathan O; Tada, Hayato; van Setten, Jessica|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345493990; Smith, Albert V; Vojinovic, Dina; Yanek, Lisa R; Yao, Jie; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Amin, Najaf; Baber, Usman; Borecki, Ingrid B; Carr, J Jeffrey; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Cupples, L Adrienne; de Jong, Pim A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/287955672; de Koning, Harry; de Vos, Bob D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413986004; Demirkan, Ayse; Fuster, Valentin; Franco, Oscar H; Goodarzi, Mark O; Harris, Tamara B; Heckbert, Susan R; Heiss, Gerardo; Hoffmann, Udo; Hofman, Albert; Išgum, Ivana|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31484984X; Jukema, J Wouter; Kähönen, Mika; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kral, Brian G; Launer, Lenore J; Massaro, Joseph; Mehran, Roxana; Mitchell, Braxton D; Mosley, Thomas H; de Mutsert, Renée; Newman, Anne B; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung; North, Kari E; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pankow, James S; Peloso, Gina M; Post, Wendy; Province, Michael A; Raffield, Laura M; Raitakari, Olli T; Reilly, Dermot F; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rosendaal, Frits; Sartori, Samantha; Taylor, Kent D; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; Turner, Stephen T; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Lugt, Aad; Völker, Uwe; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassel, Christina L; Weiss, Stefan; Wojczynski, Mary K; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bowden, Donald W; Deary, Ian J; Dehghan, Abbas; Felix, Stephan B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mathias, Rasika; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Psaty, Bruce M; Rader, Daniel J; Rotter, Jerome I; Wilson, James G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Völzke, Henry; Kathiresan, Sekar; Peyser, Patricia A; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the

  3. On understanding projective identification in the treatment of psychotic states of mind: the publishing cohort of H. Rosenfeld, H. Segal and W. Bion (1946-1957).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    A publishing cohort of Kleinian analysts - Rosenfeld, Segal and Bion - implemented Klein's (1946) notions of projective identification and the 'paranoid ' and 'schizoid ' positions in the understanding of a group of psychotic disorders. The author differentiates Klein's (1946)Notes on some schizoid mechanisms paper from its revised version of 1952, maintaining that it was Rosenfeld's clinical work during this period that helped to centralize Klein's redefinition of projective identification. The stage was set for Segal 's contribution in terms of 'symbolic equations,' where the psychotic's attack on the breast left him incarcerated in internal torment and persecution, where things-in-themselves were confused with what they symbolically represented. Segal in turn linked psychotic to normal, paranoid-schizoid to depressive positions, where by means of projective identification and symbolic imagination, the patient could arouse feelings in the analyst related to sadness, guilt and loss. Bion assumed that psychotic pathology reflected disordered thinking, when the severely disturbed used language as a mode of action. The psychotic was profoundly confused between the use of thought and action in the natural world - where thought was required, he preferred action and vice versa. Bion also drew upon projective identification in a new, broader way, so that analysis could now become more of an intersubjective, bi-directional field of projective and communicational influence between patient and analyst. The paper concludes with the impact of the work of Rosenfeld, Segal and Bion and variations on the technique of analyzing psychotic states in terms of the patient's early history, transference and countertransference.

  4. Efficacy and safety of risperidone in psychotic patients: an open study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K; Reda, F; Karim, L

    1996-01-01

    This open prospective study was undertaken to determine the efficacy and safety of a fixed dose (6 mg) of risperidone in psychotic patients. Hospital in-patients who fulfilled DSM-111-R criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders were eligible for entry into the study (n = 15). Patients who were on other antipsychotics had a washout period of 1 week before they were started on the drug. A fixed dose of risperidone was administered (6 mg). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Negative Symptom Rating Scale (NSRS) and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale were used to measure psychopathology and extrapyramidal side-effects. Five patients dropped out of the study. Two patients became very agitated and potentially aggressive, one patient became very restless and did not respond to benzodiazepines, and one dropped out because of restlessness that did not respond to clonazepam. Of the 10 patients who completed the study, 50 per cent reduction on BPRS and NSRS was achieved by five and six patients respectively. There was a marginally significant trend towards a greater reduction in the magnitude of negative symptoms. Four patients required treatment with anticholinergic drugs. Risperidone was effective in resistent psychotic patients, but agitated and impulsive psychotic patients with positive symptoms may not be best candidates for treatment with risperidone. On average, negative symptoms respond better than positive symptoms.

  5. Mood congruence phenomenon in acutely symptomatic mania bipolar I disorder patients with and without psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Vera B; Chaves, Márcia L

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder causes substantial morbidity including cognitive impairment. The objective of the study was to evaluate memory performance of acutely mania bipolar I disorder (BD-I) patients with and without psychosis. We also aimed to assess the mood congruence phenomenon upon memory. A cross-sectional study was developed with BD-I patients (19 with, and 12 without psychotic symptoms), and 27 age- and education-paired healthy controls. Memory tests were selected to evaluate memory/attention performance. A verbal episodic memory task with affective content (word span) was also applied. A significant difference was observed in the scores of the word span task with positive tone among the three groups, controlling for number of mania episodes (p=.042). Nonpsychotic BD patients presented higher scores. There was a statistical tendency for BD-I patients with and without psychotic symptoms to perform poorer than healthy controls in the delayed recall of the logical memory test (p=.069). Psychotic and nonpsychotic mania BD-I patients showed mood congruence phenomenon in a verbal memory task with positive tone in relation to the healthy group. Evidence of mood congruence was found in the nonpsychotic group suggesting a purer manifestation of the disease.

  6. Persistent frequent subclinical seizures and memory impairment after clinical remission in smoldering limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Riki; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kinoshita, Masako; Otsuka, Akiko; Watanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Keiko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2014-09-01

    To delineate a possible correlation between clinical course and EEG abnormalities in non-infectious "smoldering" limbic encephalitis. Long-term clinical data, including video-EEG monitoring records, were analysed in two patients. The two patients were positive for anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody and unspecified antineuronal antibody, respectively. The latter patient had small cell lung carcinoma. Both patients had memory impairment and clinical seizures. EEG showed frequent subclinical seizure patterns in the bilateral temporal regions. Subclinical seizure patterns and memory impairment persisted over one to two years after clinical seizure remission. Therapy (prednisolone and chemoradiation in the two patients, respectively) resulted in decreased occurrence of subclinical seizure patterns and memory improvement. EEG seizure patterns may persist years after clinical seizure remission in "smoldering" limbic encephalitis and lead to memory impairment.

  7. [Early signs and symptoms before the psychotic onset. A study on the Duration of Untreated Illness (DUI) in a sample of patients with diagnosis of "non-affective psychotic disorders"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, M; Armando, M; Censi, V; Aiello, D; Fortes Lindau, J; Cavaggioni, G; Birchwood, M; Fiori Nastro, P

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the study are to evaluate, in the Italian context, the presence and clinical features of early prodromal symptoms before the psychotic onset and, most of all, the duration of the period between the first onset of any psychiatric symptom and the psychotic onset (Duration of Untreated Illness). The study was carried out on a sample of 296 inpatients with a diagnosis of "non-affective psychosis" enrolled in "Villa dei Fiori" inpatients Clinic in Rome. The retrospective analysis was developed using clinical records and clinical interview with patients and their parents. The evaluation of the psychotic onset and of DUI was assessed with the PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale). The mean DUI is 4.7 ± 4.4 years. We found a connection between DUI and early symptoms of psycosis: depressive symptoms (4.9; DS=5.0) were most frequently observed, followed by anxiety symptoms (5.1; DS=4.8), eating disorders (5.7; DS=3.0); obsessive symptoms (4.5; DS=3.6); social withdrawal (5.9; DS=4.9); psychotic like symptoms (2.6; DS=1.3). DUI resulted lower in psychotic like symptoms than in the depressive ones. In Italy DUI turn out to be much longer than in other Country where do exists specialized services for early intervention. For this reason seem to be necessary to explore the opportunity to develop also in Italy specialized services for adolescents and young adults at risk and at their psychotic onset.

  8. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  9. Elevated circulating sST2 associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed primary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ihsan; Ozkayar, Nihal; Ates, Hale; Karakulak, Uğur Nadir; Kursun, Oğuzhan; Topcuoglu, Canan; Inan, Bayram; Yilmaz, Nisbet

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the levels of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) in patients with newly diagnosed primary hypertension (HT) and to determine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and IL-33/sST2. Eighty-two patients with newly diagnosed primary HT and ninety healthy volunteers were included in the study. CIMT ⩾0.9 mm was considered as significant for subclinical atherosclerosis. The sST2 levels of patients with primary HT were higher than those of the control group, whereas the IL-33 levels of these patients were much lower than those of the control group. The sST2 levels were higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis than in control subjects or patients with primary HT but not with subclinical atherosclerosis. In the primary HT group, sST2 had a positive correlation with CIMT, 24-h systolic-diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein, whereas sST2 had a negative correlation with the IL-33 level. A stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that sST2 is an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis. Although the diagnostic predictive value of HT risk was determined as >51.8 pg l(-1) in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in respect of the sST2 level, the diagnostic predictive value for subclinical atherosclerosis risk was determined to be >107.2 pg l(-1). The sST2 level displays a positive correlation with atherosclerotic changes, and is an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis expressed as increased CIMT.

  10. California mastitis test in the diagnostic of subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crisléia Rodrigues Monção de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation, is the main factor that substantially compromises the milk quality. Several methods can diagnose the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. One these methods, the California Mastitis Test (CMT has as advantages being practical, low cost and the results are immediately available. The CMT method consists of adding the anionic neutral detergent to a milk sample in order to disrupt milk somatic cell membranes and release nucleic material. The viscousity formed by this reaction allows estimating the number of somatic cells (immunity cells presents in the milk. According to the degree of gelatinization obtained in this reaction, the interpretation of the scores varies from zero, no viscosity, to three crosses, highly viscous. This study was aimed to evaluate the CMT of eight dairy herds of different farms in Sao Paulo state, described by the letters A to H. The scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered positive for subclinical mastitis, while 0 was negative. The results were determined in relative frequency (%. It is evident that the herd D is the most affected by subclinical mastitis, because of the greater number of CMT positive (60%. This may be due to the mismanagement and poor conditions of milking. The properties C, F and G require greater attention, as the result of CMT could corroborate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and infected cows can quickly transmit the infection to the healthy ones. Note that the farms A, B and H are the ones with

  11. The Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Atypical Psychotic Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Devi

    2007-01-01

    Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial. Case reports have suggested a role for ECT in two specific atypical psychotic disorders: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. PMID:20428309

  12. Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy : phenomenology and a comparison with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuyn, Hal A. Droogleever; Lappenschaar, G. A.; Nienhuis, Fokko J.; Furer, Joop W.; Hodiamont, Paul P.; Rijnders, Cees A.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Renier, Willy O.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Overeem, Sebastlaan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Patients with narcolepsy often experience pervasive hypnagogic hallucinations, sometimes even leading to confusion with schizophrenia. We aimed to provide a detailed qualitative description of hypnagogic hallucinations and other "psychotic" symptoms in patients with narcolepsy and

  13. Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy: phenomenology and a comparison with schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Lappenschaar, G.A.; Nienhuis, F.J.; Furer, J.W.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Lammers, G.J.; Renier, W.O.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Overeem, S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with narcolepsy often experience pervasive hypnagogic hallucinations, sometimes even leading to confusion with schizophrenia. We aimed to provide a detailed qualitative description of hypnagogic hallucinations and other "psychotic" symptoms in patients with narcolepsy and

  14. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250566370

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  15. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  16. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  17. Patients' relatives delayed help seeking after a first psychotic episode

    OpenAIRE

    Vera B M Monteiro; Santos,José Quirino dos; Martin, Denise

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies show that proper treatment after the first psychotic episode may be delayed for a long time. Some patients remain without care even while exhibiting serious symptoms. The objective of the study was to understand the reasons why patients' relatives waited at least 6 months to look for psychiatric counseling and treatment. METHOD: Qualitative analyses of semi-structured interviews with 15 relatives (of patients with first psychotic episode) who have waited more than si...

  18. Capgras' syndrome in first-episode psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Paola; Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Tohen, Mauricio; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K; Maggini, Carlo; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2014-01-01

    Misidentification phenomena, including the delusion of 'imposters' named after Joseph Capgras, occur in various major psychiatric and neurological disorders but have rarely been studied systematically in broad samples of modern patients. This study investigated the prevalence and correlated clinical factors of Capgras' phenomenon in a broad sample of patient-subjects with first-lifetime episodes of psychotic affective and nonaffective disorders. We evaluated 517 initially hospitalized, first-episode psychotic-disorder patients for the prevalence of Capgras' phenomenon and its association with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses including schizophreniform, brief psychotic, unspecified psychotic, delusional, and schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar-I disorder and major depression with psychotic features, and with characteristics of interest including antecedent psychiatric and neurological morbidity, onset type and presenting psychopathological phenomena, using standard bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Capgras' syndrome was identified in 73/517 (14.1%) patients (8.2-50% across diagnoses). Risk was greatest with acute or brief psychotic disorders (schizophreniform psychoses 50%, brief psychoses 34.8%, or unspecified psychoses 23.9%), intermediate in major depression (15%), schizophrenia (11.4%) and delusional disorder (11.1%), and lowest in bipolar-I (10.3%) and schizoaffective disorders (8.2%). Associated were somatosensory, olfactory and tactile hallucinations, Schneiderian (especially delusional perception), and cycloid features including polymorphous psychotic phenomena, rapidly shifting psychomotor and affective symptoms, pananxiety, ecstasy, overconcern with death, and perplexity or confusion, as well as rapid onset, but not sex, age, abuse history, dissociative features, or indications of neurological disorders. Capgras' syndrome was prevalent across a broad spectrum of first-episode psychotic disorders, most often in acute psychoses of rapid onset.

  19. Capgras Syndrome in First-Episode Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Paola; Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Tohen, Mauricio; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Maggini, Carlo; Baldessarini, Ross J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Misidentification phenomena, including the delusion of “imposters” named after Joseph Capgras, occur in various major psychiatric and neurological disorders but have rarely been studied systematically in broad samples of modern patients. This study investigated the prevalence and correlated clinical factors of Capgras phenomenon in a broad sample of patient-subjects with first-lifetime episodes of psychotic affective and non affective disorders. Methods We evaluated 517 initially hospitalized, first-episode psychotic-disorder patients for prevalence of Capgras phenomenon and its association with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses including schizophreniform, brief psychotic, unspecified psychotic, delusional, and schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar-I disorder and major depression with psychotic features, and with characteristics of interest including antecedent psychiatric and neurological morbidity, onset-type and presenting psychopathological phenomena, using standard bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results Capgras syndrome was identified in 73/517 (14.1%) patients (8.2%–50% across diagnoses). Risk was greatest with acute or brief psychotic disorders (schizophreniform [50%], brief [34.8%], or unspecified [23.9%] psychoses), intermediate in major depression (15%), schizophrenia (11.4%) and delusional disorder (11.1%), and lowest in bipolar-I (10.3%) and schizoaffective disorders (8.2%). Associated were somatosensory, olfactory and tactile hallucinations, Schneiderian (especially delusional perception), and cycloid features as described by Perris and Brockington including polymorphous psychotic phenomena, rapidly shifting psychomotor and affective symptoms, pan-anxiety, ecstasy, over-concern with death, and perplexity or confusion, as well as rapid-onset, but not sex, age, abuse-history, dissociative features, or indications of neurological disorders. Conclusions Capgras syndrome was prevalent across a broad spectrum of first

  20. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  1. Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis and isolation of its major causes in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Misrak; Leta, Samson; Mamo, Gezahegne; Tesfaye, Shimelis

    2017-12-21

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to March 2016 to estimate the prevalence, to assess the risk factors and to isolate the major etiological agent of subclinical mastitis in Bishoftu town. The study was conducted on 262 cross breed lactating cows selected from 12 intensively managed dairy farms. California mastitis test (CMT) and bacteriological culture methods were used as diagnostic tools. From 262 cows examined, 105 (40.1%) and from 1048 quarters examined, 170 (16.1%) were positive for sub-clinical mastitis using CMT. All CMT positive samples were cultured for etiological agent identification. From 170 samples cultured, 153 were positive for known subclinical mastitis pathogens. The dominant bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus species from these Staphylococcus aureus (44.9%) was the major one followed by Streptococcus spp. (25.3%) and other gram negative enteric bacteria, Escherichia coli (8.8%). Age, body condition score, milk yield, and number of parity were considered as potential risk factors; among these, age and number of parity have statistically significance association with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis (P < 0.05) both in the CMT and the bacteriological tests.

  2. Gender differences in first episode psychotic mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sue M; Lambert, Martin; Berk, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Butselaar, Felicity J; McGorry, Patrick D; Conus, Philippe

    2013-03-13

    The aim of this paper was to delineate the impact of gender on premorbid history, onset, and 18 month outcomes of first episode psychotic mania (FEPM) patients. Medical file audit assessment of 118 (male = 71; female = 47) patients with FEPM aged 15 to 29 years was undertaken on clinical and functional measures. Males with FEPM had increased likelihood of substance use (OR = 13.41, p forensic issues (OR = 4.71, p = .008), whereas females were more likely to have history of sexual abuse trauma (OR = 7.12, p = .001). At service entry, males were more likely to be using substances, especially cannabis (OR = 2.15, p = .047), had more severe illness (OR = 1.72, p = .037), and poorer functioning (OR = 0.96, p = .045). During treatment males were more likely to decrease substance use (OR = 5.34, p = .008) and were more likely to be living with family (OR = 4.30, p = .009). There were no gender differences in age of onset, psychopathology or functioning at discharge. Clinically meaningful gender differences in FEPM were driven by risk factors possibly associated with poor outcome. For males, substance use might be associated with poorer clinical presentation and functioning. In females with FEPM, the impact of sexual trauma on illness course warrants further consideration.

  3. Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Antipsychotic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Sarah D; Edmunds, Alaina L; Morgan, Sherri

    2017-04-01

    Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and are used to manage psychosis as well as other mental illnesses that may or may not have psychotic features, such as bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are more likely to cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia. Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs typically are related to metabolic abnormalities such as weight gain, abnormal blood glucose levels, and elevated lipid levels. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare but serious adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs that causes mental status changes, hyperthermia, and generalized rigidity. Timely diagnosis is essential due to a high risk of related morbidities if the syndrome remains untreated. Some adverse effects of antipsychotics can be identified and managed so that patients can continue beneficial therapy while minimizing the physiologic consequences. Patients taking antipsychotic drugs should be monitored regularly for adverse effects. Antipsychotics are also associated with potential drug interactions, the most lethal being prolongation of the QT interval, which can lead to fatal arrhythmias. Antipsychotic drugs can be used in special populations, such as pregnant women, children, and elderly patients, per recommendation from a mental health subspecialist. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  4. Internal structure of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-Positive (CAPE-P15) scale: Evidence for a general factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, D; Arias, V; Vogel, E; Gómez, L

    2015-07-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are prevalent in the general population and are associated with poor mental health and a higher risk of psychiatric disorders. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-Positive (CAPE-P15) scale is a self-screening questionnaire to address subclinical positive psychotic symptoms (PPEs) in community contexts. Although its psychometric properties seem to be adequate to screen PLEs, further research is needed to evaluate certain validity aspects, particularly its internal structure and its functioning in different populations. To uncover the optimal factor structure of the CAPE-P15 scale in adolescents aged 13 to 18 years using factorial analysis methods suitable to manage categorical variables. A sample of 727 students from six secondary public schools and 245 university students completed the CAPE-P15. The dimensionality of the CAPE-P15 was tested through exploratory structural equation models (ESEMs). Based on the ESEM results, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to contrast two factorial structures that potentially underlie the symptoms described by the scale: a) three correlated factors and b) a hierarchical model composed of a general PLE factor plus three specific factors (persecutory ideation, bizarre experiences, and perceptual abnormalities). The underlying structure of PLEs assessed by the CAPE-P15 is consistent with both multidimensional and hierarchical solutions. However, the latter show the best fit. Our findings reveal the existence of a strong general factor underlying scale scores. Compared with the specific factors, the general factor explains most of the common variance observed in subjects' responses. The findings suggest that the factor structure of subthreshold psychotic experiences addressed by the CAPE-P15 can be adequately represented by a general factor and three separable specific traits, supporting the hypothesis according to which there might be a common source underlying PLEs

  5. Attachment and dissociation as mediators of the link between childhood trauma and psychotic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Josie; Simpson, Jane; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra; Moskowitz, Andrew; Varese, Filippo

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to childhood trauma has been implicated in the development of paranoia and hearing voices, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations remain unclear. Understanding these mechanisms is essential for ensuring that targeted interventions can be developed to better support people experiencing distress associated with paranoia and voices. Recent models have proposed that dissociation may be a mechanism specifically involved in the development of voices and insecure attachment in the development of paranoia. Recent theoretical proposals have added to this and argued that fearful attachment could also lead to increased vulnerability for voices. This study was the first to examine whether dissociation and insecure attachment styles mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and these psychotic experiences. One hundred and twelve participants experiencing clinical levels of psychosis completed measures of dissociation, childhood trauma, attachment, voices, and paranoia. Results revealed positive associations between fearful (but not dismissive and anxious) attachment, dissociation, trauma, and psychotic experiences. Mediation analyses indicated that dissociation, but not fearful attachment, significantly mediated the relationship between trauma and voices. Conversely, both dissociation and fearful attachment significantly mediated the relationship between trauma and paranoia. The findings suggest that insecure attachment might be more strongly related to paranoia than hallucinations and suggest that fearful attachment may be a more promising mechanism to explain this relationship. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the impact of dissociation on psychotic experiences may extend to paranoia. Future research is required to replicate these findings using interview-based attachment measures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Tract-based analysis of white matter integrity in psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Andrew; Godwin, Douglass; Rutlin, Jerrel; Kandala, Sridhar; Shimony, Joshua S; Mamah, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) present with psychosis during their lifetime. Psychotic symptoms have sometimes been linked to specific genetic and phenotypic markers. This study aims to explore potential differences between bipolar disorder subtypes by measuring white matter integrity of the brain and relationships with clinical measures. Diffusion tensor imaging and clinical measures were acquired from 102 participants, grouped as psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD) (n=48), non-psychotic bipolar disorder (NBD) (n=24), and healthy controls (n=30). We utilized a powerful, automated tool (TRACULA: Tracts Constrained by Underlying Anatomy) to analyze the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of 18 white matter tracts. Decreased FA in numerous tracts was observed in bipolar disorder groups compared to healthy controls: bilateral cingulum-cingulate gyrus bundles, corticospinal tracts, and superior longitudinal fasciculi as well as the right hemisphere cingulum-angular bundle. Only left uncinate fasciculus FA differed between PBD and NPBD groups. We found no group differences in MD. Positive symptoms correlated with FA in the superior (inversely) and inferior (directly) longitudinal fasciculi. Negative symptoms directly correlated with mean FA of the corticospinal tract and cingulum-angular bundle. Neurotropic, mood-stabilizing medication prescribed for individuals with BD may interact with measures of white matter integrity in our BD participants. Our results indicate decreased white matter coherence in BD. Minimal differences in white matter FA between PBD and NPBD participants suggest related underlying neurobiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sub-clinical Addison′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash P Baruah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As autoimmune adrenalitis is fast replacing tuberculosis as the most common etiology cause of adrenal insufficiency, subtler forms of the same are being recognised as subclinical addison′s disease. In this article, we review what is known about this entity till date.

  8. Subclinical pertussis in incompletely vaccinated and unvaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-fold increase in IgG antibodies to. AGG2,3 and to either PT or FHA or both are shown in Figs. 1 - 3. The subclinical pertussis led to stimulation of antibody responses to multiple antigens of Bordetella perttjssis. Antibody levels attained were significantly higher for all pertussis antibody assays than those detected in' age-.

  9. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  10. Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Raghava, Jayachandra M; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are core clinical features of schizophrenia. We tested recent hypotheses proposing that psychotic, or positive, symptoms stem from irregularities in long-range white matter tracts projecting into the frontal cortex, and we predicted that selective dopamine D2/3 rece......, and psychotic symptoms appeared specifically associated with frontal fasciculi integrity. Six weeks of amisulpride treatment normalized white matter. Potential remyelinating effects of dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism warrant further clarification.......BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are core clinical features of schizophrenia. We tested recent hypotheses proposing that psychotic, or positive, symptoms stem from irregularities in long-range white matter tracts projecting into the frontal cortex, and we predicted that selective dopamine D2...... corticospinal tract (CT). Fractional anisotropy in the right ATR correlated with positive symptoms (z = 2.64, p= 0.008). The ROI analyses showed significant associations between positive symptoms and FA of the frontal fasciculi, specifically the right arcuate fasciculus (z = 2.83, p= 0.005) and right superior...

  12. Ghrelin and orotic acid increased in subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, F; Aydin, S; Kaygusuzoglu, E; Yildiz, H; Erulas, F A; Ozkan, Y

    2008-07-01

    Hormone ghrelin and orotic acid accelerate wound healing as well as controlling inflammation and immunity. We have, therefore, investigated the serum and milk levels of ghrelin and orotic acid in dairy cows with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) subclinical mastitis. Acylated and des-acylated ghrelin as well as orotic acid concentration were detected by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that ghrelin level in milk and serum was significantly higher in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis than that of dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. This was also the case when the orotic acid concentrations in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis were compared with those dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, ghrelin and orotic acid occur in particularly high concentrations in subclinical mastitis, and might, therefore, be required in greater amounts for tissue repair and may be also used as a indicator for subclinical mastitis.

  13. [Persistent psychotic disorder following bilateral mesencephalo-thalamic ischaemia: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predescu, A; Damsa, C; Riegert, M; Bumb, A; Pull, C

    2004-01-01

    A 38-year old male patient with no history of psychiatric illness developed a progressive psychotic disorder after bilateral (predominantly left) mesencephalo-thalamic cerebral ischaemia. The reason of the emergency hospitalization was the sudden onset of a confusional state, culminating in a fluctuating comatose status. The neurological examination found mild right hemiparesia, praxic disorders and reactive left mydriasis with paresia of the downward vertical stare, leading to the hospitalisation in the neurology department for suspicion of a cerebral vascular ischaemic accident. The psychiatric symptoms started with acoustic-verbal hallucinations, poorly structured paranoid delusions, progressively developed over two weeks, followed by behavioural disorders with psychomotor agitation and heteroaggressivity. The patient was transferred to the psychiatric department, because of the heteroaggressive risk and lack of morbid consciousness, in spite of recovering from the confusional status. An intensive psychiatric management was proposed, combining a psychotherapeutic approach with 4 mg of risperidone and adjustable doses of benzodiazepine according to the psychomotor agitation. During the next days, there was a net recovery of the behavioural disorders, in spite of the persistence of the ideas of persecution. All the neurological symptoms also decreased. An anomaly of the polygon of Willis was found on a cerebral arteriography (the posterior cerebral arteries had a foetal origin, dependent on carotidal axes and not on the vertebro-basilar system). The main emboligen risk factor was the presence of a permeable foramen ovale, discovered during a transoesophageal echography. The patient underwent a surgical correction of the permeable foramen ovale. The psychiatric hospitalization for three months was continued by ambulatory follow-up. The initial positive symptoms (delusions, acoustic-verbal hallucinations) progressively diminished while negative symptoms became

  14. Cardiac changes with subclinical hypothyroidism in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçaslan, Barış; Tigen, Mustafa Kürşat; Tekin, Ahmet Selami; Ciftçi, Hilmi

    2013-09-01

    Obesity has been linked to a spectrum of minor cardiovascular changes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on cardiac functions and its relations with subclinical hypothyroidism in healthy women. Eighty-eight consecutive "healthy" females (mean age: 31.2±6.6 years) were included in the study. Thyroid function tests and echocardiography studies were performed in all patients. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were also measured. A body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 was considered obese. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was higher in obese subjects (pobese subjects with higher E/e' (p=0.001) and larger left atrial volume (LAV) (pobese subjects (p=0.033). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were significantly higher in obese subjects (p=0.011) and were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, LAV, and LVM. The prevalence of abnormal systolic and diastolic functions showed stepwise increases with higher TSH levels in obese subjects. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of E/e' with anthromorphometric and biochemical parameters, and waist circumference was found to be the strongest independent variable correlated with the E/e' ratio. Cardiac structural and functional deteriorations may be related with subclinical hypothyroidism in obese subjects.

  15. Outcome of adrenalectomy for subclinical hypercortisolism and Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Marco; De Crea, Carmela; D'Amato, Gerardo; Gallucci, Pierpaolo; Lombardi, Celestino P; Bellantone, Rocco

    2017-01-01

    We compared operative and metabolic outcomes in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome caused by unilateral adrenal lesion, aiming to clarify the role of glucocorticoid replacement treatment in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome after adrenalectomy. The medical records of all the patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for subclinical Cushing syndrome or Cushing syndrome were reviewed. Diagnostic criteria for subclinical Cushing syndrome were a pathologic dexamethasone suppression test plus 2 additional criteria. Twenty-nine patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and 50 with Cushing syndrome were identified. No significant difference was found between patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome regarding lesion size, operative time, and hospital stay. Two patients out of 29 with subclinical Cushing syndrome and 3 out of 50 patients with Cushing syndrome experienced Clavien-Dindo grade II complications (P = .87). All the patients required postoperative glucocorticoid replacement that was discontinued within 6 months in 28 of the 29 patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and in 3 out of 50 Cushing syndrome patients (P Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome. Hypercortisolism was resolved in all the cases. Operative and metabolic outcomes of adrenalectomy are similar in subclinical Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome. Postoperative glucocorticoid replacement treatment is advisable in all patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome. Prolonged adrenal insufficiency is more frequent in Cushing syndrome patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL DISHARMONY OF PSYCHOTIC TYPE OVERVIEW FROM A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case from the clinical praxis, the authors, adopting a neuropsy­ho­logical attitude, study and define the developmental disharmony of a psychotic type. They consider that the developmental disharmony of a psychotic type represents a global and profound destruction of structures and functions (motors, speech, emotions, cognition, socialization. The foundation thesis is that in basic of the disharmony developmental structure of the child. A “psychotic nucleus” is being created rather early in the age of Child’s development, with under pressure of the no favorable environmental factors leads to psychotic manifestation of the personality. The developmental disharmony of a psychotic type could have a various outcome. The child could manifest a progressive intellectual deterioration, to evolve in a direction of schizophrenic psychoses, to structure itself as a “Borderline” personality, while very rarely a relative normalization of the personality could occur. The authors promote the significance of early detection, qualitative diagnostics and adequate treatment by well educated and polyvalent, multidisciplinary expert team.

  17. Differentiation Between Schizophreniform Configurations and Psychotic Personality Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The symptom overlap between primary psychotic and severe personality disorders renders timely diagnosis challenging, which often results in ambiguous treatment and poorly defined outcomes. Kernberg's (1984) structural model of personality, treating symptoms as a non-pathognomonic higher order construct, has much contributed to our understanding of the nature of some severe disorders, highlighting fundamental facets of personality function. However, the model's main focus is on borderline personality organization and thus offers an incomplete formulation of psychotic structure. With regard to the psychotic structure, two distinct pathological disorders are currently confounded and need to be distinguished: (1) the authentic psychotic structures, mainly resulting from failures in early relational and affective development, and (2) schizophreniform configurations, mostly derived from a neurodevelopmental etiology. This differentiation, while specifying the notion of psychotic personality structure, takes into consideration: (a) the role of temperament bias, hypersensitity in particular; (b) dissimilar productions in response to projective testing, such as the Rorschach inkblot test; (c) differential processes in response to psychotherapy, including typical transferential manifestations; (d) differential symptom presentation. Key criteria to facilitate the differential diagnosis with severely regressed borderline structures are suggested. Clinical material illustrates the application of the proposed revised model. Therapeutic implications are discussed.

  18. Cognitive changes in alcohol-induced psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Melany L; Emsley, R A; Nel, D G; Thornton, H B; Jordaan, G P

    2017-04-26

    This study aimed to explore the neuro-cognitive deficits of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder as compared to the cognitive deficits of uncomplicated alcohol dependence. Participants were recruited from the acute psychiatric admission wards of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch and Stikland and Tygerberg Academic Hospitals in the Western-Cape, South Africa. Participants who met DSM IV TR criteria (American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 2000) for Alcohol Dependence and for alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, respectively, were included. Participants who met criteria for another current DSM IV TR Axis I disorder were excluded. A structured interview was done prior to neuropsychological assessment to ascertain current mental state and to obtain relevant demographic detail and history. Neuropsychological assessments were performed and supervised by clinical psychologists at either Tygerberg or Stikland Hospital. The groups were matched demographically with similar period of abstinence prior to assessment. The alcohol-induced psychotic disorder group experienced first psychotic symptoms at age 35. The results reflected statistically significant differences on tasks measuring immediate memory; recall upon delay; exaggeration of memory difficulty and abstract thinking. This study concurs with earlier literature that some cognitive deficits are greater in alcohol-induced psychotic disorder compared to uncomplicated alcohol dependence.

  19. The symbolic and concrete: Psychotic adolescents in psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, Julia

    2003-06-01

    Unique disturbances in symbolisation are characteristic of the pathology of schizophrenia. Drawing on the case vignette of a psychotic adolescent, the author discusses theoretical problems in the symbolisation process in general and then in psychosis, in particular the relation between 'concretism' as a thought disorder and other psychotic defences. The ability to symbolise on the one hand and to maintain sufficiently stable ego boundaries on the other hand are examined in their relation. The author's clinical experience supports her hypothesis that there is a close relationship between the impairment of the symbolisation process in the adolescent or adult psychotic patient and his/her inability to engage in symbolic play as a child. Special attention is paid to the role of early trauma and consequent pathology of object relations for disturbances of symbolic play in childhood. Regression to concrete thinking is understood as the chance of the psychotic patient to give some meaning to reality in an unreal, delusional world and as his/her last chance to communicate at all. Conclusions are drawn for psychoanalytic techniques in the treatment of patients who are deeply regressed in this respect. Special attention is given to the particular circumstances and challenges of adolescence and to providing psychoanalytic psychotherapy to adolescent psychotic patients.

  20. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs , pregnancy outcomes , neuropsychiatric issues , metabolic syndrome , and dyslipidemia . This review will summarize the current data related to the effects of SCH on cardiovascular risk , SCH in pregnancy , in dyslipedemia and clinical guidelines on management of this condition . The evidence has been updated by a Pub med search on the risks and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism of most recent articles published until March 2015

  1. Which psychotic experiences are associated with a need for clinical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, C M C; Peters, E R; McGuire, P K

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the factor structure of anomalous experiences across the psychosis continuum; (2) qualitative and quantitative differences in psychotic experiences (PEs) between "non need-for-care" and two clinical groups: psychosis patients and individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis. We aimed to distinguish which types of experiences would be related to malign (need-for-care and/or help-seeking) versus benign outcomes. Component scores obtained from a Principal Components Analysis of PEs from lifetime scores on the Appraisals of Anomalous Experience Inventory (Brett et al., 2007) were compared across 96 participants: patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (n=37), help-seeking UHR people (n=21), and non-clinical individuals presenting with enduring PEs (n=38). A five-component structure provided the best solution, comprising dissociative-type experiences, subjective cognitive deficits, and three separate components relating to "positive" symptoms. All groups reported "positive" experiences, such as ideas of reference and hallucinations, with the non-clinical group displaying more PEs in the Paranormal/Hallucinatory component than both clinical groups. "Cognitive/Attentional anomalies" was the only component where the clinical groups reported significantly more anomalies than the non-clinical group. However psychosis patients reported more frequent first-rank type symptoms and "hypomanic" type PEs than the other groups. "Positive" PEs were common across the psychosis spectrum, although first-rank type symptoms were particularly marked in participants diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Help-seeking and need-for-care were associated with the presence of subjective cognitive disturbances. These findings suggest that anomalies of cognition and attention may be more relevant to poorer outcomes than the presence of anomalous experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: When to Consider Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Suh, Se Young

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (e.g., in Graves disease, toxic nodular goiter, or transient thyroiditis), by administration of thyroid hormone to treat malignant thyroid disease, or by unintentional excessive replacement therapy. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism in the general population is about 1% to 2%; however, it may be higher in iodinedeficient areas. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L than in persons with low but detectable thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation and heart failure in older adults, increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and decreased bone mineral density and increased bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. However, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unclear. A possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality-of-life parameters and cognition is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic persons. The American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommend treating patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L if they are older than 65 years or have comorbidities such as heart disease or osteoporosis.

  3. Oxytocin and social cognition in affective and psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, M; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K; Burdick, Katherine E

    2015-02-01

    Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing incidence of psychotic disorders among the young in Zurich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Lauber, Christoph; Warnke, Inge; Haker, Helene; Murray, Robin M; Rössler, Wulf

    2007-09-01

    There is controversy over whether the incidence rates of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders have changed in recent decades. To detect deviations from trends in incidence, we analysed admission data of patients with an ICD-8/9/10 diagnosis of psychotic disorders in the Canton Zurich / Switzerland, for the period 1977-2005. The data was derived from the central psychiatric register of the Canton Zurich. Ex-post forecasting with ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) models was used to assess departures from existing trends. In addition, age-period-cohort analysis was applied to determine hidden birth cohort effects. First admission rates of patients with psychotic disorders were constant in men and showed a downward trend in women. However, the rates in the youngest age groups showed a strong increase in the second half of the 1990's. The trend reversal among the youngest age groups coincides with the increased use of cannabis among young Swiss in the 1990's.

  5. Oxytocin and Social Cognition in Affective and Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K.; Burdick, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. PMID:25153535

  6. USE OF CALIFORNIA MASTITIS TEST IN DIAGNOSIS OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazif Varatanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Udder health control has been conducted in three different cow breeds by comparing the California Mastitis Test results in order to justify its use in detecting subclinical mastitis. The test examined 75 cows, or 228 quarters in total. In 76% of the cows of different breeds, the results of California Mastitis Test were positive. The tests were positive in one or two quarters with the intensity level of one, two and three. The test showed much higher percentage of positive reaction in the rear quarters. According to the results of our research, the continuous application of this test enables the early detection of subclinical mastitis resulting in its prevention and also improvement in quantity and milk quality.Key words: mastitis, California Mastitis Test, cow

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kousios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a significant problem in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD. Subclinical atherosclerosis identified by noninvasive methods could improve CVD risk prediction in CKD but these methods are often unavailable. We therefore systematically reviewed whether circulating levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitors (TIMPs are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in CKD, as this would support their use as biomarkers or pharmacologic targets. Methods. All major electronic databases were systematically searched from inception until May 2015 using appropriate terms. Studies involving CKD patients with data on circulating MMPs levels and atherosclerosis were considered and subjected to quality assessment. Results. Overall, 16 studies were identified for qualitative synthesis and 9 studies were included in quantitative synthesis. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 were most frequently studied while most studies assessed carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT as a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Only MMP-2 demonstrated a consistent positive association with cIMT. Considerable variability in cIMT measurement methodology and poor plaque assessment was found. Conclusions. Although MMPs demonstrate great potential as biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis, they are understudied in CKD and not enough data existed for meta-analysis. Larger studies involving several MMPs, with more homogenized approaches in determining the atherosclerotic burden in CKD, are needed.

  8. LIVING WITH THE PSYCHOTIC IN THE FAMILIAR POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mariza Hildebrandt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause sufferingboth for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in thefamiliar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, thisresearch has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It isabout a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study, developed in a northwest city of Rio Grande do Sul state,called Ijuí. The people of the investigation are composed of five psychotic’s parents, which frequent the socioterapygroup in Gloria district. The information collection happened trough open interviews, recorded and wrote out at all.The analysis of the obtained data followed MINAYO’s (2002 methodological proposition. By the containedinformation in the stud’s social actor’s declarations, emerged three thematic with a similar nucleus of thoughts. Onfirst thematic, we discussed about the difficulties faced by the familiars in the living with the psychotic in themoment he has the acute symptoms. On the second thematic, we talked about the medical question as bring atherapeutic element that helps the mental sick to keep stable., becoming better the familiars life. The third thematicshows the family conception about mental sickness. With this research we concluded that the living with a mentalsick person is taxing for the familiar and, sometimes, there are difficulties to understand the symptoms showed bythe sick person. Besides that, the family considers the medication one of the most important possibilities ofintervention in the psychotic’s therapy, what is reinforced by the health team that leads with these people.

  9. Comorbidity of severe psychotic disorders with measures of substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Sarah M; Pato, Carlos N; Medeiros, Helena; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Sobell, Janet L; Knowles, James A; Bierut, Laura J; Pato, Michele T

    2014-03-01

    Although early mortality in severe psychiatric illness is linked to smoking and alcohol, to our knowledge, no studies have comprehensively characterized substance use behavior in severe psychotic illness. In particular, recent assessments of substance use in individuals with mental illness are based on population surveys that do not include individuals with severe psychotic illness. To compare substance use in individuals with severe psychotic illness with substance use in the general population. We assessed comorbidity between substance use and severe psychotic disorders in the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort. The Genomic Psychiatry Cohort is a clinically assessed, multiethnic sample consisting of 9142 individuals with the diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, or schizoaffective disorder, and 10,195 population control individuals. Smoking (smoked >100 cigarettes in a lifetime), heavy alcohol use (>4 drinks/day), heavy marijuana use (>21 times of marijuana use/year), and recreational drug use. Relative to the general population, individuals with severe psychotic disorders have increased risks for smoking (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 4.3-4.9), heavy alcohol use (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 3.6-4.4), heavy marijuana use (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.2-3.7), and recreational drug use (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 4.3-5.0). All races/ethnicities (African American, Asian, European American, and Hispanic) and both sexes have greatly elevated risks for smoking and alcohol, marijuana, and drug use. Of specific concern, recent public health efforts that have successfully decreased smoking among individuals younger than age 30 years appear to have been ineffective among individuals with severe psychotic illness (interaction effect between age and severe mental illness on smoking initiation, P = 4.5 × 105). In the largest assessment of substance use among individuals with severe psychotic illness to date, we found the odds of smoking and alcohol and

  10. Psychotic symptoms in the general population - an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Kelleher; Jenner, Jack A; Cannon, Mary

    2010-09-01

    Our ideas about the intrinsically pathological nature of hallucinations and delusions are being challenged by findings from epidemiology, neuroimaging and clinical research. Population-based studies using both self-report and interview surveys show that the prevalence of psychotic symptoms is far greater than had been previously considered, prompting us to re-evaluate these psychotic symptoms and their meaning in an evolutionary context. This non-clinical phenotype may hold the key to understanding the persistence of psychosis in the population. From a neuroscientific point of view, detailed investigation of the non-clinical psychosis phenotype should provide novel leads for research into the aetiology, nosology and treatment of psychosis.

  11. Atypical psychotic symptoms and Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Aislinn J; Wang, Zhenni; Taylor, Stephan F

    2016-10-01

    New-onset psychotic symptoms often respond well to antipsychotic treatment; however, symptoms may be difficult to treat when an underlying brain malformation is present. Here, we present a case of atypical psychotic symptoms in the context of a congenital cerebellar malformation (Dandy-Walker variant). The patient ultimately improved with paliperidone palmitate after multiple antipsychotic medication trials (both oral and one long-acting injectable) were ineffective. Neuroimaging may provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information in cases of new-onset psychosis with atypical features and treatment resistance, even in the absence of neurologic signs and symptoms.

  12. Clinical and psychometric validation of the psychotic depression assessment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Pedersen, Christina H; Uggerby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    of the PDAS and its subscales was investigated by Spearman correlation analysis of the global severity ratings and the PDAS, HAM-D6, and BPRS5 total scores. The unidimensionality of the scales was tested by item response theory analysis (Mokken). RESULTS: Ratings from 39 participants with unipolar psychotic...... depression and nine participants with bipolar psychotic depression were included in the analysis. The Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the PDAS, HAM-D6 and BPRS5 were clinically valid (correlation coefficients from 0.78 to 0.85, p

  13. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was estimated in a one-year observational study. It was concluded that herds in the Netherlands varied substantially in their mastitis occurrence, indicating room for improvement of udder health. The relation...

  14. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral program for chronically psychotic forensic inpatients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the progress of four groups of chronically psychotic patients in treatment at De Kijvelanden Forensic Psychiatric Hospital. The psychotic patients were offered a cognitive-behavioral program, including psycho education, grief processing, stress management, functional

  15. Epidemiology, course and outcome of acute polymorphic psychotic disorder: implications for ICD-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed revision of the ICD-10 category of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders' (ATPDs), subsuming polymorphic, schizophrenic or predominantly delusional syndromes, would restrict their classification to acute polymorphic psychotic disorder, reminiscent of the clinical...

  16. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1...... overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity.......OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...

  17. Management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: are we too simplistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, Georg; Peeters, Robin P; Chan, Shiao Y; Bernal, Juan; Bouchard, Philippe; Salvatore, Domenico; Boelaert, Kristien; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Guideline advice of many societies on the management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy suggests treatment when TSH serum levels exceed 2.5 mU/l. Justification of this procedure is based on limited experience, mainly from studies carried out in patients with positive thyroid-specific antibodies and higher TSH levels that classically define the condition in the non-pregnant state. Taking into account a lack of clear understanding of the regulation of thyroid hormone transport through the utero-placental unit and in the absence of foetal markers to monitor the adequacy of thyroxine treatment, this review attempts to discuss currently available data and suggests a more cautious approach. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...... and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1...... overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity....

  19. SUBCLINICAL INTERSTITIAL PULMONARY INJURY IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Bestaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 61 inpatients diagnosed with RA (according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria who were treated at the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology; in so doing, high-resolution computed tomography revealed lung changes as a ground glass pattern in 15 patients, reticular striation, traction bronchoectases, and lung tissue changes as honeycomb ones in 25 patients; no lung abnormalities were found in 21 patients. DAS28 was applied to determine the inflammatory activity of RA. The RA patients underwent X-ray studies of the hand, foot, and chest, by using accordingly X-Ray unit and spiral computed tomography scanner (section thickness, 0.65 mm. External respiration function (ERF indicators were studied with plethysmograph. IgM rheumatoid factor was measured using an immune nephelometer. Serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were assayed by immunochemiluminescence technique on a Cobas e411 analyzer. The xMAP technology using a BioPlex200 analyzer was employed to determine the serum concentrations of 27 cytokines in 15 patients with subclinical IPI and in 25 with clinical IPI. Results and discussion. The major respiratory signs in patients with IPI proved to be cough (24 %, expectoration (20 %, dyspnea (16 %, and crepitation (64 % on auscultation. Three patients with subclinical IPI were found to have crepitation on auscultation. Respiratory symptoms were absent in the RA patients without IPI. It should be noted that there are a larger number of RA patients with a high smoking index among the RA patients with IPI than among those without IPI (p < 0.05. Investigation of ERF indicators revealed a statistically significantly lower lung diffusing capacity (LDC in the RA patients with subclinical IPI than in those without IPI (p < 0.05. Other ERF indicators showed no significant deviations of the reference values. LDC and total lung capacity appeared to be statistically

  20. Handedness and schizotypy in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, Hui-Chun; Liu, Chih-Min; Hwang, Tzung J; Hsieh, Ming H; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Chen, Wei J

    2011-11-01

    Existing studies have found the relationship between handedness and schizotypy to be inconsistent, and had limited generalisability since only highly homogeneous groups have been investigated. This study aimed to examine the relation between handedness and the four schizotypal factors identified from a previous confirmatory factor analysis in a population of high familial loading for schizophrenia. Study participants consisted of non-psychotic first-degree relatives (850 parents and 334 siblings) of sib-pairs who were co-affected with schizophrenia. All participants were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, which contains a section of the modified Structured Interview for Schizotypy, and the Annett handedness questionnaire. Both categorical and continuous indicators for handedness were examined. Non-right-handed siblings of schizophrenia patients displayed more positive schizotypal features than their right-handed counterparts when the two-way Annett's handedness classification was adopted. No association was found when handedness was treated as continuous. The relationship between handedness and schizotypy was insignificant for parents probably due to the strong social pressure against left-handedness. We concluded that categorical non-right-handedness was associated with positive schizotypy in non-psychotic siblings of schizophrenia patients. The results indicate that an atypical cerebral lateralisation underlying non-right-handedness may be also a contributing factor to positive schizotypy.

  1. Impulsivity and risk-taking in co-occurring psychotic disorders and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duva, Stephanie Marcello; Silverstein, Steven Michael; Spiga, Ralph

    2011-04-30

    Impulsivity is a risk-factor associated with substance use disorders. On paper-and-pencil measures, people with comorbid psychotic disorders and substance abuse have been shown to be more impulsive than their non-using counterparts. However, there has been little research on the behavioral components that, collectively, define the construct of impulsivity, which have been identified as: temporal discounting, risk taking, underestimating time, and failure to inhibit extraneous responding. This study compared people with psychotic disorders who did and did not use cocaine on behavioral measures of these components. One group (COC-now) had a positive urine drug screen (UDS) for cocaine (N=20). A second group (COC-past) had a negative UDS, but a positive cocaine history (N=20). Finally, the third group (control) had no history of cocaine use (N=20). Those with a current or past history of cocaine use engaged in more risk-taking behaviors and seemed to be less affected by anticipated loss and more attuned to monetary gains. However, contrary to our hypothesis, patients in the COC-now group selected larger, delayed rewards over the smaller, immediate rewards. Performance on the immediate/delay task also suggested greater attentiveness to the magnitude of the monetary reward for patients with a positive UDS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  3. Effects of elevated parameters of subclinical ketosis on the immune system of dairy cows: in vivo and in vitro results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kirsten; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Meyer, Ulrich; Reiche, Dania; Sauerwein, Helga; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Using an established model in which subclinical ketosis is induced, the response of differential blood counts and levels of various haematological variables, including the inflammatory marker haptoglobin (Hp), were tested over the last six weeks of parturition until the 56th day post-partum in cows with lower or higher body condition scores (LBC and HBC, respectively; n = 9/group). Animals in the HBC group evidenced subclinical ketosis whereas LBC animals were metabolically healthy. For in vitro examination with ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as a further stimulus, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) counts of cows with and without subclinical ketosis (n = 5/group) were observed. Counts of leucocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes (LY) peaked at day 1 post-partum in HBC cows, with a more marked increase in heifers. In subclinical ketosis LY count increased again, with significantly higher values in the HBC group. The red blood cell (RBC) profile was affected by parity (counts were higher in heifers). Hp showed a positive linear correlation with BHB and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA; R(2) = 0.41). PBMC from cows that were not pre-stressed with subclinical ketosis were more sensitive to increasing levels of BHB in vitro, as evidenced by both their higher proliferative capability and increased release of nitric oxide (NO). In summary, cows with subclinical ketosis showed a heightened immune response compared with metabolically healthy individuals, based on increased LY counts, increasing stimulative properties of PBMC and a relationship between Hp and typically increased values of BHB and NEFA. Concentrations of BHB in vivo during subclinical ketosis did not alter the proliferative capability of bovine PBMC in vitro, which was first significantly decreased at a dosage of 5 mM BHB.

  4. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  5. Udder health and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in organic dairy farms in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, A; Trachsel, P; Schällibaum, M; Blum, J W

    2000-04-28

    1+ were submitted for somatic cell counting (SCC), bacteriological examination and to test for antibiotic susceptibility. The SCC and germ-cell counts of monthly bulk-tank milk samples were available through Dairy Inspection and Advisory Services and milk production data of 567 herd-book cows were available from breeding associations. Possible individual and environmental predictors of subclinical mastitis were identified using logistic models adjusted for clustering of the data at herd and cow levels. Data were analyzed separately for cows from 7 to 100 and from 101 to 305 days post partum. Prevalences of subclinical mastitis at the quarter level were 21.2% for lactation period 7-100 days and 34.5% for 101-305 days post partum. The geometric mean SCC in bulk-tank milk samples was 85.6x10(3)cells/ml. Samples at 7-100 and 101-305 days post partum were positive for Staphylococcus aureus in 16.0 and 7.4%, for coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 51.5 and 50.6%, for Streptococcus agalactiae in 0.0 and 0.8%, for other Streptococci in 19.4 and 15.6%, for E. coli in 1.0 and 0.4%, and for Corynebacterium bovis in 25.7 and 45.1%, respectively. Risks of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with increasing days post partum and advancing age of cow. Cows that were sampled when staying in alpine dairies had considerably higher risks of subclinical mastitis than cows staying in home barns. Significantly lower risks of subclinical mastitis were observed in farms where CMT was performed regularly as a control measure. Bacteria in milk from cows with mastitis exhibited antibiotic resistance at a comparable frequency as found previously in conventional farms.

  6. Yoruba World View and the nature of Psychotic Illness | Olugbile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at identifying elements of a Yoruba world view, and factors relevant to the perception and treatment of psychotic illness. Method: 500 Yorubas in Lagos were randomly sampled (with a questionnaire), and 100 'home video' films were analyzed. Data were analyzed for: elements of world view; elements ...

  7. Brief psychotic disorder in a middle aged Nigerian following the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report illustrates the sudden onset, brief course and remission of a psychotic illness in a middle-aged Nigerian starting soon after she heard about the terrorist attacks in America. Vulnerability factors including personality traits and other concurrent life events were identified in the patients. Common mental disorder ...

  8. Preferences for treatment during a first psychotic episode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; van Raaij, B.; van den Berg, R.; Jager, M.; Houweling, P.; Stockmann, M.; Delsing, P.; Linszen, D.; Peters, B.; Wouters, L.

    2001-01-01

    Psychiatric services providing care for patients and their families confronted with a first psychotic episode need to be sensitive towards patients' and families' preferences. Ten patients, ten family members and ten professional caregivers composed a list of 42 preferences in the treatment for a

  9. Psychotic symptoms in post traumatic stress disorder: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... vision and people in public talking about him. There had been three previous psychiatric hospitalizations between 1993 and 1997. In 1993, he was diagnosed with a. “psychotic disorder not otherwise specified” and was treated with risperidone. As a teenager, he abused alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, heroin,.

  10. Routine Screening for Hepatitis among Patients with Psychotic Illness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B & C is increasing globally, giving rise to a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Individuals with psychotic disorders are particularly at risk of contracting hepatitis B & C due to lifestyle factors. Routine hepatitis screening among this population is advocated. This study ...

  11. Correlates of Suicidality among Patients with Psychotic Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Flint, Alastair J.; Smith, Eric; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Szanto, Katalin; Peasley-Miklus, Catherine; Heo, Moonseong; Papademetriou, Eros; Meyers, Barnett S.

    2008-01-01

    The independent association of age and other factors with suicidality in patients with major depression with psychotic features was examined. Of the 183 study participants, 21% had a suicide attempt during the current episode. Male gender, Hispanic background, past suicide attempt, higher depression scores, and higher cognitive scores were each…

  12. Yoruba world view and the nature of psychotic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugbile, O; Zachariah, M P; Kuyinu, A; Coker, A; Ojo, O; Isichei, B

    2009-05-01

    The Yoruba are an ethnic group in southern Nigeria. It is said that their world view centers around a continuous battle between forces of good and evil. Adverse events such as illness are due to the malevolence of enemies, using metaphysical means. Remedy often involves corrective metaphysical intervention, either exclusively or in addition to other methods, such as 'western Medicine'. This 'rule' is said to fit mental illness more than any other type of illness, although there is a lack of empirical data on the subject. This study is aimed at identifying elements of a Yoruba world view, and factors relevant to the perception and treatment of psychotic illness. 500 Yorubas in Lagos were randomly sampled (with a questionnaire), and 100 'home video' films were analyzed. Data were analyzed for: elements of world view; elements that pertain to illness in general; elements that pertain to psychotic illness; how such illness is to be treated. The world view has a significant influence on perception of psychotic illness. It is necessary to understand a people's world view in order to understand (and influence) attitudes towards psychotic illness in themselves and other people.

  13. Psychotic symptoms in the general population - an evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleher, Ian; Jenner, Jack A.; Cannon, Mary

    Our ideas about the intrinsically pathological nature of hallucinations and delusions are being challenged by findings from epidemiology, neuroimaging and clinical research. Population-based studies using both self-report and interview surveys show that the prevalence of psychotic symptoms is far

  14. Psychotic symptoms in post traumatic stress disorder: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... order. 1. Psychobiological & psychopharmological studies are needed to help refine tx guidelines for trau- matized children with PTSD and psychotic sxs. 1. Ethnic variation may be related to confounding variables such as poverty or disadvantaged so- cial status. Key: PTSD-P. Post-traumatic stress disorder ...

  15. Brief psychotic disorder in a middle aged Nigerian following

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report illustrates the sudden onset, brief course and remission of a psychotic illness in a middle-aged Nigerian starting soon after she heard about the terrorist attacks in. America. Vulnerability factors including personality traits and other concurrent life events were identified in the patients. Common mental disorder ...

  16. Psychotic symptoms, functioning and coping in adolescents with mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Devlin, Nina; Kelleher, Ian; Murtagh, Aileen; Harley, Michelle; Kehoe, Anne; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Cannon, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychotic symptoms in the context of psychiatric disorders are associated with poor functional outcomes. Environmental stressors are important in the development of psychosis; however, distress may only be pathogenic when it exceeds an individual's ability to cope with it. Therefore, one

  17. Subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Heidi C; Weiner, Myron; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro; Khera, Amit; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a population-based multiethnic study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, were re-examined 8 years later (DHS-2) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); N = 1904, mean age = 42.9, range 8-65. Associations of baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium, abdominal aortic plaque, and abdominal aortic wall thickness) with MoCA scores measured at follow-up were examined in the group as a whole and in relation to age and ApoE4 status. A significant linear trend of successively lower MoCA scores with increasing numbers of atherosclerotic indicators was observed (F(3, 1150) = 5.918, p = .001). CAC was weakly correlated with MoCA scores (p = .047) and MoCA scores were significantly different between participants with and without CAC (M = 22.35 vs 23.69, p = 0.038). With the exception of a small association between abdominal AWT and MoCA in subjects over age 50, abdominal AWT and abdominal aortic plaque did not correlate with MoCA total score (p ≥ .052). Cognitive scores and atherosclerosis measures were not impacted by ApoE4 status (p ≥ .455). In this ethnically diverse population-based sample, subclinical atherosclerosis was minimally associated with later cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  20. Mind-body medicine for schizophrenia and psychotic disorders: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Chanel; Sarris, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Over half of psychiatric patients use some kind of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, with Mind-Body Medicine (MBM) being the most commonly used collective modality. To date however, to our knowledge, no overarching review exists examining MBM for psychotic disorders. Thus the purpose of this paper is to present the first review in this area. A MEDLINE search was conducted of articles written in English from 1946 up to January 15, 2011 using a range of MBM and psychotic disorder search terms. Human clinical trials and, where available, pertinent meta-analyses and reviews were included in this paper. Forty-two clinical studies and reviews of MBMs were located, revealing varying levels of evidence. All studies included used MBMs as an adjunctive therapy to usual care, including medication. Overall, supportive evidence was found for music therapy, meditation and mindfulness techniques. Some positive studies were found for yoga and breathing exercises, general relaxation training, and holistic multi-modality MBM interventions. Due to insufficient data, a conclusion cannot be reached for hypnosis, thermal or EMG biofeedback, dance or drama therapy, or art therapy. No clinical trials were found for guided imagery, autogenic training, journal writing, or ceremony practices. For many techniques, the quality of research was poor, with many studies having small samples, no randomization, and no adequate control. While the above techniques are likely to be safe and tolerable in this population based on current data, more research is required to decisively assess the validity of applying many MBMs in the mainstream treatment of psychotic disorders.

  1. Efficacy of community treatments for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Julio; Méndez, Emmanuel; Morales, Ricardo; Schilling, Sara; Castro, Ariel; Alvarado, Rubén; Rojas, Graciela

    2013-10-09

    In Chile, the clinical guidelines "for the treatment of people from first episode of schizophrenia" aim to support individuals with schizophrenia to live independently, establishment occupational goals, and gain an adequate quality of life and social interaction. This requires the implementation of a treatment model that integrates psychosocial and pharmacological dimensions. Community intervention strategies ensure the achievement of these goals. This study compiles and synthesizes available scientific evidence from the last 14 years on the effectiveness of community intervention strategies for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. An electronic search was carried out using PUBMED, LILACS, and Science Direct as databases. Criteria of inclusion: (i) randomized clinical trials, (ii) Community-based interventions, (iii) diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (section F2 of ICD-10). (i) treatments exclusively pharmacological, (ii) interventions carried out in inpatient settings, (iii) bipolar affective disorder or substance-induced psychosis (greater than 50% of sample). Sixty-six articles were reviewed. Community strategies for integrated treatment from the first outbreak of schizophrenia significantly reduced negative and psychotic symptoms, days of hospitalization, and comorbidity with substance abuse and improved global functioning and adherence to treatment. In other stages, there were improved outcomes in negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Psychoeducation for patients and families reduced the levels of self-stigma and domestic abuse, as well as improved knowledge of the disease and treatment adherence. Training focused on cognitive, social, and labor skills has been shown to improve yields in social functioning and employment status. Community-based intervention strategies are widely supported in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.

  2. EFFICACY OF COMMUNITY TREATMENTS FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: A LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eArmijo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Chile, the clinical guidelines For the Treatment of People from First Episode of Schizophrenia aim to support individuals with schizophrenia to live independently, establishment occupational goals, and gain an adequate quality of life and social interaction. This requires the implementation of a treatment model that integrates psychosocial and pharmacological dimensions. Community intervention strategies ensure the achievement of these goals.Objectives: This study compiles and synthesizes available scientific evidence from the last 14 years on the effectiveness of community intervention strategies for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Methodology: An electronic search was carried out using PUBMED, LILACS and Science-Direct as databases. Criteria of inclusion: i: randomized clinical trials, ii. Community-based interventions, iii. diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (section F2 of ICD-10. Exclusion Criteria: i. treatments exclusively pharmacological, ii. Interventions carried out in inpatient settings, ii. bipolar affective disorder or substance-induced psychosis (greater than 50% of sample. Results: 66 articles were reviewed. Community strategies for integrated treatment from the first outbreak of schizophrenia significantly reduced negative and psychotic symptoms, days of hospitalization, and comorbidity with substance abuse and improved global functioning and adherence to treatment. In other stages, there were improved outcomes in negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Psychoeducation for patients and families reduced the levels of self-stigma and domestic abuse, as well as improved knowledge of the disease and treatment adherence. Training focused on cognitive, social, and labor skills has been shown to improve yields in social functioning and employment status. Conclusions: Community-based intervention strategies are widely supported in the treatment of patients with

  3. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the

  4. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Heijer, M. den; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical

  5. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer.

  6. Multiethnic Exome-Wide Association Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Bis, Joshua C.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Cox, Amanda J.; Dorr, Marcus; Feitosa, Mary F.; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Isaacs, Aaron; Jhun, Min A.; Kavousi, Maryam; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Schminke, Ulf; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Tada, Hayato; van Setten, Jessica; Smith, Albert V.; Vojinovic, Dina; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yao, Jie; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Amin, Najaf; Baber, Usman; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Cupples, L. Adrienne; de Jong, Pim A.; de Koning, Harry; de Vos, Bob D.; Demirkan, Ayse; Fuster, Valentin; Franco, Oscar H.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Harris, Tamara B.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Heiss, Gerardo; Hoffmann, Udo; Hofman, Albert; Isgum, Ivana; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahonen, Mika; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kral, Brian G.; Launer, Lenore J.; Massaro, Joe; Mehran, Roxana; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Jr, Thomas H. Mosley; de Mutsert, Renee; Newman, Anne B.; Nguyen, Khanh-dung; North, Kari E.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pankow, James S.; Peloso, Gina M.; Post, Wendy; Province, Michael A.; Raffield, Laura M.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Reilly, Dermot F.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rosendaal, Frits; Sartori, Samantha; Taylor, Kent D.; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; Turner, Stephen T.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Lugt, Aad; Volker, Uwe; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassel, Christina L.; Weiss, Stefan; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bowden, Donald W.; Deary, Ian J.; Dehghan, Abbas; Felix, Stephan B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lehtimaki, Terho; Mathias, Rasika; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rader, Daniel J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Wilson, James G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Volzke, Henry; Kathiresan, Sekar; Peyser, Patricia A.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background-The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease. We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the risk of

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghada A. Mohamed

    hypothyroidism was 3.4% in males and 5.8% in females.14 Perros et al. found that the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.3% in men and 4.6% in women with Type 2 diabetes.15 The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism in our study was greater than those of both these studies and revealed a dominance of.

  8. Microorganisms associated with sub-Clinical mastitis and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camels are adapted to the arid and semi arid lands (ASAL), but their full milking potential is affected by udder infection especially sub-clinical mastitis. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common pathogens responsible for sub-clinical mastitis in camels kept under ranch conditions in Northern Kenya. A total of ...

  9. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  10. Cardiovascular risk with subclinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Jasleen; Singh, Sarabjeet; Barsano, Charles P; Arora, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that subclinical thyroid dysfunction, as manifested by abnormalities in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, are associated with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by abnormal lipid metabolism, cardiac dysfunction, diastolic hypertension conferring an elevated risk of atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Similarly, patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism have nearly 3 times the likelihood of atrial fibrillation over a 10-year follow-up interval, raising the question of whether patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism should be treated to prevent atrial fibrillation. A single measurement of low serum TSH in individuals aged 60 years or older has been reported to be associated with increased mortality from all causes and in particular from circulatory and cardiovascular disease in a 10-year follow-up study. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is currently the subject of numerous studies and remains controversial, particularly as it relates to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and clinical applications.

  11. Atypical Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Depressive and Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Naturalistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Innamorati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this naturalistic study was to investigate whether treatment with clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics for at least 2 years was associated with a reduction in psychotic and depressive symptoms and an improvement in chronic schizophrenia patients’ awareness of their illness. Methods. Twenty-three adult outpatients (15 men and 8 women treated with clozapine and 23 patients (16 men and 7 women treated with other atypical antipsychotics were included in the study. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms were assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, and insight was assessed with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD. Results. The sample as a whole had a significant reduction in positive, negative, and general symptoms, whereas the reduction in depression was significant only for patients with CDSS scores of 5 and higher at the baseline. At the follow-up, patients treated with other atypical antipsychotics reported a greater reduction in depression than patients treated with clozapine, but not when limiting the analyses to those with clinically relevant depression. Conclusions. Atypical antipsychotics may be effective in reducing psychotic and depressive symptoms and in improving insight in patients with chronic schizophrenia, with no differences in the profiles of efficacy between compounds.

  12. Psychotic symptoms in young adults exposed to childhood trauma--a 20 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Cherrie; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Childhood adversity has been shown to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adult life. However, there are no previous studies looking at the association between experiencing a natural disaster during childhood and the development of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood. Eight hundred and six bushfire-exposed children and 725 control children were evaluated following the 1983 South Australian bushfires. Five hundred and twenty nine (65.6%) of the bushfire group and 464 (64%) controls participated in a follow up study 20 years later. Childhood data on emotional and behavioural disorders and dysfunctional parenting was available. The adult assessment included the Australian National Health and Well-Being psychosis screen and detailed information about trauma, childhood adversity and alcohol and cannabis abuse. 5.6% of subjects responded positively to the psychosis screen and 2.6% responded positively to a further probe question. Psychotic symptoms were more common in subjects exposed to a greater number of traumas, and were associated with higher rates of childhood adversity, emotional and behavioural disturbance, dysfunctional parenting, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. Subjects exposed to bushfires as children did not have a greater risk of psychosis. Our results indicate that exposure to multiple traumas, rather than a single major trauma, increases the risk of later psychosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemostasis in Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hyperthyroidism on hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present review focuses on hemostatic changes in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; goiter, nodular; hemostasis; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation disorders; venous thromboembolism; bleeding; fibrinolysis. The articles that were related to hyperthyroidism and hemostasis are used in this manuscript. Results Hyperthyroidism, either overt or subclinical, renders a hypercoagulable state, although there are several studies with contradictory findings in the literature. Hypercoagulability may be caused by an increase in the level of various coagulation factors such as factor (F) VIII, FX, FIX, von Willebrand F (vWF), and fibrinogen, while hypofibrinolysis by changes in coagulation parameters such as a decrease in plasmin and plasmin activator or an increase in α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor Conclusions Although many reports are in favor of a hypercoagulable state in overt hyperthyroidism but this finding at the biochemical level and its clinical implication, on the occurrence of VTE, has yet to be confirmed. PMID:29201071

  14. Do paranoid delusions exist on a continuum with subclinical paranoia? A multi-method taxometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, A; Perez Algorta, G; Varese, F; McIntyre, J C; Bentall, R P

    2017-12-01

    There is widespread interest in whether psychosis exists on a continuum with healthy functioning. Previous research has implied that paranoia, a common symptom of psychosis, exists on a continuum but this has not been investigated using samples including both patients and non-patients and up-to-date taxometric methods. To assess the latent structure of paranoia in a diverse sample using taxometric methods. We obtained data from 2836 participants, including the general population as well as at-risk mental state and psychotic patients using the P-scale of the Paranoia and Deservedness Scale. Data were analysed using three taxometric procedures, MAMBAC, MAXEIG and L-MODE (Ruscio, 2016), and two sets of paranoia indicators (subscales and selected items from the P scale), including and excluding the patient groups. Eleven of the twelve analyses supported a dimensional model. Using the full sample and subscales as indicators, the MAMBAC analysis was ambiguous. Overall, the findings converged on a dimensional latent structure. A dimensional latent structure of paranoia implies that the processes involved in sub-clinical paranoia may be similar to those in clinical paranoia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Resilience in patients with psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozikas, V; Parlapani, E

    2016-01-01

    The recovery movement differentiated clinical, which is related to disorder's symptoms, from personal recovery, which is outlined by a subjectively defined wellness state, characterised by hope and self-management. Schizophrenia research has long focused on risk factors and symptoms. The recovery movement triggered a focus shift from psychopathology towards better adjustment and growth despite living with schizophrenia. The recovery movement flourished parallel with positive psychology, the scientific study of ordinary human strengths and virtues investigating human motives and potentials. Understanding of human strengths could contribute to prevention or lessening of psychiatric disorders' devastating consequences, since optimism, sense of personal control and many other positive processes promote psychological health. Lately, the concepts of positive psychology have been implemented in schizophrenia research. Positive self-appraisals moderated suicidal ideation, even when patients experienced high levels of hopelessness.1 Additionally, among other factors, better self-images, internal locus of control (i.e. the perception that events in one's life relate to one's actions) and emphasis on personal efforts predicted a more favourable outcome in functioning of unmedicated patients.2 The concept of "resilience" is closely related to positive psychology. The American Psychological Association defines resilience as ''the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, threats or significant sources of stress''. The concept of resilience includes rebound from adversity.3 Determinants of resilience include biological, psychological, social and cultural factors that interact in a complex manner. The major manifestations of personal resilience are social competence, problem solving, autonomy and sense of purpose.5 Personality strengths that relate to resilience include high self-esteem, extroversion and optimism. Internal assets and personal competencies

  16. Individual pathogens, pathogen burden, and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, Moyses; Ding, Jingzhong; Tsai, Michael Y.; Cushman, Mary; Polak, Joseph F.; Lima, João; Barr, R. Graham; Sharrett, A. Richey

    2009-01-01

    We examined the cross-sectional relationships of subclinical atherosclerosis – expressed by carotid intimal–medial thickness and coronary calcification – with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis A virus, and pathogen burden (number of positive pathogens). A random sample of 1056 individuals chosen from 5030 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort participants were included. After multiple adjustment, no associations were found between atherosclerosis measures and either individual pathogens or pathogen burden. Interactions with inflammatory and endothelial function markers, demographic factors, BMI, high-density lipoprotein, diabetes, and smoking were also explored. The only interaction that was large, qualitative, statistically significant (P subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the study’s limitations, which include its cross-sectional design and insufficient statistical power, suggest that inferences from its findings should be made cautiously. PMID:19444130

  17. Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58% and Escherichia coli (23.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%, Streptococcus sp. (5.5%, Klebsiella sp. (3% and Bacillus sp. (2%. The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%, ofloxacin (85%, enrofloxacin (82%, gentamicin (80% and chloramphenicol (75%, resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 358-359

  18. Microbiological analysis and sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. in subclinical mastitis of dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.S. Salaberry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical mastitis in goats causes economic losses and risks to public health. Given the need for research that shows the most isolated staphylococci species and sensibility tests comparing the resistance between coagulase-negative (CNS and positive Staphylococcus (CPS goats with subclinical mastitis, the aim of this study was to identify the microorganisms isolated from milk samples of goats with subclinical mastitis, as well as define the staphylococci species and determine the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials. To collect samples, tests were performed for mug of black background and California mastitis test (CMT, collecting milk from CMT positive animals. A total of 226 samples from seven herds of dairy goats was collected and forwarded to the laboratory, where they were seeded for the isolation of the microorganism and implementing the antibiotic sensibility test. Of these, 122 samples had bacterial growth and the most isolated staphylococci species were: S. epidermidis (24.55%, S. lugdunensis (15.40% and S. intermedius (13.64%. Samples showed increased resistance to antimicrobials: penicillin (81.8%, oxacillin (60.0% and ampicillin (55.5%. Greater sensitivity to: enrofloxacin (99.1%, erythromycin (98.2%, gentamicin (98.2% and vancomycin (98.2% were observed. The S. epidermidis showed higher antimicrobial resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin than S. lugdunensis and S. intermedius. Similar resistance in vitro between CNS and CPS was observed to most antimicrobials. It is important to control the overuse of antibiotics to prevent the emergence of resistant strains.

  19. Selective, reliable blood and milk bio-markers for diagnosing clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Saleh, Ebeed; Ayoub, Mousa

    2017-02-01

    Mastitis is positioned as the most vital ailment in dairy cows in light of conventional cost examinations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of different acute phase proteins (APPs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy cows and in those with clinical or subclinical mastitis and to localize APP gene expression in the milk of mastitic cows. Therefore, 20 subclinical mastitic cows with positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) results and no clinical signs of mastitis, 15 clinically mastitic cows, and 15 healthy cows with negative CMT results and somatic cell count (SCC) of mastitis, except for total protein, albumin, and GSH levels and the TAC, which were significantly (p mastitis, while Fb expression was absent. The present study demonstrates that APPs, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and indicators of oxidative stress may serve as biomarkers of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Interestingly, the expression of SAA and Hp indicates the local de novo synthesis of these APPs within the mammary glands. Furthermore, the presence of SAA and Hp transcripts in milk cells derived from pathogen-free mammary glands proved their constitutive expression. However, future studies with more extensive baseline sampling are still needed to establish and validate the reference values for APPs, cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in cows.

  20. Pregnancy outcomes with thyroxine replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism: Role of thyroid autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study pregnancy outcomes in relation to thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb status with optimum thyroxine replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight women with subclinical hypothyroidism were followed up until the end of their pregnancy. TPO antibody status was performed for 59 women (positive 20, negative 39. Levothyroxine was supplemented to maintain TSH between 0.3-3 mIU/l in all patients, irrespective of TPOAb status. Pregnancy outcomes were noted as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, antepartum or postpartum hemorrhage, preterm delivery, and spontaneous abortion. Outcomes were compared between 3 groups as per TPO antibody status (positive, negative, and undetermined, which were matched for age and gestational period. Results: Thyroid autoimmunity was noted in 34% of women screened for TPO antibody. A total of 11 adverse pregnancy outcomes were recorded (4 spontaneous abortions, 4 preterm deliveries, 3 PIH with no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Adverse pregnancy outcomes were not different in the 3 groups with adequate thyroxine replacement for pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism targeting TSH in euthyroid range, irrespective of thyroid autoimmunity status.

  1. Disability and service use among homeless people living with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Helen; Evert, Helen; Harvey, Carol; Gureje, Oye; Pinzone, Tony; Gordon, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of psychosis and needs for care among homeless people were studied in inner Melbourne. This was a two-stage nested study within the Australian National Survey of People Living with Psychotic Illness. A screen for psychosis was administered to a representative sample of men and women living in marginal housing in a mental health service catchment area. A selected subsample of 82 screen-positive respondents was interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis (DIP), a semistructured, standardized interview with three modules: (i) demography, functioning and quality of life; (ii) diagnosis; and (iii) service use. An unexpectedly high prevalence of people living with psychotic disorders (estimated lifetime prevalence 42%, 95% CI=37-47%) may reflect a concentration of vulnerable people in the shrinking marginal housing supply in the inner city areas. Disability in everyday, occupational and social functioning is greater for this subgroup than for other people living with psychosis in Australia. Most people were single and unemployed, and many reported social isolation and feeling unsafe. Substance use disorders were common. Most people were using health services, including specialist mental health services, but few were receiving rehabilitation, vocational or housing support. Despite high levels of contact with a well-organized, sectorized mental health service in an affluent country, this pocket of several hundred people had high levels of persisting disability and needs. The literature and local experience suggest that changing this situation is likely to require co-ordinated policy and practice between the health, welfare and housing sectors.

  2. Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) for Adults with Psychotic Disorders: A Feasibility Study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Greta; Kouhia, Tiina; Roberts, David L; Oksanen, Jorma

    2016-11-01

    Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) is a psychosocial treatment designed to improve social functioning in schizophrenia by improving social cognition. Positive results have been reported from several studies, mainly from the USA, but more studies are needed to determine the feasibility of SCIT in different cultural contexts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Finnish translation of SCIT in Finland. This was an uncontrolled, within-group study. Thirty-three patients with psychotic disorders participated in SCIT groups and also received the standard services provided at their respective care facilities. We measured participant attendance, attrition and responses on feedback surveys. Participants also completed measures of emotion perception, Theory of Mind (ToM), attributional bias and metacognitive overconfidence both before and after SCIT. The attendance rate was high, attrition was low, and the patients expressed satisfaction with SCIT. Preliminary efficacy analyses showed a statistically significant pre to posttest improvement in emotion perception and ToM, but not attributional bias or overconfidence. SCIT is feasible and well accepted and may remediate social cognitive dysfunction in people with psychotic disorders in Finland.

  3. Anxiety Symptoms in Psychotic Disorders: Results from the Second Australian National Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanac, Peter; Mancuso, Sam G; Castle, David J

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of anxiety symptoms among Australians with psychotic disorders was examined as part of the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP). A two-phase design was used. Of 7,955 people who were screened positive for psychosis and eligible, there were 1,825 participants (18-34 years and 35-64 years) interviewed. Data were collected on symptomatology, substance use, cognitive ability, functioning, disability, physical health, mental health service utilization, medication use, education, employment and housing. Anxiety symptomatology was divided into generalized anxiety, panic, phobic, social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The most common ICD-10 diagnoses were schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (63.0%) and bipolar (mania) disorder (17.5%). Overall, 59.8% (n=1,092) of participants reported experiencing anxiety symptoms in the previous twelve months. Female gender was highly associated with all domains of anxiety. Smoking was significantly associated with all domains of anxiety, except generalized anxiety. The presence of any depressive symptoms in the previous twelve months was significantly associated with all anxiety symptoms. Medication side effects were associated with phobic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Social dysfunction was associated with social anxiety, and less so for obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Anxiety symptoms are common in people with psychotic disorders. Appropriate screening and treatment should be a clinical priority.

  4. Anti-NMDA-receptor antibody detected in encephalitis, schizophrenia, and narcolepsy with psychotic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutsui Ko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causative role of encephalitis in major psychotic features, dyskinesias (particularly orofacial, seizures, and autonomic and respiratory changes has been recently emphasized. These symptoms often occur in young females with ovarian teratomas and are frequently associated with serum and CSF autoantibodies to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR. Methods The study included a total of 61 patients from age 15 to 61 and was carried out between January 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2010. The patients were divided into the following three clinical groups for comparison. Group A; Patients with typical clinical characteristics of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Group B; Patients with narcolepsy with severe psychosis. Group C; Patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders. Results Ten out of 61 cases were anti-NMDAR antibody positive in typical encephalitis cases (group A: 3 of 5 cases and cases in a broader range of psychiatric disorders including narcolepsy (group B: 3 of 5 cases and schizophrenia (group C: 4 of 51 cases. Conclusion In addition to 3 typical cases, we found 7 cases with anti-NMDAR antibody associated with various psychotic and sleep symptoms, which lack any noticeable clinical signs of encephalitis (seizures and autonomic symptoms throughout the course of the disease episodes; this result suggest that further discussion on the nosology and pathophysiology of autoimmune-mediated atypical psychosis and sleep disorders is required.

  5. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome and Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eva W.C.; Bassett, Anne S.; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders have been reported in over 10% of patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) in long-term follow-up. To further explore the behavioral and psychiatric findings associated with VCFS in adulthood, detailed clinical histories of two patients—one with VCFS who developed a psychotic illness, and one with schizophrenia who was found to have dysmorphological features associated with VCFS—are described in the current report. The observed overlap of physical and psychiatric symptoms in these two patients suggests that VCFS and psychotic disorders may share a pathogenetic mechanism. This could be consistent with a contiguous gene model for VCFS and psychosis, suggesting chromosome 22q11 as a possible candidate region for genetic studies of schizophrenia. PMID:8074160

  6. Insular Dysfunction in People at Risk for Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Sepede

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to the review article written by Pavuluri and May [1] and to the original article by Tomasino et al [2] we will comment the recent neuroimaging findings of insular dysfunctions in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorders, focusing on people at genetic risk for developing psychotic symptoms. A disrupted insular functioning was reported in several studies, even though the results were not univocal with respect to the direction of the effect (some studies reported a reduced activation, other an augmented activation and the lateralization of the observed alterations (left, right or bilateral. We will conclude that an altered function of the insula during both cognitive and emotional task may be a candidate vulnerability marker for psychotic disorders.

  7. [Swan Song: The Advent of the Psychotic Nucleus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Fernando Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Different forms of artistic expression, such as literature and cinema, constitute an inexhaustible source for the study of mental illness. The use of psychodynamic models may contribute to a better understanding of the spectrum between personality disorders and the psychosis spectrum, thus enriching the phenomenological approach in the psychiatric clinical practice. To examine from psychodynamic standpoints the main character of the American film Black Swan, and the nature of her psychotic symptoms. Reviewing of sources and relevant theoretical currents. Analysis shows the usefulness of a psychodynamically- oriented dimensional model for understanding the so-called psychotic breaks as well as the applicability of psychoanalytic psychosis theories in general psychiatric practice, as they may provide a more flexible clinical approach, closer to the patient's subjective experience. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. An update on the epigenetics of psychotic diseases and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleky, Hamid Mostafavi; Zhou, Jin-Rong; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The examination of potential roles of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of psychotic diseases have become an essential alternative in recent years as genetic studies alone are yet to uncover major gene(s) for psychosis. Here, we describe the current state of knowledge from the gene-specific and genome-wide studies of postmortem brain and blood cells indicating that aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and dysregulation of micro-RNAs are linked to the pathogenesis of mental diseases. There is also strong evidence supporting that all classes of psychiatric drugs modulate diverse features of the epigenome. While comprehensive environmental and genetic/epigenetic studies are uncovering the origins, and the key genes/pathways affected in psychotic diseases, characterizing the epigenetic effects of psychiatric drugs may help to design novel therapies in psychiatry.

  9. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions....... The purpose of this study is to explore frequency of qualitative, not-yet-psychotic, anomalies of subjective experience in patients with residual schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness in remission. METHOD: The patients were examined with the Danish version of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic...... Symptoms (BSABS). Anomalies of experience were condensed into rational scales with good internal consistencies. RESULTS: Diagnosis of schizophrenia was associated with elevated scores on the scales measuring perplexity (loss of immediate meaning), disorders of perception, disorders of self...

  10. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Rothschild, A J; Flint, A J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. METHOD: Selective review of publications reporting results...... on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped...... into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had...

  11. Male genital self-mutilation as a psychotic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, Erol; Deveci, Erdem; Oral, Meltem; Yazici, Esra; Kirpinar, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    Male genital self-mutilation (GSM) is a rare, but serious phenomenon. Some of the risk factors for this act are: presence of religious delusions, command hallucinations, low self-esteem and feelings of guilt associated with sexual offences. Other risk factors include failures in the male role, problems in the early developmental period, such as experiencing difficulties in male identification and persistence of incestuous desires, depression and having a history of GSM. The eponym Klingsor Syndrome, which involves the presence of religious delusions, is proposed for GSM. Four male GSM cases are presented: Case 1 and Case 2 were diagnosed with schizophrenia, Case 3 with schizophrenia and depressive disorder, not otherwise specified, and Case 4 with bipolar depression with psychotic features. All definite and probable motives and cultural aspects for their GSM are discussed. Atonement is proposed as a new concept in formulating religiously themed psychotic male GSM.

  12. Subclinical levels of maternal depression and infant sensitivity to social contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Høie, Kjartan; Markhus, Maria Wik; Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Berle, Jan Øystein; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how young infants respond to contingent and non-contingent interaction in relation to maternal level of depressive symptoms in a non-clinical sample of mothers and infants. Two groups of three-month-olds interacted with their mother who was assessed as either non-depressed or sub-clinically depressed, based on self-reported scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The infants were presented with a continuous image and voice of their mother in a closed circuit computer system, using the double video procedure. The experiment comprised five sequences, alternating between contingent (Live) and non-contingent (Replay) maternal behaviur in a fixed Live1-Replay1-Live2-Replay2-Live3 sequence. The infants of the sub-clinically depressed mothers showed a high gaze focus at their mother independently of the quality of interaction, while the infants of the non-depressed mothers showed a preference for looking at the mother only when the interaction with their mother was contingent. Further, the infants of the sub-clinically depressed mothers showed no differentiation in affective expression between contingent and non-contingent interactions, while the infants of the non-depressed mothers expressed more positive affect than negative affect only when the interaction with their mother was contingent. Finally, there was a significant relation between the infant's preference for looking at the mother and the infant's amount of positive affect, but this was only found for the infants of the non-depressed. These results indicate that young infants' sensitivity to social contingency is related to maternal level of depression, even in a non-clinical sample. This expands the implications of earlier findings on the impact of maternal depression on infant sensitivity to social contingency, demonstrating that even sub-clinical levels of maternal depression may effect early interaction and child development. Copyright © 2013

  13. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels are related to subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Liu, Lingjiao; Xu, Aimin; Zhou, Pengcheng; Long, Zhaofeng; Tu, Yiting; Chen, Xiaoyan; Tang, Weili; Huang, Gan; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2015-06-06

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a glucose and lipid metabolic regulator, has recently been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as carotid atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and carotid artery plaques. However, the relationship between circulating FGF21 and subclinical atherosclerosis or atherosclerosis of other arteries such as the femoral and iliac artery remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the association of serum FGF21 with intima-media thickness (IMT) and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum FGF21 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 212 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis or cardiovascular diseases. IMT of the carotid, femoral, and iliac arteries were measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound to determine the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis, which was defined as having an IMT > 1.0 mm and/or plaque on one or more of the three arteries without any clinical manifestations. The relationship between serum FGF21 levels and subclinical atherosclerosis was analyzed. Serum FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis compared to those without [261.3 (135.1-396.4) versus 144.9 (95.9-223.0) ng/L, P subclinical atherosclerosis compared to their respective groups without [men: 243.2 (107.6-337.0) versus 136.8 (83.6-212.8) ng/L, P = 0.048; women: 292.4 (174.2-419.9) versus 160.4 (115.3-258.5) ng/L, P = 0.001]. Moreover, serum FGF21 levels showed a significantly positive correlation with carotid IMT in women (r = 0.23, P = 0.018) and with iliac IMT in both genders (women: r = 0.27, P = 0.005; men: r = 0.22, P = 0.024). Multiple logistic regression analysis further showed that serum FGF21 was an independent impact factor for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum FGF21 is elevated in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, and positively correlates with

  14. Cortical thickness correlates of psychotic experiences: examining the effect of season of birth using a genetically informative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Palomera, A; Alemany, S; Falcón, C; Bargalló, N; Goldberg, X; Crespo-Facorro, B; Nenadic, I; Fañanás, L

    2014-09-01

    Season of birth has been shown to influence risk for several neuropsychiatric diseases. Furthermore, it has been suggested that season of birth modifies a number of brain morphological traits. Since cortical thickness alterations have been reported across some levels of the psychosis-spectrum, this study was aimed at i) assessing the scarcely explored relationship between cortical thickness and severity of subclinical psychotic experiences (PEs) in healthy subjects, and ii) evaluating the potential impact of season of birth in the preceding thickness-PEs relationship. As both PEs and brain cortical features are heritable, the current work used monozygotic twins to separately evaluate familial and unique environmental factors. High-resolution structural MRI scans of 48 twins (24 monozygotic pairs) were analyzed to estimate cortical thickness using FreeSurfer. They were then examined in relation to PEs, accounting for the effects of birth season; putative differential relationships between PEs and cortical thickness depending on season of birth were also tested. Current results support previous findings indicative of cortical thickening in healthy individuals with high psychometrically assessed psychosis scores, probably in line with theories of compensatory aspects of brain features in non-clinical populations. Additionally, they suggest distinct patterns of cortical thickness-PEs relationships depending on birth seasonality. Familial factors underlying the presence of PEs may drive these effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hallucinations in the psychotic state: Psychoanalysis and the neurosciences compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Franco; Davalli, Cesare; Giustino, Gabriella; Pergami, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, which takes account of important findings in neuroscientific as well as psychoanalytic research, the authors explore the meaning of the deep-going distortions of psychic functioning occurring in hallucinatory phenomena. Neuroscientific studies have established that hallucinations distort the sense of reality owing to a complex alteration in the balance between top-down and bottom-up brain circuits. The present authors postulate that hallucinatory phenomena represent the outcome of a psychotic's distorted use of the mind over an extended period of time. In the hallucinatory state the psychotic part of the personality uses the mind to generate auto-induced sensations and to achieve a particular sort of regressive pleasure. In these cases, therefore, the mind is not used as an organ of knowledge or as an instrument for fostering relationships with others. The hallucinating psychotic decathects psychic (relational) reality and withdraws into a personal, bodily, and sensory space of his own. The opposing realities are not only external and internal but also psychic and sensory. Visual hallucinations could thus be said to originate from seeing with the 'eyes' of the mind, and auditory hallucinations from hearing with the mind's 'ears'. In these conditions, mental functioning is restricted, cutting out the more mature functions, which are thus no longer able to assign real meaning to the surrounding world and to the subject's psychic experience. The findings of the neurosciences facilitate understanding of how, in the psychotic hallucinatory process, the mind can modify the working of a somatic organ such as the brain. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. Cognitive changes in alcohol-induced psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Melany L.; R.A. Emsley; Nel, D.G.; Thornton, H B; Jordaan, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to explore the neuro-cognitive deficits of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder as compared to the cognitive deficits of uncomplicated alcohol dependence. Methods Participants were recruited from the acute psychiatric admission wards of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch and Stikland and Tygerberg Academic Hospitals in the Western-Cape, South Africa. Participants who met DSM IV TR criteria (American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical ...

  17. Homicide of Strangers by People with a Psychotic Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Nielssen, Olav; Bourget, Dominique; Laajasalo, Taina; Liem, Marieke; Labelle, Alain; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helina; Koenraadt, Frans; Large, Matthew M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as “stranger homicides,” are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close...

  18. Clozapine for treatment of aggression in non-psychotic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tarun; Kathpal, Archana; Demer, James

    2016-08-01

    Use of Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGAs) in children and adolescents has grown more significantly in recent years. Clozapine has shown good results for the treatment of aggression in adult population but no case has been reported about the use of clozapine for treatment of aggression in non-psychotic adolescents. We present cases of 2 adolescents in which clozapine was used primarily to treat their aggressive behavior and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ROLE OF CRP IN 50 ADULT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Shah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is generally characterised as a clustering of the abnormal levels of blood lipids (low HDL and high triglycerides, impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and excess abdominal obesity. The objectives of the study areTo evaluate presence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the study population of the patients with metabolic syndrome. To find out relation between Subclinical Hypothyroidism and different parameters of metabolic syndrome. To evaluate whether patients of metabolic syndrome with raised hs-CRP have an increased risk of having hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 adult patients who met with inclusion criteria were selected. Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS who fulfilled the NCEP-ATP III criteria: 3 out of 5 criteria positive. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions (e.g. lithium, amiodarone or γ-interferon were excluded from the study. RESULTS A total of 50 patients of metabolic syndrome were enrolled. Out of which 36 were euthyroid, 3 were overt hypothyroid and 11 were subclinical hypothyroid. Out of 11 patients of subclinical hypothyroidism, 9 were female and 2 were male patients. Out of 28 females, 9 (32% were SCH while out of 22 males, 2 (9% were SCH. Out of 50 patients, 3 were overt hypothyroid. All 3 patients had BP >130/85, waist circumference was >88 cm and HDL of 130/85, HDL 150 mg/dL and fasting blood glucose of >100 mg/dL were more associated with male patients. CONCLUSION Subclinical Hypothyroidism was present in 22% of study population and more so in females having metabolic syndrome (32%. Hence, it will be worthwhile to screen female metabolic syndrome patients for thyroid function abnormality. Abnormal blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were more associated with subclinical hypothyroidism

  20. Is There Any Effect on Smell and Taste Functions with Levothyroxine Treatment in Subclinical Hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoy, Kamil; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Altundag, Aytug; Kurt, Onuralp; Salihoglu, Murat; Deniz, Ferhat; Tekeli, Hakan; Yonem, Arif; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been accused for coronary heart disease, lipid metabolism disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, infertility or pregnancy related problems with various strength of evidence. Currently there is insufficient knowledge about olfaction and taste functions in subclinical hypothyroidism. Aim of the present study is to investigate the degree of smell and taste dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. 28 subclinical hypothyroid patients, and 31 controls enrolled in the prospective study in Istanbul, Turkey. Subclinical hypothyroid patients were treated with L-thyroxine for 3 months. Psychophysiological olfactory testing was performed using odor dispensers similar to felt-tip pens ("Sniffin' Sticks", Burghart, Wedel, Germany). Taste function tests were made using "Taste Strips" (Burghart, Wedel, Germany) which are basically tastant adsorbed filter paper strip. Patients scored lower on psychophysical olfactory tests than controls (odor thresholds:8.1±1.0 vs 8.9±1.1, p = 0.007; odor discrimination:12.4±1.3 vs 13.1±0.9, p = 0.016; odor identification:13.1±0.9 vs 14.0±1.1, p = 0.001; TDI score: 33.8±2.4 vs 36.9±2.1, p = 0.001). In contrast, results from psychophysical gustatory tests showed only a decreased score for "bitter" in patients, but not for other tastes (5.9±1.8 vs 6.6±1.0, p = 0.045). Three month after onset of treatment olfactory test scores already indicated improvement (odor thresholds:8.1±1.0 vs 8.6±0.6, psmell and taste, with thyroid function test were also evaluated. TSH, fT4 were found have no correlation with smell and taste changes with treatment. However bitter taste found positively correlated with T3 with treatment(r: 0.445, p: 0.018). Subclinical hypothyroid patients exhibited a significantly decreased olfactory sensitivity; in addition, bitter taste was significantly affected. Most importantly, these deficits can be remedied on average within 3 months with adequate treatment.

  1. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (pmilk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.

  2. Psychotic denial of pregnancy: legal and treatment considerations for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Melissa; Bender, H Eric; Street, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the legal questions raised by the involuntary medical and psychiatric treatment of a patient with psychotic denial of pregnancy. A case is presented, and psychotic denial of pregnancy is defined. Legal cases are reviewed that set precedent for state intervention on behalf of either the pregnant mother or the fetus when the mother refuses care. Included are specific cases that have a bearing on the rights of pregnant women with co-morbid mental illness. A distinction is made between cases in which the mother is competent versus incompetent to make treatment decisions, and particular attention is paid to California law. The authors conducted systematic Westlaw and LexisNexis searches of relevant case law and legal precedent. Laws that address the rights of pregnant women are complex, and courts have allowed medical interventions against objection in cases of both competent and incompetent mothers. No clear legal precedent was found to guide decision-making in the specific case of a woman with psychotic denial of pregnancy. The principles of substituted judgment and best interest may help guide clinicians in making decisions about the treatment of pregnant patients in the absence of clear legal precedent.

  3. Adult onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease with psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-López, Pilar; Pérez-García, Rosa; Sanguino-Andrés, Rosa; González-Pablos, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare neurological disorder characterized by pyramidal and extrapyramidal manifestations, dysarthria and dementia. Its onset is usually in childhood and most patients have a fatal outcome in few years. A high percentage of cases are hereditary with a recessive autosomal pattern. In the majority of the patients reported, a mutation of the gene that encodes the pantothenate kinase (PANK2) located in the 20p13-p12.3 chromosome that causes iron storage in the basal ganglia of the brain has been found. Its diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms as well as specific MRI imaging findings. The most common psychiatric features are cognitive impairment as well as depressive symptoms. There are few documented cases with psychotic disorders. We present the case of a patient with late onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease and psychotic symptoms that preceded the development of neurological manifestations. The pathophysiology and the treatment of psychotic symptomatology are presented and discussed. Key words: Psicosis, Hallervorden-Spatz, late onset, Basal ganglia.

  4. The attribution of psychotic symptoms to jinn in Islamic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anastasia; Hoek, Hans W; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2015-02-01

    Patients with an Islamic background who suffer from hallucinations or other psychotic symptoms may attribute these experiences to jinn (i.e., invisible spirits). In this paper, we review the medical literature on jinn as an explanatory model in the context of psychotic disorders. We conducted a systematic search for papers on jinn and psychosis in Pubmed, EMBASE, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases. Our search yielded 105 scientific texts on jinn and their relationship with mental disorders, including 47 case reports. Among the case reports a definite biomedical diagnosis was provided in 66% of the cases, of which 45.2% involved a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Fully 10 of 16 hallucinating patients experienced multimodal hallucinations. Although infrequently documented in the biomedical literature, the attribution of psychiatric symptoms to jinn appears to be quite common among Islamic patients, and to have significant impact on the diagnosis, treatment, and course of mental disorders, particularly psychotic disorders. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Psychotic disorders in DSM-5 and ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Falko; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2013, and the Work Group on the Classification of Psychotic disorders (WGPD), installed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is expected to publish the new chapter about schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders in 2017. We reviewed the available literature to summarize the major changes, innovations, and developments of both manuals. If available and possible, we outline the theoretical background behind these changes. Due to the fact that the development of ICD-11 has not yet been completed, the details about ICD-11 are still proposals under ongoing revision. In this ongoing process, they may be revised and therefore have to be seen as proposals. DSM-5 has eliminated schizophrenia subtypes and replaced them with a dimensional approach based on symptom assessments. ICD-11 will most likely go in a similar direction, as both manuals are planned to be more harmonized, although some differences will remain in details and the conceptual orientation. Next to these modifications, ICD-11 will provide a transsectional diagnostic criterion for schizoaffective disorders and a reorganization of acute and transient psychotic and delusional disorders. In this manuscript, we will compare the 2 classification systems.

  6. [Analysis of the Structure of Acute Psychotic Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, Téllez R; Ricardo, Sánchez P; Luis, Eduardo Jaramillo

    2012-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. A multifactorial structure of this syndrome has been described in previous reports. The aim of this study was to evaluate what are the possible diagnostic categories in patients having acute psychotic symptoms, studying their clinical characteristics in a cross-sectional study. An instrument for measuring psychotic symptoms was created using previous scales (SANS, SAPS, BPRS, EMUN, Zung depression scale). Using as criteria statistical indexes and redundance of items, the initial instrument having 101 items has been reduced to 57 items. 232 patients with acute psychotic symptoms, in most cases schizophrenia, attending Clínica Nuestra Señora de la Paz in Bogotá and Hospital San Juan de Dios in Chía have been evaluated from April, 2008 to December, 2009. Multivariate statistical methods have been used for analyzing data. A six-factor structure has been found (Deficit, paranoid-aggressive, disorganized, depressive, bizarre delusions, hallucinations). Cluster analysis showed eight subtypes that can be described as: 1) bizarre delusions-hallucinations; 2) deterioration and disorganized behavior; 3) deterioration; 4) deterioration and paranoid-aggressive behavior; 5) bizarre delusions; 6) paranoia-anxiety- aggressiveness; 7) depressive symptoms and bizarre delusions; 8) paranoia and aggressiveness with depressive symptoms These subtypes allow a more exhaustive characterization that those included in standard classification schemes and should be validated in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Offence characteristics of psychotic men who sexually assault women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A D

    2000-07-01

    Very little is known about the nature of serious sex offences against women by psychotic men. This study aimed to examine such offences by carrying out a search of Home Office records for all 80 male restricted hospital order in-patients with schizophrenia, resident in any hospital in England and Wales during May 1997, with an index conviction for a contact sex offence against a woman, committed whilst psychotic. Offences peaked in the afternoon, but were proportionally distributed according to day and month. Most (47/59%) offences occurred indoors, with over half of these in the victim's home. Assailants were strangers in 49 (61%) offences. Offences involving strangers were more likely to occur outdoors and without any preceding social interaction compared to those involving assailants known to their victims. Offenders' speech tended to be impersonal, with little attempt at intimacy. Offence sexual behaviours were: breast/genital fondling 63 (79%), vaginal intercourse 42 (52%), fellatio eight (10%), anal intercourse seven (9%), and cunnilingus six (8%). Excessive violence or bizarre behaviour occurred in a minority of offences. The findings are discussed with reference to the literature on sex offences by men without mental illness. The data do not support anecdotal or popular images that most psychotic sex attackers behave in an exceptionally violent or bizarre manner.

  8. Inflammation theories in psychotic disorders: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana; Mantere, Outi

    2013-02-01

    Recent research suggests that inflammation and immunity may have a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. There is evidence of proinflammatory activation of the innate immune system and an activation of the T-cells of the adaptive immune system in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Studies of antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis have found that inflammation is present already at this stage. Some of these abnormalities resolve after the initiation of treatment, suggesting that they are state markers of acute psychosis, but other abnormalities persist. There is also evidence for prenatal infections being involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several hypotheses link inflammation and immunity with psychotic disorders. In this review, we focus on hypotheses related to prenatal development, disturbed regulation of neurogenesis, microglial activation, autoimmunity and microbial environment, and consider the potential confounding effects related to stress, childhood adversities, lifestyle and medical comorbidity as well as some methodological limitations. We also review the current evidence for the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory medication in the treatment of psychotic disorders.

  9. Genetic moderation of the effects of cannabis: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) affects the impact of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on working memory performance but not on the occurrence of psychotic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Stumpenhorst, Katharina; Harrison, Paul J; Morrison, Paul D; Freeman, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use can induce cognitive impairments and psychotic experiences. A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val(158)Met) appears to influence the immediate cognitive and psychotic effects of cannabis, or ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its primary psychoactive ingredient. This study investigated the moderation of the impact of experimentally administered THC by COMT. Cognitive performance and psychotic experiences were studied in participants without a psychiatric diagnosis, using a between-subjects design (THC vs. placebo). The effect of COMT Val(158)Met genotype on the cognitive and psychotic effects of THC, administered intravenously in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner to 78 participants who were vulnerable to paranoia, was examined. The results showed interactive effects of genotype and drug group (THC or placebo) on working memory, assayed using the Digit Span Backwards task. Specifically, THC impaired performance in COMT Val/Val, but not Met, carriers. In contrast, the effect of THC on psychotic experiences, measured using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) positive dimension, was unaffected by COMT genotype. This study is the largest to date examining the impact of COMT genotype on response to experimentally administered THC, and the first using a purely non-clinical cohort. The data suggest that COMT genotype moderates the cognitive, but not the psychotic, effects of acutely administered THC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Psychotic experiences are linked to cannabis use in adolescents in the community because of common underlying environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M.S.; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27–54%), unique environmental influences (E=12–50%) and little common environmental influences (11–20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69–100%, bivariate unique environment=28–31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2–5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to ‘travel together’. PMID:25912376

  11. Psychotic experiences are linked to cannabis use in adolescents in the community because of common underlying environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M S; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-06-30

    Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27-54%), unique environmental influences (E=12-50%) and little common environmental influences (11-20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69-100%, bivariate unique environment=28-31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2-5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to 'travel together'. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  13. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens Christian

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (pobese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity.

  14. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L was 5d. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 5 DIM were 6.1 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 to 16.0] to develop a DA than cows first testing SCK positive at 6 DIM or later. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 7 DIM were 4.5 times more likely (95% CI = 1.7 to 11.7) to be removed from the herd, were 0.7 times as likely (95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8) to conceive to first service, and produced 2.2 kg less milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1

  15. Use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Lívia Helena; de Souza, José Carlos Pereira; de Lima, Carlos José; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Andreani, Dora Inés Kozusny; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Zângaro, Renato Amaro

    2017-12-16

    Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes a severe drawback in dairy production. Conventional treatments with antibiotic could leave antibiotic residues in the milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis to develop an in vivo therapeutic protocol that could be used in routine farm practice, favoring the early return to production. Forty cows with subclinical mastitis (n = 40) were divided into 4 groups (control, photodynamic therapy - PDT, light irradiation - LED, and photosensitizer - PS). Control group received no treatment, PDT group received application of 1.0 mL of 2.5% toluidine blue photosensitizer followed by LED irradiation at λ = 635 nm, the LED group was treated with LED irradiation alone, and the PS group received only 2.5% toluidine blue dye. LED irradiation was applied to the mammary gland by means of an acrylic light guide coupled to the LED equipment. The PDT and LED groups were irradiated with 200 J/cm 2 at three different positions inside the mammary gland. Milk samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h after treatment for microbial identification and total bacterial count. The treatment of the PDT group showed significant difference p subclinical bovine mastitis. There was no need to separate the animal from production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Characterization of intravascular cellular activation in relationship to subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Garovic, Vesna D; Mielke, Michelle M; Bailey, Kent R; Lahr, Brian D; Miller, Virginia M

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms and interactions among intravascular cells contributing to development of subclinical atherosclerosis are poorly understood. In women, both menopausal status and pregnancy history influence progression of atherosclerosis. This study examined activation and interactions among blood elements with subclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with known pregnancy histories. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, was measured using B-mode ultrasound in age- and parity-matched women [40 with and 40 without a history of preeclampsia] 35 years after the index pregnancy. Interactions among intravascular cells (38 parameters) were measured by flow cytometry in venous blood. Data analysis was by principal component which retained 7 independent dimensions accounting for 63% of the variability among 38 parameters. CIMT was significantly greater in women with a history of preeclampsia (P = 0.004). Platelet aggregation and platelet interactions with granulocytes and monocytes positively associated with CIMT in postmenopausal women independent of their pregnancy history (ρ = 0.258, Psubclinical atherosclerosis differ in women depending upon their pregnancy histories.

  17. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Maizon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii more than 750,000 somatic cells. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to assess the significance of LGB genotypes on MTB and MTC. The LGB genotypes significantly affected MTB (p=0.0387, and showed a tendency on MTC (p=0.1104. Least square means showed that in the analysis for MTB, individuals with genotypes BB and AB had a higher frequency of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the least square differences showed that the incidence was significantly higher in BB ewes than in AA ewes (p<0.001, and a tendency of a higher incidence among AB ewes than in AA ewes (p=0.0630. In conclusion, the results of this work show that LGB genotype BB seems to be less favourable in terms of mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep breed.

  18. Relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and serum homocysteine concentration in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Aydoğdu Çolak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study we aimed to examine serum homocysteinelevels of patients without thyroid dysfunctionswho have high serum anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPOlevels and patients with subclinical hypothyroidism whohave high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH andanti-TPO levels.Methods: One hundred and seven premenopause femaleoutpatients who referred to endocrine clinic of our hospitalwere included in our study. We generated 3 groups. Firstgroup (Control consists of 53 (50% patients between theages of 30-40 years. Second group (Euthyroid consistsof 31 (29% patients between the ages of 26-49. Thirdgroup (Subclinical Hypothyroidism consists of 23 (21%patients between the ages of 33-53 years. Serum totalcholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDLlevels were measured by Olympus 2700 autoanalyzer.Serum TSH, free T4, anti-TPO and homocysteine levelswere measured by Siemens Immulite 2000 autoanalyzer.Results: In our study, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL levels were not statistically significantly differentamong the groups. Although serum homocysteine levelsof the third group were higher than the other groups it wasnot statistically significantly different among the groups.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine and lipid levels of patientswith euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidismwho have positive anti-TPO levels may be inadequate inassessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 293-297Key words: Hypothyroidsm, homocysteine, premenopause

  19. Fluvoxamine monotherapy for psychotic depression: the potential role of sigma-1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto Kenji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic depression is a clinical subtype of major depressive disorder. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of an antidepressant (for example, a tricyclic antidepressant or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI and an atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy in treating psychotic depression. In some cases, the clinician or patient may prefer to avoid antipsychotic drugs altogether because of the risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS in patients with psychotic depression treated with these drugs. Methods We report five cases where fluvoxamine monotherapy was effective in the patients with psychotic depression. Results The scores on the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS in the five patients with psychotic depression were reduced after fluvoxamine monotherapy. Conclusion Doctors should consider fluvoxamine monotherapy as an alternative approach in treating psychotic depression because it avoids the risk of EPS from antipsychotic drugs.

  20. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arnab; Guha, Chanchal; Biswas, Ujjwal; Jana, Partha Sarathi; Chatterjee, Amaresh; Samanta, Indranil

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bla CTX-M , bla TEM , bla SHV , bla VIM , tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter) were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50) were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, bla CTX-M was detected in 18 (36%) isolates, and 6 (12%) harbored bla TEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried bla SHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10%) isolates harbored tet(A) gene, and 8 (16%) isolates carried tet(B) gene. No tet(C) gene was detected from the isolates. This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  1. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaVIM, tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. Results: In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50 were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, blaCTX-M was detected in 18 (36% isolates, and 6 (12% harbored blaTEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried blaSHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10% isolates harbored tet(A gene, and 8 (16% isolates carried tet(B gene. No tet(C gene was detected from the isolates. Conclusion: This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  2. Should Subclinical Hypothyroidism Be an Exclusion Criterion for the Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas; Yamamoto, Márcia Marly Winck; de-Medeiros, Matheus Antônio Souto; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva; Norman, Robert John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) should be excluded before making a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Seven hundred sixteen patients, 462 with true PCOS, 31 with PCOS-SCH, and 223 normal cycling women were enrolled. Clinical, metabolic, and hormonal parameters among the groups were investigated. Continuous variables were compared by one-way analysis of variance. Proportions were compared using Z test. Fisher test was used to compare categorical variables. Simple correlation was performed using Spearman's coefficient. Correlation between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and dependent variables were performed using backward multiple regression. The significance level was set at 0.05. True polycystic ovary and polycystic ovary with subclinical hypothyroidism patients presented similar anthropometrical parameters. C-peptide was higher in polycystic ovary patients than in the other groups (p=0.014). Prevalence of glucose intolerance (p=0.186) and insulin resistance (p=0.293) was not statistically different in polycystic ovary and polycystic ovary with subclinical hypothyroidism. TSH levels showed positive correlation with lean body mass (p=0.032), total cholesterol (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.048) and prolactin (p=0.047). Backward multiple regression model retained TC, insulin, and PRL as predictors of TSH levels (p=0.011). Anthropometric parameters and ovary morphology were similar in both PCOS and PCOS-with-SCH patients. Regarding hormones, only C-peptide was higher in PCOS group. TSH correlated with total cholesterol, insulin, and prolactin. Before PCOS diagnosis, the exclusion criterion thyroid dysfunction should be standardized and subclinical hypothyroidism should not exclude a diagnosis of PCOS.

  3. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which...... adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... Depression Scale 15 (GDS) at baseline and after 3 years. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender and education. RESULTS: Among 606 participants (41% women, mean age 75 years) without anti-depressant medication, GDS scores at baseline did not differ for participants with subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 47...

  5. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo SH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.Keywords: suicidal behavior, subclinical hyperthyroidism, anxiolytics

  6. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical and transcatheter bioprosthetic aortic valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Tarun; Søndergaard, Lars; Friedman, John

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subclinical leaflet thrombosis of bioprosthetic aortic valves after transcatheter valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been found with CT imaging. The objective of this study was to report the prevalence of subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical...... and transcatheter aortic valves and the effect of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) on the subclinical leaflet thrombosis and subsequent valve haemodynamics and clinical outcomes on the basis of two registries of patients who had CT imaging done after TAVR or SAVR. METHODS: Patients enrolled between Dec 22, 2014......, and Jan 18, 2017, in the RESOLVE registry, and between June 2, 2014, and Sept 28, 2016, in the SAVORY registry, had CT imaging done with a dedicated four-dimensional volume-rendered imaging protocol at varying intervals after TAVR and SAVR. We defined subclinical leaflet thrombosis as the presence...

  7. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  8. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH...

  9. Subclinical Measures of Atherosclerosis: Genetics and Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kavousi (Maryam)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, systematic condition with a long asymptomatic phase. Atherosclerosis develops gradually as a subclinical condition over the life course and eventually becomes clinically apparent as ischemic heart disease,

  10. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Jensen, Mette; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2011-01-01

    In our clinical work, we treat refugees who have been exposed to trauma and who subsequently develop psychotic symptoms. However, the literature does not address the relationship between refugees with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms. Therefore the aim...... of this study is firstly to present a series of cases showing how psychotic symptoms may present in refugees diagnosed with PTSD, and secondly to discuss the underlying explanations of the involved psychopathology....

  11. EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS AT THE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL ''SVETI IVAN

    OpenAIRE

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Mihanović, Mate; Grah, Majda; Molnar, Sven; Bogović, Anamarija; Agius, Mark; Kezić, Slobodanka; Grošić, Vladimir; Mayer, Nina; Svrdlin, Pero; Dominis, Vesna; Goršić, Lada; Kamerman, Nenad; Pavlović, Irena; Švagelj, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The Early intervention program for the first episodes of psychotic disorders (RIPEPP) at the Psychiatric Hospital “Sveti Ivan“ in Zagreb encompasses patients hospitalized due to various psychoses (acute psychotic disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective and delusional disorder, bipolar affective disorder with psychotic symptoms) in the “critical period“ of illness, i.e. within five years after the occurrence of the first symptoms. The RIPEPP Program consists of an in- and out-patient...

  12. The use of Na+ and K+ ion concentrations as potential diagnostic indicators of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahid Haron

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ ions in milk of lactating dairy cows with and without subclinical mastitis as putative indicators for detecting subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven lactating dairy cows were screened for the evidence of subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT. The lactating dairy cows were categorized as CMT-Positive (CMT-P; n=20 and CMT-Negative (CMT-N; n=17 based on whether they were positive or negative for CMT using a standard kit. The CMT-P lactating dairy cows were further sub divided into subclinical 1+ (S1+; n=6, subclinical 2+ (S2+; n=9, and subclinical 3+(S3+; n=5. Direct microscopy somatic cell count (SCC was used to determine the SCC using Wright’s stain. The samples were filtered and diluted at 1:100 dilutions before being measured for the concentrations of Na+ and K+ using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in SCCs and Na+ concentration in the milk of CMT-P dairy cows, with a mean Log10 SCC score of 5.35±0.06 cells/ml and mean Na+ concentration of 232±19.1 mg/dL. However, there was a significant reduction (p<0.05 in the concentration of K+ (123±7.6 mg/dL in the milk samples of the CMT-P cows. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in SCC, Na+ and K+ concentrations between milk samples from the CMT-N dairy cows and CMT-P subgroups; S1+, S2+, and S3+ respectively. Potassium (K+ concentration had a significant strong negative correlation with sodium (Na+ concentration (r=−0.688; p<0.01 and weak positive correlation with SCC (r=−0.436; p<0.01. The sensitivity of using Na+ and K+ concentrations as detection indices for sub-clinical mastitis is 40% and 90%, respectively, while the specificity of each was 100%. Conclusion: This study thus shows that evaluation of Na+ and K+ concentrations from milk samples of dairy cows with sub clinical mastitis

  13. Childhood Trauma and Children's Emerging Psychotic Symptoms: A Genetically Sensitive Longitudinal Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arseneault, Louise; Cannon, Mary; Fisher, Helen L; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Using longitudinal and prospective measures of trauma during childhood, the authors assessed the risk of developing psychotic symptoms associated with maltreatment, bullying, and accidents...

  14. Onychomycosis is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onalan, Orhan; Adar, Adem; Keles, Hakan; Ertugrul, Goksen; Ozkan, Nurhayat; Aktas, Habibullah; Karakaya, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of toenail onychomycosis with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Consecutive diabetic patients who were seen at our outpatient clinic were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was assessed and toenail onychomycosis was diagnosed with microscopic evaluation. We investigated 127 patients with diabetes melltus type 2. Overall, the prevalence of toenail onychomycosis was 37.8 % (48 of 127). Of the 127 patients, 60 (47.2 %) had subclinical atherosclerosis (CIMT ≥ 1 mm). Prevalence of male gender (43.3 % vs. 22.4 %, p = 0.012) and onychomycosis (53.3 % vs. 23.9 %, p = 0.001) was significantly higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. Among biochemical parameters, low-density lipoprotein (122 ± 38 mg/dL vs. 108 ± 36 mg/dL, p = 0.039) and glycosylated hemoglobin levels (median 8.4 %, IQR: 2.1 % vs. median 7.5 %, IQR: 1.6 %, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. Study groups were similar with respect to all other demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters. After adjustment for all potential confounders, the presence of onychomycosis was independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (OR 2.77, 95 % CI 1.16 to 6.30) in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of onychomycosis in patients with diabetes is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Onychomycosis may be a marker of atherosclerotic arterial involvement.

  15. Assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Stijn C H; ten Kate, Gerrit L; Akkus, Zeynettin; Renaud, Guillaume; Sijbrands, Eric J G; ten Cate, Folkert J; van der Lugt, Aad; Bosch, Johan G; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of standard carotid ultrasound and colour Doppler for the detection of subclinical atherosclerotic plaques is suboptimal. The aim of this study is to assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) added to standard carotid ultrasound improves the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement, standard carotid ultrasound including colour Doppler imaging, and CEUS were performed in 100 asymptomatic patients with one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis. CEUS was performed using intravenous administration of SonoVue™ contrast agent (Bracco S.p.A., Milan, Italy). CIMT, standard ultrasound, colour Doppler, and CEUS were reviewed by two independent observers. Standard ultrasound, colour Doppler, and CEUS were scored for the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Subclinical atherosclerosis was diagnosed if patients had a CIMT above their age-corrected threshold value or if atherosclerotic plaques were present on standard carotid ultrasound clips or CEUS clips. McNemar's test was performed to compare between groups. Twenty-one patients (21%) had a thickened CIMT value and were considered to have subclinical atherosclerosis. Standard carotid ultrasound including colour Doppler demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques in 77 patients (77%). The addition of CEUS to the standard ultrasound protocol demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques in 88 patients (88%). The incorporation of CEUS into the standard carotid ultrasound protocol resulted in a significantly improved detection of patients with subclinical atherosclerosis (P subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Atherosclerotic plaques which were only detected with CEUS and not with standard carotid ultrasound and colour Doppler imaging were predominantly hypoechoic.

  16. Subclinical cardiovascular disease assessment and its relationship with cardiovascular risk SCORE in a healthy adult population: A cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, Ovidiu; Roca, Mihai; Floria, Mariana; Petris, Antoniu Octavian; Graur, Mariana; Mitu, Florin

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship and the accuracy of SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project) risk correlated to multiple methods for determining subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a healthy population. This cross-sectional study included 120 completely asymptomatic subjects, with an age range 35-75 years, and randomly selected from the general population. The individuals were evaluated clinically and biochemical, and the SCORE risk was computed. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by various methods: carotid ultrasound for intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque detection; aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV); echocardiography - left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and aortic atheromatosis (AA); ankle-brachial index (ABI). SCORE mean value was 2.95±2.71, with 76% of subjects having SCORE <5. Sixty-four percent of all subjects have had increased subclinical CVD changes, and SCORE risk score was correlated positively with all markers, except for ABI. In the multivariate analysis, increased cIMT and aPWV were significantly associated with high value of SCORE risk (OR 4.14, 95% CI: 1.42-12.15, p=0.009; respectively OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01-1.96, p=0.039). A positive linear relationship was observed between 3 territories of subclinical CVD (cIMT, LVMI, aPWV) and SCORE risk (p<0.0001). There was evidence of subclinical CVD in 60% of subjects with a SCORE value <5. As most subjects with a SCORE value <5 have subclinical CVD abnormalities, a more tailored subclinical CVD primary prevention program should be encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesity, subclinical myocardial injury, and incident heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumele, Chiadi E; Coresh, Josef; Lazo, Mariana; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Blumenthal, Roger S; Folsom, Aaron R; Selvin, Elizabeth; Ballantyne, Christie M; Nambi, Vijay

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to evaluate the association of obesity with a novel biomarker of subclinical myocardial injury, cardiac troponin T measured with a new high-sensitivity assay (hs-cTnT), among adults without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Laboratory evidence suggests a relationship between obesity and myocardial injury that may play a role in the development of heart failure (HF), but there is limited clinical data regarding this association. We evaluated 9,507 participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study without baseline CVD (Visit 4, 1996 to 1999). We assessed the cross-sectional association of body mass index (BMI) with high (≥14 ng/l) and measurable (≥3 ng/l) hs-cTnT levels after multivariable regression. We further evaluated the independent and combined associations of BMI and hs-cTnT with incident HF. Higher BMI was independently associated with a positive, linear increase in the likelihood of high hs-cTnT, with severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m(2)) associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.59 to 3.06) for high hs-cTnT after adjustment. Over 12 years of follow-up, there were 869 incident HF events. Obesity and hs-cTnT were both independently associated with incident HF, and individuals with severe obesity and high hs-cTnT had a greater than 9-fold higher risk of incident HF (hazard ratio: 9.20 [95% confidence interval: 5.67 to 14.93]) than individuals with normal weight and undetectable hs-cTnT. Among individuals without CVD, higher BMI has an independent, linear association with subclinical myocardial injury, as assessed by hs-cTnT levels. Obesity and hs-cTnT provide independent and complementary prognostic information regarding the risk of incident HF. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 70. Epicardial fat quality effect on subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abazid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epicardial fat quality measured as Hounsfield Unit (HU by computed tomography has significant impact on atherosclerosis. Excessive epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is considered a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. There are limited data, however, about the quality of epicardial fat as a CAD risk factor. We investigated the relation between EAT volume and quality and subclinical CAD defined by positive coronary artery calcification (CAC using computed tomography (CT. We reviewed 609 CT scans to assess the EAT volume, which was measured by manually tracing the parietal pericardial sac on axial images. Fat density was recorded in mean Hounsfield units (HU. Coronary calcium scores were measured using the Agatston method. The patients’ mean age was 50 ± 11 years, and 398 (65.4% were men. The mean EAT volume was 65 ± 27 cm3, and it had a density of 87.0 ± 3.4 HU. Calcium was present in 135 (22% of the patients: 97 (16% of the total were men and 38 (6% were women. There was no difference between the sexes in regard to EAT volume (66 ± 27 vs. 63 ± 26, p = 0.34 or density (87.4 ± 3.2 vs. 87.0 ± 3.6, p = 0.28. Obese patients (body mass index ⩾30 kg/m2 had significantly higher EAT volumes than nonobese patients (73 ± 30 vs. 61 ± 29, p = 0.011, but no difference was seen in CAC (33 ± 97 vs. 27 ± 103, p = 0.34 or fat density (87.7 ± 4.0 vs. 88.0 ± 2.7, p = 0.48. Univariate regression analyses showed that higher fat attenuation (HU was associated with a lower coronary atherosclerosis hazard ratio (HR (0.871, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.790–0.948, p < 0.0001, and an increased EAT volume was associated with more CAC (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.078–1.245, p = 0.0001. The quality of EAT, measured as HU on CT, is a strong predictor of subclinical CAD as defined by coronary artery calcifications, with a higher HU associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis.

  19. Plasma IL-5 concentration and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Angela; McLeod, Olga; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Gertow, Karl; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Deleskog, Anna; Persson, Jonas; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Gustafsson, Sven; Söderberg, Stefan; Öhrvik, John; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genetic variants robustly associated with coronary artery disease were reported in the vicinity of the interleukin (IL)-5 locus, and animal studies suggested a protective role for IL-5 in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we set this work to explore IL-5 as a plasma biomarker for early subclinical atherosclerosis, as determined by measures of baseline severity and change over time of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods We used biobank and databases of IMPROVE, a large European prospective cohort study of high-risk individuals (n = 3534) free of clinically overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, in whom composite and segment-specific measures of cIMT were recorded at baseline and after 15 and 30 months. IL-5 was measured with an immunoassay in plasma samples taken at baseline. Results IL-5 levels were lower in women than in men, lower in the South than in North of Europe, and showed positive correlations with most established risk factors. IL-5 showed significant inverse relationships with cIMT change over time in the common carotid segment in women, but no significant relationships to baseline cIMT in either men or women. Conclusions Our results suggest that IL-5 may be part of protective mechanisms operating in early atherosclerosis, at least in women. However, the relationships are weak and whereas IL-5 has been proposed as a potential molecular target to treat allergies, it is difficult to envisage such a scenario in coronary artery disease. PMID:25587992

  20. Psychotic-like experiences in help-seeking adolescents: Dimensional exploration and association with different forms of bullying victimization - A developmental social psychiatry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catone, Gennaro; Marotta, Roberta; Pisano, Simone; Lennox, Belinda; Carotenuto, Marco; Gritti, Antonella; Pascotto, Antonio; Broome, Matthew R

    2017-12-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are common in the general population and increase the risk of psychotic disorders. Adolescents are a high-risk group of this condition. Stressful events, such as bullying, have a role in the onset of PLEs. This study has several aims: (1) to assess PLEs in adolescents seeking help from a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service, (2) to assess the association of PLEs with specific bullying victimization and (3) to assess difference in PLEs and victimizations by sex and age. Participants were help-seeking (HS) adolescents initially screened for PLEs. They completed an assessment including characteristics of PLEs and bullying victimization. We paid particular attention to different kinds of PLEs and victimization. In total, 50 PLE-positive adolescents screened from 324 HS adolescents (15.4%) constituted the sample. Paranoia and verbal bullying were the PLEs and form of victimization most represented, respectively. Verbal bullying was strongly associated with paranoia (odds ratio (OR): 4.40, confidence interval (CI): 2.8-5.9, p bullying with grandiosity. Verbal bullying was also associated with psychotic negative symptoms, but controlling for emotional symptoms and other victimization led to a reduction in the effect. Men were more involved in physical victimization and experienced grandiosity; on the contrary, late adolescents were most involved in social victimization and negative psychotic symptoms Conclusion: PLEs are relevant in HS adolescents. Bullying victimization interacts with the onset of these phenomena. In particular, verbal bullying predicted paranoia onset significantly.

  1. [Clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoantibody before 20 weeks pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaowei; Li, Min; Chu, Defa; Liang, Lin; Zhao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Junrong

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the relationship between clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism and positive thyroid autoantibody before 20 weeks pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Literature search was done in PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang Medical Database, China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database and China Biology Medicine disc databases from January 1st, 1980 to December 31th, 2013. The following search terms were used:hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinnism, thyroid antibody, preterm labor, preterm birth, etc. (1) Criteria for inclusion:cohort studies and clinical studies were included; only articles that described at least 10 patients were eligible;the exposure was clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism and positive thyroid autoantihody, and outcome was preterm birth. (2) The excluded subjects were articles that described less than 10 patients; controls were pregnant women without eurothyrodisim. Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5. The relationship between clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism and positive thyroid autoantibody and risk of preterm birth was evaluated by OR or RR. (1) Twenty cohort studies were enrolled. A total of 39 596 cases of preterm birth occurred among 498 418 pregnant women. The controls in these studies were pregnant women with eurothyrodisim. (2) Clinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: eight studies were included, reported data on 478 418 pregnant women (5 473 women with clinical hypothyroidism and 472 945 euthyroid pregnant women). The risk of preterm birth in pregnant women with clinical hypothyroidism was higher than those eurothyroid pregnant women in control group (OR = 1.25, 95% CI:1.15-1.36, P hypothyroidism in pregnancy: ten studies were included, reported data on 277 531 pregnant women (5 257 women with subclinical hypothyroidism and 272 274 euthyroid pregnant women). The risk of preterm birth in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism was higher than those in control group by random effects analysis (OR = 1

  2. Subclinical cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with low/medium cardiovascular risk by the Framingham risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Maria Augusta; Franz, Roberta Fernandez; Metzdorf, Marcela; da Silva, Thais Rasia; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its association with clinical and hormone variables in postmenopausal women from Southern Brazil. Cross-sectional study. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) assessed by electron-beam computed tomography. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and atheromatous plaques assessed using B-mode ultrasound. IMT was measured at three segments. Subclinical CVD was defined as the presence of plaque and/or IMT >0.9 mm. Ninety-seven postmenopausal women (mean age 55 ± 5 years, median duration of menopause 5.8 [3-10] years) were studied. A low/medium Framingham risk score (FRS) was present in 97.9% of participants; 35.1% had subclinical CVD on carotid ultrasound, and 24.7% had the presence of plaque. Seven women had a CAC score ≥ 100, and two had a score ≥ 200. CAC score (p<0.001) and FRS (p=0.013) were higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. Positive correlations were found between IMT and age (rs=0.293 p=0.004), duration of menopause (rs=0.237, p=0.020), and CAC score (rs=0.468, p<0.001). Common carotid IMT (IMT-CC) was negatively associated with estradiol levels (β=-0.237, p=0.018) and positively with age (β=0.210, p=0.033), and BMI (β=0.260, p=0.010). However, correlations with estradiol and age did not remain significant when adjusted for systolic blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol levels. A high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was detected in this sample of postmenopausal women with low/medium CV risk by the FRS. The association between IMT-CC and age or endogenous estrogen levels was dependent of blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol in these postmenopausal women from Southern Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

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    Mukti Barua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.

  4. Shared Psychotic Disorder (Folie à Deux in Turkey

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    Buket Cinemre

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Shared psychotic disorder or folie à deux is a rare and relatively unknown syndrome. Large case series are needed to find out and clarify the etiological factors and the phenomenology of shared psychotic disorder by comparing the cases from different society and cultures. In this study, we reviewed all reported cases of shared psychotic disorder that had been published or presented in Turkey since 1962. To reach this aim, we have searched Pubmed/Medline, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Ulakbim Turkish Medical Index, Turkish Psychiatric Index databases for published records originating from Turkey. We have also manually searched poster abstract books of congresses held in Turkey between 1962 and 2009. All cases eligible for inclusion into this study have been evaluated one by one and grouped as primary or secondary cases. The features of these cases were investigated for a number of variables including age, sex, educational level, occupation, the presence of shared delusion and hallucinations, diagnosis, management, onset of illness, family history, IQ, social isolation, the nature of the relationship and classification system used for diagnosis. The results have showed that the syndrome is more frequently observed among women, within same family members and between sisters. Social isolation was the most common risk factor in these patients and most patients shared hallucinations with their partners along with their delusions. Several secondary cases required antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of their symptoms. Though these features were inline with literature findings, the present findings from Turkish population were different from previous studies with regards to the presence of olfactory hallucinations, absence of grandiose delusions and the number of affected family members. The results mostly supported the challenges and discussions in western countries. To understand this most pathological form of interpersonal relationships

  5. Homicide of Strangers by People with a Psychotic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielssen, Olav; Bourget, Dominique; Laajasalo, Taina; Liem, Marieke; Labelle, Alain; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helina; Koenraadt, Frans; Large, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as “stranger homicides,” are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Meta-analysis of the population-based studies of homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger homicide and family homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 million to 1 in 11.5 million people per year) was calculated by meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger homicide were mostly adult males and the homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will

  6. Longitudinal association between serum urate and subclinical atherosclerosis: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

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    Wang, H; Jacobs, D R; Gaffo, A L; Gross, M D; Goff, D C; Carr, J J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether serum urate (sUA) concentration is positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of body mass index (BMI), amongst generally healthy adults. The CARDIA study followed 5115 Black and White individuals aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986 (year 0). Subclinical atherosclerosis comprised coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC; years 15, 20 and 25), and maximum common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT; year 20). sUA (years 0, 10, 15 and 20) was modelled as gender-specific quartiles that were pooled. Discrete-time hazard regressions and generalized linear regressions were used for analyses. Mean sUA concentration was lower in women than in men and increased with age. Adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, the highest versus lowest quartile of sUA at year 0 was associated with a 44% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20%, 73%] greater risk of CAC progression from years 15 to 25 (Ptrend  subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults; starting in early middle age, sUA predicts subclinical atherosclerosis independently of BMI. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  7. The psychotic mummified hand: an unusual hand injury complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, L; Guillibert, E; Mamane, W; Masmejean, E H

    2013-12-01

    The authors report the case of a patient with psychotic symptoms secondary to a posttraumatic stress disorder following a work-related hand injury. The somatic presentation was a "mummified" hand neglected for several years in a splint without any care. The psychiatric analysis concluded that this was part of a delusion of persecution expressing a conflict against the patient's employer and insurance company. Surgical treatment was limited to a hand cleaning with hardware removal. Despite 3 years of antipsychotic medication the patient was still suffering from delusion and the hand remained neglected at the last follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of psychotic symptoms in the general population: Findings from the MHGP survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, Baptiste; Schürhoff, Franck; Szöke, Andrei; Geoffroy, Pierre A; Jardri, Renaud; Roelandt, Jean-Luc; Rolland, Benjamin; Thomas, Pierre; Vaiva, Guillaume; Amad, Ali

    2017-07-06

    We aimed to explore the sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates of psychotic symptoms in a large general population sample. The French Mental Health in the General Population cross-sectional survey interviewed 38,694 individuals using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We looked for associations between the presence of lifetime psychotic symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics (including migrant status over three generations) and clinical characteristics. We then looked for associations regarding only hallucinations, delusional symptoms, and the co-occurrence of both hallucinations and delusional symptoms. To test the psychosis continuum hypothesis, associations with sociodemographic characteristics were compared with the characterized psychotic disorders' associations. We found that 22.3% of the population declared psychotic symptoms without psychotic disorders, including 5.7% who declared hallucinations, 20.5% delusional symptoms, 4.0% both hallucinations and delusional symptoms, and 2.8% characterized psychotic disorders. The presence of psychotic symptoms was associated with young age, migrant status (over three generations), secondary education level, low-income level and never-married and separated marital status. Hallucinations, delusional symptoms and the co-occurrence of both hallucinations and delusional symptoms showed the same correlates, and hallucinations were also associated with elementary education level. Characterized psychotic disorders showed the same correlates. Concerning clinical outcomes, the presence of psychotic symptoms, hallucinations and delusional symptoms was associated with all non-psychotic disorders, i.e., bipolar, depressive, alcohol use, generalized anxiety, social phobia, panic and post-traumatic stress disorders and dysthymia (except dysthymia, which was not associated with hallucinations). Our results indicate that psychotic symptoms are associated with broad psychopathologies and support the continuum

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood and adolescense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Abaci, Ayhan; Büyükgebiz, Atilla; Bober, Ece

    2014-11-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the reference range with normal serum free thyroxin (sT4) and free triiodothyronine (sT3) levels. The prevalence of SH in children and adolescents is reported between 1.7% and 9.5%. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most prevalent cause of SH in children. Although it has been suggested that SH is entirely an asymptomatic laboratory diagnosis, typical hypothyroid symptoms as well have been reported in some patients. Results of the adult studies on SH revealed that SH had unfavorable effects on cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis); metabolic parameters (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, etc.); neuromuscular system; and cognitive functions in the long term. The number of studies investigating the effect of childhood SH on growth, bone maturation, lipid parameters, carbohydrate metabolism, neuromuscular system, and cognitive and cardiac function is limited. Knowledge about the natural history of SH is unclear even though there are numerous studies upon this subject. In children and adults, treatment of SH with L-T₄ is still a matter of debate, and there is no consensus on this issue yet.

  10. Hipertiroidismo subclínico Subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbet Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El hipertiroidismo subclínico se define por la presencia de niveles disminuidos o no detectables de tirotropina, asociados a concentración de tetrayodotironina y triyodotironina libres dentro de parámetros normales. Su prevalencia en la población varía entre un 0,5 y un 16 % aproximadamente, y es el tratamiento con levotiroxina sódica la causa más frecuente. No siempre resulta tan asintomático, y las afectaciones principales ocurren sobre el sistema cardiovascular y óseo. Esta condición médica puede ser reversible espontáneamente. Por lo controversial del tema, el presente trabajo trata los aspectos clínicos más relevantes y la conducta a seguir.Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by presence of decreased o non-detected levels of thyrotropin, associated with free concentrations of tetraiodothyronine and triiodothyromime within normal parameters. Its prevalence in population differs between 0,5 % and 16 % approximately, and the sodium Levothyroxine treatment is the more frequent cause. Not always it is so asymptomatic, and main affections occur on cardiovascular and osseous system. This medical condition may be spontaneously reversible. Due to controversial of this topic, present paper approaching the more significant clinical features and the strategy to go on.

  11. Near-infrared fundus autofluorescence in subclinical best vitelliform macular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia; Iacono, Pierluigi; Del Turco, Claudia; Bandello, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    To describe fundus autofluorescence (FAF) on short-wavelength FAF and near-infrared FAF in the subclinical form of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. Cross-sectional prospective study. Patients affected by the subclinical form of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (positive testing for BEST1 gene mutation, fully preserved best-corrected visual acuity, normal fundus appearance) were recruited. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including electro-oculogram (EOG), short-wavelength FAF, near-infrared FAF, spectral-domain OCT (SD OCT), and microperimetry. Main outcome measure was the identification of abnormal FAF patterns. Forty-six patients showing mutations in the BEST1 gene were examined. Forty patients presented a bilateral Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, 2 patients showed a unilateral Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, and 4 patients had a bilateral subclinical form. Patients with the unilateral form (2 eyes) and patients with the subclinical form (8 eyes) were analyzed. Three BEST1 sequence variants were identified: c.73C>T (p.Arg25Trp), c.28G>A (p.Ala10Thr), and c.652C>G (p.Arg218Gly). Short-wavelength FAF was normal in all eyes. Near-infrared FAF detected a pattern consisting of a central hypo-autofluorescence surrounded by a round area of hyper-autofluorescence. A bilateral reduced EOG response was detected in 1 patient. SD OCT revealed a thicker, well-defined, and more reflective interdigitation zone in 2 patients (4 eyes, 40%). Microperimetry of the central 10 degrees revealed a slight, diffuse reduction of retinal sensitivity. Mean retinal sensitivity within the central 2 and 4 degrees was lower and matched the hypo-autofluorescent area detected on near-infrared FAF. Additional relative scotomata were detected within the 10-degree area. No change in clinical, functional, or FAF pattern was found over the follow-up. Subclinical Best vitelliform macular dystrophy is characterized by the absence of biomicroscopic fundus

  12. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t267, clonal ancestor of bovine subclinical mastitis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S D; Velu, D; Bhuvana, M; Krithiga, N; Banerjee, A; Shome, R; Rahman, H; Ghosh, S K; Shome, B R

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the virulence determinants and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. PCR detection of virulence genes was performed for 173 Staph. aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis milk. Further, genetic diversity was analysed by agr and spa typing followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of selected isolates. Screening of virulence genes (n = 19) showed the adherence genes viz. fnbA, clfA, fnbB and cna in 98·8, 97·1, 68·8 and 28·3 percentage of isolates, respectively, and 80 strains (46·24%) positive for enterotoxin genes were distributed as 23 toxinotypes, of which, 5 genotypes contained a single gene and the rest comprised of multiple toxin genes. Out of agr type-1 (87·3%), 74·2 per cent belonged to the three predominant spa types. Of 27 spa types, 11 were identified for the first time. The predominant spa types were t267 (N =44), t359 (N = 42) and t6877 (N =29), which together accounts to 66·5 per cent of isolates. PFGE analysis of isolates (N = 45) covering all the spa types revealed mostly similar or closely related pulsotypes. Local emergence of spa type t6877 in herd-dependant manner was observed. spa sequence-based phylogenetic analysis suggested t267 as the ancestral clone of t359, t6877 and other spa types except two. Heterogenous virulence profile of the isolates had no significant association with the genotype. High prevalence of agr group I reaffirms their association with persistent subclinical mastitis. The spa type t267 appears to be the ancestral clone endemic in the region causing subclinical mastitis. In addition, few new spa types have emerged in the geographic region. Gives an insight into the genetic and evolutionary behaviour of Staph. aureus associated with bovine subclinical mastitis in India. The study would pave the way for devising effective control strategy for bovine mastitis in Indian context. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Relation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Risk of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Men With Cardiometabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young; Franklin, Barry A; Schmidt-Trucksass, Arno; Kim, Do Kyung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and that moderate-to-high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) attenuate this relation. Our study population (n = 2,107 men) participated in a health screening program that included measures of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a CAC score >0 and a mean CIMT more than the seventy-fifth percentile. Fitness was directly measured through peak oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise testing to volitional fatigue/exhaustion. The presence of CMS was defined as having ≥3 relevant risk factors based on the Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATP-III) criteria. After adjusting for confounding variables, participants with CMS demonstrated a higher odds ratio (OR) of having a positive CAC (OR 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.89) and CIMT (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.52) compared with those without CMS. Upper levels of fitness were associated with a lower prevalence of CAC (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.88) and CIMT (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.71) compared with lower fitness. In the joint analysis, unfit participants with CMS were 1.47 times (95% CI 1.09 to 1.96 for CAC) and 2.35 times (95% CI 1.70 to 3.26 for CIMT) more likely to exhibit these indexes of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with fit participants without CMS. Fit participants with CMS had ORs for the prevalence of CAC (OR 1.12; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.47) and CIMT (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.53) that were similar to those of the fit cohort without CMS. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CMS is associated with an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis but that high fitness appears to attenuate these associations in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Subclinical spontaneous bacterial peritonitis at the time of liver transplantation does not impact on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Damhnaic P; Leithead, Joanna A; Gunson, Bridget K; Ferguson, James W

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplant recipients are often screened for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis during the immediate preoperative evaluation to determine medical fitness to proceed. However, it is unknown whether subclinical spontaneous bacterial peritonitis impacts on post-transplant outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether subclinical spontaneous bacterial peritonitis detected at the preoperative evaluation influences the decision to proceed, and subsequent postoperative morbidity and mortality. This study is a single-centre study of 1231 adults attending for possible first elective single-organ liver transplantation between January 2000 and December 2011. A total of 434 patients underwent ascitic fluid sampling on 460 occasions. Nineteen samples fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (4.8%), including one that was culture positive (Candida spp.). Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis had a higher serum bilirubin level than nonspontaneous bacterial peritonitis patients (P=0.018). Out of the 19 patients, 16 (84.2%) with a positive sample proceeded to transplantation on that occasion; the ascitic microscopy result did not influence the decision to proceed in any clinically stable patient. The 30-day post-transplant survival was 93.8% for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis patients and 96.2% for nonspontaneous bacterial peritonitis patients (P=0.478). After adjusting for recipient age, UK Score for Patients with End-Stage Liver Disease (UKELD) and donor risk index, there was no association between a positive tap and death within 30 days (P=0.649). Subclinical spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is rare in patients admitted for elective liver transplantation, does not influence the decision to proceed and is not associated with increased post-transplant mortality. Our findings suggest that routine preoperative ascitic fluid sampling is not indicated in clinically stable potential transplant recipients.

  15. Dreams and fantasies in psychodynamic group psychotherapy of psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Bogović, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate

    2013-09-01

    Work with dreams in the group analysis represents an important part of the analytical work, with insight into unconscious experiences of the individual dreamer, and his transferrential relations with the therapist, other members of the group, and with the group as a whole. The way dreams are addressed varies from one therapist to another, and in line with that, members of the group have varying frequency of dreams. In groups of psychotic patients dreams are generally rarely discussed and interpreted by the group, with analysis mainly resting on the manifested content. This paper describes a long-term group of psychotic patients which, after sharing the dreams of several members and daydreams of one female patient, their interpretation and reception in the group achieved better cohesion and improved communication and interaction, i.e. created a group matrix. Furthermore, through the content of dreams in the group, traumatic war experiences of several of the group members were opened and discussed, which brought with it recollections of the traumatic life situations of other group members. In expressing a daydream, a female member of the group revealed the background for her behaviour which was earlier interpreted as a negative symptom of the illness.

  16. Creating a Supportive Environment: Peer Support Groups for Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Davidson, Larry; van der Gaag, Mark

    2015-11-01

    People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to reduce isolation and enhance the process of personal recovery. It encourages people to express their thoughts, feelings, and personal concerns in a peer-to-peer learning environment. Although the importance of peer support groups for various chronic diseases is widely acknowledged, they do not generally form part of routine care for people with psychotic disorders. The evidence base is promising, but the field could benefit from more rigorous, pragmatic trials with follow-up measurements to establish a solid evidence-base. This article briefly reviews the literature and discusses the barriers to implementation of a peer-support learning environment in routine care, as well as ways to overcome these. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prefrontal gyrification in psychotic bipolar I disorder vs. schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic, Igor; Maitra, Raka; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Smesny, Stefan; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia share phenotypic and genotypic features, but might differ in aspects of abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. We studied gyrification, a marker of early developmental pathology, in high-resolution MRI scans of 34 patients with schizophrenia, 17 euthymic bipolar I disorder patients with previous psychotic symptoms, and 34 matched healthy controls in order to test the hypothesis of overlapping and diverging prefrontal gyrification abnormalities. We applied a novel, validated method for measuring local gyrification in each vertex point of the reconstructed cortical surface. Psychotic bipolar I patients had higher gyrification in dorsal anterior and infragenual cingulate cortex compared to either schizophrenia or healthy controls, while schizophrenia patients had higher gyrification than controls in anterior medial (BA 10) and orbitofrontal areas, altogether indicating disease-specific alterations in the prefrontal cortex. Our findings indicate gyrification changes in a specific subgroup of bipolar I disorder to affect an area relevant to emotion regulation, and distinct from changes seen in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychic skin: psychotic defences, borderline process and delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, I apply the concept of psychic skin to analytic work with people suffering from personality disorders and psychoses. When psychoses emerge, the defensive skin which protects the ego is breached and violent unconscious forces rip through the personality. Some of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic with whom I work have identified with archetypal characters such as Christ, Satan, John Lennon and the Queen. I attempt to show how the adoption of these inflated personas can serve as secondary psychic skins. Such delusional identifications can provide a protective shield to hide the denuded self and prevent intrusion from the external world. Through clinical example, I try to demonstrate how these archetypal 'second skins' can preserve life until internal and external conditions make it possible for the self to emerge. I contrast such psychotic identifications with 'thin-skinned' and 'thick-skinned' narcissism as well as 'defences of the self' in borderline states where the psychic skin may be damaged but does not disintegrate. I also look at the ways in which Jung's own personal experience was different from this and how he managed to avert psychotic breakdown. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  19. The advantages of "Dance-group" for psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Romina; Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Nemoianni, Eugenio

    2014-11-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation and in particular group dances allow the recovery of lost or compromised ability of patients with mental illness, and they facilitate their reintegration into the social context. The dance group has enabled users of the Day Centre of the Unit of Mental Health Torre del Greco ASL NA 3 south to achieve the objectives of rehabilitation such as: taking care of themselves, of their bodies and their interests, improving self-esteem , the management of pathological emotions, socialization and integration, overcoming the psychotic closing and relational isolation. In particular, patients with schizophrenia, psychotic and mood disorders had a concrete benefit from such rehabilitation activities, facilitating interpersonal relationships, therapy compliance and significantly improved mood, quality of life, providing them with the rhythm and the security in their relationship with each other. The dance group and for some individuals, also psychotherapy and drug therapy, have facilitated social inclusion, improved the quality of life and cured their diseases. The work is carrying out in a group with patients, practitioners, family members, volunteers, social community workers, following the operating departmental protocols. Using the chorus group "Sing that you go" as an operational tool for psychosocial rehabilitation and therapeutic element we promote the psychological well-being and the enhancement of mood.

  20. Psychotic Experiences and Overhasty Inferences Are Related to Maladaptive Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuke, Heiner; Stuke, Hannes; Weilnhammer, Veith Andreas; Schmack, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical accounts suggest that an alteration in the brain's learning mechanisms might lead to overhasty inferences, resulting in psychotic symptoms. Here, we sought to elucidate the suggested link between maladaptive learning and psychosis. Ninety-eight healthy individuals with varying degrees of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences performed a probabilistic reasoning task that allowed us to quantify overhasty inferences. Replicating previous results, we found a relationship between psychotic experiences and overhasty inferences during probabilistic reasoning. Computational modelling revealed that the behavioral data was best explained by a novel computational learning model that formalizes the adaptiveness of learning by a non-linear distortion of prediction error processing, where an increased non-linearity implies a growing resilience against learning from surprising and thus unreliable information (large prediction errors). Most importantly, a decreased adaptiveness of learning predicted delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences. Our current findings provide a formal description of the computational mechanisms underlying overhasty inferences, thereby empirically substantiating theories that link psychosis to maladaptive learning.

  1. Obesity and psychotic disorders: uncovering common mechanisms through metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Orešič

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary obesity and psychotic disorders are similar with respect to the associated changes in energy balance and co-morbidities, including metabolic syndrome. Such similarities do not necessarily demonstrate causal links, but instead suggest that specific causes of and metabolic disturbances associated with obesity play a pathogenic role in the development of co-morbid disorders, potentially even before obesity develops. Metabolomics – the systematic study of metabolites, which are small molecules generated by the process of metabolism – has been important in elucidating the pathways underlying obesity-associated co-morbidities. This review covers how recent metabolomic studies have advanced biomarker discovery and the elucidation of mechanisms underlying obesity and its co-morbidities, with a specific focus on metabolic syndrome and psychotic disorders. The importance of identifying metabolic markers of disease-associated intermediate phenotypes – traits modulated but not encoded by the DNA sequence – is emphasized. Such markers would be applicable as diagnostic tools in a personalized healthcare setting and might also open up novel therapeutic avenues.

  2. Hyper-Theory-of-Mind in Children with Psychotic Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE...... in children. Children with this type of alteration in ToM infer mental states when none are obviously suggested, and predict behaviour on the basis of these erroneous beliefs. Individuals with HyperToM do not appear to have a conceptual deficit (i.e. lack of representational abilities), but rather they apply...... their theory of the minds of others in an incorrect or biased way. METHOD: Hypotheses were tested in two studies with two independent samples: (i) a general population sample of 1630 Danish children aged 11-12 years, (ii) a population-based sample of 259 Dutch children aged 12-13 years, pertaining to a case...

  3. Symptoms at first contact for psychotic disorder : Comparison between native Dutch and ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Selten, Jean-Paul; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hoek, Hans W.

    The incidence of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is very high among several ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands, and is most increased for Moroccans. This study compared symptoms at first treatment contact for a psychotic disorder between 117 native Dutch and 165 ethnic minority

  4. Does Operational Diagnosis of Schizophrenia Significantly Impact Intellectual Deficits in Psychotic Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, H.; Shioiri, T.; Itoh, M.; Sato, Y.; Shichiri, K.; Someya, T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that, as a group, patients with schizophrenia have intellectual deficits that may precede the manifestation of psychotic symptoms; however, how successfully intelligence tests are able to discriminate schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders has yet to be investigated in detail. Methods: Using Wechsler Adult…

  5. The fragmented self : imbalance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-networks in psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Aleman, Andre

    Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging

  6. The Ice Cream Stories: A Study in Normal and Psychotic Narrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaika, Elaine; Alexander, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that the psychotic and normal populations showed definable differences in encoding strategies when presented with an adaption of the Pear Stories study. Supports theories claiming that faulty filtering mechanisms, vulnerability to distraction, and attentional deficits account for psychotic subjects' reactions. (JD)

  7. Semi-metric analysis of the functional brain network: Relationship with familial risk for psychotic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Peeters

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: The results are suggestive of more dispersed network communication in patients with psychotic disorder, with some evidence for trait-based network alterations in high-schizotypy individuals. Dispersed communication may contribute to the clinical phenotype in psychotic disorder. In addition, higher SMP may contribute to neuro- and social cognition, independent of psychosis risk.

  8. Emotional intelligence in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Auria; Bosque, Clara; Custal, Nuria; Crespo, José M; Gilabert, Ester; Albiach, Angela; Menchón, José M; Contreras, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Subtle social cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients have received increasing attention over the last few years, supporting their potential endophenotypic role for this disorder. The current study assessed non-psychotic first-degree relatives' performance on a multidimensional measure of emotional intelligence (EI): the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test 2.0 (MSCEIT). Endorsed by the National Institute of Mental Health, the MSCEIT is a valid and reliable instrument for detecting emotion-processing deficits among schizophrenia patients and people high in schizotypy. Thirty-seven first-degree relatives, 37 schizophrenia outpatients and 37 healthy controls completed the MSCEIT, which comprises eight subscales aimed to assess the four branches of EI: Identifying, Facilitating, Understanding and Managing Emotions. Potential associations with cognitive function and schizotypy levels, measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief, were further evaluated. Relatives had significantly lower MSCEIT total scores than controls and also significantly lower scores on the Identifying emotions branch. Nevertheless, schizophrenia patients still had the poorest global EI performance. The strongest positive correlations were found in relatives and controls with measures of executive function, processing speed and general intelligence. A higher level of schizotypy correlated significantly with lower MSCEIT scores among controls, but not among relatives. Contrary to expectations in the general population, the current study observed subtle EI impairment in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. These findings support the hypothesis that these EI deficiencies may be potential endophenotypes located between the clinical phenotype and the genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics for prevention and management of violent behaviour in psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Pavel; Knytl, Pavel; Voráčková, Veronika; Bravermanová, Anna; Melicher, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    It has been well established that long-term antipsychotic treatment prevents relapse, lowers number of rehospitalisations, and also effectively reduces violent behaviour. Although violent behaviour is not a typical manifestation of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, the diagnosis of psychosis increases the overall risk of violence. One of the few modifiable factors of violence risk is adherence with medication. In contrast, non-adherence with drug treatment and subsequent relapse increases risk of violent acts. Non-adherence can be addressed partially by long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI). The aim of our review was to examine the role of antipsychotic drugs, especially LAI, in prevention and management of violent behaviour in psychosis. This is a non-systematic, narrative review of the data from open, naturalistic, retrospective, and population studies, case series, and post hoc analyses of randomised controlled trials. Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Embase) was performed to identify relevant papers. Nine published papers (3 cross-sectional chart reviews, 4 retrospective studies, 2 prospective, randomised trials) were found. The results indicated positive clinical and antiaggressive effects of LAI in psychotic patients with high risk of violent behaviour. Reviewed evidence suggests that secured drug treatment with LAI may have clinical benefit in schizophrenia patients with high risk of violent behaviour. LAI significantly reduced the severity of hostility, aggressivity, number of violent incidents, and criminal offences. These findings are supported further by the empirical evidence from clinical practice, high rates of prescribed LAI to schizophrenia patients in high-security and forensic psychiatric facilities. Available data encourage the use of LAI in forensic psychiatry, especially during court-ordered commitment treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Gongora, Rafael E; Valderrama, Liliana; Jojoa, Jimena; Alexander, Neal; Rubiano, Luisa C; Cossio, Alexandra; Adams, Emily R; Saravia, Nancy G; Gomez, María Adelaida

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking. We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed. Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114) of leishmanin skin test (LST) positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total). Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia) subgenus. Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia) transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and transmission of disease. kDNA genotyping establishes proof

  11. Thyroid Antibody Status, Subclinical Hypothyroidism, and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: An Individual Participant Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bauer, Douglas C.; Cappola, Anne R.; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Weiler, Stefan; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Bremner, Alexandra; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Vanderpump, Mark P. J.; Cornuz, Jacques; Dörr, Marcus; Wallaschofski, Henri; Newman, Anne B.; Sgarbi, José A.; Razvi, Salman; Völzke, Henry; Walsh, John P.; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2014-01-01

    Context: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly with thyrotropin levels of 10.0 mIU/L or greater. The measurement of thyroid antibodies helps predict the progression to overt hypothyroidism, but it is unclear whether thyroid autoimmunity independently affects CHD risk. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the CHD risk of subclinical hypothyroidism with and without thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). Data Sources and Study Selection: A MEDLINE and EMBASE search from 1950 to 2011 was conducted for prospective cohorts, reporting baseline thyroid function, antibodies, and CHD outcomes. Data Extraction: Individual data of 38 274 participants from six cohorts for CHD mortality followed up for 460 333 person-years and 33 394 participants from four cohorts for CHD events. Data Synthesis: Among 38 274 adults (median age 55 y, 63% women), 1691 (4.4%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, of whom 775 (45.8%) had positive TPOAbs. During follow-up, 1436 participants died of CHD and 3285 had CHD events. Compared with euthyroid individuals, age- and gender-adjusted risks of CHD mortality in subclinical hypothyroidism were similar among individuals with and without TPOAbs [hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87–1.53 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.01–1.58, P for interaction = .62], as were risks of CHD events (HR 1.16, CI 0.87–1.56 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.02–1.56, P for interaction = .65). Risks of CHD mortality and events increased with higher thyrotropin, but within each stratum, risks did not differ by TPOAb status. Conclusions: CHD risk associated with subclinical hypothyroidism did not differ by TPOAb status, suggesting that biomarkers of thyroid autoimmunity do not add independent prognostic information for CHD outcomes. PMID:24915118

  12. UPON TYPE, FREQUENCY AND SOME CLINICAL ASPECTS OF PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arnaudova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Various psychotic disorders develop often at different stages of the disease. A comprehensive approach of type, frequency and clinical aspects of the psychotic disorders patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD can optimize management of these conditions in patients with dementia. We examined 120 patients with probable AD. The routine clinical examination and observation were used to delineate the most common psychotic symptoms. Delusions, found in the explored patients were predominantly paranoid. The delusions are often short lived and lack complexity of that seen in schizophrenia. In number of cases they are difficult to be distinguished from confabulations. Hallucinations were mostly verbal, visual and tactile. Misidentification syndromes were identified in a considerable number of patients. They are often disputable or have been classified as delusions or hallucinations, depending on interpretation of psychotic phenomena. We discuss different forms of misidentification. The presence of psychotic symptoms predicts the occurrence and frequency of different forms of aggression and destructive behavior.

  13. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T4 or free T4. This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  14. Diagnosis and management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Roberto; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2014-10-06

    In prospective studies, the prevalence of undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women ranges from 3% to 15%. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus, including spontaneous abortion, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and decreased IQ in the offspring. Only two prospective studies have evaluated the impact of levothyroxine therapy in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, and the results were mixed. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as raised thyrotropin combined with a normal serum free thyroxine level. The normal range of thyrotropin varies according to geographic region and ethnic background. In the absence of local normative data, the recommended upper limit of thyrotropin in the first trimester of pregnancy is 2.5 mIU/L, and 3.0 mIU/L in the second and third trimester. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50% more thyroid hormone during pregnancy to maintain a euthyroid state. Consequently, most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant to maintain euthyroidism. Ongoing prospective trials that are evaluating the impact of levothyroxine therapy on adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus in women with subclinical hypothyroidism will provide crucial data on the role of thyroid hormone replacement in pregnancy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2014.

  15. Health status, mood, and cognition in experimentally induced subclinical thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, M H; Schuff, K G; Carlson, N E; Carello, P; Janowsky, J S

    2008-05-01

    Our objective was to determine whether subclinical thyrotoxicosis alters health status, mood, and/or cognitive function. This was a double-blinded, randomized, cross-over study of usual dose l-T(4) (euthyroid arm) vs. higher dose l-T(4) (subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm) in hypothyroid subjects. A total of 33 hypothyroid subjects receiving l-T(4) were included in the study. Subjects underwent measurements of health status, mood, and cognition: Short Form 36 (SF-36); Profile of Mood States (POMS); and tests of declarative memory (Paragraph Recall, Complex Figure), working memory (N-Back, Subject Ordered Pointing, and Digit Span Backwards), and motor learning (Pursuit Rotor). These were repeated after 12 wk on each of the study arms. Mean TSH levels decreased from 2.15 to 0.17 mU/liter on the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm (P learning was better during the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm, whereas declarative and working memory measures did not change. This improvement was related to changes in the SF-36 physical component summary and POMS tension subscales and free T(3) levels. We found slightly impaired physical health status but improvements in measures of mental health and mood in l-T(4) treated hypothyroid subjects when subclinical thyrotoxicosis was induced in a blinded, randomized fashion. Motor learning was also improved. These findings suggest that thyroid hormone directly affects brain areas responsible for affect and motor function.

  16. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  17. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis: racial profiling is necessary!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakzai, Sarwar H; Orakzai, Raza H; Nasir, Khurram; Santos, Raul D; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Budoff, Matthew J; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2006-11-01

    We aim to review the studies comparing coronary calcification across different ethnic groups. There is still uncertainty regarding ethnic differences in the prevalence, progression, and risk of coronary artery disease. Clues to possible racial differences in rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be found by identifying subclinical disease. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be used to predict risk of CHD in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Online databases were searched for studies assessing racial differences in CAC. Most of the published studies have shown that racial differences exist in the prevalence and severity of CAC. Whites have a higher prevalence of CAC as compared to African Americans and other ethnic groups even after adjustment for risk factors. These differences in CAC are even more pronounced in men and in the elderly. Data regarding the distribution of CAC in ethnic groups outside the United States are limited. Emerging evidence indicates that while several ethnic groups outside the United States tend to have a greater prevalence of CHD risk factors, their prevalence of CAC is lower, as compared with Americans. Thus, the data obtained in the United States may not be able to be fully extrapolated to populations outside the United States for assessment of CHD risk. The presence and extent of CAC varies among different racial groups within and outside the United States. The relationship between calcification and the incidence of CHD in these ethnic groups needs further exploration. Thus, it is important to develop ethnic specific CAC nomograms to more accurately determine the underlying CHD risk associated with CAC in these individuals. It will also be imperative to obtain outcome data and relate it to baseline levels of CAC to help us put in perspective the significance of racial differences in CAC and how they impact on cardiac risk prediction.

  18. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

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    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  19. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  20. Factor analysis of symptom dimensions (psychotic, affective and obsessive compulsive symptoms) in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Dua, Devakshi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-10-23

    To carryout factor analysis of symptom profile of patients with schizophrenia assessed by using positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), Calgary depression rating scale (CDSS), Young mania rating scale (YMRS) and YBOCS checklist. 181 patients of schizophrenia were assessed on PANSS, CDSS, YMRS and YBOCS checklist. Factor analysis of PANSS yielded 3 factor structure (positive, negative, anxiety). When the items of CDSS were added to the PANSS items, total number of factors increased to 4 with depression emerging as a separate factor. Addition of YMRS to PANSS and CDSS led to emergence of 5 factor model. Further addition of YBOCS checklist led to emergence of a 7 factor model (positive, depressive, obsessive compulsive, negative, manic, anxiety and obsessive compulsive-2), which explained 49.85% variance of the data. Positive symptoms emerged as the factor-1. Depressive symptoms loaded on the factor-2, negative symptoms loaded on to factor-4, manic symptoms loaded onto factor-5 and anxiety symptoms loaded onto factor-6. OC symptoms loaded onto factor 3 and 7. Present study suggests that when multiple scales are used for assessment of various symptoms of schizophrenia, the symptoms separate out into 7 factors. This finding suggests that clinical assessment of schizophrenia should not be limited to core psychotic symptoms only and structured instruments must be used to elicit other symptoms too while monitoring the clinical picture of patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors for suicide among 34,671 patients with psychotic and non-psychotic severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leadholm, Anne Katrine K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe unipolar depression is associated with increased risk of suicide, but it remains unknown whether the same risk factors are present in the non-psychotic (non-PD) and psychotic (PD) subtypes respectively. Therefore, this study aimed to identify risk factors for suicide in non-PD ......-PD and PD were identified: older age, male gender and previous incidents of self-harm. In suicide prevention efforts, equal attention should be paid to non-PD and PD patients....... adults diagnosed with severe depression at Danish psychiatric hospitals between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2010. The risk for suicide was expressed as adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS: A total of 34,671 individuals with severe depression (non-PD: n=26,106 and PD: n=12,101) were included...... in the study. Of these, 755 completed suicide during follow up. PD was not found to be an independent risk factor for suicide in severe depression (AOR=0.97 [0.83-1.15]). Older age (non-PD AOR=1.05 [per year], PD AOR=1.04 [per year]), male sex (non-PD AOR=1.89, PD AOR=1.98), and a previous incident of self...

  2. Follow-up of congenital heart disease patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-08-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism or mild thyroid failure is a common problem in patients without known thyroid disease. Demographic and analytical data were collected in 309, of which 181 were male and 128 were female, congenital heart disease (CHD) patients. CHD patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone above 5.5 mIU/L were also followed up from an analytical point of view to determine changes in serum glucose, cholesterol, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Of the CHD patients, 35 (11.3%) showed thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration above 5.5 mIU/L. Of them, 27 were followed up during 2.4±1.2 years - 10 were under thyroid hormone replacement treatment, and 17 were not. Of the 27 patients (25.9%), 7 with subclinical hypothyroidism had positive anti-thyroid peroxidase, and 3 of them (42.8%) with positive anti-thyroid peroxidase had Down syndrome. Down syndrome and hypoxaemic CHD patients showed higher thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations than the rest of the congenital patients (puric acid, lipids, C-reactive protein, or N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide concentrations before and after the follow-up in those CHD patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone above 5.5 mIU/L whether or not they received levothyroxine therapy. CHD patients with subclinical hypothyroidism showed no significant changes in serum thyroxine, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, or N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide concentrations whether or not they were treated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

  3. Use of milk amyloid A in the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, Arianna; Moscati, Livia; Fruganti, Gabriele; Pela, Michela; Scoccia, Eleonora; Valiani, Andrea; Maresca, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SM) is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy ewes worldwide, with negative impact on the animal health, farm income and public health. Animals with SM often remain untreated because the disease may not be revealed. Increase in somatic cell count (SCC) and positive bacteriology for mastitis pathogens in milk samples are indicative of SM but the evidence of only one of these alterations must suggest an uncertain SM (UM). UM is defined when positive bacteriological examination (Latent-SM) or SCC>500 000 cells/ml (non-specific-SM) are detected in milk. Nevertheless, SCC and bacteriological examination are expensive, time consuming and are not yet in use at the farm level in dairy ewes. Recently, a sensitive acute phase protein, amyloid A, displaying multiple isoforms in plasma and different body fluids including mammary secretion (milk amyloid A-MAA), has been investigated as a marker of mastitis in cows and, in a few studies, in sheep. The aim of this trial was to compare the concentration of MAA of single udder-halves in ewes with healthy udder-halves (HU-control group) and naturally occurring subclinical mastitis, both confirmed (SM group) and uncertain (UM groups: Latent-SM and non-specific-SM), for monitoring udder health. The reliability of a specific ELISA kit for the measurement of MAA was also tested. During a 3-month trial period, 153 udder halves were assigned to the experimental groups based on their health status: 25 with SM, 40 with UM (11 with latent-SM and 29 with non-specific-SM) and 88 HU. SCC and bacteriological analysis were performed to establish the control and subclinical mastitis groups. MAA concentrations in milk samples were measured using a specific commercially milk ELISA kit. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. Significant (Psubclinical mastitis and increased SCC in sheep.

  4. Circulating Tryptase as a Marker for Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María; Puig, Josep; Serrano, Marta; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mast cells participate in atherogenesis by releasing cytokines to induce vascular cell protease expression. Tryptase is expressed highly in human atherosclerotic lesions and the inhibition of tryptase activity hampers its capacity to maintain cholesterol inside macrophague foam cells. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating tryptase levels and subclinical atherosclerosis through estimation of carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) as surrogate marker for increased cardiovascular risk in obese and non-obese subjects. Methods Circulating tryptase levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 228 subjects. Atherosclerosis (c-IMT>0.9 mm) was evaluated ultrasonographically. Results Significant positive associations were evident between circulating tryptase levels and BMI, fat mass, glycated haemoglobin, fasting insulin, HOMAIR, fasting triglycerides and ultrasensitive PCR (p<0.05 from linear-trend ANOVA). The positive association between tryptase levels and insulin resistance parameters, suggested a glucose homeostasis impairment in individuals with higher tryptase levels. The negative asociation between tryptase levels and HDL-cholesterol supports the proatherogenic role of this protease (p<0.0001). Circulating tryptase levels were strongly associated with c-IMT measurements (p<0.0001 from linear-trend ANOVA), and were higher in subjects with presence of carotid plaque (p<0.0001). Tryptase levels (beta = 0.015, p = 0.001) contributed independently to subclinical atherosclerosis variance after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol). Conclusions Circulating tryptase level is associated to obesity related parameters and has a close relation with various metabolic risk factors. Moreover, serum tryptase level was independently associated with c-IMT, suggesting its potential use as a surrogate marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in obese subjects. PMID:24830464

  5. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christiane; Haase, Laura; Seidel, Dorothea; Bayerl, Martin; Gallinat, Jürgen; Herrmann, Uwe; Dannecker, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic episodes and justify

  6. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Montag

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic

  7. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2012-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.

  8. Feasibility of mindfulness-based therapy in patients recovering from a first psychotic episode: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Renate; van de Waerdt, Susanna; Meijer, Carin J.; van den Hout, Ingrid; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a mindfulness therapy for people with psychotic disorders was developed. However, clinicians and researchers are cautious given case reports in which extensive meditation provoked psychotic symptoms in people with a psychotic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine the

  9. Evaluation of endothelial function in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that FMD decreased in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients which could be partially restored by treatment. These findings suggest that treatment of subclinical hyperthyroid state could improve endothelial dysfunction and at the end decreased the cardiovascular complications.

  10. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Guha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co and manganese (Mn and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01 increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.

  11. Increased H-FABP concentrations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Possible marker for subclinical myocardial damage and subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, O; Akbal, E; Köklü, S; Tuna, Y; Koçak, E; Başar, N; Tok, D; Erbiş, H; Senes, M

    2013-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder which is reported as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with NAFLD are also at risk of future cardiac events independently of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine serum concentrations of heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in NAFLD and to investigate its correlations with metabolic parameters and subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 34 patients with NAFLD and 35 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. NAFLD patients had elevated liver enzymes and steatosis graded on ultrasonography. Healthy subjects had normal liver enzymes and no steatosis on ultrasonography. H-FABP levels were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and correlations with metabolic parameters and subclinical atherosclerosis were examined. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined with carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) which was measured by high resolution B mode ultrasonography. H-FABP levels were elevated in patients with NAFLD (16.3 ± 4.0 ng/ml) when compared with healthy controls (13.8 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p  subclinical myocardial damage in patients with NAFLD but also of subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of metabolic syndrome and cardiac risk factors.

  12. Infrared reflectance as a diagnostic adjunct for subclinical commotio retinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commotio retinae (CR is an outer retinal disorder following blunt trauma to the eye. Histologically it is characterized by disruption of the photoreceptor outer segments (OS, typically without injury to other retinal layers. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT the condition is visible as hyper-reflectivity of the OS. Most cases of CR are associated with transient grey-white discoloration of the retina and are easily diagnosed clinically, but there have been reports of OCT-confirmed CR without retinal discoloration. It is likely that this subclinical variant of CR is under-recognized as the OCT features of CR are subtle. Here, we report a case of OCT-confirmed subclinical CR that demonstrated prominent infrared hypo-reflectance, using the infrared protocol of the SPECTRALIS® OCT, Heidelberg Engineering. This case suggests that infrared reflectance may have a role in diagnosing cases of subclinical CR.

  13. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous...... of spontaneous abortions. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism...

  14. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Its Association with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Altamirano Ufion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating different metabolism functions and multiple organs’ performance. Changes in the thyroid hormone axis can lead to profound effects on the stability of vital organs and systems, especially the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is classified according to the clinical presentation as overt and subclinical. There is some evidence supporting the benefits of thyroxine hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism on cardiovascular mortality outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of measuring and treating high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in newly diagnosed heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction requires further study. In this report, we review the current evidence regarding the prognostic significance of subclinical hypothyroidism in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  15. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... of spontaneous abortions. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism...... with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous...

  16. A comparison of clinical vs subclinical skin pickers in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuthen, Nancy J.; Curley, Erin E.; Tung, Esther S.

    2016-01-01

    phenomena, and clinical correlates. RESULTS: There were many similarities between clinical and subclinical skin pickers. Individuals with clinical SPD, however, had more severe skin picking, greater associated functional impairment, greater perceived stress, and greater depressive and obsessive-compulsive......BACKGROUND: Skin-picking disorder (SPD) was recognized as its own entity for the first time in DSM-5. The existing SPD literature is limited and, to date, no study has examined the differences between clinical and sub- clinical SPD. Identifying differences between these 2 groups may improve...... diagnostic accuracy, treatment, and prevention efforts. METHODS: Israeli adults (N = 4,325) from 2 previous studies were examined for the presence of clinical and subclinical SPD. Individuals with clinical SPD (n = 150) vs subclinical SPD (n = 219) were compared on skin-picking characteristics, psychological...

  17. Therapeutic Effect of Nisin Z on Subclinical Mastitis in Lactating Cows▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-tr...

  18. The role of staphylococci in subclinical mastitis of cows and lytic phage isolation against to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Gulmez Saglam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the role of Staphylococcus in the formation of subclinical mastitis in cows and to isolate the phage against isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods: In this study, 400 milk cows were screened by California Mastitis Test (CMT for subclinical mastitis and 235 udders of 96 cows, which were determined to be positive, were evaluated for Staphylococcus. Milk samples were evaluated using conventional and molecular methods. In addition, phage isolation studies were performed against S. aureus strains causing mastitis. Results: At the result of cultural examination, of 235 milk samples that were found as positive for mastitis by CMT, a total of 117 (49.7% Staphylococcus spp. were isolated as a distribution of 74 (63.24% coagulase-positive staphylococci and 43 (36.75% coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of these isolates, 76 (64.95% were characterized as S. aureus both conventional and molecular techniques. Lytic bacteriophages against two S. aureus strains which were isolated from mastitic milk samples were obtained from wastewater samples. Conclusion: The results of this study show that a significant portion of subclinical mastitis was formed by staphylococci. In addition, phage isolation against S. aureus strains isolated can be considered as one of the steps to be applied in the prophylaxis and treatment of such infections.

  19. The role of staphylococci in subclinical mastitis of cows and lytic phage isolation against toStaphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Aliye Gülmez; Şahin, Mitat; Çelik, Elif; Çelebi, Özgür; Akça, Doğan; Otlu, Salih

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the role of Staphylococcus in the formation of subclinical mastitis in cows and to isolate the phage against isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. In this study, 400 milk cows were screened by California Mastitis Test (CMT) for subclinical mastitis and 235 udders of 96 cows, which were determined to be positive, were evaluated for Staphylococcus . Milk samples were evaluated using conventional and molecular methods. In addition, phage isolation studies were performed against S. aureus strains causing mastitis. At the result of cultural examination, of 235 milk samples that were found as positive for mastitis by CMT, a total of 117 (49.7%) Staphylococcus spp. were isolated as a distribution of 74 (63.24%) coagulase-positive staphylococci and 43 (36.75%) coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of these isolates, 76 (64.95%) were characterized as S. aureus both conventional and molecular techniques. Lytic bacteriophages against two S. aureus strains which were isolated from mastitic milk samples were obtained from wastewater samples. The results of this study show that a significant portion of subclinical mastitis was formed by staphylococci. In addition, phage isolation against S. aureus strains isolated can be considered as one of the steps to be applied in the prophylaxis and treatment of such infections.

  20. Comparison of seasonal effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters between ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Sani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of season on some hematological and biochemical parameters in ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes. A total of 1192 milk and blood samples were collected from ewes between February and April (791 samples in spring, August and October (401 samples in summer. California Mastitis Test (CMT, milk culture, hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were obtained from the medical records. Samples which were positive by bacterial culture and CMT as were deemed to have glands with subclinical mastitis (SCM. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in our study was around 12% (in one year. Of 144 (18.2% and 47 (11.72% positive samples in CMT, 134 (16.94% and 44 (10.97% samples were positive for bacterial culture in spring and summer, respectively. Comparison of results of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in ewes with SCM and healthy ewes in spring and summer showed that WBC counts, total protein concentrations and plasma fibrinogen in both groups of ewes were significantly higher in spring than summer (P˂0.05. The results of the present study indicated that when interpreting hematological and serum biochemical parameters in ewes with SCM should be consider the effect of season on these parameters.

  1. Clinical factors associated with subclinical spread of in situ melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Thuzar M; Etzkorn, Jeremy R; Sobanko, Joseph F; Margolis, David J; Gelfand, Joel M; Chu, Emily Y; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Shaikh, Waqas R; Miller, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Subclinical spread of in situ melanoma occurs at a wide frequency, ranging from 12% to 71%. To identify clinical factors associated with subclinical spread of in situ melanoma. We used a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 674 consecutive in situ melanomas to examine 627 patients treated with Mohs surgery and melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 immunostaining. The presence of subclinical spread was correlated with clinical characteristics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated significantly increased odds for subclinical spread of in situ melanomas when they were located on the head or neck, at acral sites, or on the pretibial leg (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.41-3.40); in persons with a history of prior treatment (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.74-4.420); melanomas of preoperative size >1 cm (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.23-2.46, P = .002); or in persons ≥60 years old (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = .042). A count prediction model demonstrated that the risk for subclinical spread increased with the number of clinical risk factors. We used a single-site, retrospective study design. Clarifying the risk factors for subclinical spread might help to refine triage of in situ melanomas to the appropriate surgical techniques for margin assessment prior to reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolically healthy obesity and the risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jun; Shin, Hee-Young; Chang, Yoosoo; Kang, Mira; Jee, Jaehwan; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Ahn, Hyeon Seon; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Son, Hee Jung; Ryu, Seungho

    2017-07-01

    Although obesity and metabolic abnormalities are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the risk of cardiovascular disease among obese individuals without obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO), remains unclear. We examined the association between body mass index categories and the development of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in a cohort of metabolically healthy individuals. We conducted a cohort study of 6453 men without subclinical carotid atherosclerosis or metabolic abnormalities at baseline, who underwent repeated health check-up examinations that included carotid ultrasound. A metabolically healthy state was defined as having no metabolic syndrome components and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was assessed using ultrasound. During the follow-up period of 34,797.9 person-years, subclinical carotid atherosclerosis developed in 1916 participants. Comparing overweight and obese with normal weight participants, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident subclinical carotid atherosclerosis were 1.24 (1.12-1.38) and 1.54 (1.38-1.72), respectively. The association persisted after further adjustment for metabolic variables. This association was also evident in MHO men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 90 cm) and it did not differ across any clinically relevant subgroups evaluated. In a large cohort study of strictly defined metabolically healthy participants, the MHO phenotype was associated with an increased risk of incident subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, providing evidence that the MHO phenotype is not protective from cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  5. Haemodynamic changes following treatment of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Wiinberg, N; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism has profound effects on the cardiovascular system, including reduced systemic vascular resistance (SVR) due to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells, enhanced heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO) due to an increase in cardiac diastolic relaxation, contractility and heart...... rate. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by reduced serum TSH levels despite free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) estimates within the reference range, in subjects with no obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We measured haemodynamic changes (using impedance cardiography......) in subjects with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism in order to elucidate whether these patients had signs of excess thyroid hormone at the tissue level....

  6. Subclinical inflammation in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Gamal Eldeen Y. Elkholi

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: PCOS and controls with andriod obesity had higher levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers and lower levels of anti-inflammatory biomarkers than PCOS and controls with gynoid obesity. The former groups had IR/HI and metabolic disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism while the latter groups had NIS and normal metabolism. It seems that these metabolic disorders are induced by android obesity with subclinical inflammation of the expanded visceral adipose tissue rather than PCOS per se. The PCOS per se is not associated with subclinical inflammation.

  7. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leweke, F M; Piomelli, D; Pahlisch, F; Muhl, D; Gerth, C W; Hoyer, C; Klosterkötter, J; Hellmich, M; Koethe, D

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol is a component of marijuana that does not activate cannabinoid receptors, but moderately inhibits the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide. We previously reported that an elevation of anandamide levels in cerebrospinal fluid inversely correlated to psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, enhanced anandamide signaling let to a lower transition rate from initial prodromal states into frank psychosis as well as postponed transition. In our translational approach, we performed a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of cannabidiol vs amisulpride, a potent antipsychotic, in acute schizophrenia to evaluate the clinical relevance of our initial findings. Either treatment was safe and led to significant clinical improvement, but cannabidiol displayed a markedly superior side-effect profile. Moreover, cannabidiol treatment was accompanied by a significant increase in serum anandamide levels, which was significantly associated with clinical improvement. The results suggest that inhibition of anandamide deactivation may contribute to the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol potentially representing a completely new mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:22832859

  8. Association Between Psychotic Experiences and Subsequent Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Nock, Matthew K; Saha, Sukanta

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Community-based studies have linked psychotic experiences (PEs) with increased risks of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). However, it is not known if these associations vary across the life course or if mental disorders contribute to these associations. Objective: To examine...... the temporal association between PEs and subsequent STBs across the life span as well as the influence of mental disorders (antecedent to the STBs) on these associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 33 370 adult respondents across 19 countries from the World Health Organization World Mental...... Health Surveys were assessed for PEs, STBs (ie, ideation, plans, and attempts), and 21 DSM-IV mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations of PEs with subsequent onset of STBs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and frequency of STBs with PEs, and odds...

  9. Comorbidities and psychotic illness. Part 1: Philosophy and clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Aquilina, Francesca Falzon

    2014-11-01

    This article aims at addressing the implications of defining 'comorbidity' within the field of psychiatry. We have looked at the standard definition of comorbidity and then discussed whether this definition can be applied to comorbidities in psychiatry. While comorbidities in physical illness are clearly the coexistence of two independent illnesses, Comorbidities in Mental illness are the result of the polygenic nature of mental illnesses, especially in psychotic illness whether schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. As a consequence, often the comorbidities of psychiatric illness are caused by two conditions which have in common the presence of particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps), which regulate the metabolism of neurotransmitters or the presence of neurotrophic factors . Thus inevitably, many such comorbidities are inextricably linked. We discuss the consequences of this form of comorbidity for the description, classification, and risk profile of mental illness.

  10. [Psychotic crisis symptomatic of an outbreak of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz, J J; Antigüedad, A R; Bárcena, J

    1995-05-01

    Mental disorders (especially depression and dementia) are highly prevalent among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Schizophrenic-type psychosis has been reported only rarely most often in advanced cases and its possible pathophysiological and even causal relation to the demyelinating disease is disputed. We describe a woman with MS who experienced 2 episodes of acute psychosis after having had only one prior episode of focal neurological dysfunction. The coincidence of psychiatric symptoms and the appearance of new white matter lesions in both hemispheres was confirmed by CT and MRI during the second episode. We suggest that in this patient the psychotic symptoms do not depend on the strategic anatomical location of plates, but rather on the effect of nonspecific lesions in a patient previously predisposed to psychiatric disorder.

  11. [Acute psychotic disorders related to bupropion: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javelot, T; Javelot, H; Baratta, A; Weiner, L; Messaoudi, M; Lemoine, P

    2010-12-01

    Bupropion, or amfebutamone, is an atypical antidepressant also used during tobacco cessation. From a structural standpoint, it resembles amphetamine drugs with psychostimulant effects, and endogenous monoamines. From a pharmacological standpoint, bupropion, and two of its most important active metabolites, inhibit dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. It has recently been discovered that bupropion may act as a non-competitive cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist, and that it may inhibit the activation of reward systems triggered by nicotine. Buproprion's efficacy as a smoking cessation aid has been demonstrated by numerous clinical trials that have compared its effects with those of placebo and other nicotinic substitutes. In 2001, buproprion SR received marketing authorization in France as a smoking cessation aid, under the name ZYBAN®. Tobacco addiction indeed remains a major public health issue. Among patients with psychiatric conditions, chronic tobacco consumption is frequent. The development of non-nicotinic drugs may therefore enhance therapeutic possibilities. However, the psychotropic effects of these molecules should be taken into account. We have recently reported the case of a patient with schizoaffective disorder, who presented two acute bupropion-induced psychotic episodes. We have also undertaken an exhaustive bibliographical research on this subject. The aim of the present study is to present the information available to us, in order to suggest aetiopathogenic hypotheses and therapeutic proposals. The following databases were consulted on a regular basis, with no date restriction: Medline, Cochrane and Elsevier. The present study identified 22 cases of psychotic conditions associated with buproprion, as well as randomized and pharmacovigilance studies published in English, from December 1985 to November 2008. Since 2002, there have been three published case-reports on patients who underwent a tobacco cessation program. Psychotic disorders

  12. Dandy-Walker syndrome with psychotic symptoms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Elisabetta F; Cimmarosa, Sara; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the case of a patient with psychotic symptoms apparently resistant to antipsychotic treatments. Since the last admission in a psychiatric division the patient was diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder type I and then referred to our Outpatients Unit of Treatment Resistant Psychosis, where she was subsequently re-diagnosed with Dandy-Walker Syndrome. The Dandy Walker Complex is a congenital brain malformation involving the fourth ventricle and the cerebellum. We investigated the cognitive impairment of the patient and found deficits prominently in executive functions. This report may add further evidence on the importance of a correct diagnosis prior to defining a patient as treatment resistant and highlights cerebellar dysfunctions that may contribute to neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment.

  13. The relationship between adulthood traumatic experiences and psychotic symptoms in female patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu Yildirim, Munevver; Yildirim, Ejder Akgun; Kaser, Muzaffer; Guduk, Mehmet; Fistikci, Nurhan; Cinar, Ozgul; Yuksel, Sahika

    2014-11-01

    Previously, research aiming to investigate the effects of interpersonal traumatic experiences on psychotic symptoms mainly focused on adverse experiences in childhood. As mentioned above, patients with schizophrenia, particularly women, are at high risk for physical and sexual abuse in adulthood. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of adulthood trauma in a sample of patients with schizophrenia who did not report childhood trauma. Seventy female patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. Assessment included Traumatic Experiences Checklist, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The rates of traumatic events were as follows: physical abuse (81.4%), emotional abuse (78.6%), emotional neglect (55.7%), sexual harassment (28.6%), and sexual abuse (24.3%). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale hallucinations, blunted affect, emotional withdrawal hostility, anxiety and affective lability item scores were significantly higher for patients who reported a history of sexual harassment. Patients who were exposed to sexual assault as adults had significantly higher scores in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, anxiety, anger and difficulty in delaying gratification items. We concluded that traumatic life events and exposure to violence were common among female patients with schizophrenia and sexual trauma in adulthood was associated with particular clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism rats

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    Ningning Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to observe adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT rats and to determine whether levothyroxine (LT4 treatment affects these changes. Sixty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group; sHT A, B and C groups and the sHT + T4 group. The sHT rats were induced by methimazole (MMI and the sHT + T4 rats were administered LT4 treatment after 8 weeks of MMI administration. Thyroid function and lipid levels were measured using radioimmunoassays and enzymatic colorimetric methods, respectively. Serum adiponectin (APN, chemerin, TNF-α, endothelin (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured using ELISA kits and a nitric-reductive assay. The expression of APN, chemerin and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured in experimental rats using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Hematoxylin–eosin (HE staining was used to observe changes in adipose tissue. The sHT rats had significantly higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, TNF-α, chemerin, ET-1, total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and lower levels of APN and NO than those in control and sHT + T4 rats. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, the levels of chemerin, TNF-α, ET-1, LDL-C, TC and triglyceride (TG were positively correlated with TSH, but APN and NO levels were negatively correlated with TSH. These findings demonstrated that high TSH levels contribute to the changes of adipokines and endothelial dysfunction in sHT, but LT4 treatment ameliorates those changes.

  15. Dietary management of labrador retrievers with subclinical hepatic copper accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, H; Biourge, V C; Watson, A L; Leegwater, P A J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Rothuizen, J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors, including dietary copper intake, contribute to the pathogenesis of copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers. Clinical disease is preceded by a subclinical phase in which copper accumulates in the liver. To investigate the effect of a low-copper, high-zinc diet on hepatic copper concentration in Labrador retrievers with increased hepatic copper concentrations. Twenty-eight clinically healthy, client-owned Labrador retrievers with a mean hepatic copper concentration of 919 ± 477 mg/kg dry weight liver (dwl) that were related to dogs previously diagnosed with clinical copper-associated hepatitis. Clinical trial in which dogs were fed a diet containing 1.3 ± 0.3 mg copper/Mcal and 64.3 ± 5.9 mg zinc/Mcal. Hepatic copper concentrations were determined in liver biopsy samples approximately every 6 months. Logistic regression was performed to investigate effects of sex, age, initial hepatic copper concentration and pedigree on the ability to normalize hepatic copper concentrations. In responders (15/28 dogs), hepatic copper concentrations decreased from a mean of 710 ± 216 mg/kg dwl copper to 343 ± 70 mg/kg dwl hepatic copper after a median of 7.1 months (range, 5.5-21.4 months). Dogs from a severely affected pedigree were at increased risk for inability to have their hepatic copper concentrations normalized with dietary treatment. Feeding a low-copper, high-zinc diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic copper concentrations in a subset of clinically normal Labrador retrievers with previous hepatic copper accumulation. A positive response to diet may be influenced by genetic background. Determination of clinical benefit requires further study. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Disconnection Between Amygdala and Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prerona; Sabharwal, Amri; Kotov, Roman; Szekely, Akos; Parsey, Ramin; Barch, Deanna M; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2016-07-01

    Distracting emotional information impairs attention more in schizophrenia (SCZ) than in never-psychotic individuals. However, it is unclear whether this impairment and its neural circuitry is indicative generally of psychosis, or specifically of SCZ, and whether it is even more specific to certain SCZ symptoms (eg, deficit syndrome). It is also unclear if this abnormality contributes to impaired behavioral performance and real-world functioning. Functional imaging data were recorded while individuals with SCZ, bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) and no history of psychotic disorders (CON) attended to identity of faces while ignoring their emotional expressions. We examined group differences in functional connectivity between amygdala, involved in emotional evaluation, and sub-regions of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), involved in emotion regulation and cognitive control. Additionally, we examined correlation of this connectivity with deficit syndrome and real-world functioning. Behaviorally, SCZ showed the worst accuracy when matching the identity of emotional vs neutral faces. Neurally, SCZ showed lower amygdala-MPFC connectivity than BDP and CON. BPD did not differ from CON, neurally or behaviorally. In patients, reduced amygdala-MPFC connectivity during emotional distractors was related to worse emotional vs neutral accuracy, greater deficit syndrome severity, and unemployment. Thus, reduced amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity during emotional distractors reflects a deficit that is specific to SCZ. This reduction in connectivity is associated with worse clinical and real-world functioning. Overall, these findings provide support for the specificity and clinical utility of amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity as a potential neural marker of SCZ. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

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    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  18. Weight History and Subclinical Myocardial Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumele, Chiadi E; Cobb, Laura; Lazo, Mariana; Bello, Natalie A; Shah, Amil; Nambi, Vijay; Blumenthal, Roger S; Gerstenblith, Gary; Solomon, Scott D; Ballantyne, Christie M; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2017-11-20

    Excess weight is associated with subclinical myocardial damage, as reflected by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations, which portends high heart failure risk. However, the association between weight history and myocardial damage is unknown. We evaluated 9062 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) visit 4 (1996-1999) participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and no previous cardiovascular disease. We cross-tabulated visit 4 ("current") BMI categories of normal weight, overweight, and obese with those at visit 1 (1987-1989) and with BMI categories calculated from self-reported weight at age 25 years. Duration of obesity was calculated in years. A cumulative weight measure of "excess BMI-years" was also calculated [product of mean BMI (centered at 25 kg/m(2)) over all ARIC time points × follow-up duration]. We used logistic regression to estimate associations of weight history metrics with increased hs-cTnT (≥14 ng/L) at visit 4. Overall, 623 individuals (7%) had increased hs-cTnT at visit 4. Within each current BMI category, previous excess weight was associated with increased hs-cTnT, with the strongest associations for those with past and current obesity [odds ratio (OR), 3.85; 95% CI, 2.51-5.90 for obesity at age 25 years and visit 4]. Each 10-year longer obesity duration was associated with increased hs-cTnT (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.17-1.35). Each 100 higher excess BMI-years was also progressively associated with increased hs-cTnT (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.27). Previous obesity and greater cumulative weight from young adulthood increase the likelihood of myocardial damage, indicating long-term toxic effects of adiposity on the myocardium and the need for weight maintenance strategies targeting the entire life span. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  19. Psychotic experiences in the context of depression: The cumulative role of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boyoung; Hilimire, Matthew; Schiffman, Jason; DeVylder, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between depression and psychotic experiences, but little is known about what drives this co-occurrence. This study tests the hypothesis that exposure to trauma and bullying may strengthen the relation between depression and psychotic experiences. A total of 799 college students completed self-report questionnaires on psychotic experiences, depression, bullying, and sexual trauma. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to test the direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences, as well as interactions. Approximately 20% of respondents reported a history of being bullied, and 7% reported exposure to childhood sexual trauma. There was a significant direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences. The association between depression and psychotic experiences was significantly stronger among respondents who were victims of both bullying and sexual violence compared to those who experienced either exposure alone, or who were not exposed to either form of victimization. These findings suggest that cumulative exposure to trauma and victimization may contribute to the co-occurrence of depression and psychotic experiences. History of victimization should be assessed among individuals with depressive symptoms to improve treatment plans and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trauma and psychotic experiences: transnational data from the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John J; Saha, Sukanta; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas de Almeida, José M; Cardoso, Graça; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M; Kawakami, Norito; Koenen, Karestan C; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; McLaughlin, Katie A; Medina-Mora, Maria E; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Ojagbemi, Akin; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate M; Tachimori, Hisateru; Ten Have, Margreet; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-12-01

    BackgroundTraumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset.AimsTo investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders.MethodWe assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders.ResultsRespondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders.ConclusionsExposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  1. Borderline personality pathology in young people at ultra high risk of developing a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jaymee; Graham, Anne; Nelson, Barnaby; Yung, Alison

    2017-06-01

    The association between borderline personality disorder and the ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis state is unclear. The following study aimed to investigate the type of attenuated psychotic symptoms and prevalence of borderline personality pathology in a sample of UHR young people. Additionally, the study aimed to explore whether borderline personality pathology influenced the transition rate to psychosis. Medical records from Orygen Youth Health between 2007 and 2009 were examined. There were 180 patients who met UHR criteria and were included for analysis. Most patients were females (62.8%) and age ranged from 15 to 24 years. A quarter (25.2%) of UHR patients endorsed items consistent with borderline personality pathology. UHR patients with borderline personality pathology experienced a range of attenuated psychotic symptoms and could not be statistically differentiated from UHR patients with less significant or without borderline personality pathology. Borderline personality pathology did not increase or decrease the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. The absence of depression was the only predictor of psychosis. Many UHR patients present with concurrent borderline personality features. The psychotic experiences reported by UHR patients with borderline personality features were not limited to paranoid ideation, supporting the idea that borderline personality disorder may include a wider range of psychotic symptoms than previously thought. It is further possible that the psychotic symptoms experienced in this group could also be indicative of an emerging psychotic disorder. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Familial overlap between bipolar disorder and psychotic symptoms in a Canadian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Richard; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Palmour, Roberta; Faucher, Brigitte; Allaire, Jean-François

    2005-03-01

    Although they were once considered separate nosologic entities, there is current interest in the etiologic overlap between bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. A critical issue concerns the familial basis of the overlap, specifically, the possibility of a distinct familial subtype of BD with psychotic features. We recruited individuals with BD from the community and compared them with a matched group diagnosed with no mental disorder to confirm familial aggregation for BD, schizophrenia, and psychotic symptoms. We then compared BD probands both with and without first-degree relatives with psychotic symptoms on several clinical indicators to determine the specificity of the familial aggregation. As expected, there was evidence for familial aggregation of schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms in families having probands with BD. Familial loading for schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms was especially notable in male relatives of female probands with BD. We found no differences in the clinical profile of probands with BD stratified for familial loading for psychotic symptoms. Findings from this sample support etiologic theories arguing for a shared but nonspecific genetic etiology for BD and schizophrenia, with psychotic symptoms being a potential key indicator for genetic studies.

  3. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An emerging problem in Southern West Bengal: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Ratan Chandra; Bhar, Debasish; Das, Anjan; Basunia, Sandip Roy; Kundu, Sudeshna Bhar; Mahapatra, Chinmay

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy varies widely in different parts of our country, but it has multiple adverse outcomes in both the mother and fetus. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of SCH in pregnant women during the first trimester and to identify the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant women. This cross-sectional study (March 2014 to February 2015) was conducted among the pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in their first trimester at a tertiary care center. Morning samples of study participants were analyzed for free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO Ab). Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation and percentage (%) as applicable. Of the 510 subjects, 168 had TSH value >2.5 μIU/ml (32.94%) with normal FT4 and they were diagnosed as SCH. TSH level >4.5 μIU/ml was estimated in 13.92% (71) of the subjects. TPO Ab was positive in 57 (33.93%) of subclinical hypothyroid and 5 (1.47%) of normal subjects. 70.42% (50) of the subjects with TSH >4.5 μIU/ml had positive TPO Ab. Prevalence of SCH is high in South Bengal and routine thyroid screening at the first antenatal visit should be done to reduce the social and financial burden caused by SCH.

  4. Early clinical and subclinical visual evoked potential and Humphrey's visual field defects in cryptococcal meningitis.

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    Anand Moodley

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal induced visual loss is a devastating complication in survivors of cryptococcal meningitis (CM. Early detection is paramount in prevention and treatment. Subclinical optic nerve dysfunction in CM has not hitherto been investigated by electrophysiological means. We undertook a prospective study on 90 HIV sero-positive patients with culture confirmed CM. Seventy-four patients underwent visual evoked potential (VEP testing and 47 patients underwent Humphrey's visual field (HVF testing. Decreased best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was detected in 46.5% of patients. VEP was abnormal in 51/74 (68.9% right eyes and 50/74 (67.6% left eyes. VEP P100 latency was the main abnormality with mean latency values of 118.9 (±16.5 ms and 119.8 (±15.7 ms for the right and left eyes respectively, mildly prolonged when compared to our laboratory references of 104 (±10 ms (p<0.001. Subclinical VEP abnormality was detected in 56.5% of normal eyes and constituted mostly latency abnormality. VEP amplitude was also significantly reduced in this cohort but minimally so in the visually unimpaired. HVF was abnormal in 36/47 (76.6% right eyes and 32/45 (71.1% left eyes. The predominant field defect was peripheral constriction with an enlarged blind spot suggesting the greater impact by raised intracranial pressure over that of optic neuritis. Whether this was due to papilloedema or a compartment syndrome is open to further investigation. Subclinical HVF abnormalities were minimal and therefore a poor screening test for early optic nerve dysfunction. However, early optic nerve dysfunction can be detected by testing of VEP P100 latency, which may precede the onset of visual loss in CM.

  5. Epicardial fat is associated with severity of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Leonardo C; Mangili, Otavio C; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Miname, Márcio H; Harada, Paulo H; Lima, Leonardo M; Rochitte, Carlos E; Santos, Raul D

    2016-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder characterized by elevated blood cholesterol, increased prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis and high risk of premature coronary heart disease. However, this risk is not explained solely by elevated LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and other factors may influence atherosclerosis development. There is evidence that increased adiposity may predispose to atherosclerosis in FH. Epicardial fat has been associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in the general population. This study evaluated the association of epicardial fat (EFV) volume with the presence and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis detected by computed tomography angiography in FH patients. Ninety-seven FH subjects (35% male, mean age 45 ± 13 years, LDL-C 281 ± 56 mg/dL, 67% with proven molecular defects) underwent computed tomography angiography and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. EFV was measured in non-contrast images using a semi-automated method. Segment-stenosis score (SSS) and segment-involvement score (SIS) were calculated. Multivariate Poisson regression was utilized to assess an independent association of EFV with coronary atherosclerotic burden. EFV was positively associated with age, body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, the presence of the metabolic syndrome components, but not with LDL-C. After adjusting for confounders and abdominal circumference, an independent association (shown as β coefficients and 95% confidence intervals) of EVF with CAC scores [β = 0.263 (0.234; 0.292), p=0.000], SIS [β = 0.304 (0.141; 0.465) p=0.000] and SSS [β = 0.296 (0.121; 0.471), p=0.001] was found. In FH, EFV was independently associated with coronary atherosclerotic presence and severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism during first trimester of pregnancy in North India

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    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid dysfunction is a common occurrence in pregnancy and affects both maternal and fetal outcomes. There are limited data on prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy from India. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction especially hypothyroidism during first trimester in a large public hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive first trimester pregnant women attending Lok Nayak and Kasturba Hospitals were enrolled in the study after institutional ethics approval and consent from the study subjects. The pregnant women with diagnosed thyroid disease and on thyroid medications were excluded from the study. Morning samples of study participants were analyzed for thyroid hormone profile which included free T3, free T4, TSH, and TPO Ab. In addition, all study participants were tested for CBC, LFT, KFT, and lipid profile. Results: A total of 1000 women were enrolled for this prospective observational study. The mean (SD age of study subjects was 25.6 (11.1 years, and mean (SD gestational age was 10.3 (3.4 weeks. One hundred and forty-three (14.3% subjects had TSH values more than 4.5 mIU/L above the cutoff used for definition of hypothyroidism. Out of these, 135 had normal free T4 and therefore labeled as subclinical hypothyroidism and 7 had low free T4 suggestive of overt hypothyroidism. TPO Ab was positive in 68 (6.82% of total, 25 (18.5% of subclinical and 5 (71% of overt hypothyroid patients. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism, especially subclinical, is common in North Indian women during first trimester. Further countrywide studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of hypothyroidism to prevent maternal and fetal adverse effects of hypothyroidism in India.

  8. Prevalence of Psychotic Symptoms and Their Risk Factors in Urban Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jenkins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in urban Tanzania and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and social factors. A random sample of 899 adults aged 15–59 was surveyed. The main outcome measure was endorsement of one or more psychotic symptoms identified by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. 3.9% respondents reported one or more psychotic symptoms in the preceding year. Significantly higher rates of symptoms were found in those who had recently experienced two or more stressful life events, those with CMD and people who had used cannabis in the preceding year.

  9. Prevalence of Psychotic Symptoms and Their Risk Factors in Urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Mbatia, Joseph; Singleton, Nicola; White, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in urban Tanzania and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and social factors. A random sample of 899 adults aged 15–59 was surveyed. The main outcome measure was endorsement of one or more psychotic symptoms identified by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. 3.9% respondents reported one or more psychotic symptoms in the preceding year. Significantly higher rates of symptoms were found in those who had recently experienced two or more stressful life events, those with CMD and people who had used cannabis in the preceding year. PMID:20644687

  10. Alcohol and Cannabis Use and Mortality in People with Schizophrenia and Related Psychotic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Koola, Maju Mathew; McMahon, Robert P.; Wehring, Heidi J.; Liu, Fang; Mackowick, Kristen M.; Warren, Kimberly R.; Feldman, Stephanie; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Love, Raymond C.; Kelly, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of co-morbid substance use on mortality is not well studied in psychotic disorders. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of substance use on mortality in people with psychotic disorders and alcohol and/or drug use. We examined the rate of substance use and the risk of substance use on mortality risk over a 4–10 year period in 762 people with psychotic disorders. Deceased patients were identified from the Social Security Death Index and the Maryland Division of Vita...

  11. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  12. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perysinakis, Iraklis; Marakaki, Chrisanthi; Avlonitis, Spyridon; Katseli, Anastasia; Vassilatou, Evangeline; Papanastasiou, Lambrini; Piaditis, George; Zografos, George N

    2013-06-01

    Subclinical Cushing syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentalomas has been associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. The management of these patients, be it conservative or surgical, is still debated, but there is accumulating evidence that surgery is best and that laparoscopic adrenalectomy, when possible, is the most preferred procedure. Here we present the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for subclinical Cushing syndrome and determine the effect of this procedure on components of the metabolic syndrome. Twenty-nine patients, 8 men and 21 women with adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical Cushing syndrome who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, were studied retrospectively. They had undergone postoperative follow-up for improvement or worsening of their arterial blood pressure, body weight, and fasting glucose level for a mean period of 77 months. Preoperatively, 17 patients (58.6 %) had arterial hypertension, 14 (48.3 %) had a body mass index exceeding 27 kg/m(2), and 12 (41.4 %) had diabetes mellitus. Postoperatively, a decrease in mean arterial pressure was found in 12 patients (70.6 %), a decrease in body mass index in 6 patients (42.9 %), and an improvement in glycemic control in 5 patients (41.7 %). Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is beneficial in many patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome because it reduces arterial blood pressure, body weight, and fasting glucose levels. Prospective randomized studies are needed to compare laparoscopic adrenalectomy with a conservative approach and to confirm these results.

  13. Subclinical renal abnormalities in young thalassemia major and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Limited data are available about renal involvement in thalassemia patients. Renal dysfunction in these patients seems to be multifactorial attributed mainly to long standing anemia, chronic hypoxia, iron overload and toxicity of iron chelators. Objective: To assess the frequency of subclinical glomerular and ...

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients is higher than that of the general population. Undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction may affect the metabolic control and enhance cardiovascular, and other chronic complication risks in diabetic patients. Few studies have examined the relationship between subclinical ...

  15. Prevalence, bacterial etiology and risk factors of subclinical mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high prevalence of subclinical mastitis revealed in Nyeri calls for concerted control measures. The high isolation rate of Staphylococcus species signals the need for improvement of the hygienic standards of these goats during milking and within their pens. Very low antibiotic resistance in the area indicates that most ...

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Is it important in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Eray; Ergin, Rahime Nida; Öztekin, Deniz Can; Kars, Bülent; Çakır, Seda; Sofuoğlu, Kenan

    2017-06-01

    To compare intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes of women with subclinical hypothyroidism with those of euthyroid women. A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Out of 2529 ICSI cycles evaluated, 41 women with hypothyroidism, 28 women with hyperthyroidism, and 128 women with subclinical hyperthyroidism were excluded, and 2336 cycles were analyzed. Women were identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism (case group, n=105) in the presence of a thyroid-stimulating hormone level >4.5 mU/L and normal free T4 and compared with euthyroid controls (n=2231). The mean age, body mass index, day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone level, and antral follicle count of the study patients were similar to the control group (p>0.5). The cycle cancellation rate of the study group was similar to the control group (13.3% vs. 7.6%, p=0.1). The clinical pregnancy rate was 21.2% in the study group, which was significantly lower than the 35.8% in the control group (p=0.04). The take-home baby rate was also significantly lower in the study group compared with the control groups (13.5% vs. 31.4% respectively, p=0.01). Both the clinical pregnancy rate and the take-home baby rate is lower in women with subclinical hypothyroidism at the time of ICSI cycle.

  17. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes mellitus at the Kalafong Diabetes Clinic in Pretoria. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects: Five hundred and sixty-five patients with diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2 or unknown), ...

  18. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2014-09-16

    Sep 16, 2014 ... Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat or not to treat??? Congenital hypothyroidism is 30 times more frequent in newborns with Down syndrome (DS) than in the population of healthy children [1]. Mild isolated plasma thyrotropin. (TSH) elevation with normal thyroxine (T4) ...

  19. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-03

    Oct 3, 2012 ... Original Research: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes mellitus. 106. 2013 Volume 18 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Diabetes mellitus and its associated complications is a major challenge for both the private and state health sector in South Africa. The number of ...

  20. Malondialdehyde level and some enzymatic activities in subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in milk malondialdehyde (MDA) level and some enzymatic activities as a result of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 124 milk samples were collected from 124 lactating cows from the same herd in the period between the 2nd week after calving ...

  1. Prevalence of subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in healthy HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The association between HIV and CVD has been established in many studies. However, information is still lacking on subclinical disease as well as its associated risk factors in this population. This study aimed at ...

  2. Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence, pattern and predictors. ... Mean age was 70.1 ± 6.2 years, 77.7% were married. Prevalence of S-MEM ... Independent clinical predictors of S-MEM included previous head injury, diabetes, history of osteoarthritis of knee joints, and absent acoustic reflex.

  3. Karolinska Scales of Personality, cognition and psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Björn Mikael; Holm, Gunnar; Ekselius, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies on both personality dimensions and cognition in schizophrenia are scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine personality traits and the relation to cognitive function and psychotic symptoms in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In total 23 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). A broad cognitive test programme was used, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, the Finger-Tapping Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test . Compared with controls, the patients exhibited prominent elevations on KSP scales measuring anxiety proneness and neuroticism (P = 0.000005-0.0001), on the Detachment scale (P Aggression, Suspicion, Guilt and Irritability scales (P = 0.002-0.03) while the remaining five scales did not differ between patients and controls. KSP anxiety-related scales correlated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) general psychopathology subscale. Cognitive test results were uniformly lower in the patient group and correlated with PANSS negative symptoms subscale. There was no association between KSP scale scores and PANSS positive or negative symptoms. The patients revealed a highly discriminative KSP test profile with elevated scores in neuroticism- and psychoticism-related scales as compared to controls. Results support previous findings utilizing other personality inventories in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive test performance correlated inversely with negative symptoms.

  4. Ovine subclinical mastitis: proteomic analysis of whey and milk fat globules unveils putative diagnostic biomarkers in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Elisabetta; Valiani, Andrea; Tartaglia, Micaela; Scoppetta, Fausto; Renzone, Giovanni; Arena, Simona; Avellini, Luca; Benda, Simona; Gaiti, Alberto; Scaloni, Andrea

    2013-05-27

    Subclinical mastitis is one of the main causes of alteration in milk content and has a major impact on both animal welfare and economy in the dairy industry. A better knowledge is needed to understand the ovine mammary gland metabolism and its response to bacterial infection. In this study, the proteomic changes in ovine milk as a result of subclinical mastitis were investigated by comparing both whey and fat globule membrane profiles of samples from Staphylococcus chromogenes-positive individuals, with those from non-infected counterparts having high or low somatic cell count; the latter were used as control. 2-DE and combined MS procedures were utilized for this purpose. Although sample bromatological parameters were very similar, proteomic analysis highlighted significant differences between the three experimental groups. Most relevant changes were observed between samples of infected milk and control. Modifications related to the defense response of the mammary gland to the pathogen were evident, with important consequences on nutritional and technological properties of milk. On the other hand, quantitative protein changes between non-infected samples with low and high levels of somatic cells indicated that the latter may result as a consequence of a probable unpaired cellular metabolism due to cellular stress, hormonal variations or previous infections. Putative biomarkers useful for the monitoring of sheep mammary metabolism and for the careful management of ovine subclinical mastitis to avoid its clinical degeneration are proposed and discussed. Proteomics has been here applied to the differentiation of healthy and subclinical mastitic sheep milk samples, evidencing the response of the mammary gland to S. chromogenes infection. Presented results propose useful protein biomarkers for the detection of ewe mammary infection at its subclinical stages and, subsequently, mastitis recognition and treatment. Differently from bovine, these data confirm that the

  5. Subclinical peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetic adolescents and its relationship with metabolic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajić Silvija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional management of paediatric diabetology, according to consensus guidelines, involves the screening of micro-vascular complications at puberty. The subclinical form of peripheral neural dysfunction in diabetic teenagers is reported with a frequency of 50-88%, by different authors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of subclinical distal neuropathy (DSMN in type 1 diabetic pediatric patients during the second decade of life, and its relationship with metabolic control. The Endocrinology Department and the Neurology-Physiology Laboratory of the Pediatric Clinic in Belgrade carried out a longitudinal follow-up study (lasting 18 months, beginning in November 2000 on a selection of patients with poor metabolic control. During routine clinical treatment, patients were evaluated using the electrophysiological diagnostic method on peripheral neural dysfunction, a subclinical form of neuropathy. Metabolic control was manifested through HbA1c levels, measured every 3 months, using ion-exchange chromatography. Finally, here is the data collected from the clinical follow-up investigation of 60 children, aged 13-19 (median 1S.S±2.2, with duration of diabetes from 2-16 years (median b.3±3.b, and on the following therapies: 43 CT-conventional and 17 IIT-intensive, and insulin dose/day, median 1.02 (0.6-2.1 U/kg. Detected DSMN parameters at the beginning and at the end of the study were also noted. DSMN frequency was positive, at 64% for HbA1c of 9.44; DSMN dysfunction was reversed in 5% of the patients, for HbA1c of 10.17; the worst result was the progression of DSMN at 6.7% for HbA1c of 10.52; 6.7% had negative DSMN, with improved metabolic control, for HbA1c of 8.4; 15% of the examinations were unfinished (+/*. ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant statistical relationship between metabolic control (HbA1c levels and DSMN neuropathy (sig. 0.043, p<0.05. There was no significant relationship between the reversion of

  6. Serum cytokine profile in the subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama M.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining the development or not of visceral leishmaniasis (VL have not been completely identified, but a Leishmania-specific cellular immune response seems to play a fundamental role in the final control of infection. Few studies are available regarding the production of cytokines in the subclinical form of VL, with only the production of IFN-g and TNF-a known. The aim of the present study was to identify immunological markers for the oligosymptomatic or subclinical form of VL. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 784 children aged 0 to 5 years from an endemic area in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, between January 1998 and December 2001. During 30 consecutive months of follow-up, 33 children developed the oligosymptomatic form of the disease and 12 the acute form. During the clinical manifestations, serum cytokine levels were determined in 27 oligosymptomatic children and in nine patients with the acute form using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. In the subclinical form of VL, variable levels of IL-2 were detected in 52.3% of the children, IL-12 in 85.2%, IFN-g in 48.1%, IL-10 in 88.9%, and TNF-a in 100.0%, with the last two cytokines showing significantly lower levels than in the acute form. IL-4 was not detected in oligosymptomatic individuals. Multiple discriminant analysis used to determine the profile or combination of cytokines predominating in the subclinical form revealed both a Leishmania resistance (Th1 and susceptibility (Th2 profile. The detection of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles explains the self-limited evolution accompanied by the discrete alterations observed for the subclinical form of VL.

  7. History of malaria treatment as a predictor of subsequent subclinical parasitaemia: a cross-sectional survey and malaria case records from three villages in Pailin, western Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peto, Thomas J; Kloprogge, Sabine E; Tripura, Rupam; Nguon, Chea; Sanann, Nou; Yok, Sovann; Heng, Chhouen; Promnarate, Cholrawee; Chalk, Jeremy; Song, Ngak; Lee, Sue J; Lubell, Yoel; Dhorda, Mehul; Imwong, Mallika; White, Nicholas J; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dondorp, Arjen

    2016-04-26

    Treatment of the sub-clinical reservoir of malaria, which may maintain transmission, could be an important component of elimination strategies. The reliable detection of asymptomatic infections with low levels of parasitaemia requires high-volume quantitative polymerase chain reaction (uPCR), which is impractical to conduct on a large scale. It is unknown to what extent sub-clinical parasitaemias originate from recent or older clinical episodes. This study explored the association between clinical history of malaria and subsequent sub-clinical parasitaemia. In June 2013 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in three villages in Pailin, western Cambodia. Demographic and epidemiological data and blood samples were collected. Blood was tested for malaria by high-volume qPCR. Positive samples were analysed by nested PCR to determine the Plasmodium species. To identify previous episodes of malaria, case records were collected from village malaria workers and local health facilities and linked to study participants. Among 1343 participants, 40/122 (32.8 %) with a history of clinical malaria were parasitaemic during the cross-sectional survey, compared to 172/1221 (14.1 %) without this history (p history of clinical malaria, compared to 87 out of 1131 (7.7 %) parasite-negative participants; p history of Plasmodium vivax was associated with sub-clinical P. vivax parasitaemia in the survey (p history of P. falciparum. A clinical episode of vivax malaria was associated with subsequent sub-clinical parasitaemia. Treatment of P. vivax with artemisinin-based combination therapy without primaquine often resulted in recurrent episodes. Targeting individuals with a history of clinical malaria will be insufficient to eliminate the sub-clinical reservoir as they constitute a minority of parasitaemias.

  8. Establishment a real-time reverse transcription PCR based on host biomarkers for the detection of the subclinical cases of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Eui; Park, Hong-Tae; Jung, Young Hoon; Yoo, Han Sang

    2017-01-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic enteric inflammatory disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that causes large economic losses in the dairy industry. Spread of PTB is mainly provoked by a long subclinical stage during which MAP is shed into the environment with feces; accordingly, detection of subclinical animals is very important to its control. However, current diagnostic methods are not suitable for detection of subclinical animals. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop a diagnostic method for analysis of the expression of genes of prognostic potential biomarker candidates in the whole blood of cattle naturally infected with MAP. Real-time PCR with nine potential biomarker candidates was developed for the diagnosis of MAP subclinical infection. Animals were divided into four groups based on fecal MAP PCR and serum ELISA. Eight genes (Timp1, Hp, Serpine1, Tfrc, Mmp9, Defb1, Defb10, and S100a8) were up-regulated in MAP-infected cattle (p <0.05). Moreover, ROC analysis revealed that eight genes (Timp1, Hp, Serpine1, Tfrc, Mmp9, Defb1, Defb10, and S100a8) showed fair diagnostic performance (AUC≥0.8). Four biomarkers (Timp1, S100a8, Defb1, and Defb10) showed the highest diagnostic accuracy in the PCR positive and ELISA negative group (PN group) and three biomarkers (Tfrc, Hp, and Serpine1) showed the highest diagnostic accuracy in the PCR negative and ELISA positive group (NP group). Moreover, three biomarkers (S100a8, Hp, and Defb10) were considered the most reliable for the PCR positive and ELISA positive group (PP group). Taken together, our data suggest that real-time PCR based on eight biomarkers (Timp1, Hp, Serpine1, Tfrc, Mmp9, Defb1, Defb10, and S100a8) might be useful for diagnosis of JD, including subclinical stage cases.

  9. Probiotic Enhanced Intestinal Immunity in Broilers against Subclinical Necrotic Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Along with banning of antibiotics, necrotic enteritis (NE, especially subclinical NE (SNE whereby no clinical signs are present in chicks, has become one of the most threatening problems in poultry industry. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on research and application of effective probiotic strains, as an alternative to antibiotics, to prevent SNE in broilers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the prevention of SNE in broilers. Specifically, assessment determined the growth performance and indexes related to intestinal mucosal immunity in the ileum and cecal tonsil of broilers. A total of 300 1-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into the following 5 groups: control group (fed with basal diet + de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe liquid medium [normal diet], SNE group (normal diet, BS15 group (basal diet + 1 × 106 colony-forming units BS15/g as fed [BS15 diet], treatment group (normal diet [days 1–28] + BS15 diet [days 29–42], and prevention group (BS15 diet [days 1–28] + normal diet [days 29–42] throughout a 42-day experimental period. SNE infection was treated for all chicks in the SNE, BS15, treatment, and prevention groups. The present results demonstrated that BS15 supplementation of feeds in BS15 and prevention groups exerted a positive effect on preventing negative influences on growth performance; these negative influences included low body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio caused by SNE. Although no changes were detected in all determined indexes in cecal tonsils, BS15-treated broilers were free from SNE-caused damage in villi in the ileum. BS15 inhibited SNE-caused decrease in immunoglobulins in the ileum. In the lamina propria of ileum, T cell subsets of lymphocytes influenced by SNE were also controlled by BS15. BS15 affected antioxidant abilities of the ileum and controlled SNE-induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis by

  10. Probiotic Enhanced Intestinal Immunity in Broilers against Subclinical Necrotic Enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Qing, Xiaodan; Liu, Lei; Lai, Jing; Khalique, Abdul; Li, Guangyao; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo; Zeng, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Along with banning of antibiotics, necrotic enteritis (NE), especially subclinical NE (SNE) whereby no clinical signs are present in chicks, has become one of the most threatening problems in poultry industry. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on research and application of effective probiotic strains, as an alternative to antibiotics, to prevent SNE in broilers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the prevention of SNE in broilers. Specifically, assessment determined the growth performance and indexes related to intestinal mucosal immunity in the ileum and cecal tonsil of broilers. A total of 300 1-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into the following 5 groups: control group (fed with basal diet + de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe liquid medium [normal diet]), SNE group (normal diet), BS15 group (basal diet + 1 × 106 colony-forming units BS15/g as fed [BS15 diet]), treatment group (normal diet [days 1-28] + BS15 diet [days 29-42]), and prevention group (BS15 diet [days 1-28] + normal diet [days 29-42]) throughout a 42-day experimental period. SNE infection was treated for all chicks in the SNE, BS15, treatment, and prevention groups. The present results demonstrated that BS15 supplementation of feeds in BS15 and prevention groups exerted a positive effect on preventing negative influences on growth performance; these negative influences included low body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio caused by SNE. Although no changes were detected in all determined indexes in cecal tonsils, BS15-treated broilers were free from SNE-caused damage in villi in the ileum. BS15 inhibited SNE-caused decrease in immunoglobulins in the ileum. In the lamina propria of ileum, T cell subsets of lymphocytes influenced by SNE were also controlled by BS15. BS15 affected antioxidant abilities of the ileum and controlled SNE-induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis by positively changing

  11. Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henquet, C.J.; Krabbendam, L.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Kaplan, C.; Lieb, R.; Wittchen, H.U.; Os, J. van

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms in individuals with above average predisposition for psychosis who first used cannabis during adolescence. DESIGN: Analysis of prospective data from a population based sample. Assessment of substance use,

  12. Clozapine and obsessions in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.; Gorsira, R.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase or emergence of obsessions was compared in young patients with recent-onset schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders taking clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were 121 consecutively admitted patients

  13. The use of electroconvulsive therapy in atypical psychotic presentations: a case review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, John H; Vasu, Devi

    2007-10-01

    Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial.CASE REPORTS HAVE SUGGESTED A ROLE FOR ECT IN TWO SPECIFIC ATYPICAL PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis.

  14. Secondary psychotic features in refugees diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mette Kathrine; Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial amount of refugees (10-30%) suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In Denmark there are different facilities specialised in psychiatric treatment of trauma-affected refugees. A previously published case report from such a facility in Denmark shows that some...... patients suffer from secondary psychotic symptoms alongside their PTSD. The aim of this study was to illustrate the characteristics and estimate the prevalence of psychotic features in a clinical population of trauma-affected refugees with PTSD. METHODS: Psychiatric records from 220 consecutive patients......-SP prevalence in a clinical refugee population with PTSD. The study points to the difficulties distinguishing psychotic features from flashbacks and the authors call for attention to psychotic features in PTSD patients in order to improve documentation and understanding of the disorder....

  15. The treatment of psychotic depression : Is there consensus among guidelines and psychiatrists?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leadholm, Anne Katrine K.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Bech, Per; Munk-Jorgensen, Povl; Ostergaard, Soren Dinesen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychotic depression (PD) is a prevalent, severe, under-diagnosed and often inadequately treated mental disorder, which has received disproportionally little attention by clinicians, researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, the evidence base for optimal clinical

  16. Psychotic experiences and disability: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans; Koyanagi, Ai; Kelleher, Ian; DeVylder, Jordan

    2017-08-07

    Psychotic experiences are associated with a number of poor clinical outcomes, including multimorbid psychopathology, suicidal behavior, and poor treatment response. We wished to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and disability, including the following domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, social interaction, role functioning, and days out of role. We used three nationally representative and racially/ethnically diverse samples of the general US adult population: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between lifetime psychotic experiences (visual and auditory hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideation; WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview psychosis screen) and 30-day impairments in functioning across disability domains (using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II). In all three samples, models were adjusted for socio-demographics and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In the NCS-R, models were also adjusted for chronic health conditions. Across all three studies, our adjusted models showed that people with disability had anywhere from about 1.5 to over 3 times the odds of reporting lifetime psychotic experiences, depending on the domain. This was true for each disability domain, except self-care in the NLAAS and in the NSAL. Psychotic experiences are markers of risk for disability across a wide range of domains. This may explain the elevated rates of service utilization among individuals who report psychotic experiences and supports the need to assess for and respond to psychotic experiences even in the absence of psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenomenology of psychotic mood disorders: lifetime and major depressive episode features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souery, Daniel; Zaninotto, Leonardo; Calati, Raffaella; Linotte, Sylvie; Sentissi, Othman; Amital, Daniela; Moser, Ulrike; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; Mendlewicz, Julien; Serretti, Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    The nosological and clinical implications of psychotic features in the course of mood disorders have been widely debated. Currently, no specification exists for defining a subgroup of lifetime Psychotic Mood Disorder (PMD) patients. A total of 2178 patients were examined, including subjects with Bipolar Disorder (BP) type I (n=519) and II (n=207) and Major Depressive Disorder (n=1452). Patients were divided between PMD (n=645) and non-psychotic Mood Disorders (MD) (n=1533) by the lifetime presence of at least one mood episode with psychotic features. Subjects having a depressive episode at the time of assessment were also examined: HAM-D and YMRS scores were compared between MD and PMD subjects, both with and without current psychotic features. A diagnosis of BP-I, a higher familial load for BP, a higher number of mood episodes lifetime, and a higher prevalence of OCD and somatic comorbidities were all associated to PMD. A diagnosis of BP (OR=4.48) was the only significant predictor for psychosis. PMD with non-psychotic depression were apparently less severe than MD patients and had a lower rate of "non-responders" to AD treatment. Sub-threshold manic symptoms and suicidal risk were also more pronounced among PMD. The lack of information about number and polarity of previous psychotic mood episodes may be the major limitations of our study. BP diagnosis is the most significant predictor for psychosis in mood disorders. Non-psychotic mood episodes in PMD patients may be characterized by a distinctive symptom profile and, possibly, a different response to treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional Neuroimaging Predictors of Self-Reported Psychotic Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Josiane; Spechler, Philip A; Potvin, Stéphane; Whelan, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; McEwen, Sarah C; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Vetter, Nora C; Walter, Henrik; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia J

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the neural correlates of psychotic-like experiences in youths during tasks involving inhibitory control, reward anticipation, and emotion processing. A secondary aim was to test whether these neurofunctional correlates of risk were predictive of psychotic symptoms 2 years later. Functional imaging responses to three paradigms-the stop-signal, monetary incentive delay, and faces tasks-were collected in youths at age 14, as part of the IMAGEN study. At baseline, youths from London and Dublin sites were assessed on psychotic-like experiences, and those reporting significant experiences were compared with matched control subjects. Significant brain activity differences between the groups were used to predict, with cross-validation, the presence of psychotic symptoms in the context of mood fluctuation at age 16, assessed in the full sample. These prediction analyses were conducted with the London-Dublin subsample (N=246) and the full sample (N=1,196). Relative to control subjects, youths reporting psychotic-like experiences showed increased hippocampus/amygdala activity during processing of neutral faces and reduced dorsolateral prefrontal activity during failed inhibition. The most prominent regional difference for classifying 16-year-olds with mood fluctuation and psychotic symptoms relative to the control groups (those with mood fluctuations but no psychotic symptoms and those with no mood symptoms) was hyperactivation of the hippocampus/amygdala, when controlling for baseline psychotic-like experiences and cannabis use. The results stress the importance of the limbic network's increased response to neutral facial stimuli as a marker of the extended psychosis phenotype. These findings might help to guide early intervention strategies for at-risk youths.

  19. Diagnosis and Treatment of a Patient With Both Psychotic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Carolyn I.; Corcoran, Cheryl; Simpson, Helen Blair

    2010-01-01

    When a patient presents with both psychotic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the clinician is faced with a differential diagnosis that includes comorbid schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), OCD with poor insight, and schizophrenia with antipsychotic-induced obsessive-compulsive symptoms. If the psychotic symptoms are subthresh-old or attenuated in form, the individual may have OCD and putative prodromal schizophrenia. The authors present a case to outline a strategy for di...

  20. Epidemiological Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy cows in Assiut Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Rady

    Full Text Available In this investigation, some epidemiological studies were run on subclinical mastitis for totally 350 dairy cows of different breeds, ages and distributed in different villages in Assiut governorate, Assiut, Egypt, along a whole year (during the period from June 2006 till July 2007 through field screening surveys by using of the California mastitis test (CMT for each quarter milk sample followed by bacteriological examination to identify the major causative agents of intramammary infection (IMI. The dairy cows were differed from the breed point of view as 230 Holstein Friesian breed and 120 native breed. Also, they were differed from the age point of view as a group of 95 cows aged from 2 to 4 years old and another group of 255 cow aged from 5 to 8 years old. All dairy cows were apparently healthy with clinically sound udder secreting apparently normal milk. All the cows lived nearly under the same conditions of breeding from the habitat, hygiene and feeding systems. The obtained results revealed that 67 cows (19.14% had 80 infected quarters (5.71%. It was found that the most frequently major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli from the positive CMT samples with prevalence 52.5, 31.25 and 16.25%, respectively. With studying the breed factor, it was found Friesian breed was sensitive towards infection (20.43% at the cow level and 6.09% at the quarter level than of native breed (16.67% at the cow level and 5% at the quarter level. It was also noticed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot weather as during summer (9.14% at the cow level and 2.64% at the quarter level and during spring (4.86% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level was higher than in cold weather as during winter (2% at the cow level and 0.64% at the quarter level and during autumn (3.14% at the cow level and 1.07% at the quarter level. In relation to age susceptibility, 5-8 years old cows (15.43% at

  1. Reactivity to social stress in subclinical social anxiety: Emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behavior and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu George Crisan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD. This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that, in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples.

  2. Serum uric acid: a marker of metabolic syndrome and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyun; Bian, Luqin; Choi, Yoonho

    2012-08-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) is a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis. We assessed the relationship between SUA and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean men (n = 3010). Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and ultrasonographic measurements of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), respectively, are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs) of CAC score and cIMT across SUA levels were 1.101 (P = .046) and 1.266 (P = .002), respectively, after adjustment for several variables. The independent association between CAC and cIMT was observed (OR = 1.231, P uric acid was independently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) with an OR of 1.415 (P Metabolic syndrome was only independently associated with cIMT, with an OR of 2.103 (P = .003). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was positively correlated with SUA (r = .125, P uric acid level is independently associated with CAC, cIMT, and MetS in Korean men.

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in milk from flocks diagnosed with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, A R E O; Almeida, A C; Souza, C N; Silva, L M V; Ruas, A X A; Sanglard, D A; Júnior, A F M; Oliveira, A M E; Xavier, M A S

    2017-06-29

    The Staphylococcus aureus is the most common isolated microorganism in ruminant animal species diagnostic with clinical or subclinical mastitis. Dairy herds with these diseases can transfer S. aureus into the milk supply, which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of femA gene, the genetic relationships among isolates of S. aureus obtained from milk originating from flocks diagnosed with subclinical mastitis in nine rural properties in the northern of Minas Gerais State. To this end, 498 samples of bovine milk tested positive for the California mastitis test (CMT) were subjected to morphological methods and biochemical patterns for microbiological presumptive identification of S. aureus. The PCR test with the genetic marker femA was used to confirm the species S. aureus. All the 26 isolates presumptively identified as S. aureus amplified a fragment of 132 bp corresponding to the femA gene. The profile of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the disk-diffusion methodology and two isolates were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. The drug multiresistence was found in 80.76% of the isolates. The determination of the genetic profile and the clonal relationship among the isolates was performed by the method of DNA RAPD-PCR polymorphism. The S. aureus isolates were divided into two groups with 26 distinct subgroups. The analysis of RAPD-PCR showed no genetic diversity among them, heterogeneous profile and absence of clonality.

  4. Estimation of Mineral and Trace Element Profile in Bubaline Milk Affected with Subclinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahavir; Yadav, Poonam; Sharma, Anshu; Garg, V K; Mittal, Dinesh

    2017-04-01

    The milk samples from buffaloes of Murrah breed at mid lactation stage, reared at an organised dairy farm, were screened for subclinical mastitis based on bacteriological examination and somatic cell count following International Dairy Federation criteria. Milk samples from subclinical mastitis infected and healthy buffaloes were analysed to evaluate physicochemical alterations in terms of protein, fat, pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, minerals (sodium, potassium and calcium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and selenium). In the present study, protein, fat, zinc, iron, calcium and selenium content was significantly lower (P < 0.001), while pH and electrical conductivity were significantly higher in mastitic milk as compared to normal milk. Concentration of electrolytes mainly sodium and chloride significantly increased with higher somatic cell count in mastitic milk and to maintain osmolality; potassium levels decreased proportionately. Correlation matrix revealed significantly positive interdependences of somatic cell count with pH, electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride. However, protein, fat, calcium and potassium were correlated negatively with elevated somatic cell count in mastitic milk. It is concluded that udder infections resulting in elevated somatic cells may alter the mineral and trace element profile of milk, and magnitude of changes may have diagnostic and prognostic value.

  5. Circulating leukocyte-derived microparticles predict subclinical atherosclerosis burden in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chironi, Gilles; Simon, Alain; Hugel, Bénédicte; Del Pino, Muriel; Gariepy, Jérôme; Freyssinet, Jean-Marie; Tedgui, Alain

    2006-12-01

    To clarify circulating microparticles (MP) relationships with preclinical atherosclerosis. In 216 subjects without cardiovascular disease, we assessed: (1) annexin V-positive, platelet-derived, endothelium-derived and leukocyte-derived circulating MP by capture on annexin V, anti-GPIb, anti-CD105, and anti-CD11a antibody-coated wells, respectively; (2) Framingham risk, metabolic syndrome, and low-grade inflammation by risk factors measurement including hsCRP; and (3) subclinical atherosclerosis by ultrasound examination of carotid, abdominal aorta, and femoral arteries. Number of sites with plaque ranged from 0 to 3 and plaque burden was classified into 0 to 1 or 2 to 3 sites disease. Leukocyte-derived MP level was higher in the presence than in the absence of moderate to high Framingham risk (Pmarkers or atherosclerosis. Leukocyte-derived MP, identified by affinity for CD11a, are increased in subjects with ultrasound evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis, unveiling new directions for atherosclerosis research.

  6. [Frequency of subclinical thyroid problems among women during the first trimester of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, Lorena; Martínez, Alejandra; Rojas, María Paulina; Margozzini, Paula; Solari, Sandra; Lyng, Trinidad; Ortíz, Juan Andrés; Carvajal, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in fetal neural and cognitive development. Therefore thyroid abnormalities should be detected and treated early during pregnancy. To assess the frequency and risk factors for functional thyroid disorders during the first trimester of pregnancy. A blood sample was obtained from women during their first trimester of pregnancy, consulting in a prenatal care facility. Women with known thyroid diseases were excluded from the study. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured by electrochemoluminiscence. Antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti TPO) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Five hundred and ten women aged 25.7 ± 6.6 years were assessed. The frequency of clinical hypothyroidism was 0.6%, subclinical hypothyroidism 35.3% and clinical hyperthyroidism 1%. Five percent of women with hypothyroidism and 3.5% of euthyroid women had positive anti TPO antibodies. There was no association between the frequency of thyroid diseases and risk factors for thyroid diseases. There is a high frequency of subclinical thyroid diseases among women consulting in this prenatal care clinic.

  7. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  8. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL AND ELECTROLYTE COMPONENTS OF MILK IN SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN HOLSTEIN X HARYANA CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Guha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to investigate whether the chemical and electrolyte components of milk can be used as an indicator to detect subclinical mastitis in Holstein X Haryana cows. The bacterial cultural examination revealed 32 cows comprising 34 quarters are SCM positive. SCM positive and negative samples were estimated for electrical conductivity (EC and pH with respective meters, sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ with Flame photometer and chloride (Cl- by titremetric method. The result demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.01 increase in EC, Na+ and Cl- and decrease in K+. After studying the correlation coefficient among the milk components and comparing them with a Gold standard (Log10 SCC separately in normal and infected milk it was found that Na+, Cl- and K+ are the indicators of SCM in the present study.

  9. Psychotic Symptoms in Kenya – Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship with Common Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kiima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population- based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 people. The psychosis screening questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the preceding twelve months. The response rate was 87.6%. The prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms in this sample size. Psychotic symptoms were evenly distributed across this relatively poor rural population and were significantly associated with presence of common mental disorders, and to a lesser extent with poor physical health and housing type. We conclude that single psychotic symptoms are relatively common in rural Kenya and rates are elevated in those with CMD, poor physical health and poor housing.

  10. The meaning of dreams in the psychotic state. Theoretical considerations and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, P; de Masi, F

    2001-10-01

    The authors consider that the Freudian theory of dreams is not directly applicable to psychotic and borderline patients with their constantly varying states of mental integration. Because these patients' dreams lack associations, the usual psychoanalytic approach cannot be used to ascertain their meaning. After reviewing the literature on the specific quality of dreams in the psychotic state, the authors point out that such dreams have nothing to do with the metaphorical language of the dream work but instead express the concreteness of the hallucinatory construction. For this reason, a dream's meaning may fail to be understood by the patient even if it seems clear to an observer. Yet the analyst's reception of a 'psychotic dream' is a unique and essential source of valuable information on the manner of construction of the delusional system, allowing analytic work on the psychotic nucleus. In the authors' view, such dreams may help the analyst and the patient--while still lucid--to acquire insight, thus affording a stable foundation for emergence from psychosis. The paper includes some case histories, in one of which a psychotic female patient is enabled by work on dreams to reconstruct a psychotic episode and thereby to ward off an imminent fresh lapse into psychosis.

  11. Psychotic symptoms in Kenya--prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Njenga, Frank; Okonji, Marx; Kigamwa, Pius; Baraza, Makheti; Ayuyo, James; Singleton, Nicola; McManus, Sally; Kiima, David

    2012-05-01

    There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population) were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 people. The psychosis screening questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the preceding twelve months. The response rate was 87.6%. The prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms in this sample size. Psychotic symptoms were evenly distributed across this relatively poor rural population and were significantly associated with presence of common mental disorders, and to a lesser extent with poor physical health and housing type. We conclude that single psychotic symptoms are relatively common in rural Kenya and rates are elevated in those with CMD, poor physical health and poor housing.

  12. Alcohol and cannabis use and mortality in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koola, Maju Mathew; McMahon, Robert P; Wehring, Heidi J; Liu, Fang; Mackowick, Kristen M; Warren, Kimberly R; Feldman, Stephanie; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Love, Raymond C; Kelly, Deanna L

    2012-08-01

    The impact of co-morbid substance use on mortality is not well studied in psychotic disorders. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of substance use on mortality in people with psychotic disorders and alcohol and/or drug use. We examined the rate of substance use and the risk of substance use on mortality risk over a 4-10 year period in 762 people with psychotic disorders. Deceased patients were identified from the Social Security Death Index and the Maryland Division of Vital Records. Substance use was defined as regular and heavy use or abuse or dependence. Seventy seven percent had co-morbid lifetime substance use, with co-morbid cannabis and alcohol use occurring most commonly. Out of 762 subjects, 62 died during follow up. In a Cox model, predicted mortality risk was higher in age group 35-55 compared to risk (5.5% vs. 13.6%) was lower in cannabis users than in non-users with psychotic disorders (p = 0.005) in a survival model. Alcohol use was not predictive of mortality. We observed a lower mortality risk in cannabis-using psychotic disorder patients compared to cannabis non-users despite subjects having similar symptoms and treatments. Future research is warranted to replicate these findings and to shed light on the anti-inflammatory properties of the endocannabinoid system and its role in decreased mortality in people with psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Personality traits and psychotic symptoms in recent onset of psychosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, Julia; Cano-Domínguez, Pablo; de-Luis-Matilla, Antonia; Peñuelas-Calvo, Inmaculada; Espina-Eizaguirre, Alberto; Moreno-Kustner, Berta; Ochoa, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Personality in patients with psychosis, and particularly its relation to psychotic symptoms in recent onset of psychosis (ROP) patients, is understudied. The aims of this research were to study the relation between dimensional and categorical clinical personality traits and symptoms, as well as the effects that symptoms, sex and age have on clinically significant personality traits. Data for these analyses were obtained from 94 ROP patients. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were used to assess personality and symptoms. Correlational Analysis, Mann-Whitney test, and, finally, logistic regression were carried out. The negative dimension was higher in patients with schizoid traits. The excited dimension was lower for those with avoidant and depressive traits. The anxiety and depression dimension was higher for patients with dependent traits. The positive dimension was lower for patients with histrionic and higher for patients with compulsive traits. Logistic regression demonstrated that gender and the positive and negative dimensions explained 35.9% of the variance of the schizoid trait. The excited dimension explained 9.1% of the variance of avoidant trait. The anxiety and depression dimension and age explained 31.3% of the dependent trait. Gender explained 11.6% of the histrionic trait, 14.5% of the narcissistic trait and 11.6% of the paranoid trait. Finally gender and positive dimension explained 16.1% of the compulsive trait. The study highlights the importance of studying personality in patients with psychosis as it broadens understating of the patients themselves and the symptoms suffered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Linear association between social anxiety symptoms and neural activations to angry faces: from subclinical to clinical levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Arnaud; Gierski, Fabien; Lemogne, Cédric; Tran, Eric; Raucher-Chéné, Delphine; Béra-Potelle, Céline; Portefaix, Christophe; Kaladjian, Arthur; Pierot, Laurent; Besche-Richard, Chrystel; Limosin, Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD), which is characterized by the fear of being rejected and negatively evaluated, involves altered brain activation during the processing of negative emotions in a social context. Although associated temperament traits, such as shyness or behavioral inhibition, have been studied, there is still insufficient knowledge to support the dimensional approach, which assumes a continuum from subclinical to clinical levels of social anxiety symptoms. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural bases of individual differences in social anxiety. Our sample included participants with both healthy/subclinical as well as clinical levels of social anxiety. Forty-six participants with a wide range of social anxiety levels performed a gender decision task with emotional facial expressions during fMRI scanning. Activation in the left anterior insula and right lateral prefrontal cortex in response to angry faces was positively correlated with the level of social anxiety in a regression analysis. The results substantiate, with a dimensional approach, those obtained in previous studies that involved SAD patients or healthy and subclinical participants. It may help to refine further therapeutic strategies based on markers of social anxiety. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianneechini, R; Concha, C; Rivero, R; Delucci, I; López, J Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%. PMID:12831175

  16. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivero R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%.

  17. Case definition for clinical and subclinical bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerlage, A S; Stryhn, H; Sanchez, J; Hammell, K L

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) is considered an important cause of loss in salmon aquaculture in Atlantic Canada. Causative agent of BKD is the Gram-positive bacteria Renibacterium salmoninarum. Infected salmon are often asymptomatic (subclinical infection), and the disease is considered chronic. One of the challenges in quantifying information from farm production and health records is the application of a standardized case definition. Case definitions for farm-level and cage-level clinical and subclinical BKD were developed using retrospective longitudinal data from aquaculture practices in New Brunswick, Canada, combining (i) industry records of weekly production data including mortalities, (ii) field observations for BKD using reports of veterinarians and/or fish health technicians, (iii) diagnostic submissions and test results and (iv) treatments used to control BKD. Case definitions were evaluated using veterinarians' expert judgements as reference standard. Eighty-nine and 66% of sites and fish groups, respectively, were associated with BKD at least once. For BKD present (subclinical or clinical), sensitivity and specificity of the case definition were 75-100% varying between event, fish group, site cycle and level (site pen). For clinical BKD, sensitivities were 29-64% and specificities 91-100%. Industry data can be used to develop sensitive case definitions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Haug Elisabeth; Hansen Charlotte; Rossberg Jan; Romm Kristin; Andreassen Ole A; Melle Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Background Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. Method A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis...

  19. The effect of sodium nitroprusside on psychotic symptoms and spatial working memory in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J M; Morrison, P D; Koychev, I; Gao, F; Reilly, T J; Kolanko, M; Mohammadinasab, A; Kapur, S; McGuire, P K

    2016-12-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been reported to rapidly reduce psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. This has the potential to revolutionize treatment for schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SNP leads to a reduction in psychotic symptoms and an improvement in spatial working memory (SWM) performance in patients with schizophrenia. This was a single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed from 27 August 2014 to 10 February 2016 (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02176044). Twenty patients with schizophrenia aged 18-60 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK. Baseline symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-18), and SWM was assessed using the CANTAB computerized test. Participants received either an infusion of SNP (0.5 μg/kg per min for 4 h) or placebo and were re-assessed for symptoms and SWM performance immediately after the infusion, and 4 weeks later. SNP did not lead to any reduction in psychotic symptoms or improvement in SWM performance compared to placebo. Although this study was negative, it is possible that the beneficial effects of SNP may occur in patients with a shorter history of illness, or with more acute exacerbation of symptoms.

  20. Cannabis Use Is Associated With Increased Psychotic Symptoms and Poorer Psychosocial Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis: A Report From the UK National EDEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Jennifer L; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B; Fowler, David; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-05-01

    The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly "continued use," was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Cannabis Use Is Associated With Increased Psychotic Symptoms and Poorer Psychosocial Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis: A Report From the UK National EDEN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Jennifer L.; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B.; Fowler, David; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; Singh, Swaran P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. Design and Setting: One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Results: The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. Conclusion: This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly “continued use,” was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP. PMID:26536902

  2. Comparison of cow-side diagnostic tests for subclinical mastitis of dairy cows in Musanze district, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Iraguha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Four subclinical mastitis diagnostic tests (the UdderCheck® test [a lactate dehydrogenasebased test], the California Mastitis Test [CMT], the Draminski® test [a conductivity-based test] and the PortaSCC® test [a portable somatic cell count-based test] were compared in a study comprising crossbreed dairy cows (n = 30 during September and October 2015. Sensitivity and specificity of the CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests were compared with the PortaSCC® as reference. The CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® test results were compared with the results of the PortaSCC® test using kappa statistics. Duplicate quarter milk samples (n = 120 were concurrently subjected to the four tests. Sensitivity and specificity were 88.46% and 86.17% (CMT, 78.5% and 81.4% (Draminski® and 64.00% and 78.95% (UdderCheck®. The CMT showed substantial agreement (k = 0.66, the Draminski® test showed moderate agreement (k = 0.48 and the UdderCheck® test showed fair agreement (k = 0.37 with the PortaSCC® test and positive likelihood ratios were 6.40, 4.15 and 3.04, respectively. The cow-level subclinical mastitis prevalence was 70%, 60%, 60% and 56.7% for PortaSCC®, CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests, respectively. At udder quarter level, subclinical mastitis prevalence was 20%, 21.67% and 20.83% for PortaSCC®, CMT and UdderCheck®, respectively. A correlation (P < 0.05 and moderate strength of association were found between the four tests used. The study showed that compared to the PortaSCC® test, the CMT was the most preferable option, followed by the Draminski® test, while the UdderCheck® test was the least preferable option for subclinical mastitis screening.

  3. Prevalence and molecular characterization of staphylococci isolated from sheep with subclinical mastitis in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Bentolhoda; Ownagh, Abdolghaffar; Mardani, Karim; Farrokhi Ardebili, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. in ewes in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Molecular characterization of isolated Staphylococcus spp. from diseased ewes were performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) gene. Also, antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates against different antibiotics was investigated. A total number of 900 milk samples from 450 native ewes in their mid-lactation period were examined by the California mastitis test (CMT). The CMT positive samples were cultured and bacteria were isolated from 86 (9.50%) glands and 74 (16.40%) ewes. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in the examined ewes was 16.40%. Microbiological analysis of milk samples revealed that 27 out of 74 sheep with subclinical mastitis were infected with Staphylococcus spp. Amplification of gap gene of 27 Staphylococcus isolates generated a single amplicon of 933 bp in size confirming that isolates were belonged to Staphylococcus genus. Digestion of PCR products by AluI endonuclease generated different RFLP patterns for each species. Nucleotide sequencing of gap gene followed by phylogenetic analysis showed that the most dominant Staphylococcus species were S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and S. chromogenes. Staphylococcal isolates showed the highest resistance to penicillin and ampicillin. In conclusion, Staphylococcus species, except for the southern parts of the province, play an important role in the development of subclinical mastitis in sheep in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Also, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and neomycin are the most effective antibiotics for treatment of this disease.

  4. Comparison of cow-side diagnostic tests for subclinical mastitis of dairy cows in Musanze district, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden; Kandiwa, Erick; Mpatswenumugabo, Jean P

    2017-06-21

    Four subclinical mastitis diagnostic tests (the UdderCheck® test [a lactate dehydrogenasebased test], the California Mastitis Test [CMT], the Draminski® test [a conductivity-based test] and the PortaSCC® test [a portable somatic cell count-based test]) were compared in a study comprising crossbreed dairy cows (n = 30) during September and October 2015. Sensitivity and specificity of the CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests were compared with the PortaSCC® as reference. The CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® test results were compared with the results of the PortaSCC® test using kappa statistics. Duplicate quarter milk samples (n = 120) were concurrently subjected to the four tests. Sensitivity and specificity were 88.46% and 86.17% (CMT), 78.5% and 81.4% (Draminski®) and 64.00% and 78.95% (UdderCheck®). The CMT showed substantial agreement (k = 0.66), the Draminski® test showed moderate agreement (k = 0.48) and the UdderCheck® test showed fair agreement (k = 0.37) with the PortaSCC® test and positive likelihood ratios were 6.40, 4.15 and 3.04, respectively. The cow-level subclinical mastitis prevalence was 70%, 60%, 60% and 56.7% for PortaSCC®, CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests, respectively. At udder quarter level, subclinical mastitis prevalence was 20%, 21.67% and 20.83% for PortaSCC®, CMT and UdderCheck®, respectively. A correlation (P < 0.05) and moderate strength of association were found between the four tests used. The study showed that compared to the PortaSCC® test, the CMT was the most preferable option, followed by the Draminski® test, while the UdderCheck® test was the least preferable option for subclinical mastitis screening.

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Ahmet; Pirgon, Ozgur; Aypar, Ebru; Yilmaz, Hakan; Odabas, Dursun

    2013-06-01

    No data are available on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine whether an association exists between subclinical hypothyroidism and risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents with NAFLD. The study enrolled 111 obese adolescents and 42 lean subjects. The obese subjects were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of fatty liver with high transaminases: a NAFLD group and a non-NAFLD group. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level higher than 4 mIU/l and a normal free-thyroxine level (0.6-1.8 ng/dl). Insulin resistance was calculated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Left ventricular mass (LVM), LVM index measurements, carotid intima media thickness (IMT), and HOMA-IR values were higher in the NAFLD obese group with TSH levels higher than 4 mIU/l than in the NAFLD obese group with TSH levels lower than 4 mIU/l. Elevated TSH values in the NAFLD obese group were positively correlated with most of the metabolic and cardiovascular risk parameters such as total cholesterol (r = 0.606, p = 0.001), triglycerides (r = 0.476, p = 0.016), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.461, p = 0.004), insulin (r = 0.607, p = 0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.596, p = 0.002), carotid IMT (r = 0.894, p obese adolescents with NAFLD and subclinical hypothyroidism had a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile and a higher carotid IMT and LVM.

  6. The Interaction between Childhood Bullying and the FKBP5 Gene on Psychotic-Like Experiences and Stress Reactivity in Real Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristóbal-Narváez

    Full Text Available The present study employed Experience Sampling Methodology to examine whether the interaction between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability (i is associated with the expression of psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect, and (ii moderates psychotic-like, paranoid, and affective reactivity to different forms of momentary stress (situational and social in daily life.A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for bullying with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse and were prompted randomly eight times daily for one week to complete assessments of their current experiences, affect, and stress appraisals. Participants were genotyped for three FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs3800373, rs9296158, and rs1360780 that have been linked to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the interaction between childhood bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype derived from these three SNPs.The interaction between bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype was associated with positive, but not negative, psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect. The bullying x FKBP5 interaction also moderated the association of a social stress appraisal (specifically, being alone because people do not want to be with you with psychotic-like experiences and negative affect in daily life. Simple slopes analyses indicated that, in all cases, the associations were significantly increased by exposure to bullying in participants with the risk haplotype, but not for those with the non-risk haplotype.The present study provides the first evidence of the interplay between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability in the real-world expression of psychosis proneness and social stress reactivity. The findings underscore the importance of investigating how gene-environment interactions are involved in mechanistic pathways to the extended psychosis phenotype and lend further

  7. The Interaction between Childhood Bullying and the FKBP5 Gene on Psychotic-Like Experiences and Stress Reactivity in Real Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal-Narváez, Paula; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Rosa, Araceli; Ballespí, Sergi; de Castro-Catala, Marta; Peña, Elionora; Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    The present study employed Experience Sampling Methodology to examine whether the interaction between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability (i) is associated with the expression of psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect, and (ii) moderates psychotic-like, paranoid, and affective reactivity to different forms of momentary stress (situational and social) in daily life. A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for bullying with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse and were prompted randomly eight times daily for one week to complete assessments of their current experiences, affect, and stress appraisals. Participants were genotyped for three FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3800373, rs9296158, and rs1360780) that have been linked to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the interaction between childhood bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype derived from these three SNPs. The interaction between bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype was associated with positive, but not negative, psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect. The bullying x FKBP5 interaction also moderated the association of a social stress appraisal (specifically, being alone because people do not want to be with you) with psychotic-like experiences and negative affect in daily life. Simple slopes analyses indicated that, in all cases, the associations were significantly increased by exposure to bullying in participants with the risk haplotype, but not for those with the non-risk haplotype. The present study provides the first evidence of the interplay between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability in the real-world expression of psychosis proneness and social stress reactivity. The findings underscore the importance of investigating how gene-environment interactions are involved in mechanistic pathways to the extended psychosis phenotype and lend further support to the

  8. The Interaction between Childhood Bullying and the FKBP5 Gene on Psychotic-Like Experiences and Stress Reactivity in Real Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Araceli; Ballespí, Sergi; de Castro-Catala, Marta; Peña, Elionora; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study employed Experience Sampling Methodology to examine whether the interaction between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability (i) is associated with the expression of psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect, and (ii) moderates psychotic-like, paranoid, and affective reactivity to different forms of momentary stress (situational and social) in daily life. Methods A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for bullying with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse and were prompted randomly eight times daily for one week to complete assessments of their current experiences, affect, and stress appraisals. Participants were genotyped for three FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3800373, rs9296158, and rs1360780) that have been linked to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the interaction between childhood bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype derived from these three SNPs. Results The interaction between bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype was associated with positive, but not negative, psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect. The bullying x FKBP5 interaction also moderated the association of a social stress appraisal (specifically, being alone because people do not want to be with you) with psychotic-like experiences and negative affect in daily life. Simple slopes analyses indicated that, in all cases, the associations were significantly increased by exposure to bullying in participants with the risk haplotype, but not for those with the non-risk haplotype. Discussion The present study provides the first evidence of the interplay between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability in the real-world expression of psychosis proneness and social stress reactivity. The findings underscore the importance of investigating how gene-environment interactions are involved in mechanistic pathways to the extended psychosis phenotype

  9. How Do People Experiencing Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders or Other Psychotic Disorders Use the Internet to Get Information on Their Mental Health? Literature Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Murielle; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2017-01-03

    Studies show that the Internet has become an influential source of information for people experiencing serious psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia spectrum disorders or other psychotic disorders, among which the rate of Internet users is growing, with rates ranging from 33.3% to 79.5% given the country. Between 20.5% and 56.4% of these Internet users seek mental health information. Focusing on this population's Web searches about their mental health, this paper examines what type of content they look for and what could be the benefits and disadvantages of this navigation. We conducted a literature review through medical and psychological databases between 2000 and 2015 using the keywords "Internet," "Web," "virtual," "health information," "schizophrenia," "psychosis," "e-mental health," "e-support," and "telepsychiatry." People experiencing schizophrenia spectrum disorders or other psychotic disorders wish to find on the Internet trustful, nonstigmatizing information about their disease, flexibility, security standards, and positive peer-to-peer exchanges. E-mental health also appears to be desired by a substantial proportion of them. In this field, the current developments towards intervention and early prevention in the areas of depression and bipolar and anxiety disorders become more and more operational for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and other psychotic disorders as well. The many benefits of the Internet as a source of information and support, such as empowerment, enhancement of self-esteem, relief from peer information, better social interactions, and more available care, seem to outbalance the difficulties. In this paper, after discussing the challenges related to the various aspects of the emergence of the Internet into the life of people experiencing schizophrenia spectrum disorders or other psychotic disorders, we will suggest areas of future research and practical recommendations for this major transition.

  10. Prevalence and clinical presentation of HIV positive female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten of the 19 HIV positive patients (53%) had an Axis I diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder secondary to HIV, most commonly mood disorder (mania) with psychotic symptoms. Nine of the 19 HIV positive patients (47%) had a pre-existing primary psychiatric diagnosis, most commonly Bipolar Disorder, recent episode mania ...

  11. Individual differences in action co-representation : not personal distress or subclinical psychotic experiences but sex composition modulates joint action performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weiden, Anouk; Aarts, Henk; Prikken, Merel; van Haren, Neeltje E M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271562161

    Successful social interaction requires the ability to integrate as well as distinguish own and others’ actions. Normally, the integration and distinction of self and other are a well-balanced process, occurring without much effort or conscious attention. However, not everyone is blessed with the

  12. Individual differences in action co-representation : not personal distress or subclinical psychotic experiences but sex composition modulates joint action performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weiden, Anouk; Aarts, Henk; Prikken, Merel; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2015-01-01

    Successful social interaction requires the ability to integrate as well as distinguish own and others' actions. Normally, the integration and distinction of self and other are a well-balanced process, occurring without much effort or conscious attention. However, not everyone is blessed with the

  13. THE INTERPLAY AMONG LOCUS OF CONTROL, SUB-CLINICAL PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN WHITES AND ETHNIC MINORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Joshua Weintraub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Un locus de control externo en gran medida se ha asociado con el bienestar psicológico peor. En general, los pacientes con esquizofrenia demuestran un locus de control externo más en comparación con las poblaciones no psiquiátricas. Antes de investigación en la esquizofrenia también sugiere que la relación entre mayores síntomas psicóticos y la disminución del bienestar psicológico es más fuerte para los individuos que apoyan un locus de control externo más. Esta relación no ha sido probado en una población no clínica. En una muestra de la diversidad étnica de 420 participantes, este estudio encontró, en línea con las hipótesis, de que un locus de control externo más se asoció negativamente con el bienestar psicológico. Mientras que los síntomas psicóticos subclínicos se asociaron negativamente con el bienestar psicológico, el locus de control no moderó la relación general entre la psicosis subclínica y el bienestar psicológico como se esperaba. Los análisis secundarios examinaron las relaciones entre los síntomas psicóticos subclínicos, locus de control y el bienestar psicológico por el origen étnico y sugirieron que la etnicidad moderó la relación entre un locus de control externo y la disminución de bienestar. En otras palabras, para las minorías que había una relación entre una mayor locus de control externo y la disminución de bienestar, pero no para los blancos.

  14. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jim L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Methods Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R. The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Results Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Conclusion Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  15. Schizophrenic outpatient perceptions of psychiatric treatment and psychotic symptomatology: an investigation using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, N; Yamashina, M; Taguchi, H; Ishige, N; Igarashi, Y

    2001-12-01

    Schizophrenic patient perceptions of treatment have clinical value and deserve detailed psychiatric investigation. The present study sought a model indicating statistically estimated cause-effect relationships of perceptions and psychotic symptomatology of outpatients with schizophrenia by applying a method of structural equation modeling. The perceptions included in this model were patient satisfaction with treatment, perceptions of their treating psychiatrists, and patient-role perception. Scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and poor insight measures were added to the model as possible influential factors. The constructed model revealed that the poor insight exerted a major influence on the patient-role perception that had small effects on the reliable therapist perception and the satisfaction. It was also shown that satisfaction was chiefly determined by the reliable therapist perception that was formed in the treatment relationship, rather independently of the other construct. These findings were valuable in terms of their implications for understanding the makeup of the perceptions and the strategy for interventions to improve them.

  16. Loneliness mediates the relationship between internalised stigma and depression among patients with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świtaj, Piotr; Grygiel, Paweł; Anczewska, Marta; Wciórka, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    Stigmatisation is a source of chronic stress and a major barrier to recovery for people with mental illnesses. The internalisation of stigma can have a negative impact on an individual's social relations and lead to feelings of loneliness and depression. This research is aimed at testing the hypothesis that the internalised stigma of mental illness contributes to the intensification of depressive symptoms indirectly, through its impact on feelings of loneliness. A total of 110 individuals with diagnoses of psychotic disorders (International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10): F20-F29) were assessed with measures of internalised stigma, loneliness, depression, positive and negative symptoms and global functioning. The ordinary least squares regression was used for data analysis. After adding loneliness to the regression model, the initially significant impact of internalised stigma on depressive symptoms disappeared. As expected, loneliness proved to be a full mediator in the relationship between stigma and depression. The study findings provide useful insights into the mechanisms of the harmful effects of stigma on people with mental illness. Internalised stigma and loneliness should be considered important targets for interventions aiming to promote recovery. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Symptomatology and social inference: a theory of mind study of schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoram, Dominic; Gardner, Clare; Burns, Jonathan; Miller, Patrick; Lawrie, Stephen M; Johnstone, Eve C

    2005-11-01

    There is evidence that certain patients with schizophrenia have deficits in theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. It is, however, unclear whether these are symptom or diagnosis-specific. A ToM hinting task was given to 15 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, 15 patients with affective disorder and 15 healthy controls. Severity of the current psychopathology was measured using the Krawiecka standardised scale of psychotic symptoms (Krawiecka, Goldberg, & Vaughan, 1977); IQ was estimated via the Ammons and Ammons Quick Test (Ammons & Ammons, 1962). The group with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than the affective and control groups. Poor performance on the hinting task was found to be significantly related to the presence of positive symptoms (instead of negative ones) and specifically related to delusions and hallucinations. These findings remained when covariance for potentially confounding variables was applied. Individuals with high levels of delusions and hallucinations performed significantly worse on this ToM task, regardless of diagnosis, implying ToM impairment is not exclusive to schizophrenia but is evident in other forms of psychosis. Between-group analyses showed the schizophrenia group had a significantly poorer performance on this task than the others.

  18. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolesc......OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...... and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.......28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. RESULTS...

  19. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soylu Aliye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two distinct forms of clinical hyperthyroidism. The first patient had a clinical presentation of severe cholestasis in the absence of congestive failure related to hyperthyroidism. The second case had developed intrahepatic cholestasis in the presence of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and improved with rifampicin treatment. Conclusion Hyperthyroidism should be a consideration in non-specific liver dysfunction.

  20. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, David J.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Kearney, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older personswith this condition. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving...... 737 adults who were at least 65 years of age and who had persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin level, 4.60 to 19.99 mIU per liter; free thyroxine level within the reference range). A total of 368 patients were assigned to receive levothyroxine (at a starting dose of 50 μg daily, or 25 μg...... if the body weight was Hypothyroid Symptomsscore and Tiredness score on a thyroid...

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive function in people over 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Jansen, Steffy W; van Bodegom, David

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal thyroid hormone levels, and cognitive impairment are both common in older people. While the relation between overt hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment is well established, data on the association...... criteria for eligibility and methodological quality, and data were extracted using standardized forms. Of the 844 reports initially identified, 270 remained after exclusion of duplicates. Of the 270, 15 studies comprising 19,944 subjects, of whom 1,199 had subclinical hypothyroidism were included. Data...... hypothyroidism was not significantly associated with accelerated cognitive decline. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides no evidence that supports an association between SCH and cognitive impairment in relatively healthy older adults....

  2. Correlates in the Endorsement of Psychotic Symptoms and Services Use: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Armando; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Barrio, Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Endorsement of psychotic symptoms serves as an indicator of significant health issues and interpersonal distress. Seeking services is the ultimate recourse for many individuals, yet few studies have assessed the help-seeking process in a nationally representative sample. This study, guided by Lewis-Fernández et al.'s (J Nerv Ment Dis 197(5):337-347, 2009) analyses, examined the association of lifetime endorsement of psychotic symptoms with demographic, clinical and support system variables and types of services received. Based on nationally weighted epidemiological data, 11.6 % of adults reported one or more psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms were associated with poor physical and mental health, specifically depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Respondents were more likely to receive services from both informal and mental health providers and were more likely to be hospitalized than those not endorsing psychotic symptoms. Study findings inform community efforts to develop comprehensive services for individuals experiencing psychotic symptoms.

  3. Is diabetic retinopathy related to subclinical cardiovascular disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, R; Cheung, N; Islam, FMA; Klein, R; Klein, BEK; Cotch, MF; Sharrett, AR; O'leary, D; Wong, TY

    2011-01-01

    Objective Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clinical CVD. Design Population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Participants Nine hundred twenty-seven persons with diabetes without clinical CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Diabetic retinopathy was ascertaine...

  4. Is Diabetic Retinopathy Related to Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Ryo; Cheung, Ning; Islam, FM Amirul; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara EK; Cotch, Mary Frances; Sharrett, A Richey; O’Leary, Daniel; Wong, Tien Y.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. Our study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clinical CVD. DESIGN Population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study PARTICIPANTS Nine hundred and twenty seven persons with diabetes without clinical CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS DR was ascertained from retinal photographs according to modification of the Airlie House Classification system. Vision threatening DR (VTDR) was defined as severe non-proliferative DR, proliferative DR or clinically significant macular edema. Subclinical CVD measures were assessed and defined as follows: high coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, defined as CAC score≥400; low ankle-brachial index (ABI), defined as ABI25% stenosis or presence of carotid plaque. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between DR and subclinical CVD measures. RESULTS The prevalence of DR and VTDR in this sample was 30.0% and 7.2%, respectively. VTDR was associated with a high CAC score (odds ratio [OR] 2.33, 95% condifence interval [CI] 1.15–4.73), low ABI (OR 2.54; 95%CI, 1.08–5.99) and high ABI (OR 12.6, 95% CI, 1.14, 140.6), after adjusting for risk factors including hemoglobin A1c level and duration of diabetes. The association between VTDR and high CAC score remained significant after further adjustment for hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive and cholesterol-lowering medications. DR was not significantly associated with measures of carotid artery disease. CONCLUSIONS In persons with diabetes without a history of clinical CVD, the presence of advanced stage of DR is associated with subclinical coronary artery disease. These findings emphasize the need to be careful about the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for the treatment of DR. PMID:21168222

  5. Diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid adjustment: Comparison of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorder with psychotic features

    OpenAIRE

    Tarbox, Sarah I.; Brown, Leslie H.; Haas, Gretchen L.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have significant deficits in premorbid social and academic adjustment compared to individuals with non-psychotic diagnoses. However, it is unclear how severity and developmental trajectory of premorbid maladjustment compare across psychotic disorders. This study examined the association between premorbid functioning (in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) and psychotic disorder diagnosis in a first-episode sample of 105 individuals: schizophrenia...

  6. Psychotic disorder after contact with a potentially rabid animal and post-exposure prophylactic anti-rabies treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Shabnamzehra; Aldana-Bernier, Lilian; Sikder, Mobaswera; Pawelzik, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    We present the case of a 19-year-old who developed psychotic symptoms after exposure to a potentially rabid animal and post-exposure prophylactic treatment. This case serves to remind physicians to fully explore the possibility of a nonpsychiatric origin of de novo psychotic symptoms and provides indirect evidence in favor of the possible involvement of the immune system in the development of psychotic disorders.

  7. Prevalence of Pathogens Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Argentinean Dairy Herds

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    Silvana Andrea Dieser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different mastitis pathogens in Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples were collected of 2296 cows from 51 randomly selected herds in Córdoba, Argentina. Somatic cell count was determined in all samples and bacterial examination of the milk samples with a SCC exceeding 200,000 cells/mL was performed. About 54%of cows were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis (SCC ≥200,000/mL. Bacteria were isolated in 83.1% of milk samples subjected to bacteriological analysis. The most frequently isolated pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (52.1%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.2%, Streptococcus agalactiae (4.4% and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.4%. This study demonstrates that among the major pathogens isolated, the contagious bacteria caused most of the subclinical infections of dairy cows in Cordoba, Argentina. Moreover, CNS was the most relevant group of minor pathogens causing subclinical mastitis.

  8. Relation between Birth Weight, Growth, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria Helena; Gomes, Filumena Maria da Silva; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Brentani, Alexandra Valéria Maria; Escobar, Ana Maria de Ulhôa; Grisi, Sandra J. F. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Adverse conditions in the prenatal environment and in the first years of life are independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This paper aims to study the relation between birthweight, growth in the first year of life, and subclinical atherosclerosis in adults. Methods. 88 adults aged between 20 and 31 were submitted to sociodemographic qualities, anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, metabolic profile, and evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Birthweight 75th percentile (RC = −0.242, 95% CI [−0.476, −0.008] P 3,500 g was associated with (a) BMI >25.0 kg/m2, (RC = 0.317, 95% CI [0.782, 0.557] P 75th percentile (RC = 0.361, 95% CI [0.169, 0.552] P 75th percentile (RC = −0.253, 95% CI [−0.487, −0.018] P 75th percentile (RC = −0.241, 95% CI [−0.442, −0.041] P 3,500 g and with insufficient weight gain in the first year of life have showed different metabolic phenotypes, but all of them were related to subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:25648854

  9. Relation between Birth Weight, Growth, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Valente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Adverse conditions in the prenatal environment and in the first years of life are independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This paper aims to study the relation between birthweight, growth in the first year of life, and subclinical atherosclerosis in adults. Methods. 88 adults aged between 20 and 31 were submitted to sociodemographic qualities, anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, metabolic profile, and evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Birthweight 75th percentile (RC = −0.242, 95% CI [−0.476, −0.008] P3,500 g was associated with (a BMI >25.0 kg/m2, (RC = 0.317, 95% CI [0.782, 0.557] P75th percentile (RC = 0.361, 95% CI [0.169, 0.552] P75th percentile (RC = −0.253, 95% CI [−0.487, −0.018] P75th percentile (RC = −0.241, 95% CI [−0.442, −0.041] P3,500 g and with insufficient weight gain in the first year of life have showed different metabolic phenotypes, but all of them were related to subclinical atherosclerosis.

  10. Neurological Soft Signs In Psychoses A Comparison Between Schizophrenia & Other Psychotic Disorders

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    Shahsavand. E. Noroozian. M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most important and disabling mental disorders in the world. Males and females are equally affected. Diagnosis is a very difficult problem in this disorder. Because the diagnostic systems such as ICD-10 and DSM-IV are mainly subjective, they are not valid and reliable. Essentially, in the future, we will need to more objective criteria in psychiatry especially in diagnosis of schizophrenia. Neurological soft signs are an example of these objective criteria. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients and compared it with the prevalence of these signs in other psychotic patients (except mood disorders with psychotic features and normal subjects."nMethods: We compared the neurological soft signs (sensory motor integration, motor. Coordination, consequent complex motor acts, primary reflexes, and eye movements in 30 schizophrenic patients, 30 other psychotic patients (other than mood disorders with psychotic features and 30 normal subjects. Diagnosis of schizophrenia and also other psychoses were based on DSM-IN criteria. Normal subjects have been selected form the staff of Roozbeh hospital randomly."nResults: The difference between the means of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (other than mood disorders with psychotic features were significant (P value < 0.04. There were no significant differences between the means of other subscales of neurological soft signs in two groups of patients."nConclusion: There are some disturbances of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in patients with schizophrenia. It seems that, these disturbances are evidence of involvements of basal ganglia, motor cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. So it may be suggested that motor coordination as a marker can be used in differentiation between the schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  11. Sibling bullying in middle childhood and psychotic disorder at 18 years: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantchev, Slava; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2018-02-12

    Being bullied by a sibling has been recently identified as a potential risk factor for developing depression and self-harm. It is unknown whether this risk extends to other serious mental health problems such as psychosis. We investigated whether sibling bullying victimization or perpetration in middle childhood was prospectively associated with psychotic disorder in early adulthood. The current study investigated 6988 participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK community-based birth cohort. Sibling bullying was reported at 12 years and psychotic disorder was assessed via a semi-structured interview at 18 years. Involvement in sibling bullying was associated with psychotic disorder in a dose-response fashion, even after controlling for a range of confounders. Those involved several times a week were 2-3 times more likely to meet criteria for a psychotic disorder [odds ratio (OR); 95% confidence interval (CI)]: victimization (OR 2.74; CI 1.28-5.87); perpetration (OR 3.16; CI 1.35-7.41). Categorical analysis indicated that particularly victims (OR 3.10; CI 1.48-6.50) and bully-victims (OR 2.66; CI 1.24-5.69) were at increased risk of psychotic disorder. Involvement in both sibling and peer bullying had a dose-effect relationship with a psychotic disorder, with those victimized in both contexts having more than four times the odds for a psychotic disorder (OR 4.57; CI 1.73-12.07). Parents and health professionals should be aware of the adverse long-term effects of sibling bullying.

  12. Transdiagnostic neural markers of emotion-cognition interaction in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amri; Szekely, Akos; Kotov, Roman; Mukherjee, Prerona; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Barch, Deanna M; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2016-10-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and emotion processing are prominent impairments in psychotic disorders, and have been linked to reduced quality of life and real-world functioning. Translation of knowledge regarding the neural circuitry implementing these deficits into improved diagnosis and targeted treatments has been slow, possibly because of categorical definitions of disorders. Using the dimensional Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, we investigated the clinical and practical utility of transdiagnostic behavioral and neural measures of emotion-related WM disruption across psychotic disorders. Behavioral and functional MRI data were recorded while 53 participants with psychotic disorders and 29 participants with no history of psychosis performed a modified n-back task with fear and neutral distractors. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that psychotic symptoms entered after diagnosis accounted for unique variance in fear versus neutral accuracy and activation in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, but diagnostic group entered after psychotic symptoms did not. These results remained even after controlling for negative symptoms, disorganized symptoms, and dysphoria. Finally, worse accuracy and greater prefrontal activity were associated with poorer social functioning and unemployment across diagnostic groups. Present results support the transdiagnostic nature of behavioral and neuroimaging measures of emotion-related WM disruption as they relate to psychotic symptoms, irrespective of diagnosis. They also provide support for the practical utility of these markers in explaining real-world functioning. Overall, these results elucidate key aspects of the RDoC construct of WM maintenance by clarifying its transdiagnostic importance and clinical utility in psychotic disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Secondary psychotic features in refugees diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Mette; Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-01-05

    A substantial amount of refugees (10-30%) suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In Denmark there are different facilities specialised in psychiatric treatment of trauma-affected refugees. A previously published case report from such a facility in Denmark shows that some patients suffer from secondary psychotic symptoms alongside their PTSD. The aim of this study was to illustrate the characteristics and estimate the prevalence of psychotic features in a clinical population of trauma-affected refugees with PTSD. Psychiatric records from 220 consecutive patients at Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP) were examined, and all the PTSD patients were divided into two groups; one group with secondary psychotic features (PTSD-SP group) and one without (PTSD group). A categorisation and description of the secondary psychotic features was undertaken. One hundred eighty-one patients were diagnosed with PTSD among which psychotic symptoms were identified in 74 (40.9, 95% CI 33.7-48.1%). The majority of symptoms identified were auditory hallucinations (66.2%) and persecutory delusions (50.0%). There were significantly more patients diagnosed with enduring personality change after catastrophic experience in the PTSD-SP group than in the PTSD group (P = 0.009). Furthermore the PTSD-SP group included significantly more patients exposed to torture (P = 0.001) and imprisonment (P = 0.005). This study provides an estimation of PTSD-SP prevalence in a clinical refugee population with PTSD. The study points to the difficulties distinguishing psychotic features from flashbacks and the authors call for attention to psychotic features in PTSD patients in order to improve documentation and understanding of the disorder.

  14. Bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood: evidence from a 35-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, J M; van Stockum, S; Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M

    2016-04-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in possible causal linkages between exposure to bullying victimization and later psychotic symptomatology. Prior research in this area has had several limitations which make it difficult to ascertain causality, and to determine the extent to which these effects extend beyond adolescence. Data were obtained from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 35-year study of a longitudinal birth cohort. This investigation used generalized estimating equation modelling to estimate the associations between bullying victimization (ages 13-16 years) and psychotic symptoms (ages 18-35 years), before and after controlling for possible confounding factors, including: gender; childhood socio-economic status; child intelligence quotient; exposure to sexual abuse in childhood; anxious/withdrawn behaviour and attention problems (ages 7-9 years); and adolescent psychotic symptoms and paranoid ideation (ages 15-16 years). There was a significant (p bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood. Successive models controlling for covariation reduced this association to statistical non-significance. After controlling for covariates, those with the highest level of bullying victimization had rates of psychotic symptoms that were 1.21 (95% confidence interval 0.73-1.99) times higher than those who were not victimized. The association between bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood could be largely explained by childhood behavioural problems, and exposure to sexual abuse in childhood. The results suggest that bullying victimization was unlikely to have been a cause of adult psychotic symptoms, but bullying victimization remained a risk marker for these symptoms.

  15. Depression and anxiety mediate the relationship between temperament and character and psychotic-like experiences in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Gawęda, Łukasz

    2016-12-30

    In this study we examined the hypothesis that depression and anxiety may mediate the relationship between personality traits and both positive and negative psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in healthy adults. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale, Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to 492 healthy individuals. Multiple stepwise regression and mediation analyses were performed to examine whether depressive and anxiety symptoms influence the relationship between the TCI dimensions and positive and negative PLEs. Self-transcendence, persistence, novelty-seeking and self-directedness significantly predicted positive PLEs; self-directedness and harm avoidance were predictable for negative PLEs. Self-transcendence, self-directedness, persistence and harm avoidance also predicted the distress caused by positive PLEs, whereas self-directedness and harm avoidance predicted distress raised by negative PLEs. Depressive symptoms and the state of anxiety partially mediated the linkage between self-directedness and positive PLEs, and between self-directedness, harm avoidance and negative PLEs. Our findings confirm that the personality pattern influences both positive and negative PLEs as well as distress caused by experiencing positive and negative PLEs, and they indicate that certain personality traits may influence the development of PLEs via the emotional pathway of heightened depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating lipocalin-2 and retinol-binding protein 4 are associated with intima-media thickness and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao