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Sample records for subclinical positive psychotic

  1. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. French Validation of the “reading the Mind in the Eyes Test” : Relation with Subclinical Psychotic Positive Symptoms in General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, R.F.; Tubiana-Potiez, A.; Deprun, Samuel; Kahn, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Very few tests are available to assess the " Theory of Mind " (ToM) in adults in French. The aim of our study was to validate a French version of a ToM task: the " Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test " (RMET ; Baron-Cohen et al. 2001 1). The ToM takes part in the social cognition processes which have impacts on the everyday functioning of schizophrenic patients 2 but also in bipolar disorder patients 3. According to some authors, some psychotic symptoms are present even ...

  3. Concurrent and Sustained Cumulative Effects of Adolescent Marijuana Use on Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Hipwell, Alison; Lewis, David A; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents who regularly use marijuana may be at heightened risk of developing subclinical and clinical psychotic symptoms. However, this association could be explained by reverse causation or other factors. To address these limitations, the current study examined whether adolescents who engage in regular marijuana use exhibit a systematic increase in subclinical psychotic symptoms that persists during periods of sustained abstinence. The sample comprised 1,009 boys who were recruited in 1st and 7th grades. Self-reported frequency of marijuana use, subclinical psychotic symptoms, and several time-varying confounds (e.g., other substance use, internalizing/externalizing problems) were recorded annually from age 13 to 18. Fixed-effects (within-individual change) models examined whether adolescents exhibited an increase in their subclinical psychotic symptoms as a function of their recent and/or cumulative history of regular marijuana use and whether these effects were sustained following abstinence. Models controlled for all time-stable factors (default) and several time-varying covariates as potential confounds. For each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their expected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms rose by 21% and their expected odds of experiencing subsequent subclinical paranoia or hallucinations rose by 133% and 92%, respectively. The effect of prior regular marijuana use on subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms persisted even when adolescents stopped using marijuana for a year. These effects were after controlling for all time-stable and several time-varying confounds. No support was found for reverse causation. These results suggest that regular marijuana use may significantly increase the risk that an adolescent will experience persistent subclinical psychotic symptoms.

  4. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A.; Wotruba, Diana; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1) most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2) magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3) similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4) ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings indicated that

  5. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Unterrassner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ. The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1 most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2 magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3 similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4 ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings

  6. Subclinical psychotic experiences and subsequent contact with mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Vishal; Maccabe, James H; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Although psychotic experiences in people without diagnosed mental health problems are associated with mental health service use, few studies have assessed this prospectively or measured service use by real-world clinical data. To describe and investigate the association between psychotic experiences and later mental health service use, and to assess the role of symptoms of common mental health disorders in this association. We linked a representative survey of south-east London (SELCoH-1, n =1698) with health records from the local mental healthcare provider. Cox regression estimated the association of PEs with rate of mental health service use. After adjustments, psychotic experiences were associated with a 1.75-fold increase in the rate of subsequent mental health service use (hazard ratio (HR) 1.75, 95% CI 1.03-2.97) compared with those without PEs. Participants with PEs experienced longer care episodes compared with those without. Psychotic experiences in the general population are important predictors of public mental health need, aside from their relevance for psychoses. We found psychotic experiences to be associated with later mental health service use, after accounting for sociodemographic confounders and concurrent psychopathology. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

  7. The relation between bullying and subclinical psychotic experiences and the influence of the bully climate of school classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrevorts, Esther M. B.; Monshouwer, Karin; Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    This study aims to examine the association between the bully climate of school classes and the prevalence of subclinical psychotic experiences among students who are involved in bullying (either as bully or as victim). Data were derived from the Dutch health behavior in school-aged children survey

  8. The relation between bullying and subclinical psychotic experiences and the influence of the bully climate of school classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrevorts, Esther M B; Monshouwer, Karin; Wigman, Johanna T W; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association between the bully climate of school classes and the prevalence of subclinical psychotic experiences among students who are involved in bullying (either as bully or as victim). Data were derived from the Dutch health behavior in school-aged children survey

  9. Positive emotions from social company in women with persisting subclinical psychosis: lessons from daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collip, D; Wigman, J T W; van Os, J; Oorschot, M; Jacobs, N; Derom, C; Thiery, E; Peeters, F; Wichers, M; Myin-Germeys, I

    2014-03-01

    Altered social reward functioning is associated with psychosis irrespective of stage and severity. Examining the role of social reward functioning prospectively in relation to psychotic experiences before these become persistent and potentially disabling can aid in elucidating social mechanisms that induce shifts toward more severe psychotic states, without the confounding effects of clinical disorder. In a longitudinal general population sample (N = 566), the experience sampling method (repetitive random sampling of momentary emotions and social context) was used to assess daily life social functioning at baseline. Persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences was based on the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences assessed three times over 14 months. Analyses examined to what degree i) social context and ii) appreciation thereof differentiated between those who did and did not develop persistent psychotic experiences. Although individuals with persistent psychotic experiences did not differ in overall level of positive effect, the amount of time spent alone or the level of social satisfaction compared to individuals without persistent psychotic experiences, they were more sensitive to the rewarding effects of social company. Alterations in social reward experience may form one of the mechanisms that precede the development of the extended psychosis phenotype over time. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and social anxiety: Along a psychotic continuum or different constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Klugman, Joshua; Heimberg, Richard G; Anglin, Deidre M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2016-01-30

    Social anxiety commonly occurs across the course of schizophrenia, including in the premorbid and prodromal phases of psychotic disorders. Some have posited that social anxiety may exist on a continuum with paranoia; however, empirical data are lacking. The study aim was to determine whether attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are related to social anxiety. Young adults (N=1378) were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), which measures attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), which measures a subset of social anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to address the extent to which social anxiety and APPS tap distinct dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses support the existence of a separate social anxiety factor scale and four separate, though interrelated, APPS factor domains (unusual thought content, paranoia/suspiciousness, disorganized thinking, and perceptual abnormalities). Additionally, social anxiety was significantly, but not differently related to each APPS domain, although the magnitude was reduced between social anxiety and distressing APPS. The current study suggests that social anxiety and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are separable constructs, but are significantly associated with each other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subclinical psychotic experiences and bipolar spectrum features in depression : association with outcome of psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, J. T. W.; van Os, J.; Abidi, L.; Huibers, M. J. H.; Roelofs, J.; Arntz, A.; Kelleher, I.; Peeters, F. P. M. L.

    Background Subthreshold psychotic and bipolar experiences are common in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unknown if effectiveness of psychotherapy is altered in depressed patients who display such features compared with those without. The current paper aimed to investigate the impact

  12. Influence of depressive symptoms on distress related to positive psychotic-like experiences in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas, Antía; Barrigón, María Luisa; Lahera, Guillermo; Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) is an effective instrument for detection of the presence of psychotic symptoms and associated distress in the general population. However, little research has studied distress associated with positive psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Our aim is to study PLE-related distress using the CAPE. In this study we analysed factors associated with differences in PLE-related distress in a sample of 200 non-clinical participants recruited by snowball sampling. Presence of PLEs and related psychological distress was measured using the CAPE questionnaire. The influence of age, gender, educational level and drug use was studied. In univariate analysis we found that gender and CAPE positive, depressive and negative scores, were associated with CAPE positive distress. Using multiple linear regression, we found that only the effect of gender, and the interaction between frequency of depression and gender, remained statistically significant. In our sample interaction between gender and depressive symptoms is a determining factor in distress associated with positive PLEs. The results of this study may be useful for the implementation of prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Positivity Effect Specific to Older Adults with Subclinical Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that older adults preferentially remember positive information ("positivity effect"), however others have reported mixed results. One potential source of conflict is that aging is not a unitary phenomenon and individual differences exist. We modified a standard neuropsychological test to vary emotional…

  14. Positive life change and remission of non-psychotic mental illness - A competing outcomes approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J

    Background: Episode duration in non-psychotic mental illness is associated with personal characteristics of patients, like age or personality. Part of these links may be mediated by life change, a predictor of episode duration in its own right. Methods: In 170 primary care patients who suffered 4171

  15. Evidences of a “protection” of Social-cognition Abilities Against the Effect of Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms in General Population: Thymic Symptoms and Theory of Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, R.F.; Tubiana-Potiez, A.; Kahn, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The relationship between " Theory of Mind " (ToM) or more generally, social cognition and psychotic symptoms is largely supported by the actual literature. What is less known is the relationship between mood symptoms and ToM. Some studies found that bipolar disorder patients as well as depressed remitted patients have worse performances on ToM tasks than healthy subjects. This would explain the poor social abilities of depressive patients and constitute a risk factor o...

  16. Impact of positive thyroid autoimmunity on pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tinoco, Cristina; Rodríguez-Mengual, Amparo; Lara-Barea, Almudena; Barcala, Julia; Larrán, Laura; Saez-Benito, Ana; Aguilar-Diosdado, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The impact of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and thyroid autoimmunity on obstetric and perinatal complications continues to be a matter of interest and highly controversial. To assess the impact of SH and autoimmunity in early pregnancy on the obstetric and perinatal complications in our population. A retrospective cohort study in 435 women with SH (TSH ranging from 3.86 and 10 μIU/mL and normal FT4 values) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Epidemiological and clinical parameters were analyzed and were related to obstetric and perinatal complications based on the presence of autoimmunity (thyroid peroxidase antibodies [TPO] > 34 IU/mL). Mean age was 31.3 years (SD 5.2). Seventeen percent of patients had positive TPO antibodies. Presence of positive autoimmunity was associated to a family history of hypothyroidism (P=.04) and a higher chance of miscarriage (P=.009). In the multivariate analysis, positive TPO antibodies were associated to a 10.25-fold higher risk of miscarriage. No statistically significant associations were found with all other obstetric and perinatal complications. In our region, pregnant women with SH and thyroid autoimmunity had a higher risk of miscarriage but not of other obstetric and perinatal complications. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Positive emotions from social company in women with persisting subclinical psychosis : lessons from daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collip, D.; Wigman, J. T. W.; Van Os, J.; Oorschot, M.; Jacobs, N.; Derom, C.; Thiery, E.; Peeters, F.; Wichers, M.; Myin-Germeys, I.

    ObjectiveAltered social reward functioning is associated with psychosis irrespective of stage and severity. Examining the role of social reward functioning prospectively in relation to psychotic experiences before these become persistent and potentially disabling can aid in elucidating social

  18. Autistic traits and positive psychotic experiences modulate the association of psychopathic tendencies with theory of mind in opposite directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Abu-Akel, Ahmad M

    2017-07-25

    Various clinical disorders, including psychopathy, and autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, have been linked with impairments in Theory of Mind (ToM). However, although these conditions can co-occur in the same individual, the effect of their inter-play on ToM abilities has not been investigated. Here we assessed ToM abilities in 55 healthy adults while performing a naturalistic ToM task, requiring participants to watch a short film and judge the actors' mental states. The results reveal for the first time that autistic traits and positive psychotic experiences interact with psychopathic tendencies in opposite directions to predict ToM performance-the interaction of psychopathic tendencies with autism traits was associated with a decrement in performance, whereas the interaction of psychopathic tendencies and positive psychotic experiences was associated with improved performance. These effects were specific to cognitive rather than affective ToM. These results underscore the importance of the simultaneous assessment of these dimensions within clinical settings. Future research in these clinical populations may benefit by taking into account such individual differences.

  19. Prevalence of the subclinical sinus disease in HIV positive patients evaluated by the computed tomography versus a control population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senneville, E.; Valette, M.; Ajana, F.; Gerard, Y.; Alfandari, S.; Chidiac, C.; Mouton, Y.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical sinus disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cerebral computed tomography scans (CCT) done at the Tourcoing hospital over an 18-month period in 139 HIV-positive patients and 140 control patients without evidence of active sinus disease were reviewed retrospectively. CCTs were evaluated independently by two physicians who were blinded to clinical data. Mucosal thickening and/or a full patients (20/139, 14.4%) than in the controls (8/140, 5.7%) (p=0.016). Mucosal thickening was the most common abnormality in both groups. CD4+cell counts were not correlated with the radiographic abnormalities studies. These radiographic data suggest that subclinical chronic sinusitis independent from the degree of immune deficiency may be more common in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative subjects. (author)

  20. Antibodies to infectious agents and the positive symptom dimension of subclinical psychosis : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Hao; Yolken, Robert H.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Burger, Huibert; Klein, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Infections have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia, but the evidence for this has been inconsistent. Schizophrenia patients have an increased risk of infections as a result of hospitalizations or life style factors. Therefore a study on early subclinical manifestations of

  1. Selective deficits in semantic verbal fluency in patients with a first affective episode with psychotic symptoms and a positive history of mania.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kravariti, Eugenia

    2009-05-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is likely to represent a trait characteristic of bipolar disorder, but the extent to which it comprises \\'core\\' deficits as opposed to those secondary to longstanding illness or intellectual decline is unclear. We investigated neuropsychological performance in an epidemiologically derived sample of patients with a first affective episode with psychotic symptoms and a positive history of mania, compared to community controls.

  2. Visual-spatial processing and working-memory load as a function of negative and positive psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akel, A; Reniers, R L E P; Wood, S J

    2016-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in working-memory and visual-spatial processing, but little is known about the dynamic interplay between the two. To provide insight into this important question, we examined the effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults on perceptual processing while concurrently performing a working-memory task that requires the allocations of various degrees of cognitive resources. The effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults (N = 91) on perceptual processing was examined in a dual-task paradigm of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) under three conditions of cognitive load: a baseline condition (with no concurrent working-memory demand), a low VSWM load condition, and a high VSWM load condition. Participants overall performed more efficiently (i.e., faster) with increasing cognitive load. This facilitation in performance was unrelated to symptom expressions. However, participants with high-negative, low-positive symptom expressions were less accurate in the low VSWM condition compared to the baseline and the high VSWM load conditions. Attenuated, subclinical expressions of psychosis affect cognitive performance that is impaired in schizophrenia. The "resource limitations hypothesis" may explain the performance of the participants with high-negative symptom expressions. The dual-task of visual-spatial processing and working memory may be beneficial to assessing the cognitive phenotype of individuals with high risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  3. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, Kristin Lie; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Hansen, Charlotte Fredslund; Haug, Elisabeth; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2011-08-19

    Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis research study (TOP) were included at first treatment. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess present symptoms. Premorbid adjustment was measured with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Premorbid social adjustment was significantly related to lower self-esteem and explained a significant proportion of the variance in self-esteem. Self-esteem was significantly associated with the levels of persecutory delusions and hallucinations experienced by the patient and explained a significant proportion of the variance even after adjusting for premorbid functioning and depression. There are reasons to suspect that premorbid functioning is an important aspect in the development of self- esteem, and, furthermore, that self-esteem is associated with the development of delusions and hallucinations.

  4. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. Method A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis research study (TOP were included at first treatment. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS was used to assess present symptoms. Premorbid adjustment was measured with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. Results Premorbid social adjustment was significantly related to lower self-esteem and explained a significant proportion of the variance in self-esteem. Self-esteem was significantly associated with the levels of persecutory delusions and hallucinations experienced by the patient and explained a significant proportion of the variance even after adjusting for premorbid functioning and depression. Conclusion There are reasons to suspect that premorbid functioning is an important aspect in the development of self- esteem, and, furthermore, that self-esteem is associated with the development of delusions and hallucinations.

  5. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  6. Subclinical Hypothyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Kalantar Hormozi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: subclnical hypothyroid (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a midly Elevated TSH, is common in adults. Subclinical hypothyroid is a risk factor for developing hypothyroidism complication . the goal of screening is to identify and treatment patients with sublinical hypothyroid before they develop these complication. Methods: The sample size of this study was the articles indexed in pubmed,ovid, tripdatabase, new spring link black coehrane, Elsevirer, Embase and contained the terms subclinical hypothyroid, Anti-tpo, Thyrotropin, levothyroxine trapy. Results: 831 articles were found that 75 articles were investigated for this issue. The results are discussed under. The subtile such as subclinical hypothyroid, screening for subclinical hypothyroid, Indication of treatment of Subclinical hypothyroid. Conclusion: In this summary, we tried to review the current literature about definition, Indection of screening and treatment of subclinical hypothyroid and reach a comprehensive guidline for practical significance of this subject in routines practice.

  7. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression: psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor

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    Gemma Modinos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Support Vector Machine (SVM to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II. Two groups were subsequently formed: (i subclinical (mild mood disturbance (n = 17 and (ii no mood disturbance (n = 17. Participants also completed a self-report questionnaire on subclinical psychotic symptoms, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences Questionnaire (CAPE positive subscale. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm entailed passive viewing of negative emotional and neutral scenes. The pattern of brain activity during emotional processing allowed correct group classification with an overall accuracy of 77% (p = 0.002, within a network of regions including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. However, further analysis suggested that the classification accuracy could also be explained by subclinical psychotic symptom scores (correlation with SVM weights r = 0.459, p = 0.006. Psychosis proneness may thus be a confounding factor for neuroimaging studies in subclinical depression.

  8. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression: psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modinos, Gemma; Mechelli, Andrea; Pettersson-Yeo, William; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Aleman, Andre

    2013-01-01

    We used Support Vector Machine (SVM) to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Two groups were subsequently formed: (i) subclinical (mild) mood disturbance (n = 17) and (ii) no mood disturbance (n = 17). Participants also completed a self-report questionnaire on subclinical psychotic symptoms, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences Questionnaire (CAPE) positive subscale. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm entailed passive viewing of negative emotional and neutral scenes. The pattern of brain activity during emotional processing allowed correct group classification with an overall accuracy of 77% (p = 0.002), within a network of regions including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. However, further analysis suggested that the classification accuracy could also be explained by subclinical psychotic symptom scores (correlation with SVM weights r = 0.459, p = 0.006). Psychosis proneness may thus be a confounding factor for neuroimaging studies in subclinical depression.

  9. Psychotic-Like Experiences at the Healthy End of the Psychosis Continuum

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    Lui Unterrassner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence pointing toward a continuous distribution of psychotic symptoms and accompanying factors between subclinical and clinical populations. However, for the construction of continuum models, a more detailed knowledge of different types of psychotic-like experiences (PLE and their associations with distress, functional impairment, and demographic variables is needed. We investigated PLE in a sample of healthy adults (N = 206 incorporating the recently developed revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire (PAGE-R. For the first time, the PAGE-R was cross validated with PLE, disorganized-, and negative-like symptoms [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS]. We subjected the PAGE-R to exploratory factor analyses and examined the resulting subtypes of EE for specific associations with contextual factors, valence ratings, socio-demographic variables, and general psychological burden (Revised Symptom-Checklist-90. Correlational cross-validation suggested that the PAGE-R measures facets of PLE. Importantly, we (1 identified three types of exceptional experiences (EE: Odd beliefs, dissociative anomalous perceptions, and hallucinatory anomalous perceptions. Further, the results suggested that even in healthy individuals (2 PLE and EE are indicative of reduced functioning, as reflected by increased psychological burden and lower educational achievement. Moreover, (3 similar sex-differences might exist as in psychotic patients with women reporting more positive-like symptoms and EE but less disorganized-like symptoms than men. Importantly, (4 EE might be differentially implicated in psychological functioning. We suggest that the PAGE-R holds the potential to complement the current assessment of sub-clinical psychosis. However, whereas our results might point toward a continuity of psychotic symptoms with EE and normal experiences, they require replication in larger samples as well as equivalence

  10. Widespread brain dysconnectivity associated with psychotic-like experiences in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Orr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that psychosis occurs along a continuum. At the high end are formal psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and at the low-end are individuals who experience occasional psychotic symptoms, but are otherwise healthy (non-clinical psychosis, NCP. Schizophrenia has been shown to be marked by altered patterns of connectivity between brain regions, but it is not known if such dysconnectivity exists in NCP. In the current study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare resting-state functional connectivity in NCP individuals (n = 25 and healthy controls (n = 27 for four brain networks of interest (fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular, default mode, and cerebellar networks. NCP individuals showed reduced connectivity compared to controls between regions of the default mode network and frontal regions, and between regions in all of the networks and the thalamus. NCP individuals showed greater connectivity compared to controls within regions of frontal control networks. Further, positive symptom scores in NCP individuals were positively correlated with connectivity between the cingulo-opercular network and the visual cortex, and were negatively correlated with connectivity between the cerebellar network and the posterior parietal cortex and dorsal premotor cortex. Connectivity was not correlated with positive symptom scores in controls. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a spectrum of abnormal connectivity underlies the psychosis continuum, and that individuals with sub-clinical psychotic experiences represent a key population for understanding pathogenic processes.

  11. Childhood maltreatment, adult attachment and psychotic symptomatology: a study in patients, siblings and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, D S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Velthorst, E; Meijer, C J; de Haan, L

    2014-11-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment (ChM) and psychotic disorders is well established. However, there is an ongoing debate about which factors account for this relationship. One explanation is that the relationship between ChM and psychosis is mediated by adult attachment style. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether adult attachment style mediates the relationship between ChM and positive and negative symptomatology. We investigated the relation between ChM and psychotic symptoms, taking into account levels of (insecure) attachment, in 131 patients with psychotic illness, 123 siblings and 72 controls. ChM was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Attachment dimensions of anxiety and avoidance were measured using the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM). In both patients and siblings, ChM predicted positive symptoms and this relationship was partly mediated by attachment style. This relationship was found to be stronger for siblings than for patients. ChM predicted negative symptoms in patients and siblings. In the patient sample, attachment style did not mediate the relationship between ChM and negative symptoms, whereas attachment style was found to be a mediator in the sibling sample. ChM was associated with positive and negative symptomatology in both patients and siblings. Particularly in siblings, the relationship between ChM and psychosis seems to be mediated by adult attachment style. Perhaps attachment style may play a more prominent role on a subclinical level.

  12. [Psychotic parricide. Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornic, F; Olié, J-P

    2006-01-01

    Parricide is a rare event. In France, statistics indicate that it accounts for 2 to 3% of all homicides. It also represents an appreciable part (up to 30%) of homicides committed by psychotic subjects. Many studies suggest a strong positive correlation between criminality and characterized mental illness. The correlation is better when there is a diagnosis of schizophrenia, an alcohol or drugs consumption and a past personal history of violence. Parricide is a crime mainly committed by males. The most frequent form of parricide is patricide committed by sons. However, considering only psychotic parricides, the number of mothers killed seems is equal or higher to the number of fathers killed. The typical profile of an adult committing parricide could be described as follows: a young single unemployed male, living with his victim, suffering from schizophrenia with comorbidity of alcohol or drug abuse and consumption, who stops his medication, and having a past history of medicolegal behaviours. The parricide act can be divided into three stages; first, the contention of the emergence of parricide ideas; second, the violence and brutality of the act; third, following a transient appeasement suicidal thoughts or attempts are frequently observed. Preventing parricides and homicides committed by psychotic subjects is a great challenge. Only a few studies aim to a better understanding of the underlying motivations of such criminals. According to theses studies, we can point out several warning signals. Psychiatrist should particularly increase their vigilance to persecutive delusions, history of a long lasting illness with history of violence during acute stages, threats against family or friends, suicidal thoughts, failures of help requests and attempt to escape.

  13. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated...... with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. METHODS: First, 90...... follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...

  14. Associations between social cognition, skills, and function and subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, A; Jepsen, J M R; Schmock, H

    2016-01-01

    -related symptoms. The aims of this study were to conduct a comprehensive investigation of social impairments at three different levels (function, skill, and cognition) and their interrelationship and to determine to what degree the social impairments correlate to subclinical levels of negative and positive...... symptoms, respectively, in a young cohort of 22q11.2DS not diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: The level of social impairment was addressed using questionnaires and objective measures of social functioning (The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System), skills (Social Responsiveness Scale), and cognition....... Association between social impairment and negative and positive symptoms levels was examined in cases only. RESULTS: Subjects with 22q11.2DS were highly impaired in social function, social skills, and social cognition (p ≤ 6.2 × 10(-9)) relative to control peers and presented with more negative (p = 5.8 × 10...

  15. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....

  16. [Subclinical hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, J

    2013-10-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as abnormal low TSH level with thyroid hormones within their reference range. This laboratory condition may be symptomatic in a relevant number of patients leading to tachycardia, sweating, nervousness, anxiety and insomnia. The risk for cardiovascular disease is increased with more frequent atrial fibrillation and increased left ventricular mass including diastolic dysfunction. Cardiovascular mortality and overall mortality surmounts the average of the normal population. Longterm TSH suppression leads to decreased bone mineral density and an increased fracture rate in the hip and in the spine. After evaluation of underlying causes, therapy should be considered, especially if TSH levels are below 0.1 mIU/l. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Associations between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and psychotic experiences in patients with psychotic disorders, their siblings and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Verweij, Kim; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2013-12-15

    Earlier studies indicated that personality characteristics contribute to symptomatic outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to further explore this connection by examining the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and a dimensional liability for psychosis. FFM traits according to the NEO-FFI and levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms according to the CAPE were assessed in 217 patients with psychotic disorders, 281 of their siblings and 176 healthy controls. Psychotic symptoms according to the PANSS were assessed in the patient group. Patients differed from siblings and controls on four of the five FFM traits, all but Openness. Siblings reported higher levels of Neuroticism than controls, but lower levels than patients. Particularly lower Agreeableness, and to a lesser degree, higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion were associated with more severe symptoms in patients. Furthermore, higher Neuroticism and higher Openness were associated with higher levels of subclinical psychotic experiences in all three groups. Associations were strongest in patients. Our findings suggest that levels of Neuroticism increase with the level of familial risk for psychosis. Levels of Openness may reflect levels of impairment that distinguish clinical from subclinical symptomatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Čaparević Zorica; Bojković Gradimir; Stojanović Dragoš Lj.; Ilić Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as an increased serum TSH and normal serum FT4 concentration. In subclinical hypothyroidism, thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies are frequently present. Subclinical hypothyroidism may have endogenous or exogenous causes. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is rather high. The number of patients progressing to overt hypothyroidism may be higher. These patients may be asymptomatic, or have only mild symptoms or a single sym...

  19. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales...... and a number of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD. METHOD: The psychometric properties of the rating scales were evaluated based on data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression. RESULTS: A rating scale consisting of the 6-item......'s correlation coefficient between change in HAMD-BPRS11 and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scores = -0.74--0.78) and unidimensionality (Loevinger's coefficient of homogeneity = 0.41) in the evaluation of PD. The HAM-D6 fulfilled the same criteria, whereas the full 17-item Hamilton Depression...

  20. Personality and psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyette, L.L.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the current thesis is the contribution of normal personality traits as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) to the manifestation of illness in patients with psychotic disorders. These studies were part of the Dutch national Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis

  1. Brief psychotic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as the cause of the symptoms. Treatment By definition, psychotic symptoms go away on their own in ... severely disrupt your life and possibly lead to violence and suicide. ... by: Timothy Rogge, MD, Medical Director, Family Medical Psychiatry Center, Kirkland, WA. Also reviewed by ...

  2. Psychotic experiences and religiosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovess-Masfety, V; Saha, S; Lim, C C W

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Religiosity is often associated with better health outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and religiosity in a large, cross-national sample. METHODS: A total of 25 542 adult respondents across 18 countries from the WHO World Ment...

  3. Sun Exposure and Psychotic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pilecka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSun exposure is considered the single most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sun exposure and psychotic experiences (PEs in a general population sample of Swedish women.MethodsThe study population included participants from The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study. The 20-item community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPEs was administered between ages 30 and 50 to establish PEs. Sun exposure as measured by (1 sunbathing holidays and (2 history of sunburn was measured between ages 10 and 39. The association between sun exposure and PEs was evaluated by quantile regression models.Results34,297 women were included in the analysis. Women who reported no sunbathing holidays and 2 or more weeks of sunbathing holidays scored higher on the CAPE scale than women exposed to 1 week of sunbathing holidays across the entire distribution, when adjusting for age and education. Similarly, compared with women who reported a history of one sunburn, the women with none or two or more sunburns showed higher scores on the CAPE scale.ConclusionThe results of the present study suggest that, in a population-based cohort of middle aged women, both low and high sun exposure is associated with increased level of positive PEs.

  4. Default mode network connectivity as a function of familial and environmental risk for psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Sanne C T; van de Ven, Vincent; Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Patel, Ameera X; Habets, Petra; Goebel, Rainer; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that altered interregional connectivity in specific networks, such as the default mode network (DMN), is associated with cognitive and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. In addition, frontal and limbic connectivity alterations have been associated with trauma, drug use and urban upbringing, though these environmental exposures have never been examined in relation to DMN functional connectivity in psychotic disorder. Resting-state functional MRI scans were obtained from 73 patients with psychotic disorder, 83 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 72 healthy controls. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed-based correlation analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity within the DMN. DMN functional connectivity was examined in relation to group (familial risk), group × environmental exposure (to cannabis, developmental trauma and urbanicity) and symptomatology. There was a significant association between group and PCC connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the precuneus (PCu) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Compared to controls, patients and siblings had increased PCC connectivity with the IPL, PCu and MPFC. In the IPL and PCu, the functional connectivity of siblings was intermediate to that of controls and patients. No significant associations were found between DMN connectivity and (subclinical) psychotic/cognitive symptoms. In addition, there were no significant interactions between group and environmental exposures in the model of PCC functional connectivity. Increased functional connectivity in individuals with (increased risk for) psychotic disorder may reflect trait-related network alterations. The within-network "connectivity at rest" intermediate phenotype was not associated with (subclinical) psychotic or cognitive symptoms. The association between familial risk and DMN connectivity was not conditional on environmental exposure.

  5. Implicit learning in psychotic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Kop, W. J.; Kuipers, T.; Bosveld, J.

    1992-01-01

    Implicit verbal learning of psychotic patients (n = 59) and non-psychotic control patients (n = 20) was studied using stem completion and association tasks in lexical and semantic priming paradigms. Performance on these tasks was contrasted with explicit memory on Rey's verbal learning test.

  6. Psychotic experiences and suicide attempt risk in common mental disorders and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, I; Ramsay, H; DeVylder, J

    2017-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between psychotic experiences and suicidal behaviour. No research to date, however, has investigated the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in this relationship, despite the fact that BPD is highly comorbid with common mental disorders and is associated with both recurrent suicidal behaviour and psychotic experiences. This paper examined the relationship between psychotic experiences and suicide attempts, including interrelationships with BPD and common mental disorders. We used the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study, a stratified, multistage probability sample of households in England, which recruited a nationally representative sample aged 16 years and older. Participants were assessed for common mental disorders, BPD (clinical and subclinical), suicidal behaviour, and psychotic experiences. Approximately 4% of the total sample (n = 323) reported psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were associated with increased odds of suicide attempts in individuals with BPD (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.03-4.85), individuals with a common mental disorder (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.43), individuals without a common mental disorder (OR = 3.99, 95% CI = 2.47-6.43), and individuals with neither a common mental disorder nor BPD (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.71-5.98). Psychotic experiences are associated with high odds of suicidal behaviour in individuals with and without psychopathology. This relationship is not explained by clinical or subclinical BPD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Subclinical thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrazil, V

    2007-01-01

    Subclinical thyroids disease (STD) is recently defined term in clinical thyroidology, which includes mainly functional disorders. Basic diagnostic signs are: normal values of thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3) and elevated TSH level (subclinical hypothyroidism) or suppresed TSH level (subclinical hyperthyroidism). In a category of STD may be included subclinical autoimunne thyroiditis (elevated level of thyroid antigens antibodies and/or hypoechogenity in sonographic screen, increased volume of the thyroid without clinical symptoms and/or autoimminity) and microscopic lesions of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be dangerous for tendency to development of manifest hypothyroidism and for risk of disorders of lipid profile and development of atherosclerosis and its organ complication (esp. myocardial infarction). Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor of cardiac arythmias and probably can increase a risk of cardiovascular mortality) as well for osteoporosis (esp. in peri- and post-climacteric women), and last but not least for degenerative diseases of brain (?). Indication of treatment of STD is a matter of controversies. Recomendations of experts, varied from "no therapy, monitoring only" to "treat always". Treatment of risk groups (esp. pregnant women) is probably nowadays a most rationale recommendations since results of sofisticated prospective studies will be available.

  8. Psychotic-like Experiences and Substance Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-03-02

    Psychotic disorders, as well as psychotic-like experiences and substance use, have been found to be associated. The main goal of the present study was to analyse the relationship between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in college students. The simple comprised a total of 660 participants (M = 20.3 years, SD = 2.6). The results showed that 96% of the sample reported some delusional experience, while 20.3% reported at least one positive psychotic-like experience. Some substance use was reported by 41.1% of the sample, differing in terms of gender. Substance users reported more psychoticlike experiences than non-users, especially in the positive dimension. Also, alcohol consumption predicted in most cases extreme scores on measures of delusional ideation and psychotic experiences. The association between these two variables showed a differentiated pattern, with a stronger relationship between substance use and cognitive-perceptual psychotic-like experiences. To some extent, these findings support the dimensional models of the psychosis phenotype and contribute a better understanding of the links between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in young adults. Future studies should further explore the role of different risk factors for psychotic disorders and include models of the gene-environment interaction.

  9. Are Psychotic Experiences Related to Poorer Reflective Reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Mækelæ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive biases play an important role in the formation and maintenance of delusions. These biases are indicators of a weak reflective mind, or reduced engaging in reflective and deliberate reasoning. In three experiments, we tested whether a bias to accept non-sense statements as profound, treat metaphorical statements as literal, and suppress intuitive responses is related to psychotic-like experiences.Methods: We tested deliberate reasoning and psychotic-like experiences in the general population and in patients with a former psychotic episode. Deliberate reasoning was assessed with the bullshit receptivity scale, the ontological confabulation scale and the cognitive reflection test (CRT. We also measured algorithmic performance with the Berlin numeracy test and the wordsum test. Psychotic-like experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE-42 scale.Results: Psychotic-like experiences were positively correlated with a larger receptivity toward bullshit, more ontological confabulations, and also a lower score on the CRT but not with algorithmic task performance. In the patient group higher psychotic-like experiences significantly correlated with higher bullshit receptivity.Conclusion: Reduced deliberate reasoning may contribute to the formation of delusions, and be a general thinking bias largely independent of a person's general intelligence. Acceptance of bullshit may be facilitated the more positive symptoms a patient has, contributing to the maintenance of the delusions.

  10. Psychotic-like symptomatology and reward responsivity in chronic ketamine and cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Joye, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses psychotic-like symptomatology and reward responsivity in chronic users of two illicit drugs, cannabis and ketamine. As use of these drugs is steadily increasing, with cannabis being the most widely used drug worldwide (following alcohol, caffeine and tobacco) and the recent proliferation of ketamine misuse in parts of Asia, Europe and the United States, it is important to examine the effects of their habitual use. While research has linked cannabis use to sub-clinical psy...

  11. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  12. Update on subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2011-04-15

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (as in Graves disease or toxic nodular goiter), administration of thyroid hormone for treatment of malignant thyroid disease, or unintentional excessive thyroid hormone therapy. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons who have suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels compared with those who have low but detectable levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation in older adults, and with decreased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women; however, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unknown. There is lesser-quality evidence suggesting an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and other cardiovascular effects, including increased heart rate and left ventricular mass, and increased bone turnover markers. Possible associations between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality of life parameters, cognition, and increased mortality rates are controversial. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to address the effects of early treatment on potential morbidities to help determine whether screening should be recommended in the asymptomatic general population.

  13. Treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Andreassen, Mikkel; Petersen, Claus L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate structure and function of the heart in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) before and after obtaining euthyroidism by radioactive iodine treatment, using high precision and observer-independent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. METHODS...

  14. Lipids in newly discovered subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive correlation between the levels of TSH and cholesterol levels, while levels between TSH levels triglicrerida negative correlation with the clinical and subclinical form of reduced thyroid function.

  15. Psychotic Depression and Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Kristin J; Schoeyen, Helle K; Johannessen, Jan O; Walby, Fredrik A; Davidson, Larry; Schaufel, Margrethe A

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how severely depressed individuals experienced the relationship between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of nine inpatients from a psychiatric university hospital between September 2012 and May 2013 fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a psychotic depressive episode as part of a unipolar or bipolar disorder. Analysis was conducted using systematic text condensation. Participants experienced (1) being directed to perform impulsive potentially fatal actions, (2) feeling hounded to death, (3) becoming trapped in an inescapable darkness, and (4) being left bereft of mental control. They described how impulsivity directed by delusions and hallucinations resulted in unpredictable actions with only moments from decision to conduct. Suicide was seen as an escape not only from life problems but also from psychotic experiences and intense anxiety. Participants reported being in a chaotic state, unable to think rationally or anticipate the consequences of their actions. Their ability to identify and communicate psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior was compromised, leaving them to struggle alone with these terrifying experiences. Suicide risk assessments based on verbal reports from individuals with psychotic depression may not always be valid due to potential impulsivity and underreporting of suicidal ideation. It may be important for clinicians to explore the delusional content of such patients' experiences to assess the possibility of suicide as a result of shame, guilt, remorse, or altruistic intentions to save others from harm.

  16. Relationship between cognition, clinical and cognitive insight in psychotic disorders : A review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, Akshay; Palmer, Emma Claire; Aleman, Andre; David, Anthony S.

    The neurocognitive theory of insight posits that poor insight in psychotic illnesses is related to cognitive deficits in cognitive self-appraisal mechanisms. In this paper we perform a comprehensive meta-analysis examining relationships between clinical insight and neurocognition in psychotic

  17. Protective Factors for Psychotic Symptoms Among Poly-victimized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Eloise; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-04-06

    Experiencing victimization in early life has been repeatedly shown to be associated with the emergence of psychotic symptoms in childhood. However, most victimized children do not develop psychotic symptoms and why this occurs is not fully understood. This study investigated which individual, family-level, and wider community characteristics were associated with an absence of psychotic symptoms among children at risk for psychosis by virtue of their exposure to multiple victimization experiences (poly-victimization). Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of 2232 UK-born twins. Exposure to maltreatment, bullying and domestic violence prior to age 12 was determined from interviews with mothers, children, and observations by research workers at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Protective factors were measured at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12. Childhood poly-victimization was associated with age-12 psychotic symptoms (OR = 4.61, 95% CI 2.82-7.52), but the majority of poly-victimized children did not report symptoms (80.7%). Having a relatively high IQ, more positive atmosphere at home, and higher levels of neighborhood social cohesion were found to be protective against childhood psychotic symptoms among poly-victimized children and also in the whole sample. However, "protected" poly-victimized children displayed elevated levels of other mental health problems compared to nonvictimized children. Children's characteristics, family context, and the wider community were all found to protect children from developing early psychotic symptoms, even when they were victimized multiple times. These findings indicate targets for multilevel preventive interventions.

  18. Psychotic versus non-psychotic firesetters : Similarities and differences in characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalhuisen, Lydia; Koenraadt, Frans; Liem, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Firesetters with psychotic disorders constitute a distinct and important offender group. However, little is known about how psychotic firesetters differ from non-psychotic firesetters. More knowledge is required in order to treat this particular population effectively. Psychotic (n = 30) and

  19. Management of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Pascual-Corrales, Eider; Galofre, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient’s medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves’ disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels. We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment. In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation). PMID:23843809

  20. Data Gathering Bias: Trait Vulnerability to Psychotic Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catalan

    Full Text Available Jumping to conclusions (JTC is associated with psychotic disorder and psychotic symptoms. If JTC represents a trait, the rate should be (i increased in people with elevated levels of psychosis proneness such as individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, and (ii show a degree of stability over time.The JTC rate was examined in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP, BPD patients and controls, using the Beads Task. PANSS, SIS-R and CAPE scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. Four WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ.A total of 61 FEP, 26 BPD and 150 controls were evaluated. 29 FEP were revaluated after one year. 44% of FEP (OR = 8.4, 95% CI: 3.9-17.9 displayed a JTC reasoning bias versus 19% of BPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-7.8 and 9% of controls. JTC was not associated with level of psychotic symptoms or specifically delusionality across the different groups. Differences between FEP and controls were independent of sex, educational level, cannabis use and IQ. After one year, 47.8% of FEP with JTC at baseline again displayed JTC.JTC in part reflects trait vulnerability to develop disorders with expression of psychotic symptoms.

  1. Aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, and interview-rated psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Docherty, Anna R; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2015-02-01

    Many social-cognitive models of psychotic-like symptoms posit a role for self-concept and aberrant salience. Previous work has shown that the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity is associated with self-reported psychotic-like experiences. In the current research with two structured interviews, the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found to be associated with interview-rated psychotic-like experiences. The interaction was associated with psychotic-like experiences composite scores, delusional ideation, grandiosity, and perceptual anomalies. In all cases, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with psychotic-like experiences at high levels of aberrant salience, but unassociated with psychotic-like experiences at low levels of aberrant salience. The interaction was specific to positive psychotic-like experiences and not present for negative or disorganized ratings. The interaction was not mediated by self-esteem levels. These results provide further evidence that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity play an important role in the generation of psychotic-like experiences.

  2. Interpersonal sensitivity and persistent attenuated psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masillo, Alice; Brandizzi, M; Valmaggia, L R; Saba, R; Lo Cascio, N; Lindau, J F; Telesforo, L; Venturini, P; Montanaro, D; Di Pietro, D; D'Alema, M; Girardi, P; Fiori Nastro, P

    2018-03-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity defines feelings of inner-fragility in the presence of others due to the expectation of criticism or rejection. Interpersonal sensitivity was found to be related to attenuated positive psychotic symptom during the prodromal phase of psychosis. The aims of this study were to examine if high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline are associated with the persistence of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology at 18-month follow-up. A sample of 85 help-seeking individuals (mean age = 16.6, SD = 5.05) referred an Italian early detection project, completed the interpersonal sensitivity measure and the structured interview for prodromal symptoms (SIPS) at baseline and were assessed at 18-month follow-up using the SIPS. Results showed that individuals with high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline reported high level of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (i.e., unusual thought content) and general symptoms (i.e., depression, irritability and low tolerance to daily stress) at follow-up. This study suggests that being "hypersensitive" to interpersonal interactions is a psychological feature associated with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general symptoms, such as depression and irritability, at 18-month follow-up. Assessing and treating inner-self fragilities may be an important step of early detection program to avoid the persistence of subtle but very distressing long-terms symptoms.

  3. French version validation of the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS for outpatients with persistent psychotic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favrod Jerome

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most scales that assess the presence and severity of psychotic symptoms often measure a broad range of experiences and behaviours, something that restricts the detailed measurement of specific symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of these core symptoms. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the French version of the PSYRATS. Methods A sample of 103 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms over the previous three months was assessed using the PSYRATS. Seventy-five sample participants were also assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results ICCs were superior to .90 for all items of the PSYRATS. Factor analysis replicated the factorial structure of the original version of the delusions scale. Similar to previous replications, the factor structure of the hallucinations scale was partially replicated. Convergent validity indicated that some specific PSYRATS items do not correlate with the PANSS delusions or hallucinations. The distress items of the PSYRATS are negatively correlated with the grandiosity scale of the PANSS. Conclusions The results of this study are limited by the relatively small sample size as well as the selection of participants with persistent symptoms. The French version of the PSYRATS partially replicates previously published results. Differences in factor structure of the hallucinations scale might be explained by greater variability of its elements. The future development of the scale should take into account the presence of grandiosity in order to better capture details of the psychotic experience.

  4. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  5. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.

  6. The treatment of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leadholm, Anne Katrine K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Nolen, Willem A

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a prevalent, severe, under-diagnosed and often inadequately treated mental disorder, which has received disproportionally little attention by clinicians, researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, the evidence base for optimal clinical practice regardi...... PD is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of consensus among international treatment guidelines on PD and to determine whether a potential lack of consensus would be reflected in the clinical practice of Danish psychiatrists....

  7. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R

    1989-08-19

    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  8. Analysis of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Influence on Parameters of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pankiv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available State of subclinical hypothyroidism can be considered as the optimal model for assessing the significance of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH for bone tissue in clinical practice. Objective: to make a comparative analysis of the impact of subclinical hyperthyroidism of various origins on the performance of bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism parameters. Materials and methods. The study in an outpatient setting included 112 women with a diagnosis of subclinical hyperthyroidism and duration of menopause for at least 5 years. Among the examinees, endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has been detected in 78 women (group I, exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on the background of suppressive levothyroxine therapy (group II — in 34. The control group (group III included 20 women without thyroid dysfunction. Results. The study first conducted a comparative analysis of bone metabolism, BMD indicators, as well as parameters of phosphorus and calcium, blood lipids in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism of various origins. A positive correlation between markers of bone metabolism and free triiodothyronine (fT3 as hormones necessary for the development of the skeleton and to maintain its homeostasis indicates a physiological effect of parathyroid hormone and fT3 on bone tissue. It is shown that the bone metabolism and BMD depend not only on the content of TSH, but also on the causes of subclinical hyperthyroidism.Conclusions. In postmenopausal women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, there is a significant decline in BMD indices, more pronounced in the bones with the cortical structure. A negative correlation between markers of bone metabolism and TSH has been observed among all patients included in the study.

  9. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy predicts psychotic experiences via behaviour problems in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim S; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jakob M; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been associated with later schizophrenia in offspring. We explore how prenatal stress and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood associate to increase the risk of later psychotic experiences. Participants from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, pre-birth cohort study were examined for lifetime DSM-IV positive psychotic experiences at 21 years by a semi-structured interview (n = 2227). Structural equation modelling suggested psychotic experiences were best represented with a bifactor model including a general psychosis factor and two group factors. We tested for an association between prenatal stressful life events with the psychotic experiences, and examined for potential moderation and mediation by behaviour problems and cognitive ability in childhood. Prenatal stressful life events predicted psychotic experiences indirectly via behaviour problems at child age five years, and this relationship was not confounded by maternal stressful life events at child age five. We found no statistical evidence for an interaction between prenatal stressful life events and behaviour problems or cognitive ability. The measurable effect of prenatal stressful life events on later psychotic experiences in offspring manifested as behaviour problems by age 5. By identifying early abnormal behavioural development as an intermediary, this finding further confirms the role of prenatal stress to later psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than

  11. A longitudinal twin study of the association between childhood autistic traits and psychotic experiences in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Mark J.; Robinson, Elise B.; Happ?, Francesca; Bolton, Patrick; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: This twin study investigated whether autistic traits during childhood were associated with adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Data were collected from a community sample of approximately 5000 twin pairs, which included 32 individuals with diagnosed autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Parents rated autistic traits in the twins at four points between ages 8–16 years. Positive, negative, and cognitive psychotic experiences were assessed at age 16 years using self- and parent-re...

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Should we treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Christopher; Vaidya, Bijay

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (also known as compensated hypothyroidism or mild hypothyroidism) is a condition associated with a raised serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) but a normal serum free thyroxine (FT4). It is common, affecting about 10% of women above the age of 55 years. Autoimmunity is the commonest cause of subclinical hypothyroidism. About 2.5% of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism progress to clinically overt hypothyroidism each year; the rate of progression is higher in patients with thyroid autoantibodies and higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels. However, thyroid function normalises spontaneously in up to 40% cases. Only a small minority of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism have symptoms, and the evidence to support that levothyroxine ameliorate the symptoms in these patients is weak. Subclinical hypothyroidism in younger patients (treatment can prevent these risks, although a large observational study of the UK general practice research database has shown that levothyroxine may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in younger patients (hypothyroidism should be made after careful consideration of the patient's age, the presence of symptoms, the presence of thyroid antibodies and other risk factors such as cardiovascular disease.

  13. Psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression compared to non-psychotic mania and non-psychotic bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Louise B; Horsdal, Henriette T; Mors, Ole; Gasse, Christiane; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-09-01

    An evidence base for the treatment of mania and bipolar depression with psychotic symptoms is lacking. Nevertheless, clinicians may have a preference for treating episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms in different ways, which is likely to reflect notions of differential efficacy of treatments between these subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether the psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic episodes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, differs in clinical practice. We conducted a register-based study assessing the psychopharmacological treatment of all individuals receiving their first diagnosis of mania or bipolar depression between 2010 and 2012. The psychopharmacological treatment within 3 months following the time of diagnosis was considered. Potential differences in psychopharmacological treatment between the psychotic and non-psychotic subtypes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, were investigated by means of Pearson's χ 2 test and logistic regression adjusted for sex and age at diagnosis of bipolar disorder. A total of 827 patients were included in the analyses. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for treatment with an antipsychotic was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.48, Pbipolar depression. The aOR for treatment with the combination of an antipsychotic and an anticonvulsant was 1.60 (95% CI: 1.06-2.43, Pbipolar psychotic depression. It would be of interest to conduct studies evaluating whether antipsychotics represent the superior pharmacological treatment for psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Subclinical pertussis in incompletely vaccinated and unvaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subclinical whooping cough) does in fact occur. Recent studies have shown subclinical disease in vaccinated infants ... through home visits by a community health nurse with ..... The current study extends the knowledge of contagious spread of ...

  15. A systematic review on definitions and assessments of psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kit-Wai; Chan, Kit-Wa; Chang, Wing-Chung; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2016-02-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) or subclinical psychotic experiences have received increased attention as some studies have suggested continuity between PLEs and psychotic disorders. However, epidemiological and correlational studies of PLEs showed mixed findings - it is observed that different studies use a wide variety of definitions of PLEs, as well as different assessment tools that are designed to capture such described experiences. The differences in definitions and assessment tools adopted could contribute to the discrepancy of findings. The current review aims to examine the definitions and assessment tools adopted in the studies of PLEs. Literature search was conducted between October 2013 and February 2014 using three search engines: Medline, Web of Science and PubMed. A total of 76 papers met the selection criteria and were included in the current review. It is found that the majority of papers reviewed defined PLEs quantitatively using assessment tools and do not have a specific phenomenological definition, whereas assessment tools adopted have a wide variety. Furthermore, phenomenological studies of PLEs were rare. The variations in definitions and assessment tools of PLEs might contribute to mixed findings in researches. Reaching to a consensus through the study of phenomenology of PLEs is essential to further advancement of the research in this area. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. I. Prevalence and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has a prevalence of approx. 6% in the general population; it is more common in females and in the elderly. The incidence of progression to overt hypothyroidism is 5-15% per year; women with positive thyroid antibodies are especially at risk. The biological significance

  17. Measuring treatment response in psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Meyers, Barnett S; Flint, Alastair J

    2014-01-01

    ). The response to the two regimens was compared using both a mixed effects model and effect size statistics on the total scores of three rating scales: the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), its 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6), and the 11-item PDAS consisting of the HAM-D6 plus five items......BACKGROUND: There is no established psychometric instrument dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new composite rating scale, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), covering both the psychotic...... and the depressive domains of PD, could detect differences in effect between two psychopharmacological treatment regimens. METHODS: We reanalyzed the data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD), which compared the effect of Olanzapine+Sertraline (n=129) versus Olanzapine+Placebo (n=130...

  18. Post-psychotic depression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, M; Kulhara, P; Avasthi, A

    1993-01-01

    Post-psychotic depression (PPD) is defined as the development of depression during the phase of remission of schizophrenia. Two groups of DSM-III-R schizophrenics, one with PPD and the other without PPD (30 subjects in each group) were compared. Significantly more patients in PPD group belonged to nuclear families, had longer duration of psychotic phase of the illness, were hospitalised more frequently and had more sadness and anxiety-somatisation during florid illness phase. The PPD group also had more past history of depression. Although PPD patients had better premorbid personal-social adjustment in comparison with non-PPD group, they perceived themselves to be lacking in social support and had experienced more stressful life events. For patients in the PPD group, stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed age of onset, sadness during florid psychotic state, premorbid adjustment, social support and life events as significant determinants of severity of depression in the post-psychotic phase.

  19. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2011-03-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  20. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  1. A Dementia Case Presenting with Psychotic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a progressive clinical syndrome in which affected areas of brain function may be affected, such as memory, language, abstract thinking, problem solving and attention. Psychotic symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations and delusions, which usually occur in the dementia. In this paper, a dementia case presenting with psychotic symptoms is presented. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 482-486

  2. Effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on amniotic fluid cells oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Tanja R; Dolicanin, Zana C; Djordjevic, Natasa Z

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we researched the effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on the amniotic fluid cells oxidative metabolism during the first trimester of pregnancy. Oxidative stress and damage biomarkers were assayed in the amniotic fluid cells of healthy and pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Obtained results show that amniotic fluid cells of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism have significantly higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers (superoxide anion, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxide and micronuclei frequency), but lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione in comparison to healthy pregnant women. We also showed that oxidative stress biomarkers were positively correlated with micronuclei frequency and lipid peroxide concentration in amniotic fluid cells of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. The present study provides the first evidence for prooxidative effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on the fetus obtained by the estimating oxidative metabolism in the amniotic fluid cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of adolescent psychotic-like experiences shows genetic overlap with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Oliver; Dudbridge, Frank; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Lu, Yi; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ronald, Angelica

    2018-03-31

    This study aimed to test for overlap in genetic influences between psychotic-like experience traits shown by adolescents in the community, and clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders in adulthood, specifically schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. The full spectra of psychotic-like experience domains, both in terms of their severity and type (positive, cognitive, and negative), were assessed using self- and parent-ratings in three European community samples aged 15-19 years (Final N incl. siblings = 6,297-10,098). A mega-genome-wide association study (mega-GWAS) for each psychotic-like experience domain was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of each psychotic-like experience domain was estimated using genomic-relatedness-based restricted maximum-likelihood (GREML) and linkage disequilibrium- (LD-) score regression. Genetic overlap between specific psychotic-like experience domains and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression was assessed using polygenic risk score (PRS) and LD-score regression. GREML returned SNP-heritability estimates of 3-9% for psychotic-like experience trait domains, with higher estimates for less skewed traits (Anhedonia, Cognitive Disorganization) than for more skewed traits (Paranoia and Hallucinations, Parent-rated Negative Symptoms). Mega-GWAS analysis identified one genome-wide significant association for Anhedonia within IDO2 but which did not replicate in an independent sample. PRS analysis revealed that the schizophrenia PRS significantly predicted all adolescent psychotic-like experience trait domains (Paranoia and Hallucinations only in non-zero scorers). The major depression PRS significantly predicted Anhedonia and Parent-rated Negative Symptoms in adolescence. Psychotic-like experiences during adolescence in the community show additive genetic effects and partly share genetic influences with clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders, specifically schizophrenia and

  4. Risperidone in psychotic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Pivac, Nela; Mück-Seler, Dorotea; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2005-07-01

    Psychotic symptoms that frequently occur in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) complicate its pharmacotherapy. We hypothesized that war veterans with psychotic PTSD, resistant to prior antidepressant treatment, would respond well to 6 weeks of treatment with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, given as a monotherapy. Twenty-six male war veterans with psychotic PTSD (DSM-IV) completed the 6-week inpatient treatment with risperidone (2-4 mg/day) during the period from November 1999 through December 2002. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to endpoint (6 weeks) in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscale scores. Secondary outcome measures were changes in PTSD Interview (PTSD-I) and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S) total and subscale scores. Clinical improvement was assessed by CGI-S, CGI-Improvement scale, and Patient Global Impression of Improvement scale, while adverse events were recorded by Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale. Treatment with risperidone for either 3 or 6 weeks in an open trial significantly reduced total and subscales scores on the PANSS and on the PTSD-I and CGI-S when compared to baseline scores in patients with psychotic PTSD. Our preliminary data from the open trial indicate that risperidone decreased most of the psychotic and PTSD symptoms. Psychotic PTSD patients, unresponsive to antidepressant treatment, improved significantly after treatment for either 3 or 6 weeks with risperidone.

  5. A study of acculturation in psychotic and non-psychotic immigrants living in Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonidakis, F; Lembesi, E; Kontaxakis, V P; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B J; Ploumpidis, D; Madianos, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2013-03-01

    Acculturation is the phenomenon that results when a group with one culture comes into continuous contact with a host culture. To investigate the correlation between acculturation and psychotic symptomatology in a group of immigrants suffering from psychosis and to explore differences in demographic factors related with the acculturation process between individuals with and without psychosis. Sixty-five patients and 317 non-psychotic immigrants were interviewed using the Immigrant Acculturation Scale (IAS) and a structured questionnaire for demographic data. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) were also administered to all immigrants suffering from psychosis. Total IAS scores, as well as IAS everyday life scores, were positively correlated with GAF scores. IAS everyday life score in the patient group related with religion, marital status, gender and years in Greece, while in the non-psychosis group it was related with gender and years in Greece. IAS wishful orientation/nostos (the strong desire for one's homeland) related with religion in both groups. The IAS identity in the psychosis group did not show any significant relation with any of the variables, while in the non-patient group, it was related with marital status, gender and years in Greece. Age, duration of residence in Greece and higher adoption of Greek ethnic identity were the variables that differentiated the two groups of immigrants. Acculturation in immigrants suffering from psychosis could be seen as a process that does not correlate strongly with the severity of the symptomatology but is probably influenced by different set of factors.

  6. Psychotic-spectrum symptoms, cumulative adversity exposure and substance use among high-risk girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Plante, Wendy Y; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Golshan, Shahrokh; Beck, Audrey N

    2018-02-01

    Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors. We administered the Structured Clinical Interviews for Psychotic Spectrum, and Trauma and Loss Spectrum to 158 adolescent delinquent girls. Girls' psychotic-spectrum profiles were similar to previously reported adult psychotic patients and characterized by typical symptoms (hallucinations/delusions, reported largely SAU-independent), interpersonal sensitivity, schizoid traits and paranoia (over-interpretation, anger over-reactivity, hypervigilance). Auditory/visual hallucinations (55.7%), delusions (92.4%), ideas of reference (96.8%) and adversity (90.0% ≥10/24 C-TALE-types) were common. Mean loss (4) and trauma (8) onset-age occurred before SAU-onset (12). Significant positive correlations were found among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, stressor-reactivity, C-TALE, adversity-indicators; and number of SAU-types; and a negative correlation occurred between psychotic-spectrum symptoms and earlier alcohol use onset. After controlling for number of SAU-types, stressor-reactivity and adversity-related numbing individually had the largest associations with total psychotic-spectrum symptoms (b = 2.6-4.3). Girls averaged more than 4 maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., 24.8% attempted suicide) in response to adversity, amplifying potential health-disparities. No racial/ethnic differences emerged on psychotic-spectrum symptoms. This symptom constellation during adolescence likely interferes with social and academic

  7. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J

    1992-12-01

    In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.

  8. Some Paths Towards Psychotic Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Franco

    2017-12-01

    In this paper I use the term alienation to describe the mind's detachment from psychic reality and its withdrawal into an alien world that leads to progressive dehumanization. In spite of this phenomenon having a psychodynamic nosography and descriptive models that effectively reveal it in detail, mental alienation is still mysterious and unsettling, especially when it manifests all of a sudden in clinical work. Alienating withdrawal into sensory fantasizing, which causes increasing loss of contact with human reality, is often preceded by a long period of time spent in a dissociated world that has gradually replaced psychic reality. However, prior to the human world being completely replaced by the alien world, both worlds coexisted for a considerable length of time in the patient's mind. My hypothesis is that the dissociation from psychic reality that underlies the future state of psychotic alienation occurs in psychic withdrawal that begins in infancy. This mental state is particularly obvious in small children who constantly live in a fantasy world.

  9. Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C.E. Vianni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em cocos Gram-positivos catalase negativos (21 amostras de Lactococcus garvieae e 6 de Enterococcus gallinarum, isoladas do leite de fêmeas com mastite subclínica e pertencentes a uma população composta por seis rebanhos bubalinos localizados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O teste utilizado foi o da difusão de discos em agar Müller Hinton, segundo recomendações do National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS, tendo sido testados discos com ampicilina (10mg, cefalotina (30mg, cefotaxima (30mg, cefoxitina (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromicina (15mg, gentamicina (10mg, nitrofurantoína (300mg, norfloxacina (10mg, penicilina (10 UI, tetraciclina (30mg e vancomicina (30mg. Os resultados evidenciaram que em se tratando de Lactococcus garvieae, o antimicrobiano mais eficiente foi o nitrofurantoína com 85,71% de sensibilidade, seguido da cefotaxima (61,90%, vancomicina (52,38%, norfloxacina (47,62% e cefalotina (47,62%. A maior resistência foi desenvolvida frente a penicilina e ampicilina, com 95,24% de resistênciapara os dois antimicrobianos testados. O perfil de susceptibilidade desenvolvido pelas amostras de Enterococcus gallinarum, mostrou baixa sensibilidade frente aos antimicrobianos testados, onde os maiores índices foram observados frente eritromicina e gentamicina, com 33,34% de sensibilidade para ambos; quanto à resistência desenvolvida, foi possível observar 100% de resistência com relação a vancomicina e tetraciclina, seguindo-se cloranfenicol, penicilina, ampicilina, cefoxitina, cefalotina, cefotaxima, norfloxacina e nitrofurantoína, todas evidenciando uma resistência de 83,33% das amostras testadas.The susceptibility of antimicrobials was studied in Gram positive and catalase negative cocci (21 samples of Lactococcus garvieae and 6 Enterococcus gallinarum, isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis, belonging to six buffalo herds in

  10. Psychotic Experiences and Neuropsychological Functioning in a Population-based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Josephine; David, Anthony S; Morgan, Craig; Frissa, Souci; Glahn, David; Pilecka, Izabela; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    experiences showed medium to large impairments in neuropsychological functioning (mean [SD]) on measures of IQ (81.22 [15.97] vs 91.28 [14.31]; Cohen d, -0.70), verbal knowledge (28.31 [13.83] vs 38.51 [11.50]; Cohen d, -0.88), working memory (19.11 [4.77] vs 21.99 [3.42]; Cohen d, -0.82), and memory (39.17 [8.23] vs 44.09 [6.51]; Cohen d, -0.45) after adjusting for socioeconomic status, cannabis use, and common mental disorders. Medium impairments (mean [SD]) on measures of working memory (21.27 [3.64] vs 22.62 [2.97]; Cohen d, -0.45) and memory (44.32 [5.84] vs 46.91 [5.74]; Cohen d, -0.45) were seen in those aged 35 to 49 years and on a measure of verbal knowledge (30.81 [14.17] vs 37.60 [10.48]; Cohen d, -0.62) in those aged 16 to 24 years. First-degree relatives of adults with psychotic experiences showed a small impairment on a measure of verbal knowledge (34.71 [12.10] vs 38.63 [10.97]; Cohen d, -0.36; P = .02), and unrelated cohabitants showed no neuropsychological impairment. The profile of cognitive impairment in adults with psychotic experiences differed from that seen in adults with psychotic disorders, suggesting important differences between subclinical and clinical psychosis.

  11. S248. RELATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnaout, Amine; Nefzi, Rahma; Aissa, Amina; Trabelsi, Rouaa; Hechmi, Zouhaier El

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background There is renewed interest in the relationship between early childhood trauma and risk of psychosis in adulthood. Trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence are known to be more prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders than in the general population. Furthermore, other findings support the role of childhood trauma as a socio-environmental risk factor for psychotic symptoms, and research on the potential etiological relationship between trauma/stressful events in childhood/adolescence and psychotic disorders is evolving. The aim of the current study was to examine relations among all items and domains of childhood trauma and schizophrenic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The relationship between types of trauma and their association with psychotic symptoms was analysed. Methods In this study, we collected data from 50 schizophrenic patients (39 males and 11 females). All patients met the DSM 5 criteria for schizophrenia. Psychotic symptoms were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results We found significant correlations between emotional and sexual abuse, emotional neglect and denial scale in CTQ with positive symptoms of the PANSS (pagressive behaviours was also described in litterature. These results went along with the stress sensitization model where the HPA axis is over-active and excessively reactive to the subsequent environemental stressors causing positive symptoms of the disease.

  12. Plasma homovanillic acid and family history of psychotic disorders in bipolar I patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrue, Aurora; Goienetxea, Biotza; González-Torres, Miguel Angel; Guimón, José

    2009-04-01

    It has been suggested that the family history of psychotic disorders is useful in defining homogeneous groups of bipolar patients. The plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations have been related to the effect of antipsychotic treatment in psychotic patients. We have studied the influence of a positive family history of psychotic disorders both on the variation of pHVA levels and on the relation between pHVA concentrations and the clinical response to treatment. Clinical status and pHVA levels were assessed in 58 medication free patients before and after 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine and lithium. Clinical improvement correlated positively with pHVA levels on the 28th day of treatment only in the patients having first degree relatives with psychotic disorders. The pHVA levels did not decrease after 28 days of treatment. Our results reinforce the idea that a positive family history of psychosis in psychotic bipolar disorders may constitute a good basis for sub-grouping these patients.

  13. Environmental adversities and psychotic symptoms: The impact of timing of trauma, abuse, and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Breinlinger, Susanne; Hirt, Vanessa; Teicher, Martin H; Odenwald, Michael; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2017-11-13

    Trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur more often in mental illness, including psychosis, than in the general population. Individuals with psychosis (cases) report a higher number and severity (dose) of adversities than healthy controls. While a dose-dependent increase of adversities has been related to more severe psychopathology, the role of type and timing is still insufficiently understood on the exacerbation of positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Moreover, dissociative symptoms were examined as potential mediator between adversities and severity of psychotic symptoms. Exposure to adversities were assessed by interviews in n=180 cases and n=70 controls. In cases, symptom severities were obtained for psychotic symptoms and dissociation. Conditioned random forest regression determined the importance of type and timing of ACE for positive and negative symptom severity, and mediator analyses evaluated the role of dissociative symptoms in the relationship between adversities and psychotic symptoms. Cases experienced substantially more abuse and neglect than controls. Adversities were related in a dose-dependent manner to psychotic disorder. An array of adversities was associated with more severe positive symptoms, while the conditioned random forest regression depicted neglect at age 10 as the most important predictor. Dissociative symptoms mediated the small relation of trauma load in childhood and positive symptoms. The role of trauma and ACE on psychotic symptoms can be specified by neglect during frontocortical development in the exacerbation of positive symptoms. The mediating role of dissociation is restricted to the relation of childhood trauma and positive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Platysmal myoclonus in subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hock-Luen; Lim, Erle Chuen-Hian

    2005-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with various movement disorders, such as chorea and tremors. We report on a young Chinese woman with an unusual presentation of myoclonus, involving both platysmal muscles, in association with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The myoclonus was preceded by symptoms of hyperthyroidism, namely weight loss, menstrual disturbances, and heat intolerance. The movements abated with clonazepam and hyperthyroidism was treated with carbimazole. The myoclonus recurred briefly when she stopped taking clonazepam, but she has since remained well and euthyroid. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society

  15. pattern of subclinical thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, A.; Marri, M.H.; Qureshi, A.H.; Qamar, M.A.; Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) in local population visiting a hospital laboratory for thyroid function tests. Design: It was a hospital - based study carried in consecutive patients who reported for thyroid function tests in the hospital laboratory. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in combined military Hospital, Quetta during June 1999 to September 2000. Subject and methods: Serum samples of 917 patients living in Quetta and its surrounding were analysed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) free thyroxin (FT4), and total tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentration using chemiluminescence technique on hormone auto analyser (LIA-Mat - Sangtech Germany). Results: Out of 917 patients, 287 (23%) were found to be having SCTD while overt thyroid disease was found in 288 (31%) patients. Prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism (SCO) and sub-clinical hyperthyroidism (sce) was found to be almost equal with a profound female preponderance in both the groups. SCO was more common in children (<12 years of age). Conclusion: Almost every fourth patient reporting for thyroid function tests was diagnosed as having SCTD - a disease entity that is still not well known and that poses diagnostic and management problems for the pathologists and clinicians. (author)

  16. [Subclinical hyperthyroidism: from diagnosis to treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvilain, B

    2012-09-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a common clinical entity. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as a serum TSH below the reference range but a normal T4 and T3 level in an asymptomatic patient. Whether or not subclinical hyperthyroidism should be treated remains a matter of debate. Cross-sectional studies and longitudinal population-based studies demonstrate association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and risk of atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis and cardiovascular and global mortality. However, there are no randomized clinical trials answering the question whether long term-health outcomes are improved by the treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism. Therefore in the absence of evidence for or against treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism, it seems appropriate to follow algorithms that consider the level of TSH and the presence of risks factors (age > 65 years, osteoporosis, post menopause and cardiac disease).

  17. Major depressive disorder with psychotic features may lead to misdiagnosis of dementia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerhardt S; McClintock, Shawn M; Rosenquist, Peter B; McCall, W Vaughn; Kahn, David A

    2011-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic features is relatively frequent in patients with greater depressive symptom severity and is associated with a poorer course of illness and greater functional impairment than MDD without psychotic features. Multiple studies have found that patients with psychotic mood disorders demonstrate significantly poorer cognitive performance in a variety of areas than those with nonpsychotic mood disorders. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Dementia Rating Scale, Second Edition (DRS-2) are widely used to measure cognitive functions in research on MDD with psychotic features. Established total raw score cut-offs of 24 on the MMSE and 137 on the DRS-2 in published manuals suggest possible global cognitive impairment and dementia, respectively. Limited research is available on these suggested cut-offs for patients with MDD with psychotic features. We document the therapeutic benefit of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which is usually associated with short-term cognitive impairment, in a 68-year-old woman with psychotic depression whose MMSE and DRS-2 scores initially suggested possible global cognitive impairment and dementia. Over the course of four ECT treatments, the patient's MMSE scores progressively increased. After the second ECT treatment, the patient no longer met criteria for global cognitive impairment. With each treatment, depression severity, measured by the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, improved sequentially. Thus, the suggested cut-off scores for the MMSE and the DRS-2 in patients with MDD with psychotic features may in some cases produce false-positive indications of dementia.

  18. Anti-social personality characteristics and psychotic symptoms: Two pathways associated with offending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; Barendregt, Marko; Van Beveren, Nico M; De Beurs, Edwin; Van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2015-07-01

    Several research groups have shown that people with schizophrenia who offend do not form a homogenous group. A three-group model claimed by Hodgins proposes distinguishing between people who start offending before the onset of psychosis (early starters), after psychosis onset but at age 34 years or under (late starters) and after psychosis onset but at age 35 years or older (late first offenders). This study aimed to test the hypotheses (1) that the personality of early starters and non-psychotic offenders would be similar, but different from either late-starter group; (2) that the late-starter groups would be more likely to have positive psychotic symptoms than non-criminal patients with schizophrenia; and (3) that symptom types would differentiate the psychotic groups. A retrospective file study was conducted on cases of 97 early starters, 100 late starters and 26 late first offenders all drawn from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (NIFP) archives 1993-2008, 115 non-psychotic offenders from 2005-2008 NIFP archives and 129 patients with schizophrenia and no criminal history from one general service in Rotterdam. Early starters closely resembled the non-psychotic offenders in their premorbid anti-social personality characteristics. The two late-onset offending psychosis groups were more likely to have persecutory and/or grandiose delusions than non-offenders with psychosis, but so were the early starters. In a first study to compare subgroups of offenders with psychosis directly with non-psychotic offenders and non-offenders with psychosis, we found such additional support for a distinction between early and late starters with psychosis that different treatment strategies would seem indicated, focusing on personality and substance misuse for the former but psychotic symptoms for all. It remains to be seen whether the higher rate of alcohol misuse amongst late first offenders is a fundamental distinction or a function of age

  19. The Role of Aberrant Salience and Self-Concept Clarity in Psychotic-Like Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Docherty, Anna R.; Kerns, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of social-cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two social-cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and over-sampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be due to neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict to other schizotypal personality disorder criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several social-cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms. PMID:22452775

  20. Psychotic Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Analysis of the MTA Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Perez Algorta, Guillermo; Arnold, L Eugene; Howard, Andrea L; Stehli, Annamarie; Molina, Brooke S G

    2017-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among youths (14-25 years of age) with a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined type. Participants in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) were systematically assessed 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years after the original enrollment at a mean age of 8.5 years. Trained research assistants administered a psychosis screener, and positive screens were referred to study clinicians to confirm or exclude psychosis. Possible associations between screening positive and alcohol or substance use were assessed. Data were available from 509 MTA participants (88% of original MTA sample; mean age 25.1 years) and 276 LNCG participants (96% of original sample; mean age 24.6 years) at year 16. Twenty-six MTA participants (5%; 95% CI 3-7) and 11 LNCG participants (4%; 95% CI 2-6) screened positive for at least 1 psychotic symptom (p = .60). Most psychotic symptoms were transient. The prevalence of clinician-confirmed psychotic symptoms was 1.1% (95% CI 0.2-2.1) in the MTA group and 0.7% (0-1.7) in the LNCG (p = .72). Greater cannabis use was reported by those who screened positive (p ADHD increased the risk for psychotic symptoms. In the ADHD and normative comparison groups, more frequent cannabis use was associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms, thus supporting the recommendation that youth should not use cannabis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Albani, Adriana; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Campo, Michela; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Morelli, Valentina; Zampetti, Benedetta; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Subclinical Cushing's syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality. The subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2-2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment. The Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS): (1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (2) How to screen the populations at risk? (3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma? (4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome has to be searched for? (5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome surgically or conservatively treated? Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing's syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

  2. Subclinical pulmonary involvement in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dansin, E.; Wallaert, B.; Jardin, M.R.; Remy, J.; Hatron, P.Y.; Tonnel, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    A recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces has been reported in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) and a normal chest radiograph. These findings defined the concept of subclinical alveolitis (SCA). To determine whether SCA may be associated with CT signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD), the authors of this paper compared bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings and high-resolution (HRCT) scans in 36 patients with CVD and normal chest radiographs (systemic sclerosis [SS, n = 21], rheumatoid arthritis [RA, n = 9], primary Sjogren's syndrome [PS, n = 6]). HRCT scans were obtained in supine and prone positions. Results of BAL revealed SCA in 17/36 patients (47%); lymphocyte SCA in 4/36 (24%); neutrophil SCA in 7/36 (41%); and mixed SCA in 6/36 (35%)

  3. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  4. Direct Cost of Treating Acute Psychotic Episodes in Nnewi, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Major psychotic disorders such as the schizophrenias consume a high proportion of health budgets in developed countries. The economic implications of acute psychotic disorders in Nigeria have not been well documented. Aim: To estimate the direct cost of treating patients with acute psychotic episodes in a ...

  5. Clinicopathological significance of psychotic experiences in non-psychotic young people: evidence from four population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiological research has shown that hallucinations and delusions, the classic symptoms of psychosis, are far more prevalent in the population than actual psychotic disorder. These symptoms are especially prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal research has demonstrated that psychotic symptoms in adolescence increase the risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood. There has been a lack of research, however, on the immediate clinicopathological significance of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

  6. Mentally Disordered Non-Psychotic Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background: By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures...

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciąkowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  8. [Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek-Trzciąkowska, Aleksandra; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2013-08-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  9. Psychotic experiences and aggression inoutpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some authors report that aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia is of heterogeneous sources, for example, aggression may be an impulsive action and even deliberate behaviour designed to intimidate others. Violence and aggressive behaviour may also be associated with psychotic experiences, such as delusions or hallucinations. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychotic experiences and the intensiveness of hostility and aggression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Material and method: Seventy outpatients (35 men and 35 women with paranoid schizophrenia were examined. Relevant scales, subscales and indices of the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were used. Results: The analysis of correlation and the factor analysis revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between the scores of the scales assessing psychotic experiences and those assessing the intensiveness of hostility and aggression. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the presence of a number of relationships between psychotic experiences and felt hostility and aggression. Psychotic symptoms and indices of aggressiveness created five factors: “psychoticism,” “hostility,” “psychopathic aggression,” “poignancy,” “persecutory ideas.” Important for the felt hostility and aggressiveness in patients turned out to be experienced anxiety about their mental health because of the sense of the unreality of what is going on and because of the sense of alienation of their own thoughts. Another important factor turned out to be a sense of being wronged by life, misunderstood by others, and the belief that people have a grudge and try to harm. In contrast, characteristics, attitudes and behaviour which are the opposite of paranoid disorders, i.e. faith in people and optimistic attitude towards them, are an important factor for the inhibition of aggression.

  10. Neural markers of emotional face perception across psychotic disorders and general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amri; Kotov, Roman; Szekely, Akos; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Barch, Deanna M; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2017-07-01

    There is considerable variation in negative and positive symptoms of psychosis, global functioning, and emotional face perception (EFP), not only in schizophrenia but also in other psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. However, EFP impairment and its association with worse symptoms and global functioning have been examined largely in the domain of schizophrenia. The present study adopted a dimensional approach to examine the association of behavioral and neural measures of EFP with symptoms of psychosis and global functioning across individuals with schizophrenia spectrum (SZ; N = 28) and other psychotic (OP; N = 29) disorders, and never-psychotic participants (NP; N = 21). Behavioral and functional MRI data were recorded as participants matched emotional expressions of faces and geometrical shapes. Lower accuracy and increased activity in early visual regions, hippocampus, and amygdala during emotion versus shape matching were associated with higher negative, but not positive, symptoms and lower global functioning, across all participants. This association remained even after controlling for group-related (SZ, OP, and NP) variance, dysphoria, and antipsychotic medication status, except in amygdala. Furthermore, negative symptoms mediated the relationship between behavioral and brain EFP measures and global functioning. This study provides some of the first evidence supporting the specific relationship of EFP measures with negative symptoms and global functioning across psychotic and never-psychotic samples, and transdiagnostically across different psychotic disorders. Present findings help bridge the gap between basic EFP-related neuroscience research and clinical research in psychosis, and highlight EFP as a potential symptom-specific marker that tracks global functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  12. Subclinical Hypercorticism: the Necessity of Diagnostic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.N. Kvacheniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering certain difficulties in subclinical hypercorticism diagnosis, the object of this work is to focus attention of doctors in different areas on the necessity of thorough examination of patients with pathological conditions that may be the manifestation of Cushing’s syndrome (arterial hypertension, obesity, impaired carbohydrate metabolism and osteoporosis. The laboratory diagnosis is the instrument for early subclinical hypercorticism detection.

  13. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Waiz, M.; Al-Saadi, Rabab N.; Al-Saadi, Zahida A.; Al-Rawi, Faiza A.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to investigate a group of Iraqi woman with proved genital vulval warts, to seek evidence of human papillomavirus infection in apparently normal looking cervixes and to investigate the natural history of infection. From December 1997 to August 1998, 20 women with vulval warts were enrolled along with 20 aged-matched control cases without warts. Their ages ranged between 19-48 years with a mean of 30.4 years, (+/- standard deviation = 2.3) for patients and 18-48 years with a mean of 29.7 (+/- standard deviation = 2.7) for the control group. General and gynecological examinations were carried out. Cervical swabs for associated genital infection, papilloma smears, speculoscopy and directed punch biopsies were carried out to detect subclinical human papillomavirus infections of the cervix and associated intraepithelial neoplasm. Cytology results showed that 11 (55%) of patients had evidence of cervical infection by human papillomavirus, 6 (30%) showed mild dysplastic changes, 3 (15%) showed moderate dysplastic changes, whilst 2 (10%) showed no dysplastic changes. Speculoscopy and acetowhitening was positive in 11 (55%) and collated histological results showed evidence of human papillomavirus infection in 9 patients (45%). As for the control group one case (5%) had evidence of human papillomavirus infection. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection is more common than was previously thought among Iraqi women. It may appear alone or in association with vulval or exophytic cervical warts, or both, and may be more common than the clinically obvious disease. Speculoscopy as an adjunctive method to colposcopy was found to be a simple and an easy to perform technique. Its combination with cytology gave relatively good results when it was used as a triage instrument, and may have a more promising performance in the future. (author)

  14. The fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX® score in subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX® score is the 10-year estimated risk calculation tool for bone fracture that includes clinical data and hip bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to elucidate the ability of the FRAX® score in discriminating between bone fracture positive and negative pre- and post-menopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods. The bone mineral density (by DXA, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level, free thyroxine (fT4 level, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb titre, osteocalcin and beta-cross-laps were measured in 27 pre- and post-menopausal women with newly discovered subclinical hyperthyroidism [age 58.85 ± 7.83 years, body mass index (BMI 27.89 ± 3.46 kg/m2, menopause onset in 46.88 ± 10.21 years] and 51 matched euthyroid controls (age 59.69 ± 5.72 years, BMI 27.68 ± 4.66 kg/m2, menopause onset in 48.53 ± 4.58 years. The etiology of subclinical hyperthyroisims was autoimmune thyroid disease or toxic goiter. FRAX® score calculation was performed in both groups. Results. In the group with subclinical hyperthyroidism the main FRAX® score was significantly higher than in the controls (6.50 ± 1.58 vs 4.35 ± 1.56 respectively; p = 0.015. The FRAX® score for hip was also higher in the evaluated group than in the controls (1.33 ± 3.92 vs 0.50 ± 0.46 respectively; p = 0.022. There was no correlations between low TSH and fracture risk (p > 0.05. The ability of the FRAX® score in discriminating between bone fracture positive and negative pre- and postmenopausal female subjects (p < 0.001 is presented by the area under the curve (AUC plotted via ROC analysis. The determined FRAX score cut-off value by this analysis was 6%, with estimated sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 75.9%, respectively. Conclusion. Pre- and postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism have higher FRAX® scores and thus

  15. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. N/A. The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Are genetic risk factors for psychosis also associated with dimension-specific psychotic experiences in adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Sieradzka

    Full Text Available Psychosis has been hypothesised to be a continuously distributed quantitative phenotype and disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder represent its extreme manifestations. Evidence suggests that common genetic variants play an important role in liability to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we tested the hypothesis that these common variants would also influence psychotic experiences measured dimensionally in adolescents in the general population. Our aim was to test whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores (PRS, as well as specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously identified as risk variants for schizophrenia, were associated with adolescent dimension-specific psychotic experiences. Self-reported Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive Disorganisation, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and Parent-rated Negative Symptoms, as measured by the Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ, were assessed in a community sample of 2,152 16-year-olds. Polygenic risk scores were calculated using estimates of the log of odds ratios from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS stage-1 mega-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The polygenic risk analyses yielded no significant associations between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder PRS and the SPEQ measures. The analyses on the 28 individual SNPs previously associated with schizophrenia found that two SNPs in TCF4 returned a significant association with the SPEQ Paranoia dimension, rs17512836 (p-value = 2.57×10⁻⁴ and rs9960767 (p-value = 6.23×10⁻⁴. Replication in an independent sample of 16-year-olds (N = 3,427 assessed using the Psychotic-Like Symptoms Questionnaire (PLIKS-Q, a composite measure of multiple positive psychotic experiences, failed to yield significant results. Future research with PRS derived from larger samples, as well as larger adolescent validation samples, would improve the predictive power to test

  17. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  18. Khat use as risk factor for psychotic disorders: A cross-sectional and case-control study in Somalia

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    Elbert Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of khat-induced psychotic disorders in East African countries, where the chewing of khat leaves is common. Its main psycho-active component cathinone produces effects similar to those of amphetamine. We aimed to explore the prevalence of psychotic disorders among the general population and the association between khat use and psychotic symptoms. Methods In an epidemiological household assessment in the city of Hargeisa, North-West Somalia, trained local interviewers screened 4,854 randomly selected persons from among the general population for disability due to severe mental problems. The identified cases were interviewed based on a structured interview and compared to healthy matched controls. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the items of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview and quantified with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale. Statistical testing included Student's t-test and ANOVA. Results Local interviewers found that rates of severe disability due to mental disorders were 8.4% among males (above the age of 12 and differed according to war experiences (no war experience: 3.2%; civilian war survivors: 8.0%; ex-combatants: 15.9%. The clinical interview verified that in 83% of positive screening cases psychotic symptoms were the most prominent manifestations of psychiatric illness. On average, cases with psychotic symptoms had started to use khat earlier in life than matched controls and had been using khat 8.6 years before positive symptoms emerged. In most cases with psychotic symptoms, a pattern of binge use (> two 'bundles' per day preceded the onset of psychotic symptoms, in contrast to controls of the same age. We found significant correlations between variables of khat consumption and clinical scales (0.35 to 0.50; p Conclusion Evidence indicates a relationship between the consumption of khat and the onset of psychotic symptoms among the male

  19. Motives for offending among violent and psychotic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P J

    1985-11-01

    Two hundred and three male remanded prisoners were interviewed with respect to their current offence, mental state, and social and psychiatric histories. All but nine of the sub-group of 121 psychotic men showed active symptoms at the time of committing a criminal offence; 20% of the actively ill psychotics were directly driven to offend by their psychotic symptoms, and a further 26% probably so. If some of the indirect consequences of the psychosis were taken into account, 82% of their offences were probably attributable to the illness. Among the normal and neurotic men, none claimed psychotic motives for offending, but motives suggesting high emotional arousal such as panic or retaliation triggered the greatest violence. Within the psychotic group, those driven to offend by their delusions were most likely to have been seriously violent, and psychotic symptoms probably accounted directly for most of the very violent behaviour.

  20. Sympathovagal response to orthostatism in overt and in subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goichot, B; Brandenberger, G; Vinzio, S; Perrin, A E; Geny, B; Schlienger, J L; Simon, C

    2004-04-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the physiological variation of R-R intervals, reflecting the sympathovagal balance. In both overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism, a relative increase in sympathetic activity has been demonstrated, mainly due to a decrease in vagal activity. The modifications of HRV during orthostatism in normal subjects resemble those seen in hyperthyroidism. We have studied the response of 19 patients with overt hyperthyroidism and 12 with subclinical hyperthyroidism during orthostatism using HRV and compared the results to those of 32 healthy controls. In the three groups, the R-R intervals decreased in the same proportion after orthostatism. The low frequency power (LF)/[LF + high frequency power (HF)] ratio, which reflects the sympathetic tone, also increased in the same proportion in the three groups. However, the mechanisms of the modulation of the sympathovagal balance during orthostatism were different among the three groups. In controls, the relative increase of sympathetic tone after orthostatism was due principally to a decrease in vagal tone (reflected by decreased power in the HF band), while in overt hyperthyroidism, where the power in the HF band was already minimal in the lying position, there was a clear increase in the LF band power during orthostatism. The results were intermediate in the subclinical hyperthyroidism group, reflecting a continuum of effects of the thyroid hormone excess on the autonomic nervous system. Our study shows that despite an apparent normal cardiovascular adaptation to orthostatism in hyperthyroidism, the modulation of the autonomic nervous system is profoundly modified.

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  2. Pulmonary functions in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Gulfidan; Saler, Tayyibe; Saglam, Zuhal Aydan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ataoglu, Esra; Demir, Tuncalp; Temiz, Levent Umit

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether alterations in pulmonary function takes place in subclinical hypothyroidism by examining the diffusion lung capacity and muscle strength of such patients. This is a descriptive study conducted in 2009 at Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Hundred and twenty-six patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 58 age and sex matched individuals were recruited. Simple spirometry tests were performed, and pulmonary diffusion capacity (DLco) and muscle strength were measured. ScH patients showed a significant reduciton of the following pulmonary function tests (% predicted value) as compared with control subjects: FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF25-75, FEF25-75%, DLco, DLco/VA, Pimax, Pimax% and Pemax%. These data indicate that pulmonary functions are effected in subclinical hypothyrodism. Therefore patients with or who are at high risk of having subclinical hypothyroidism, should be subjected to evaluation of pulmonary functions with simple spirometry.

  3. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2015-01-01

    . Levels of thyroid function were defined as euthyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.45-4.49 mIU/L), subclinical hyperthyroidism (TSH hypothyroidism (TSH ≥4.50-19.99 mIU/L) with normal thyroxine concentrations. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was hip...... fracture. Any fractures, nonspine fractures, and clinical spine fractures were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Among 70,298 participants, 4092 (5.8%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 2219 (3.2%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism. During 762,401 person-years of follow-up, hip fracture occurred in 2975...... hyperthyroidism (excluding thyroid medication users) was associated with HRs of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.19-1.93) for hip fracture, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.16-1.74) for any fracture, and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.01-2.99) for spine fracture. No association was found between subclinical hypothyroidism and fracture risk. CONCLUSIONS...

  4. [Psychotic disorder induced by Fahr's syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hechmi, S; Bouhlel, S; Melki, W; El Hechmi, Z

    2014-06-01

    with clozapine (100mg per day). After four weeks, psychotic symptoms responded well to this treatment without expressing any side effects, notably seizures. Psychotic symptoms seen in Fahr's disease include auditory and visual hallucinations, complex perceptual distortions, delusions, and fugue state. Some of them were manifest in this patient. It is likely that the psychosis in both Fahr's disease and schizophrenia share a similar pathology. Positive psychotic symptoms, hallucinations, and paranoia are not necessarily generated by the classical hypothesis of dopamine-mediated attachment of salience to internally generated stimuli. Still, there is some evidence that disruption of the cortex involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is also seen in Fahr's disease, particularly in areas of the limbic system. Psychiatrists should consider Fahr's syndrome as a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of psychosis associated with seizures. This case, along with others in the literature, further emphasizes the importance of the role of neuro-imaging and the search for disrupted phosphocalcic metabolism in patients with atypical psychotic symptoms. Moreover, further research should focus on pharmacologic interventions. The efficacy and risks of neuropharmacologic and psychopharmacologic interventions in Fahr's syndrome, and correlates of good and poor outcome with these interventions remain to be defined. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. The association between social anhedonia, withdrawal and psychotic experiences in general and high-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthorst, Eva; Meijer, Carin

    2012-07-01

    Social anhedonia (SA) and withdrawal are clinically relevant phenomena in schizophrenia. To examine the nature of the overlap between SA, withdrawal and positive symptoms, we investigated whether the co-occurrence of these phenotypes is more prominent in siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder compared to healthy controls, and if this association is independent of the amount of distress caused by psychotic experiences (PEs). Data were derived from 646 unaffected siblings and 326 healthy controls who were included in the Dutch Genetic Risk and Outcome in Psychosis (GROUP) study. PEs were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences and the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised was used to examine social anhedonia and withdrawal. Our results show relatively small but significant cross-sectional associations between SA, withdrawal and PEs in unaffected siblings and none in the control group, irrespective of the level of distress caused by PEs. The findings of the present study suggest that the overlap between SA, withdrawal and psychotic symptoms often reported in schizophrenia patients, may at least partly reflect a shared genetic vulnerability, instead of merely being either a state marker of - or reaction to - acute psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Subclinical Inflammatory Status in Rett Syndrome

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    Alessio Cortelazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been advocated as a possible common central mechanism for developmental cognitive impairment. Rett syndrome (RTT is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2. Here, we investigated plasma acute phase response (APR in stage II (i.e., “pseudo-autistic” RTT patients by routine haematology/clinical chemistry and proteomic 2-DE/MALDI-TOF analyses as a function of four major MECP2 gene mutation types (R306C, T158M, R168X, and large deletions. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate values (median 33.0 mm/h versus 8.0 mm/h, P<0.0001 were detectable in RTT, whereas C-reactive protein levels were unchanged (P=0.63. The 2-DE analysis identified significant changes for a total of 17 proteins, the majority of which were categorized as APR proteins, either positive (n=6 spots or negative (n=9 spots, and to a lesser extent as proteins involved in the immune system (n=2 spots, with some proteins having overlapping functions on metabolism (n=7 spots. The number of protein changes was proportional to the severity of the mutation. Our findings reveal for the first time the presence of a subclinical chronic inflammatory status related to the “pseudo-autistic” phase of RTT, which is related to the severity carried by the MECP2 gene mutation.

  8. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... diagnostic reliability and validity, but it is estimated to exclude about 2 % of patients currently diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia from fulfilling criteria for DSM-5 schizophrenia. It might generate a problem for future young patients if the changes concerning demands on characteristic symptoms turn out...

  9. LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLINICAL LAMINITIS AND DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC EXAM IN HOLSTEIN COWS IN THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Amaral Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical laminitis has been responsible for economic losses in dairy industry; thus, its diagnostic    is very important to prevent negative responses to milk production industry. The aim of this study  was to identify lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period with presence or absence of radiographic signs linked to this disease in Holstein cows. The cows were evaluated during the transition period and categorized into two groups (with and without laminitis according to the lesions associated with this subclinical disease. The radiological dynamic was performed in two target points during the transition period (prepartum and postpartum, with the objective of determining capsular position possible alterations and third phalanx bone degeneration (F3. There was no effect of the presence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis regarding the position of the third phalanx to the hoof wall (p>0.05. Significant radiographic angular differences (p0.05. Overall, this study did not show radiographic signs of phalangeal misalignment in the hoof of dairy cows with lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period . Keywords:  aseptic pododermatitis; bovines; complementary exams; hoof.

  10. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders: cross-sectional results from the Brazilian Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseñor, Isabela M; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Sander Diniz, Maria de Fátima; Santos, Itamar S; Brunoni, André R; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2015-01-12

    To evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. The study included 12 437 participants from the ELSA-Brasil with normal thyroid function (92·8%), 193 (1·4%) with subclinical hyperthyroidism and 784 (5·8%) with subclinical hypothyroidism, totalling 13 414 participants (50·6% of women). The mental health diagnoses of participants were assessed by trained raters using the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R) and grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10). Thyroid dysfunction was assessed using TSH and FT4 as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Logistic models were presented using psychiatric disorders as the dependent variable and subclinical thyroid disorders as the independent variable. All logistic models were corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni correction. After multivariate adjustment for possible confounders, we found a direct association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and panic disorder odds ratio [OR], 2·55; 95% confidence Interval (95% CI), 1·09-5·94; and an inverse association between subclinical hypothyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 0·75; 95% CI, 0·59-0·96). However, both lost significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was positively associated with panic disorder and negatively associated with anxiety disorder, although not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Psychotic experiences and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Wiles, Nicola; Thompson, Andrew; Evans, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    Both adolescent psychotic experiences and poor social functioning precede psychotic disorder; however, whether poor social functioning is also a risk factor for rather than a consequence of adolescent psychotic experiences is not clear. We investigate this question as well as whether deterioration in social functioning confers the strongest risk of psychotic experiences and whether theory of mind ability mediates any association, in a large community sample. Measures of social functioning (peer problems and prosocial behaviour) at ages 7 and 11 and theory of mind ability and psychotic experiences at age 12 were collected in a large community sample (n = 3,592). The association between social functioning and psychotic experiences was examined using logistic regression models at each age and any additional impact of deterioration in social functioning between ages 7 and 11. The potential role of theory of mind as a mediator was also investigated. Peer problems at both ages were independently associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 (7 years OR 1.11 95 % CI 1.03, 1.20), (11 years OR 1.13 95 % CI 1.05, 1.22). Theory of mind ability did not mediate this association. The association was not restricted to those with deteriorating social functioning (interaction term; p = 0.49). Poor childhood social functioning precedes adolescent psychotic experiences. There was no evidence that those with deteriorating social functioning were at greatest risk.

  12. Hyper-Theory-of-Mind in Children with Psychotic Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Vaever, Mette; Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M. A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jeppesen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE in

  13. Psychotic symptoms among male adolescent detainees in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, Coby; Vermeiren, Robert; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van den Brink, Wim

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among incarcerated boys as well as the relationship between these symptoms and violent offending and criminal recidivism. The presence of psychotic symptoms was assessed in a representative sample of 204 incarcerated boys aged 12-18 using

  14. How psychotic-like are paranormal beliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Vellante, Marcello; Preti, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Paranormal beliefs and Psychotic-like Experiences (PLE) are phenotypically similar and can occur in individuals with psychosis but also in the general population; however the relationship of these experiences for psychosis risk is largely unclear. This study investigates the association of PLE and paranormal beliefs with psychological distress. Five hundred and three young adults completed measures of paranormal beliefs (Beliefs in the Paranormal Scale), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), delusion (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory), and hallucination (Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale) proneness. The frequency and intensity of PLE was higher in believers in the paranormal compared to non-believers, however psychological distress levels were comparable. Regression findings confirmed that paranormal beliefs were predicted by delusion and hallucination-proneness but not psychological distress. The use of a cross-sectional design in a specific young adult population makes the findings exploratory and in need of replication with longitudinal studies. The predictive value of paranormal beliefs and experiences for psychosis may be limited; appraisal or the belief emotional salience rather than the belief per se may be more relevant risk factors to predict psychotic risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Subclinical form of the American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elinor Alves Gama

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis (VL shows nonspecific clinical manifestations, with difficulties being frequently met in its clinical characterization and diagnostic confirmation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to define the clinical-laboratory profile of this clinical form. A cohort study was conducted in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, from January/1998 to December/2000, with monthly follow-up of 784 children aged 0-5 years. Based on the clinical-laboratory parameters reported in the literature, four categories were established, with the children being classified (according to their clinical-evolutive behavior as asymptomatic (N = 144, as having the subclinical form (N = 33 or the acute form (N = 12 or as subjects "without VL" (N = 595. Multiple discriminant analysis demonstrated that the combination of fever, hepatomegaly, hyperglobulinemia, and increased blood sedimentation rate (BSR can predict the subclinical form of VL as long as it is not associated with splenomegaly or leukopenia. Subjects with the subclinical form did not show prolonged or intermittent evolution or progression to the acute form of VL. Subclinical cases have a profile differing from the remaining clinical forms of VL, being best characterized by the combination of fever, hepatomegaly, hyperglobulinemia, and increased BSR.

  16. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: clinical features and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Palmieri, Emiliano Antonio; Klain, Michele; Schlumberger, Martin; Filetti, Sebastiano; Lombardi, Gaetano

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism appears to be a common disorder. It may be caused by exogenous or endogenous factors: excessive TSH suppressive therapy with L-thyroxine (L-T4) for benign thyroid nodular disease, differentiated thyroid cancer, or hormone over-replacement in patients with hypothyroidism are the most frequent causes. Consistent evidence indicates that 'subclinical' hyperthyroidism reduces the quality of life, affecting both the psycho and somatic components of well-being, and produces relevant signs and symptoms of excessive thyroid hormone action, often mimicking adrenergic overactivity. Subclinical hyperthyroidism exerts many significant effects on the cardiovascular system; it is usually associated with a higher heart rate and a higher risk of supraventricular arrhythmias, and with an increased left ventricular mass, often accompanied by an impaired diastolic function and sometimes by a reduced systolic performance on effort and decreased exercise tolerance. It is well known that these abnormalities usually precede the onset of a more severe cardiovascular disease, thus potentially contributing to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in these patients. In addition, it is becoming increasingly apparent that subclinical hyperthyroidism may accelerate the development of osteoporosis and hence increased bone vulnerability to trauma, particularly in postmenopausal women with a pre-existing predisposition. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and its related clinical manifestations are reversible and may be prevented by timely treatment.

  17. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: current concepts and scintigraphic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intenzo, Charles; Jabbour, Serge; Miller, Jeffrey L; Ahmed, Intekhab; Furlong, Kevin; Kushen, Medina; Kim, Sung M; Capuzzi, David M

    2011-09-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as normal serum free thyroxine and a free triiodothyronine level, with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and is usually undetectable. Although patients with this diagnosis have no or few signs and symptoms of overt thyrotoxicosis, there is sufficient evidence that it is associated with a relatively higher risk of supraventricular arrhythmias as well as the acceleration or the development of osteoporosis. Consequently, the approach to the patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism is controversial, that is, therapeutic intervention versus watchful waiting. Regardless, it is imperative for the referring physician to identify the causative thyroid disorder. This is optimally accomplished by a functional study, namely scintigraphy. Recognition of the scan findings of the various causes of subclinical hyperthyroidism enables the imaging specialist to help in diagnosing the underlying condition causing thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression thereby facilitating the workup and management of this thyroid disorder.

  18. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Y Demidova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart disease, incident atrial fibrillation, and cardiac dysfunction.

  19. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    T Y Demidova; I N Drozdova

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart diseas...

  20. Subclinical Cushing's syndrome: current concepts and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, George N; Perysinakis, Iraklis; Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-01-01

    Clinically inapparent adrenal masses which are incidentally detected have become a common problem in everyday practice. Approximately 5-20% of adrenal incidentalomas present subclinical cortisol hypersecretion which is characterized by subtle alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis due to adrenal autonomy. This disorder has been described as subclinical Cushing's syndrome, since there is no typical clinical phenotype. The diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome is based on biochemical evaluation; however, there is still no consensus for the biochemical diagnostic criteria. An abnormal 1mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) as initial screening test in combination with at least one other abnormal test of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been advocated by most experts for the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome. DST is the main method of establishing the diagnosis, while there is inhomogeneity of the information that other tests provide. Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 or impaired glucose tolerance, central obesity, osteoporosis/vertebral fractures and dyslipidemia are considered as detrimental effects of chronic subtle cortisol excess, although there is no proven causal relationship between subclinical cortisol hypersecretion and these morbidities. Therapeutic strategies include careful observation along with medical treatment of morbidities potentially related to subtle cortisol hypersecretion versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The optimal management of patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not yet defined. The conservative approach is appropriate for the majority of these patients; however, the duration of follow-up and the frequency of periodical evaluation still remain open issues. Surgical resection may be beneficial for patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 or abnormal glucose tolerance and obesity.

  1. Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR 2) in Mild Subclinical Hypothyroid Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Shreejita; Jaseem, T; Ambalavanan, Jayachidambaram; Hegde, Anupama

    2018-04-01

    Despite various studies with conflicting results, the effect of thyroid hormones on lipids and insulin levels in dysthyroidism is of great interest. This case control study was aimed to perceive the existence of IR and dyslipidemia in mild subclinical hypothyroid subjects (TSH ≤ 9.9 µIU/ml) as compared to their age and gender matched euthyroid controls. Basic demographic information like height, weight was recorded. Serum samples of all the subjects were assayed for thyroid profile, lipid profile, blood glucose, HbA1C and insulin. BMI and insulin resistance was calculated. Compared to controls patients with mild subclinical hypothyroidism demonstrated hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia observed by the higher LDL cholesterol. A significantly positive correlation was observed for HOMA-IR with TSH and LDL cholesterol. Hence, even in the mild subclinical hypothyroid state assessment of thyroid function should be combined with estimation of plasma glucose, insulin and serum lipids to monitor and prevent its associated effects.

  2. Evaluating sub-clinical cognitive dysfunction and event-related potentials (P300) in clinically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocer, Belgin; Unal, Tugba; Nazliel, Bijen; Biyikli, Zeynep; Yesilbudak, Zulal; Karakas, Sirel; Irkec, Ceyla

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of sub-clinical cognitive dysfunction in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and the abnormalities of cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs). Subclinical cognitive dysfunction was assessed in 20 patients with CIS and in 20 healthy controls. Patients had impairments in verbal learning and long-term memory, evaluating attention, executive function and visuospatial skills, in decreasing order of frequency. SDLT and SIT were the most, and COWAT and BNT were the least affected tests. The N200 and P200 latencies were prolonged, and N100, N200 and P200 amplitudes were reduced in the patients relative to the controls, from the Fz, Cz and Pz electrode positions (p<0.05). Detailed cognitive testing is valuable in determining subclinical cognitive dysfunction in CIS patients. ERP abnormalities as well as abnormalities in detailed cognitivetesting in patients with CIS are helpful in the diagnosis of sub-clinical cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836826

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  4. [Demonstration of subclinical pulmonary alveolitis in spondylarthropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, P; Bonnet, D; Chouc, P Y; Molinier, S; Raphenon, G; Martet, G; Merouze, F; de Muizon, H

    1994-05-01

    Restrictive ventilatory dysfunction, lowered diffusing capacity, and apical fibrosis have been reported in ankylosing spondylitis. To investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities, we studied distal airspace cytology by performing bronchoalveolar lavage in 34 spondyloarthropathy patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n = 16; reactive arthritis, n = 4; axial psoriatic arthritis, n = 2; and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy with HLA B27-positivity in every case but one, n = 12). Mean age was 32.4 +/- 13.7 years. None of the study patients had apical fibrosis, lower respiratory tract infection, or exposure to airborne pollutants other than tobacco smoke. The control group was composed of nine subjects who had no lung or inflammatory diseases and were not using medications. Significantly higher proportions of lymphocytes were found in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from patients, as compared with controls. This difference was not influenced by smoking or medication use (non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, sulfasalazopyridine). Alveolar lymphocytosis was not correlated with laboratory tests for disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum IgA levels) or with the presence of restrictive ventilatory dysfunction. Increases in the proportion of lymphocytes were of similar magnitude in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and in those with other spondyloarthropathies. Absolute total cell counts and relative neutrophil counts were similar in patients and controls. However, among the patients with spondyloarthropathies, those with a disease duration of more than five years had a significantly higher proportion of neutrophils than those with a disease duration of less than five years. These findings demonstrate that spondyloarthropathy patients have subclinical lymphocyte alveolitis. Although of unclear significance, this alveolitis may be related to the development of apical fibrosis in some patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  5. [Psychotic forms of atypical autism in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simashkova, N V

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine clinical borders of psychotic forms of atypical autism in children, its psychopathological and age-specific manifestations as well as nosological peculiarities and to specify its pathogenetic features. Eighty patients with childhood endogenous autism, Rett syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome have been studied during 14 years. The study showed that psychoses similar by symptoms and course, which are characterized by attacks and regressive-catatonic disorders, may develop in the course of atypical autism. These psychoses develop on the background of dysontogenesis with consequent replacement of the following stages: autistic, regressive, catatonic, with returning to the autistic stage between attacks. Psychopathological similarity of these psychoses in different disorders correlated with EEG changes of the same type (appearance of the marked I-rhythm at the regressive stage of psychosis).

  6. Sexual minority status and psychotic symptoms : findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Studies (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, M J; Selten, J P; Myin-Germeys, I; de Graaf, R; ten Have, M; van Dorsselaer, S; van Os, J; Veling, W

    BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority position is associated with increased risk for psychotic outcomes, which may be mediated by experiences of social exclusion, defeat and discrimination. Sexual minorities are subject to similar stressors. The aim of this study is to examine whether sexual minorities are at

  7. Sexual minority status and psychotic symptoms: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Studies (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, M. J.; Selten, J. P.; Myin-Germeys, I.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; van Dorsselaer, S.; van Os, J.; Veling, W.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic minority position is associated with increased risk for psychotic outcomes, which may be mediated by experiences of social exclusion, defeat and discrimination. Sexual minorities are subject to similar stressors. The aim of this study is to examine whether sexual minorities are at increased

  8. California mastitis test in the diagnostic of subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crisléia Rodrigues Monção de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation, is the main factor that substantially compromises the milk quality. Several methods can diagnose the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. One these methods, the California Mastitis Test (CMT has as advantages being practical, low cost and the results are immediately available. The CMT method consists of adding the anionic neutral detergent to a milk sample in order to disrupt milk somatic cell membranes and release nucleic material. The viscousity formed by this reaction allows estimating the number of somatic cells (immunity cells presents in the milk. According to the degree of gelatinization obtained in this reaction, the interpretation of the scores varies from zero, no viscosity, to three crosses, highly viscous. This study was aimed to evaluate the CMT of eight dairy herds of different farms in Sao Paulo state, described by the letters A to H. The scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered positive for subclinical mastitis, while 0 was negative. The results were determined in relative frequency (%. It is evident that the herd D is the most affected by subclinical mastitis, because of the greater number of CMT positive (60%. This may be due to the mismanagement and poor conditions of milking. The properties C, F and G require greater attention, as the result of CMT could corroborate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and infected cows can quickly transmit the infection to the healthy ones. Note that the farms A, B and H are the ones with

  9. [Correction of acute psychotic states in schizophrenia by rispolept solution per os].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, G P; Korenev, A N; Barkhatova, A N

    2004-01-01

    To stop acute psychotic states during the first episode or relapses of schizophrenia, 37 patients were treated with rispolept solution per os during 2 weeks. A procedure of a fast transition to optimal daily doses of the drug after 1 day of treatment (searching period) with a following stabilization of mean daily doses (5.02-5.7 mg) at the stage of 14 day treatment course was used. Positive therapeutic effect by PANSS total score reduction, along with minor side-effects, were found in 91.9% patients. Stopping effect of rispolept on acute psychotic states, emerging from day 1 of the treatment, and general antipsychotic and therapeutic action, beginning from day 2-3 and increasing to day 14, were stated out. Efficacy of the drug in syndromes differing by psychopathological structure is emphasized.

  10. The Slime Production by Yeasts Isolated from Subclinical Mastitic Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyla Türkyılmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate yeasts from subclinical mastitic cows and to investigate the slime production by the isolated yeasts. The material used in this study included 339 milk samples from 152 dairy cattle with subclinical mastitis. Milk was plated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Forty-one samples (12.1% of total milk samples were found positive for the yeast by API 20 C AUX identification system. The isolated yeasts were classified into four genera of Candida, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus and Saccharomyces. The Candida species were following: C. krusei, C. kefyr, C. guilliermondii, C. famata, C. rugosa and C. utulis. Other yeasts were identified as Trichosporon mucoides, T. asahii, Cryptococcus laurentii, C.  neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Slime production was tested on Congo red brain heart infusion agar and evaluated according to Congo red phenomenon. Fifteen (36.6% strains were slime factor positive: seven were C. krusei, four C. kefyr, one C. guilliermondii, one C. famata, one T. asahii, and one C. laurentii. The results of the present study indicate that yeast mastitis is significant for causing economic losses and slime production is mostly found in non-albicans Candida species. Therefore, non-albicans Candida species should be examined for slime production.

  11. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  12. Acute phase proteins in the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Shahabeddin; Khoshvaghti, Ameneh; Jafarzadeh, Seyed Reza; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Nowrouzian, Iradj

    2009-12-01

    The California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly used for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. Acute phase proteins (APPs), as alternative biomarkers of mastitis, may increase in concentration in the absence of macroscopic changes in the milk, or may precede the onset of clinical signs. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of APPs measured in milk and in serum with bacterial culture for the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis. One hundred and seventy-five Holstein cows were randomly selected from 7 dairy farms. Quarter milk and serum samples were taken from all cows. Milk samples were analyzed using a CMT and SCC, and for haptoglobin (MHp) and amyloid A (MAA) concentrations, and were also submitted for bacterial culture. Serum samples obtained concurrently were analyzed for haptoglobin (SHp) and amyloid A (SAA). Two-sample Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney) test was used to compare SCC, MAA, MHp, SAA, and SHp concentrations between culture-positive and culture-negative animals. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of each test using bacterial culture as the reference method. MAA concentration was the most accurate of the 5 tests, with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 98.3% at concentrations >16.4 mg/L. MAA and MHp had significantly larger areas under the curve than the respective serum proteins, SAA and SHp. The results suggest that measuring haptoglobin and amyloid A in milk is more accurate than serum analysis for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows.

  13. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radha Krishnan; Soumini; Adithya

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH ) and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of ...

  14. Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis and isolation of its major causes in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Misrak; Leta, Samson; Mamo, Gezahegne; Tesfaye, Shimelis

    2017-12-21

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to March 2016 to estimate the prevalence, to assess the risk factors and to isolate the major etiological agent of subclinical mastitis in Bishoftu town. The study was conducted on 262 cross breed lactating cows selected from 12 intensively managed dairy farms. California mastitis test (CMT) and bacteriological culture methods were used as diagnostic tools. From 262 cows examined, 105 (40.1%) and from 1048 quarters examined, 170 (16.1%) were positive for sub-clinical mastitis using CMT. All CMT positive samples were cultured for etiological agent identification. From 170 samples cultured, 153 were positive for known subclinical mastitis pathogens. The dominant bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus species from these Staphylococcus aureus (44.9%) was the major one followed by Streptococcus spp. (25.3%) and other gram negative enteric bacteria, Escherichia coli (8.8%). Age, body condition score, milk yield, and number of parity were considered as potential risk factors; among these, age and number of parity have statistically significance association with the occurrence of subclinical mastitis (P < 0.05) both in the CMT and the bacteriological tests.

  15. A Chinese version of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales: psychometric properties in recent-onset and chronic psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai-Tong; Lee, Isabella Yuet-Ming; Wang, Li-Qun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability, validity, and factor structure of a Chinese version of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) in 198 and 202 adult patients with recent-onset and chronic psychosis, respectively. The PSYRATS has been translated into different language versions and has been validated for clinical and research use mainly in chronic psychotic patients but not in recent-onset psychosis patients or in Chinese populations. The psychometric analysis of the translated Chinese version included assessment of its content validity, semantic equivalence, interrater and test-retest reliability, reproducibility, sensitivity to changes in psychotic symptoms, internal consistency, concurrent validity (compared to a valid psychotic symptom scale), and factor structure. The Chinese version demonstrated very satisfactory content validity as rated by an expert panel, good semantic equivalence with the original version, and high interrater and test-retest (at 2-week interval) reliability. It also indicated very good reproducibility of and sensitivity to changes in psychotic symptoms in line with the symptom severity measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The scale consisted of four factors for the hallucination subscale and two factors for the delusion subscale, explaining about 80% of the total variance of the construct, indicating satisfactory correlations between the hallucination and delusion factors themselves, between items, factors, subscales, and overall scale, and between factors and relevant item and subscale scores of the PANSS. The Chinese version of the PSYRATS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure symptom severity in Chinese psychotic patients complementary to other existing measures mainly in English language.

  16. Early non-psychotic deviant behaviour as an endophenotypic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early non-psychotic deviant behaviour as an endophenotypic marker in ... probed into: social dysfunction, unprovoked aggression, extreme anxiety, ... Demographic data included: age, marital status, gender, and years of formal education.

  17. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  18. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  19. The Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Atypical Psychotic Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Devi

    2007-01-01

    Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial. Case reports have suggested a role for ECT in two specific atypical psychotic disorders: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. PMID:20428309

  20. Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy: phenomenology and a comparison with schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Lappenschaar, G.A.; Nienhuis, F.J.; Furer, J.W.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Lammers, G.J.; Renier, W.O.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Overeem, S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with narcolepsy often experience pervasive hypnagogic hallucinations, sometimes even leading to confusion with schizophrenia. We aimed to provide a detailed qualitative description of hypnagogic hallucinations and other "psychotic" symptoms in patients with narcolepsy and

  1. Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy : phenomenology and a comparison with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuyn, Hal A. Droogleever; Lappenschaar, G. A.; Nienhuis, Fokko J.; Furer, Joop W.; Hodiamont, Paul P.; Rijnders, Cees A.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Renier, Willy O.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Overeem, Sebastlaan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Patients with narcolepsy often experience pervasive hypnagogic hallucinations, sometimes even leading to confusion with schizophrenia. We aimed to provide a detailed qualitative description of hypnagogic hallucinations and other "psychotic" symptoms in patients with narcolepsy and

  2. Hot and cold executive functions in youth with psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, L E; Patterson, V C; Zwicker, A; Drobinin, V; Fisher, H L; Abidi, S; Greve, A N; Bagnell, A; Propper, L; Alda, M; Pavlova, B; Uher, R

    2017-12-01

    Psychotic symptoms are common in children and adolescents and may be early manifestations of liability to severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia. SMI and psychotic symptoms are associated with impairment in executive functions. However, previous studies have not differentiated between 'cold' and 'hot' executive functions. We hypothesized that the propensity for psychotic symptoms is specifically associated with impairment in 'hot' executive functions, such as decision-making in the context of uncertain rewards and losses. In a cohort of 156 youth (mean age 12.5, range 7-24 years) enriched for familial risk of SMI, we measured cold and hot executive functions with the spatial working memory (SWM) task (total errors) and the Cambridge Gambling Task (decision-making), respectively. We assessed psychotic symptoms using the semi-structured Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia interview, Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, Funny Feelings, and Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument - Child and Youth version. In total 69 (44.23%) youth reported psychotic symptoms on one or more assessments. Cold executive functioning, indexed with SWM errors, was not significantly related to psychotic symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-2.17, p = 0.204). Poor hot executive functioning, indexed as decision-making score, was associated with psychotic symptoms after adjustment for age, sex and familial clustering (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.25-4.50, p = 0.008). The association between worse hot executive functions and psychotic symptoms remained significant in sensitivity analyses controlling for general cognitive ability and cold executive functions. Impaired hot executive functions may be an indicator of risk and a target for pre-emptive early interventions in youth.

  3. Telephone versus face-to-face administration of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, for diagnosis of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebi, Ahmad; Motevalian, Abbas; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Hefazi, Mitra; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Sharifi, Vandad

    2012-07-01

    The current study aims to compare telephone vs face-to-face administration of the version of Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, (SCID) for diagnosis of "any psychotic disorder" in a clinical population in Iran. The sample consisted of 72 subjects from 2 psychiatric outpatient services in Tehran, Iran. The subjects were interviewed using face-to-face SCID for the purpose of diagnosing psychotic disorders. A second independent telephone SCID was administered to the entire sample within 5 to 10 days, and the lifetime and 12-month diagnoses were compared. The positive likelihood ratio of telephone-administered SCID for diagnosis of "any lifetime psychotic disorder" was 5.1 when compared with the face-to-face SCID. The value for the primary psychotic disorders in the past 12 months was lower (2.3). The data indicate that telephone administration of the SCID is an acceptable method to differentiate between subjects with lifetime psychotic disorders and those who have had no psychotic disorders and provides a less resource-demanding alternative to face-to-face assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BOVINE PLASMA FIBRINOGEN AS MARKER IN CLINICAL AND SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma samples were collected from healthy as well as clinical and sub-clinical mastitis affected cows from Barasat, West Bengal, India. Plasma samples, after ammonium sulphate precipitation, were dialyzed against several changes of PBS (pH 7.2 to remove the excess ammonium sulphate. Then plasma fibrinogens were purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 HR. SDS-PAGE (10% of purified fibrinogen from plasma of healthy cow revealed polypeptide bands of 74, 67 and 57 kDa which represent the α (alpha, β (beta and γ (gamma- chains respectively. On the other hand, purified fibrinogen from plasma of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis affected cow revealed polypeptide bands of 73 (α-chain, 68 kDa (β-chain and 72 (γ-chain, 68 kDa (β-chain respectively. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed the absence of gamma (γ- chain of fibrinogen in both the samples of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis positive cow. Single precipitin line was observed in double immunodiffusion test when purified fibrinogen from healthy, clinical and subclinical mastitis positive cows reacted with hyper immune sera raised in rabbit. No precipitin line was found against the normal control serum. These purified fibrinogens also showed cross reactivity against antibody raised in rabbit when analyzed by western blot technique.

  5. Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dopaminergic function in cannabis users and its relationship to cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Morgan, Celia J A; Egerton, Alice; Kapur, Shitij; Curran, H Valerie; Howes, Oliver D

    2014-03-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug globally, and users are at increased risk of mental illnesses including psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Substance dependence and schizophrenia are both associated with dopaminergic dysfunction. It has been proposed, although never directly tested, that the link between cannabis use and schizophrenia is mediated by altered dopaminergic function. We compared dopamine synthesis capacity in 19 regular cannabis users who experienced psychotic-like symptoms when they consumed cannabis with 19 nonuser sex- and age-matched control subjects. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant [Formula: see text] ) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine ([(18)F]-DOPA). Cannabis users had reduced dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .016) and its associative (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .015) and limbic subdivisions (effect size: .74; t36 = 2.23, p = .032) compared with control subjects. The group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity in cannabis users compared with control subjects was driven by those users meeting cannabis abuse or dependence criteria. Dopamine synthesis capacity was negatively associated with higher levels of cannabis use (r = -.77, p < .001) and positively associated with age of onset of cannabis use (r = .51, p = .027) but was not associated with cannabis-induced psychotic-like symptoms (r = .32, p = .19). These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use is associated with reduced dopamine synthesis capacity and question the hypothesis that cannabis increases the risk of psychotic disorders by inducing the same dopaminergic alterations seen in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism in danish lean and obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2017-01-01

    : The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (p... developmental stage, whereas fasting serum fT4 concentrations were associated positively only with WHtR. The odds ratio of exhibiting SH was 1.8 when being overweight/obese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). Conclusion: The prevalence of SH was higher among......Objective: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...

  8. Prevalence and clinical presentation of HIV positive female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine of the 19 HIV positive patients (47%) had a pre-existing primary psychiatric diagnosis, most commonly Bipolar Disorder, recent episode mania with psychotic symptoms. The most common psychotic symptoms were grandiose delusions followed by auditory hallucinations, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations.

  9. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs , pregnancy outcomes , neuropsychiatric issues , metabolic syndrome , and dyslipidemia . This review will summarize the current data related to the effects of SCH on cardiovascular risk , SCH in pregnancy , in dyslipedemia and clinical guidelines on management of this condition . The evidence has been updated by a Pub med search on the risks and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism of most recent articles published until March 2015

  10. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: When to Consider Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Suh, Se Young

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (e.g., in Graves disease, toxic nodular goiter, or transient thyroiditis), by administration of thyroid hormone to treat malignant thyroid disease, or by unintentional excessive replacement therapy. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism in the general population is about 1% to 2%; however, it may be higher in iodinedeficient areas. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L than in persons with low but detectable thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation and heart failure in older adults, increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and decreased bone mineral density and increased bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. However, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unclear. A possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality-of-life parameters and cognition is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic persons. The American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommend treating patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L if they are older than 65 years or have comorbidities such as heart disease or osteoporosis.

  11. Hemostasis in Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hyperthyroidism on hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present review focuses on hemostatic changes in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; goiter, nodular; ...

  12. Subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentaloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, B.; Betancourt, V.C.; Padilla, P.; De la Barca, M.

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypercortisolism (HS) is diagnosed in a patient with no Cushing's syndrome manifest phenotype but with autonomic cortisol secretion. Harmful effects of chronic subtle excess of cortisol have been demonstrated, such as hypertension (AHT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) or glucose intolerance, obesity, osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and dyslipidemia. It has been suggested that subclinical hypercortisolism may itself be a vascular risk factor. In order to identify the presence of subclinical hypercortisolism and its main clinical manifestations in patients with adrenal incidentalomas treated at the endocrinology service of the 'Arnaldo Milian Castro' Clinical Surgical Hospital, a descriptive cross-sectional investigation was carried out from 2012 to 2015 The sample of intentional type was made up of 34 patients older than 18 years and diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas. Age, sex, toxic habits, questioning results, physical examination and the necessary diagnostic investigations were analyzed. The results showed a predominance of females, over 60 years old, with toxic habits and family and personal history of hypertension and DM2. Palpitations, low back pain, asthenia and obesity with pigmentation of the skin were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated levels of cortisol occurred in the majority of patients. Imaging diagnosis showed left lesions and less than 4.0 cm and adrenal adenoma was the most frequent histopathological diagnosis. It was demonstrated that subclinical hypercortisolism is present in an important group of patients with adrenal incidentalomas, is not as asymptomatic, and is related to the presence of vascular risk factors, and other comorbidities

  13. USE OF CALIFORNIA MASTITIS TEST IN DIAGNOSIS OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazif Varatanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Udder health control has been conducted in three different cow breeds by comparing the California Mastitis Test results in order to justify its use in detecting subclinical mastitis. The test examined 75 cows, or 228 quarters in total. In 76% of the cows of different breeds, the results of California Mastitis Test were positive. The tests were positive in one or two quarters with the intensity level of one, two and three. The test showed much higher percentage of positive reaction in the rear quarters. According to the results of our research, the continuous application of this test enables the early detection of subclinical mastitis resulting in its prevention and also improvement in quantity and milk quality.Key words: mastitis, California Mastitis Test, cow

  14. Subclinical abortions in patients treated with clomiphene citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.C.; Tang, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-subunit, 39 treatment cycles of clomiphene citrate therapy were studied prospectively for incidence of subclinical abortions. Eight treatment cycles resulted in clinically recognizable pregnancies and three other treatment cycles ended up with subclinical abortions. The plasma progesterone levels in patients with subclinical abortions at the 13th day after ovulation were lower than those in patients with normal pregnancies. (author)

  15. Exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism: effect on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico Moreno, Karol; Paoli de Valeri, Mariela; Odreman, Rodolfo; Núñez, Tulio; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on left ventricular structure and function. Twenty-three patients of both sexes, aged 27 to 70 years, with a diagnosis of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (serum thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] ≤ 0.4mU/ml and normal free thyroxine [FT4]) were evaluated. The patients had been taking levothyroxine in suppressive doses for an average of 6.7 years (1 to 35 years). Twenty euthyroid individuals matched for age, sex and body mass index were selected as controls. A medical history was obtained and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis were quantified in all subjects. To evaluate left ventricular structure and function, as well as atrial conduction time, a two-dimensional echocardiogram and pulsed echo and tissue echo Doppler with electrocardiography monitoring were performed. The index of hemodynamic compensation of the left ventricular mass was calculated. Hyperthyroid symptom scores were significantly higher in patients than in controls (p=0.0001). A positive correlation was found between hyperthyroidism scores and FT4 (p=0.005) and ejection fraction (p=0.04) and a negative correlation was found with TSH levels (p=0.03). End-diastolic volume, stroke volume, cardiac output and stroke work were significantly higher in patients with SH (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.05 and p=0.01, respectively). A positive correlation was found between fractional shortening and FT4 level (p=0.022) and levothyroxine dose (p=0.016) and between stroke work and FT4 level (p=0.034). Left ventricular mass, diastolic function and atrial conduction time were similar in patients and controls. Our study suggests that patients with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism have hemodynamic changes resulting from adaptation to the biological effects of levothyroxine on the cardiovascular system. However, structural changes are not produced. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights

  16. Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy: phenomenology and a comparison with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuyn, Hal A Droogleever; Lappenschaar, G A; Nienhuis, Fokko J; Furer, Joop W; Hodiamont, Paul P; Rijnders, Cees A; Lammers, Gert Jan; Renier, Willy O; Buitelaar, Jan K; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2009-01-01

    Patients with narcolepsy often experience pervasive hypnagogic hallucinations, sometimes even leading to confusion with schizophrenia. We aimed to provide a detailed qualitative description of hypnagogic hallucinations and other "psychotic" symptoms in patients with narcolepsy and contrast these with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. We also compared the prevalence of formal psychotic disorders between narcolepsy patients and controls. We used SCAN 2.1 interviews to compare psychotic symptoms between 60 patients with narcolepsy, 102 with schizophrenia and 120 matched population controls. In addition, qualitative data was collected to enable a detailed description of hypnagogic hallucinations in narcolepsy. There were clear differences in the pattern of hallucinatory experiences in narcolepsy vs. schizophrenia patients. Narcoleptics reported multisensory "holistic" hallucinations rather than the predominantly verbal-auditory sensory mode of schizophrenia patients. Psychotic symptoms such as delusions were not more frequent in narcolepsy compared to population controls. In addition, the prevalence of formal psychotic disorders was not increased in patients with narcolepsy. Almost half of narcoleptics reported moderate interference with functioning due to hypnagogic hallucinations, mostly due to related anxiety. Hypnagogic hallucinations in narcolepsy can be differentiated on a phenomenological basis from hallucinations in schizophrenia which is useful in differential diagnostic dilemmas.

  17. Effects of elevated parameters of subclinical ketosis on the immune system of dairy cows: in vivo and in vitro results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kirsten; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Meyer, Ulrich; Reiche, Dania; Sauerwein, Helga; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Using an established model in which subclinical ketosis is induced, the response of differential blood counts and levels of various haematological variables, including the inflammatory marker haptoglobin (Hp), were tested over the last six weeks of parturition until the 56th day post-partum in cows with lower or higher body condition scores (LBC and HBC, respectively; n = 9/group). Animals in the HBC group evidenced subclinical ketosis whereas LBC animals were metabolically healthy. For in vitro examination with ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as a further stimulus, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) counts of cows with and without subclinical ketosis (n = 5/group) were observed. Counts of leucocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes (LY) peaked at day 1 post-partum in HBC cows, with a more marked increase in heifers. In subclinical ketosis LY count increased again, with significantly higher values in the HBC group. The red blood cell (RBC) profile was affected by parity (counts were higher in heifers). Hp showed a positive linear correlation with BHB and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA; R(2) = 0.41). PBMC from cows that were not pre-stressed with subclinical ketosis were more sensitive to increasing levels of BHB in vitro, as evidenced by both their higher proliferative capability and increased release of nitric oxide (NO). In summary, cows with subclinical ketosis showed a heightened immune response compared with metabolically healthy individuals, based on increased LY counts, increasing stimulative properties of PBMC and a relationship between Hp and typically increased values of BHB and NEFA. Concentrations of BHB in vivo during subclinical ketosis did not alter the proliferative capability of bovine PBMC in vitro, which was first significantly decreased at a dosage of 5 mM BHB.

  18. Oxytocin and Social Cognition in Affective and Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K.; Burdick, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. PMID:25153535

  19. The KMO allele encoding Arg452 is associated with psychotic features in bipolar disorder type 1, and with increased CSF KYNA level and reduced KMO expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavebratt, C; Olsson, S; Backlund, L; Frisén, L; Sellgren, C; Priebe, L; Nikamo, P; Träskman-Bendz, L; Cichon, S; Vawter, M P; Osby, U; Engberg, G; Landén, M; Erhardt, S; Schalling, M

    2014-03-01

    The kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), modulating glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder type 1 with psychotic features. KYNA production is critically dependent on kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO). KMO mRNA levels and activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) are reduced in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that KMO expression in PFC would be reduced in bipolar disorder with psychotic features and that a functional genetic variant of KMO would associate with this disease, CSF KYNA level and KMO expression. KMO mRNA levels were reduced in PFC of bipolar disorder patients with lifetime psychotic features (P=0.005, n=19) or schizophrenia (P=0.02, n=36) compared with nonpsychotic patients and controls. KMO genetic association to psychotic features in bipolar disorder type 1 was studied in 493 patients and 1044 controls from Sweden. The KMO Arg(452) allele was associated with psychotic features during manic episodes (P=0.003). KMO Arg(452) was studied for association to CSF KYNA levels in an independent sample of 55 Swedish patients, and to KMO expression in 717 lymphoblastoid cell lines and 138 hippocampal biopsies. KMO Arg(452) associated with increased levels of CSF KYNA (P=0.03) and reduced lymphoblastoid and hippocampal KMO expression (P≤0.05). Thus, findings from five independent cohorts suggest that genetic variation in KMO influences the risk for psychotic features in mania of bipolar disorder patients. This provides a possible mechanism for the previous findings of elevated CSF KYNA levels in those bipolar patients with lifetime psychotic features and positive association between KYNA levels and number of manic episodes.

  20. LIVING WITH THE PSYCHOTIC IN THE FAMILIAR POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mariza Hildebrandt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause sufferingboth for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in thefamiliar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, thisresearch has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It isabout a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study, developed in a northwest city of Rio Grande do Sul state,called Ijuí. The people of the investigation are composed of five psychotic’s parents, which frequent the socioterapygroup in Gloria district. The information collection happened trough open interviews, recorded and wrote out at all.The analysis of the obtained data followed MINAYO’s (2002 methodological proposition. By the containedinformation in the stud’s social actor’s declarations, emerged three thematic with a similar nucleus of thoughts. Onfirst thematic, we discussed about the difficulties faced by the familiars in the living with the psychotic in themoment he has the acute symptoms. On the second thematic, we talked about the medical question as bring atherapeutic element that helps the mental sick to keep stable., becoming better the familiars life. The third thematicshows the family conception about mental sickness. With this research we concluded that the living with a mentalsick person is taxing for the familiar and, sometimes, there are difficulties to understand the symptoms showed bythe sick person. Besides that, the family considers the medication one of the most important possibilities ofintervention in the psychotic’s therapy, what is reinforced by the health team that leads with these people.

  1. Psychotic disorder and educational achievement: a family-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Marcelis, Machteld; Drukker, Marjan; Delespaul, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Early social and cognitive alterations in psychotic disorder, associated with familial liability and environmental exposures, may contribute to lower than expected educational achievement. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) how differences in educational level between parents and their children vary across patients, their healthy siblings, and healthy controls (effect familial liability), and across two environmental risk factors for psychotic disorder: childhood trauma and childhood urban exposure (effect environment) and (2) to what degree the association between familial liability and educational differential was moderated by the environmental exposures. Patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (n = 629), 552 non-psychotic siblings and 326 healthy controls from the Netherlands and Belgium were studied. Participants reported their highest level of education and that of their parents. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form. Urban exposure, expressed as population density, was rated across five levels. Overall, participants had a higher level of education than their parents. This difference was significantly reduced in the patient group, and the healthy siblings displayed intergenerational differences that were in between those of controls and patients. Higher levels of childhood urban exposure were also associated with a smaller intergenerational educational differential. There was no evidence for differential sensitivity to childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity across the three groups. Intergenerational difference in educational achievements is decreased in patients with psychotic disorder and to a lesser extent in siblings of patients with psychotic disorder, and across higher levels of childhood urban exposure. More research is required to better understand the dynamics between early social and cognitive alterations in those at risk in relation to progress

  2. Modelling the incidence and mortality of psychotic disorders: data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sukanta; Whiteford, Harvey; McGrath, John

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to model estimates related to (a) the incidence of psychotic disorders and (b) the mortality associated with these disorders based on a large, population-based prevalence study. Data were drawn from the second national survey of adults with psychotic disorders conducted in seven Australian catchment areas during March to December 2010. To generate incidence rate estimates, we identified recent onset cases recruited as part of the prevalence study and then imputed population-based incidence rates using a set of conservative assumptions. Similarly, for mortality rates, we identified individuals who had died after being identified as 'screen-positive' for psychosis, but prior to full clinical assessment. Using a set of conservative assumptions, we then used these estimates to infer population-based mortality rates. Based on our models, we estimated that the incidence rate for psychotic disorders was 28 cases per 100,000 population. The rate estimates were significantly higher in males than females, with an overall male:female ratio of 1.57:1. Incidence rate estimates peaked in the youngest age group (18-24 years). The adjusted mortality rate estimated during the whole period of observation was 12.5 per 1000 persons, with a standardised mortality ratio of 5.5. Using treated prevalence data and observed deaths with appropriate algorithms, we were able to impute incidence and mortality rates for psychotic disorders consistent with the published literature. While the second national survey of psychotic disorders was not designed to identify mortality, our estimates provide a stark reminder of the increased mortality associated with these disorders.

  3. Epidemiology, course and outcome of acute polymorphic psychotic disorder: implications for ICD-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed revision of the ICD-10 category of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders' (ATPDs), subsuming polymorphic, schizophrenic or predominantly delusional syndromes, would restrict their classification to acute polymorphic psychotic disorder, reminiscent of the clinical...

  4. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral program for chronically psychotic forensic inpatients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the progress of four groups of chronically psychotic patients in treatment at De Kijvelanden Forensic Psychiatric Hospital. The psychotic patients were offered a cognitive-behavioral program, including psycho education, grief processing, stress management, functional

  5. Hyper-Theory-of-Mind in Children with Psychotic Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE...... their theory of the minds of others in an incorrect or biased way. METHOD: Hypotheses were tested in two studies with two independent samples: (i) a general population sample of 1630 Danish children aged 11-12 years, (ii) a population-based sample of 259 Dutch children aged 12-13 years, pertaining to a case...

  6. Hyper-Theory-of-Mind in Children with Psychotic Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Vaever, Mette; Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M. A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jeppesen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE in children. Children with this type of alteration in ToM infer mental states when none are obviously suggested, and predict behaviour on the basis of these erroneous beliefs. Individuals with HyperT...

  7. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions....... The purpose of this study is to explore frequency of qualitative, not-yet-psychotic, anomalies of subjective experience in patients with residual schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness in remission. METHOD: The patients were examined with the Danish version of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic...... differential diagnosis and therefore potentially useful in the preonset detection of the schizophrenia spectrum illness....

  8. Low vitamin D is associated with negative and depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerhus, Mari; Berg, Akiah O; Kvitland, Levi R; Dieset, Ingrid; Hope, Sigrun; Dahl, Sandra R; Weibell, Melissa A; Romm, Kristin L; Faerden, Ann; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2016-12-01

    There are indications that low S-25(OH)D is associated with increased disease severity in psychotic disorder. Our first aim was to investigate the relations between low S-25(OH)D and positive, negative and depressive symptoms. Our second aim was to explore if associations between S-25(OH)D and symptoms were influenced by levels of inflammatory markers. Participants (N=358) with a medical history of one or more psychotic episodes were recruited. Current symptomatology was assessed by The Structured Interview for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scaleanalyzed by a five-factor model. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia was used to assess depression and suicidal ideation. Blood samples were analyzed for S-25(OH)D, CRP, sTNF-R1, IL-Ra and OPG. We performed bivariate correlations and multiple regression models to evaluate the effect of S-25(OH)D on the outcomes. Low S-25(OH)D was significantly associated with negative symptoms (adjusted R 2 =0.113, F(6,357)=8.58, pD (rho=-0.13, p=0.02) and negative symptoms (rho=0.14, p=0.01), but did not act as a mediator. The correlations between S-25(OH)D and the inflammatory markers sTNF-R1, IL-Ra and OPG were not significant. There is a strong association between low S-25(OH)D and higher negative and depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. Randomized controlled trials should be performed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjuvant treatment strategy in patients with prominent negative or depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Network Approach to Psychosis: Pathways Between Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isvoranu, Adela-Maria; van Borkulo, Claudia D; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Wigman, Johanna T W; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Borsboom, Denny

    2017-01-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) has been identified as a potential risk factor for the onset of psychotic disorders. However, to date, there is limited consensus with respect to which symptoms may ensue after exposure to trauma in early life, and whether specific pathways may account for these associations. The aim of the present study was to use the novel network approach to investigate how different types of traumatic childhood experiences relate to specific symptoms of psychotic disorders and to identify pathways that may be involved in the relationship between CT and psychosis. We used data of patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (n = 552) from the longitudinal observational study Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis Project and included the 5 scales of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and all original symptom dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Our results show that all 5 types of CT and positive and negative symptoms of psychosis are connected through symptoms of general psychopathology. These findings are in line with the theory of an affective pathway to psychosis after exposure to CT, with anxiety as a main connective component, but they also point to several additional connective paths between trauma and psychosis: eg, through poor impulse control (connecting abuse to grandiosity, excitement, and hostility) and motor retardation (connecting neglect to most negative symptoms). The results of the current study suggest that multiple paths may exist between trauma and psychosis and may also be useful in mapping potential transdiagnostic processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Risk factors for suicide among 34,671 patients with psychotic and non-psychotic severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leadholm, Anne Katrine K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe unipolar depression is associated with increased risk of suicide, but it remains unknown whether the same risk factors are present in the non-psychotic (non-PD) and psychotic (PD) subtypes respectively. Therefore, this study aimed to identify risk factors for suicide in non......-PD and PD separately, and to investigate if the presence of psychotic symptoms is an independent risk factor for suicide in severe depression. METHODS: This register-based, nationwide, historical prospective cohort study used logistic regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for suicide among all...... adults diagnosed with severe depression at Danish psychiatric hospitals between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2010. The risk for suicide was expressed as adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS: A total of 34,671 individuals with severe depression (non-PD: n=26,106 and PD: n=12,101) were included...

  11. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  12. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  13. Fatal radiation pneumonia following subclinical busulfan injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soble, A.R.; Perry, H.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with polycythemia vera received a moderate dose (480 mg) of busulfan intermittently over a 6 year period and later developed Hodgkin's disease. Following split-course upper mantle, chest irradiation, he developed rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is postulated that the hyperacute organ failures (lung and bone marrow) resulted from augmentation of subclinical busulfan-induced damage of these organs by additive radiation effect. It is recommended that in patients who have had antineoplastic chemotherapy, major radiotherapy to the cervicothoracic region be accompanied by careful monitoring of respiratory and hematopoietic function, both before and during radiotherapy

  14. Pregnancy aggravates proteinuria in subclinical glomerulonephritis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Poelman, RT; Schuiling, GA

    Because subclinical renal disease may be aggravated during pregnancy-as reflected in the occurrence of proteinuria, for example-we investigated whether a subclinical glomerulonephritis (SG) in the non-pregnant rat (passive Heymann nephritis), a condition without proteinuria, is aggravated when the

  15. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the

  16. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  17. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer.

  18. P-wave dispersion in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, R; Akbay, E; Camsari, A; Ozcan, T

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure maximum P wave duration (Pmax) and P wave dispersion (PWD), which can be indicators for the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when increased, and to reveal their relationship with thyroid hormone levels in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Seventy-one patients with sublinical thyrotoxicosis (34 endogenous, 37 exogenous) and 69 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin) on electrocardiogram recordings were measured and PWD was calculated as Pmax-Pmin. Pmax (pendogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with the control group. Pmax (pexogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis compared with the control group. Pmax (p=0.710) and PWD (p=0.127) were not significantly different in patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients. Pmax and PWD negatively associated with TSH in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. In the present study, we observed that Pmax and PWD were longer in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Lack of a difference in Pmax and PWD between patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to support the idea that hormone levels rather than the etiology of thyrotoxicosis affect the heart.

  19. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Heijer, M. den; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical

  20. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  1. Impairments of working memory in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: the effect of history of psychotic symptoms and different aspects of cognitive task demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota eFrydecka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of cognitive impairments between schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD have produced mixed results. We applied different working memory (WM measures (Digit Span Forward and Backward, Short-delay and Long-delay CPT-AX, N-back to patients with SZ (n=23, psychotic BPD (n=19 and non-psychotic BPD (n=24, as well as to healthy controls (HC (n=18 in order to compare the level of WM impairments across the groups. With respect to the less demanding WM measures (Digit Span Forward and Backward, Short-delay CPT-AX, there were no between-groups differences in cognitive performance; however, with respect to the more demanding WM measures (Long-delay CPT-AX, N-back, we observed that the groups with psychosis (SZ, psychotic BPD did not differ from one another, but performed poorer than the group without history of psychosis (non-psychotic BPD. The history of psychotic symptoms may influence cognitive performance with respect to WM delay and load effects as measured by Long-delay CPT-AX and N-back tests respectively. We observed a positive correlation of WM performance with antipsychotic treatment and negative correlation with depressive symptoms in BPD and with negative symptoms in SZ subgroup. Our study suggests that WM dysfunctions are more closely related to the history of psychosis than to the diagnostic categories of SZ and BPD described by psychiatric classification systems.

  2. Association between genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene and emotional withdrawal, but not between oxytocin pathway genes and diagnosis in psychotic disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit eHaram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social dysfunction is common in patients with psychotic disorders. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide with a central role in social behaviour. This study aims to explore the relationship between oxytocin pathway genes and symptoms related to social dysfunction in patients with psychotic disorders. We performed association analyses between four oxytocin pathway genes (OXT, OXTR, AVP, CD38 and four areas of social behaviour-related psychopathology as measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. For this purpose, we used both a polygenic risk score (PGRS and single OXTR candidate SNPs previously reported in the literature (rs53576, rs237902, rs2254298. A total of 734 subjects with DSM-IV psychotic spectrum disorders and 420 healthy controls were included. Oxytocin pathway PGRSs were calculated based on the independent Psychiatric Genomics Consortium study sample. There was a significant association between symptom of Emotional Withdrawal and the previously reported OXTR risk allele A in rs53576. No significant associations between oxytocin pathway gene variants and a diagnosis of psychotic disorder were found. Our findings indicate that while oxytocin pathway genes do not appear to contribute to the susceptibility to psychotic disorders, variations in the OXTR gene might play a role in the development of impaired social behaviour.

  3. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular system: time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-05-19

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Exogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state caused by L-thyroxine administration. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter, various forms of thyroiditis, in areas with endemic goiter and particularly in elderly subjects. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is currently the subject of numerous studies and it yet remains controversial particularly as it relates to its treatment and to cardiovascular impact nevertheless established effects have been demonstrated. Recently, acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses and recurrent acute pulmonary embolism have been reported associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism without L-thyroxine administration. So, it is very important to recognize and to treat promptly also endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Observational Study from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Mathrubootham; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Vishwanathan, Latha; Subbarayan, Anbezhil

    2018-03-15

    To assess the natural history and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism and to study factors which help predict evolution of subclinical hypothyroidism into overt hypothyroidism. Longitudinal study in 40 children (2-16 yrs) presenting with subclinical hypothyroidism in a tertiary care unit in Chennai, India. Patients showing evidence of overt hypothyroidism or thyroid stimulating hormone ≥15 mIU/mL during follow-up were started on thyroxine. Others were followed up with 3-monthly thyroid function tests up to one year. At the end of our study period 3 (7.5%) were overtly hypothyroid, 16 (40%) remained as subclinical hypothyroid, and 21 (52.5%) became euthyroid. Evidence of auto- immunity at baseline was a significant (Phypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children, with thyroid stimulating hormone upto 15 mIU/L and irrespective of thyroid autoimmunity, needs only periodic clinical and biochemical follow up. Thyroid autoimmunity may point to an increased probability of progression to overt hypothyroidism.

  5. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which......BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with depressive symptoms in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data and data on subclinical hyperthyroidism are scarce. METHODS: In the Leiden sub-study of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among...

  6. Hemostasis in Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hyperthyroidism on hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present review focuses on hemostatic changes in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; goiter, nodular; hemostasis; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation disorders; venous thromboembolism; bleeding; fibrinolysis. The articles that were related to hyperthyroidism and hemostasis are used in this manuscript. Results Hyperthyroidism, either overt or subclinical, renders a hypercoagulable state, although there are several studies with contradictory findings in the literature. Hypercoagulability may be caused by an increase in the level of various coagulation factors such as factor (F) VIII, FX, FIX, von Willebrand F (vWF), and fibrinogen, while hypofibrinolysis by changes in coagulation parameters such as a decrease in plasmin and plasmin activator or an increase in α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor Conclusions Although many reports are in favor of a hypercoagulable state in overt hyperthyroidism but this finding at the biochemical level and its clinical implication, on the occurrence of VTE, has yet to be confirmed. PMID:29201071

  7. Clinical and psychometric validation of the psychotic depression assessment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Pedersen, Christina H; Uggerby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), consisting of the 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and 5 psychosis items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), is a valid measure for the ...

  8. Current and emerging somatic treatment strategies in psychotic major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Gonopolski, Yehudit; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder characterized by severe affective and neurovegetative symptoms together with the presence of delusions and/or hallucinations. It is a common disorder seen in a quarter of consecutively admitted depressed patients and is often associated with severe symptomatology, increased suicide risk, poor acute response to antidepressants and poor acute and long-term treatment outcome. It is possible that poor response in psychotic depression is caused by the fact that we have yet to identify the most efficacious treatment protocol for psychotic MDD. Multiple studies have shown that modifications in the treatment paradigm may increase treatment efficacy in psychotic MDD. It has been generally accepted that, during the acute treatment phase, antidepressant-antipsychotic drug combination therapy is more effective than either treatment alone, although this strategy has recently been challenged. The question of the optimal duration of pharmacotherapy in order to prevent relapse and improve long-term (i.e., 5-year) outcome is a focus of current investigation. This article will review currently recommended treatment strategies for the acute, continuation and maintenance phases of therapy. In particular, it will address the role of newer-generation antidepressants, the role of second-generation antipsychotics, the use of mood stabilizers and indications for electroconvulsive therapy. Other possible treatment strategies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep-brain stimulation and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists will be discussed. Current recommendations for the prevention of relapse and improvement of long-term outcome will be reviewed.

  9. Psychotic Symptomatology in a Juvenile Court Clinic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This report indicating an unexpectedly high incidence of psychotic symptomatology in a population of cases referred to the Juvenile Court Psychiatric Clinic of the Second District of Connecticut, manifests the necessity for juvenile court systems to be made aware of the possibility of psychosis in our delinquent populations. (CS)

  10. Cerebral correlates of psychotic syndromes in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2012-05-01

    Psychosis has been recognized as a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases and a core feature of dementia that worsens most clinical courses. It includes hallucinations, delusions including paranoia, aggressive behaviour, apathy and other psychotic phenomena that occur in a wide range of degenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, synucleinopathies (Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies), Huntington's disease, frontotemporal degenerations, motoneuron and prion diseases. Many of these psychiatric manifestations may be early expressions of cognitive impairment, but often there is a dissociation between psychotic/behavioural symptoms and the rather linear decline in cognitive function, suggesting independent pathophysiological mechanisms. Strictly neuropathological explanations are likely to be insufficient to explain them, and a large group of heterogeneous factors (environmental, neurochemical changes, genetic factors, etc.) may influence their pathogenesis. Clinico-pathological evaluation of behavioural and psychotic symptoms (PS) in the setting of neurodegenerative and dementing disorders presents a significant challenge for modern neurosciences. Recognition and understanding of these manifestations may lead to the development of more effective preventive and therapeutic options that can serve to delay long-term progression of these devastating disorders and improve the patients' quality of life. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and distinctive pathological features underlying the development of PS in neurodegenerative diseases may provide important insights into psychotic processes in general. © 2011 The Author Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Brief psychotic disorder in a middle aged Nigerian following the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report illustrates the sudden onset, brief course and remission of a psychotic illness in a middle-aged Nigerian starting soon after she heard about the terrorist attacks in America. Vulnerability factors including personality traits and other concurrent life events were identified in the patients. Common mental disorder ...

  12. Creating a Supportive Environment : Peer Support Groups for Psychotic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Davidson, Larry; van der Gaag, Mark

    People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to

  13. Creating a Supportive Environment: Peer Support Groups for Psychotic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; Davidson, L.; van der Gaag, M.

    2015-01-01

    People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to

  14. Psychotic disorder and its characteristics in sex chromosome aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapia Verri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome anomalies have been associated with psychoses. We report a patient with XYY chromosome anomaly who developed a paranoid psychosis. The second case deal with a 51-year-old woman affected by Turner Syndrome and Psychotic Disorder, with a prevalent somatic and sexual focus.

  15. Yoruba world view and the nature of psychotic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugbile, O; Zachariah, M P; Kuyinu, A; Coker, A; Ojo, O; Isichei, B

    2009-05-01

    The Yoruba are an ethnic group in southern Nigeria. It is said that their world view centers around a continuous battle between forces of good and evil. Adverse events such as illness are due to the malevolence of enemies, using metaphysical means. Remedy often involves corrective metaphysical intervention, either exclusively or in addition to other methods, such as 'western Medicine'. This 'rule' is said to fit mental illness more than any other type of illness, although there is a lack of empirical data on the subject. This study is aimed at identifying elements of a Yoruba world view, and factors relevant to the perception and treatment of psychotic illness. 500 Yorubas in Lagos were randomly sampled (with a questionnaire), and 100 'home video' films were analyzed. Data were analyzed for: elements of world view; elements that pertain to illness in general; elements that pertain to psychotic illness; how such illness is to be treated. The world view has a significant influence on perception of psychotic illness. It is necessary to understand a people's world view in order to understand (and influence) attitudes towards psychotic illness in themselves and other people.

  16. The Development of Pronoun Usage in the Psychotic Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Joyanna L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-three psychotic children, ranging in age from 5 to 16, were interviewed in half-hour play sessions designed to elicit statements using the pronouns "I,""you," and "he" to express the concepts of possession, action, and description. (Author/SBH)

  17. Pattern of Serum Electrolytes Changes among Non Psychotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Serum electrolytes, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, were measured in 30 depressed patients at the Neuropsychiatric Hospital Rumuigbo, Port Harcourt before therapy commenced and after four (4) weeks of amitriptyline. Thirty (30) known non psychotic disordered subjects matched for age and sex were used as control.

  18. A Psychotic Reaction in a Sex-Chromatin Negative Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuropsychiatric disorders found in association with Turner's syndrome (gonadal agenesis) are unusual. The case report describes a patient with Turner's syndrome who suffered an acute psychotic reaction. A brief review of the literature concerning this association is surveyed. S. Afr. Med. J., 47, 146 (1973) ...

  19. Correlates of Suicidality among Patients with Psychotic Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Flint, Alastair J.; Smith, Eric; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Szanto, Katalin; Peasley-Miklus, Catherine; Heo, Moonseong; Papademetriou, Eros; Meyers, Barnett S.

    2008-01-01

    The independent association of age and other factors with suicidality in patients with major depression with psychotic features was examined. Of the 183 study participants, 21% had a suicide attempt during the current episode. Male gender, Hispanic background, past suicide attempt, higher depression scores, and higher cognitive scores were each…

  20. Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected after confirmation of clinical and subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count and bacterial identification. Serum haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, total sialic acid (TSA, lipid bound sialic acid (LBSA and protein bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured by validated standard methods. Haptoglobin and SAA increased significantly in both types of mastitis compared with control group (P<0.001. However, the ratio of HP/SAA was significantly different from the control group only in clinical mastitis. The results showed that TSA and LBSA were significantly different in control group compared with clinical and subclinical mastitis (P<0.001. Protein bound sialic acid did not change in subclinical mastitis in comparison with control group (P=0.86. There was positive correlation between LBSA and PBSA in clinical mastitis (r=0.72, P=0.02 whereas significant negative correlation was observed between LBSA and PBSA in subclinical mastitis (r=-0.62, P<0.001. Results also showed no correlation between Hp and SAA with each other or with any other parameters in study groups.

  1. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashizawa, K.; Imaizumi, M.; Usa, T.; Tominaga, T.; Hida, A.; Ejima, E.; Neriishi, K.; Soda, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Maeda, R.; Akahoshi, M.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T 3 , F T 4 ) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T 4 (0.71∼1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45∼4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in the Sh group were

  2. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizawa, K; Imaizumi, M; Usa, T; Tominaga, T; Hida, A; Ejima, E; Neriishi, K; Soda, M; Fujiwara, S; Maeda, R; Akahoshi, M; Nagataki, S; Eguchi, K [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Branch

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T{sub 3}, F T{sub 4}) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T{sub 4} (0.71{approx}1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45{approx}4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in

  3. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Mind-body medicine for schizophrenia and psychotic disorders: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Chanel; Sarris, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Over half of psychiatric patients use some kind of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, with Mind-Body Medicine (MBM) being the most commonly used collective modality. To date however, to our knowledge, no overarching review exists examining MBM for psychotic disorders. Thus the purpose of this paper is to present the first review in this area. A MEDLINE search was conducted of articles written in English from 1946 up to January 15, 2011 using a range of MBM and psychotic disorder search terms. Human clinical trials and, where available, pertinent meta-analyses and reviews were included in this paper. Forty-two clinical studies and reviews of MBMs were located, revealing varying levels of evidence. All studies included used MBMs as an adjunctive therapy to usual care, including medication. Overall, supportive evidence was found for music therapy, meditation and mindfulness techniques. Some positive studies were found for yoga and breathing exercises, general relaxation training, and holistic multi-modality MBM interventions. Due to insufficient data, a conclusion cannot be reached for hypnosis, thermal or EMG biofeedback, dance or drama therapy, or art therapy. No clinical trials were found for guided imagery, autogenic training, journal writing, or ceremony practices. For many techniques, the quality of research was poor, with many studies having small samples, no randomization, and no adequate control. While the above techniques are likely to be safe and tolerable in this population based on current data, more research is required to decisively assess the validity of applying many MBMs in the mainstream treatment of psychotic disorders.

  5. Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58% and Escherichia coli (23.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%, Streptococcus sp. (5.5%, Klebsiella sp. (3% and Bacillus sp. (2%. The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%, ofloxacin (85%, enrofloxacin (82%, gentamicin (80% and chloramphenicol (75%, resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 358-359

  6. Microbiological analysis and sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. in subclinical mastitis of dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.S. Salaberry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical mastitis in goats causes economic losses and risks to public health. Given the need for research that shows the most isolated staphylococci species and sensibility tests comparing the resistance between coagulase-negative (CNS and positive Staphylococcus (CPS goats with subclinical mastitis, the aim of this study was to identify the microorganisms isolated from milk samples of goats with subclinical mastitis, as well as define the staphylococci species and determine the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials. To collect samples, tests were performed for mug of black background and California mastitis test (CMT, collecting milk from CMT positive animals. A total of 226 samples from seven herds of dairy goats was collected and forwarded to the laboratory, where they were seeded for the isolation of the microorganism and implementing the antibiotic sensibility test. Of these, 122 samples had bacterial growth and the most isolated staphylococci species were: S. epidermidis (24.55%, S. lugdunensis (15.40% and S. intermedius (13.64%. Samples showed increased resistance to antimicrobials: penicillin (81.8%, oxacillin (60.0% and ampicillin (55.5%. Greater sensitivity to: enrofloxacin (99.1%, erythromycin (98.2%, gentamicin (98.2% and vancomycin (98.2% were observed. The S. epidermidis showed higher antimicrobial resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin than S. lugdunensis and S. intermedius. Similar resistance in vitro between CNS and CPS was observed to most antimicrobials. It is important to control the overuse of antibiotics to prevent the emergence of resistant strains.

  7. Trauma and psychotic experiences: transnational data from the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John J; Saha, Sukanta; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas de Almeida, José M; Cardoso, Graça; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M; Kawakami, Norito; Koenen, Karestan C; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; McLaughlin, Katie A; Medina-Mora, Maria E; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Ojagbemi, Akin; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate M; Tachimori, Hisateru; Ten Have, Margreet; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-12-01

    Background Traumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset. Aims To investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders. Method We assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders. Results Respondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders. Conclusions Exposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  8. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk of carotid atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosu Kim

    Full Text Available The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on vascular atherosclerosis remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction and carotid plaques, which are an early surrogate marker of systemic atherosclerosis.The study included 21,342 adults with consistent thyroid hormonal status on serial thyroid function tests (TFTs and carotid artery duplex ultrasonography at a health screening center between 2007 and 2014. The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on baseline carotid plaques and newly developed carotid plaques during 5-year follow-up was determined by logistic regression analyses and GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations, respectively.Carotid plaques were more common in the subclinical hypothyroidism (55.6% than the euthyroidism (47.8% at baseline. However, in multivariable analysis, thyroid status was not a significant risk for the carotid plaques at baseline. Instead, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age (P <0.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.023, fasting blood glucose (P = 0.030, and creatinine (P = 0.012 were associated with baseline carotid plaques in subclinical hypothyroidism. In longitudinal analyses of subjects who were followed up for more than 5 years, there was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of new carotid plaques according to time between subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and those with euthyroidism (P = 0.392.Sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction did not affect the baseline or development of carotid plaques in healthy individuals.

  9. Attenuated psychotic and basic symptom characteristics in adolescents with ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis, other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and early-onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cascio, Nella; Saba, Riccardo; Hauser, Marta; Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Borenstein, Yehonatan; Sheridan, Eva M; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Girardi, Paolo; Gebhardt, Eva; Kane, John M; Auther, Andrea; Carrión, Ricardo E; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Correll, Christoph U

    2016-10-01

    While attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and basic symptoms (BS) are the main current predictors of psychosis in adults, studies in adolescents are scarce. Thus, we (1) described the prevalence and severity of positive, negative, disorganization, general, and basic symptoms in adolescent patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), with other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (PC) and with early-onset psychosis (EOP); and (2) investigated BS criteria in relation to UHR criteria. Sixty-nine 12-18-year-old adolescents (15.3 ± 1.7 years, female = 58.0 %, UHR = 22, PC = 27, EOP = 20) were assessed with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes (SIPS) and the schizophrenia proneness instrument-child and youth version (SPI-CY). Despite similar current and past 12-month global functioning, both UHR and EOP had significantly higher SIPS total and subscale scores compared to PC, with moderate-large effect sizes. Expectedly, UHR had significantly lower SIPS positive symptom scores than EOP, but similar SIPS negative, disorganized, and general symptom scores. Compared to PC, both EOP and UHR had more severe basic thought and perception disturbances, and significantly more often met cognitive disturbances criteria (EOP = 50.0 %, UHR = 40.9 %, PC = 14.8 %). Compared to UHR, both EOP and PC significantly less often met cognitive-perceptive BS criteria (EOP = 35.0 %, UHR = 68.2 %, PC = 25.9 %). BS were significantly more prevalent in both EOP and UHR than PC, and UHR were similar to EOP in symptom domains. Given the uncertain outcome of adolescents at clinical high-risk of psychosis, future research is needed to determine whether the combined assessment of early subjective disturbances with observable APS can improve the accuracy of psychosis prediction.

  10. Evidence of an excessive gender gap in the risk of psychotic disorder among North African immigrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, E; Veling, W; Tortelli, A; Tarricone, I; Berardi, D; Bourque, F; Selten, J P

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiological studies in the Netherlands have reported an excessive gender gap in the risk for non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) among immigrants from Morocco with a higher risk elevation in males compared to females. We examined the consistency of these findings and their generalizability to immigrants from the Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) in other European countries. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, PsychINFO and EMBASE databases were searched for publications in the period from January 1970 to April 2014. We included incidence and prevalence studies of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) among migrants from the Maghreb in Europe and studies of subclinical psychotic symptoms (SPS) in representative samples. A meta-analysis was performed on the subgroup of incidence studies. Five incidence and three prevalence studies of NAPD, and two prevalence studies of SPS, conducted in the Netherlands (n=7), Belgium (n=1), France (n=1) and Italy (n=1) met our inclusion criteria. Across all research designs, the risks of NAPD and SPS were consistently increased among male, not female immigrants from the Maghreb. The meta-analysis of incidence studies of NAPD yielded male-to-female risk ratios of 5.1 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.1-8.4] for migrants from the Maghreb, 2.0 (95 % CI 1.6-2.5) for other migrant groups, and 1.8 (95 % CI 1.3-2.5) for non-migrant Europeans. The marked gender gap in psychosis risk among migrants from the Maghreb appears a consistent finding, foremost among the Moroccan-Dutch. The small number of studies limits the strength of conclusions that can be drawn about countries other than the Netherlands. Achievement-expectation mismatch, social marginalization and an increased prevalence of illicit drug use are possible explanations.

  11. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ROLE OF CRP IN 50 ADULT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Shah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is generally characterised as a clustering of the abnormal levels of blood lipids (low HDL and high triglycerides, impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and excess abdominal obesity. The objectives of the study areTo evaluate presence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the study population of the patients with metabolic syndrome. To find out relation between Subclinical Hypothyroidism and different parameters of metabolic syndrome. To evaluate whether patients of metabolic syndrome with raised hs-CRP have an increased risk of having hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 adult patients who met with inclusion criteria were selected. Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS who fulfilled the NCEP-ATP III criteria: 3 out of 5 criteria positive. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions (e.g. lithium, amiodarone or γ-interferon were excluded from the study. RESULTS A total of 50 patients of metabolic syndrome were enrolled. Out of which 36 were euthyroid, 3 were overt hypothyroid and 11 were subclinical hypothyroid. Out of 11 patients of subclinical hypothyroidism, 9 were female and 2 were male patients. Out of 28 females, 9 (32% were SCH while out of 22 males, 2 (9% were SCH. Out of 50 patients, 3 were overt hypothyroid. All 3 patients had BP >130/85, waist circumference was >88 cm and HDL of 130/85, HDL 150 mg/dL and fasting blood glucose of >100 mg/dL were more associated with male patients. CONCLUSION Subclinical Hypothyroidism was present in 22% of study population and more so in females having metabolic syndrome (32%. Hence, it will be worthwhile to screen female metabolic syndrome patients for thyroid function abnormality. Abnormal blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were more associated with subclinical hypothyroidism

  12. Structural brain abnormalities in women with subclinical depression, as revealed by voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yayoi K; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Hayashi, Naoto; Kunimatsu, Akira; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-01-25

    Brain structural changes accompany major depressive disorder, but whether subclinical depression is accompanied by similar changes in brain volume and white matter integrity is unknown. By using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of the gray matter and tract-specific analysis based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the white matter, we explored the extent to which abnormalities could be identified in specific brain structures of healthy adults with subclinical depression. The subjects were 21 community-dwelling adults with subclinical depression, as measured by their Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores. They were not demented and had no neurological or psychiatric history. We collected brain magnetic resonance images of the patients and of 21 matched control subjects, and we used VBM to analyze the differences in regional gray matter volume between the two groups. Moreover, we examined the white matter integrity by using tract-specific analysis based on the gray matter volume changes revealed by VBM. VBM revealed that the volumes of both anterior cingulate gyri and the right rectal gyrus were smaller in subclinically depressed women than in control women. Calculation of DTI measures in the anterior cingulum bundle revealed a positive correlation between CES-D scale score and radial diffusivity in the right anterior cingulum in subclinically depressed women. The small sample size limits the stability of the reported findings. Gray matter volume reduction and white matter integrity change in specific frontal brain regions may be associated with depressive symptoms in women, even at a subclinical level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. PMID:27779276

  14. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  15. Functional Trajectories, Cognition, and Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamoon, Mandip S; Cheung, Ying-Kuen; Gutierrez, Jose; Moon, Yeseon P; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B

    2018-03-01

    Cognition and education influence functional trajectories, but whether associations differ with subclinical brain infarcts (SBI) or white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) is unknown. We hypothesized that SBI and WMHV moderated relationships between cognitive performance and education and functional trajectories. A total of 1290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and were followed for 7.3 years (mean) with annual functional assessments with the Barthel index (range, 0-100). Magnetic resonance imaging measurements included pathology-informed SBI (PI-SBI) and WMHV (% total cranial volume). Generalized estimating equation models tested associations between magnetic resonance imaging variables and baseline Barthel index and change in Barthel index, adjusting for demographic, vascular, cognitive, and social risk factors, and stroke and myocardial infarction during follow-up. We tested interactions among education level, baseline cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State score), and functional trajectories and ran models stratified by levels of magnetic resonance imaging variables. Mean age was 70.6 (SD, 9.0) years; 19% had PI-SBI, and mean WMHV was 0.68%. Education did not modify associations between cognition and functional trajectories. PI-SBI modified associations between cognition and functional trajectories ( P =0.04) with a significant protective effect of better cognition on functional decline seen only in those without PI-SBI. There was no significant interaction for WMHV ( P =0.8). PI-SBI, and greater WMHV, were associated with 2- to 3-fold steeper functional decline, holding cognition constant. PI-SBI moderated the association between cognition and functional trajectories, with 3-fold greater decline among those with PI-SBI (compared with no PI-SBI) and normal baseline cognition. This highlights the strong and independent association between subclinical markers and patient-centered trajectories over time. © 2018 American Heart

  16. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism-A Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, R.; Anwer, M. S.; Khan, F. A.; Ijaz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the development of overt hyperthyroidism in a cohort of patients of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCR) and in subjects with normal thyroid function tests. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Sept 2006 to Sept 2007. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients of SCR and almost equal number of age and sex-matched subjects with normal Thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study as controls. Subclinical hyperthyroid patients and controls were followed for a period of one year on a six monthly basis. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and serum TSH, total T3 and free T4 were estimated. The clinical history, physical examination and TFT results were recorded. Five ml of blood was collected for serum thyroid profile in plain tube. Hormonal analysis(TSH, T4 and T3) was done for the patients and the controls enrolled in the study. The TFTs was analyzed using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay technique on Immulite 2000 an automated, random access, immunoassay analyzer. Results: Six (12%) out of 50 cases of the SCR patients and 2 (4%) out of 50 controls developed overt hyperthyroidism. SCR had no significant risk for conversion to overt hyperthyroidism as compared to healthy controls in this study. In addition to initial levels of serum TSH were one of important predictor for conversion of SCR to overt hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: Patients with SCR have no significant risk but showed an increase in frequency of conversion to overt hyperthyroidism (12% in this study) as compared to controls. (author)

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OLANZAPINE AND QUETIAPINE IN PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS

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    Bithorai Basumatary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychotic disorders are a group of chronic debilitating psychiatric illness characterised by loss in touch with reality and disorders of thought, behaviour, appearance and speech. The second generation atypical antipsychotic olanzapine has been reported to be the commonly prescribed antipsychotic. However, olanzapine can cause adverse effects like weight gain, hyperglycaemia, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. Quetiapine, another second generation antipsychotic has good efficacy and has become well established in the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes. There are reports on adverse effects of hyperglycaemia and diabetes with quetiapine, but these are comparatively lesser than olanzapine. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and quetiapine in patients with psychotic disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was an unicentric, open label, prospective and comparative clinical study. Subjects (n=80 who were diagnosed with psychotic disorder were randomly assigned to receive olanzapine (group 1 or quetiapine (group 2. The efficacy of the two drugs was assessed on the basis Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores at baseline, 1 week and 6 weeks. UKU scale (Udvalg Kliniske Undersogelser and laboratory investigations were used to assess the safety profile. RESULTS The two study groups had comparable sociodemographic profile. Both the groups showed significant reduction in psychotic symptoms as compared from baseline to 1 week and 6 weeks (p<0.001. The intergroup comparison of the efficacy of the two groups did not show any statistically significant results. There was statistically insignificant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects in both the groups. Sedation (50% in both the groups was the most common adverse effect in both the groups. The use of concomitant medications was comparable in both the groups. Benzodiazepines (56.3% in the olanzapine group and 51.9% in the quetiapine group

  18. Disability and service use among homeless people living with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Helen; Evert, Helen; Harvey, Carol; Gureje, Oye; Pinzone, Tony; Gordon, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of psychosis and needs for care among homeless people were studied in inner Melbourne. This was a two-stage nested study within the Australian National Survey of People Living with Psychotic Illness. A screen for psychosis was administered to a representative sample of men and women living in marginal housing in a mental health service catchment area. A selected subsample of 82 screen-positive respondents was interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis (DIP), a semistructured, standardized interview with three modules: (i) demography, functioning and quality of life; (ii) diagnosis; and (iii) service use. An unexpectedly high prevalence of people living with psychotic disorders (estimated lifetime prevalence 42%, 95% CI=37-47%) may reflect a concentration of vulnerable people in the shrinking marginal housing supply in the inner city areas. Disability in everyday, occupational and social functioning is greater for this subgroup than for other people living with psychosis in Australia. Most people were single and unemployed, and many reported social isolation and feeling unsafe. Substance use disorders were common. Most people were using health services, including specialist mental health services, but few were receiving rehabilitation, vocational or housing support. Despite high levels of contact with a well-organized, sectorized mental health service in an affluent country, this pocket of several hundred people had high levels of persisting disability and needs. The literature and local experience suggest that changing this situation is likely to require co-ordinated policy and practice between the health, welfare and housing sectors.

  19. An integrated network model of psychotic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijestijn, Jasper; Blom, Jan Dirk; Aleman, Andre; Hoek, Hans W.; Goekoop, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to

  20. Detection of early psychotic symptoms: Validation of the Spanish version of the "Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia (SOS) inventory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquida, Gisela; Cabrera, Bibiana; Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard; Bernardo, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    The period of subclinical signs that precedes the onset of psychosis is referred to as the prodrome or high-risk mental state. The "Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia (SOS) inventory" is an instrument to characterize and date the initial symptoms of a psychotic illness. The present study aims to provide reliability and validity data for clinical and research use of the Spanish version of the SOS. Thirty-six participants with a first-episode of psychosis meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia/schizoaffective/schizophreniform disorder were administered the translated SOS and other clinical assessments. The internal validity, intrarater and interrater reliability were studied. We found strong interrater reliability. To detect the presence/absence of prodromal symptoms, Kappa coefficients ranged between 0.8 and 0.7. Similarly, the raters obtained an excellent level of agreement regarding the onset of each symptom and the duration of symptoms until first treatment (intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.9 and 1.0). Cronbach's alpha was 0.9-1.0 for all the items. The interrater reliability and concurrent validity were also excellent in both cases. This study provides robust psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the SOS. The translated version is adequate in terms of good internal validity, intrarater and interrater reliability, and is as time-efficient as the original version. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Resilience in patients with psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozikas, V; Parlapani, E

    2016-01-01

    The recovery movement differentiated clinical, which is related to disorder's symptoms, from personal recovery, which is outlined by a subjectively defined wellness state, characterised by hope and self-management. Schizophrenia research has long focused on risk factors and symptoms. The recovery movement triggered a focus shift from psychopathology towards better adjustment and growth despite living with schizophrenia. The recovery movement flourished parallel with positive psychology, the scientific study of ordinary human strengths and virtues investigating human motives and potentials. Understanding of human strengths could contribute to prevention or lessening of psychiatric disorders' devastating consequences, since optimism, sense of personal control and many other positive processes promote psychological health. Lately, the concepts of positive psychology have been implemented in schizophrenia research. Positive self-appraisals moderated suicidal ideation, even when patients experienced high levels of hopelessness.1 Additionally, among other factors, better self-images, internal locus of control (i.e. the perception that events in one's life relate to one's actions) and emphasis on personal efforts predicted a more favourable outcome in functioning of unmedicated patients.2 The concept of "resilience" is closely related to positive psychology. The American Psychological Association defines resilience as ''the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, threats or significant sources of stress''. The concept of resilience includes rebound from adversity.3 Determinants of resilience include biological, psychological, social and cultural factors that interact in a complex manner. The major manifestations of personal resilience are social competence, problem solving, autonomy and sense of purpose.5 Personality strengths that relate to resilience include high self-esteem, extroversion and optimism. Internal assets and personal competencies

  2. An update on the epigenetics of psychotic diseases and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleky, Hamid Mostafavi; Zhou, Jin-Rong; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The examination of potential roles of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of psychotic diseases have become an essential alternative in recent years as genetic studies alone are yet to uncover major gene(s) for psychosis. Here, we describe the current state of knowledge from the gene-specific and genome-wide studies of postmortem brain and blood cells indicating that aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and dysregulation of micro-RNAs are linked to the pathogenesis of mental diseases. There is also strong evidence supporting that all classes of psychiatric drugs modulate diverse features of the epigenome. While comprehensive environmental and genetic/epigenetic studies are uncovering the origins, and the key genes/pathways affected in psychotic diseases, characterizing the epigenetic effects of psychiatric drugs may help to design novel therapies in psychiatry.

  3. [Swan Song: The Advent of the Psychotic Nucleus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Fernando Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Different forms of artistic expression, such as literature and cinema, constitute an inexhaustible source for the study of mental illness. The use of psychodynamic models may contribute to a better understanding of the spectrum between personality disorders and the psychosis spectrum, thus enriching the phenomenological approach in the psychiatric clinical practice. To examine from psychodynamic standpoints the main character of the American film Black Swan, and the nature of her psychotic symptoms. Reviewing of sources and relevant theoretical currents. Analysis shows the usefulness of a psychodynamically- oriented dimensional model for understanding the so-called psychotic breaks as well as the applicability of psychoanalytic psychosis theories in general psychiatric practice, as they may provide a more flexible clinical approach, closer to the patient's subjective experience. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and serum homocysteine concentration in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Aydoğdu Çolak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study we aimed to examine serum homocysteinelevels of patients without thyroid dysfunctionswho have high serum anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPOlevels and patients with subclinical hypothyroidism whohave high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH andanti-TPO levels.Methods: One hundred and seven premenopause femaleoutpatients who referred to endocrine clinic of our hospitalwere included in our study. We generated 3 groups. Firstgroup (Control consists of 53 (50% patients between theages of 30-40 years. Second group (Euthyroid consistsof 31 (29% patients between the ages of 26-49. Thirdgroup (Subclinical Hypothyroidism consists of 23 (21%patients between the ages of 33-53 years. Serum totalcholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDLlevels were measured by Olympus 2700 autoanalyzer.Serum TSH, free T4, anti-TPO and homocysteine levelswere measured by Siemens Immulite 2000 autoanalyzer.Results: In our study, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL levels were not statistically significantly differentamong the groups. Although serum homocysteine levelsof the third group were higher than the other groups it wasnot statistically significantly different among the groups.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine and lipid levels of patientswith euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidismwho have positive anti-TPO levels may be inadequate inassessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 293-297Key words: Hypothyroidsm, homocysteine, premenopause

  5. Genetic moderation of the effects of cannabis: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) affects the impact of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on working memory performance but not on the occurrence of psychotic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Stumpenhorst, Katharina; Harrison, Paul J; Morrison, Paul D; Freeman, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use can induce cognitive impairments and psychotic experiences. A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val(158)Met) appears to influence the immediate cognitive and psychotic effects of cannabis, or ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its primary psychoactive ingredient. This study investigated the moderation of the impact of experimentally administered THC by COMT. Cognitive performance and psychotic experiences were studied in participants without a psychiatric diagnosis, using a between-subjects design (THC vs. placebo). The effect of COMT Val(158)Met genotype on the cognitive and psychotic effects of THC, administered intravenously in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner to 78 participants who were vulnerable to paranoia, was examined. The results showed interactive effects of genotype and drug group (THC or placebo) on working memory, assayed using the Digit Span Backwards task. Specifically, THC impaired performance in COMT Val/Val, but not Met, carriers. In contrast, the effect of THC on psychotic experiences, measured using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) positive dimension, was unaffected by COMT genotype. This study is the largest to date examining the impact of COMT genotype on response to experimentally administered THC, and the first using a purely non-clinical cohort. The data suggest that COMT genotype moderates the cognitive, but not the psychotic, effects of acutely administered THC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed El Kholy

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... In children with subclinical hypothyroidism, The American. Thyroid Association ... reflects mild hypothyroidism that could harm brain growth and development in the ... results in a normal cognitive development [9]. In conclusion ...

  9. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo SH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.Keywords: suicidal behavior, subclinical hyperthyroidism, anxiolytics

  10. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaVIM, tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. Results: In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50 were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, blaCTX-M was detected in 18 (36% isolates, and 6 (12% harbored blaTEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried blaSHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10% isolates harbored tet(A gene, and 8 (16% isolates carried tet(B gene. No tet(C gene was detected from the isolates. Conclusion: This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  11. Cerebral correlates of psychotic syndromes in neurodegenerative diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Psychosis has been recognized as a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases and a core feature of dementia that worsens most clinical courses. It includes hallucinations, delusions including paranoia, aggressive behaviour, apathy and other psychotic phenomena that occur in a wide range of degenerative disorders including Alzheimer?s disease, synucleinopathies (Parkinson?s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies), Huntington?s disease, frontotemporal degenerations, motoneuron and prion...

  12. LIVING WITH THE PSYCHOTIC IN THE FAMILIAR POINT OF VIEW

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    Cíntia Nasi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause suffering both for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in the familiar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, this research has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It is about a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study, developed in a northwest city of Rio Grande do Sul state, called Ijuí. The people of the investigation are composed of five psychotic’s parents, which frequent the socioterapy group in Gloria district. The information collection happened trough open interviews, recorded and wrote out at all. The analysis of the obtained data followed MINAYO’s (2002 methodological proposition. By the contained information in the stud’s social actor’s declarations, emerged three thematic with a similar nucleus of thoughts. On first thematic, we discussed about the difficulties faced by the familiars in the living with the psychotic in the moment he has the acute symptoms. On the second thematic, we talked about the medical question as bring a therapeutic element that helps the mental sick to keep stable., becoming better the familiars life. The third thematic shows the family conception about mental sickness. With this research we concluded that the living with a mental sick person is taxing for the familiar and, sometimes, there are difficulties to understand the symptoms showed by the sick person. Besides that, the family considers the medication one of the most important possibilities of intervention in the psychotic’s therapy, what is reinforced by the health team that leads with these people. KEY WORDS: Family; Mental Illness; Nursing.

  13. [Psychotic parricide: clinical and analytic study of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhlaoui, Olfa; Khémiri, Omar; Gaha, Nesrine; Ridha, Rym; Haffani, Fakhreddine

    2009-12-01

    The parricide is defined as "murder of the father or the mother or any other legitimate ascendant." It represents 1 to 5% of all homicides and 20 to 30% of psychotic homicides. In Tunisia, few studies have focused on this issue. We propose in this work to describe the profile of psychotic parricide. We tried to identify risk factors in order to prevent this acting out. Our study is retrospective we observed 16 male patients diagnosed with schizophrenia hospitalized between June 1979 and March 2008 in the forensic psychiatry department at the psychiatric hospital in Tunis, discharged for no ground for prosecution following parricide. They accounted for 20.8% of psychotic homicides hospitalized during the same period (16/77) and approximately 30% of homicides committed by schizophrenic patients. We found as many as patricide as matricide. The main factors that have emerged through our study are an early age (28 years), being single (70%), the socio-cultural poverty, unemployment, paranoid delusions, hallucinations and recent treatment interruption. All these factors have been cited by many authors including Millaud et al, they also cited history of violence and violent behavior and alcohol or drug abuse. One important point is that some signs of this imminent gesture are often present but misunderstood, such a sense of situational impasse, a request for help, or reluctance during interview. It is essential to identify risk factors, even to actively seek some warning signs, which often are not spontaneously reported by the psychotic patient. Hospitalization under constraint in psychiatry should be the appropriate response if these dangerousness signals are noticed by the psychiatrist.

  14. Self-Amputation in Two Non-Psychotic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanian, Hamid; Petrou, Nikoletta A; Sarfraz, M Aamer

    2015-09-01

    Self-amputation, the extreme form of self-mutilation, is uncommon. The vast majority of cases are associated with psychosis, with a small number being assigned the controversial diagnosis of body identity integrity disorder. In this article, we report two cases of non-psychotic self-amputation and their similarities with a view to highlighting the risk factors and formulating an appropriate management plan.

  15. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

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    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  16. A comparison of Australian men with psychotic disorders remanded for criminal offences and a community group of psychotic men who have not offended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul; Chant, David; Whiteford, Harvey

    2006-03-01

    People remanded into custody by the courts have a substantially higher rate of severe mental disorder than other prisoners and the general population. Knowledge of their prevalence, needs and characteristics and an analysis of pathways to care may be necessary to provide mental health care effectively and efficiently. Previous prison studies focusing on psychotic offenders have suffered from the use of instruments not validated in a forensic setting and lack of a relevant comparison group. The Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis (DP) is a composite semi-structured standardized interview schedule. It combines social and demographic descriptors with measures of functioning adapted from the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS). The remand centre surveyed had 466 cells and is the main remand and reception centre for males for the southern region of the state of Queensland, Australia. Of the 621 men screened, 65 answered yes to at least one question in the DP and were interviewed. Six hundred and twenty-one remandees were screened and of these 61 were interviewed as screened positive for psychotic disorder. Thirty-five per cent had been homeless for an average of 32 weeks during the previous year. Most had had little contact with families or close friends. Eighty-one per cent were receiving no treatment at the time of offence. Seventy-eight per cent were unemployed and in receipt of a pension. Eighty per cent were dependent on alcohol, cannabis or amphetamines. Statistical issues of power are detailed in the text. The simplistic 'prison, hospital or community treatment' debate is misleading. Instead, the development of flexible preventative, management and accommodation services for people with severe mental disorder who have committed offences is a priority.

  17. Psychotic experiences are linked to cannabis use in adolescents in the community because of common underlying environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M.S.; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27–54%), unique environmental influences (E=12–50%) and little common environmental influences (11–20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69–100%, bivariate unique environment=28–31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2–5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to ‘travel together’. PMID:25912376

  18. Clinical symptoms of psychotic episodes and 25-hydroxy vitamin D serum levels in black first-generation immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealberto, M-J

    2013-12-01

    Dark-skinned immigrants have a higher risk for schizophrenia and other psychoses than other immigrants. The first British studies reported that first-generation immigrants (FGIs) from the Caribbean presented atypical psychoses. This study examines the characteristics of psychotic episodes in black FGIs to Canada. The charts of 18 FGIs from Africa and Haiti, extracted from a series of 20 black patients consecutively admitted to Psychiatry, were retrospectively reviewed regarding clinical features, diagnoses and vitamin D levels. Young FGIs presented acute psychotic episodes with abrupt onset, florid positive symptoms, few negative symptoms and good evolution. The onset was more insidious in older FGIs. Overall, catatonia was very frequent (28%), and mood symptoms still more frequent (44%). No cognitive decline was observed during follow-up. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D were in the insufficiency range. Supplementation at 1000 IU/day did not restore normal levels. The clinical features of psychotic episodes in black FGIs are similar to those reported in dark-skinned FGIs to other countries. They are also observed in other immigrants and in non-immigrants. These atypical psychoses are possibly related to a recent vitamin D deficit. This hypothesis should be tested by clinical trials of sufficient vitamin D supplementation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adult onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease with psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-López, Pilar; Pérez-García, Rosa; Sanguino-Andrés, Rosa; González-Pablos, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare neurological disorder characterized by pyramidal and extrapyramidal manifestations, dysarthria and dementia. Its onset is usually in childhood and most patients have a fatal outcome in few years. A high percentage of cases are hereditary with a recessive autosomal pattern. In the majority of the patients reported, a mutation of the gene that encodes the pantothenate kinase (PANK2) located in the 20p13-p12.3 chromosome that causes iron storage in the basal ganglia of the brain has been found. Its diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms as well as specific MRI imaging findings. The most common psychiatric features are cognitive impairment as well as depressive symptoms. There are few documented cases with psychotic disorders. We present the case of a patient with late onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease and psychotic symptoms that preceded the development of neurological manifestations. The pathophysiology and the treatment of psychotic symptomatology are presented and discussed. Key words: Psicosis, Hallervorden-Spatz, late onset, Basal ganglia.

  20. Psychotic disorders in DSM-5 and ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Falko; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2013, and the Work Group on the Classification of Psychotic disorders (WGPD), installed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is expected to publish the new chapter about schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders in 2017. We reviewed the available literature to summarize the major changes, innovations, and developments of both manuals. If available and possible, we outline the theoretical background behind these changes. Due to the fact that the development of ICD-11 has not yet been completed, the details about ICD-11 are still proposals under ongoing revision. In this ongoing process, they may be revised and therefore have to be seen as proposals. DSM-5 has eliminated schizophrenia subtypes and replaced them with a dimensional approach based on symptom assessments. ICD-11 will most likely go in a similar direction, as both manuals are planned to be more harmonized, although some differences will remain in details and the conceptual orientation. Next to these modifications, ICD-11 will provide a transsectional diagnostic criterion for schizoaffective disorders and a reorganization of acute and transient psychotic and delusional disorders. In this manuscript, we will compare the 2 classification systems.

  1. [Analysis of the Structure of Acute Psychotic Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, Téllez R; Ricardo, Sánchez P; Luis, Eduardo Jaramillo

    2012-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. A multifactorial structure of this syndrome has been described in previous reports. The aim of this study was to evaluate what are the possible diagnostic categories in patients having acute psychotic symptoms, studying their clinical characteristics in a cross-sectional study. An instrument for measuring psychotic symptoms was created using previous scales (SANS, SAPS, BPRS, EMUN, Zung depression scale). Using as criteria statistical indexes and redundance of items, the initial instrument having 101 items has been reduced to 57 items. 232 patients with acute psychotic symptoms, in most cases schizophrenia, attending Clínica Nuestra Señora de la Paz in Bogotá and Hospital San Juan de Dios in Chía have been evaluated from April, 2008 to December, 2009. Multivariate statistical methods have been used for analyzing data. A six-factor structure has been found (Deficit, paranoid-aggressive, disorganized, depressive, bizarre delusions, hallucinations). Cluster analysis showed eight subtypes that can be described as: 1) bizarre delusions-hallucinations; 2) deterioration and disorganized behavior; 3) deterioration; 4) deterioration and paranoid-aggressive behavior; 5) bizarre delusions; 6) paranoia-anxiety- aggressiveness; 7) depressive symptoms and bizarre delusions; 8) paranoia and aggressiveness with depressive symptoms These subtypes allow a more exhaustive characterization that those included in standard classification schemes and should be validated in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Subclinical Laminitis in Dairy Cattle: 205 Selected Cases

    OpenAIRE

    BAKIR, Ali BELGE Bahtiyar

    2005-01-01

    The economic importance of lameness in dairy cattle has newly been recognized in Turkey. Lameness incidence in Turkey has been reported to be between 13% and 58%, which is similar to that of other countries where 4% and 55% incidence rates have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sole lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in the hooves of dairy cattle in Van, Turkey. The risk factors for subclinical laminitis are proposed and discussed. The so...

  3. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, E; den Heijer, M; van Dijk, A P J; Hermus, A

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical hyperthyroidism, for example, effects on heart and bone mass, are discussed. Guidelines for treatment are given, based on expert opinion.

  4. The use of Na+ and K+ ion concentrations as potential diagnostic indicators of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

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    Abdul Wahid Haron

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ ions in milk of lactating dairy cows with and without subclinical mastitis as putative indicators for detecting subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven lactating dairy cows were screened for the evidence of subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT. The lactating dairy cows were categorized as CMT-Positive (CMT-P; n=20 and CMT-Negative (CMT-N; n=17 based on whether they were positive or negative for CMT using a standard kit. The CMT-P lactating dairy cows were further sub divided into subclinical 1+ (S1+; n=6, subclinical 2+ (S2+; n=9, and subclinical 3+(S3+; n=5. Direct microscopy somatic cell count (SCC was used to determine the SCC using Wright’s stain. The samples were filtered and diluted at 1:100 dilutions before being measured for the concentrations of Na+ and K+ using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in SCCs and Na+ concentration in the milk of CMT-P dairy cows, with a mean Log10 SCC score of 5.35±0.06 cells/ml and mean Na+ concentration of 232±19.1 mg/dL. However, there was a significant reduction (p<0.05 in the concentration of K+ (123±7.6 mg/dL in the milk samples of the CMT-P cows. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in SCC, Na+ and K+ concentrations between milk samples from the CMT-N dairy cows and CMT-P subgroups; S1+, S2+, and S3+ respectively. Potassium (K+ concentration had a significant strong negative correlation with sodium (Na+ concentration (r=−0.688; p<0.01 and weak positive correlation with SCC (r=−0.436; p<0.01. The sensitivity of using Na+ and K+ concentrations as detection indices for sub-clinical mastitis is 40% and 90%, respectively, while the specificity of each was 100%. Conclusion: This study thus shows that evaluation of Na+ and K+ concentrations from milk samples of dairy cows with sub clinical mastitis

  5. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenotypic effects of subclinical paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tracey C; Coffey, Mike P; Bond, Karen S; Hutchings, Mike R; Wall, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    The effect of subclinical paratuberculosis (or Johne's disease) risk status on performance, health, and fertility was studied in 58,096 UK Holstein-Friesian cows with 156,837 lactations across lactations 1 to 3. Low-, medium-, and high-risk group categories were allocated to cows determined by a minimum of 4 ELISA milk tests taken at any time during their lactating life. Lactation curves of daily milk, protein, and fat yields and protein and fat percentage, together with log e -transformed somatic cell count, were estimated using a random regression model to quantify differences between risk groups. The effect of subclinical paratuberculosis risk groups on fertility, lactation-average somatic cell count, and mastitis were analyzed using linear regression fitting risk group as a fixed effect. Milk yield losses associated with high-risk cows compared with low-risk cows in lactations 1, 2, and 3 for mean daily yield were 0.34, 1.05, and 1.61kg; likewise, accumulated 305-d yields were 103, 316, and 485kg, respectively. The total loss was 904kg over the first 3 lactations. Protein and fat yield losses associated with high-risk cows were significant, but primarily a feature of decreasing milk yield. Similar trends were observed for both test-day and lactation-average somatic cell count measures with higher somatic cell counts from medium- and high-risk cows compared with low-risk cows, and differences were in almost all cases significant. Likewise, mastitis incidence was significantly higher in high-risk cows compared with low-risk cows in lactations 2 and 3. Whereas the few significant differences between risk groups among fertility traits were inconsistent with no clear trend. These results are expected to be conservative, as some animals that were considered negative may become positive after the timeframe of this study, particularly if the animal was tested when relatively young. However, the magnitude of milk yield losses together with higher somatic cell counts and

  7. Subclinical cardiovascular disease assessment and its relationship with cardiovascular risk SCORE in a healthy adult population: A cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, Ovidiu; Roca, Mihai; Floria, Mariana; Petris, Antoniu Octavian; Graur, Mariana; Mitu, Florin

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship and the accuracy of SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project) risk correlated to multiple methods for determining subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a healthy population. This cross-sectional study included 120 completely asymptomatic subjects, with an age range 35-75 years, and randomly selected from the general population. The individuals were evaluated clinically and biochemical, and the SCORE risk was computed. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by various methods: carotid ultrasound for intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque detection; aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV); echocardiography - left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and aortic atheromatosis (AA); ankle-brachial index (ABI). SCORE mean value was 2.95±2.71, with 76% of subjects having SCORE <5. Sixty-four percent of all subjects have had increased subclinical CVD changes, and SCORE risk score was correlated positively with all markers, except for ABI. In the multivariate analysis, increased cIMT and aPWV were significantly associated with high value of SCORE risk (OR 4.14, 95% CI: 1.42-12.15, p=0.009; respectively OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01-1.96, p=0.039). A positive linear relationship was observed between 3 territories of subclinical CVD (cIMT, LVMI, aPWV) and SCORE risk (p<0.0001). There was evidence of subclinical CVD in 60% of subjects with a SCORE value <5. As most subjects with a SCORE value <5 have subclinical CVD abnormalities, a more tailored subclinical CVD primary prevention program should be encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluvoxamine monotherapy for psychotic depression: the potential role of sigma-1 receptors

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    Hashimoto Kenji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic depression is a clinical subtype of major depressive disorder. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of an antidepressant (for example, a tricyclic antidepressant or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI and an atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy in treating psychotic depression. In some cases, the clinician or patient may prefer to avoid antipsychotic drugs altogether because of the risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS in patients with psychotic depression treated with these drugs. Methods We report five cases where fluvoxamine monotherapy was effective in the patients with psychotic depression. Results The scores on the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS in the five patients with psychotic depression were reduced after fluvoxamine monotherapy. Conclusion Doctors should consider fluvoxamine monotherapy as an alternative approach in treating psychotic depression because it avoids the risk of EPS from antipsychotic drugs.

  9. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Barua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.

  10. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (pnegative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.

  11. Hipertiroidismo subclínico Subclinical hyperthyroidism

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    Lisbet Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El hipertiroidismo subclínico se define por la presencia de niveles disminuidos o no detectables de tirotropina, asociados a concentración de tetrayodotironina y triyodotironina libres dentro de parámetros normales. Su prevalencia en la población varía entre un 0,5 y un 16 % aproximadamente, y es el tratamiento con levotiroxina sódica la causa más frecuente. No siempre resulta tan asintomático, y las afectaciones principales ocurren sobre el sistema cardiovascular y óseo. Esta condición médica puede ser reversible espontáneamente. Por lo controversial del tema, el presente trabajo trata los aspectos clínicos más relevantes y la conducta a seguir.Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by presence of decreased o non-detected levels of thyrotropin, associated with free concentrations of tetraiodothyronine and triiodothyromime within normal parameters. Its prevalence in population differs between 0,5 % and 16 % approximately, and the sodium Levothyroxine treatment is the more frequent cause. Not always it is so asymptomatic, and main affections occur on cardiovascular and osseous system. This medical condition may be spontaneously reversible. Due to controversial of this topic, present paper approaching the more significant clinical features and the strategy to go on.

  12. Secondary psychotic features in refugees diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mette Kathrine; Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    at Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP) were examined, and all the PTSD patients were divided into two groups; one group with secondary psychotic features (PTSD-SP group) and one without (PTSD group). A categorisation and description of the secondary psychotic features was undertaken. RESULTS......-SP prevalence in a clinical refugee population with PTSD. The study points to the difficulties distinguishing psychotic features from flashbacks and the authors call for attention to psychotic features in PTSD patients in order to improve documentation and understanding of the disorder....

  13. [Use of methadone in the treatment of psychotic patients with heroin dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, F A; Borg, P; Eikeseth, P H; Neegaard, E; Kjerpeseth, K; Bruvik, S; Waal, H

    2000-01-20

    Comorbidity of psychosis and substance abuse has gained increased attention for some time. However, pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence among psychotic patients is seldom described. We present the treatment of four opioid dependent psychotic patients with methadone and antipsychotic medication. Three of the four patients had initially a period of increased psychotic symptoms, but all four patients have shown marked improvement following the introduction of methadone. Compliance with treatment has increased, they have had enduring non-psychotic periods and a markedly reduced use of illegal substances. The results should obviously be interpreted with caution, given the small number of subjects. Further research is therefore important.

  14. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P < .05), whereas the 3DE RV ejection fraction was reduced in this group, but with borderline significance. Two-dimensional echocardiographic longitudinal RV and RA strain were significantly reduced in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Frailty Among Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgini, Vanessa S.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Harrison, Stephanie Litwack; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Both subclinical thyroid dysfunction and frailty are common among older individuals, but data on the relationship between these 2 conditions are conflicting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the cross-sectional and prospective associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and frailty and the 5 frailty subdomains (sarcopenia, weakness, slowness, exhaustion, and low activity). Setting and Design: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study is a prospective cohort study. Participants: Men older than 65 years (n = 1455) were classified into 3 groups of thyroid status: subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 26, 1.8%), subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 102, 7.0%), and euthyroidism (n = 1327, 91.2%). Main Outcome Measures: Frailty was defined using a slightly modified Cardiovascular Health Study Index: men with 3 or more criteria were considered frail, men with 1 to 2 criteria were considered intermediately frail, and men with no criteria were considered robust. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between baseline thyroid function and the 3 categories of frailty status (robust/intermediate/frail) as well as the prospective association between baseline thyroid function and subsequent frailty status and mortality after a 5-year follow-up. Results: At baseline, compared with euthyroid participants, men with subclinical hyperthyroidism had an increased likelihood of greater frailty status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–5.34), particularly among men aged hyperthyroidism were not consistently associated with overall frailty status or frailty components. Conclusion: Among community-dwelling older men, subclinical hyperthyroidism, but not subclinical hypothyroidism, is associated with increased odds of prevalent but not incident frailty. PMID:26495751

  16. Shared Psychotic Disorder (Folie à Deux in Turkey

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    Buket Cinemre

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Shared psychotic disorder or folie à deux is a rare and relatively unknown syndrome. Large case series are needed to find out and clarify the etiological factors and the phenomenology of shared psychotic disorder by comparing the cases from different society and cultures. In this study, we reviewed all reported cases of shared psychotic disorder that had been published or presented in Turkey since 1962. To reach this aim, we have searched Pubmed/Medline, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Ulakbim Turkish Medical Index, Turkish Psychiatric Index databases for published records originating from Turkey. We have also manually searched poster abstract books of congresses held in Turkey between 1962 and 2009. All cases eligible for inclusion into this study have been evaluated one by one and grouped as primary or secondary cases. The features of these cases were investigated for a number of variables including age, sex, educational level, occupation, the presence of shared delusion and hallucinations, diagnosis, management, onset of illness, family history, IQ, social isolation, the nature of the relationship and classification system used for diagnosis. The results have showed that the syndrome is more frequently observed among women, within same family members and between sisters. Social isolation was the most common risk factor in these patients and most patients shared hallucinations with their partners along with their delusions. Several secondary cases required antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of their symptoms. Though these features were inline with literature findings, the present findings from Turkish population were different from previous studies with regards to the presence of olfactory hallucinations, absence of grandiose delusions and the number of affected family members. The results mostly supported the challenges and discussions in western countries. To understand this most pathological form of interpersonal relationships

  17. Homicide of Strangers by People with a Psychotic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielssen, Olav; Bourget, Dominique; Laajasalo, Taina; Liem, Marieke; Labelle, Alain; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helina; Koenraadt, Frans; Large, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as “stranger homicides,” are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Meta-analysis of the population-based studies of homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger homicide and family homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 million to 1 in 11.5 million people per year) was calculated by meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger homicide were mostly adult males and the homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will

  18. Subclinical leaflet thickening and stent frame geometry in self-expanding transcatheter heart valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; De Backer, Ole; Brooks, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between subclinical leaflet thickening and stent frame geometry in patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a self-expanding transcatheter heart valve (THV). METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with a self-expanding THV....... CONCLUSIONS: Regional THV stent frame underexpansion is associated with an increased risk of leaflet thickening. Post-dilatation of self-expanding THV as well as a supra-annular valve position seem to reduce the occurrence of this phenomenon....

  19. Sex differences in risk factors for subclinical hypothyroidism

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    Jeonghoon Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH in Korean adults and identify the risk factors for the occurrence of SCH by sex. Design and methods: This study used data from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey, which comprises a health interview survey, a health examination survey and a nutrition survey. To examine SCH, the reference range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH was defined using both the range provided by the test kit manufacturer (SCH-M and a population-based range (SCH-P. We investigated the prevalence of SCH and its risk factors by sex using both reference ranges. Results: The prevalence of SCH in Koreans according to SCH-M (0.35–5.5 μIU/mL was 5.6%, and 3.3% with SCH-P (0.62–6.68 μIU/mL. For men, smoking significantly reduced the incidence of SCH, positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb significantly increased the risk of SCH, and in an adjusted model, the risk of SCH in all quartiles increased as the urine iodine creatinine ratio (UICR quartile increased. For women, positive TPOAb was confirmed as a risk factor for SCH, as was the highest UICR quartile. Furthermore, the odds ratio for SCH in urban vs rural residence was 1.78. Conclusions: The prevalence rates of SCH were similar to those reported in the literature and previously known risk factors were confirmed using both TSH reference ranges. The notable findings from this study are that the increased risk of SCH with increased iodine intake was more marked in men than in women and that residential area may be a risk factor for SCH in women.

  20. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents: Is It Clinically Relevant?

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    Aneta Gawlik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is a common clinical problem, its diagnosis tends to be incidental. According to the definition, it should be asymptomatic, only detectable by screening. The presence or coincidence of any symptoms leads to L-thyroxine treatment. The clinical presentation, especially in younger patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, is still under dispute. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to review the literature from the past seven years. The literature search identified 1,594 potentially relevant articles, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria. Few studies focus on the symptomatology of subclinical hypothyroidism, and most of them analyzed a small number of subjects. A significant correlation was found by some authors between subclinical hypothyroidism and a higher risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and migraine. No evidence of the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on weight, growth velocity, and puberty was revealed. As the quality of most studies is poor and no definite conclusions can be drawn, randomized, large-scale studies in children and adolescents are warranted to determine the best care for patients with SH.

  1. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

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    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T 4 or free T 4 . This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  3. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Gongora, Rafael E; Valderrama, Liliana; Jojoa, Jimena; Alexander, Neal; Rubiano, Luisa C; Cossio, Alexandra; Adams, Emily R; Saravia, Nancy G; Gomez, María Adelaida

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking. We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed. Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114) of leishmanin skin test (LST) positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total). Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia) subgenus. Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia) transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and transmission of disease. kDNA genotyping establishes proof

  4. Changes of subtests of Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive function in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism following treatment with levothyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Rokhsareh; Khamseh, Mohammad E; Malek, Mojtaba; Hadian, Ali; Baradaran, Hamid R; Najafi, Laily; Emami, Zahra

    2012-12-20

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with disturbed cognitive function. In this study, changes of subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale and memory quotient were investigated in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism following treatment with levothyroxine. The aim of the study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sixty subjects (51 females and 9 males) with subclinical hypothyroidism were enrolled. Memory quotient was evaluated at the beginning of the study and three months after enrollment, using Wechsler's memory test. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as serum TSH level between 4.5 mU/l and 10 mU/l in the presence of normal free-T4 (0.8-2 ng/dl) and positive anti-TPO-Ab. The intervention and control groups received levothyroxine and placebo respectively for 3 months. Re-evaluation was done using the Wechsler Memory Scale at the end of the study. The mean age was 34 ±10 years, mean TSH level was 8.25 ±3.64 muIU/l. Memory quotient was similar in both groups at the beginning of the study: 105.70 ±2.1 in intervention group vs. 105.87 ±2.1 in control group (p = 0.89). At the end of the study, the memory quotient rose by 9.3 points in the intervention group and by 3.23 in the controls (p = 0.002). Analysis of the scores of Wechsler Memory subtests in the intervention group indicated significant improvement of mental control (p = 0.002), logical memory (p < 0.001), associate learning (p = 0.014), age corrected score (p = 0.002), and memory quotient (p < 0.001). This study showed the efficacy of levothyroxine for cognitive function of subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism.

  5. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rosales-Chilama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking.We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed.Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114 of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total. Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia subgenus.Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and transmission of disease. kDNA genotyping

  6. Thyroid antibody status, subclinical hypothyroidism, and the risk of coronary heart disease: an individual participant data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bauer, Douglas C; Cappola, Anne R; Asvold, Bjørn O; Weiler, Stefan; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Bremner, Alexandra; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Maciel, Rui M B; Vanderpump, Mark P J; Cornuz, Jacques; Dörr, Marcus; Wallaschofski, Henri; Newman, Anne B; Sgarbi, José A; Razvi, Salman; Völzke, Henry; Walsh, John P; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly with thyrotropin levels of 10.0 mIU/L or greater. The measurement of thyroid antibodies helps predict the progression to overt hypothyroidism, but it is unclear whether thyroid autoimmunity independently affects CHD risk. The objective of the study was to compare the CHD risk of subclinical hypothyroidism with and without thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). A MEDLINE and EMBASE search from 1950 to 2011 was conducted for prospective cohorts, reporting baseline thyroid function, antibodies, and CHD outcomes. Individual data of 38 274 participants from six cohorts for CHD mortality followed up for 460 333 person-years and 33 394 participants from four cohorts for CHD events. Among 38 274 adults (median age 55 y, 63% women), 1691 (4.4%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, of whom 775 (45.8%) had positive TPOAbs. During follow-up, 1436 participants died of CHD and 3285 had CHD events. Compared with euthyroid individuals, age- and gender-adjusted risks of CHD mortality in subclinical hypothyroidism were similar among individuals with and without TPOAbs [hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.53 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.01-1.58, P for interaction = .62], as were risks of CHD events (HR 1.16, CI 0.87-1.56 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.02-1.56, P for interaction = .65). Risks of CHD mortality and events increased with higher thyrotropin, but within each stratum, risks did not differ by TPOAb status. CHD risk associated with subclinical hypothyroidism did not differ by TPOAb status, suggesting that biomarkers of thyroid autoimmunity do not add independent prognostic information for CHD outcomes.

  7. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  8. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

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    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  9. Evaluation of endothelial function in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effect of treatment

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    Sayed Mohammad Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that FMD decreased in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients which could be partially restored by treatment. These findings suggest that treatment of subclinical hyperthyroid state could improve endothelial dysfunction and at the end decreased the cardiovascular complications.

  10. Comparison of seasonal effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters between ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes

    OpenAIRE

    R.N. Sani; M. Moezifar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of season on some hematological and biochemical parameters in ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes. A total of 1192 milk and blood samples were collected from ewes between February and April (791 samples in spring), August and October (401 samples in summer). California Mastitis Test (CMT), milk culture, hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were obtained from the medical records. Samples which were positive by bacterial cultur...

  11. Infrared reflectance as a diagnostic adjunct for subclinical commotio retinae

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    Nicholas H Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commotio retinae (CR is an outer retinal disorder following blunt trauma to the eye. Histologically it is characterized by disruption of the photoreceptor outer segments (OS, typically without injury to other retinal layers. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT the condition is visible as hyper-reflectivity of the OS. Most cases of CR are associated with transient grey-white discoloration of the retina and are easily diagnosed clinically, but there have been reports of OCT-confirmed CR without retinal discoloration. It is likely that this subclinical variant of CR is under-recognized as the OCT features of CR are subtle. Here, we report a case of OCT-confirmed subclinical CR that demonstrated prominent infrared hypo-reflectance, using the infrared protocol of the SPECTRALIS® OCT, Heidelberg Engineering. This case suggests that infrared reflectance may have a role in diagnosing cases of subclinical CR.

  12. A randomised multicentre trial of integrated versus standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness.......To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness....

  13. Ethnic variations in psychotic disorders in the criminal justice system: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denzel, A.D.; van Esch, A.Y.M.; Harte, J.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between ethnicity, psychotic disorders and criminal behavior by investigating differences in prevalence rates of psychotic disorders between detainees from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups and non-BME detainees. Method A systematic review of all empirical

  14. Semi-metric analysis of the functional brain network: Relationship with familial risk for psychotic disorder

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    Sanne Peeters

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: The results are suggestive of more dispersed network communication in patients with psychotic disorder, with some evidence for trait-based network alterations in high-schizotypy individuals. Dispersed communication may contribute to the clinical phenotype in psychotic disorder. In addition, higher SMP may contribute to neuro- and social cognition, independent of psychosis risk.

  15. The fragmented self : imbalance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-networks in psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Aleman, Andre

    Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging

  16. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Ekstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In our clinical work, we treat refugees who have been exposed to trauma and who subsequently develop psychotic symptoms. However, the literature does not address the relationship between refugees with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms. Therefore...

  17. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Jensen, Mette; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2011-01-01

    In our clinical work, we treat refugees who have been exposed to trauma and who subsequently develop psychotic symptoms. However, the literature does not address the relationship between refugees with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms. Therefore the aim...

  18. Brief Report: Major Depressive Disorder with Psychotic Features in Williams Syndrome--A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Francisca; Keary, Christopher J.; Mullett, Jennifer E.; Palumbo, Michelle L.; Waxler, Jessica L.; Pober, Barbara R.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Descriptions of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic features have not appeared in the literature. In addition to reviewing previous reports of psychotic symptoms in persons with WS, this paper introduces clinical histories and therapeutic management strategies for three previously…

  19. Psychotic reactions to daily life stress and dopamine function in people with severe hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, M. J.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van den Brink, W.; van Os, J.; Selten, J. P.; Booij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Minor stresses measured in daily life have repeatedly been associated with increased momentary psychotic experiences, both in individuals with psychotic disorders and in persons who are genetically at an increased risk for these disorders. Severe hearing impairment (SHI) is an environmental risk

  20. Therapeutic Effect of Nisin Z on Subclinical Mastitis in Lactating Cows▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-tr...

  1. Obesity and psychotic disorders: uncovering common mechanisms through metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Orešič

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary obesity and psychotic disorders are similar with respect to the associated changes in energy balance and co-morbidities, including metabolic syndrome. Such similarities do not necessarily demonstrate causal links, but instead suggest that specific causes of and metabolic disturbances associated with obesity play a pathogenic role in the development of co-morbid disorders, potentially even before obesity develops. Metabolomics – the systematic study of metabolites, which are small molecules generated by the process of metabolism – has been important in elucidating the pathways underlying obesity-associated co-morbidities. This review covers how recent metabolomic studies have advanced biomarker discovery and the elucidation of mechanisms underlying obesity and its co-morbidities, with a specific focus on metabolic syndrome and psychotic disorders. The importance of identifying metabolic markers of disease-associated intermediate phenotypes – traits modulated but not encoded by the DNA sequence – is emphasized. Such markers would be applicable as diagnostic tools in a personalized healthcare setting and might also open up novel therapeutic avenues.

  2. Using biological indices to classify schizophrenia and other psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponheim, S R; Iacono, W G; Thuras, P D; Beiser, M

    2001-07-01

    Although classification of mental disorders using more than clinical description would be desirable, there is scant evidence that available laboratory tests (i.e. biological indices) would provide more valid classifications than current diagnostic systems (e.g. DSM-IV). We used cluster analysis of four biological variables to classify 163 psychotic patients and 83 nonpsychiatric comparison subjects. Analyses revealed a three-cluster solution with the first cluster reflecting electrodermal deviance, the second cluster representing nondeviant biological function, and the third cluster reflecting increased nailfold plexus visibility and ocular motor dysfunction. To assess the construct validity of proband clusters we examined ocular motor performance in 156 first-degree relatives as a function of proband cluster membership. First-degree relatives of third cluster probands exhibited worse ocular motor performance than relatives of other cluster probands. Additionally, better classification sensitivity and specificity were obtained for the relatives when they were grouped by proband cluster than by proband DSM-IV diagnosis. When a single proband characteristic (i.e. eyetracking performance) was used to group relatives, classification sensitivity and specificity failed to significantly increase over grouping by proband DSM-IV diagnosis. Multivariate biologically defined clusters may offer an advantage over DSM-IV classification when examining nosology and etiology of psychotic disorders.

  3. Psychotic Experiences and Overhasty Inferences Are Related to Maladaptive Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Stuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical accounts suggest that an alteration in the brain's learning mechanisms might lead to overhasty inferences, resulting in psychotic symptoms. Here, we sought to elucidate the suggested link between maladaptive learning and psychosis. Ninety-eight healthy individuals with varying degrees of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences performed a probabilistic reasoning task that allowed us to quantify overhasty inferences. Replicating previous results, we found a relationship between psychotic experiences and overhasty inferences during probabilistic reasoning. Computational modelling revealed that the behavioral data was best explained by a novel computational learning model that formalizes the adaptiveness of learning by a non-linear distortion of prediction error processing, where an increased non-linearity implies a growing resilience against learning from surprising and thus unreliable information (large prediction errors. Most importantly, a decreased adaptiveness of learning predicted delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences. Our current findings provide a formal description of the computational mechanisms underlying overhasty inferences, thereby empirically substantiating theories that link psychosis to maladaptive learning.

  4. Dreams and fantasies in psychodynamic group psychotherapy of psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Bogović, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate

    2013-09-01

    Work with dreams in the group analysis represents an important part of the analytical work, with insight into unconscious experiences of the individual dreamer, and his transferrential relations with the therapist, other members of the group, and with the group as a whole. The way dreams are addressed varies from one therapist to another, and in line with that, members of the group have varying frequency of dreams. In groups of psychotic patients dreams are generally rarely discussed and interpreted by the group, with analysis mainly resting on the manifested content. This paper describes a long-term group of psychotic patients which, after sharing the dreams of several members and daydreams of one female patient, their interpretation and reception in the group achieved better cohesion and improved communication and interaction, i.e. created a group matrix. Furthermore, through the content of dreams in the group, traumatic war experiences of several of the group members were opened and discussed, which brought with it recollections of the traumatic life situations of other group members. In expressing a daydream, a female member of the group revealed the background for her behaviour which was earlier interpreted as a negative symptom of the illness.

  5. The advantages of "Dance-group" for psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Romina; Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Nemoianni, Eugenio

    2014-11-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation and in particular group dances allow the recovery of lost or compromised ability of patients with mental illness, and they facilitate their reintegration into the social context. The dance group has enabled users of the Day Centre of the Unit of Mental Health Torre del Greco ASL NA 3 south to achieve the objectives of rehabilitation such as: taking care of themselves, of their bodies and their interests, improving self-esteem , the management of pathological emotions, socialization and integration, overcoming the psychotic closing and relational isolation. In particular, patients with schizophrenia, psychotic and mood disorders had a concrete benefit from such rehabilitation activities, facilitating interpersonal relationships, therapy compliance and significantly improved mood, quality of life, providing them with the rhythm and the security in their relationship with each other. The dance group and for some individuals, also psychotherapy and drug therapy, have facilitated social inclusion, improved the quality of life and cured their diseases. The work is carrying out in a group with patients, practitioners, family members, volunteers, social community workers, following the operating departmental protocols. Using the chorus group "Sing that you go" as an operational tool for psychosocial rehabilitation and therapeutic element we promote the psychological well-being and the enhancement of mood.

  6. The Assessment of Comunication and Interaction Skills in Psychotic Patiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Khoushabi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective at study was to assess the communication and interaction of psychotic patient above age of 18 in 2000. Materials & Methods: The study sample consist of 80 psychotic patients (38 female and 42 male from Razi and Imam Hossein Hospital and Raad and Sina outpatient clinic, selected based on occupational therapist using the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills Questionnaire (ACIS. Statistical analyses of information have done by spearman coefficient correlation, Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Spearman of correlation, mann-and wilcoxon Findings indicate: 1-The average grade of ACIS test in the group of schizophrenic patients were significantly lower than the group schizoaffective patients (P<0.00l. 2-The average of ACIS test in the group of inpatient was lower than the group of outpatient (p<0.00l. 3-No significant difference was found for the average grade of ACIS test in the group of male & female. Conclusion: The obtained results show the weakness of communication and interaction skills in schizophrenic patient and also inpatients. The obtained results of this investigation give useful information about the communication and interaction skill of patient to the occupational therapists but application of this instrument needs more studies.

  7. The role of staphylococci in subclinical mastitis of cows and lytic phage isolation against to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Gulmez Saglam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the role of Staphylococcus in the formation of subclinical mastitis in cows and to isolate the phage against isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods: In this study, 400 milk cows were screened by California Mastitis Test (CMT for subclinical mastitis and 235 udders of 96 cows, which were determined to be positive, were evaluated for Staphylococcus. Milk samples were evaluated using conventional and molecular methods. In addition, phage isolation studies were performed against S. aureus strains causing mastitis. Results: At the result of cultural examination, of 235 milk samples that were found as positive for mastitis by CMT, a total of 117 (49.7% Staphylococcus spp. were isolated as a distribution of 74 (63.24% coagulase-positive staphylococci and 43 (36.75% coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of these isolates, 76 (64.95% were characterized as S. aureus both conventional and molecular techniques. Lytic bacteriophages against two S. aureus strains which were isolated from mastitic milk samples were obtained from wastewater samples. Conclusion: The results of this study show that a significant portion of subclinical mastitis was formed by staphylococci. In addition, phage isolation against S. aureus strains isolated can be considered as one of the steps to be applied in the prophylaxis and treatment of such infections.

  8. Emotional intelligence in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Auria; Bosque, Clara; Custal, Nuria; Crespo, José M; Gilabert, Ester; Albiach, Angela; Menchón, José M; Contreras, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Subtle social cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients have received increasing attention over the last few years, supporting their potential endophenotypic role for this disorder. The current study assessed non-psychotic first-degree relatives' performance on a multidimensional measure of emotional intelligence (EI): the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test 2.0 (MSCEIT). Endorsed by the National Institute of Mental Health, the MSCEIT is a valid and reliable instrument for detecting emotion-processing deficits among schizophrenia patients and people high in schizotypy. Thirty-seven first-degree relatives, 37 schizophrenia outpatients and 37 healthy controls completed the MSCEIT, which comprises eight subscales aimed to assess the four branches of EI: Identifying, Facilitating, Understanding and Managing Emotions. Potential associations with cognitive function and schizotypy levels, measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief, were further evaluated. Relatives had significantly lower MSCEIT total scores than controls and also significantly lower scores on the Identifying emotions branch. Nevertheless, schizophrenia patients still had the poorest global EI performance. The strongest positive correlations were found in relatives and controls with measures of executive function, processing speed and general intelligence. A higher level of schizotypy correlated significantly with lower MSCEIT scores among controls, but not among relatives. Contrary to expectations in the general population, the current study observed subtle EI impairment in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. These findings support the hypothesis that these EI deficiencies may be potential endophenotypes located between the clinical phenotype and the genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical and transcatheter bioprosthetic aortic valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Tarun; Søndergaard, Lars; Friedman, John

    2017-01-01

    rates of transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs; 4·18 TIAs per 100 person-years vs 0·60 TIAs per 100 person-years; p=0·0005) and all strokes or TIAs (7·85 vs 2·36 per 100 person-years; p=0·001). INTERPRETATION: Subclinical leaflet thrombosis occurred frequently in bioprosthetic aortic valves, more commonly...... outcomes after TAVR with the new-generation valves, prevention and treatment of subclinical leaflet thrombosis might offer a potential opportunity for further improvement in valve haemodynamics and clinical outcomes. FUNDING: RESOLVE (Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute) and SAVORY (Rigshospitalet)....

  10. Haemodynamic changes following treatment of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Wiinberg, N; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism has profound effects on the cardiovascular system, including reduced systemic vascular resistance (SVR) due to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells, enhanced heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO) due to an increase in cardiac diastolic relaxation, contractility and heart...... rate. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by reduced serum TSH levels despite free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) estimates within the reference range, in subjects with no obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We measured haemodynamic changes (using impedance cardiography......) in subjects with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism in order to elucidate whether these patients had signs of excess thyroid hormone at the tissue level....

  11. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  12. Do trauma-focussed psychological interventions have an effect on psychotic symptoms? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Rachel M; McEnery, Carla; Rossell, Susan; Bendall, Sarah; Thomas, Neil

    2018-05-01

    There is growing recognition of the relationship between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosis. There may be overlaps in causal mechanisms involved in the development of PTSD and psychosis following traumatic or adverse events. Trauma-focussed treatments found to be effective in treating PTSD may therefore represent a new direction in the psychological treatment of psychosis. This systematic review examined the literature on trauma-focussed treatments conducted with people with schizophrenia spectrum or psychotic disorders to determine effects on psychotic symptoms. Secondary outcomes were symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Twenty-five studies were included in the review, with 12 being included in the meta-analysis. Trauma-focussed treatments had a small, significant effect (g=0.31, CI [0.55, 0.06]) on positive symptoms immediately post-treatment, but the significance and magnitude of this effect was not maintained at follow-up (g=0.18, CI [0.42, -0.06]). Trauma-focussed treatments also had a small effect on delusions at both post-treatment (g=0.37, CI [0.87, -0.12]) and follow-up (g=0.38, CI [0.67, 0.10]), but this only reached significance at follow-up. Effects on hallucinations and negative symptoms were small and non-significant. Effects on PTSD symptoms were also small (post-treatment g=0.21, CI [0.70, -0.27], follow up g=0.31, CI [0.62, 0.00]) and only met significance at follow-up. No significant effects were found on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Results show promising effects of trauma-focussed treatments for the positive symptoms of psychosis, however further studies developing and evaluating trauma-focussed treatments for trauma-related psychotic symptoms are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sibutramine-associated psychotic symptoms and zolpidem-induced complex behaviours: implications for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiglusz, Mariusz S; Cubała, Wiesław Jerzy; Nowak, Paweł; Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Katarzyna; Landowski, Jerzy; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2013-09-01

    Sibutramine is a weight loss agent recently withdrawn from the European market due to cardiovascular risk concerns. It was used for long-term obesity treatment. Zolpidem is a short acting hypnotic agent commonly used in the treatment of insomnia. A number of case reports describing psychotic reaction to sibutramine were reported in the literature. We present a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian woman who developed two psychotic episodes related to sibutramine treatment. The second psychotic episode was complicated with complex behaviours after zolpidem use due to insomnia. Sibutramine and zolpidem discontinuation resulted in rapid resolution of psychotic symptoms. This case suggests a possibility of incidence of psychotic symptoms and complex behaviour disturbances in patients prescribed sibutramine or other monoaminergic reuptake inhibitors.

  14. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and subclinical cerebrovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, L H.; Hogan, P E.; Bryan, N R.; Kuller, L H.; Margolis, K L.; Bettermann, K; Wallace, R B.; Lao, Z; Freeman, R; Stefanick, M L.; Shumaker, S A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) hormone therapy (HT) trials reported that conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases risk for all-cause dementia and global cognitive decline. WHIMS MRI measured subclinical cerebrovascular disease as a possible mechanism to explain cognitive decline reported in WHIMS. Methods: We contacted 2,345 women at 14 WHIMS sites; scans were completed on 1,424 (61%) and 1,403 were accepted for analysis. The primary outcome measure was total ischemic lesion volume on brain MRI. Mean duration of on-trial HT or placebo was 4 (CEE+MPA) or 5.6 years (CEE-Alone) and scans were conducted an average of 3 (CEE+MPA) or 1.4 years (CEE-Alone) post-trial termination. Cross-sectional analysis of MRI lesions was conducted; general linear models were fitted to assess treatment group differences using analysis of covariance. A (two-tailed) critical value of α = 0.05 was used. Results: In women evenly matched within trials at baseline, increased lesion volumes were significantly related to age, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, lower post-trial global cognition scores, and increased incident cases of on- or post-trial mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. Mean ischemic lesion volumes were slightly larger for the CEE+MPA group vs placebo, except for the basal ganglia, but the differences were not significant. Women assigned to CEE-Alone had similar mean ischemic lesion volumes compared to placebo. Conclusions: Conjugated equine estrogen–based hormone therapy was not associated with a significant increase in ischemic brain lesion volume relative to placebo. This finding was consistent within each trial and in pooled analyses across trials. GLOSSARY 3MSE = modified Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI = body mass index; CEE = conjugated equine estrogen; CVD = cerebrovascular disease; HT = hormone therapy; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MPA

  15. Gentamicin Nephrotoxicity in Subclinical Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donita L.

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin and to define the mechanisms which predispose to nephrotoxicity in subclinical renal disease. Subtotally nephrectomized beagle dogs were used as a model for human beings with compromised renal function secondary to a reduced number of functional nephrons. Using ultrastructural morphometry, light microscopy and clinical chemistry data, the model was defined and the nephrotoxic responses of intact dogs administered recommended doses of drug were compared to the response of subtotally nephrectomized dogs administered reduced doses based on each animal's clearance of drug. Lysosomal and mitochondrial morphometric changes suggested mechanisms for increased sensitivity. To determine if increased sensitivity in this model was dependent on altered serum concentrations, variable rate infusions based on individual pharmacokinetic disposition of drug were administered using computer-driven infusion pumps. Identical serum concentration-time profiles were achieved in normal dogs and subtotally nephrectomized dogs, however, toxicity was significantly greater in nephrectomized dogs. The difference in the nephrotoxic response was characterized by administering supratherapeutic doses of drug to dogs. Nephrectomized dogs given a recommended dose of gentamicin became oliguric during the second week of treatment and increasingly uremic after withdrawal of drug. In contrast, intact dogs administered 2 times the recommended dose of gentamicin become only slightly polyuric during week 4 of treatment. The need to individualize dosage regimens based on drug clearance and not serum creatinine nor creatinine clearance alone was substantiated by describing the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin in spontaneously occurring disease states. Four individualized dosage regimens with differing predicted efficacy were then administered to nephrectomized dogs to determine their relative nephrotoxic

  16. Subclinical autism spectrum symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, Trine Wigh; Højgaard, David R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ivarsson, Tord; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja A

    2016-07-01

    The literature on subclinical autism spectrum (ASD) symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is scarce, and it remains unclear whether ASD symptoms are related to OCD severity. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of ASD symptoms and age and sex differences in children and adolescents with OCD, and to explore the relation between ASD symptoms and OCD severity. This is the largest study of ASD symptoms in an OCD population to date, and the first directly aimed at elucidating sex and age differences in this matter. The study used baseline data from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study in which parents of 257 children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. OCD severity was assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Pediatric OCD patients were found to exhibit elevated rates of ASD symptoms compared to a norm group of school-age children. ASD symptoms were concentrated in a subgroup with a prevalence of 10-17 %. This subgroup was characterized by a male preponderance with a sex ratio of approximately 2.6:1, while children versus adolescents with OCD exhibited similar rates. Autism-specific social and communication difficulties were not related to OCD severity, while restricted repetitive behavior was positively related to OCD severity. The results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of ASD symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD since one out of ten exhibits such symptoms at a clinical sub-threshold.

  17. Clinicopathological features of primary aldosteronism associated with subclinical Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraishi, Kiichiro; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Minami, Isao; Doi, Masaru; Izumiyama, Hajime; Hirata, Yukio; Sasano, Hironobu

    2011-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA), an autonomous aldosterone hypersecretion from adrenal adenoma and/or hyperplasia, and subclinical Cushing syndrome (SCS), a mild but autonomous cortisol hypersecretion from adrenal adenoma without signs or symptoms of Cuhing's syndrome, are now well-recognized clinical entities of adrenal incidentaloma. However, the clinicopathological features of PA associated with SCS (PA/SCS) remain unknown. The present study was undertaken to study the prevalence of PA/SCS among PA patients diagnosed at our institute, and characterize their clinicopathlogical features. The prevalence of PA/SCS was 8 of 38 PA patients (21%) studied. These 8 PA/SCS patients were significantly older and had larger tumor, higher serum potassium levels, lower basal plasma levels of aldosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) as well as lower response of aldosterone after ACTH stimulation than those in 12 patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma without hypercortisolism. All 8 PA/SCS patients showed unilateral uptake by adrenal scintigraphy at the ipsilateral side, whereas the laterality of aldosterone hypersecretion as determined by adrenal venous sampling varied from ipsilateral (3), contralateral (2), and bilateral side (2). 6 PA/SCS patients who underwent adrenalectomy required hydrocortisone replacement postoperatively. Histopathological analysis of the resected adrenal tumors from 5 PA/SCS patients revealed a single adenoma in 3, and double adenomas in 2, with varying degrees of positive immunoreactivities for steroidgenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), P450 C17 ) by immunohistochemical study as well as CYP11B2 mRNA expression as measured by real-time radiotherapy-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In conclusion, PA/SCS consists of a variety of adrenal pathologies so that therapeutic approach differs depending on the disease subtype. (author)

  18. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2012-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.

  20. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christiane; Haase, Laura; Seidel, Dorothea; Bayerl, Martin; Gallinat, Jürgen; Herrmann, Uwe; Dannecker, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic episodes and justify

  1. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Montag

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic

  2. A systematic review of genome-wide research on psychotic experiences and negative symptom traits: New revelations and implications for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Angelica; Pain, Oliver

    2018-05-08

    We present a systematic review of genome-wide research on psychotic experience and negative symptom traits (PENS) in the community. We integrate these new findings, most of which have emerged over the last four years, with more established behaviour genetic and epidemiological research. The review includes the first genome-wide association studies of PENS, including a recent meta-analysis, and the first SNP heritability estimates. Sample sizes of < 10,000 participants mean that no genome-wide significant variants have yet been replicated. Importantly, however, in the most recent and well-powered studies, polygenic risk score prediction and linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression analyses show that all types of PENS share genetic influences with diagnosed schizophrenia and that negative symptom traits also share genetic influences with major depression. These genetic findings corroborate other evidence in supporting a link between PENS in the community and psychiatric conditions. Beyond the systematic review, we highlight recent work on gene-environment correlation, which appears to be a relevant process for psychotic experiences. Genes that influence risk factors such as tobacco use and stressful life events are likely to be harbouring 'hits' that also influence PENS. We argue for the acceptance of PENS within the mainstream, as heritable traits in the same vein as other subclinical psychopathology and personality styles such as neuroticism. While acknowledging some mixed findings, new evidence shows genetic overlap between PENS and psychiatric conditions. In sum, normal variations in adolescent and adult thinking styles, such as feeling paranoid, are heritable and show genetic associations with schizophrenia and major depression.

  3. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and antibiogram of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli isolates from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Nalini Mohanty,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the continuous change in the pattern of drug resistance showed by different mastitogenic organisms, isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 150 milk samples received from various clinical and subclinical cases, from which the causative organisms were isolated and subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: The bacteriological analysis of the samples indicated the presence of both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms followed by isolation of isolates like Staphylococcus, E. coli, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Klebsiella. The in vitro sensitivity of Staphylococcus, E. coli and Streptococcus isolates revealed that they were more sensitive towards newer antimicrobials like Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin.Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus was found to be maximum followed by Streptococcus and E. coli among the isolated organisms. Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin were found to be most effective against the targeted isolates.

  5. Subclinical nutritional rickets among adolescents in Kaghan Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tanveer Hussain; Hassan, Mukhtiar; Siddiqui, Tahir Saeed

    2014-09-01

    To determine the occurrence of subclinical rickets and its causing factors among adolescent students of schools in Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Observation cross-sectional study. Department of Biochemistry and Health Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra, Ayub Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from March to April 2012. Sixty seven students (34 boys and 33 girls) age between 11 - 16 years included in the study from different schools of Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Characteristic, serum biochemical and nutritional status were measured for all the participants. On the basis of biochemical finding the boys and girls students were divided in to two groups, normal subjects and subclinical rickets (absent symptoms with altered biochemistry). Twenty six participants, 19 (73%) girls and 07 (27%) boys had biochemical abnormality but no clinical signs and symptoms of rickets. Low vitamin D and high alkaline phosphatase level were observed in 26 (100%), 21 (81%), low calcium in 17 (65%) and low phosphorus 7 (27%) subjects with subclinical rickets. None had high parathormone level above normal range. Nutritional intake of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D was found less than the recommended daily intake in all the participants. Subclinical rickets is common problem among adolescent students especially in girls which is due to low nutritional intakes and avoidance of sunshine due to environmental and traditional impacts.

  6. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. ... hypothyroidism (SCH) and vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. ... However, gender (p = 0.076), BMI (p = 0.092), and smoking (P = 0.715) were not ...

  7. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stott, D.J.; Rodondi, N.; Kearney, P.M.; Ford, I.; Westendorp, R.G.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Sattar, N.; Aubert, C.E.; Aujesky, D.; Bauer, D.C.; Baumgartner, C.; Blum, M.R.; Browne, J.P.; Byrne, S.; Collet, T.H.; Dekkers, O.M.; Elzen, W.P. den; Puy, R.S. Du; Ellis, G.; Feller, M.; Floriani, C.; Hendry, K.; Hurley, C.; Jukema, J.W.; Kean, S.; Kelly, M.; Krebs, D.; Langhorne, P.; McCarthy, G.; McCarthy, V.; McConnachie, A.; McDade, M.; Messow, M.; O'Flynn, A.; O'Riordan, D.; Poortvliet, R.K.; Quinn, T.J.; Russell, A.; Sinnott, C.; Smit, J.W.A.; Dorland, H.A. Van; Walsh, K.A.; Walsh, E.K.; Watt, T.; Wilson, R.; Gussekloo, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older persons with this condition. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving

  8. Malondialdehyde level and some enzymatic activities in subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in milk malondialdehyde (MDA) level and some enzymatic activities as a result of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 124 milk samples were collected from 124 lactating cows from the same herd in the period between the 2nd week after calving ...

  9. Subclinical Nutritional Rickets Among Adolescents in Kaghan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, T. H.; Hassan, M.; Siddiqui, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of subclinical rickets and its causing factors among adolescent students of schools in Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Study Design: Observation cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Health Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra, Ayub Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from March to April 2012. Methodology: Sixty seven students (34 boys and 33 girls) age between 11 - 16 years included in the study from different schools of Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Characteristic, serum biochemical and nutritional status were measured for all the participants. On the basis of biochemical finding the boys and girls students were divided in to two groups, normal subjects and subclinical rickets (absent symptoms with altered biochemistry). Results: Twenty six participants, 19 (73%) girls and 07 (27%) boys had biochemical abnormality but no clinical signs and symptoms of rickets. Low vitamin D and high alkaline phosphatase level were observed in 26 (100%), 21 (81%), low calcium in 17 (65%) and low phosphorus 7 (27%) subjects with subclinical rickets. None had high parathormone level above normal range. Nutritional intake of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D was found less than the recommended daily intake in all the participants. Conclusion: Subclinical rickets is common problem among adolescent students especially in girls which is due to low nutritional intakes and avoidance of sunshine due to environmental and traditional impacts. (author)

  10. A comparison of clinical vs subclinical skin pickers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuthen, Nancy J; Curley, Erin E; Tung, Esther S; Ittah, Karen; Qasem, Atheer; Murad, Sari; Odlaug, Brian L; Leibovici, Vera

    2016-05-01

    Skin-picking disorder (SPD) was recognized as its own entity for the first time in DSM-5. The existing SPD literature is limited and, to date, no study has examined the differences between clinical and sub- clinical SPD. Identifying differences between these 2 groups may improve diagnostic accuracy, treatment, and prevention efforts. Israeli adults (N = 4,325) from 2 previous studies were examined for the presence of clinical and subclinical SPD. Individuals with clinical SPD (n = 150) vs subclinical SPD (n = 219) were compared on skin-picking characteristics, psychological phenomena, and clinical correlates. There were many similarities between clinical and subclinical skin pickers. Individuals with clinical SPD, however, had more severe skin picking, greater associated functional impairment, greater perceived stress, and greater depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and were also more likely to have a first-degree relative with SPD. This study suggests that although there are some similarities between clinical and subclinical SPD, there also are distinct differences in the clinical presentation. Understanding these differences may be an important factor in treatment and prevention planning.

  11. Haemodynamic changes following treatment of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Wiinberg, N; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    rate. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by reduced serum TSH levels despite free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) estimates within the reference range, in subjects with no obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We measured haemodynamic changes (using impedance cardiography...

  12. Should we treat mild subclinical/mild hyperthyroidism? Yes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) should be treated, remains a matter of debate because there are no randomized clinical trials answering the question if treatment improves long-term health outcomes. Cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based sudies demonstrate clear

  13. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-03

    Oct 3, 2012 ... Original Research: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes mellitus. 106. 2013 Volume 18 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Diabetes mellitus and its associated complications is a major challenge for both the private and state health sector in South Africa. The number of ...

  14. Altered fructosamine and lipid fractions in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Sridevi V; Manjrekar, Poornima A; Udupa, Vinit A; Vivian, D'Souza

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in the lipoprotein metabolism. To study the lipid and the glycaemic abnormalities in the subclinical hypothyroidism cases and to compare the same with the euthyroid, overt hypothyroid and the hyperthyroid subjects. Four groups, euthyroid (Group-I), hypothyroid (Group-II), subclinical hypothyroid (Group-III) and hyperthyroid (Group-IV), which consisted of 30 subjects each, of either sex, who were aged 25-55 years, underwent Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile and total T3, T4 and TSH estimations. The subjects who were on lipid lowering or thyroid disorder drugs and known diabetics were excluded from the study. In Group-III, all the lipid fractions were comparable to those of Group-II and they were significantly deranged, as compared to those of Group-I. The fructosamine levels were significantly higher in Group-II and Group-III (phypothyrodism, the subclinical hypothyroid cases also need to be treated similarly. The fructosamine values which are largely in excess of the FPG values, indicate a higher propensity to glycation and a decreased turnover of the proteins in the hypothyroid and the subclinical hypothyroid pools. Vice versa is true of the hyperthyroid pool. Fructosamine can be included in the thyroid work up of the patients to assess the metabolic function and the subsequent response after the initiation of the therapy.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance profile in bacterial isolates from subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate subclinical mastitis causing pathogens in dairy lactating cows and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in rural and peri-urban areas of Thika, Mathioya and Kieni East Sub County. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to screen one hundred and sixteen lactating ...

  16. Prevalence of subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in healthy HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested for subclinical CVD using 3 tools: Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) to measure for the presence of peripheral artery disease, 12 lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) for electrical abnormalities and transthoracic Echocardiography (ECHO), to measure abnormalities in cardiac structure and function. At analysis, patients where ...

  17. Perceived relational evaluation as a predictor of self-esteem and mood in people with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ross M G; Windell, Deborah; Lynch, Jill; Manchanda, Rahul

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence that social support predicts self-esteem and related moods for people with psychotic disorders. However, there has been little investigation of relative importance of specific components of social support. Evidence from social psychology suggests that perceived relational evaluation (PRE) or the extent to which people see others as valuing them, is a particularly important determinant of self-esteem and mood. Our study compared the importance of PRE and other types of social support, in predicting self-esteem and depressive mood, anxiety, and anger-hostility in a sample of patients in an early intervention program for psychotic disorders. One hundred and two patients of the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses in London, Ontario, completed measures of PRE, appraisal, tangible and general emotional social support, self-esteem, and mood. In addition, ratings of positive and negative symptoms were completed for all participants. In general, perceived relational value was the most important predictor of self-esteem and mood. These relations were not a result of confounding with positive or negative symptoms. PRE appears to be a particularly important aspect of social support in predicting self-esteem and mood states. Possible implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  19. Association between neurological soft signs, temperament and character in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Galindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heritability of schizophrenia and most personality traits has been well established, but the role of personality in susceptibility to schizophrenia remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to test for an association between personality traits and Neurological Soft Signs (NSS, a well-known biological marker of schizophrenia, in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. For this purpose, we evaluated the NSS scale and personality measured by the Temperament and Character inventory (TCI-R in three groups of subjects: 29 patients with schizophrenia, 24 unaffected relatives and 37 controls. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia were more asocial (higher harm avoidance and lower reward dependence, more perseverative (higher persistence, and more schizotypal (lower self-directedness and cooperativeness, higher self-transcendence. The unaffected relatives showed higher harm avoidance, lower self-directedness and cooperativeness than the healthy controls. Higher NSS scores and sub-scores were found in patients and non-psychotic relatives compared with the controls. Among all the patients, total NSS scores were positively correlated with harm avoidance but negatively correlated with novelty seeking and persistence. Total NSS were also correlated with low scores on self-directedness and cooperativeness, which are indicators of personality disorder. Our results show that susceptibility to NSS and to schizophrenia are both related to individual differences in the temperament and character features in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. High harm avoidance, low persistence, low self-directedness and low cooperativeness contribute to both the risk of NSS and schizophrenia. These findings highlight the value of using both assessments to study high risk populations.

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Differential Relationships of the Two Subdomains of Negative Symptoms in Chronically Ill Psychotic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Liemburg, Edith J.; van der Meer, Lisette; Castelein, Stynke; Stewart, Roy; van Weeghel, Jaap; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests a two factor structure for negative symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders: social amotivation (SA) and expressive deficits (ED). Applying this two-factor structure in clinical settings may provide valuable information with regard to outcomes and to target treatments. We aimed to investigate 1) whether the factor structure is also supported in chronically ill patients with a psychotic disorder and 2) what the relationship is between these factors and functioning (overall functioning and living situation), depressive symptoms and quality of life. 1157 Patients with a psychotic disorder and a duration of illness of 5 years or more were included in the analysis (data selected from the Pharmacotherapy Monitoring Outcome Survey; PHAMOUS). A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale that were previously identified to reflect negative symptoms (N1-4, N6, G5, G7, G13, G16). Subsequently, regression analysis was performed on outcomes. The results confirmed the distinction between SA (N2, N4, G16) and ED (N1, N3, N6, G5, G7, G13) in chronically ill patients. Both factors were related to worse overall functioning as measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, ED was uniquely associated with residential living status. Higher scores for SA were associated with more depressive symptoms and worse quality of life. Thus, SA is most strongly related to level of social-emotional functioning, while ED are more related to living situation and thereby are indicative of level of everyday functioning. This subdivision may be useful for research purposes and be a valuable additional tool in clinical practice and treatment development. PMID:26895203

  1. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Differential Relationships of the Two Subdomains of Negative Symptoms in Chronically Ill Psychotic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie P M Stiekema

    Full Text Available Research suggests a two factor structure for negative symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders: social amotivation (SA and expressive deficits (ED. Applying this two-factor structure in clinical settings may provide valuable information with regard to outcomes and to target treatments. We aimed to investigate 1 whether the factor structure is also supported in chronically ill patients with a psychotic disorder and 2 what the relationship is between these factors and functioning (overall functioning and living situation, depressive symptoms and quality of life. 1157 Patients with a psychotic disorder and a duration of illness of 5 years or more were included in the analysis (data selected from the Pharmacotherapy Monitoring Outcome Survey; PHAMOUS. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale that were previously identified to reflect negative symptoms (N1-4, N6, G5, G7, G13, G16. Subsequently, regression analysis was performed on outcomes. The results confirmed the distinction between SA (N2, N4, G16 and ED (N1, N3, N6, G5, G7, G13 in chronically ill patients. Both factors were related to worse overall functioning as measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, ED was uniquely associated with residential living status. Higher scores for SA were associated with more depressive symptoms and worse quality of life. Thus, SA is most strongly related to level of social-emotional functioning, while ED are more related to living situation and thereby are indicative of level of everyday functioning. This subdivision may be useful for research purposes and be a valuable additional tool in clinical practice and treatment development.

  2. Cingulo-opercular network efficiency mediates the association between psychotic-like experiences and cognitive ability in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Julia M; Kandala, Sridhar; Burgess, Gregory C; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-11-01

    Psychosis is hypothesized to occur on a spectrum between psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. In the middle of the spectrum are individuals who endorse psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) that may not impact daily functioning or cause distress. Individuals with PLEs show alterations in both cognitive ability and functional connectivity of several brain networks, but the relationship between PLEs, cognition, and functional networks remains poorly understood. We analyzed resting-state fMRI data, a range of neuropsychological tasks, and questions from the Achenbach Adult Self Report (ASR) in 468 individuals from the Human Connectome Project. We aimed to determine whether global efficiency of specific functional brain networks supporting higher-order cognition (the fronto-parietal network (FPN), cingulo-opercular network (CON), and default mode network (DMN)) was associated with PLEs and cognitive ability in a non-psychiatric sample. 21.6% of individuals in our sample endorsed at least one PLE. PLEs were significantly negatively associated with higher-order cognitive ability, CON global efficiency, and DMN global efficiency, but not crystallized knowledge. Higher-order cognition was significantly positively associated with CON and DMN global efficiency. Interestingly, the association between PLEs and cognitive ability was partially mediated by CON global efficiency and, in a subset of individuals who tested negative for drugs (N=405), the participation coefficient of the right anterior insula (a hub within the CON). These findings suggest that CON integrity may represent a shared mechanism that confers risk for psychotic experiences and the cognitive deficits observed across the psychosis spectrum.

  3. [Tunisian mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgou, S; Halayem, S; Bouden, A; Halayem, M B

    2012-12-01

    Initiating psychiatric treatment depends on several factors including clinical, personal, familial and economic factors. In the case of a first psychotic episode in an adolescent, parents, especially mothers, have a critical role in initiating psychiatric treatment for their child. In this study, we investigated mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode. Participants were adolescents consulting the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Razi hospital in Tunisia. They were aged from 12 to 19 years at the onset of their medical follow-up. Their diagnoses were schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and schizophreniform disorder according to DSM-IV. A questionnaire was submitted to patients' mothers after their approval. It was divided into two parts. The first part was used to collect information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the mothers and their children. The second part was composed of the following four questions in Tunisian dialect: (1) what did you think was the matter when you first noticed psychotic symptoms in your child? (2) what was the main reason for which you thought psychiatric treatment was necessary? (3) what obstacles did you perceive in initiating psychiatric treatment? (4) do you have any advice or suggestions for caregivers on how they could facilitate an early start of treatment? Twenty-two mothers were included. The mean age of the mothers at onset of the follow-up of their child was 42 years (SD: 4.81). Ten mothers had never been schooled, five had primary school level, four had secondary school level, three had bachelor's degree and two had a diploma of doctorate; 63.6% of the mothers were housewives. The mean age of patients was 13.77 years at the start of their medical follow-up (SD= ± 2.14). Most of the patients were male (14 males for eight girls). Most patients were diagnosed as having schizophrenia (91%); 4.5% were diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and 4.5% with

  4. Psychotic experiences and hyper-theory-of-mind in preadolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, L; van Os, J; Drukker, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the risk mechanisms of psychotic experiences (PE) is still limited. The aim of this population-based study was to explore developmental markers of PE with a particular focus on the specificity of hyper-theory-of-mind (HyperToM) as correlate of PE as opposed to correlate...... psychiatric liability; parental mental illness during early child development; change in family composition; low family income; regulatory problems in infancy; onset of puberty; bullying; concurrent mental disorder; and HyperToM. When estimating the adjusted effects, only low family income, concurrent mental...... disorder, bullying and HyperToM remained significantly associated with PE. Further analyses of the specificity of these correlates with regard to outcome revealed that HyperToM was the only variable specifically associated with PE without concurrent mental disorder. Finally, HyperToM did not share any...

  5. Comorbidities and psychotic illness. Part 1: Philosophy and clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Aquilina, Francesca Falzon

    2014-11-01

    This article aims at addressing the implications of defining 'comorbidity' within the field of psychiatry. We have looked at the standard definition of comorbidity and then discussed whether this definition can be applied to comorbidities in psychiatry. While comorbidities in physical illness are clearly the coexistence of two independent illnesses, Comorbidities in Mental illness are the result of the polygenic nature of mental illnesses, especially in psychotic illness whether schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. As a consequence, often the comorbidities of psychiatric illness are caused by two conditions which have in common the presence of particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps), which regulate the metabolism of neurotransmitters or the presence of neurotrophic factors . Thus inevitably, many such comorbidities are inextricably linked. We discuss the consequences of this form of comorbidity for the description, classification, and risk profile of mental illness.

  6. Borderline personality pathology in young people at ultra high risk of developing a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jaymee; Graham, Anne; Nelson, Barnaby; Yung, Alison

    2017-06-01

    The association between borderline personality disorder and the ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis state is unclear. The following study aimed to investigate the type of attenuated psychotic symptoms and prevalence of borderline personality pathology in a sample of UHR young people. Additionally, the study aimed to explore whether borderline personality pathology influenced the transition rate to psychosis. Medical records from Orygen Youth Health between 2007 and 2009 were examined. There were 180 patients who met UHR criteria and were included for analysis. Most patients were females (62.8%) and age ranged from 15 to 24 years. A quarter (25.2%) of UHR patients endorsed items consistent with borderline personality pathology. UHR patients with borderline personality pathology experienced a range of attenuated psychotic symptoms and could not be statistically differentiated from UHR patients with less significant or without borderline personality pathology. Borderline personality pathology did not increase or decrease the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. The absence of depression was the only predictor of psychosis. Many UHR patients present with concurrent borderline personality features. The psychotic experiences reported by UHR patients with borderline personality features were not limited to paranoid ideation, supporting the idea that borderline personality disorder may include a wider range of psychotic symptoms than previously thought. It is further possible that the psychotic symptoms experienced in this group could also be indicative of an emerging psychotic disorder. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Serum cytokine profile in the subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama M.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining the development or not of visceral leishmaniasis (VL have not been completely identified, but a Leishmania-specific cellular immune response seems to play a fundamental role in the final control of infection. Few studies are available regarding the production of cytokines in the subclinical form of VL, with only the production of IFN-g and TNF-a known. The aim of the present study was to identify immunological markers for the oligosymptomatic or subclinical form of VL. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 784 children aged 0 to 5 years from an endemic area in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, between January 1998 and December 2001. During 30 consecutive months of follow-up, 33 children developed the oligosymptomatic form of the disease and 12 the acute form. During the clinical manifestations, serum cytokine levels were determined in 27 oligosymptomatic children and in nine patients with the acute form using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. In the subclinical form of VL, variable levels of IL-2 were detected in 52.3% of the children, IL-12 in 85.2%, IFN-g in 48.1%, IL-10 in 88.9%, and TNF-a in 100.0%, with the last two cytokines showing significantly lower levels than in the acute form. IL-4 was not detected in oligosymptomatic individuals. Multiple discriminant analysis used to determine the profile or combination of cytokines predominating in the subclinical form revealed both a Leishmania resistance (Th1 and susceptibility (Th2 profile. The detection of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles explains the self-limited evolution accompanied by the discrete alterations observed for the subclinical form of VL.

  8. Myxedema coma in a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallipedhi, Akhila; Vali, Hamza; Okosieme, Onyebuchi

    2011-01-01

    Myxedema coma is the extreme manifestation of hypothyroidism, typically seen in patients with severe biochemical hypothyroidism. Its occurrence in association with subclinical hypothyroidism is extremely unusual. We describe a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism who developed clinical manifestations of myxedema coma. A 47-year-old woman presented to our endocrine clinic with complaints of fatigue and biochemical findings of subclinical hypothyroidism. She was started on treatment with thyroxine (T4) but remained unwell and was later admitted to hospital with hormone profile showing persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (elevated thyrotropin and normal free T4 [FT4] and free triiodothyronine [FT3]): FT4 10.7 pmol/L (reference range 10.3-24.5), FT3 2.7 pmol/L (reference range 2.67-7.03), and thyrotropin 6.09 mU/L (reference range 0.4-4.0). She subsequently developed hypothermia (temperature 33.2°C), circulatory collapse, and coma. Biochemical profile showed hyponatremia, elevated creatinine phosphokinase, metabolic acidosis, and renal failure. An echocardiogram revealed a moderate-sized pericardial effusion. We diagnosed myxedema coma and started treatment with intravenous T3. She responded dramatically with improvement in level of consciousness and normalization of metabolic parameters. We found no explanation other than hypothyroidism to account for the presentation. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests excluded adrenal insufficiency, and serum gonadotrophins were within the normal reference range. FT4 estimation by equilibrium dialysis excluded analytical interference, and molecular analysis for the thyroid hormone receptor β gene associated with thyroid hormone resistance was negative. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of myxedema coma in a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The reason for normal thyroid hormone levels is unclear but may reflect deviation from a higher pre-morbid set-point. The case

  9. Treatment response in psychotic patients classified according to social and clinical needs, drug side effects, and previous treatment; a method to identify functional remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alenius, Malin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Honoré, Per Gustaf Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    , fewer psychotic symptoms, and higher rate of workers than those with the worst treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: In the evaluation, CANSEPT showed validity in discriminating the patients of interest and was well tolerated by the patients. CANSEPT could secure inclusion of correct patients in the clinic......BACKGROUND: Various approaches have been made over the years to classify psychotic patients according to inadequate treatment response, using terms such as treatment resistant or treatment refractory. Existing classifications have been criticized for overestimating positive symptoms......; underestimating residual symptoms, negative symptoms, and side effects; or being to open for individual interpretation. The aim of this study was to present and evaluate a new method of classification according to treatment response and, thus, to identify patients in functional remission. METHOD: A naturalistic...

  10. Lifetime Autism Spectrum Features in a Patient with a Psychotic Mixed Episode Who Attempted Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Simoncini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of a young man who attempted suicide during a mixed episode with psychotic symptoms. The patient’s history revealed the lifetime presence of signs and features belonging to the autism spectrum realm that had been completely overlooked. We believe that this case is representative of an important and barely researched topic: what happens to children with nondiagnosed and nontreated subthreshold forms of autism when they grow old. The issue of early recognition of autism spectrum signs and symptoms is discussed, raising questions on the diagnostic boundaries between autism and childhood onset psychotic spectrums among patients who subsequently develop a full-blown psychotic disorder.

  11. Comorbid Diagnosis of Psychotic Disorders in Borderline Personality Disorder: Prevalence and Influence on Outcome

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    C. W. Slotema

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA diagnosis of psychotic disorder is traditionally considered incompatible with borderline personality disorder (BPD, even though patients sometimes fulfill the diagnostic criteria for both disorders. How often this happens is barely known, as is the influence of comorbid psychotic disorders on the outcome of BPD. Since studies on isolated auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with BPD indicate that these perceptual symptoms have severe consequences and are associated with suicidal behavior and hospitalization, patients with comorbid psychotic disorders are unlikely to fare better.ObjectiveTo examine the point prevalence of psychotic disorders in patients with BPD, their association with the outcome of BPD, and their predictive value for outcome.MethodsIn a cross-sectional design, 84 female outpatients diagnosed with BPD were interviewed with the aid of the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to establish the point prevalence of comorbid psychotic and other comorbid disorders. After termination of their treatment at a specialized outpatient clinic, the type of referral was considered to be a “good” outcome when they were referred to their general practitioner or to basic psychiatric care for noncomplex patients, and a “poor” outcome when referred to a specialized psychiatric department or to a psychiatric district team for patients with severe psychiatric disorders.ResultsPsychotic disorders were present in 38% of the patients with BPD. With a prevalence of 20%, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS was the most common subtype; the least common types were schizophrenia (2%, substance-induced psychotic disorder (2%, and brief psychotic disorder (1%. Among six types of comorbid disorders, only psychotic disorders were associated with a poor outcome; they were also predictors for a poor outcome, along with comorbid mood disorders, eating disorders, and somatoform disorders, as well as the severity of BPD

  12. Usher syndrome with psychotic symptoms: two cases in the same family.

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    Wu, Chen-Ying; Chiu, Chih-Chiang

    2006-10-01

    Usher syndrome is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hearing and visual sensory impairment. Retinitis pigmentosa is essential for its diagnosis. There are only a few reports describing patients with Usher syndrome presenting with psychotic features and the etiology of its psychiatric manifestation is still unknown. Herein, the authors report variable congenital hearing impairment and progressive visual loss occurring in five of seven family members and two of them meeting the diagnostic criteria of Usher syndrome with psychotic features. Furthermore, the authors compare their psychiatric symptoms with other reports and the possible etiologies of psychotic symptoms are discussed.

  13. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

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    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  14. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

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    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  15. Use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Lívia Helena; de Souza, José Carlos Pereira; de Lima, Carlos José; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Andreani, Dora Inés Kozusny; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Zângaro, Renato Amaro

    2018-03-01

    Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes a severe drawback in dairy production. Conventional treatments with antibiotic could leave antibiotic residues in the milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis to develop an in vivo therapeutic protocol that could be used in routine farm practice, favoring the early return to production. Forty cows with subclinical mastitis (n = 40) were divided into 4 groups (control, photodynamic therapy - PDT, light irradiation - LED, and photosensitizer - PS). Control group received no treatment, PDT group received application of 1.0 mL of 2.5% toluidine blue photosensitizer followed by LED irradiation at λ = 635 nm, the LED group was treated with LED irradiation alone, and the PS group received only 2.5% toluidine blue dye. LED irradiation was applied to the mammary gland by means of an acrylic light guide coupled to the LED equipment. The PDT and LED groups were irradiated with 200 J/cm 2 at three different positions inside the mammary gland. Milk samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h after treatment for microbial identification and total bacterial count. The treatment of the PDT group showed significant difference p bovine mastitis. There was no need to separate the animal from production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of blink reflex in diagnosis of subclinical cranial neuropathy in diabetic mellitus type II.

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    Kazem, Shakouri S; Behzad, Davoudi

    2006-05-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is one of the late complications of diabetes mellitus. Cranial nerves III, VII, and V are among the most commonly affected in diabetic patients. Traditional electrodiagnosis (Edx) studies are a useful method for diagnosis of PN and symptomatic cranial neuropathy, and may not be useful for detecting subclinical involvement of cranial nerves. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the role of blink reflex (BR) for early diagnosis of cranial neuropathy in diabetic patients with PN. A prospective study was performed on NIDDM patients with PN. One hundred eighty-eight subjects were included in our study in which 142 acted as healthy subjects and 46 as diabetic patients. Patients were excluded with prior history of cranial nerve lesions, stroke, or any other disease with polyneuropathy or drug-induced neuropathy. Routine nerve conduction studies were performed, and only patients with PN were included in this study. Abnormalities were found in 54.4% of patients. R1, IR2, and CR2 were prolonged relative to the healthy group. Statistically there was no significant difference in R/D ratio of patients (P=0.201). Also, there was a positive correlation between R1, IR2, and CR2 latencies with duration of diabetes and severity of polyneuropathy, but not for R/D. The greatest correlation was shown in R1 latency (69.9% abnormality). BR is a noninvasive and very useful method for the evaluation and diagnosis of subclinical cranial nerve involvement in diabetic patients.

  17. Task feedback effects on conflict monitoring and executive control: relationship to subclinical measures of depression.

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    Holmes, Avram J; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2007-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that depression is associated with executive dysfunction, particularly after committing errors or receiving negative performance feedback. To test this hypothesis, 57 participants performed two executive tasks known to elicit errors (the Simon and Stroop Tasks) during positive or negative performance feedback. Participants with elevated depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory scores >or= 13) were characterized by impaired posterror and postconflict performance adjustments, especially during emotionally negative task-related feedback. Additionally, for both tasks, depressive symptoms were inversely related to postconflict reaction time adjustments following negative, but not positive, feedback. These findings suggest that subclinical depression is associated with impairments in behavioral adjustments after internal (perceived failure) and external feedback about deficient task performance. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL AND ELECTROLYTE COMPONENTS OF MILK IN SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN HOLSTEIN X HARYANA CATTLE

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    Anirban Guha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to investigate whether the chemical and electrolyte components of milk can be used as an indicator to detect subclinical mastitis in Holstein X Haryana cows. The bacterial cultural examination revealed 32 cows comprising 34 quarters are SCM positive. SCM positive and negative samples were estimated for electrical conductivity (EC and pH with respective meters, sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ with Flame photometer and chloride (Cl- by titremetric method. The result demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.01 increase in EC, Na+ and Cl- and decrease in K+. After studying the correlation coefficient among the milk components and comparing them with a Gold standard (Log10 SCC separately in normal and infected milk it was found that Na+, Cl- and K+ are the indicators of SCM in the present study.

  19. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and the Risk for Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Christina D.; Blum, Manuel R.; da Costa, Bruno R.; Baumgartner, Christine; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P.; Aujesky, Drahomir; Bauer, Douglas C.; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures conflict. Purpose To assess the risk for hip and nonspine fractures associated with subclinical thyroid dysfunction among prospective cohorts. Data Sources Search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1946 to 16 March 2014) and reference lists of retrieved articles without language restriction. Study Selection Two physicians screened and identified prospective cohorts that measured thyroid function and followed participants to assess fracture outcomes. Data Extraction One reviewer extracted data using a standardized protocol, and another verified data. Both reviewers independently assessed methodological quality of the studies. Data Synthesis The 7 population-based cohorts of heterogeneous quality included 50 245 participants with 1966 hip and 3281 nonspine fractures. In random-effects models that included the 5 higher-quality studies, the pooled adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism versus euthyrodism were 1.38 (95% CI, 0.92 to 2.07) for hip fractures and 1.20 (CI, 0.83 to 1.72) for nonspine fractures without statistical heterogeneity (P = 0.82 and 0.52, respectively; I2 = 0%). Pooled estimates for the 7 cohorts were 1.26 (CI, 0.96 to 1.65) for hip fractures and 1.16 (CI, 0.95 to 1.42) for nonspine fractures. When thyroxine recipients were excluded, the HRs for participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism were 2.16 (CI, 0.87 to 5.37) for hip fractures and 1.43 (CI, 0.73 to 2.78) for nonspine fractures. For participants with subclinical hypothyroidism, HRs from higher-quality studies were 1.12 (CI, 0.83 to 1.51) for hip fractures and 1.04 (CI, 0.76 to 1.42) for nonspine fractures (P for heterogeneity = 0.69 and 0.88, respectively; I2 = 0%). Limitations Selective reporting cannot be excluded. Adjustment for potential common confounders varied and was not adequately done across all studies. Conclusion Subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with

  20. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

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    Rivero R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%.

  1. Case definition for clinical and subclinical bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerlage, A S; Stryhn, H; Sanchez, J; Hammell, K L

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) is considered an important cause of loss in salmon aquaculture in Atlantic Canada. Causative agent of BKD is the Gram-positive bacteria Renibacterium salmoninarum. Infected salmon are often asymptomatic (subclinical infection), and the disease is considered chronic. One of the challenges in quantifying information from farm production and health records is the application of a standardized case definition. Case definitions for farm-level and cage-level clinical and subclinical BKD were developed using retrospective longitudinal data from aquaculture practices in New Brunswick, Canada, combining (i) industry records of weekly production data including mortalities, (ii) field observations for BKD using reports of veterinarians and/or fish health technicians, (iii) diagnostic submissions and test results and (iv) treatments used to control BKD. Case definitions were evaluated using veterinarians' expert judgements as reference standard. Eighty-nine and 66% of sites and fish groups, respectively, were associated with BKD at least once. For BKD present (subclinical or clinical), sensitivity and specificity of the case definition were 75-100% varying between event, fish group, site cycle and level (site pen). For clinical BKD, sensitivities were 29-64% and specificities 91-100%. Industry data can be used to develop sensitive case definitions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Correlations between brain structure and symptom dimensions of psychosis in schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and psychotic bipolar I disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Tandon, Neeraj; Haller, Chiara S; Mathew, Ian T; Eack, Shaun M; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Sweeney, John A; Tamminga, Carol A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2015-01-01

    Structural alterations may correlate with symptom severity in psychotic disorders, but the existing literature on this issue is heterogeneous. In addition, it is not known how cortical thickness and cortical surface area correlate with symptom dimensions of psychosis. Subjects included 455 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar I disorders. Data were obtained as part of the Bipolar Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes study. Diagnosis was made through the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Positive and negative symptom subscales were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Structural brain measurements were extracted from T1-weight structural MRIs using FreeSurfer v5.1 and were correlated with symptom subscales using partial correlations. Exploratory factor analysis was also used to identify factors among those regions correlating with symptom subscales. The positive symptom subscale correlated inversely with gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness in frontal and temporal regions, whereas the negative symptom subscale correlated inversely with right frontal cortical surface area. Among regions correlating with the positive subscale, factor analysis identified four factors, including a temporal cortical thickness factor and frontal GMV factor. Among regions correlating with the negative subscale, factor analysis identified a frontal GMV-cortical surface area factor. There was no significant diagnosis by structure interactions with symptom severity. Structural measures correlate with positive and negative symptom severity in psychotic disorders. Cortical thickness demonstrated more associations with psychopathology than cortical surface area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Comparison of cow-side diagnostic tests for subclinical mastitis of dairy cows in Musanze district, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden; Kandiwa, Erick; Mpatswenumugabo, Jean P

    2017-06-21

    Four subclinical mastitis diagnostic tests (the UdderCheck® test [a lactate dehydrogenasebased test], the California Mastitis Test [CMT], the Draminski® test [a conductivity-based test] and the PortaSCC® test [a portable somatic cell count-based test]) were compared in a study comprising crossbreed dairy cows (n = 30) during September and October 2015. Sensitivity and specificity of the CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests were compared with the PortaSCC® as reference. The CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® test results were compared with the results of the PortaSCC® test using kappa statistics. Duplicate quarter milk samples (n = 120) were concurrently subjected to the four tests. Sensitivity and specificity were 88.46% and 86.17% (CMT), 78.5% and 81.4% (Draminski®) and 64.00% and 78.95% (UdderCheck®). The CMT showed substantial agreement (k = 0.66), the Draminski® test showed moderate agreement (k = 0.48) and the UdderCheck® test showed fair agreement (k = 0.37) with the PortaSCC® test and positive likelihood ratios were 6.40, 4.15 and 3.04, respectively. The cow-level subclinical mastitis prevalence was 70%, 60%, 60% and 56.7% for PortaSCC®, CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests, respectively. At udder quarter level, subclinical mastitis prevalence was 20%, 21.67% and 20.83% for PortaSCC®, CMT and UdderCheck®, respectively. A correlation (P < 0.05) and moderate strength of association were found between the four tests used. The study showed that compared to the PortaSCC® test, the CMT was the most preferable option, followed by the Draminski® test, while the UdderCheck® test was the least preferable option for subclinical mastitis screening.

  4. Comparison of cow-side diagnostic tests for subclinical mastitis of dairy cows in Musanze district, Rwanda

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    Blaise Iraguha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Four subclinical mastitis diagnostic tests (the UdderCheck® test [a lactate dehydrogenasebased test], the California Mastitis Test [CMT], the Draminski® test [a conductivity-based test] and the PortaSCC® test [a portable somatic cell count-based test] were compared in a study comprising crossbreed dairy cows (n = 30 during September and October 2015. Sensitivity and specificity of the CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests were compared with the PortaSCC® as reference. The CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® test results were compared with the results of the PortaSCC® test using kappa statistics. Duplicate quarter milk samples (n = 120 were concurrently subjected to the four tests. Sensitivity and specificity were 88.46% and 86.17% (CMT, 78.5% and 81.4% (Draminski® and 64.00% and 78.95% (UdderCheck®. The CMT showed substantial agreement (k = 0.66, the Draminski® test showed moderate agreement (k = 0.48 and the UdderCheck® test showed fair agreement (k = 0.37 with the PortaSCC® test and positive likelihood ratios were 6.40, 4.15 and 3.04, respectively. The cow-level subclinical mastitis prevalence was 70%, 60%, 60% and 56.7% for PortaSCC®, CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests, respectively. At udder quarter level, subclinical mastitis prevalence was 20%, 21.67% and 20.83% for PortaSCC®, CMT and UdderCheck®, respectively. A correlation (P < 0.05 and moderate strength of association were found between the four tests used. The study showed that compared to the PortaSCC® test, the CMT was the most preferable option, followed by the Draminski® test, while the UdderCheck® test was the least preferable option for subclinical mastitis screening.

  5. Prevalence and molecular characterization of staphylococci isolated from sheep with subclinical mastitis in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Bentolhoda; Ownagh, Abdolghaffar; Mardani, Karim; Farrokhi Ardebili, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. in ewes in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Molecular characterization of isolated Staphylococcus spp. from diseased ewes were performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) gene. Also, antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates against different antibiotics was investigated. A total number of 900 milk samples from 450 native ewes in their mid-lactation period were examined by the California mastitis test (CMT). The CMT positive samples were cultured and bacteria were isolated from 86 (9.50%) glands and 74 (16.40%) ewes. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in the examined ewes was 16.40%. Microbiological analysis of milk samples revealed that 27 out of 74 sheep with subclinical mastitis were infected with Staphylococcus spp. Amplification of gap gene of 27 Staphylococcus isolates generated a single amplicon of 933 bp in size confirming that isolates were belonged to Staphylococcus genus. Digestion of PCR products by AluI endonuclease generated different RFLP patterns for each species. Nucleotide sequencing of gap gene followed by phylogenetic analysis showed that the most dominant Staphylococcus species were S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and S. chromogenes. Staphylococcal isolates showed the highest resistance to penicillin and ampicillin. In conclusion, Staphylococcus species, except for the southern parts of the province, play an important role in the development of subclinical mastitis in sheep in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Also, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and neomycin are the most effective antibiotics for treatment of this disease. PMID:27482361

  6. Psychotic Symptoms and Attitudes toward Medication Mediate the Effect of Insight on Personal-Social Functions in Patients with Schizophrenia: One-Year Randomized Controlled Trial and Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingjun; Ning, Yuping; She, Shenglin; Deng, Yongjie; Chen, Yuwei; Yi, Wenying; Lu, Xiaodan; Chen, Xinrui; Li, Juanhua; Li, Ruikeng; Zhang, Jie; Xiao, Di; Wu, Haibo; Wu, Chao

    2018-02-14

    This study aimed to investigate the mediating pathway of 3 factors (psychotic symptoms, attitude toward medication, and cognitive processing speed) on the effect of insight on personal-social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia (n = 168; mean age 18 ± 50 years) diagnosed according to the DSM-IV were randomly assigned to treatment with antipsychotic medication alone or combined treatment. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI), Assessment of Insight (SAI), and Social-Personal Performance Scale (PSPS) scores were evaluated at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted with baseline data, end point data, and changes-in-scale scores between baseline and the end point, respectively. At baseline and at 12 months, only psychotic symptoms mediated the effect of insight on personal-social functioning. For changes-in-scale scores over the 12-month follow-up, in patients receiving treatment with medication alone, the effect of improved insight on improved personal-social function was mediated by psychotic symptoms only; in patients receiving a combined treatment, the effect of improved insight on improved personal-social functioning was mediated by both psychotic symptoms and attitudes toward medication, independently. The link between insight and personal-social functions is mainly mediated by psychotic symptoms. Psychosocial intervention improves the predicting effect of insight on personal-social function by improving both the attitude toward medication and psychotic symptoms independently. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Different Stages of Psychotic Disorders: a 3T 1H-MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemburg, Edith; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Bais, Leonie; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Knegtering, Henderikus; van der Velde, Jorien; Opmeer, Esther; de Vos, Annerieke; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni; Wunderink, Lex; Aleman, André

    2016-02-23

    H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can offer insights in various neuropathologies by measuring metabolite levels in the brain. In the current study we investigated the levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate + glutamic acid (NAA + NAAG; neuronal viability) in the prefrontal cortex of patients with a psychotic disorder and people at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. A (1)H-MRS spectrum was acquired in 31 patients with a recent onset psychotic disorder and 60 with a chronic state, 16 UHR patients and 36 healthy controls. Absolute metabolite levels were calculated using LCModel with a reference water peak. Groups were compared while taking into account age and partial volume effects. Moreover, we investigated associations with positive and negative symptoms, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment in patients. The most notable finding is that chronicity of schizophrenia was related to decreased levels of Glx and NAA. On the other hand, although on an exploratory note, UHR showed increased levels of prefrontal Glx and NAA levels with increasing age. Our results may indicate an initial Glx and NAA increase and subsequent decrease during illness progression that may be related to the neurotoxic effects of glutamate.

  8. Explanatory models and distress in primary caregivers of patients with acute psychotic presentations: A study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Deepa S; Manoranjitham, S D; Samuel, P; Jacob, K S

    2017-11-01

    Emotional distress among caregivers of people with mental illness is common, changes overtime and requires appropriate coping strategies to prevent long-term disability. Explanatory models, which underpin understanding of disease and illness, are crucial to coping. To study the association of explanatory models and distress among caregivers of people with acute psychotic illness. A total of 60 consecutive patients and their primary caregivers who presented to the Department of Psychiatry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, were recruited for the study. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI) and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) were used to assess severity of psychosis, explanatory models of illness and emotional distress. Standard bivariate and multivariable statistics were employed. Majority of the caregivers simultaneously held multiple models of illness, which included medical and non-medical perspectives. The GHQ-12 score were significantly lower in people who held multiple explanatory models of illness when compared to the caregivers who believed single explanations. Explanatory models affect coping in caregivers of patients with acute psychotic presentations. There is a need to have a broad-based approach to recovery and care.

  9. The projected hand illusion: component structure in a community sample and association with demographics, cognition, and psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kyran T; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Holmes, Nicholas P; Waters, Flavie A

    2015-01-01

    The projected hand illusion (PHI) is a variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), and both are commonly used to study mechanisms of self-perception. A questionnaire was developed by Longo et al. (2008) to measure qualitative changes in the RHI. Such psychometric analyses have not yet been conducted on the questionnaire for the PHI. The present study is an attempt to validate minor modifications of the questionnaire of Longo et al. to assess the PHI in a community sample (n = 48) and to determine the association with selected demographic (age, sex, years of education), cognitive (Digit Span), and clinical (psychotic-like experiences) variables. Principal components analysis on the questionnaire data extracted four components: Embodiment of "Other" Hand, Disembodiment of Own Hand, Deafference, and Agency-in both synchronous and asynchronous PHI conditions. Questions assessing "Embodiment" and "Agency" loaded onto orthogonal components. Greater illusion ratings were positively associated with being female, being younger, and having higher scores on psychotic-like experiences. There was no association with cognitive performance. Overall, this study confirmed that self-perception as measured with PHI is a multicomponent construct, similar in many respects to the RHI. The main difference lies in the separation of Embodiment and Agency into separate constructs, and this likely reflects the fact that the "live" image of the PHI presents a more realistic picture of the hand and of the stroking movements of the experimenter compared with the RHI.

  10. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jim L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Methods Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R. The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Results Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Conclusion Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  11. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Flowers, Joanne W; Tudiver, Fred; Wilson, Jim L; Punyasavatsut, Natavut

    2006-04-19

    Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  12. The use of electroconvulsive therapy in atypical psychotic presentations: a case review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, John H; Vasu, Devi

    2007-10-01

    Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial.CASE REPORTS HAVE SUGGESTED A ROLE FOR ECT IN TWO SPECIFIC ATYPICAL PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis.

  13. Clozapine and obsessions in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.; Gorsira, R.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase or emergence of obsessions was compared in young patients with recent-onset schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders taking clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were 121 consecutively admitted patients

  14. Neurocognitive functioning before and after the first psychotic episode: does psychosis result in cognitive deterioration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, H. E.; Nieman, D. H.; Wiltink, S.; Dingemans, P. M.; van de Fliert, J. R.; Velthorst, E.; de Haan, L.; van Amelsvoort, T. A.; Linszen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is considered to be a core characteristic of schizophrenia. The relationship between psychosis and cognitive deterioration, however, remains unclear. This longitudinal study investigated the neuropsychological functioning of patients before and after their first psychotic

  15. Understanding and improving treatment adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: Review and a proposed intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A.B.P.; Mulder, C.L.; van der Gaag, M.; Selten, J.P.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Hengeveld, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Non-adherence to treatment of patients with psychotic disorders is related to higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Important predictors of non-adherence include poor social structure, cognitive deficits, negative medication attitude, side effects, depression, a

  16. Understanding and improving treatment adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: A review and a proposed intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B.P. Staring (Anton); C.L. Mulder (Niels); M. van der Gaag (Mark); J.-P. Selten (Jean-Paul); A.J.M. Loonen (Anton); M.W. Hengeveld (Michiel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractNon-adherence to treatment of patients with psychotic disorders is related to higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and suicide. Important predictors of non-adherence include poor social structure, cognitive deficits, negative medication attitude, side effects, depression, a

  17. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    of intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...... of attention, executive functions, reaction time, and memory in the schizophrenic and psychotic adolescent groups. However, analyses of WISC-III factor profiles suggested that early onset schizophrenia patients may have more global IQ deficits than non-organic, non-affective psychoses when examined recently...... the profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms...

  18. Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henquet, C.J.; Krabbendam, L.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Kaplan, C.; Lieb, R.; Wittchen, H.U.; Os, J. van

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms in individuals with above average predisposition for psychosis who first used cannabis during adolescence. DESIGN: Analysis of prospective data from a population based sample. Assessment of substance use,

  19. Hyper-theory-of-mind in children with Psychotic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Væver, Mette; Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Jeppesen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE in children. Children with this type of alteration in ToM infer mental states when none are obviously suggested, and predict behaviour on the basis of these erroneous beliefs. Individuals with HyperToM do not appear to have a conceptual deficit (i.e. lack of representational abilities), but rather they apply their theory of the minds of others in an incorrect or biased way. Hypotheses were tested in two studies with two independent samples: (i) a general population sample of 1630 Danish children aged 11-12 years, (ii) a population-based sample of 259 Dutch children aged 12-13 years, pertaining to a case-control sampling frame of children with auditory verbal hallucinations. Multinomial regression analyses were carried out to investigate the associations between PE and ToM and HyperToM respectively. Analyses were adjusted for gender and proxy measures of general intelligence. Low ToM score was significantly associated with PE in sample I (OR = 1.6 95%CI 1.1-2.3 χ2(4) = 12.42 p = 0.010), but not in sample II (OR = 0.9 95%CI 0.5-1.8 χ2(3) = 7.13 p = 0.816). HyperToM was significantly associated with PE both in sample I (OR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2-2.7 χ2(3) = 10.11 p = 0.006) and II (OR = 4.6, 95%CI 1.3-16.2 χ2(2) = 7.56 p = 0.018). HyperToM was associated particularly with paranoid delusions in both sample I (OR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1-3.7% χ2(4) = 9.93 p = 0.021) and II (OR = 6.2 95%CI: 1.7-23.6% χ2(4) = 9.90 p = 0.044). Specific alterations in ToM may be associated with specific types of psychotic experiences. HyperToM may index risk for developing psychosis and paranoid delusions in particular.

  20. Hyper-theory-of-mind in children with Psychotic Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Clemmensen

    Full Text Available Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE. Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM and PE in children. Children with this type of alteration in ToM infer mental states when none are obviously suggested, and predict behaviour on the basis of these erroneous beliefs. Individuals with HyperToM do not appear to have a conceptual deficit (i.e. lack of representational abilities, but rather they apply their theory of the minds of others in an incorrect or biased way.Hypotheses were tested in two studies with two independent samples: (i a general population sample of 1630 Danish children aged 11-12 years, (ii a population-based sample of 259 Dutch children aged 12-13 years, pertaining to a case-control sampling frame of children with auditory verbal hallucinations. Multinomial regression analyses were carried out to investigate the associations between PE and ToM and HyperToM respectively. Analyses were adjusted for gender and proxy measures of general intelligence.Low ToM score was significantly associated with PE in sample I (OR = 1.6 95%CI 1.1-2.3 χ2(4 = 12.42 p = 0.010, but not in sample II (OR = 0.9 95%CI 0.5-1.8 χ2(3 = 7.13 p = 0.816. HyperToM was significantly associated with PE both in sample I (OR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2-2.7 χ2(3 = 10.11 p = 0.006 and II (OR = 4.6, 95%CI 1.3-16.2 χ2(2 = 7.56 p = 0.018. HyperToM was associated particularly with paranoid delusions in both sample I (OR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1-3.7% χ2(4 = 9.93 p = 0.021 and II (OR = 6.2 95%CI: 1.7-23.6% χ2(4 = 9.90 p = 0.044.Specific alterations in ToM may be associated with specific types of psychotic experiences. HyperToM may index risk for developing psychosis and paranoid delusions in particular.

  1. Psychotic experiences and disability: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans; Koyanagi, Ai; Kelleher, Ian; DeVylder, Jordan

    2018-03-01

    Psychotic experiences are associated with a number of poor clinical outcomes, including multimorbid psychopathology, suicidal behavior, and poor treatment response. We wished to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and disability, including the following domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, social interaction, role functioning, and days out of role. We used three nationally representative and racially/ethnically diverse samples of the general US adult population: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between lifetime psychotic experiences (visual and auditory hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideation; WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview psychosis screen) and 30-day impairments in functioning across disability domains (using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II). In all three samples, models were adjusted for socio-demographics and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In the NCS-R, models were also adjusted for chronic health conditions. Across all three studies, our adjusted models showed that people with disability had anywhere from about 1.5 to over 3 times the odds of reporting lifetime psychotic experiences, depending on the domain. This was true for each disability domain, except self-care in the NLAAS and in the NSAL. Psychotic experiences are markers of risk for disability across a wide range of domains. This may explain the elevated rates of service utilization among individuals who report psychotic experiences and supports the need to assess for and respond to psychotic experiences even in the absence of psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychotic Symptoms Associated with the use of Dopaminergic Drugs, in Patients with Cocaine Dependence or Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Abad, Alfonso C; Padilla-Mata, Antonio; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Barral, Carmen; Casas, Miquel; Grau-López, Lara

    2017-01-01

    In the field of dual diagnosis, physicians are frequently presented with pharmacological questions. Questions about the risk of developing psychotic symptoms in cocaine users who need treatment with dopaminergic drugs could lead to an undertreatment. Review the presence of psychotic symptoms in patients with cocaine abuse/dependence, in treatment with dopaminergic drugs. Systematic PubMed searches were conducted including December 2014, using the keywords: "cocaine", dopaminergic drug ("disulfuram-methylphenidate-bupropion-bromocriptine-sibutramineapomorphine- caffeine") and ("psychosis-psychotic symptoms-delusional-paranoia"). Articles in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian were included. Articles in which there was no history of cocaine abuse/dependence, absence of psychotic symptoms, systematic reviews, and animal studies, were excluded. 313 papers were reviewed. 7 articles fulfilled the inclusion-exclusion criteria. There is a clinical trial including 8 cocaine-dependent patients using disulfiram in which 3 of them presented psychotic symptoms and 6 case-reports: disulfuram (1), methylphenidate (1), disulfiram with methylphenidate (2), and bupropion (2), reporting psychotic symptoms, especially delusions of reference and persecutory ideation. Few cases have been described, which suggests that the appearance of these symptoms is infrequent. The synergy of dopaminergic effects or the dopaminergic sensitization in chronic consumption are the explanatory theories proposed by the authors. In these cases, a relationship was found between taking these drugs and the appearance of psychotic symptoms. Given the low number of studies found, further research is required. The risk of psychotic symptoms seems to be acceptable if we compare it with the benefits for the patients but a closer monitoring seems to be advisable.

  3. Functional limitations and quality of life in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Viertiö, Satu

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of the decreased functional capacity, especially everyday functioning, of people with psychotic disorder in clinical settings, but little research about it in the general population. The aim of the present study was to provide information on the magnitude of functional capacity problems in persons with psychotic disorder compared with the general population. It estimated the prevalence and severity of limitations in vision, mobility, everyday functioning and qual...

  4. A TWIN STUDY OF SCHIZOAFFECTIVE-MANIA, SCHIZOAFFECTIVE-DEPRESSION AND OTHER PSYCHOTIC SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    Cardno, Alastair G; Rijsdijk, Frühling V; West, Robert M; Gottesman, Irving I; Craddock, Nick; Murray, Robin M; McGuffin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The nosological status of schizoaffective disorders remains controversial. Twin studies are potentially valuable for investigating relationships between schizoaffective-mania, schizoaffective-depression and other psychotic syndromes, but no such study has yet been reported. We ascertained 224 probandwise twin pairs (106 monozygotic, 118 same-sex dizygotic), where probands had psychotic or manic symptoms, from the Maudsley Twin Register in London (1948–1993). We investigated Research Diagnosti...

  5. A review on cardiovascular diseases originated from subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2012-01-15

    Thyroid hormones play an important role on the cardiovascular systems and thyroid disorder ultimately have a profound adverse effects on myocardium and vascular functions. There are extensive reports on the role of overt thyroid dysfunction which adversely can modify the cardiovascular metabolism but even at the present of some controversial reports, the subclinical thyroid disorders are able also to manipulate cardiovascular system to some extent. The aim of this study is to review the cardiovascular disorders accompanied with subclinical hypothyroidism. It is concluded that adverse effect of thyroid malfunction on myocardium and vascular organs are through the direct role of thyroid hormone and dyslipidemia on heart muscle cells at nuclear level and vascular system, respectively. It seems many cardiovascular disorders initially would not have been occurred in the first place if the thyroid of affected person had functioned properly, therefore thyroid function tests should be one of a prior laboratory examinations in cardiovascular disorders.

  6. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soylu Aliye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two distinct forms of clinical hyperthyroidism. The first patient had a clinical presentation of severe cholestasis in the absence of congestive failure related to hyperthyroidism. The second case had developed intrahepatic cholestasis in the presence of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and improved with rifampicin treatment. Conclusion Hyperthyroidism should be a consideration in non-specific liver dysfunction.

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism, mood, and cognition in older adults: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Russell T; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Hennessey, James V; Ryan, Joseph J; Stern, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    To perform a critical review of the literature on the mood and cognitive changes associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), with an emphasis on older adults. To evaluate these data against the Consensus Statement on the management of SCH from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Thyroid Association, and The Endocrine Society. A comprehensive literature review. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with an increased risk of mood and cognitive dysfunction, although the strength of this association and the efficacy of replacement hormone therapy require further investigation. It remains unclear whether SCH leads to significant mood and cognitive impairments in most older patients. More research is required to determine the nature and extent of this association and whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy is appropriate and effective in treating SCH-associated neurobehavioral impairments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Arida, Ricardo M; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; de Albuquerque, Marly; Machado, Hélio R; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2010-04-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death. Information concerning risk factors for SUDEP is conflicting, but high seizure frequency is a potential risk factor. Additionally, potential pathomechanisms for SUDEP are unknown, but it is very probable that cardiac arrhythmias during and between seizures or transmission of epileptic activity to the heart via the autonomic nervous system potentially play a role. In parallel, several studies have shown a link between hormones and epilepsy. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of thyroid hormones and epilepsy is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, we propose in this paper that SUDEP, at least in some cases, could be related with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnic variations regarding clinical profiles and symptom representation in prisoners with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzel, A Dorina; Harte, Joke M; van den Bergh, Mattis; Scherder, Erik J A

    2018-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are known to have higher prevalences of psychotic disorders and are over-represented in western penitentiaries and forensic psychiatric institutions. Research from regular mental healthcare settings suggests that they could show different and more severe psychotic symptoms. Aims To explore ethnic variations in severity of symptomatology of BME and non-BME detainees with psychotic disorders. In this study, 824 patients with psychotic disorders from seven different ethnic groups, imprisoned in a penitentiary psychiatric centre in the Netherlands, were compared on symptom severity and symptom representation using the BPRS-E clinical interview. Data were analysed by means of a multilevel analysis. BME patients with psychotic disorders are over-represented in forensic psychiatry, and symptom profiles of prisoners with psychotic disorders vary by ethnicity. Additionally, severity levels of overall psychopathology differ between ethnic groups: patients with an ethnic majority status show more severe levels of psychopathology compared with BME patients. There are differences in symptom severity and symptom profiles between BME patients and non-BME patients. Disregarding these differences could have an adverse effect on the outcome of the treatment. Possible explanations and clinical impact are discussed. Declaration of interest None.

  10. Determining the effectiveness of the third person interview in the level of insight psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mahsa; Rezaei, Omid; Dolatshahi, Behrouz

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the third person interview in increasing the level of insight and cooperation in psychotic patients. We used a quasi-experimental posttest design with an alternative method group. A number of 40 individuals with a definite diagnosis of psychosis were selected using a simple random sampling, and were put randomly in an experimental group (third person interview) and an alternative control group (clinical interview). The results indicated that using the third person interview, the insight level of the psychotic patients increased in all dimensions of insight, except awareness of flat or blunted affect and awareness of unsociability. The results of the independent t-test samples showed no significant difference in cooperation between the two groups of psychotic patients. It seems that the ability to consider one's mental viewpoint from other's, is dependent on the relative ability of psychotic patients to represent other's mental states (theory of mind). But, psychotic patients have severe impairment in the ability to represent their own mental states, resulting in an impairment in the recognition of their mental disorder, psychotic symptoms, the need for therapy, and social consequences of their mental disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    by LT(4) (p treatment in SH results in changes in hemodynamic parameters of potentially beneficial character. SH and overt hypothyroidism should......In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH......) and T(3) estimates) LT(4) treatment resulted in 6% reduction in supine MAP (p treatment (p

  12. Pentacam top indices for diagnosing subclinical and definite keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Simultaneous evaluation of BAD_D, 5th order vertical coma aberration, IVA, and ISV, especially when the pattern of the corneal curvature is normal, can detect subclinical keratoconus with high sensitivity and specificity. As for definite keratoconus, each of the BAD_D, mean keratometry, and 3rd order vertical coma aberration indices has a desirable diagnostic validity. However, the aforementioned indices do not negate the importance of widely recognized and acceptable indices like keratometry and central corneal thickness.

  13. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Mukesh Kr.; Thombare, N. N.; Mondal, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from mil...

  14. The Clinical Study on 39 Cases of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Cheol Jae; Ahn, Weon Jeon; Lee, Houn Young; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1986-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism can be defined as an asymptomatic state in which a reduction in thyroid activity has been compensated by an increased TSH output to maintain an euthyroid state. We analysed clinical features, laboratory data, and pathologic findings in 39 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism who were diagnosed at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital from Aug. 1984 to June, 1985. 1) The age distribution was from sixteen to sixty-nine and mean age was 34.8. Peak incidence was in the 4th decade and 3rd, 5th, 6th decade in order. 2) The sex distribution showed female preponderance with a ratio of 18.5 to 1. 3) The major presenting manifestations were nonspecific ones such as fatigue, indigestion, and anorexia. 4) Physical examination revealed diffuse goiter in 47.6%. Major abnormalities were no gross abnormality (30.9%), nodular goiter and facial edema. 5) There was no significant difference of the basal serum T3 and T4 concentrations between subclinical hypothyroidism and normal controls (p>0.05). 6) The basal serum TSH concentration of subclinical hypothyroidism (32.61±14.95 μU/ml) was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3.92±1.05 μU/ml) (p<0.005). 7) Microsomal antibody was detected in 80.6% and thyroglobulin antibody was detected in 30%. 8) The pathologic findings in 26 cases revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 76.9% (lymphocytic type, 34.6%; oxyphilic type, 26.9%; fibrotic type, 15.4%). The others were adenomatous goiter (15.4%), adenomatous carcinoma (3.8%) and subacute thyroiditis (3.8%).

  15. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Aliye; Taskale, Mustafa Gurkan; Ciltas, Aydin; Kalayci, Mustafa; Kumbasar, A Baki

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two disti...

  16. The Clinical Study on 39 Cases of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheol Jae; Ahn, Weon Jeon; Lee, Houn Young; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-03-15

    Subclinical hypothyroidism can be defined as an asymptomatic state in which a reduction in thyroid activity has been compensated by an increased TSH output to maintain an euthyroid state. We analysed clinical features, laboratory data, and pathologic findings in 39 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism who were diagnosed at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital from Aug. 1984 to June, 1985. 1) The age distribution was from sixteen to sixty-nine and mean age was 34.8. Peak incidence was in the 4th decade and 3rd, 5th, 6th decade in order. 2) The sex distribution showed female preponderance with a ratio of 18.5 to 1. 3) The major presenting manifestations were nonspecific ones such as fatigue, indigestion, and anorexia. 4) Physical examination revealed diffuse goiter in 47.6%. Major abnormalities were no gross abnormality (30.9%), nodular goiter and facial edema. 5) There was no significant difference of the basal serum T3 and T4 concentrations between subclinical hypothyroidism and normal controls (p>0.05). 6) The basal serum TSH concentration of subclinical hypothyroidism (32.61+-14.95 muU/ml) was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3.92+-1.05 muU/ml) (p<0.005). 7) Microsomal antibody was detected in 80.6% and thyroglobulin antibody was detected in 30%. 8) The pathologic findings in 26 cases revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 76.9% (lymphocytic type, 34.6%; oxyphilic type, 26.9%; fibrotic type, 15.4%). The others were adenomatous goiter (15.4%), adenomatous carcinoma (3.8%) and subacute thyroiditis (3.8%).

  17. Electromyographic Findings in Overt Hypothyroidism and Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Oğuz Akarsu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism may cause neurologic signs and symptoms as its effects neuromuscular system like many other systems. Subclinical hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid dysfuntion, it may cause neuromuscular signs and symptoms. In this retrospective study, it is aimed to compare neuromuscular symptoms and electromyographic (EMG manifestations between hypothyroid patients and control group with normal thyroid function and without a disease causing polyneuropathy. METHODS: 31 overt hypothyroidic, 139 subclinic hypothyroidic patients and 50 individuals with normal thyroid function, without a disease causing polyneuropathy, as control group whom made EMG for another reason were included to the study. Neuromuscular symptoms, neurological examination and electrophysiological findings was obtained from the patient records. RESULTS: In our study, we observed frequent neuromuscular complaints such as fatigue, morning stiffness, cramp, general pain and paresthesia in favor of both for overt and subclinic hypothyroidism. Carpal Tunnel Syndrom(CTS, was statistically higher in overt hypothyroidism group than control group. CTS was also observed higher in subclinic hypothyroidism group when compared with control group but it didn't reach to statistical significance. We did not detect polyneuropathy in any group. Motor nerve velocity and compound muscle action potential amplitudes were found to be statistically significant difference between hypothyroid ve control group. CONCLUSION: Since motor fibres' and neuromuscular area's being affected in hypothyroidism, which we interpret to happen due to basal metabolism's slowing down, can show a significant recovery after thyroid replacement therapy. We consider that, in further studies, comparison of electrophysiological findings after treatment with the findings of pre -treatment is necessary

  18. THE INTERPLAY AMONG LOCUS OF CONTROL, SUB-CLINICAL PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN WHITES AND ETHNIC MINORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Joshua Weintraub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Un locus de control externo en gran medida se ha asociado con el bienestar psicológico peor. En general, los pacientes con esquizofrenia demuestran un locus de control externo más en comparación con las poblaciones no psiquiátricas. Antes de investigación en la esquizofrenia también sugiere que la relación entre mayores síntomas psicóticos y la disminución del bienestar psicológico es más fuerte para los individuos que apoyan un locus de control externo más. Esta relación no ha sido probado en una población no clínica. En una muestra de la diversidad étnica de 420 participantes, este estudio encontró, en línea con las hipótesis, de que un locus de control externo más se asoció negativamente con el bienestar psicológico. Mientras que los síntomas psicóticos subclínicos se asociaron negativamente con el bienestar psicológico, el locus de control no moderó la relación general entre la psicosis subclínica y el bienestar psicológico como se esperaba. Los análisis secundarios examinaron las relaciones entre los síntomas psicóticos subclínicos, locus de control y el bienestar psicológico por el origen étnico y sugirieron que la etnicidad moderó la relación entre un locus de control externo y la disminución de bienestar. En otras palabras, para las minorías que había una relación entre una mayor locus de control externo y la disminución de bienestar, pero no para los blancos.

  19. Individual differences in action co-representation : not personal distress or subclinical psychotic experiences but sex composition modulates joint action performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weiden, Anouk; Aarts, Henk; Prikken, Merel; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2015-01-01

    Successful social interaction requires the ability to integrate as well as distinguish own and others' actions. Normally, the integration and distinction of self and other are a well-balanced process, occurring without much effort or conscious attention. However, not everyone is blessed with the

  20. Cannabis Use Is Associated With Increased Psychotic Symptoms and Poorer Psychosocial Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis: A Report From the UK National EDEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Jennifer L; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B; Fowler, David; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-05-01

    The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly "continued use," was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prediabetes is not a risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyung-Min; Cho, Young-Rak; Lee, Seung-Whan; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Won, Ki-Bum; Ann, Soe Hee; Kim, Yong-Giun; Kim, Shin-Jae; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Hak; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Koh, Eun Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Park, Joong-Yeol; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jaewon; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2017-09-15

    There are limited data regarding the influence of glycemic status on the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in asymptomatic individuals. We analyzed 6434 asymptomatic individuals who underwent CCTA. The degree and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were assessed by CCTA, and ≥50% diameter stenosis was defined as significant. Of study participants, 2197 (34.1%), 3122 (48.5%), and 1115 (17.3%) were categorized as normal, prediabetic and diabetic individuals, respectively. Compared with normal individuals, there were no statistically differences in the adjusted odds ratios of prediabetic individuals for significant coronary artery stenosis (0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.22, p=0.888), any plaque (0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07, p=0.483), calcified plaque (0.90, 95% CI 0.79-1.01, p=0.080), non-calcified plaque (1.02, 95% CI 0.88-1.17, p=0.803), and mixed plaque (1.00, 95% CI 0.82-1.22, p=0.983). However, adjusted odds ratios for significant coronary artery stenosis (1.71, 95% CI 1.34-2.19, pprediabetic individuals were not associated with an increased risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of suboptimal vitamin D status in people living with psychotic disorders: Data from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetani, Shuichi; Saha, Sukanta; Eyles, Darryl W; Scott, James G; McGrath, John J

    2017-09-01

    Having sufficient sera concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is important for a range of health outcomes including cardiometabolic diseases. Clinical studies in people with psychotic disorders suggest that a sizable proportion has suboptimal vitamin D status (i.e. vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency). Individuals with psychosis also have many of the risk factors associated with suboptimal vitamin D status such as smoking, obesity, and reduced physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socio-demographic and clinical correlates of vitamin D status using a large, population-based sample of adults with psychotic disorders. Data were collected as part of the Survey of High Impact Psychosis, a population-based survey of Australians aged 18-64 years with a psychotic disorder. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured in 463 participants. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was dichotomised into optimal (above 50 nmol/L) and suboptimal (below 50 nmol/L). The influence of a range of socio-demographic and clinical variables on vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. Nearly half (43.6%) of the participants had suboptimal vitamin D status. Those with (a) increased physical activity or (b) positive symptoms had significantly reduced odds of having suboptimal vitamin D status. However, there were no significant associations between suboptimal vitamin D status and other psychiatric symptom measures or cardiometabolic risk factors. Many people with psychotic disorders have suboptimal vitamin D status. As part of the routine assessment of physical health status, clinicians should remain mindful of vitamin D status in this vulnerable population and encourage the use of appropriate vitamin D supplements.

  3. Personality traits and psychotic symptoms in recent onset of psychosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, Julia; Cano-Domínguez, Pablo; de-Luis-Matilla, Antonia; Peñuelas-Calvo, Inmaculada; Espina-Eizaguirre, Alberto; Moreno-Kustner, Berta; Ochoa, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Personality in patients with psychosis, and particularly its relation to psychotic symptoms in recent onset of psychosis (ROP) patients, is understudied. The aims of this research were to study the relation between dimensional and categorical clinical personality traits and symptoms, as well as the effects that symptoms, sex and age have on clinically significant personality traits. Data for these analyses were obtained from 94 ROP patients. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were used to assess personality and symptoms. Correlational Analysis, Mann-Whitney test, and, finally, logistic regression were carried out. The negative dimension was higher in patients with schizoid traits. The excited dimension was lower for those with avoidant and depressive traits. The anxiety and depression dimension was higher for patients with dependent traits. The positive dimension was lower for patients with histrionic and higher for patients with compulsive traits. Logistic regression demonstrated that gender and the positive and negative dimensions explained 35.9% of the variance of the schizoid trait. The excited dimension explained 9.1% of the variance of avoidant trait. The anxiety and depression dimension and age explained 31.3% of the dependent trait. Gender explained 11.6% of the histrionic trait, 14.5% of the narcissistic trait and 11.6% of the paranoid trait. Finally gender and positive dimension explained 16.1% of the compulsive trait. The study highlights the importance of studying personality in patients with psychosis as it broadens understating of the patients themselves and the symptoms suffered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The diagnostic effects of s-TSH and TRH stimulating test on subclinical thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shujun; Wang Wenliang; Lu Shuyan; Zheng Linong; Hu Changjun; Fang Xiaozheng; Zheng Huian; Ma Meizhen

    2002-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the diagnostic effects of supersensitive TSH on diagnosing subclinical thyroid function with only once s-TSH detection and with TRH stimulating tests. TRH stimulating tests have been undertaken for 90 patients with different thyroid disease and 58 normal subjects. Diagnostic basal levels of s-TSH test in control group, subclinical hyperthyroidism group and subclinical hypothyroidism group were 2.20 +- 1.85 mIU/L, 0.54 +- 0.3 mIU/L and 9.08 +- 6.3 mIU/L, respectively, the levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism group were significantly higher than that of normal subjects group (P s -TSH>30 mIU/L. Dynamic observing of TRH stimulating tests have more effect than that of only once s-TSH detection in diagnosing subclinical thyroid function

  5. [Neuropsychological approach to elucidating delusion and psychotic symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Motoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological symptom-oriented approach is a critical method to elucidate delusion and psychotic symptoms in patients with focal brain damages and schizophrenia. In Capgras delusion (CD), the delusional misidentification of familiar people disguised as others, the patients with right amygdala damage and bilateral ventromedial prefrontal lesions have a deficient or reduced emotional valence of the person with intact configurational processes of the face. Reduplicative paramnesia (RP) is a specific phenomenon characterized by subjective certainty that a familiar place or person has been duplicated. Clinical evidences indicated that the patient with RP following right prefrontal damages showed the lack of emotional valence for the present hospital. This abnormal sense of familiarity triggered the deficits of the orientation of self to the outside world, that is, double orientation, resulting in the development of geographical reduplicative paramnesia. In line with the pathogenesis of CD and RP after brain damages, the delusion in schizophrenia may have a germ as developmental origins, which include the aberrant or salient perceptual experiences and abnormal sense of agency, and might be further aggravated by the impairment of causal reasoning process such as the jumping-to-conclusions bias.

  6. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christina; Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis. PMID:25811027

  7. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis.

  8. Determinants of attitudes towards professional mental health care, informal help and self-reliance in people with subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zoonen, Kim; Kleiboer, Annet; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Penninx, Brenda; Verhaak, Peter; Beekman, Aartjan

    2016-02-01

    Although little is known about which people with subclinical depression should receive care to prevent the onset of depression, it is clear that remediating symptoms of depression is important. However, depending on the beliefs people hold about help, some people will seek professional help, while others seek informal help or solve problems on their own. This study examined associations between attitudes about help and socio-demographic variables, mastery, severity of depressive symptoms, accessibility to care, and health care utilization at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Data were derived from a large cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). A total of 235 respondents with subclinical depression completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Attitude was assessed using a short version of the 'Trust in mental health care' questionnaire. Positive attitude towards professional care was associated with being male, younger age, higher mastery and easy accessibility to care. Positive attitude towards informal help was associated with higher mastery and unemployment. Older age, less accessibility to care and lower mastery were associated with positive attitude towards self-reliance. A change in care utilization was associated with positive attitudes towards professional care at follow-up. People differ in the way they cope with symptoms which may influence their preferred care. Higher levels of mastery were positively associated with professional and informal care, but negatively associated with self-reliance. Both age and mastery showed relatively large effect sizes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Romm, Lie K; Ivar Rossberg, Jan; Fredslund Hansen, Charlotte; Haug, Elisabeth; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Background Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. Method A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis...

  10. Symptomatology and social inference: a theory of mind study of schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoram, Dominic; Gardner, Clare; Burns, Jonathan; Miller, Patrick; Lawrie, Stephen M; Johnstone, Eve C

    2005-11-01

    There is evidence that certain patients with schizophrenia have deficits in theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. It is, however, unclear whether these are symptom or diagnosis-specific. A ToM hinting task was given to 15 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, 15 patients with affective disorder and 15 healthy controls. Severity of the current psychopathology was measured using the Krawiecka standardised scale of psychotic symptoms (Krawiecka, Goldberg, & Vaughan, 1977); IQ was estimated via the Ammons and Ammons Quick Test (Ammons & Ammons, 1962). The group with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than the affective and control groups. Poor performance on the hinting task was found to be significantly related to the presence of positive symptoms (instead of negative ones) and specifically related to delusions and hallucinations. These findings remained when covariance for potentially confounding variables was applied. Individuals with high levels of delusions and hallucinations performed significantly worse on this ToM task, regardless of diagnosis, implying ToM impairment is not exclusive to schizophrenia but is evident in other forms of psychosis. Between-group analyses showed the schizophrenia group had a significantly poorer performance on this task than the others.

  11. Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lui, Florence; Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren

    2018-06-01

    Studies suggest strong ethnic identity generally protects against negative mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination. In light of evidence suggesting racial discrimination may enhance psychosis risk in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations, the present study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) and whether ethnic identity moderates the association between racial discrimination and these symptoms. A sample of 644 non-help-seeking REM emerging adults was administered self-report inventories for psychosis risk, experiences of discrimination and ethnic identity. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the nature and number of ethnic identity types in this population. The direct association between ethnic identity and APPS and the interaction between ethnic identity and racial discrimination on APPS were determined in linear regression analyses. Results indicated three ethnic identity classes (very low, moderate to high and very high). Ethnic identity was not directly related to APPS; however, it was related to APPS under racially discriminating conditions. Specifically, participants who experienced discrimination in the moderate to high or very high ethnic identity classes reported fewer symptoms than participants who experienced discrimination in the very low ethnic identity class. Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection may serve a protective function for psychosis risk in racially discriminating environments and contexts among REM young adults. The possible social benefits of strong ethnic identification among REM youth who face racial discrimination should be explored further in clinical high-risk studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Aydin experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Akin; Deniz Alic Ural; Mehmet Gultekin; Kerem Ural

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The aim of this field trial was to investigate the relationships among subclinical laminitis, hematological, ruminal and faecal alterations. Materials and Methods. To this extent dairy cows presenting subclinical laminitis (n=11) and to those of other healthy cows without laminitis (n=10) were enrolled and assigned into two groups. All animals were receiving the same daily ration formulated to contain 47% cornsilage and 18% hay, mainly. Effects of subclinical laminitis chal...

  13. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den, B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model include, amongst others, the probability of spontaneous cure, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, trans...

  14. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  15. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or Hypothyroxinemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M; Thom, Elizabeth A; Peaceman, Alan M; Varner, Michael W; Sorokin, Yoram; Hirtz, Deborah G; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Thorp, John M; Saade, George; Tita, Alan T N; Rouse, Dwight J; Sibai, Baha; Iams, Jay D; Mercer, Brian M; Tolosa, Jorge; Caritis, Steve N; VanDorsten, J Peter

    2017-03-02

    Subclinical thyroid disease during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes, including a lower-than-normal IQ in offspring. It is unknown whether levothyroxine treatment of women who are identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy improves cognitive function in their children. We screened women with a singleton pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation for subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as a thyrotropin level of 4.00 mU or more per liter and a normal free thyroxine (T 4 ) level (0.86 to 1.90 ng per deciliter [11 to 24 pmol per liter]), and for hypothyroxinemia, defined as a normal thyrotropin level (0.08 to 3.99 mU per liter) and a low free T 4 level (hypothyroidism underwent randomization at a mean of 16.7 weeks of gestation, and 526 with hypothyroxinemia at a mean of 17.8 weeks of gestation. In the subclinical hypothyroidism trial, the median IQ score of the children was 97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 94 to 99) in the levothyroxine group and 94 (95% CI, 92 to 96) in the placebo group (P=0.71). In the hypothyroxinemia trial, the median IQ score was 94 (95% CI, 91 to 95) in the levothyroxine group and 91 (95% CI, 89 to 93) in the placebo group (P=0.30). In each trial, IQ scores were missing for 4% of the children. There were no significant between-group differences in either trial in any other neurocognitive or pregnancy outcomes or in the incidence of adverse events, which was low in both groups. Treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia beginning between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation did not result in significantly better cognitive outcomes in children through 5 years of age than no treatment for those conditions. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00388297 .).

  16. Massive pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade due to subclinical hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Panteleimon E; Gourniezakis, Nikolaos; Skiadas, Christos; Patrianakos, Alexandros; Gikas, Achilleas

    2018-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is a significant cause of pericardial effusion. However, large pericardial effusions due to hypothyroidism are extremely rare. Hormone replacement therapy is the cornerstone of treatment for hypothyroidism and regular follow-up of patients after initiation of the therapy is indicated. Herein, the case of a 70-year-old woman with a massive pericardial effusion due to Hashimoto's disease is presented. A 70-year-old female from a rural village on the island of Crete, Greece, was admitted to our hospital due to a urinary tract infection. She was under hormone replacement therapy with levothyroxine 100 µg once a day for Hashimoto's disease. Two years previously, the patient had had an episode of pericarditis due to hypothyroidism and had undergone a computed tomography-guided pericardiocentesis. The patient did not have regular follow-up and did not take the hormone replacement therapy properly. On admission, the patient's chest X-ray incidentally showed a possible pericardial effusion. The patient was referred for echocardiography, which revealed a massive pericardial effusion. Beck's triad was absent. Thyroid hormones were consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 30.25 mIU/mL (normal limits: 0.25-3.43); free thyroxin 4 0.81 ng/dL (normal limits: 0.7-1.94). The patient had a score of 5 on the scale outlined by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) position statement on triage strategy for cardiac tamponade and, despite the absence of cardiac tamponade, a pericardiocentesis was performed after 48 hours. The patient was treated with 125 µg levothyroxine orally once daily. This was a rare case of an elderly female patient from a rural village with chronic massive pericardial effusion due to subclinical hypothyroidism without cardiac tamponade. Hypothyroidism should be included in the differential diagnosis of pericardial effusion, especially in a case of unexplained pericardial fluid. Initiation of hormone

  17. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predict CVD. We tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers reflect different aspects...... of the inflammation associated with CVD. METHODS: We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI......) (P3: 1.31 (1.16-1.47), whereas log-CRP was not (1.00 (0.89-1.11))). CONCLUSIONS: CRP is positively associated with anthropometric measures, whereas suPAR is linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis....

  18. Optical coherence tomography and subclinical optical neuritis in longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim is to compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM eyes without previous optic neuritis with that of healthy control subjects. Methods: Over 20 LETM eyes and 20 normal control eyes were included in the study and subjected to optical coherence tomography to evaluate and compare the RNFL thickness. Result: Significant RNFL thinning was observed at 8 o'clock position in LETM eyes as compared to the control eyes (P = 0.038. No significant differences were seen in other RNFL measurements. Conclusion: Even in the absence of previous optic neuritis LETM can lead to subclinical axonal damage leading to focal RNFL thinning.

  19. Milk enzyme activities and subclinical mastitis among women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lill Brith Wium; Hartvig, Ditte Luise; Kæstel, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    research as indicators of SCM, udder health, and milk quality. Study Design: To investigate if milk enzyme activities and the inflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) level are increased in women with SCM, we measured sodium, potassium, NAGase, LDH, AcP, AP, and IL-8 in breastmilk samples collected at 2 months......Background: Subclinical mastititis (SCM) is a condition with raised milk concentration of sodium and milk immune factors. The milk enzymes N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) have attracted attention in dairy...... in univariate linear regression (p enzymes and IL-8). Conclusions: A positive association between the Na/K ratio and the breastmilk enzymes NAGase, LDH, AcP, and AP was found. Breastmilk enzymes have not previously been investigated in relation to SCM in women, and further...

  20. Unresolved Subclinical Hypothyroidism is Independently Associated with Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Oh; Lee, Ihn Suk; Choi, Yoo A; Lee, Sang Ju; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Yoon, Hye Eun; Jang, Yi Sun; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hye Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Suk Young; Hwang, Hyeon Seok

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often have subclinical hypothyroidism. However, few reports have investigated changes in the status of subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients and its clinical significance in CKD progression. Methods: We included 168 patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD stages 2-4. The normalization of subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up was assessed, and the association between transitions in subclinical hypothyroid status and the rate of decline of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. Results: At baseline, 127 patients were euthyroid and 41 (24.4%) patients were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these 41 patients, 21 (51.2%) spontaneously resolved to euthyroid during follow-up. The rate of eGFR decline of patients with resolved subclinical hypothyroidism was similar to that of euthyroid patients. The patients with unresolved subclinical hypothyroidism showed a steeper renal function decline than patients with euthyroidism or resolved subclinical hypothyroidism (all p hypothyroidism than in those who were euthyroid (p = 0.006). In multivariate linear regression for rate of eGFR decrease, unresolved subclinical hypothyroidism (β = -5.77, p = 0.001), baseline renal function (β = -0.12, p hypothyroidism did not resolve to euthyroidism, and this lack of resolution was independently associated with rapid renal function decline. PMID:24396286

  1. Associations between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and psychotic experiences in patients with psychotic disorders, their siblings and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Verweij, Kim; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Ca Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies indicated that personality characteristics contribute to symptomatic outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to further explore this connection by examining the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and a

  2. Severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with subclinical cerebro-cardiovascular atherosclerosis risk in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Yong Jae; Chung, Soo Yoon; Cho, Hee Woo; Park, Byoung Jin; Jung, Dong Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    No studies have reported the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and concurrent cerebral artery and coronary artery atherosclerosis simultaneously. We aimed at determining whether NAFLD, as assessed by ultrasound, is associated with subclinical cerebro-cardio vascular atherosclerosis (CCVA) by multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), and high resolution-magnetic resonance angiography (HR-MRA). This cross-sectional study included men in the general Korean population aged 20-70 years. A total of 1,652 men participated in the study (normal, n = 835; mild-to-moderate NAFLD, n = 512; severe NAFLD, n = 305). The risk of subclinical CCVA was positively associated with age (odds ratio [OR] 1.068; 1.054-1.081, p < 0.001), body mass index (OR 1.120; 1.08 0-1.162, p < 0.001), hepatic enzyme levels (OR 1.012; 1.001-1.023, p = 0.027; OR 1.006; 1.001-1.012, p = 0.036), fasting glucose (OR 1.021; 1.015-1.027, p < 0.001), triglycerides (OR 1.002; 1.000-1.003, p = 0.016), hypertension (OR 2.836; 2.268-3.546, p < 0.001), and diabetes (OR 2.911; 2.137-3.964, p < 0.001). Also, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with subclinical CCVA (OR 0.974; 0.965-0.982, p < 0.001). Compared with normal controls, the OR for subclinical CCVA after full adjustment was 1.46 in the mild-to-moderate NAFLD group (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.93) and 2.04 in the severe NAFLD group (95% CI: 1.44 to 2.89). Our data show that NAFLD is common among Korean men, and NAFLD severity on ultrasonography is associated with subclinical CCVA, as assessed by MDCT, and HR-MRA.

  3. Subclinical mastitis in dairy camels in Algeria: Comparison of screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla HADEF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine a threshold values and to assess the effectiveness of four indirect tests for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels comparing with bacteriological culture. One hundred fifty three milk samples from 17 lactating camels were subjected to bacteriological culture, where 84 milk samples were positive, 47 were negative and 22 samples were considered as contaminated. A total of 131 milk samples were screened by pH, electrical conductivity (EC, California mastitis test (CMT and somatic cell count (SCC. The good combination of sensitivity and specificity were obtained with a threshold of 6.55, 7.2 mS/cm, score trace was considered as CMT (+ and 240 000 cells/ml for the four tests, respectively. The sensitivity of the SCC, pH, EC and CMT was 72.61, 66.66, 47.61 and 39.28 %; the specificity 70.21, 38.02, 59.57 and 72.34 %; percentage accuracy 71.75, 51.14, 51.90 and 51.14 %; and positive predictive value 81.33, 47.61, 67.79 and 71.73 %, respectively. The SCC was significantly correlated with bacteriological culture (r = 0.415, p < 0.05. Kappa value of SCC was higher than that of other tests (SCC > CMT > EC > pH. In conclusion, the results suggest that the SCC was the most accurate, reliable, diagnostic method compared to other tests used in this study after cultural isolation for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camel under field conditions.

  4. Subclinical herpesvirus shedding among HIV-1-infected men on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Hernandez, Arcadio; Chen, Yue; Bullotta, Arlene; Buchanan, William G; Klamar-Blain, Cynthia R; Borowski, Luann; Riddler, Sharon A; Rinaldo, Charles R; Macatangay, Bernard J C

    2017-09-24

    We evaluated the subclinical shedding of six different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV-positive [HIV(+)] MSM, and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T-cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV-negative [HIV (-)] MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at four timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8. T-cell activation and plasma levels of soluble markers of inflammation and activation were also measured at the corresponding timepoints. HIV(+) participants had a trend for higher total herpesvirus shedding rate. HIV(+) participants also had a significantly higher rate of shedding EBV and CMV compared with the HIV(-) group. Herpesvirus shedding was mostly seen in throat washings. In the HIV(+) group, herpesvirus shedding rate inversely correlated with plasma levels of interferon γ-induced protein 10 and soluble CD163. CMV DNA levels negatively correlated with levels of T-cell activation. There was a trend for a positive correlation between EBV shedding rate and plasma soluble CD14. HHV6 shedding rate negatively correlated with plasma levels of interleukin-6, soluble CD163, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Correlations were not observed among HIV(-) individuals. Among treated HIV-infected MSM, there are higher subclinical shedding rates of some herpesviruses that occur in different body compartments and negatively correlate with levels of inflammation and immune activation.

  5. Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Kyoung Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort, which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES. A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT and pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. RESULTS: We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80(th percentile value of cIMT (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009, and especially in elderly men (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021. We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. CONCLUSIONS: Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk.

  6. Neurological Soft Signs In Psychoses A Comparison Between Schizophrenia & Other Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsavand. E. Noroozian. M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most important and disabling mental disorders in the world. Males and females are equally affected. Diagnosis is a very difficult problem in this disorder. Because the diagnostic systems such as ICD-10 and DSM-IV are mainly subjective, they are not valid and reliable. Essentially, in the future, we will need to more objective criteria in psychiatry especially in diagnosis of schizophrenia. Neurological soft signs are an example of these objective criteria. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients and compared it with the prevalence of these signs in other psychotic patients (except mood disorders with psychotic features and normal subjects."nMethods: We compared the neurological soft signs (sensory motor integration, motor. Coordination, consequent complex motor acts, primary reflexes, and eye movements in 30 schizophrenic patients, 30 other psychotic patients (other than mood disorders with psychotic features and 30 normal subjects. Diagnosis of schizophrenia and also other psychoses were based on DSM-IN criteria. Normal subjects have been selected form the staff of Roozbeh hospital randomly."nResults: The difference between the means of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (other than mood disorders with psychotic features were significant (P value < 0.04. There were no significant differences between the means of other subscales of neurological soft signs in two groups of patients."nConclusion: There are some disturbances of motor coordination subscale of neurological soft signs in patients with schizophrenia. It seems that, these disturbances are evidence of involvements of basal ganglia, motor cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. So it may be suggested that motor coordination as a marker can be used in differentiation between the schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  7. Neurocognitive profile in psychotic versus nonpsychotic individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Ronnie; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica; Guri, Yael; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Zackai, Elaine H; Ruparel, Kosha; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Gothelf, Doron

    2016-10-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with increased rates of psychotic disorders and cognitive deficits, but large scale studies are needed to elucidate their interaction. The objective of this two-center study was to identify the neurocognitive phenotype of individuals with 22q11DS and psychotic disorders. We hypothesized that psychotic 22q11DS individuals compared to nonpsychotic deleted individuals would have more severe neurocognitive deficits, especially in executive function and social cognition. These deficits would be present when compared to IQ- matched individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS). Three groups were ascertained from the Tel Aviv and Philadelphia centers: 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder (n=31), nonpsychotic 22q11DS (n=86) and typically-developing controls (TD, n=828). In Tel Aviv a group of individuals with WS (n=18) matched in IQ to the 22q11DS psychotic group was also included. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) was used to assess a wide-range of cognitive functions and all patients underwent structured psychiatric evaluations. 22q11DS individuals performed poorly on all CNB domains compared to TD. Participants with 22q11DS and psychosis, compared to nonpsychotic 22q11DS, had more severe deficits in global neurocognitive performance (GNP), executive function, social cognition and episodic memory domains. The primary deficits were also significant when comparing the Tel Aviv 22q11DS psychotic group to IQ-matched individuals with WS. In conclusion, 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder have specific neurocognitive deficits that are reliably identified cross nationality using the CNB. These cognitive dysfunctions should be further studied as potential endophenotypes of psychosis in 22q11DS and as targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood: evidence from a 35-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, J M; van Stockum, S; Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M

    2016-04-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in possible causal linkages between exposure to bullying victimization and later psychotic symptomatology. Prior research in this area has had several limitations which make it difficult to ascertain causality, and to determine the extent to which these effects extend beyond adolescence. Data were obtained from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 35-year study of a longitudinal birth cohort. This investigation used generalized estimating equation modelling to estimate the associations between bullying victimization (ages 13-16 years) and psychotic symptoms (ages 18-35 years), before and after controlling for possible confounding factors, including: gender; childhood socio-economic status; child intelligence quotient; exposure to sexual abuse in childhood; anxious/withdrawn behaviour and attention problems (ages 7-9 years); and adolescent psychotic symptoms and paranoid ideation (ages 15-16 years). There was a significant (p bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood. Successive models controlling for covariation reduced this association to statistical non-significance. After controlling for covariates, those with the highest level of bullying victimization had rates of psychotic symptoms that were 1.21 (95% confidence interval 0.73-1.99) times higher than those who were not victimized. The association between bullying victimization in adolescence and psychotic symptomatology in adulthood could be largely explained by childhood behavioural problems, and exposure to sexual abuse in childhood. The results suggest that bullying victimization was unlikely to have been a cause of adult psychotic symptoms, but bullying victimization remained a risk marker for these symptoms.

  9. Transdiagnostic neural markers of emotion-cognition interaction in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amri; Szekely, Akos; Kotov, Roman; Mukherjee, Prerona; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Barch, Deanna M; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2016-10-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and emotion processing are prominent impairments in psychotic disorders, and have been linked to reduced quality of life and real-world functioning. Translation of knowledge regarding the neural circuitry implementing these deficits into improved diagnosis and targeted treatments has been slow, possibly because of categorical definitions of disorders. Using the dimensional Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, we investigated the clinical and practical utility of transdiagnostic behavioral and neural measures of emotion-related WM disruption across psychotic disorders. Behavioral and functional MRI data were recorded while 53 participants with psychotic disorders and 29 participants with no history of psychosis performed a modified n-back task with fear and neutral distractors. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that psychotic symptoms entered after diagnosis accounted for unique variance in fear versus neutral accuracy and activation in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, but diagnostic group entered after psychotic symptoms did not. These results remained even after controlling for negative symptoms, disorganized symptoms, and dysphoria. Finally, worse accuracy and greater prefrontal activity were associated with poorer social functioning and unemployment across diagnostic groups. Present results support the transdiagnostic nature of behavioral and neuroimaging measures of emotion-related WM disruption as they relate to psychotic symptoms, irrespective of diagnosis. They also provide support for the practical utility of these markers in explaining real-world functioning. Overall, these results elucidate key aspects of the RDoC construct of WM maintenance by clarifying its transdiagnostic importance and clinical utility in psychotic disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SOME INDIRECT DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS AND BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IQBAL, M. AMJED1, M. A. KHAN, M. S. QURESHI1 AND U. SADIQUE1

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare five laboratory diagnostic tests for sub-clinical mastitis in cattle and buffaloes and to compute cost, time taken by each test and its ranking for availability, adoptability, interpretability and sensitivity. There were 352 cases with each test type viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Side Test (WST, White Side + Dye (WSTD, Surf Test and Surf + Dye, and 880 cases with each species type (cattle and buffaloes. Result scores (1760 for sub-clinical mastitis in each category of negative, trace, single positive, double positive and triple positive by species, and laboratory tests, were analyzed using nonparametric tests. Chi-square statistics showed that CMT was equally effective at both locations (farm vs. laboratory. Correlation further suggested that the association was highly significant. Moreover, cases in category of negative, trace and single positive strongly differed (P0.05. The study further suggested that CMT was the most sensitive test, followed by WST/WSTD and Surf/Surf + Dye. Although, the five tests showed slight discrepancy in the trace category reaction, a strong relationship of Surf Test to CMT, its low cost, easy availability and readily adoptable qualities should spur the relevant authorities to recommend the use of Surf test as a routine practice in dairy farming and add this test in the curriculum of diploma and degree programmes.

  11. Depression and anxiety mediate the relationship between temperament and character and psychotic-like experiences in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Gawęda, Łukasz

    2016-12-30

    In this study we examined the hypothesis that depression and anxiety may mediate the relationship between personality traits and both positive and negative psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in healthy adults. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale, Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to 492 healthy individuals. Multiple stepwise regression and mediation analyses were performed to examine whether depressive and anxiety symptoms influence the relationship between the TCI dimensions and positive and negative PLEs. Self-transcendence, persistence, novelty-seeking and self-directedness significantly predicted positive PLEs; self-directedness and harm avoidance were predictable for negative PLEs. Self-transcendence, self-directedness, persistence and harm avoidance also predicted the distress caused by positive PLEs, whereas self-directedness and harm avoidance predicted distress raised by negative PLEs. Depressive symptoms and the state of anxiety partially mediated the linkage between self-directedness and positive PLEs, and between self-directedness, harm avoidance and negative PLEs. Our findings confirm that the personality pattern influences both positive and negative PLEs as well as distress caused by experiencing positive and negative PLEs, and they indicate that certain personality traits may influence the development of PLEs via the emotional pathway of heightened depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Changes in Cannabis Exposure on Psychotic Symptoms in Patients With Comorbid Cannabis Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    abstract: Objective: It remains unclear whether there is an association between severity of cannabis use and psychotic symptom severity over time. Shedding light on this under-researched matter could have clinical implications for this patient group. Methods: This was a secondary analysis...... of a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, assessor-blinded trial. We followed 60 patients with dually diagnosed psychosis and cannabis use disorders from the Danish CapOpus trial, which included assessments at baseline, post-treatment (6 months) and 10 months. Cannabis use was registered by self...... with severe and persistent cannabis use (severe use group) had significantly higher scores, as compared to those with minor use, on the positive symptom (17.0, 95% CI [4.7–19.2] vs. 12.7, 95% CI [10.4–15.0], respectively, adjusted p

  13. Herd- and cow-level risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy farms from the High Plains of the northern Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, N F; Keefe, G; Dohoo, I; Sánchez, J; Arroyave, O; Cerón, J; Jaramillo, M; Palacio, L G

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is the main disease entity affecting dairy farms in the Colombian High Plains of northern Antioquia, Colombia. However, no previous epidemiologic studies have determined the characteristics that increase the risk of infection in this region, where manual milking is still the prevailing system of milking. A 24-mo longitudinal study was designed to identify the predominant mastitis pathogens and important herd- and cow-level risk factors. Monthly visits were made to 37 commercial dairy farms to collect herd- and cow-level data and milk samples. Herd size varied from 6 to 136 cows (mean 37.0, median 29). Herd-level factors included type of milking system (manual or mechanical) and a range of management practices recommended by the National Mastitis Council (Madison, WI) to prevent mastitis. Individual cow-level risk factors included parity, stage of lactation, breed, udder hygiene, and lameness. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between herd- and cow-level risk factors with the presence of subclinical mastitis and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae at the quarter level. A quarter was considered to have subclinical mastitis if it had a positive California Mastitis Test and was subsequently confirmed to have a somatic cell count of ≥200,000 cells/mL. Any cow with one or more quarters with subclinical mastitis was considered to have subclinical mastitis at the cow level. Using 17,622 cow observations, the mean prevalence of subclinical mastitis at the cow level was 37.2% (95% confidence interval: 31.2, 43.3) for the first month and did not substantially change throughout the study. The predominant microorganisms isolated from quarters meeting the subclinical mastitis definition were contagious pathogens, including Strep. agalactiae (34.4%), Corynebacterium spp. (13.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Significant variables associated with subclinical mastitis risk at the quarter level included being a purebred

  14. Increased plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activities are associated with high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T P; Liu, Y H; Yang, L X; Qin, S H; Liu, H B

    2015-10-01

    Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) is a newly identified adipokine related to these risk factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association between plasma DPP4 activities and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. A total of 985 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were studied. Plasma DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R), oxidative stress parameters, inflammatory markers and common carotid artery Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT) were measured in all participants. Participants in the highest quartile of DPP4 activity had higher HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), M6P-R, c-IMT compared with participants in the lowest quartile (all P dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles (P < 0.001 for trend). In the highest DPP4 quartile, subclinical atherosclerosis risk was significantly higher (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.03-8.17) than in the lowest quartile. This association remained strong (2.17; 1.21-3.89) after further controlling for HbA1c, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, and IL-6. This study shows that increased DPP4 activities are positively and independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest of potential role of DPP4 in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis and in the prevention and management of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of subclinical seizures during scalp video-EEG monitoring in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bo; Wang, Shan; Yang, Linglin; Shen, Chunhong; Ding, Yao; Guo, Yi; Wang, Zhongjin; Zhu, Junming; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Meiping

    2017-08-01

    This study first aimed to establish the prevalence and predictors of subclinical seizures in patients with epilepsy undergoing video electroencephalographic monitoring, then to evaluate the relationship of sleep/wake and circadian pattern with subclinical seizures. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 742 consecutive patients admitted to our epilepsy center between July 2012 and October 2014. Demographic, electro-clinical data and neuroimage were collected. A total of 148 subclinical seizures were detected in 39 patients (5.3%) during video electroencephalographic monitoring. The mean duration of subclinical seizures was 47.18 s (range, 5-311). Pharmacoresistant epilepsy, abnormal MRI and the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges were independently associated with subclinical seizures in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Subclinical seizures helped localizing the presumed epileptogenic zone in 24 (61.5%) patients, and suggested multifocal epilepsy in five (12.8%). In addition, subclinical seizures occurred more frequently in sleep and night than wakefulness and daytime, respectively, and they were more likely seen between 21:00-03:00 h, and less likely seen between 09:00-12:00 h. Thirty patients (76.9%) had their first subclinical seizures within the first 24 h of monitoring while only 7.7% of patients had their first subclinical seizures detected within 20 min. Subclinical seizures are not uncommon in patients with epilepsy, particularly in those with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, abnormal MRI or interictal epileptiform discharges. Subclinical seizures occur in specific circadian patterns and in specific sleep/wake distributions. A 20-min VEEG monitoring might not be long enough to allow for their detection.

  16. Effects of Inhibiting Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP4 in Cows with Subclinical Ketosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Schulz

    Full Text Available The inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 via specific inhibitors is known to result in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and decreased accumulation of hepatic fat in type II diabetic human patients. The metabolic situation of dairy cows can easily be compared to the status of human diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver. For both, insulin sensitivity is reduced, while hepatic fat accumulation increases, characterized by high levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and ketone bodies.Therefore, in the present study, a DPP4 inhibitor was employed (BI 14332 for the first time in cows. In a first investigation BI 14332 treatment (intravenous injection at dosages of up to 3 mg/kg body weight was well tolerated in healthy lactating pluriparous cows (n = 6 with a significant inhibition of DPP4 in plasma and liver. Further testing included primi- and pluriparous lactating cows suffering from subclinical ketosis (β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in serum > 1.2 mM; n = 12. The intension was to offer effects of DPP4 inhibition during comprehensive lipomobilisation and hepatosteatosis. The cows of subclinical ketosis were evenly allocated to either the treatment group (daily injections, 0.3 mg BI 14332/kg body weight, 7 days or the control group. Under condition of subclinical ketosis, the impact of DPP4 inhibition via BI 14332 was less, as in particular β-hydroxybutyrate and the hepatic lipid content remained unaffected, but NEFA and triglyceride concentrations were decreased after treatment. Owing to lower NEFA, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (surrogate marker for insulin sensitivity increased. Therefore, a positive influence on energy metabolism might be quite possible. Minor impacts on immune-modulating variables were limited to the lymphocyte CD4+/CD8+ ratio for which a trend to decreased values in treated versus control animals was noted. In sum, the DPP4 inhibition in cows did not affect glycaemic

  17. Effects of Inhibiting Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP4) in Cows with Subclinical Ketosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kirsten; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, Jürgen; Piechotta, Marion; Meyerholz, Maria; Breves, Gerhard; Reiche, Dania; Sauerwein, Helga; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) via specific inhibitors is known to result in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and decreased accumulation of hepatic fat in type II diabetic human patients. The metabolic situation of dairy cows can easily be compared to the status of human diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver. For both, insulin sensitivity is reduced, while hepatic fat accumulation increases, characterized by high levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ketone bodies.Therefore, in the present study, a DPP4 inhibitor was employed (BI 14332) for the first time in cows. In a first investigation BI 14332 treatment (intravenous injection at dosages of up to 3 mg/kg body weight) was well tolerated in healthy lactating pluriparous cows (n = 6) with a significant inhibition of DPP4 in plasma and liver. Further testing included primi- and pluriparous lactating cows suffering from subclinical ketosis (β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in serum > 1.2 mM; n = 12). The intension was to offer effects of DPP4 inhibition during comprehensive lipomobilisation and hepatosteatosis. The cows of subclinical ketosis were evenly allocated to either the treatment group (daily injections, 0.3 mg BI 14332/kg body weight, 7 days) or the control group. Under condition of subclinical ketosis, the impact of DPP4 inhibition via BI 14332 was less, as in particular β-hydroxybutyrate and the hepatic lipid content remained unaffected, but NEFA and triglyceride concentrations were decreased after treatment. Owing to lower NEFA, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (surrogate marker for insulin sensitivity) increased. Therefore, a positive influence on energy metabolism might be quite possible. Minor impacts on immune-modulating variables were limited to the lymphocyte CD4+/CD8+ ratio for which a trend to decreased values in treated versus control animals was noted. In sum, the DPP4 inhibition in cows did not affect glycaemic control like

  18. Effects of Inhibiting Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP4) in Cows with Subclinical Ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kirsten; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, Jürgen; Piechotta, Marion; Meyerholz, Maria; Breves, Gerhard; Reiche, Dania; Sauerwein, Helga; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) via specific inhibitors is known to result in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and decreased accumulation of hepatic fat in type II diabetic human patients. The metabolic situation of dairy cows can easily be compared to the status of human diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver. For both, insulin sensitivity is reduced, while hepatic fat accumulation increases, characterized by high levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ketone bodies.Therefore, in the present study, a DPP4 inhibitor was employed (BI 14332) for the first time in cows. In a first investigation BI 14332 treatment (intravenous injection at dosages of up to 3 mg/kg body weight) was well tolerated in healthy lactating pluriparous cows (n = 6) with a significant inhibition of DPP4 in plasma and liver. Further testing included primi- and pluriparous lactating cows suffering from subclinical ketosis (β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in serum > 1.2 mM; n = 12). The intension was to offer effects of DPP4 inhibition during comprehensive lipomobilisation and hepatosteatosis. The cows of subclinical ketosis were evenly allocated to either the treatment group (daily injections, 0.3 mg BI 14332/kg body weight, 7 days) or the control group. Under condition of subclinical ketosis, the impact of DPP4 inhibition via BI 14332 was less, as in particular β-hydroxybutyrate and the hepatic lipid content remained unaffected, but NEFA and triglyceride concentrations were decreased after treatment. Owing to lower NEFA, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (surrogate marker for insulin sensitivity) increased. Therefore, a positive influence on energy metabolism might be quite possible. Minor impacts on immune-modulating variables were limited to the lymphocyte CD4+/CD8+ ratio for which a trend to decreased values in treated versus control animals was noted. In sum, the DPP4 inhibition in cows did not affect glycaemic control like

  19. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been found to be prevalent in early onset schizophrenia. Whether these deficits also characterise other early onset psychotic disorders to a similar degree is unclear, as very few comparative studies have been done. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the prof......Cognitive deficits have been found to be prevalent in early onset schizophrenia. Whether these deficits also characterise other early onset psychotic disorders to a similar degree is unclear, as very few comparative studies have been done. The primary purpose of this study was to compare...... the profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms...... of intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...

  20. Assessing Social Networks in Patients with Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review of Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siette, Joyce; Gulea, Claudia; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social networks of patients with psychotic disorders influence symptoms, quality of life and treatment outcomes. It is therefore important to assess social networks for which appropriate and preferably established instruments should be used. To identify instruments assessing social networks in studies of patients with psychotic disorders and explore their properties. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted to identify studies that used a measure of social networks in patients with psychotic disorders. Eight instruments were identified, all of which had been developed before 1991. They have been used in 65 studies (total N of patients = 8,522). They assess one or more aspects of social networks such as their size, structure, dimensionality and quality. Most instruments have various shortcomings, including questionable inter-rater and test-retest reliability. The assessment of social networks in patients with psychotic disorders is characterized by a variety of approaches which may reflect the complexity of the construct. Further research on social networks in patients with psychotic disorders would benefit from advanced and more precise instruments using comparable definitions of and timescales for social networks across studies.

  1. The use of olanzapine in Huntington disease accompanied by psychotic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer Alhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. The disease begins between the ages of 30-50, including motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and is characterized by progressive dementia. Common psychiatric disorders of Huntington’s disease include mood and anxiety disorders, behavior and personality changes. Psychosis is relatively rare. Here, a patient is present, who has Huntington’s disease, which is associated with psychotic symptoms. 61-year-old male patient who were followed for Huntington disease for 25 years was admitted for complaints of thinking of poisoning and refuse to eat something. Patient was started on olanzapine at dose of 5 mg/day. In follow up psychotic symptoms disappeared. Emerging psychotic symptoms in Huntington disease is created a need for antipsychotic treatment. Atypical antipsychotic agents should be preferred in the treatment and as in the case olanzapine may be used as a treatment option should be kept in mind to control both involuntary movements and psychotic symptoms in Huntington's disease with psychotic features. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 326-328

  2. Structural and functional perspectives on classification and seriation in psychotic and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, L; Cowan, P A

    1984-02-01

    This study describes a strategy for examining cognitive functioning in psychotic and normal children without the usual confounding effects of marked differences in cognitive structure that occur when children of the same age are compared. Participants were 14 psychotic children, 12 males and 2 females, mean age 9-2, matched with normal children at preoperational and concrete operational stage levels on a set of Piagetian classification tasks. The mean age of the normal children was 6-4, replicating the usually found developmental delay in psychotic samples. Participants were then compared on both structural level and functional abilities on a set of tasks involving seriation of sticks; the higher-level children were also administered a seriation drawing task. Analysis of children's processes of seriating and seriation drawings indicated that over and above the structural retardation, psychotic children at all levels showed functional deficits, especially in the use of anticipatory imagery. The implications for general developmental theory are that progress in structural development is not sufficient for imaginal development, and that structural development of logical concepts is relatively independent of the development of imagery. It was suggested that "thought disorder" may not be a disordered structure of thinking or a retardation in psychotic populations but rather a mismatch between higher-level logical structures and lower-level functions.

  3. Differences in the symptom profile of methamphetamine-related psychosis and primary psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetin, Rebecca; Baker, Amanda L; Dawe, Sharon; Voce, Alexandra; Lubman, Dan I

    2017-05-01

    We examined the lifetime experience of hallucinations and delusions associated with transient methamphetamine-related psychosis (MAP), persistent MAP and primary psychosis among a cohort of dependent methamphetamine users. Participants were classified as having (a) no current psychotic symptoms, (n=110); (b) psychotic symptoms only when using methamphetamine (transient MAP, n=85); (c) psychotic symptoms both when using methamphetamine and when abstaining from methamphetamine (persistent MAP, n=37), or (d) meeting DSM-IV criteria for lifetime schizophrenia or mania (primary psychosis, n=52). Current psychotic symptoms were classified as a score of 4 or more on any of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale items of suspiciousness, hallucinations or unusual thought content in the past month. Lifetime psychotic diagnoses and symptoms were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Transient MAP was associated with persecutory delusions and tactile hallucinations (compared to the no symptom group). Persistent MAP was additionally associated with delusions of reference, thought interference and complex auditory, visual, olfactory and tactile hallucinations, while primary psychosis was also associated with delusions of thought projection, erotomania and passivity. The presence of non-persecutory delusions and hallucinations across various modalities is a marker for persistent MAP or primary psychosis in people who use methamphetamine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Integrated Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Post-traumatic Stress and Psychotic Symptoms: A Case-Series Study Using Imaginal Reprocessing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Keen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite high rates of trauma in individuals with psychotic symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms are frequently overlooked in clinical practice. There is also reluctance to treat post-traumatic symptoms in case the therapeutic procedure of reprocessing the trauma exacerbates psychotic symptoms. Recent evidence demonstrates that it is safe to use reprocessing strategies in this population. However, most published studies have been based on treating post-traumatic symptoms in isolation from psychotic symptoms. The aims of the current case series were to assess the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of integrating cognitive-behavioural approaches for post-traumatic stress and psychotic symptoms into a single protocol. Nine participants reporting distressing psychotic and post-traumatic symptoms were recruited from a specialist psychological therapies service for psychosis. Clients were assessed at five time points (baseline, pre, mid, end of therapy, and at 6+ months of follow-up by an independent assessor on measures of current symptoms of psychosis, post-traumatic stress, emotional problems, and well-being. Therapy was formulation based and individualised, depending on presenting symptoms and trauma type. It consisted of five broad, flexible phases, and included imaginal reprocessing strategies (reliving and/or rescripting. The intervention was well received, with positive post-therapy feedback and satisfaction ratings. Unusually for this population, no-one dropped out of therapy. Post therapy, all but one (88% of participants achieved a reliable improvement compared to pre-therapy on at least one outcome measure: post-traumatic symptoms (63%, voices (25%, delusions (50%, depression (50%, anxiety (36%, and well-being (40%. Follow-up assessments were completed by 78% (n = 7 of whom 86% (n = 6 maintained at least one reliable improvement. Rates of improvements following therapy (average of 44% across measures post

  5. Insulin resistance and glucose levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S.H.; Fazal, N.; Yasir, M.; Asif, N.; Rafi, T.

    2017-01-01

    To compare insulin resistance and glycemic indicators among subjects with euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology and Medicine, PNS Hafeez, Islamabad, in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from December 2015 to September 2016. Methodology: Subjects referred for executive screening of apparently healthy population (without any known history of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or other chronic ailments), were included. Subjects were grouped as euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Results: Median (IQR) insulin resistance indices including fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance in subjects with group-1 (n=176, 87%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 0.5 - 3.5 mIU/L) and group-2 (n=26, 13%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 3.51 - 15 mIU/L) were 7.6 (6.70) vs. 11.4 (13.72, p=0.040) and 1.77 (1.79) vs. 2.8 (3.07, p=0.071). The median differences for fasting plasma glucose were 5.0 (1.0) in group-1 vs. 5.0 (1.47) for Group-2 [p=0.618], and glycated hemoglobin was 5.60 (1.1) vs. 5.60 (1.7, p=0.824). Homeostasis Model Assessment for beta sensitivity index in paradox showed slightly higher values for group-2 [median (IQR) 86.67 (92.94)] than group-1 [111.6 (189.64, p= 0.040)]. Conclusion: Measures of insulin resistance including Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance and fasting insulin levels were significantly different between subjects with euthyroidism and having subclinical hypothyroidism. (author)

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Overt hypothyroidism is disease associated with accelerated arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is associated with increased cardiovascular risk is contraversial. As SH is a high prevalence thyroid dysfunction, specially in older women, it is important to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in these patients and that was the aim of this study. Methods. We examined 30 patients with SH and 20 healthy controls. Subclinical hypothireoidism was defined as an elevated thyrotropin (TSH (> 4.5 mU/L and normal free thyroxine (FT4 level. In all the participants we determined body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, TSH, FT4, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, antibodies to thyroglobulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglicerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. Results. Mean BMI in patients with SH was significantly higher (p < 0.05, as well as diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01 compared with the controls. Average levels of total cholesterol (5.40±0.62 vs 5.06±0.19 mmol/l, p < 0.01 and triglycerides (2.16±0.56 vs 1.89±0.24 mmol/l, p < 0.05 were also significantly higher in the group with SH. Individual analysis revealed that the percentage of patients with SH having borderline elevated total cholesterol (63.33%, hypertrigliceridemia (43.33% and elevated total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (26.67% were significantly higher than the percentage in the controls. No significant correlation between TSH and lipid parameters was detected. Conclusion. Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with higher BMI, diastolic hypertension, higher total cholesterol and triglicerides levels and higher total cholesterol/HDL cholesterols ratio. This might increase the risk of accelerated arteriosclerosis in patients with SH.

  7. Karolinska Scales of Personality, cognition and psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Björn Mikael; Holm, Gunnar; Ekselius, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies on both personality dimensions and cognition in schizophrenia are scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine personality traits and the relation to cognitive function and psychotic symptoms in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In total 23 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). A broad cognitive test programme was used, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, the Finger-Tapping Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test . Compared with controls, the patients exhibited prominent elevations on KSP scales measuring anxiety proneness and neuroticism (P = 0.000005-0.0001), on the Detachment scale (P < 0.00009) and lower value on the Socialization scale (P < 0.0002). The patients also scored higher on the Inhibition of Aggression, Suspicion, Guilt and Irritability scales (P = 0.002-0.03) while the remaining five scales did not differ between patients and controls. KSP anxiety-related scales correlated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) general psychopathology subscale. Cognitive test results were uniformly lower in the patient group and correlated with PANSS negative symptoms subscale. There was no association between KSP scale scores and PANSS positive or negative symptoms. The patients revealed a highly discriminative KSP test profile with elevated scores in neuroticism- and psychoticism-related scales as compared to controls. Results support previous findings utilizing other personality inventories in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive test performance correlated inversely with negative symptoms.

  8. Depressive and anxiety disorders and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to

  9. Prevalence of psychotic and non-psychotic disorders in relatives of patients with a first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Kia; Pawliuk, Nicole; King, Suzanne; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok K

    2009-10-01

    Family members of individuals with schizophrenia suffer from elevated rates of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) and other forms of psychopathology. However, few studies have examined familial psychopathology in probands with a first episode of psychosis (FEP). We systematically evaluated family history in patients experiencing an affective or non-affective FEP. The Family Interview for Genetic Studies was used to obtain diagnostic information on all first- and second-degree relatives of probands admitted to a specialized FEP program. Probands were 94 previously untreated patients suffering from a first-episode of affective or schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, aged 14 to 30. The interview ascertained diagnoses of psychotic disorders, affective disorders, substance-use disorders (SUD), and schizophrenia-related personality disorders. One in five probands (19.1%) had a history of psychosis among their first-degree relatives, while 34.0% had any relative with psychosis. Fewer probands had a family history of SSD (7.4% with a first-degree history and 18.1% with a history among any relatives). Over half (53.2%) of probands had a first-degree relative with Major Depressive Disorder, and 38.3% had a first-degree relative with a SUD. Overall, 69.9% of probands had a first-degree relative with a mental disorder. The proportion of probands with a family history of any of these diagnoses did not vary by proband diagnosis (affective or SS Psychosis), though probands with co-morbid SUD were more likely to have a family history of substance abuse. Diverse psychopathology is commonly present in families of FEP patients and may imply a generalized vulnerability to psychiatric disorders to be greater in such families compared to specific vulnerability to SS or affective psychosis. These findings may also have implications for provision of care for the probands.

  10. Possible Subclinical Leaflet Thrombosis in Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkar, Raj R; Fontana, Gregory; Jilaihawi, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A finding of reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was noted on computed tomography (CT) in a patient who had a stroke after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) during an ongoing clinical trial. This finding raised a concern about possible subclinical leaflet thrombosis...... patients and 1 of 115 patients, respectively; P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was shown in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves. The condition resolved with therapeutic anticoagulation. The effect of this finding on clinical outcomes including stroke needs further...

  11. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated...

  12. A STUDY OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN TWO HERDS, ONE MANAGED ORGANICALLY, THE OTHER CONVENTIONALLY, AND THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Thatcher, A.; Petrovski, K.; Shadbolt, N.; Martin, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis in two herds managed as a comparison between organic and conventional dairy farming systems was monitored for 9 years utilising regular bacterial culture of milk samples, individual and bulk somatic cell counts and observation by farm staff. The most important isolates in pure cultures were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Bacillus spp. Positive cultures were generally not associated with subclinical mastitis. The objective was to dev...

  13. [What support of young presenting a first psychotic episode, when schooling is being challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheron, M-N; Veyrat-Masson, H; Wehbe, E

    2017-12-01

    functionally impaired because of evolving FEP although school is a key setting for promoting positive mental health, fostering resilience, detecting and responding to emerging mental ill health. So, people with psychotic illness have low levels of secondary school completion. School dropout has been defined as leaving education without obtaining a minimal credential, most often a higher secondary education diploma. In France, the school is compulsory up to the age of 16. Consequences are significant: among young people without a degree out of initial training for one to four years and present on the labour market, 47% are unemployed. School dropout depends on a number of factors, including grades, family and social environment and the relationship with the school, but also the emergence of psychiatric disorders. For first episode psychotic patients, age of onset, lack of family support, longer duration of psychosis, levels of premorbid global functioning and education, negative and cognitive symptoms, addictions, depressive comorbidities and stigma plays an important role in school dropout. However, young adults have historically received less treatment than expected considering prevalence of mental illness at that age. In the last few decades, early intervention programs for psychosis have been developed all around the world in order to promote rehabilitation and prevent long-term disabilities. Early intervention programs focus on the special needs of young people and their families and engage in some form of assertive community treatment, which attempts to treat patients in the community rather than using inpatient services. For early intervention in psychosis programs, the goal is to keep patients engaged with treatment, prevent them from further psychotic episodes and hospitalizations and promote rehabilitation. The additional services of an early intervention program include staff specialized in psychosis treatment, family/group/individual counseling sessions, assertive

  14. Subclinical avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in human, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Horby, Peter; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le Nguyen, Hang Khanh; Hoang, Phuong Mai Vu; Nguyen, Khanh Cong; de Jong, Menno D.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Farrar, Jeremy; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern

  15. Long-term outcome in levothyroxine treated patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and concomitant heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2016-01-01

    Context: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition that may lead to impaired cardiac function. Objective: This study sought to examine the effects of levothyroxine treatment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and heart disease. Design: This was a register-based historical cohort s...

  16. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  17. Subclinical and overt thyroid dysfunction and risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2014-01-01

    hypothyroidism with TSH of 5-10 mIU/L [IRR 0.92 (95% CI 0.86-0.98)]. CONCLUSIONS: Heart failure is the leading cause of an increased cardiovascular mortality in both overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH 5-10 mIU/L might be associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality....

  18. Stochastic modelling to assess economic effects of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Swinkels, J.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  19. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Heemstra, Karen A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Schoemaker, Rik C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the

  20. Subclinical mastitis effects in some dairy herds in the Upper Chicamocha River (Boyacá Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Pinzón Trujillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to carry out a study about the effects of subclinical mastitis in cows of 34 dairy farms in the Upper Chicamocha region (Boyacá department.The farms are registered in the livestock farmers association of Boyacá (FABEGAN. This study was done with the aim to know about the infection status of cows and establish which are the principal etiologic agents associated with the disease and its relation with the milking routine. To this aim, applied comparison even tests for the productive variables to relate with the California Mastitis Test (CMT and the microbiological characterization, a blocks design under factorial 2 x 4 array to analyze the existence of significant differences between the mastitis grades, the sample season and its interaction, and blocks design under factorial 2 x 4 array to analyze the existence of significant differences among the mastitis subclinical grades, the sampling season and its interaction. 6616 quarters were submitted to the California Mastitis Test (CMT in two times and different season. The results did not show any significant differences between the two times of sampling. The positive samples according with CMT (CMT-2 and CMT-3 were submitted to microbiological tests where, in the most of the cases of mastitis, the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus was detected. They are the main etiologic agents in the disease. The results indicate the close relation between the milking routine and mastitis. The deficient practices in the milking process are the cause of dissemination and prevalence of mastitis in farms.

  1. Subclinical atherosclerosis in young patients with rheumatoid arthritis and low disease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ragni Alunni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are characterized by acceleration of atherosclerotic process of arterial wall. However, all investigations performed so far to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis in RA included subjects without selection for age and degree of disease activity that may represent confounding factors in such an evaluation. Objectives: To verify signs of accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis in young subject suffering from RA but with low disease activity. Methods: Thirty-two patients with RA and 28 age- and sex-matched control subjects with non-inflammatory rheumatic diseases were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were age less than 60 and low disease activity with score £3.2 according to DAS28, while subjects with traditional risk factors for and/or overt cardiovascular disease were ruled out from the study. Both patients and controls underwent evaluation of carotid and femoral artery intima-media thickness by ultrasounds. Results: Patients had higher intima-media thickness than controls of all the sites evaluated at carodit artery level, whereas there were no differences at the comparison of the superficial and common femoral artery wall. At the univariate analysis, a positive correlation between LDL cholesterol levels and intima-media thickness at the carotid bifurcation was found. Conclusions: Young patients with RA and low disease activity have acceleration of atherosclerosis development as shown by increased intima-media thickness of carotid artery with respect to subjects without inflammatory rheumatic disease. It is conceivable that the organic damage of arterial wall could be the result of persistent endothelial dysfunction induced by chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation which characterize RA.

  2. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes in two seasons in Semnan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narenji Sani, Reza; Mahdavi, Ali; Moezifar, Melika

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-one dairy ewe flocks selected by stratified random sampling were subjected to study the prevalence and etiology of subclinical intramammary infections and to assess the influence of parity on the prevalence of intramammary infections. Also, spontaneous cure rates were determined over study period. A total of 1192 milk samples were collected at 2 weeks after lambing until tenth-week postpartum. All flocks had hand milking; those which were classified by bacterial culture and California Mastitis Test (CMT) as positive were deemed to have glands with subclinical mastitis (SCM). Of 1192 halves examined, 791 samples were collected during spring and 401 samples were collected during summer. Prevalence rate of SCM in spring was 14.7 %; and spontaneous cure that occurred in this season was 88.8 %; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most common isolates (66.6 %). Samples collected in spring showed higher prevalence rate of SCM than summer samples. This rate was 8.9 % in summer. Spontaneous cure rate in this season was 69.4 %, and Staphylococcus aureus (72.2 %) was the most common isolates. SCM was seen at significantly lower rates in left half than in right one (p mastitis (defined as number of clinical cases per 100 ewe-months) was 0.21 and 0.74 in spring and summer, respectively. The isolates from clinical cases in spring were fungi and, from summer, were S. aureus. Also, S. aureus SCM cases were not significantly severe than other SCM cases. In conclusion, multiparous ewes were most at risk, and severity of infection was higher in summer.

  3. Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects using ultrasound radiofrequency-tracking technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Niu

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic and systemic disease and its developmental process involves the synergism of multiple risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking. The diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis is essential for strategic guidance towards suitable treatments and efficient prevention against acute cardiovascular events. This study employed ultrasound radiofrequency (RF tracking technology to characterize human carotid arteries in vivo in terms of intima-media thickness (IMT and artery stiffness, and evaluated the statistical correlation between carotid IMT and stiffness, and the number of risk factors for atherosclerosis.A total of 160 asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Ultrasound RF-tracking technology was employed to acquire carotid IMT and stiffness parameters: maximum IMT ((MAXIMT, RF Quality IMT ((RFQIMT, distensibility coefficient (DC, compliance coefficient (CC, αindex, β index and local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ. The subjects were categorized in four groups in terms of the number of risk factors: 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple', and statistical analyses of carotid IMT and stiffness parameters were performed between these different groups.The subjects (n = 145 with (MAXIMT smaller than 1.0 mm matched the IMT criteria for non-atherosclerosis and were named as NA-subjects. Spearman's rho correlation analysis of the whole group and the NA-subjects both showed that (MAXIMT correlated positively with (RFQIMT, α, β, and PWVβ, and negatively with DC and CC (p<0.01. The analysis of covariance of NA-subjects showed significant differences between subjects with and without risk factors, and also showed significant differences between the 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple' groups.The carotid IMT and stiffness parameters obtained by the ultrasound RF-tracking technology were demonstrated to possess significant statistical correlation with the number of risk factors from 160

  4. The effect of childhood trauma and Five-Factor Model personality traits on exposure to adult life events in patients with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Karin; Boyette, Lindy Lou; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Haan, Lieuwe; For Group

    2016-11-01

    Recent life events are associated with transition to and outcome in psychosis. Childhood trauma and personality characteristics play a role in proneness to adult life events. However, little is known about the relative contribution and interrelatedness of these characteristics in psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and childhood trauma (abuse and neglect) predict adult life events, and whether the effect of childhood trauma on life events is mediated by personality traits. One hundred and sixty-three patients with psychotic disorders were assessed at baseline on history of childhood maltreatment and FFM personality traits, and on recent life events at 3-year follow-up. Childhood abuse is associated with negative life events, and part of the effect of childhood abuse on negative life events is mediated by openness to experience. Openness to experience and extraversion are associated with more positive and negative life events. Childhood neglect and lower extraversion are related to experiencing less positive events. The association between childhood trauma and recent life events is partly mediated by personality. Future research could focus on mechanisms leading to positive life events, as positive life events may buffer against development of mental health problems.

  5. Prediction of the period of psychotic episode in individual schizophrenics by simulation-data construction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, El-Wui

    2010-10-01

    Although schizophrenia can be treated, most patients still experience inevitable psychotic episodes from time to time. Precautious actions can be taken if the next onset can be predicted. However, sufficient information is always lacking in the clinical scenario. A possible solution is to use the virtual data generated from limited of original data. Data construction method (DCM) has been shown to generate the virtual felt earthquake data effectively and used in the prediction of further events. Here we investigated the performance of DCM in deriving the membership functions and discrete-event simulations (DES) in predicting the period embracing the initiation and termination time-points of the next psychotic episode of 35 individual schizophrenic patients. The results showed that 21 subjects had a success of simulations (RSS) ≥70%. Further analysis demonstrated that the co-morbidity of coronary heart diseases (CHD), risks of CHD, and the frequency of previous psychotic episodes increased the RSS.

  6. Platform for systems medicine research and diagnostic applications in psychotic disorders-The METSY project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Elisabeth; Maier, Dieter; Pajula, Juha

    2018-01-01

    with detailed metabolic characterisation and multi-variate network analysis is essential in order to identify how lipid dysregulation may contribute to psychotic disorders. A decision support system, integrating clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data, was also developed in order to aid clinical......Psychotic disorders are associated with metabolic abnormalities including alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism. A major challenge in the treatment of psychosis is to identify patients with vulnerable metabolic profiles who may be at risk of developing cardiometabolic co...... these endocannabinoid abnormalities relate to metabolic changes in psychosis. Here we review recent research in the field of metabolic co-morbidities in psychotic disorders as well as the methods to study them and potential links to the endocannabinoid system. We also describe the bioinformatics platforms developed...

  7. Complex Diagnostic and Treatment Issues in Psychotic Symptoms Associated with Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Narcolepsy is an uncommon chronic, neurological disorder characterized by abnormal manifestations of rapid eye movement sleep and perturbations in the sleep-wake cycle. Accurate diagnosis of psychotic symptoms in a person with narcolepsy could be difficult due to side effects of stimulant treatment (e.g., hallucinations) as well as primary symptoms of narcolepsy (e.g., sleep paralysis and hypnagogic and/or hypnapompic hallucinations). Pertinent articles from peer-reviewed journals were identified to help understand the complex phenomenology of psychotic symptoms in patients with narcolepsy. In this ensuing review and discussion, we present an overview of narcolepsy and outline diagnostic and management approaches for psychotic symptoms in patients with narcolepsy. PMID:19724760

  8. AKT1 moderation of cannabis-induced cognitive alterations in psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkel, Ruud; van Beveren, Nico J M; Simons, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    Genetic variation in AKT1 may be associated with sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis as well as with increased risk for psychotic disorder following cannabis use. Investigation of the effect of this interaction on relevant intermediate phenotypes for psychosis, such as cognition, may help to clarify the underlying mechanism. Thus, verbal memory (visually presented Word Learning Task), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test, CPT), AKT1 rs2494732 genotype, and cannabis use were examined in a large cohort of patients with psychotic disorder. No evidence was found for AKT1 × cannabis interaction on verbal memory. Cannabis use preceding onset of psychotic disorder did interact significantly with AKT1 rs2494732 genotype to affect CPT reaction time (β=8.0, SE 3.9, p=0.037) and CPT accuracy (β=-1.2, SE 0.4, p=0.003). Cannabis-using patients with the a priori vulnerability C/C genotype were slower and less accurate on the CPT, whereas cannabis-using patients with the T/T genotype had similar or better performance than non-using patients with psychotic disorder. The interaction was also apparent in patients with psychotic disorder who had not used cannabis in the 12 months preceding assessment, but was absent in the unaffected siblings of these patients and in healthy controls. In conclusion, cannabis use before onset of psychosis may have long-lasting effects on measures of sustained attention, even in the absence of current use, contingent on AKT1 rs2494732 genotype. The results suggest that long-term changes in cognition may mediate the risk-increasing effect of the AKT1 × cannabis interaction on psychotic disorder.

  9. Hypothesis: grandiosity and guilt cause paranoia; paranoid schizophrenia is a psychotic mood disorder; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Charles Raymond

    2008-11-01

    Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called "paranoid depression," but "paranoid" became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To address whether paranoia associates more with schizophrenia or mood disorders, a selected literature is reviewed and 11 cases are summarized. Comparative clinical and recent molecular genetic data find phenotypic and genotypic commonalities between patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder lending support to the idea that paranoid schizophrenia could be the same disorder as psychotic bipolar disorder. A selected clinical literature finds no symptom, course, or characteristic traditionally considered diagnostic of schizophrenia that cannot be accounted for by psychotic bipolar disorder patients. For example, it is hypothesized here that 2 common mood-based symptoms, grandiosity and guilt, may underlie functional paranoia. Mania explains paranoia when there are grandiose delusions that one's possessions are so valuable that others will kill for them. Similarly, depression explains paranoia when delusional guilt convinces patients that they deserve punishment. In both cases, fear becomes the overwhelming emotion but patient and physician focus on the paranoia rather than on underlying mood symptoms can cause misdiagnoses. This study uses a clinical, case-based, hypothesis generation approach that warrants follow-up with a larger representative sample of psychotic patients followed prospectively to determine the degree to which the clinical course observed herein is typical of all such patients. Differential diagnoses, nomenclature, and treatment implications are

  10. 'Earning and learning' in those with psychotic disorders: the second Australian national survey of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Geoffrey; Saha, Sukanta; Harvey, Carol; Morgan, Vera A; Waterreus, Anna; Bush, Robert; Castle, David; Galletly, Cherrie; Stain, Helen J; Neil, Amanda L; McGorry, Patrick; McGrath, John J

    2012-08-01

    Participation in mainstream education and employment facilitates both the recovery and the social inclusion of people with psychotic disorders. As part of the second Australian survey of psychosis, we assessed labour force activity and participation in formal education among working age adults with psychotic disorders. Data were drawn from a large national community prevalence survey of adults with psychotic disorders. Known as the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP), it was conducted in seven Australian catchment areas during March to December 2010. Current and past year labour force activity, current employment, past year participation in formal education and vocational training, and key clinical and demographic characteristics were examined in a sample of 1825 participants. Only 22.4% of people with psychotic disorders were found to be employed (either full-time or part-time) in the month prior to the survey. In the previous 12 months, 32.7% were employed at some time. Of those in competitive employment, the majority worked part-time (63.9%), while a quarter worked 38 or more hours per week (23.4%). In terms of educational attainment, 18.4% reported difficulties with reading or writing, while 31.9% completed high school, which represents 12 years of formal education. The proportion currently employed has remained stable at 22% since the last national survey in 1997. Policy makers and service providers could do more to ensure people with psychotic disorders obtain access to more effective forms of assistance with respect to both their continuing education and employment. More effective vocational and educational interventions for people with psychotic disorders appear to be urgently needed.

  11. No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Aleida; van Os, Jim; Habets, Petra; Gronenschild, Ed; Marcelis, Machteld

    2017-01-01

    The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT). Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk]) and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent. T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions) and cortical CT as the dependent variable. CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001), but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31). There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91). Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16), nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77). The negative association between (familial risk for) psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban upbringing'.

  12. No Evidence of Association between Childhood Urban Environment and Cortical Thinning in Psychotic Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleida Frissen

    Full Text Available The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT. Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk] and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent.T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions and cortical CT as the dependent variable.CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001, but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31. There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91. Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16, nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77.The negative association between (familial risk for psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy environmental factor 'urban

  13. Psychosomatic regularities of psychotic disorders of women in involution (pathogenesis, clinics, psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Pustovoyt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of psychotic disorders with onset in the age of involution from broader perspective, guided by modern multidimensional paradigm, was never discussed before. Involutional psychosis is considered as a constellation of the biological changes that are irrefutable in this age period. Certain personality traits and coping strategies can be predisposing to psychotic response, as well as typical features of the “life curve” and external stressors that can run a psychotic reaction. The paper presents the result of our study. This study pays much attention to study of premorbid personality, with emphasis on characteristic features, peculiarities of the emotional reaction and motivation-behavioral area, which completely coincided with characteristics of the narcissistic personality disorder listed in DSM-V (2013. Aim: To explore the psychosomatic pathogenetic connections inherent involutionary psychosis, given pathogenic and pathoplastic impact of premorbid personality structure their syndromic form and dynamics, determine their place on the psychosomatic continuum and develop adequate and pathogenetic justified method of therapy. Methods. Data obtained by the clinical method were confirmed by the results of experimental psychological and neuropsychological researches. Results. Clinical characteristics of psychotic disorders in the patient population showed in the structure of psychosis the existence of two oppositely directed continuums: affective (depressive and delusional. This allows to allocate four main clinical forms of psychosis and their tendency to unite in two clusters that differed each other by the features, and also by their response to therapy and, therefore, by the prognosis. Conclusions: The psychodynamic approach to understanding the involutional psychosis, that was introduced by the author, got natural development in the proposed method of treatment that included complex medication and psychotherapy. The schemes of

  14. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, psychotic and severe non-psychotic depression and healthy controls. Results of the schizophrenia and affective psychoses (SAP) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salokangas, R K R; Cannon, T; Van Erp, T; Ilonen, T; Taiminen, T; Karlsson, H; Lauerma, H; Leinonen, K M; Wallenius, E; Kaljonen, A; Syvälahti, E; Vilkman, H; Alanen, A; Hietala, J

    2002-09-01

    Structural brain abnormalities are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. To study how regional brain volumes and their ratios differ between patients with schizophrenia, psychotic depression, severe non-psychotic depression and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain on first-episode patients and on healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia had a smaller left frontal grey matter volume than the other three groups. Patients with psychotic depression had larger ventricular and posterior sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes than controls. Patients with depression had larger white matter volumes than the other patients. Left frontal lobe, especially its grey matter volume, seems to be specifically reduced in first-episode schizophrenia. Enlarged cerebral ventricles and sulcal CSF volumes are prevalent in psychotic depression. Preserved or expanded white matter is typical of non-psychotic depression.

  15. [Relationship of insight with depression and suicidal ideation in psychotic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelaros, E; Zournatzis, E; Kontstantakopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    The associations of insight into psychosis (i.e., awareness of illness) with clinical variables have been examined by a great number of studies. Most of these studies revealed that the level of insight is negatively correlated with psychotic symptoms but positively correlated with depression and suicidal ideation. The aim of this study was to test these findings in a Greek sample of patients. Forty-three outpatients (30 men and 13 women) with schizophrenia or delusional disorder being followed up at the Mental Health Centre of Kavala took part in the study. Patients with bipolar or schizoaffective disorder were excluded. Patients' mean age was 40.7 years and the mean duration of illness was 18.67 years. All participants were under treatment and clinically stable at the time of the study. We used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for the assessment of positive and negative symptoms, the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) to assess the insight into psychosis, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) for the evaluation of depression recording separately the score for item 10 as an estimate of suicidal ideation. All the scales used have been adapted to Greek population. We used Spearman rho coefficient to assess the strength of correlations between the scales because the distributions of some scores were not normal. In order to assess the predictive value of insight for depression and suicidal ideation, we used hierarchical linear regression analysis. Correlation coefficients between SAI-E and the clinical scales of psychopathology, depression and suicide ideation was statistically significant at the pregression analysis showed that our model of positive and negative psychopathology and insight explained 47.4% of the variance of depression and 32.2% of the variance of suicidal ideation. The predictive value of insight was critically important, because only after the introduction of the SAI-E score in the analysis our

  16. Frequency of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Brazilian HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmazo, Péricles Sidnei; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Shiraishi, Flávio Gobbis; Bazan, Rodrigo; Okoshi, Katashi; Hueb, João Carlos

    2018-04-09

    AIDS as well as atherosclerosis are important public health problems. The longer survival among HIV-infected is associated with increased number of cardiovascular events in this population, and this association is not fully understood. To identify the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients compared to control subjects; to analyze associations between atherosclerosis and clinical and laboratory variables, cardiovascular risk factors, and the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score (FCRS). Prospective cross-sectional case-control study assessing the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in 264 HIV-infected patients and 279 controls. Clinical evaluation included ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries, arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), laboratory analysis of peripheral blood, and cardiovascular risk according to FCRS criteria. The significance level adopted in the statistical analysis was p media thickness was higher in the HIV group than in controls (p media thickness, was not associated with carotid plaque frequency, and did not alter the mechanical characteristics of the arterial system (PWV and AIx). HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of atherosclerosis in association with classical cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment with protease inhibitors does not promote functional changes in the arteries, and shows no association with increased frequency of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries. The FCRS may be inappropriate for this population.

  17. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and neighbourhood deprivation in an urban region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragano, Nico; Hoffmann, Barbara; Stang, Andreas; Moebus, Susanne; Verde, Pablo E.; Weyers, Simone; Moehlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Mann, Klaus; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Siegrist, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Inhabitants of deprived neighbourhoods are at higher risk of coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate the hypothesis that social inequalities at neighbourhood level become already manifest in subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, as defined by electron-beam computed tomography derived measures. Coronary artery calcification was assessed as a marker of atherosclerosis in a population based sample of 4301 men and women (45-75 years) without a history of coronary heart disease. Participants lived in three adjacent cities in Germany and were examined between 2000 and 2003 as part of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Individual level data was combined with neighbourhood level information about unemployment, welfare and living space per inhabitant. This dataset was analysed with descriptive and multilevel regression methods. An association between neighbourhood deprivation and subclinical coronary calcification was observed. After adjustment for age and individual socioeconomic status male inhabitants of high unemployment neighbourhoods had an odds ratio of 1.45 (1.11, 1.96) of exhibiting a high calcification score (>75th percentile) compared to men living in low unemployment areas. The respective odds for women was 1.29 (0.97, 1.70). Additional explorative analyses suggest that clustering of unhealthy lifestyles in deprived neighbourhoods contributes to the observed association. In conclusion, findings suggest that certain neighbourhood characteristics promote the emergence of coronary atherosclerosis. This might point to a pathway from neighbourhood deprivation to manifest coronary heart disease

  18. Outcome of in vitro fertilization in women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, YunYing; Zhong, LanPing; Guan, Jie; Guo, RuiJin; Niu, Ben; Ma, YanPing; Su, Heng

    2017-05-25

    Previous studies examining associations between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome indicate some benefits of levothyroxine (LT4) treatment. But IVF outcomes in treated SCH women whose serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) concentration did and did not exceed 2.5 mIU/L before the IVF cycle has not been studied thoroughly. In this study, we performed a prospective cohort study with 270 treated subclinical hypothyroidism patients undergoing their first IVF retrieval cycle at a single cite. SCH in women receiving LT4 replacement with a basal TSH level between 0.2-2.5mIU/L displayed a similar rate of clinical pregnancy (47.4% vs 38.7%, P = .436), miscarriage (7.4% vs 16.7%, P = .379) and live birth (43.9% vs 32.3%, P = .288) compared to women with a basal TSH level between 2.5-4.2 mIU/L. Strictly controlled TSH (less than 2.5 mIU/L) before IVF may have no effect on the pregnancy rate in LT4 treated SCH women.

  19. Does Subclinical Malabsorption of Carbohydrates Prevent Colorectal Cancer? A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Dorcen Bolin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC is high in the western world and low in Asia and Africa. Fibre and starch are thought to be important protective factors, with a strong inverse relationship between starch consumption and CRC incidence. Whether this is true in Asia, particularly, and Africa is debatable. Because rice is the most easily absorbed of carbohydrates, a mechanism whereby there is an increased starch load in the colon in the Asian population needs to be identified. One possible cause is subclinical malabsorption. This is linked to increased mucosal permeability and low gross domestic product (GDP per capita, which reflects poor sanitation and water supplies with increased risk for small bowel bacterial overgrowth leading to mucosal cell damage. A potential cause of the dramatic rise in CRC incidence in Japan may relate to its equally dramatic increase in GDP per capita of 600% over 50 years. This correlation appears to be stronger than with other dietary factors including fruit, vegetables and meat. Worldwide, a close correlation exists among low GDP per capita, low CRC incidence and presumed subclinical malabsorption. All these factors combine to maintain a low incidence of CRC in poorly developed countries.

  20. Subclinical thyrotoxicosis in an outpatient population - predictors of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Belinda J; Brownlie, Bevan E W; Frampton, Chris M; Turner, John G

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with endogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis (SCT) may subsequently require treatment for overt disease. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of progression to hyperthyroidism and factors influencing this outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of outcome in 96 consecutive patients (aged 16-91 years) diagnosed with SCT over a 6-year period. Individuals with secondary causes of TSH suppression were excluded. Mean follow-up was 3·8 years. The significance of age, gender, family history of thyrotoxicosis, symptoms at presentation, thyroid nodule(s) on clinical examination, entry TSH level, antithyroid antibody status and (99m) Tc pertechnetate thyroid imaging results on subsequent development of overt thyrotoxicosis was assessed. Progression to overt thyrotoxicosis was seen in 8% at 1 year, 16% at 2 years, 21% at 3 years and 26% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis determined that diagnosis as determined by scintiscan to be the only independent predictor of outcome (P = 0·003) with the cumulative percentage requiring therapy at 5 years being 9% for subclinical Graves' disease, 21% for multinodular goitre and 61% for the autonomous nodule subgroup. Progression of SCT to overt hyperthyroidism occurred at a rate of 5-8% per year with disease aetiology, as determined by thyroid scintigraphy, significantly influencing risk of progression. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Severity of Illness and Adaptive Functioning Predict Quality of Care of Children Among Parents with Psychotic Disorders : A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, L.; Hanlon, M.--C.; Cherrie, G.; Harvey, C.; Stain, H. J.; Cohen, M.; van Ravenzwaaij, D.; Brown, S. D.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parenthood is central to the personal and social identity of many people. For individuals with psychotic disorders, parenthood is often associated with formidable challenges. We aimed to identify predictors of adequate parenting among parents with psychotic disorders. METHODS: Data

  3. Intermediate phenotype analysis of patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls identifies VMAT2 as a candidate gene for psychotic disorder and neurocognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, C.J.; van Winkel, R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.S.; Krabbendam, L.; Linzen, D.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic disorders are associated with neurocognitive alterations that aggregate in unaffected family members, suggesting that genetic vulnerability to psychotic disorder impacts neurocognition. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selected schizophrenia candidate single

  4. Treatment of unipolar psychotic depression : a randomized, double-blind study comparing imipramine, venlafaxine, and venlafaxine plus quetiapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, J.; Burger, H.; van den Broek, W. W.; Birkenhager, T. K.; Janzing, J. G. E.; Boks, M. P. M.; Bruijn, J. A.; van der Loos, M. L. M.; Breteler, L. M. T.; Ramaekers, G. M. G. I.; Verkes, R. J.; Nolen, W. A.

    Objective: It remains unclear whether unipolar psychotic depression should be treated with an antidepressant and an antipsychotic or with an antidepressant alone. Method: In a multi-center RCT, 122 patients (18-65 years) with DSM-IV-TR psychotic major depression and HAM-D-17 >= 18 were randomized to

  5. Treatment of unipolar psychotic depression: a randomized, double-blind study comparing imipramine, venlafaxine, and venlafaxine plus quetiapine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, J.; Burger, H.; Broek, W.W. van den; Birkenhäger, T.K.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Boks, M.P.; Bruijn, J.A.; Loos, M.L. van der; Breteler, L.M.; Ramaekers, G.M.; Verkes, R.J.; Nolen, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether unipolar psychotic depression should be treated with an antidepressant and an antipsychotic or with an antidepressant alone. METHOD: In a multi-center RCT, 122 patients (18-65 years) with DSM-IV-TR psychotic major depression and HAM-D-17 > or = 18 were

  6. Stability and development of psychotic symptoms and the use of antipsychotic medication - long-term follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, D R; Wils, R S; Hjorthøj, C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the development in the use of antipsychotic medication and psychotic symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis on a long-term basis. Our objective was to investigate how psychotic symptoms and the use of antipsychotic medication changed over a 10-yea...

  7. An Open Trial of a New Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment for Major Depression with Psychotic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Brown, Lily A.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that cognitive and behavioral therapies produce significant benefits over medications alone in the treatment of severe, nonpsychotic major depression or primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, previous research has not demonstrated the efficacy of psychotherapy for major depression with psychotic features. In…

  8. Increased psychophysiological parameters of attention in non-psychotic individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Oranje, Bob; Abramovic, Lucija

    2010-01-01

    with an auditory oddball paradigm in 18 non-psychotic individuals with AVH and 18 controls. RESULTS: P300 amplitude was increased in the AVH group as compared to controls, reflecting superior effortful attention. A trend in the same direction was found for processing negativity. No significant differences were...... found for mismatch negativity. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our expectations, non-psychotic individuals with AVH show increased rather than decreased psychophysiological measures of effortful attention compared to healthy controls, refuting a pivotal role of decreased effortful attention...

  9. Excess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate mortality and causes of death of short-lived psychotic disorders, by carrying out a comparison with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Method: Record linkage study to the official register of causes of death of all cases aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time...... in the Danish Psychiatric Register between 1995 and 2008 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPDs; n = 4157), bipolar disorder (n = 3200) and schizophrenia (n = 4576). Results: A total of 232 patients (5.6%) with ATPDs, 172 (5.4%) with bipolar disorder and 233 (5...

  10. Symptom severity scale of the DSM5 for schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders: diagnostic validity and clinical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsner, Michael S; Mar, Maria; Arbitman, Marina; Grinshpoon, Alexander

    2013-06-30

    Innovations in DSM5 include dimensional diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) and other psychotic (OP) disorders using the symptom severity scale (SS-DSM5). We evaluated the psychometric properties and diagnostic validity of the SS-DSM5 scale using a cross-sectional design and an unselected convenience unselected sample of 314 inpatients and outpatients with SZ/OP and mood disorders who received standard care in routine clinical practice. The SS-DSM5 scale, the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale (BRMS) were administered. Factor structure, reliability, internal consistency, convergent and diagnostic ability of the DSM5-SS were evaluated. Factor analysis indicated two latent factors underlying the SS-DSM5 (Psychotic and Deficit sub-scales). Cronbach's alpha was >0.70. Convergent validity of the SS-DSM5 was highly significant. Patients with SZ/PO disorders were correctly diagnosed (77.9%) using the SS-DSM5 scale (72% using PANSS). The agreement of the diagnostic decisions between the SS-DSM5 and PANSS was substantial for SZ/PO disorders (Kappa=0.75). Classifying participants with SZ/PO versus mood disorders using SS-DSM5 provided a sensitivity of 95%, and specificity of 34%. Thus, this study suggests that the SS-DSM5 has acceptable psychometric properties and that its use in clinical practice and research is feasible in clinical settings. The dimensional option for the diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders using SS-DSM5 is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular genetic models related to schizophrenia and psychotic illness: heuristics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Desbonnet, Lieve; Moran, Paula M; Kirby, Brian P; Waddington, John L

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heritable disorder that may involve several common genes of small effect and/or rare copy number variation, with phenotypic heterogeneity across patients. Furthermore, any boundaries vis-à-vis other psychotic disorders are far from clear. Consequently, identification of informative animal models for this disorder, which typically relate to pharmacological and putative pathophysiological processes of uncertain validity, faces considerable challenges. In juxtaposition, the majority of mutant models for schizophrenia relate to the functional roles of a diverse set of genes associated with risk for the disorder or with such putative pathophysiological processes. This chapter seeks to outline the evidence from phenotypic studies in mutant models related to schizophrenia. These have commonly assessed the degree to which mutation of a schizophrenia-related gene is associated with the expression of several aspects of the schizophrenia phenotype or more circumscribed, schizophrenia-related endophenotypes; typically, they place specific emphasis on positive and negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, and extend to structural and other pathological features. We first consider the primary technological approaches to the generation of such mutants, to include their relative merits and demerits, and then highlight the diverse phenotypic approaches that have been developed for their assessment. The chapter then considers the application of mutant phenotypes to study pathobiological and pharmacological mechanisms thought to be relevant for schizophrenia, particularly in terms of dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysfunction, and to an increasing range of candidate susceptibility genes and copy number variants. Finally, we discuss several pertinent issues and challenges within the field which relate to both phenotypic evaluation and a growing appreciation of the functional genomics of schizophrenia and the involvement of gene × environment interactions.

  12. Vocational rehabilitation for adults with psychotic disorders in a Scandinavian welfare society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkum, Erik; Klungsøyr, Ole; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen Christine; Evensen, Stig; Martinsen, Egil W; Friis, Svein; Ueland, Torill

    2017-01-17

    This study examined the outcomes of a vocational rehabilitation program (The Job Management Program, JUMP) for persons with psychotic disorders based on close collaboration between health and welfare services. Participants (N = 148) with broad schizophrenia spectrum disorders (age 18-65) were recruited from six counties in Norway. Three counties were randomized to vocational rehabilitation augmented with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), while the remaining three counties were randomized to vocational rehabilitation augmented with cognitive remediation (CR). This paper compares the vocational activity of the total group of JUMP participants with a treatment as usual group (N = 341), and further examines differences between the two JUMP interventions. Employment status (working/not working) was registered at the time of inclusion and at the end of the intervention period. The total number of JUMP participants in any kind of vocational activity increased from 17 to 77% during the intervention. Of these, 8% had competitive employment, 36% had work placements in ordinary workplaces with social security benefits as their income, and 33% had sheltered work. The total number of working participants in the TAU group increased from 15.5 to 18.2%. The JUMP group showed significant improvements of positive (t = -2.33, p = 0.02) and general (t = -2.75, p = 0.007) symptoms of psychosis. Significant differences between the CBT and CR interventions were not demonstrated. The study supports existing evidence that the majority of persons with broad schizophrenia spectrum disorders can cope with some kind of work, given that internal and external barriers are reduced. Those who wish to work should be offered vocational rehabilitation. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01139502 . Registered on 6 February 2010.

  13. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, David J; Rodondi, Nicolas; Kearney, Patricia M; Ford, Ian; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Mooijaart, Simon P; Sattar, Naveed; Aubert, Carole E; Aujesky, Drahomir; Bauer, Douglas C; Baumgartner, Christine; Blum, Manuel R; Browne, John P; Byrne, Stephen; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Dekkers, Olaf M; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Du Puy, Robert S; Ellis, Graham; Feller, Martin; Floriani, Carmen; Hendry, Kirsty; Hurley, Caroline; Jukema, J Wouter; Kean, Sharon; Kelly, Maria; Krebs, Danielle; Langhorne, Peter; McCarthy, Gemma; McCarthy, Vera; McConnachie, Alex; McDade, Mairi; Messow, Martina; O'Flynn, Annemarie; O'Riordan, David; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E; Quinn, Terence J; Russell, Audrey; Sinnott, Carol; Smit, Jan W A; Van Dorland, H Anette; Walsh, Kieran A; Walsh, Elaine K; Watt, Torquil; Wilson, Robbie; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2017-06-29

    The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older persons with this condition. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving 737 adults who were at least 65 years of age and who had persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin level, 4.60 to 19.99 mIU per liter; free thyroxine level within the reference range). A total of 368 patients were assigned to receive levothyroxine (at a starting dose of 50 μg daily, or 25 μg if the body weight was Hypothyroid Symptoms score and Tiredness score on a thyroid-related quality-of-life questionnaire at 1 year (range of each scale is 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more symptoms or tiredness, respectively; minimum clinically important difference, 9 points). The mean age of the patients was 74.4 years, and 396 patients (53.7%) were women. The mean (±SD) thyrotropin level was 6.40±2.01 mIU per liter at baseline; at 1 year, this level had decreased to 5.48 mIU per liter in the placebo group, as compared with 3.63 mIU per liter in the levothyroxine group (PHypothyroid Symptoms score (0.2±15.3 in the placebo group and 0.2±14.4 in the levothyroxine group; between-group difference, 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.0 to 2.1) or the Tiredness score (3.2±17.7 and 3.8±18.4, respectively; between-group difference, 0.4; 95% CI, -2.1 to 2.9). No beneficial effects of levothyroxine were seen on secondary-outcome measures. There was no significant excess of serious adverse events prespecified as being of special interest. Levothyroxine provided no apparent benefits in older persons with subclinical hypothyroidism. (Funded by European Union FP7 and others; TRUST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01660126 .).

  14. The diagnostic value of late-night salivary cortisol for diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Idris; Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Demir, Nazan; Aktas, Gokce; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Late-night salivary cortisol is a frequently used and easily implemented diagnostically valuable test for the diagnosis of overt Cushing's syndrome. The use of late-night salivary cortisol in the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome is somewhat controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic value of late-night salivary cortisol in diagnosing subclinical Cushing's syndrome and compare it with 24-hour urinary free cortisol levels (UFC). The study consisted of 33 cases of subclinical Cushing's syndrome, 59 cases of non-functioning adrenal adenoma, and 41 control subjects. Late-night salivary cortisol and UFC were measured in all the cases. The diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome was based on combined results of 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test > 1.8 μg/dL and ACTH Cushing's syndrome were significantly higher than in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma and the control group (p Cushing's syndrome were determined as 82% and 60%, respectively. Using a cut-off value of 137 μg/day, the sensitivity and specificity of UFC was determined as 18% and 90%, respectively. Because the sensitivity of late-night salivary cortisol for the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome is limited, using it as the sole screening test for subclinical Cushing's syndrome may lead to false negative results. However, using it as an adjunct test to other tests may be beneficial in the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 487-492).

  15. Impact on the psychotic vulnerability of the therapeutic approachin the Prison Psychiatric Hospital in Seville (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé-García, P; Lamas-Bosque, F J; Massé-Palomo, A

    2017-06-01

    to analyze changes in psychotic vulnerability following the implementation of a program of prison psychiatric treatment, recidivism after the release and various descriptive variables of criminological interest. review of a sample consisting of 50 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia admitted to the Prison Psychiatric Hospital of Seville. there was a statistically significant reduction of psychotic vulnerability according to an assessment using the Frankfurt psychopathological inventory (FBF-3), after conducting a complete psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in the prison environment. The core symptoms relating to complex perception and language also decreased significantly. The reduction is particularly noticeable in the number of patients categorized as medium-high and high severity. Recidivism in the follow-up of release of patients in the study sample is low (6%) and there were no cases of serious felony or grievous bodily harm. Recidivism, when it occurs, is not immediate. Although there is some criminal versatility, it is limited. The most frequent victims are parents with a previous relationship with the patient. Most of the patients in the sample, and all recidivists, have comorbid substance abuse (dual diagnosis). we need more comprehensive studies to establish causal relationships between the decrease in psychotic vulnerability and an integrated psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in prisons; or to attribute the low rate of recidivism to the decline of psychotic vulnerability.

  16. Ethnicity, social disadvantage and psychotic-like experiences in a healthy population based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C; Fisher, H; Hutchinson, G; Kirkbride, J; Craig, T K; Morgan, K; Dazzan, P; Boydell, J; Doody, G A; Jones, P B; Murray, R M; Leff, J; Fearon, P

    2009-03-01

    We sought to investigate the prevalence and social correlates of psychotic-like experiences in a general population sample of Black and White British subjects. Data were collected from randomly selected community control subjects, recruited as part of the AESOP study, a three-centre population based study of first-episode psychosis. The proportion of subjects reporting one or more psychotic-like experience was 19% (n = 72/372). These were more common in Black Caribbean (OR 2.08) and Black African subjects (OR 4.59), compared with White British. In addition, a number of indicators of childhood and adult disadvantage were associated with psychotic-like experiences. When these variables were simultaneously entered into a regression model, Black African ethnicity, concentrated adult disadvantage, and separation from parents retained a significant effect. The higher prevalence of psychotic-like experiences in the Black Caribbean, but not Black African, group was explained by high levels of social disadvantage over the life course.

  17. How do General Practitioners experience providing care for their psychotic patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slooff Cees J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, GPs usually provide care for patients with chronic diseases according to professional guidelines. However, such guidelines are not available in the Netherlands for patients with recurring psychoses. It seems that the specific difficulties that GPs experience in providing care for these patients hinder the development and implementation of such guidelines. This study aims to explore the chances and problems GPs meet when providing care for patients susceptible for recurring psychoses, including schizophrenia and related disorders, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. Methods A qualitative study of focus group discussions with practising GPs in both town and rural areas. Transcripts from three focus groups with 19 GPs were analysed with the computer program 'Kwalitan'. Theoretical saturation was achieved after these three groups. Results Analysis showed that eight categories of factors influenced the GPs' care for psychotic patients: patient presentation (acute vs. chronic phase, emotional impact, expertise, professional attitude, patient related factors, patient's family, practice organization, and collaboration with psychiatric specialists. Conclusion Current primary care for psychotic patients depends very much on personal characteristics of the GP and the quality of local collaboration with the Mental Health Service. A quantitative study among GPs using a questionnaire based on the eight categories mentioned above would determine the extent of the problems and limitations experienced with this type of care. From the results of this quantitative study, new realistic guidelines could be developed to improve the quality of care for psychotic patients.

  18. Symptomatological features of patients with and without Ecstasy use during their first psychotic episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Fabio; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rovai, Luca; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Deltito, Joseph; Dell'osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2012-07-01

    Ecstasy use is generally chosen by adolescents and young adults for its entactogenic properties (the production of feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others.) Despite this desired and frequently realized outcome, Ecstasy use has often resulted in the genesis of psychotic symptoms and aggressive behaviors, particularly after chronic and/or intensive use. To explore the negative consequences of Ecstasy use and to examine the aggressive nature oftentimes seen in many Ecstasy users we employed a case-control study model. We compared, by means of validated psychometric tests, the psychopathological symptoms (BPRS), the aggressiveness (OAS) and the social adjustment (DSM-GAF) of psychotic patients with (n = 23) and without (n = 46) recent user of Ecstasy, during their first psychotic episode and hospitalization. All 23 Ecstasy users were Ecstasy users only. Almost all of the psychotic symptoms were of similar severity in both groups. Blunted affect was milder in users than in non-users, whereas hostility and aggressive behavior was significantly more severe in users than in non-users. psychosis with a high level of aggressiveness and violence constitutes an important 'side-effect' that surely runs counter to the expected entactogenic action of Ecstasy. At a patient psycho-educational level, this study suggests that the use of Ecstasy may be counterproductive with respect to user expectations.

  19. Psychotic experiences and hyper-theory-of-mind in preadolescence - a birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemmensen, L.; van Os, J.; Drukker, M.; Munkholm, A.; Rimvall, M. K.; Vaever, M.; Rask, C. U.; Bartels-Velthuis, A. A.; Skovgaard, A. M.; Jeppesen, P.

    Background. Knowledge on the risk mechanisms of psychotic experiences (PE) is still limited. The aim of this population-based study was to explore developmental markers of PE with a particular focus on the specificity of hyper-theory-of-mind (HyperToM) as correlate of PE as opposed to correlate of

  20. Mentally disordered non-psychotic criminal offenders--treatment instead of punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Ejnar Alex

    2013-01-01

    By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures as sanctions...