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Sample records for subclinical nuclear schizophrenia

  1. Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis and diastolic dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cüneyt Ünsal,1 Mustafa Oran,2 Hande Oktay Tureli,3 Seref Alpsoy,4 Sema Yesilyurt,5 Mehtap Arslan,6 Birol Topcu,7 Osman Karakaya,8 Erhan Kurt6 1Department of Psychiatry, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Cardiology, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Bağcilar Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry Neurology and Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey; 7Department of Biostatistics, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 8Department of Social Service, Yalova University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Yalova, Turkey Background: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with early mortality compared with the nonschizophrenic population. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in asymptomatic periods in patients with schizophrenia would enhance their quality of life and reduce mortality. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, and ankle brachial index (ABI measurement are known to be beneficial methods of detecting subclinical cardiovascular diseases and of risk stratification. The present study investigated carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ABI and echocardiographic parameters measured via conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with a control group. Methods: The present case-control study included 116 patients with schizophrenia and 88 healthy patients. Participants with any current comorbid psychiatric disorder, current or lifetime neurological and medical problems, current coronary artery disease, diabetes

  2. The relationship between sub-clinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms and social cognition in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Alexis E; Henry, Julie D

    2013-06-01

    Comorbid obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia are related to poorer cognitive performance and functional outcomes, but no study to date has assessed whether this comorbidity might also have implications for social cognition. The aim of the present study was to provide the first test of this possibility. Individuals with schizophrenia (n = 34) and demographically matched non-clinical controls (n = 44) were assessed on two of the most important aspects of social cognitive function (1) facial affect recognition and (2) theory of mind, alongside more standard measures of cognitive function. The presence of OC symptoms was related to poorer performance on some of the cognitive measures, as well as one of the social cognitive measures (facial affect recognition). However, these relationships disappeared after controlling for scores on more general indices of schizophrenia psychopathology. The presence of OC symptoms in schizophrenia is not only associated with increased cognitive impairment but also increased difficulties with at least some aspects of social cognitive function. However, these relationships appear to reflect the elevated levels of psychopathology seen in this cohort more generally, rather than being uniquely attributable to OC symptomatology. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. (1)H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows with clinical and subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L W; Zhang, H Y; Wu, L; Shu, S; Xia, C; Xu, C; Zheng, J S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the metabolic profile of plasma samples from cows with clinical and subclinical ketosis. According to clinical signs and 3-hydroxybutyrate plasma levels, 81 multiparous Holstein cows were selected from a dairy farm 7 to 21 d after calving. The cows were divided into 3 groups: cows with clinical ketosis, cows with subclinical ketosis, and healthy control cows. (1)H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to assess the plasma metabolic profiles of the 3 groups. The data were analyzed by principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The differences in metabolites among the 3 groups were assessed. The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis model differentiated the 3 groups of plasma samples. The model predicted clinical ketosis with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. In the case of subclinical ketosis, the model had a sensitivity of 97.0% and specificity of 95.7%. Twenty-five metabolites, including acetoacetate, acetone, lactate, glucose, choline, glutamic acid, and glutamine, were different among the 3 groups. Among the 25 metabolites, 4 were upregulated, 7 were downregulated, and 14 were both upregulated and downregulated. The results indicated that plasma (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics, coupled with pattern recognition analytical methods, not only has the sensitivity and specificity to distinguish cows with clinical and subclinical ketosis from healthy controls, but also has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful diagnostic tool that could contribute to a further understanding of the disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. ... job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men ...

  5. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people with schizophrenia. Behavioral techniques, such as social skills training, can help the person function better in social and work situations. Job training and relationship-building ...

  6. Sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis--results from a community study over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Angst, Jules

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in schizophrenia have long been reported. They are found within almost all aspects of the disease, from incidence and prevalence, age of onset, symptomatology, and course to its psycho-social outcome. Many sex-related hypotheses have been developed about the biology, psychology, or sociology of that disease. A further approach to study sex differences would be to examine such differences in sub-clinical psychotic states as well. If factors related to full-blown psychosis were equally meaningful over the entire psychosis continuum, we should expect that "true" sex differences could also be identified in sub-clinical psychosis. Here, we studied sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis within a community cohort in Zurich, Switzerland. This population was followed for over 30 years and included males and females between the ages of 20/21 and 49/50. We applied two different measures of sub-clinical psychosis representing schizotypal signs and schizophrenia nuclear symptoms. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we found no significant sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis over time with respect to age of onset, symptomatology, course, or psycho-social outcome. Thus it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) rather than within the sub-threshold range. Possibly males and females have separate thresholds for certain symptoms because they are differently vulnerable or exposed to various risk factors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Is subclinical gambling really subclinical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; April, Laura M; Kallmi, Selmi

    2017-10-01

    Gambling disorder and substance use disorders (SUD) overlap in terms of etiology and diagnostic constructs (e.g., preoccupation, loss of control), yet diagnostic thresholds for the disorders are different. Currently, endorsing 2-3 gambling disorder criteria does not warrant a diagnosis while endorsing 2-3 SUD criteria does. The aim of this study was to examine whether subclinical gamblers (i.e., endorsing 2-3 gambling disorder criteria) experience psychosocial dysfunction equivalent to individuals who are diagnosed with mild severity SUD (i.e., 2-3 SUD criteria) and whether this level of dysfunction is significantly different from individuals with no psychopathology. Data are from the first wave of Quinte Longitudinal Study, a large epidemiological sample (N=4121). Psychometrically supported measures assessed for psychosocial functioning and the presence of Axis-I psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional analysis examined 7 domains of psychosocial functioning using ANCOVA, which allowed for the inclusion of covariates, to test for difference between subclinical gamblers and individuals with no psychopathology and individuals with mild severity SUD. Equivalency testing compared subclinical gamblers in relation to mild severity SUD. Subclinical gamblers reported significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in relation to individuals endorsing no current psychopathology. Subclinical gamblers were also equivalent to and not significantly different from individuals with mild severity SUD. Subclinical gamblers experience similar psychosocial impairment to those individuals who endorse mild severity SUD, and this significantly differed from healthy individuals. The threshold for diagnosis of gambling disorder therefore warrants re-examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated...... with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. METHODS: First, 90...... follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...

  9. Subclinical Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍS M.T.R. LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and those non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed comprise a significant group compared to those diagnosed. Accumulated scientific evidence indicate that the current diagnostic markers (fasting glycemia, 2h glycemia after an oral glucose load and HbA1c are indeed late diagnostic criteria when considering the incidence of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities, which are also at high risk in some groups among normoglycemic individuals. Additionally, the earlier identification of future risk of diabetes is desirable since it would allow better adherence to preventive actions such as lifestyle intervention, ultimately avoiding complications and minimizing the economic impact/burden on health care expenses. Insulin resistance and hyperhormonemia (insulin, amylin, glucagon are non-disputable hallmarks of T2DM, which already takes place among these normoglycemic, otherwise health subjects, characterizing a state of subclinical diabetes. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can be computed from fasting plasma insulin as an independent variable in normoglycemia. An overview of the current diagnostic criteria, disease onset, complications, comorbidities and perspectives on lifestyle interventions are presented. A proposal for early detection of subclinical diabetes from routine evaluation of fasting plasma insulin, which is affordable and robust and thus applicable for the general population, is further suggested.

  10. Sub-clinical psychosis symptoms in young adults are risk factors for subsequent common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Gamma, Alex; Angst, Jules

    2011-09-01

    Not all persons identified in the early stages to be at risk for psychosis eventually cross the threshold for a psychotic illness. However, sub-clinical symptoms may not only indicate a specific risk but also suggest a more general, underlying psychopathology that predisposes one to various common mental disorders. Analyzing data from the prospective Zurich Cohort Study, we used two psychosis subscales - "schizotypal signs" and "schizophrenia nuclear symptoms" - derived from the SCL-90-R checklist that measured sub-clinical psychosis symptoms in 1979. We also assessed 10 different diagnoses of common mental disorders through seven interview waves between 1979 and 2008. This 30-year span, covering participant ages of 19/20 to 49/50, encompasses the period of highest risk for the occurrence of such disorders. Both psychosis scales from 1979, but especially "schizotypal signs", were significantly correlated with most mental disorders over the subsequent test period. Higher values on both subscales were associated with an increasing number of co-occurring disorders. Our data demonstrate that sub-clinical psychosis generally represents a risk factor for the development of common mental disorders and a liability for co-occurring disorders. This refers in particular to dysthymia, bipolar disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Proneness to psychosis could signal a fundamental tendency toward common mental disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered phospholipid metabolism in schizophrenia: a phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

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    Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Englisch, Susanne; Esser, Andrea; Tunc-Skarka, Nuran; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ende, Gabriele; Zink, Mathias

    2013-12-30

    Phospholipid (PL) metabolism is investigated by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Inconsistent alterations of phosphocholine (PC), phosphoethanolamine (PE), glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) have been described in schizophrenia, which might be overcome by specific editing techniques. The selective refocused insensitive nuclei-enhanced polarization transfer (RINEPT) technique was applied in a cross-sectional study involving 11 schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients (SZP) on stable antipsychotic monotherapy and 15 matched control subjects. Metabolite signals were found to be modulated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) content and gray matter/brain matter ratio. Corrected metabolite concentrations of PC, GPC and PE differed between patients and controls in both subcortical and cortical regions, whereas antipsychotic medication exerted only small effects. Significant correlations were found between the severity of clinical symptoms and the assessed signals. In particular, psychotic symptoms correlated with PC levels in the cerebral cortex, depression with PC levels in the cerebellum and executive functioning with GPC in the insular and temporal cortices. In conclusion, after controlling for age and tissue composition, this investigation revealed alterations of metabolite levels in SZP and correlations with clinical properties. RINEPT 31P MRS should also be applied to at-risk-mental-state patients as well as drug-naïve and chronically treated schizophrenic patients in order to enhance the understanding of longitudinal alterations of PL metabolism in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of subclinical hyperthyroidism.

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    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Pascual-Corrales, Eider; Galofre, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient's medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves' disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels. We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment. In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation).

  13. Management of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Pascual-Corrales, Eider; Galofre, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient’s medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves’ disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels. We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment. In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation). PMID:23843809

  14. Deconstructing sub-clinical psychosis into latent-state and trait variables over a 30-year time span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Angst, Jules

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to deconstruct the variance underlying the expression of sub-clinical psychosis symptoms into portions associated with latent time-dependent states and time-invariant traits. We analyzed data of 335 subjects from the general population of Zurich, Switzerland, who had been repeatedly measured between 1979 (age 20/21) and 2008 (age 49/50). We applied two measures of sub-clinical psychosis derived from the SCL-90-R, namely schizotypal signs (STS) and schizophrenia nuclear symptoms (SNS). Variance was decomposed with latent state-trait analysis and associations with covariates were examined with generalized linear models. At ages 19/20 and 49/50, the latent states underlying STS accounted for 48% and 51% of variance, whereas for SNS those estimates were 62% and 50%. Between those age classes, however, expression of sub-clinical psychosis was strongly associated with stable traits (75% and 89% of total variance in STS and SNS, respectively, at age 27/28). Latent states underlying variance in STS and SNS were particularly related to partnership problems over almost the entire observation period. STS was additionally related to employment problems, whereas drug-use was a strong predictor of states underlying both syndromes at age 19/20. The latent trait underlying expression of STS and SNS was particularly related to low sense of mastery and self-esteem and to high depressiveness. Although most psychosis symptoms are transient and episodic in nature, the variability in their expression is predominantly caused by stable traits. Those time-invariant and rather consistent effects are particularly influential around age 30, whereas the occasion-specific states appear to be particularly influential at ages 20 and 50. © 2013.

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  16. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of onset presents special challenges for diagnosis, treatment, education, and emotional and social development. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that requires lifelong treatment. Identifying and starting treatment for childhood schizophrenia ...

  18. Impact of childhood adversity on the onset and course of subclinical psychosis symptoms--results from a 30-year prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Angst, Jules

    2014-03-01

    The study objective was to examine childhood adversity in association with intra-individual changes and inter-individual differences in subclinical psychosis in a representative community cohort over a 30-year period of observation. We analyzed two psychosis syndromes derived from the SCL-90-R - schizotypal signs and schizophrenia nuclear symptoms - in 335 participants. Participants were repeatedly assessed between 1978 (around age 20) and 2008 (around age 50). We focused specifically on inter-individual differences and intra-individual changes over time by applying structural equation modeling, generalized linear models, and generalized estimating equations. Several weak inter-individual differences revealed that increased schizotypal signs are related to various childhood adversities, such as being repeatedly involved in fights and parents having severe conflicts among themselves. We also found a significant positive association between schizotypal signs and the total number of adversities a subject experienced. This pointed toward a modest dose-response relationship. The intra-individual change in schizotypal signs over time was rather weak, although some adjustment did occur. In contrast, inter-individual schizophrenia nuclear symptoms were mainly unrelated to childhood adversity. However, some striking intra-individual changes in distress were noted over time, especially those linked with severe punishment and the total adversity score. In conclusion, we have confirmed previous positive findings about the association between childhood adversity and subsequent subclinical psychosis symptoms: An increase in adversity is weakly related to an increase of the psychosis symptom load. However, depending on the kind of adversity experienced the psychosis symptom load decreases gradually in adult life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Andreassen, Mikkel; Petersen, Claus L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate structure and function of the heart in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) before and after obtaining euthyroidism by radioactive iodine treatment, using high precision and observer-independent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. METHODS......: Cardiac MRI was performed before and after euthyroidism was obtained by radioactive iodine treatment in 12 otherwise healthy patients (11 women and one man, mean age 59 years, range 44-71 years) with a nodular goiter and SH, and compared with eight healthy controls investigated at baseline. Cardiac data...... were expressed as an index, as per body surface area, except for heart rate (HR) and ejection fraction. RESULTS: Post-treatment cardiac MRI was performed in median 139 days after a normalized serum TSH value had been recorded. During treatment, serum TSH increased from (median (range)) 0.01 (0...

  20. Subclinical heart failure in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a consequence of chronic inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada S Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Our findings indicate the presence of subclinical heart failure in these patients. JIA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis, with systemic disease, and with active disease are at greatest risk of developing subclinical heart failure.

  1. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M; Dashe, Jodi S; Wells, C Edward; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2006-02-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism has long-term sequelae that include osteoporosis, cardiovascular morbidity, and progression to overt thyrotoxicosis or thyroid failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal free thyroxine (fT(4)) levels. All women who presented to Parkland Hospital for prenatal care between November 1, 2000, and April 14, 2003, underwent thyroid screening by chemiluminescent TSH assay. Women with TSH values at or below the 2.5th percentile for gestational age and whose serum fT(4) levels were 1.75 ng/dL or less were identified to have subclinical hyperthyroidism. Those women screened and delivered of a singleton infant weighing 500 g or more were analyzed. Pregnancy outcomes in women identified with subclinical hyperthyroidism were compared with those in women whose TSH values were between the 5th and 95th percentiles. A total of 25,765 women underwent thyroid screening and were delivered of singleton infants. Of these, 433 (1.7%) were considered to have subclinical hyperthyroidism, which occurred more frequently in African-American and/or parous women. Pregnancies in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism were less likely to be complicated by hypertension (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.98). All other pregnancy complications and perinatal morbidity or mortality were not increased in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our results indicate that identification of subclinical hyperthyroidism and treatment during pregnancy is unwarranted. II-2.

  2. Role of Micronutrients on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Micronutrients in Subclinical Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Duygu; Gurses, Kadri Murat; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Tokgozoglu, Lale

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) leading to coronary heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Nutrition is one of the key factors in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Micronutrient supplements are widely used to prevent many chronic diseases including atherosclerosis. However, scientific evidence regarding this issue is still insufficient and current data on the association of dietary micronutrients and CVD risk is contradictory. Most of the randomized studies have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of micronutrient supplementation on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this review, role of each micronutrient on subclinical atherosclerosis will be evaluated thoroughly.

  3. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...... for risk discrimination, calibration and reclassification; and (ii) the economic costs and health benefits associated with measuring markers of subclinical organ damage....

  4. EAMJ May Subclinical.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-02

    May 2, 2009 ... EL-Safty, I.A.M., GadalIah, M., Shouman, A.E. and. Nessim, D.E. Subclinical nephrotoxicity caused by smoking and occupational silica exposure among. Egyptian industrial workers. Arch. Med. Res. 2003;. 34: 415-421. 4. Ivandic, M., Hofmann, W. and Guder, W.G. The use of knowledge-based systems to ...

  5. [Genetic classification of clinical forms of childhood schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, I A; Trubnikov, V I

    1989-01-01

    In an analysis of 225 families of probands with different forms of the course of children's schizophrenia, a hypothesis on the degree of their genetical similarity (or dissimilarity) was tested. Malignant and slow progredient form of children schizophrenia showed major genetical similarity (correlation coefficient 1.0) with the recurrent schizophrenia occupying a separate position having no common genetical predisposition factors with nuclear forms of schizophrenia. Paroxysmal progredient schizophrenia displayed a distinct genetical relation to any other form (genetical correlation coefficient ranging in 0.5-0.7).

  6. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii......) investigated which and how many markers to measure and (iv) finally discussed whether measuring subclinical organ damage provided benefits beyond risk prediction. In conclusion, more studies and if possible randomized studies are needed to investigate (i) the importance of markers of subclinical organ damage...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Schizophrenia is a brain disorder classified as a psychosis, ...

  8. Associations between social cognition, skills, and function and subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, A; Jepsen, J M R; Schmock, H

    2016-01-01

    symptoms, respectively, in a young cohort of 22q11.2DS not diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: The level of social impairment was addressed using questionnaires and objective measures of social functioning (The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System), skills (Social Responsiveness Scale), and cognition......BACKGROUND: Identification of the early signs of schizophrenia would be a major achievement for the early intervention and prevention strategies in psychiatry. Social impairments are defining features of schizophrenia. Impairments of individual layers of social competencies are frequently described...... in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), who have high risk of schizophrenia. It is unclear whether and to what extent social impairments associate with subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11.2DS, and which layer of social impairments are more correlated with schizophrenia...

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciąkowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  10. [Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek-Trzciąkowska, Aleksandra; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2013-08-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  11. Subclinical Hypercorticism: the Necessity of Diagnostic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.N. Kvacheniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering certain difficulties in subclinical hypercorticism diagnosis, the object of this work is to focus attention of doctors in different areas on the necessity of thorough examination of patients with pathological conditions that may be the manifestation of Cushing’s syndrome (arterial hypertension, obesity, impaired carbohydrate metabolism and osteoporosis. The laboratory diagnosis is the instrument for early subclinical hypercorticism detection.

  12. Association between processing speed and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population: focusing on sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Kawohl, Wolfram; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is growing that persons along the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e., those who also display subclinical psychotic symptoms, exhibit deficits across a broad range of neuropsychological domains. Because sex differences in the association between cognitive deficits and psychosis have thus far been mostly neglected, we believe that ours is the first study specifically focused upon those differences when examining the relationship between subclinical psychosis and processing speed. Using a sample of 213 persons from the general population from Zurich, Switzerland, psychotic symptoms were assessed with three different questionnaires including the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, an adaptation of the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies, and the Paranoia Checklist. Processing speed was assessed with the WAIS digit-symbol coding test. Two higher-order psychosis domains were factor-analytically derived from the various psychosis subscales and then subjected to a series of linear regression analyses. The results demonstrate that in both men and women associations between subclinical psychosis domains and processing speed were weak to moderate (β ranging from -0.18 to -0.27; all p0.30). In conclusion, it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves only at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) and not across the sub-threshold range. The small magnitude of the effects reported herein conforms to the etiopathology of the disorder. Since schizophrenia and related disorders from the spectrum are assumed to be multifactorial diseases, it follows that many etiological components of small effect are involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of the genetic association between quantitative measures of psychosis and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derks, Eske M; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Ripke, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The presence of subclinical levels of psychosis in the general population may imply that schizophrenia is the extreme expression of more or less continuously distributed traits in the population. In a previous study, we identified five quantitative measures of schizophrenia (positive, negative......, disorganisation, mania, and depression scores). The aim of this study is to examine the association between a direct measure of genetic risk of schizophrenia and the five quantitative measures of psychosis. Estimates of the log of the odds ratios of case/control allelic association tests were obtained from...... the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC) (minus our sample) which included genome-wide genotype data of 8,690 schizophrenia cases and 11,831 controls. These data were used to calculate genetic risk scores in 314 schizophrenia cases and 148 controls from the Netherlands for whom genotype data and quantitative symptom...

  14. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures are unclear and clinical trials are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of subclinical thyroid dysfunction with hip, nonspine, spine, or any fractures. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The databases of MEDLINE...... and EMBASE (inception to March 26, 2015) were searched without language restrictions for prospective cohort studies with thyroid function data and subsequent fractures. DATA EXTRACTION: Individual participant data were obtained from 13 prospective cohorts in the United States, Europe, Australia, and Japan....... Levels of thyroid function were defined as euthyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.45-4.49 mIU/L), subclinical hyperthyroidism (TSH

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Moniek; Hop-de Groot, Rianne J; Sweep, Fred C G J; Ross, H Alec; den Heijer, Martin; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2013-01-01

    Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions. In 372 women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy, we assessed thyroid function. Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 73/372 women (19.6%). It occurred more often when pregnancy ended before 32 weeks of gestation (p = 0.008). In this cohort, subclinical hypothyroidism is more common after very preterm delivery. It may contribute to the elevated risk of remote cardiovascular disease.

  16. Early-onset schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset before the age of 18 years. While schizophrenia is a very rare disorder in childhood, it becomes increasingly common during adolescence and peaks in early adulthood. Even though childhood and adolescent schizophrenia lie on a continuum with adult schizophrenia and show roughly the same clinical picture, they both have some developmental specifics. They display greater symptom variability making the ...

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  18. Natural Course of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Sytch

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this retrospective study were to evaluate the natural course of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH and to estimate possible predictable factors of overt hypothyroidism. Population of the study was selected from the patients with spontaneously elevated thyrotropin (TSH and normal free thyroxin (fT4 levels. Overall 87 patients (12 male, 75 female with SH without any therapy with thyroid hormones or iodide drugs or without previous thyroid surgery, thyrostatic therapy, or radioactive iodine therapy were included in the analysis. Results: the main risk factors of overt hypothyroidism in this population were positive thyroid antibodies (odds ratio = 3.99 and high initial level of TSH (>8 mU/l (odds ratio = 4.77. Patient’s age, gender or duration of SH did not affect significantly the risk of overt hypothyroidism. Conclusions: rational substitutive therapy with thyroid hormones was not discussed in this study, however the data suggest that positive thyroid antibodies and relatively high TSH level may be useful to decide upon such therapy in individuals with SH. Key words: hypothyroidism, Hashimotos, thyroiditis, thyrotropin.

  19. Language lateralization in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, I.E.C.

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe chronic psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1-2% of the populations worldwide. Schizophrenia is characterized by episodes of psychosis, in which patients experience hallucinations (false perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs). Apart from the psychotic

  20. The etiology of schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gejman, Pablo V; Sanders, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in recent years represents a new dawn of knowledge for the risk factors of schizophrenia, and genome-wide approaches have revolutionized the field of genetic mapping of schizophrenia...

  1. Schizophrenia - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MP3 Schizophrenia (An Introduction) - English MP4 Schizophrenia (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  2. Special Report: Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Loren R.; Feinsilver, David

    The review and analysis of the current status of knowledge about schizophrenia and its treatment begins with a brief review of some statistics on mental health, the National Institute of Mental Health's grants program in schizophrenia, an NIMH-sponsored international conference on Schizophrenia - the Implications of Research Findings for Treatment…

  3. Overview of Childhood Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Betsy

    Childhood schizophrenia is a rare but serious disorder with complex symptoms that affect children and their families. Childhood schizophrenia was once the term applied for all childhood psychoses, including autism and mood disorders, but more recently researchers have distinguished childhood schizophrenia from other disorders. There are differing…

  4. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  5. Multiethnic Exome-Wide Association Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Bis, Joshua C; Bielak, Lawrence F; Cox, Amanda J; Dörr, Marcus; Feitosa, Mary F; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Isaacs, Aaron; Jhun, Min A; Kavousi, Maryam; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Marioni, Riccardo E; Schminke, Ulf; Stitziel, Nathan O; Tada, Hayato; van Setten, Jessica|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345493990; Smith, Albert V; Vojinovic, Dina; Yanek, Lisa R; Yao, Jie; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Amin, Najaf; Baber, Usman; Borecki, Ingrid B; Carr, J Jeffrey; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Cupples, L Adrienne; de Jong, Pim A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/287955672; de Koning, Harry; de Vos, Bob D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413986004; Demirkan, Ayse; Fuster, Valentin; Franco, Oscar H; Goodarzi, Mark O; Harris, Tamara B; Heckbert, Susan R; Heiss, Gerardo; Hoffmann, Udo; Hofman, Albert; Išgum, Ivana|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31484984X; Jukema, J Wouter; Kähönen, Mika; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kral, Brian G; Launer, Lenore J; Massaro, Joseph; Mehran, Roxana; Mitchell, Braxton D; Mosley, Thomas H; de Mutsert, Renée; Newman, Anne B; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung; North, Kari E; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pankow, James S; Peloso, Gina M; Post, Wendy; Province, Michael A; Raffield, Laura M; Raitakari, Olli T; Reilly, Dermot F; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rosendaal, Frits; Sartori, Samantha; Taylor, Kent D; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; Turner, Stephen T; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Lugt, Aad; Völker, Uwe; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassel, Christina L; Weiss, Stefan; Wojczynski, Mary K; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bowden, Donald W; Deary, Ian J; Dehghan, Abbas; Felix, Stephan B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mathias, Rasika; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Psaty, Bruce M; Rader, Daniel J; Rotter, Jerome I; Wilson, James G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Völzke, Henry; Kathiresan, Sekar; Peyser, Patricia A; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the

  6. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Demidova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We observed 20 women suffering from adiposity and subclinical hypothyroidism. Lipid spectrum, carbohydrate metabolism, BP and insulinresistance, the extent and variants of fat tissue distribution, a test with physical exercise, all research in dynamics (in the beginning and 6 months after normalization of TSH level against the background of substitution therapy with L-T4 were evaluated. The positive shifts revealed during the afore mentioned research allow us to express our opinion in favour of carrying out substitution therapy with L-T4 at subclinical hypothyroidism .

  7. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  8. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  9. Sub-clinical Addison′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash P Baruah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As autoimmune adrenalitis is fast replacing tuberculosis as the most common etiology cause of adrenal insufficiency, subtler forms of the same are being recognised as subclinical addison′s disease. In this article, we review what is known about this entity till date.

  10. Subclinical pertussis in incompletely vaccinated and unvaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-fold increase in IgG antibodies to. AGG2,3 and to either PT or FHA or both are shown in Figs. 1 - 3. The subclinical pertussis led to stimulation of antibody responses to multiple antigens of Bordetella perttjssis. Antibody levels attained were significantly higher for all pertussis antibody assays than those detected in' age-.

  11. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  12. Ghrelin and orotic acid increased in subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, F; Aydin, S; Kaygusuzoglu, E; Yildiz, H; Erulas, F A; Ozkan, Y

    2008-07-01

    Hormone ghrelin and orotic acid accelerate wound healing as well as controlling inflammation and immunity. We have, therefore, investigated the serum and milk levels of ghrelin and orotic acid in dairy cows with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) subclinical mastitis. Acylated and des-acylated ghrelin as well as orotic acid concentration were detected by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that ghrelin level in milk and serum was significantly higher in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis than that of dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. This was also the case when the orotic acid concentrations in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis were compared with those dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, ghrelin and orotic acid occur in particularly high concentrations in subclinical mastitis, and might, therefore, be required in greater amounts for tissue repair and may be also used as a indicator for subclinical mastitis.

  13. Dopamine, psychosis and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesby, J P; Eyles, D W; McGrath, J J

    2018-01-01

    The stagnation in drug development for schizophrenia highlights the need for better translation between basic and clinical research. Understanding the neurobiology of schizophrenia presents substantial challenges but a key feature continues to be the involvement of subcortical dopaminergic...... dysfunction in those with psychotic symptoms. Our contemporary knowledge regarding dopamine dysfunction has clarified where and when dopaminergic alterations may present in schizophrenia. For example, clinical studies have shown patients with schizophrenia show increased presynaptic dopamine function...... in the associative striatum, rather than the limbic striatum as previously presumed. Furthermore, subjects deemed at high risk of developing schizophrenia show similar presynaptic dopamine abnormalities in the associative striatum. Thus, our view of subcortical dopamine function in schizophrenia continues to evolve...

  14. DNA Methylation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Kenis, Gunter

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors-likely through epigenetic mechanisms-may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment. These pathophysiological features point to the involvement of epigenetic processes. Recently, a wave of studies examining aberrant DNA modifications in schizophrenia was published. This chapter aims to comprehensively review the current findings, from both candidate gene studies and genome-wide approaches, on DNA methylation changes in schizophrenia.

  15. Occipital bending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.

  16. Language lateralization in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, I.E.C.

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe chronic psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1-2% of the populations worldwide. Schizophrenia is characterized by episodes of psychosis, in which patients experience hallucinations (false perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs). Apart from the psychotic episodes, patients frequently have negative symptoms: they become apathic, loose interest in hobbies and friends and lack energy. The cause of schizophrenia is not clear, though several theories have been...

  17. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Michael F.; Leitman, David I.

    2008-01-01

    Impairments in social cognitions in schizophrenia are increasingly reported in the last decade but only a few studies have come from Asia. The objective of the study was to evaluated emotion perception, theory of mind and social knowledge in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Participants were 36 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 36 normal controls with comparable age and level of education. We administered general neurocognition test (the Addenbrooke’s...

  18. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita; Craddock, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia provided a valuable framework that allowed a condition that usually presents with frank disorder in adolescence or early adulthood to be understood...

  19. The Danish schizophrenia registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  20. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....

  1. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...

  2. Outcome of adrenalectomy for subclinical hypercortisolism and Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Marco; De Crea, Carmela; D'Amato, Gerardo; Gallucci, Pierpaolo; Lombardi, Celestino P; Bellantone, Rocco

    2017-01-01

    We compared operative and metabolic outcomes in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome caused by unilateral adrenal lesion, aiming to clarify the role of glucocorticoid replacement treatment in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome after adrenalectomy. The medical records of all the patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for subclinical Cushing syndrome or Cushing syndrome were reviewed. Diagnostic criteria for subclinical Cushing syndrome were a pathologic dexamethasone suppression test plus 2 additional criteria. Twenty-nine patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and 50 with Cushing syndrome were identified. No significant difference was found between patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome regarding lesion size, operative time, and hospital stay. Two patients out of 29 with subclinical Cushing syndrome and 3 out of 50 patients with Cushing syndrome experienced Clavien-Dindo grade II complications (P = .87). All the patients required postoperative glucocorticoid replacement that was discontinued within 6 months in 28 of the 29 patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome and in 3 out of 50 Cushing syndrome patients (P Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome. Hypercortisolism was resolved in all the cases. Operative and metabolic outcomes of adrenalectomy are similar in subclinical Cushing syndrome and Cushing syndrome. Postoperative glucocorticoid replacement treatment is advisable in all patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome. Prolonged adrenal insufficiency is more frequent in Cushing syndrome patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Schizophrenia and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Akarsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors play an important role in the development of schizophrenia that the etiology is clearly not known. However, specific inheritance mechanism of this disorder is still unclear. Inheritance of schizophrenia is thought to be polygenic or multifactorial. In the recent studies, mitochondrial function and cerebral energy metabolism abnormalities have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits and behavioral abnormalities evident as typically found in the clinical course of schizophrenia may develop due to the affection of neuronal plasticity and brain circuits by impaired function of mitochondria. Some changes were found in patients with schizophrenia compared with control subjects in the researches examining both brain and peripheral tissues. Also, it was seen that antipsychotics used in the treatment of schizophrenia might lead to a progressive reduction in oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria by inhibition of respiratory chain. Especially the findings of the peripheral tissues in patients with schizophrenia were considered to be used as a biological marker for schizophrenia in these studies. Changes in the mitochondria of platelets are considered as a peripheral model for the neurons because of the lack of the platelets' own DNA. These changes reflect the findings of the brain in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. At the present time, making the diagnosis of schizophrenia based on only clinical criteria reveal the necessity of finding peripheral biological marker for schizophrenia. Thus further systematic studies investigating the relationship between schizophrenia and changes in mitochondrial electron transport chain are required. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 340-354

  4. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs , pregnancy outcomes , neuropsychiatric issues , metabolic syndrome , and dyslipidemia . This review will summarize the current data related to the effects of SCH on cardiovascular risk , SCH in pregnancy , in dyslipedemia and clinical guidelines on management of this condition . The evidence has been updated by a Pub med search on the risks and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism of most recent articles published until March 2015

  5. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: When to Consider Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Suh, Se Young

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (e.g., in Graves disease, toxic nodular goiter, or transient thyroiditis), by administration of thyroid hormone to treat malignant thyroid disease, or by unintentional excessive replacement therapy. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism in the general population is about 1% to 2%; however, it may be higher in iodinedeficient areas. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L than in persons with low but detectable thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation and heart failure in older adults, increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and decreased bone mineral density and increased bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. However, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unclear. A possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality-of-life parameters and cognition is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic persons. The American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommend treating patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L if they are older than 65 years or have comorbidities such as heart disease or osteoporosis.

  6. Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential diagnosis of depressed mood in schizophrenia; a diagnostic algorithm based on review. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002;. 106: 83-96. 8. Andersen SW, Trana PV. The course of depressive symptoms in predicting relapse in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized comparison of olanzapine and risperidone.

  7. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Schizophrenia and Metacognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F.; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    tested for relationships between course of illness and levels of specific metacognitions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A large cohort of people with first episode psychosis (n = 578) recruited as part the OPUS trial (1998–2000) were tested. Information about course of illness (remitted, episodic...... beliefs may also impact on positive symptoms and course of illness within schizophrenia....

  9. Biological perspectives of schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmchen, H.; Henn, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 papers. Some of the titles are: The Middle Game in the Genetics of Schizophrenia; Genetics as an Approach to Etiology Group Report; The Contribution of Genetic Research to Diagnostic Issues in Schizophrenia; and Genetic Aspects of Neurotransmitter Metabolism in Schizoprhenia.

  10. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Endocannabinoids and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Potvin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG are lipids naturally derived from membrane precursors which bind cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2. This endocannabinoid system is disturbed in schizophrenia. Indeed, there seems to be an association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms of the CB1 receptor gene. Moreover, CB1 receptors are found in higher density in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia of patients with schizophrenia. Similarly, anandamide levels are increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and in the serum of schizophrenia patients, including during the prodromal state, suggesting that they may play a protective role in psychosis homeostasis. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  12. GABAergic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jonge, Jeroen C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and impairments in cognitive functioning. Evidence from postmortem studies suggests that alterations in cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons contribute to the clinical features...... of schizophrenia. In vivo measurement of brain GABA levels using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to provide more insight into the relationship between problems in GABAergic neurotransmission and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients. This study reviews and links alterations...... in the GABA system in postmortem studies, animal models, and human studies in schizophrenia. Converging evidence implicates alterations in both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia, and GABA may thus play an important role in the pathophysiology...

  13. Demodex Parazytes in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Demodex parazytes are commonly present all over the world, especially in facial region of humans. Demodex spp. are assumed to be more common in schizophrenia due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Demodex ectoparasites in schizophrenia patients. Material and Method: In the study, 31 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 subjects without any psychiatric disorder or skin disease were subjected to standard superficial skin biopsy technique to determine Demodex spp. Results: Demodex spp. were found positive in nine schizophrenia patients and it was found positive in two healthy controls. Considering the prevalence of Demodex spp., a significant relationship is found between schizophrenia patients and normal controls (p

  14. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  15. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van den Borne, B.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was estimated in a one-year observational study. It was concluded that herds in the Netherlands varied substantially in their mastitis occurrence, indicating room for improvement of udder health. The relation...

  16. SUBCLINICAL INTERSTITIAL PULMONARY INJURY IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Bestaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 61 inpatients diagnosed with RA (according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria who were treated at the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology; in so doing, high-resolution computed tomography revealed lung changes as a ground glass pattern in 15 patients, reticular striation, traction bronchoectases, and lung tissue changes as honeycomb ones in 25 patients; no lung abnormalities were found in 21 patients. DAS28 was applied to determine the inflammatory activity of RA. The RA patients underwent X-ray studies of the hand, foot, and chest, by using accordingly X-Ray unit and spiral computed tomography scanner (section thickness, 0.65 mm. External respiration function (ERF indicators were studied with plethysmograph. IgM rheumatoid factor was measured using an immune nephelometer. Serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were assayed by immunochemiluminescence technique on a Cobas e411 analyzer. The xMAP technology using a BioPlex200 analyzer was employed to determine the serum concentrations of 27 cytokines in 15 patients with subclinical IPI and in 25 with clinical IPI. Results and discussion. The major respiratory signs in patients with IPI proved to be cough (24 %, expectoration (20 %, dyspnea (16 %, and crepitation (64 % on auscultation. Three patients with subclinical IPI were found to have crepitation on auscultation. Respiratory symptoms were absent in the RA patients without IPI. It should be noted that there are a larger number of RA patients with a high smoking index among the RA patients with IPI than among those without IPI (p < 0.05. Investigation of ERF indicators revealed a statistically significantly lower lung diffusing capacity (LDC in the RA patients with subclinical IPI than in those without IPI (p < 0.05. Other ERF indicators showed no significant deviations of the reference values. LDC and total lung capacity appeared to be statistically

  17. Fronto-striatal Dysfunction During Reward Processing in Unaffected Siblings of Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Max; Kahn, René S.; Vink, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that is associated with impaired functioning of the fronto-striatal network, in particular during reward processing. However, it is unclear whether this dysfunction is related to the illness itself or whether it reflects a genetic vulnerability to develop schizophrenia. Here, we examined reward processing in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain activity was measured during reward anticipation and reward outcome in 27 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy volunteers using a modified monetary incentive delay task. Task performance was manipulated online so that all subjects won the same amount of money. Despite equal performance, siblings showed reduced activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and supplementary motor area (SMA) during reward anticipation compared to controls. Decreased ventral striatal activation in siblings was correlated with sub-clinical negative symptoms. During the outcome of reward, siblings showed increased activation in the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex compared to controls. Our finding of decreased activity in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation and increased activity in this region during receiving reward may indicate impaired cue processing in siblings. This is consistent with the notion of dopamine dysfunction typically associated with schizophrenia. Since unaffected siblings share on average 50% of their genes with their ill relatives, these deficits may be related to the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. PMID:25368371

  18. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matea Nikolac Perkovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide.

  19. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Pivac, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide. PMID:28358316

  20. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Erjavec, Gordana Nedic; Strac, Dubravka Svob; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Pivac, Nela

    2017-03-30

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide.

  1. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, schizophrenia was considered to be a severe psychiatric disorder, with a chronic course and an unfavorable outcome. Throughout history, there has been incidence of schizophrenia, roughly one percent of the population, consistently, in every culture. It is generally acknowledged that schizophrenia has multifactorial etiology, with multiple susceptibility genes interacting with environmental insults to yield a range of phenotypes in the schizophrenia spectrum. The discovery of antipsychotics in the 1950s revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia and focused on the positive symptoms. By the 1960s, however, it became evident that the reduction in positive symptoms did not lead to recovery from schizophrenia and did not significantly improve the functional outcome. The advent of the novel antipsychotics during the last 15 years represents a significant improvement over the effectiveness of conventional antipsychotics. These agents are, however, not a magic bullet and bear their own side effects, such as weight gain, diabetes, hyperprolactinemia, and QTc prolongation. Nevertheless, at this point, they seem to be more effective and safer than the conventional antipsychotics. Moreover, advances in the treatment of schizophrenia have been and continue to be urgently needed.

  2. Interview Investigation of Insecure Attachment Styles as Mediators between Poor Childhood Care and Schizophrenia-Spectrum Phenomenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sheinbaum

    Full Text Available Insecure attachment styles have received theoretical attention and some initial empirical support as mediators between childhood adverse experiences and psychotic phenomena; however, further specificity needs investigating. The present interview study aimed to examine (i whether two forms of poor childhood care, namely parental antipathy and role reversal, were associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder (PD traits, and (ii whether such associations were mediated by specific insecure attachment styles.A total of 214 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for subclinical symptoms (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, schizophrenia-spectrum PDs (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders, poor childhood care (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview, and attachment style (Attachment Style Interview. Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and all the analyses were conducted partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms.Both parental antipathy and role reversal were associated with subclinical positive symptoms and with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Role reversal was also associated with subclinical negative symptoms. Angry-dismissive attachment mediated associations between antipathy and subclinical positive symptoms and both angry-dismissive and enmeshed attachment mediated associations of antipathy with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Enmeshed attachment mediated associations of role reversal with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits.Attachment theory can inform lifespan models of how adverse developmental environments may increase the risk for psychosis. Insecure attachment provides a promising mechanism for understanding the development of schizophrenia-spectrum phenomenology and may offer a useful target for prophylactic intervention.

  3. Interview Investigation of Insecure Attachment Styles as Mediators between Poor Childhood Care and Schizophrenia-Spectrum Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Bifulco, Antonia; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    Background Insecure attachment styles have received theoretical attention and some initial empirical support as mediators between childhood adverse experiences and psychotic phenomena; however, further specificity needs investigating. The present interview study aimed to examine (i) whether two forms of poor childhood care, namely parental antipathy and role reversal, were associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder (PD) traits, and (ii) whether such associations were mediated by specific insecure attachment styles. Method A total of 214 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for subclinical symptoms (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States), schizophrenia-spectrum PDs (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders), poor childhood care (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview), and attachment style (Attachment Style Interview). Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and all the analyses were conducted partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms. Results Both parental antipathy and role reversal were associated with subclinical positive symptoms and with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Role reversal was also associated with subclinical negative symptoms. Angry-dismissive attachment mediated associations between antipathy and subclinical positive symptoms and both angry-dismissive and enmeshed attachment mediated associations of antipathy with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Enmeshed attachment mediated associations of role reversal with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Conclusions Attachment theory can inform lifespan models of how adverse developmental environments may increase the risk for psychosis. Insecure attachment provides a promising mechanism for understanding the development of schizophrenia-spectrum phenomenology and may offer a useful target for prophylactic intervention. PMID:26247601

  4. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  5. Iloperidone for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Jeffrey; Janicak, Philip G

    2010-08-01

    No existing antipsychotic adequately controls all symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Also, no antipsychotic adequately benefits most patients with this disorder. Finally, the safety and tolerability of each antipsychotic frequently dictate the choice of agent. The mechanism of action of iloperidone, its efficacy and its safety and tolerability when used to treat patients with schizophrenia. An appreciation of the potential advantages and disadvantages of iloperidone when used for the treatment of schizophrenia. Iloperidone is a recent addition to the current group of second-generation antipsychotics. While it may share many qualities with other agents in this class, its unique neuroreceptor signature and adverse-effect profile may prove beneficial in clinical practice.

  6. Subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Heidi C; Weiner, Myron; Hynan, Linda S; Cullum, C Munro; Khera, Amit; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a population-based multiethnic study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, were re-examined 8 years later (DHS-2) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); N = 1904, mean age = 42.9, range 8-65. Associations of baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium, abdominal aortic plaque, and abdominal aortic wall thickness) with MoCA scores measured at follow-up were examined in the group as a whole and in relation to age and ApoE4 status. A significant linear trend of successively lower MoCA scores with increasing numbers of atherosclerotic indicators was observed (F(3, 1150) = 5.918, p = .001). CAC was weakly correlated with MoCA scores (p = .047) and MoCA scores were significantly different between participants with and without CAC (M = 22.35 vs 23.69, p = 0.038). With the exception of a small association between abdominal AWT and MoCA in subjects over age 50, abdominal AWT and abdominal aortic plaque did not correlate with MoCA total score (p ≥ .052). Cognitive scores and atherosclerosis measures were not impacted by ApoE4 status (p ≥ .455). In this ethnically diverse population-based sample, subclinical atherosclerosis was minimally associated with later cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  8. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the

  9. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Heijer, M. den; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical

  10. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer.

  11. Multiethnic Exome-Wide Association Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Bis, Joshua C.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Cox, Amanda J.; Dorr, Marcus; Feitosa, Mary F.; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Isaacs, Aaron; Jhun, Min A.; Kavousi, Maryam; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Schminke, Ulf; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Tada, Hayato; van Setten, Jessica; Smith, Albert V.; Vojinovic, Dina; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yao, Jie; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Amin, Najaf; Baber, Usman; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Cupples, L. Adrienne; de Jong, Pim A.; de Koning, Harry; de Vos, Bob D.; Demirkan, Ayse; Fuster, Valentin; Franco, Oscar H.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Harris, Tamara B.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Heiss, Gerardo; Hoffmann, Udo; Hofman, Albert; Isgum, Ivana; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahonen, Mika; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kral, Brian G.; Launer, Lenore J.; Massaro, Joe; Mehran, Roxana; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Jr, Thomas H. Mosley; de Mutsert, Renee; Newman, Anne B.; Nguyen, Khanh-dung; North, Kari E.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pankow, James S.; Peloso, Gina M.; Post, Wendy; Province, Michael A.; Raffield, Laura M.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Reilly, Dermot F.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rosendaal, Frits; Sartori, Samantha; Taylor, Kent D.; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; Turner, Stephen T.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Lugt, Aad; Volker, Uwe; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassel, Christina L.; Weiss, Stefan; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bowden, Donald W.; Deary, Ian J.; Dehghan, Abbas; Felix, Stephan B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lehtimaki, Terho; Mathias, Rasika; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rader, Daniel J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Wilson, James G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Volzke, Henry; Kathiresan, Sekar; Peyser, Patricia A.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background-The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease. We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the risk of

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghada A. Mohamed

    hypothyroidism was 3.4% in males and 5.8% in females.14 Perros et al. found that the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.3% in men and 4.6% in women with Type 2 diabetes.15 The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism in our study was greater than those of both these studies and revealed a dominance of.

  13. Microorganisms associated with sub-Clinical mastitis and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camels are adapted to the arid and semi arid lands (ASAL), but their full milking potential is affected by udder infection especially sub-clinical mastitis. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common pathogens responsible for sub-clinical mastitis in camels kept under ranch conditions in Northern Kenya. A total of ...

  14. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  15. Electrophysiological Endophenotypes for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Emily; Bachman, Peter; Glahn, David C; Bearden, Carrie E

    2016-01-01

    Endophenotypes are quantitative, heritable traits that may help to elucidate the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying complex disease syndromes, such as schizophrenia. They can be assessed at numerous levels of analysis; here, we review electrophysiological endophenotypes that have shown promise in helping us understand schizophrenia from a more mechanistic point of view. For each endophenotype, we describe typical experimental procedures, reliability, heritability, and reported gene and neurobiological associations. We discuss recent findings regarding the genetic architecture of specific electrophysiological endophenotypes, as well as converging evidence from EEG studies implicating disrupted balance of glutamatergic signaling and GABA-ergic inhibition in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We conclude that refining the measurement of electrophysiological endophenotypes, expanding genetic association studies, and integrating datasets are important next steps for understanding the mechanisms that connect identified genetic risk loci for schizophrenia to the disease phenotype. PMID:26954597

  16. Ophthalmology issues in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracitelli, Carolina P B; Abe, Ricardo Y; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Vaz-de-Lima, Fabiana Benites; Paranhos, Augusto; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder associated with not only cognitive dysfunctions, such as memory and attention deficits, but also changes in basic sensory processing. Although most studies on schizophrenia have focused on disturbances in higher-order brain functions associated with the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex, recent investigations have also reported abnormalities in low-level sensory processes, such as the visual system. At very early stages of the disease, schizophrenia patients frequently describe in detail symptoms of a disturbance in various aspects of visual perception that may lead to worse clinical symptoms and decrease in quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the various studies that have explored the visual issues in schizophrenia.

  17. Affect Regulation in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hempel (Roelie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSchizophrenia is a serious mental disease, characterised by psychosis (delusions and hallucinations), apathy (a lack of motivation), social withdrawal, and cognitive impairment, which result in impaired functioning in different areas, such as work, school, independent living, and

  18. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  19. Ophthalmology Issues in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Abe, Ricardo Y.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Vaz-de-Lima, Fabiana Benites; Paranhos, Augusto; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder associated with not only cognitive dysfunctions, such as memory and attention deficits, but also changes in basic sensory processing. Although most studies on schizophrenia have focused on disturbances in higher-order brain functions associated with the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex, recent investigations have also reported abnormalities in low-level sensory processes, such as the visual system. At very early stages of the disease, schizophreni...

  20. Cardiovascular risk with subclinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Jasleen; Singh, Sarabjeet; Barsano, Charles P; Arora, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that subclinical thyroid dysfunction, as manifested by abnormalities in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, are associated with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by abnormal lipid metabolism, cardiac dysfunction, diastolic hypertension conferring an elevated risk of atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Similarly, patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism have nearly 3 times the likelihood of atrial fibrillation over a 10-year follow-up interval, raising the question of whether patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism should be treated to prevent atrial fibrillation. A single measurement of low serum TSH in individuals aged 60 years or older has been reported to be associated with increased mortality from all causes and in particular from circulatory and cardiovascular disease in a 10-year follow-up study. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is currently the subject of numerous studies and remains controversial, particularly as it relates to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and clinical applications.

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism: how should it be managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatourechi, Vahab

    2002-01-01

    The term 'subclinical hypothyroidism' applies to patients who have mildly increased levels of serum thyrotropin hormone (TSH) and normal levels of thyroxine and liothyronine (triiodiothyronine). This very common condition, also called 'mild thyroid failure', accounts for 75% of patients who have increased serum TSH. For patients with sustained increases above 10 mIU/L, there is uniform agreement that thyroxine therapy is indicated. Therapy for milder forms of hypothyroidism is controversial. Some randomized clinical trials favor therapy for mild thyroid failure, but they are inconclusive because they lack stratification for the subgroup of patients with TSH levels below 10 mIU/L. For this subgroup, we recommend individualized management. The presence of goiter, positive thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies, manic-depressive disorder, fertility problems, or pregnancy or the anticipation of pregnancy favors the initiation of therapy. Positive TPO antibodies are a strong indication for therapy because of the high likelihood in these patients of progression to overt hypothyroidism; patients who are already receiving thyroxine should have adjustments of their dosage. Children and adolescents with mild thyroid failure should also be treated because of possible adverse effects on growth and development. It has been suggested that subclinical hypothyroidism is a cardiovascular risk factor, however further investigation is needed. The controversy surrounding therapy will not be resolved until more randomized studies are available for the subgroup of patients with TSH <10 mIU/L, and until the question of cardiovascular risk factors is further clarified.

  2. Hemostasis in Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hyperthyroidism on hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present review focuses on hemostatic changes in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; goiter, nodular; hemostasis; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation disorders; venous thromboembolism; bleeding; fibrinolysis. The articles that were related to hyperthyroidism and hemostasis are used in this manuscript. Results Hyperthyroidism, either overt or subclinical, renders a hypercoagulable state, although there are several studies with contradictory findings in the literature. Hypercoagulability may be caused by an increase in the level of various coagulation factors such as factor (F) VIII, FX, FIX, von Willebrand F (vWF), and fibrinogen, while hypofibrinolysis by changes in coagulation parameters such as a decrease in plasmin and plasmin activator or an increase in α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor Conclusions Although many reports are in favor of a hypercoagulable state in overt hyperthyroidism but this finding at the biochemical level and its clinical implication, on the occurrence of VTE, has yet to be confirmed. PMID:29201071

  3. Neurodevelopmental correlates in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary aetiopathogenetic considerations, based on neuro-imaging genetic and developmental neurobiology studies, suggest neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence including structural abnormalities on in vivo brain imaging, the excess of prenatal and obstetric complications and the association of congenital and minor physical anomalies with schizophrenia, strongly indicate the neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, controversial concept of psychotic continuum suggests schizophrenia and depression sharing the same genetic contribution to the pathogenesis. If this would be the case, depression could also be considered as neuro developmental disorder. The aims of the study were to investigate the association between: a pregnancy and birth complications (PBC, and b minor physical anomalies (MPA and schizophrenia or depression. Experimental groups consisted of 60 schizophrenic, 28 major depression patients and 30 healthy controls. All patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Schizophrenic group was divided with regard to PANSS score into positive (n=32 and negative form (n=28 subgroups. PBC information were gathered from maternal recall while MPA were examined by using Waldrop scale for adults. The results showed that negative and positive schizophrenic subgroups had significantly more PBC than depressive group (p<0,05, as well than controls (p<0,001; p<0,05; respectively. There was no significant trend for more PBC in negative than in positive subgroup. All schizophrenic patients had higher rates of MPA than depressives (p<0,05. This trend for more MPA was not significant in comparison with healthy controls. These findings suggest that schizophrenia, especially its negative forms, could be considered as a member of the spectrum of neuro developmental disorders, which does not seem to be the case with depression. PBC and MPA could also be valuable in evaluation of risks for

  4. Animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on

  5. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  6. Physical disease and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A E

    1988-01-01

    Researchers have long speculated about the existence of a relationship between physical disease and schizophrenia. Psychodynamic and life-stress theories offer opposing predictions about the nature of this relationship. Unfortunately, the empirical research on this topic is often contradictory and frequently plagued by various methodological inadequacies. Despite the theoretical controversy and methodological problems, the present review of the empirical literature suggests that patients with schizophrenia may be at increased risk for breast cancer and possibly for cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, patients with schizophrenia seem to be at reduced risk for developing either rheumatoid arthritis or lung cancer. The epidemiological investigations are worth pursuing since the convincing demonstration of a relationship between schizophrenia and a particular physical disease would yield valuable information about the pathogenesis of both disorders. Future research on this topic will need to consider the possible mediating effects of third variables, such as smoking habits, which may be associated with schizophrenia and which also are, independently, recognized as risk factors for particular physical disorders.

  7. Sex steroids and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Julie A

    2012-09-01

    The peak in incidence for schizophrenia is during late adolescence for both sexes, but within this time frame the peak is both earlier and steeper for males. Additionally, women have a second peak in incidence following menopause. Two meta-analyses have reported that men have an overall ∼40% greater chance of developing schizophrenia than do women (Aleman et al., 2003; McGrath et al., 2004). These and other findings have led to the suggestion that ovarian hormones may be protective against schizophrenia. Less explored is the potential role of testosterone in schizophrenia, although disruptions in steroid levels have also been reported in men with the illness. The relationship between increased gonadal hormone release per se and peri-adolescent vulnerability for psychiatric illness is difficult to tease apart from other potentially contributory factors in clinical studies, as adolescence is a turbulent period characterized by many social and biological changes. Despite the obvious opportunity provided by animal research, surprisingly little basic science effort has been devoted to this important issue. On the other hand, the animal work offers an understanding of the many ways in which gonadal steroids exert a powerful impact on the brain, both shaping its development and modifying its function during adulthood. Recently, investigators using preclinical models have described a greater male vulnerability to neurodevelopmental insults that are associated with schizophrenia; such studies may provide clinically relevant insights into the role of gonadal steroids in psychiatric illness.

  8. The neuroproteomics of schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    English, Jane A

    2011-01-15

    Proteomics is the study of global gene expression of an organ, body system, fluid, or cellular compartment at the protein level. Proteomic findings are reflective of complex gene × environment interactions, and the importance of this is increasingly appreciated in schizophrenia research. In this review, we outline the main proteomic methods available to researchers in this area and summarize, for the first time, the findings of the main quantitative neuroproteomic investigations of schizophrenia brain. Our review of these data revealed 16 gray matter proteins, and eight white matter proteins that were differentially expressed in the same direction in two or more investigations. Pathway analysis identified cellular assembly and organization as particularly disrupted in both gray and white matter, whereas the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis pathway was the major signaling pathway significantly altered in both. Reassuringly, these findings show remarkable convergence with functional pathways and positional candidate genes implicated from genomic studies. The specificity of schizophrenia proteomic findings are also addressed in the context of neuroproteomic investigations of neurodegenerative disorders and bipolar disorder. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in the field of neuroproteomics, such as the need for high throughput validation methods and optimal sample preparation. Future directions in the neuroproteomics of schizophrenia, including the use of blood-based biomarker work, the need to focus on subproteomes, and the increasing use of mass spectrometry-based methods are all discussed. This area of research is still in its infancy and offers huge potential to our understanding of schizophrenia on a cellular level.

  9. Social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    The topic of social cognition has attracted considerable interest in schizophrenia over the last several years. This construct generally refers to the detection, processing, and utilization of social information and, within the field of schizophrenia, includes several skills such as recognizing emotion, understanding the thoughts and intentions of others, and interpreting social cues. Individuals with schizophrenia show significant impairments in social cognition, and these impairments are strongly related to functional outcome. Treating social cognition yields significant improvements in real-world outcomes, including social functioning and social skill. Importantly, social cognitive abilities are linked to specific neural circuits that have been shown to be abnormal in individuals with schizophrenia. Investigations of these neural networks in patients have also demonstrated that brain activation is significantly correlated with social functioning, which suggests that abnormal activation in social cognitive networks may serve as a mechanism for social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Among the many challenges in this area is the issue of measurement. There is disagreement about which tasks best measure social cognition and many existing measures show poor psychometric properties. A recent project, called the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, aims to address these problems by providing the field with a well-validated battery of social cognitive tasks that can be used in treatment outcome trials. Research is honing in on the potential mechanisms of social cognitive impairment in patients, and with improved measurement, there is promise for optimizing behavioral and pharmacologic interventions and remediation strategies. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  11. On incomprehensibility in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the supposedly incomprehensibility of schizophrenic delusions. According to the contemporary classificatory systems (DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10), some delusions typically found in schizophrenia are considered bizarre and incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to discuss...... the notion of understanding that deems these delusions incomprehensible and to see if it is possible to comprehend these delusions if we apply another notion of understanding. First, I discuss the contemporary schizophrenia definitions and their inherent problems, and I argue that the notion...... in the light of solipsism. Finally, I discuss the phenomenological conception of schizophrenia, which conceives delusion formation as resulting from alterations of the structure of experiencing and from underlying self-disorders. I argue that although a psychological understanding that seeks to grasp meaning...

  12. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized...... antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3...... responsive from treatment-resistant patients. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment...

  13. [Schizophrenia or Asperger syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, David; Viellard, Marine; Fakra, Eric; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Deruelle, Christine; Poinso, François

    2008-09-01

    Patients with Asperger syndrome are often diagnosed late or are wrongly considered to have schizophrenia. Misdiagnosing Asperger syndrome creates serious problems by preventing effective therapy. Several clinical signs described in Asperger syndrome could also be considered as clinical signs of schizophrenia, including impaired social interactions, disabilities in communication, restricted interests, and delusions of persecution. A number of clinical features may facilitate the differential diagnosis: younger age at onset, family history of pervasive developmental disorder, recurring conversations on the same topic, pragmatic aspects of language use, oddities of intonation and pitch, lack of imagination, and incomprehension of social rules are more characteristic of Asperger syndrome. Accurate distinction between Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia would make it possible to offer more treatment appropriate to the patient's functioning.

  14. Mysticism and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2016-01-01

    Mysticism and schizophrenia are different categories of human existence and experience. Nonetheless, they exhibit important phenomenological affinities, which, however, remain largely unaddressed. In this study, we explore structural analogies between key features of mysticism and major clinical......-phenomenological aspects of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders-i.e. attitudes, the nature of experience, and the 'other', mystical or psychotic reality. Not only do these features gravitate around the issue of the basic dimensions of consciousness, they crucially seem to implicate and presuppose a specific alteration...

  15. Art therapy for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María Isabel; Aceituno, David; Rada, Gabriel

    2017-01-19

    Art therapy is used as a complementary treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. However, its effectiveness is not clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified five systematic reviews including 20 studies overall, of which four were randomized trials. We extracted data and prepared summary of findings tables using the GRADE method. We concluded it is not clear whether art therapy leads to clinical improvement in schizophrenia because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  16. Lipids in newly discovered subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive correlation between the levels of TSH and cholesterol levels, while levels between TSH levels triglicrerida negative correlation with the clinical and subclinical form of reduced thyroid function.

  17. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which...... adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... Depression Scale 15 (GDS) at baseline and after 3 years. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender and education. RESULTS: Among 606 participants (41% women, mean age 75 years) without anti-depressant medication, GDS scores at baseline did not differ for participants with subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 47...

  19. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo SH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.Keywords: suicidal behavior, subclinical hyperthyroidism, anxiolytics

  20. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical and transcatheter bioprosthetic aortic valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Tarun; Søndergaard, Lars; Friedman, John

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subclinical leaflet thrombosis of bioprosthetic aortic valves after transcatheter valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been found with CT imaging. The objective of this study was to report the prevalence of subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical...... and transcatheter aortic valves and the effect of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) on the subclinical leaflet thrombosis and subsequent valve haemodynamics and clinical outcomes on the basis of two registries of patients who had CT imaging done after TAVR or SAVR. METHODS: Patients enrolled between Dec 22, 2014......, and Jan 18, 2017, in the RESOLVE registry, and between June 2, 2014, and Sept 28, 2016, in the SAVORY registry, had CT imaging done with a dedicated four-dimensional volume-rendered imaging protocol at varying intervals after TAVR and SAVR. We defined subclinical leaflet thrombosis as the presence...

  1. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  2. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH...

  3. Subclinical Measures of Atherosclerosis: Genetics and Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kavousi (Maryam)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, systematic condition with a long asymptomatic phase. Atherosclerosis develops gradually as a subclinical condition over the life course and eventually becomes clinically apparent as ischemic heart disease,

  4. Onychomycosis is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onalan, Orhan; Adar, Adem; Keles, Hakan; Ertugrul, Goksen; Ozkan, Nurhayat; Aktas, Habibullah; Karakaya, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of toenail onychomycosis with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Consecutive diabetic patients who were seen at our outpatient clinic were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was assessed and toenail onychomycosis was diagnosed with microscopic evaluation. We investigated 127 patients with diabetes melltus type 2. Overall, the prevalence of toenail onychomycosis was 37.8 % (48 of 127). Of the 127 patients, 60 (47.2 %) had subclinical atherosclerosis (CIMT ≥ 1 mm). Prevalence of male gender (43.3 % vs. 22.4 %, p = 0.012) and onychomycosis (53.3 % vs. 23.9 %, p = 0.001) was significantly higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. Among biochemical parameters, low-density lipoprotein (122 ± 38 mg/dL vs. 108 ± 36 mg/dL, p = 0.039) and glycosylated hemoglobin levels (median 8.4 %, IQR: 2.1 % vs. median 7.5 %, IQR: 1.6 %, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. Study groups were similar with respect to all other demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters. After adjustment for all potential confounders, the presence of onychomycosis was independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (OR 2.77, 95 % CI 1.16 to 6.30) in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of onychomycosis in patients with diabetes is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Onychomycosis may be a marker of atherosclerotic arterial involvement.

  5. Assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Stijn C H; ten Kate, Gerrit L; Akkus, Zeynettin; Renaud, Guillaume; Sijbrands, Eric J G; ten Cate, Folkert J; van der Lugt, Aad; Bosch, Johan G; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of standard carotid ultrasound and colour Doppler for the detection of subclinical atherosclerotic plaques is suboptimal. The aim of this study is to assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) added to standard carotid ultrasound improves the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement, standard carotid ultrasound including colour Doppler imaging, and CEUS were performed in 100 asymptomatic patients with one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis. CEUS was performed using intravenous administration of SonoVue™ contrast agent (Bracco S.p.A., Milan, Italy). CIMT, standard ultrasound, colour Doppler, and CEUS were reviewed by two independent observers. Standard ultrasound, colour Doppler, and CEUS were scored for the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Subclinical atherosclerosis was diagnosed if patients had a CIMT above their age-corrected threshold value or if atherosclerotic plaques were present on standard carotid ultrasound clips or CEUS clips. McNemar's test was performed to compare between groups. Twenty-one patients (21%) had a thickened CIMT value and were considered to have subclinical atherosclerosis. Standard carotid ultrasound including colour Doppler demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques in 77 patients (77%). The addition of CEUS to the standard ultrasound protocol demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques in 88 patients (88%). The incorporation of CEUS into the standard carotid ultrasound protocol resulted in a significantly improved detection of patients with subclinical atherosclerosis (P subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Atherosclerotic plaques which were only detected with CEUS and not with standard carotid ultrasound and colour Doppler imaging were predominantly hypoechoic.

  6. Glutamatergic System and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It has a role several cognitive functions including learning, memory and perception. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is also involved in regulating neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and the pruning neurons. Glutamatergic exci-totoxicity has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that glutamatergic dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and ketamine can cause both the positive and negative symptoms psychotic symptoms in normal humans, and worsen these symptoms in persons with schizophrenia. Hence, it has been hypotesized that schizophrenia may be associated with decreased NMDA-receptor activity. According to the hypothesis, NMDA reseptor hypofunction can lead to decreased inhibition of glutamatergic neurons and excessive glutamate release. Finally, the reduction of gray matter in several brain regions seen in patients with schizophrenia has been suggested to be the result of neurotoxicity mediated by NMDA receptors. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 394-405

  7. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  8. [Mixed states and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Cermolacce, M; Corréard, N; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    Because of their compilation of contrasted symptoms and their variable clinical presentation, mixed episodes have been withdrawn from the DSM. However, mixed states question not only the bonds between depression and mania, but also the distinction between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Indeed, doubts about the dichotomy introduced by Kraepelin between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia is as old as the nosolgy itself, as attest the later works of this author revealing his hesitations on his own classification. But findings here reviewed issued from recent technical advances, particularly in the imaging and genetic fields, offer a better understanding of the boundaries between these two disorders. Yet, when confronted to an acute episode, clinicians may find it challenging to distinguish a mixed state from a schizophrenic relapse. Indeed, there is no pathognomonic manifestation allowing to retain a diagnosis with confidence. The physician will therefore have to identify a pattern of signs, which will orient his assessment with no certainty. Thus, negative rather than affective or psychotic symptomatology appears to be useful in discriminating schizophrenia (or schizoaffective) disorders from mixed mania. However, a conclusion during this acute stage appears in definitive a formal exercise, first because the final diagnosis will only be ascertained once the symptoms are amended, and second because, according to our classifications, a mood episode, including mania and mixed mania, can be observed without ruling out the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  9. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, A.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder, incorporating a wide range of symptoms that may occur at certain stages of the disease. The core symptoms can largely be divided into positive symptoms, e.g. hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms, e.g. apathia and emotional flattening.

  10. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baandrup L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lone Baandrup,1 Charlotte Cerqueira,2 Lea Haller,3 Lene Korshøj,3 Inge Voldsgaard,4 Merete Nordentoft5 1Centre for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR and Centre for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup, 2Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 3The Danish Clinical Registries, Registry Support Centre for Health Quality and Informatics (KCKS-West, Aarhus, 4Psychosis Ward, Section P, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research.Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care in psychiatric hospitals or outpatient clinics. During the first year after the diagnosis, patients are classified as incident patients, and after this period as prevalent patients.Main variables: The registry currently contains 21 clinical quality measures in relation to the following domains: diagnostic evaluation, antipsychotic treatment including adverse reactions, cardiovascular risk factors including laboratory values, family intervention, psychoeducation, postdischarge mental health care, assessment of suicide risk in relation to discharge, and assessment of global functioning.Descriptive data: The recorded data are available electronically for the reporting clinicians and responsible administrative personnel, and they are updated monthly. The registry publishes the national and regional results of all included quality measures in the annual audit reports. External researchers may

  11. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  12. Is there an autoimmune basis for schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Tewari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiology of schizophrenia still remains a mystery. Schizophrenia with coexistence of myasthenia gravis in the same patient raises the suspicion of autoimmune mechanisms involved in causation of schizophrenia.

  13. [Basic symptoms in schizophrenia, their clinical study and relevance in research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, Salvador; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Peralta, Víctor; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Basic symptoms consist of subtle sub-clinical disturbances subjectively experienced by schizophrenia patients. These are mainly related to drive, affect, thinking and language, perception, memory, motor action, central vegetative functions, control of cognitive processes, and stress tolerance. Initially described by Huber, from a phenomenological approach, basic symptoms are part of the earliest features of schizophrenia, and they can evolve along the course of the disorder. Their assessment during the prodromal phase of the disease (together with ultra-high risk criteria) is one of the 2 main approaches that allow the definition of states of clinical risk for the development of psychosis. The present review provides an updated view of the concept of basic symptoms, highlighting its potential value in establishing neurobiological correlates of interest in aetiopathogenic research. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Early and sustained dynamic intervention in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described.......This paper is based on the Danish National Schizophrenia Project manual for psychodynamic individual psychotherapy with persons in states of schizophrenia. The methods for engaging with and treating a patient with schizophrenia in a supportive, psychodynamic way are described....

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood and adolescense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Abaci, Ayhan; Büyükgebiz, Atilla; Bober, Ece

    2014-11-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the reference range with normal serum free thyroxin (sT4) and free triiodothyronine (sT3) levels. The prevalence of SH in children and adolescents is reported between 1.7% and 9.5%. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most prevalent cause of SH in children. Although it has been suggested that SH is entirely an asymptomatic laboratory diagnosis, typical hypothyroid symptoms as well have been reported in some patients. Results of the adult studies on SH revealed that SH had unfavorable effects on cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis); metabolic parameters (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, etc.); neuromuscular system; and cognitive functions in the long term. The number of studies investigating the effect of childhood SH on growth, bone maturation, lipid parameters, carbohydrate metabolism, neuromuscular system, and cognitive and cardiac function is limited. Knowledge about the natural history of SH is unclear even though there are numerous studies upon this subject. In children and adults, treatment of SH with L-T₄ is still a matter of debate, and there is no consensus on this issue yet.

  16. Hipertiroidismo subclínico Subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbet Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El hipertiroidismo subclínico se define por la presencia de niveles disminuidos o no detectables de tirotropina, asociados a concentración de tetrayodotironina y triyodotironina libres dentro de parámetros normales. Su prevalencia en la población varía entre un 0,5 y un 16 % aproximadamente, y es el tratamiento con levotiroxina sódica la causa más frecuente. No siempre resulta tan asintomático, y las afectaciones principales ocurren sobre el sistema cardiovascular y óseo. Esta condición médica puede ser reversible espontáneamente. Por lo controversial del tema, el presente trabajo trata los aspectos clínicos más relevantes y la conducta a seguir.Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by presence of decreased o non-detected levels of thyrotropin, associated with free concentrations of tetraiodothyronine and triiodothyromime within normal parameters. Its prevalence in population differs between 0,5 % and 16 % approximately, and the sodium Levothyroxine treatment is the more frequent cause. Not always it is so asymptomatic, and main affections occur on cardiovascular and osseous system. This medical condition may be spontaneously reversible. Due to controversial of this topic, present paper approaching the more significant clinical features and the strategy to go on.

  17. Subclinical Inflammatory Status in Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been advocated as a possible common central mechanism for developmental cognitive impairment. Rett syndrome (RTT is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2. Here, we investigated plasma acute phase response (APR in stage II (i.e., “pseudo-autistic” RTT patients by routine haematology/clinical chemistry and proteomic 2-DE/MALDI-TOF analyses as a function of four major MECP2 gene mutation types (R306C, T158M, R168X, and large deletions. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate values (median 33.0 mm/h versus 8.0 mm/h, P<0.0001 were detectable in RTT, whereas C-reactive protein levels were unchanged (P=0.63. The 2-DE analysis identified significant changes for a total of 17 proteins, the majority of which were categorized as APR proteins, either positive (n=6 spots or negative (n=9 spots, and to a lesser extent as proteins involved in the immune system (n=2 spots, with some proteins having overlapping functions on metabolism (n=7 spots. The number of protein changes was proportional to the severity of the mutation. Our findings reveal for the first time the presence of a subclinical chronic inflammatory status related to the “pseudo-autistic” phase of RTT, which is related to the severity carried by the MECP2 gene mutation.

  18. [Schizophrenia and pain reactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2008-11-01

    Medical practitioners do not for a long time pay enough attention to patient's pain. This approach is in the line of society feelings. Pain was long consider to be a contingency to withstand as showed in Christian's bible or Stoicism's principle. Changes in mentality appear in present times. It Seems obvious that for sociological and scientific reasons pain's care in medical and psychiatric disorders is now an important subject. Recent research in autistic disorders suggest that insensitivity observed in autism is not and analgesic phenomenon but a different behavioural reactivity to pain. Prevalence of schizophrenic disorder is from 0.5 to 1%. It is also a complex disorder that has defied decades of concerted efforts to uncover its origins and attenuate its symptoms. The most promising hypotheses suggest that neurodevelopmental impairment increases the risk of later schizophrenia. Most of recent researches in this topic did focus to trait or state markers. According to the vulnerability models of schizophrenia, trait marker are clinical, psychological, physiological, anatomical or cognitive impairments found in patients with schizophrenia during all the course of the illness and even before the onset. Several lines of evidence (case report, epidemiological studies, experimental studies) suggest that patients with schizophrenia shows a relative insensitivity to physical pain. We will review and critic the scientific literature in this specific topic. We will see if datas are relevant with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis and vulnerability models. An OLDMEDLINE/MEDLINE query was performed to identify 50 articles relevant to our subject. 9 were case report or case series, 21 were clinical or epidemiological studies, 15 were experimental studies and we also found 5 previous review. Clinical and experimental data strongly suggest a decrease of Behavioural Reactivity to Pain (BRP) but there is a lack of argument to prove a real analgesia. Because schizophrenia is a

  19. Cannabis and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Benjamin C; Pushpa-Rajah, Jonathan A; Gillies, Donna; Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Kalakouti, Eliana; Kyprianou, Katerina

    2014-10-14

    Schizophrenia is a mental illness causing disordered beliefs, ideas and sensations. Many people with schizophrenia smoke cannabis, and it is unclear why a large proportion do so and if the effects are harmful or beneficial. It is also unclear what the best method is to allow people with schizophrenia to alter their cannabis intake. To assess the effects of specific psychological treatments for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of antipsychotics for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of cannabinoids (cannabis related chemical compounds derived from cannabis or manufactured) for symptom reduction in people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, 12 August 2013, which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PUBMED and PsycINFO.We searched all references of articles selected for inclusion for further relevant trials. We contacted the first author of included studies for unpublished trials or data. We included all randomised controlled trials involving cannabinoids and schizophrenia/schizophrenia-like illnesses, which assessed:1) treatments to reduce cannabis use in people with schizophrenia;2) the effects of cannabinoids on people with schizophrenia. We independently inspected citations, selected papers and then re-inspected the studies if there were discrepancies, and extracted data. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RR) and for continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed-effect model. We excluded data if loss to follow-up was greater than 50%. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE to rate the quality of the evidence. We identified eight randomised trials, involving 530 participants, which met our selection criteria.For the cannabis reduction studies no one treatment showed superiority for reduction

  20. Episodic foresight and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Amanda D; Henry, Julie D; Rendell, Peter G; Robinson, Gail; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    People with schizophrenia have difficulty engaging in specific future-directed thoughts and behaviours, such as generating phenomenological characteristics of future events (a component of episodic foresight), and executing directed preparatory behaviours (a component of prospective memory). However, it remains unclear whether they also exhibit difficulties using episodic foresight to appropriately guide future-directed behaviours. People with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls were administered a behavioural measure that met strict criteria for assessing episodic foresight. In keeping with our focus on the functional application of foresight, this measure required participants to identify a problem, self-generate a resolution, and execute the appropriate future-directed intention. Relative to controls, people with schizophrenia were less likely to spontaneously acquire items that would later allow a problem to be solved, and were also less likely to subsequently use these items to solve the problems. There was no interaction between group and task, indicating that these two components of foresight were disrupted to an equivalent degree. In the clinical (but not the control) group, item acquisition and item use were correlated with general cognitive capacity. No significant associations with clinical variables emerged. The capacity to apply episodic foresight in a functionally adaptive way is disrupted in schizophrenia and may at least partially reflect broader cognitive dysfunction. Future work is now needed to clarify the implications of these difficulties in everyday life, as well as how these difficulties might be remediated. People with schizophrenia have known difficulties with episodic foresight, and it now appears that those difficulties extend to the performance of foresightful preparatory behaviours. Because preparatory behaviours are central to routine and adaptive planning, difficulties with episodic foresight may contribute to or be a result of

  1. Family intervention for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

    2014-01-01

    Background People with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of emotions. Forms of psychosocial intervention, designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families, are now widely used. Objectives To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared with standard care. Search strategy We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (September 2008). Selection criteria We selected randomised or quasi-randomised studies focusing primarily on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention with standard care. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data and calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR), the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for binary data, and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). Main results This 2009-10 update adds 21 additional studies, with a total of 53 randomised controlled trials included. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (n = 2981, 32 RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.5 to 0.6, NNT 7 CI 6 to 8), although some small but negative studies might not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may also reduce hospital admission (n = 481, 8 RCTs, RR 0.78 CI 0.6 to 1.0, NNT 8 CI 6 to 13) and encourage compliance with medication (n = 695, 10 RCTs, RR 0.60 CI 0.5 to 0.7, NNT 6 CI 5 to 9) but it does not obviously affect the tendency of individuals/families to leave care (n = 733, 10 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.0). Family intervention also seems to improve general social impairment and the levels of

  2. [Schizophrenia in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Küppers, M

    1979-02-01

    After considerable controversies during the last decades there is no longer any doubt about childhood schizophrenia as a disease, although within German-speaking countries its somewhat wider definition like in Anglo-Saxon child- and adolescent psychiatry is not accepted. The relation of early childhood autism to the nosologic entity of schizophrenia still remains speculative. The etiology of childhood schizophrenia is not known, equally not that of the even less frequent manic-depressive disease. Symptoms, course, and prognosis of childhood schizophrenia which developes between preschool age and the begin of puberty are described in detail.

  3. Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gysin, René; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Sandell, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex multifactorial brain disorder with a genetic component. Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether schizophrenia is associated with a deficit...... of GSH synthesis. Cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenia patients and control subjects were challenged with oxidative stress, and parameters of the rate-limiting enzyme for the GSH synthesis, the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), were measured. Stressed cells of patients had a 26% (P = 0.......002) decreased GCL activity as compared with controls. This reduction correlated with a 29% (P schizophrenia in two...

  4. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...

  5. A decade of discoveries in veterinary protozoology changes our concept of "subclinical" toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Milton M

    2005-09-30

    One of the most compelling topics to emerge from the last decade of veterinary protozoology is disease caused by a zoonotic pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, in otherwise healthy people. These findings may catch the health professions by surprise, because veterinary and medical courses and textbooks typically emphasize that T. gondii infections are subclinical, unless acquired in utero or the patient has a serious immunosuppressive condition. Nevertheless, numerous reports in the last decade associate toxoplasmosis with lymphadenopathy, fever, weakness and debilitation, ophthalmitis, and severe multisystemic infections in people who do not have immunosuppressive conditions. Toxoplasmosis in rodents causes altered behavior, and similar mental aberrations are coming to light in humans; recent studies associate T. gondii infection with personality shifts and increased likelihood of reduced intelligence or schizophrenia. These conditions reduce the quality of life of individuals, and may exact a significant economic burden upon society. Of course, toxoplasmosis continues to cause serious conditions in AIDS patients and congenitally infected people, as well as abortions and encephalitis in domestic and wild animals. Environmental contamination is heavy enough to extend into marine wildlife. It is time for the health professions to amend teaching curricula regarding T. gondii. Veterinary parasitologists should lead the way in developing methods to reduce the prevalence of T. gondii in food animals. Public health policies should prohibit the practice of allowing pet cats to roam. Organizations and individuals that feed feral cats are unwittingly contributing to the dissemination of T. gondii, by sustaining artificially dense populations of a definitive host of this protozoal parasite.

  6. Language, motor and speed of processing deficits in adolescents with subclinical psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Mathieu M; Jacobson, Sarah; Clarke, Mary C; Connor, Dearbhla; Kelleher, Ian; Garavan, Hugh; Harley, Michelle; Cannon, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Neuropsychological impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia. Adolescents reporting subclinical psychotic symptoms are considered to be at greater risk of developing a psychotic illness later in life than adolescents who do not report such symptoms and, thus, may represent an at-risk group for further study. We wished to investigate neuropsychological functioning in early adolescence in relation to reports of psychotic symptoms. Participants were recruited from local primary schools after a two-stage screening and parental consent process. In brief, 277 adolescents were screened and 37 attended for testing. Seventeen adolescents who were deemed to report 'definite' psychotic symptoms after clinical interview and 20 control adolescents underwent a clinical interview and a one-hour neuropsychological battery. Adolescents who report psychotic symptoms exhibited significant impairments in receptive language (as measured by the British Picture Vocabulary Scale), motor function (as measured by the Pegboard test) and executive function/speed of processing (as measured by the Trail-Making test). There were no significant differences between the groups on measures of attention, memory or expressive language, abstract reasoning or overall scholastic ability. Taken together with the results from birth cohort, genetic high risk and prodromal studies, these findings are consistent with a neural inefficiency/disconnectivity hypothesis in those at risk for psychosis. These results highlight the need to investigate developmental brain circuits subserving language and motor function and processing speed and how these change over time in at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Schizophrenia: A Systemic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics. PMID:23518782

  8. Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that lacks a unifying neuropathology, while currently available pharmacological treatments provide only limited benefits to many patients. This review will discuss how the field of neuroepigenetics could contribute to advancements of the existing knowledge on the neurobiology and treatment of psychosis. Genome-scale mapping of DMA methylation, histone modifications and variants, and chromosomal loopings for promoter-enhancer interactions and other epigenetic determinants of genome organization and function are likely to provide important clues about mechanisms contributing to dysregulated expression of synaptic and metabolic genes in schizophrenia brain, including the potential links to the underlying genetic risk architecture and environmental exposures. In addition, studies in animal models are providing a rapidly increasing list of chromatin-regulatory mechanisms with significant effects on cognition and complex behaviors, thereby pointing to the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drug targets in the nervous system.

  9. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia display alterations in social cognition, as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is still unclear to what extent these two cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions or different expressions of a unified deficit. Tasks used to assess social cognition subcomponents cover basic social cognition, such as mentalisation, data collection and making conclusions, source monitoring and characteristics of life-styles. The variety of findings of various studies is probably related to the fact that most studies considered social cognition as one-dimensional construct represented, for example, by unique measurements of emotional recognition. Research results dealing with social cognition suggest that the impairment of social cognition is the characteristic feature of schizophrenia and have important implications for the development, course and outcome of this disorder.

  10. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T4 or free T4. This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  11. Diagnosis and management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Roberto; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2014-10-06

    In prospective studies, the prevalence of undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women ranges from 3% to 15%. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus, including spontaneous abortion, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and decreased IQ in the offspring. Only two prospective studies have evaluated the impact of levothyroxine therapy in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, and the results were mixed. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as raised thyrotropin combined with a normal serum free thyroxine level. The normal range of thyrotropin varies according to geographic region and ethnic background. In the absence of local normative data, the recommended upper limit of thyrotropin in the first trimester of pregnancy is 2.5 mIU/L, and 3.0 mIU/L in the second and third trimester. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50% more thyroid hormone during pregnancy to maintain a euthyroid state. Consequently, most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant to maintain euthyroidism. Ongoing prospective trials that are evaluating the impact of levothyroxine therapy on adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus in women with subclinical hypothyroidism will provide crucial data on the role of thyroid hormone replacement in pregnancy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2014.

  12. Health status, mood, and cognition in experimentally induced subclinical thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, M H; Schuff, K G; Carlson, N E; Carello, P; Janowsky, J S

    2008-05-01

    Our objective was to determine whether subclinical thyrotoxicosis alters health status, mood, and/or cognitive function. This was a double-blinded, randomized, cross-over study of usual dose l-T(4) (euthyroid arm) vs. higher dose l-T(4) (subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm) in hypothyroid subjects. A total of 33 hypothyroid subjects receiving l-T(4) were included in the study. Subjects underwent measurements of health status, mood, and cognition: Short Form 36 (SF-36); Profile of Mood States (POMS); and tests of declarative memory (Paragraph Recall, Complex Figure), working memory (N-Back, Subject Ordered Pointing, and Digit Span Backwards), and motor learning (Pursuit Rotor). These were repeated after 12 wk on each of the study arms. Mean TSH levels decreased from 2.15 to 0.17 mU/liter on the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm (P learning was better during the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm, whereas declarative and working memory measures did not change. This improvement was related to changes in the SF-36 physical component summary and POMS tension subscales and free T(3) levels. We found slightly impaired physical health status but improvements in measures of mental health and mood in l-T(4) treated hypothyroid subjects when subclinical thyrotoxicosis was induced in a blinded, randomized fashion. Motor learning was also improved. These findings suggest that thyroid hormone directly affects brain areas responsible for affect and motor function.

  13. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  14. Brain microstructure of subclinical apathy phenomenology in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Piras, Fabrizio

    2013-12-01

    Although apathy has been extensively studied in relation to neuropsychiatric disorders, it is still unclear whether, in healthy people, it should be considered as a physiological phenomenon or whether it is a risk factor for progression to clinical disturbances. Here, we investigated subclinical apathy phenomenology and its brain microstructural correlates in healthy individuals. We submitted 72 participants to a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution structural MRI and a diffusion tensor imaging scan protocol. Data of individual microstructural (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) variations were processed across genders in relation to the Apathy Rating Scale score. In females, subclinical apathy phenomenology was associated with microstructural variation of the bilateral thalami, the anterior thalamic radiation, the forceps major, and the corona radiate. These are white matter areas mostly connecting the thalami to the frontal and occipital cortices, regions that are known to be implicated in the expression of apathy in clinical samples. No significant relationship with brain microstructure was found in males who showed a positive correlation between subclinical apathy and somatic phenomenology of depression. In conclusion, our results show that in healthy individuals subclinical apathy phenomenology is associated with different mechanisms across genders, and raise the issue about whether brain microstructural changes associated with subclinical apathy in healthy females could be a precocious marker useful in the prediction of progression to more severe apathetic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Theory of mind network activity is altered in subjects with familial liability for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnke, Sebastian; Erk, Susanne; Schnell, Knut; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Schmierer, Phöbe; Romund, Lydia; Garbusow, Maria; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Ripke, Stephan; Grimm, Oliver; Haller, Leila; Witt, Stephanie H.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Tost, Heike; Heinz, Andreas; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Walter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    As evidenced by a multitude of studies, abnormalities in Theory of Mind (ToM) and its neural processing might constitute an intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. If so, neural alterations during ToM should be observable in unaffected relatives of patients as well, since they share a considerable amount of genetic risk. While behaviorally, impaired ToM function is confirmed meta-analytically in relatives, evidence on aberrant function of the neural ToM network is sparse and inconclusive. The present study therefore aimed to further explore the neural correlates of ToM in relatives of schizophrenia. About 297 controls and 63 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia performed a ToM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with the literature relatives exhibited decreased activity of the medial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, increased recruitment of the right middle temporal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex was found, which was related to subclinical paranoid symptoms in relatives. These results further support decreased medial prefrontal activation during ToM as an intermediate phenotype of genetic risk for schizophrenia. Enhanced recruitment of posterior ToM areas in relatives might indicate inefficiency mechanisms in the presence of genetic risk. PMID:26341902

  16. Neural models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Heckers, Stephan

    2000-01-01

    Hallucinations and delusions - two diagnostic features of psychosis shared across the spectrum of heterogeneous schizophrenia constructs - can be described in terms of the pathophysiology of sensory information processing: hallucination is the impaired ability to classify representations as internally or externally generated, while delusion is the immutable linking of representations with each other in the absence of external dependency. The key anatomical systems in higher-order information ...

  17. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  18. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis: racial profiling is necessary!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakzai, Sarwar H; Orakzai, Raza H; Nasir, Khurram; Santos, Raul D; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Budoff, Matthew J; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2006-11-01

    We aim to review the studies comparing coronary calcification across different ethnic groups. There is still uncertainty regarding ethnic differences in the prevalence, progression, and risk of coronary artery disease. Clues to possible racial differences in rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be found by identifying subclinical disease. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be used to predict risk of CHD in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Online databases were searched for studies assessing racial differences in CAC. Most of the published studies have shown that racial differences exist in the prevalence and severity of CAC. Whites have a higher prevalence of CAC as compared to African Americans and other ethnic groups even after adjustment for risk factors. These differences in CAC are even more pronounced in men and in the elderly. Data regarding the distribution of CAC in ethnic groups outside the United States are limited. Emerging evidence indicates that while several ethnic groups outside the United States tend to have a greater prevalence of CHD risk factors, their prevalence of CAC is lower, as compared with Americans. Thus, the data obtained in the United States may not be able to be fully extrapolated to populations outside the United States for assessment of CHD risk. The presence and extent of CAC varies among different racial groups within and outside the United States. The relationship between calcification and the incidence of CHD in these ethnic groups needs further exploration. Thus, it is important to develop ethnic specific CAC nomograms to more accurately determine the underlying CHD risk associated with CAC in these individuals. It will also be imperative to obtain outcome data and relate it to baseline levels of CAC to help us put in perspective the significance of racial differences in CAC and how they impact on cardiac risk prediction.

  19. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  20. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  1. Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term schizophrenia was coined by Eugene Bleuler. Symptoms of schizophrenia are arranged into groups or clusters called as domains. The domains of dysfunctions are positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive impairments, mood and suicidity, and aggression. Cognition is the sum total of mental processes that makes us acquire knowledge and keeps us aware of our surroundings and thus enables us to arrive at appropriate judgments. Cognitive deficits are recognized as enduring and persistent features in schizophrenia and can be neuro-cognitive or relating to social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits are deficits in speed of processing, attention / vigilance, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, reasoning and problem solving, social cognition. Cognitive function can be assessed by various methods like experimental approach, neuropsychological and psychometric and ecologic approach. Cognitive deficits are present at onset of illness producing substantial impairment. Unlike psychotic symptoms, which remit with treatment, functional impairments remain stable over time. Detail understanding of such symptoms will help in disability limitation. Various cognitive remediation programmes are underway with such intent. Articles till March, 2012 were searched through PubMed and Google Scholar, which were studied in an attempt of understanding the topic. The information was structured and organized.

  2. [Psychoeducation in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata Ospina, Juan Pablo; Rangel Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio; García Valencia, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of schizophrenia includes the use of psychotropic drugs, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions that include psychoeducation. This strategy has been defined as the delivery of information about the disorder and its treatment in a systematic and structured way. To review the literature on the efficacy of psychoeducation in schizophrenia. A search in PubMed, SciELO, EMBASE and PsycINFO was made with the terms "psychoeducation", "schizophrenia" and "psychosocial intervention". Articles in Spanish and English language were reviewed. Psychoeducation can be applied to patients, family or both, and individually or in groups. The number of sessions can vary. There have been many studies that seek to determine the efficacy of psychoeducation in the clinical course, family dynamics and stigma, with results that favor its implementation, but so far it has not been possible to determine exactly how best to apply psychoeducation, mainly because of the great variability of designs. The studies on psychoeducation have shown efficacy. However, this might be an overestimation, as there is a high risk of bias. Consequently, there is not enough evidence. At least for now, it is reasonable to complement pharmacotherapy with psycoeducation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of endothelial function in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that FMD decreased in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients which could be partially restored by treatment. These findings suggest that treatment of subclinical hyperthyroid state could improve endothelial dysfunction and at the end decreased the cardiovascular complications.

  4. Increased H-FABP concentrations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Possible marker for subclinical myocardial damage and subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, O; Akbal, E; Köklü, S; Tuna, Y; Koçak, E; Başar, N; Tok, D; Erbiş, H; Senes, M

    2013-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder which is reported as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with NAFLD are also at risk of future cardiac events independently of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine serum concentrations of heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in NAFLD and to investigate its correlations with metabolic parameters and subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 34 patients with NAFLD and 35 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. NAFLD patients had elevated liver enzymes and steatosis graded on ultrasonography. Healthy subjects had normal liver enzymes and no steatosis on ultrasonography. H-FABP levels were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and correlations with metabolic parameters and subclinical atherosclerosis were examined. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined with carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) which was measured by high resolution B mode ultrasonography. H-FABP levels were elevated in patients with NAFLD (16.3 ± 4.0 ng/ml) when compared with healthy controls (13.8 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p  subclinical myocardial damage in patients with NAFLD but also of subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of metabolic syndrome and cardiac risk factors.

  5. Infrared reflectance as a diagnostic adjunct for subclinical commotio retinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commotio retinae (CR is an outer retinal disorder following blunt trauma to the eye. Histologically it is characterized by disruption of the photoreceptor outer segments (OS, typically without injury to other retinal layers. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT the condition is visible as hyper-reflectivity of the OS. Most cases of CR are associated with transient grey-white discoloration of the retina and are easily diagnosed clinically, but there have been reports of OCT-confirmed CR without retinal discoloration. It is likely that this subclinical variant of CR is under-recognized as the OCT features of CR are subtle. Here, we report a case of OCT-confirmed subclinical CR that demonstrated prominent infrared hypo-reflectance, using the infrared protocol of the SPECTRALIS® OCT, Heidelberg Engineering. This case suggests that infrared reflectance may have a role in diagnosing cases of subclinical CR.

  6. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous...... of spontaneous abortions. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism...

  7. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Its Association with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Altamirano Ufion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating different metabolism functions and multiple organs’ performance. Changes in the thyroid hormone axis can lead to profound effects on the stability of vital organs and systems, especially the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is classified according to the clinical presentation as overt and subclinical. There is some evidence supporting the benefits of thyroxine hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism on cardiovascular mortality outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of measuring and treating high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in newly diagnosed heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction requires further study. In this report, we review the current evidence regarding the prognostic significance of subclinical hypothyroidism in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  8. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... of spontaneous abortions. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism...... with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous...

  9. A comparison of clinical vs subclinical skin pickers in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuthen, Nancy J.; Curley, Erin E.; Tung, Esther S.

    2016-01-01

    phenomena, and clinical correlates. RESULTS: There were many similarities between clinical and subclinical skin pickers. Individuals with clinical SPD, however, had more severe skin picking, greater associated functional impairment, greater perceived stress, and greater depressive and obsessive-compulsive......BACKGROUND: Skin-picking disorder (SPD) was recognized as its own entity for the first time in DSM-5. The existing SPD literature is limited and, to date, no study has examined the differences between clinical and sub- clinical SPD. Identifying differences between these 2 groups may improve...... diagnostic accuracy, treatment, and prevention efforts. METHODS: Israeli adults (N = 4,325) from 2 previous studies were examined for the presence of clinical and subclinical SPD. Individuals with clinical SPD (n = 150) vs subclinical SPD (n = 219) were compared on skin-picking characteristics, psychological...

  10. Therapeutic Effect of Nisin Z on Subclinical Mastitis in Lactating Cows▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-tr...

  11. Clinical factors associated with subclinical spread of in situ melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Thuzar M; Etzkorn, Jeremy R; Sobanko, Joseph F; Margolis, David J; Gelfand, Joel M; Chu, Emily Y; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Shaikh, Waqas R; Miller, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Subclinical spread of in situ melanoma occurs at a wide frequency, ranging from 12% to 71%. To identify clinical factors associated with subclinical spread of in situ melanoma. We used a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 674 consecutive in situ melanomas to examine 627 patients treated with Mohs surgery and melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 immunostaining. The presence of subclinical spread was correlated with clinical characteristics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated significantly increased odds for subclinical spread of in situ melanomas when they were located on the head or neck, at acral sites, or on the pretibial leg (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.41-3.40); in persons with a history of prior treatment (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.74-4.420); melanomas of preoperative size >1 cm (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.23-2.46, P = .002); or in persons ≥60 years old (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = .042). A count prediction model demonstrated that the risk for subclinical spread increased with the number of clinical risk factors. We used a single-site, retrospective study design. Clarifying the risk factors for subclinical spread might help to refine triage of in situ melanomas to the appropriate surgical techniques for margin assessment prior to reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolically healthy obesity and the risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jun; Shin, Hee-Young; Chang, Yoosoo; Kang, Mira; Jee, Jaehwan; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Ahn, Hyeon Seon; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Son, Hee Jung; Ryu, Seungho

    2017-07-01

    Although obesity and metabolic abnormalities are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the risk of cardiovascular disease among obese individuals without obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO), remains unclear. We examined the association between body mass index categories and the development of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in a cohort of metabolically healthy individuals. We conducted a cohort study of 6453 men without subclinical carotid atherosclerosis or metabolic abnormalities at baseline, who underwent repeated health check-up examinations that included carotid ultrasound. A metabolically healthy state was defined as having no metabolic syndrome components and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was assessed using ultrasound. During the follow-up period of 34,797.9 person-years, subclinical carotid atherosclerosis developed in 1916 participants. Comparing overweight and obese with normal weight participants, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident subclinical carotid atherosclerosis were 1.24 (1.12-1.38) and 1.54 (1.38-1.72), respectively. The association persisted after further adjustment for metabolic variables. This association was also evident in MHO men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 90 cm) and it did not differ across any clinically relevant subgroups evaluated. In a large cohort study of strictly defined metabolically healthy participants, the MHO phenotype was associated with an increased risk of incident subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, providing evidence that the MHO phenotype is not protective from cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Psychopharmacology of aggression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter; Citrome, Leslie; Nichita, Carmen; Vitacco, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The management of aggression in patients with schizophrenia is a complex and challenging clinical dilemma. It also is greatly influenced by prevailing societal and medicolegal considerations regarding the perceived associations between violence and mental illness. This article provides a succinct account of a complex area and offers evidence for available treatments to reduce the occurrence of violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Temporal Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christine A.; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the…

  16. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  17. Replicated association between the European GWAS locus rs10503253 at CSMD1 and schizophrenia in Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqing; Liu, Fang; Xu, Xiufeng; Bai, Yan

    2017-04-24

    Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders with significant heritability. Recent genetic association studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia. An intronic SNP within CSMD1, rs10503253, is one of the top risk SNPs for schizophrenia in Europeans discovered through large GWAS. However, whether rs10503253 is also a risk SNP for schizophrenia in other populations, such as Asians, is still unknown. To answer this question, we examined the association of rs10503253 with schizophrenia in a total of 7514 schizophrenia patients, 9058 healthy controls and 1115 nuclear families originated from Asia using a meta-analytic approach. In the meta-analysis of all the samples, we confirmed the association of rs10503253 A-allele with schizophrenia in Asian population (P-value=0.0093, odds ratio=1.062, 95% confidence interval=1.015-1.111), and no genetic heterogeneity between individual samples (P=0.810) was observed. Using the "Leave-one-out" sensitivity analysis, we further confirmed the association between rs10503253 and schizophrenia. These data show that rs10503253 is likely a common schizophrenia risk variant in multiple ethnic groups, and further studies regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

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    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  19. Haemodynamic changes following treatment of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Wiinberg, N; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism has profound effects on the cardiovascular system, including reduced systemic vascular resistance (SVR) due to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells, enhanced heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO) due to an increase in cardiac diastolic relaxation, contractility and heart...... rate. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by reduced serum TSH levels despite free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) estimates within the reference range, in subjects with no obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We measured haemodynamic changes (using impedance cardiography......) in subjects with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism in order to elucidate whether these patients had signs of excess thyroid hormone at the tissue level....

  20. Subclinical inflammation in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Gamal Eldeen Y. Elkholi

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: PCOS and controls with andriod obesity had higher levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers and lower levels of anti-inflammatory biomarkers than PCOS and controls with gynoid obesity. The former groups had IR/HI and metabolic disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism while the latter groups had NIS and normal metabolism. It seems that these metabolic disorders are induced by android obesity with subclinical inflammation of the expanded visceral adipose tissue rather than PCOS per se. The PCOS per se is not associated with subclinical inflammation.

  1. Influence of subclinical mastitis during early lactation on reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrick, F N; Hockett, M E; Saxton, A M; Lewis, M J; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    2001-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of mastitis during early lactation on the reproductive performance of Jersey cows. From 1986 to 1997, quarter foremilk samples were collected every 4 to 8 wk during lactation, at drying off, near calving, and when clinical mastitis was diagnosed and were evaluated microbiologically to identify causative bacteria. Services per conception, days open, and days to first service were obtained from DHIA records on 752 cows. Cows were separated by mastitis type (clinical, n = 186; subclinical, n = 240; control, uninfected or infected after confirmed pregnancy, n = 326). Cows were reclassified based on the time of clinical or subclinical mastitis as follows: period 1, before first service (n = 374); period 2, between first service and pregnancy (n = 52); and period 3, after confirmed pregnancy or uninfected (control; n = 326). Milk production did not differ for any group separations. Reproductive performance did not differ between gram-negative or gram-positive mastitis pathogens. Cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis before first service had increased days to first service (77.3+/-2.7 and 74.8+/-2.7 d), days open (110.0+/-6.9 and 107.7+/-6.9 d), and services per conception (2.1+/-0.2 and 2.1+/-0.2) compared with controls (67.8+/-2.2 d, 85.4+/-5.8 d, 1.6+/-0.2; P < 0.05). Days to first service were not increased in cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis during period 2 (70.6+/-3.3 and 61.2+/-7.8 d). However, days open (143.6+/-8.5 d) and services per conception (3.0+/-0.2) were increased (P < 0.05) in cows with clinical mastitis during period 2, but not in cows with subclinical mastitis (90.9+/-20.2 d and 2.1+/-0.5). Cows initially diagnosed subclinical that became clinical during period 2 exhibited increased days to first service (93.9+/-10.1 d), days open (196.0+/-26.2 d), and services per conception (4.3+/-0.7) compared with control animals (P < 0.05). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis reduced reproductive

  2. Pharmacotherapy of Schizophrenia: Ploypharmacy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahiminejad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nSchizophrenia is a debilitating illness, rating as one of the leading causes of lost years of quality of life. The illness imposes a disproportionate burden on patients and their families, healthcare systems and society. Pharmacological management is the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and antipsychotics, both first generation of antipsychotics and second generation of antipsychotics, are efficacious in reducing levels of psychopathology in acute episodes of schizophrenia. Clearly a need for innovative treatment strategies in schizophrenia that will ensure increased effectiveness against negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction dysfunction. Therefore, in majority of cases polypharmacy is one of the effective approaches. This review focused on polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms.

  3. Weight History and Subclinical Myocardial Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumele, Chiadi E; Cobb, Laura; Lazo, Mariana; Bello, Natalie A; Shah, Amil; Nambi, Vijay; Blumenthal, Roger S; Gerstenblith, Gary; Solomon, Scott D; Ballantyne, Christie M; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2017-11-20

    Excess weight is associated with subclinical myocardial damage, as reflected by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations, which portends high heart failure risk. However, the association between weight history and myocardial damage is unknown. We evaluated 9062 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) visit 4 (1996-1999) participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and no previous cardiovascular disease. We cross-tabulated visit 4 ("current") BMI categories of normal weight, overweight, and obese with those at visit 1 (1987-1989) and with BMI categories calculated from self-reported weight at age 25 years. Duration of obesity was calculated in years. A cumulative weight measure of "excess BMI-years" was also calculated [product of mean BMI (centered at 25 kg/m(2)) over all ARIC time points × follow-up duration]. We used logistic regression to estimate associations of weight history metrics with increased hs-cTnT (≥14 ng/L) at visit 4. Overall, 623 individuals (7%) had increased hs-cTnT at visit 4. Within each current BMI category, previous excess weight was associated with increased hs-cTnT, with the strongest associations for those with past and current obesity [odds ratio (OR), 3.85; 95% CI, 2.51-5.90 for obesity at age 25 years and visit 4]. Each 10-year longer obesity duration was associated with increased hs-cTnT (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.17-1.35). Each 100 higher excess BMI-years was also progressively associated with increased hs-cTnT (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.27). Previous obesity and greater cumulative weight from young adulthood increase the likelihood of myocardial damage, indicating long-term toxic effects of adiposity on the myocardium and the need for weight maintenance strategies targeting the entire life span. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. Benzodiazepines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Markus; Li, Chunbo; Tardy, Magdolna; Khorsand, Vesal; Gillies, Donna; Leucht, Stefan

    2012-11-14

    Because of the high number of people with schizophrenia not responding adequately to monotherapy with antipsychotic agents, the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of additional medication was examined in a number of clinical trials. One approach to this research question was the use of benzodiazepines, as monotherapy as well as in combination with antipsychotics. To determine the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of benzodiazepines in people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. In February 2011, we updated the literature search of the previous version of this systematic review (last search March 2005). We searched the trial register of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group (containing methodical searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, Dissertation abstracts, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PSYNDEX, PsycINFO, RUSSMED, Sociofile, supplemented with hand searching of relevant journals and numerous conference proceedings). Additionally, we inspected references of all identified studies for further relevant studies and contacted authors of relevant publications in order to obtain missing data from existing trials. We applied no language restrictions. We included all randomised controlled trials comparing benzodiazepines (as monotherapy or as adjunctive agent) with antipsychotic drugs or placebo for the pharmacological management of schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Review authors (MD and CL) analysed independently the new references of the update-search referring to the inclusion criteria. MD and CL extracted all data from the included trials. For dichotomous outcomes we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed continuous data by using mean differences (MD) and their 95% CI. We assessed each pre-selected outcome from the included trials with the risk of bias tool. The 2011 update search yielded three further randomised controlled trials. The review currently includes 34 studies with 2657 participants. Most

  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia and in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Differences and Similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonna, Matteo; Ottoni, Rebecca; Paglia, Francesca; Monici, Alberto; Ossola, Paolo; DE Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    A growing literature suggests that obsessive-compulsive (OC) phenomena represent a distinct dimension in schizophrenia, independent of nuclear psychotic symptoms. Nevertheless, the OC psychopathologic profile in schizophrenia, compared with "pure" obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), has not yet been investigated extensively. This study investigated the clinical features of the OC dimension in patients with schizophrenia compared with patients with pure OCD. The main psychopathologic features of obsessions and compulsions were rated in 35 patients with schizophrenia and 31 patients with OCD, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the Leyton Obsessional Inventory. OC phenomena were indistinguishable in terms of their severity, resistance, interference, and control in both groups. However, patients with OCD showed higher rates of aggressive, contamination-related, sexual, and somatic themes; moreover, in the group with schizophrenia, a positive relationship was found between washing compulsions and delusions and between hoarding obsessions and delusions. These results indicate that patients with schizophrenia exhibit a narrower range of obsessive content compared with patients with OCD; in addition, OC and delusional themes tend to be related in schizophrenia as a unique symptomatic phenomenon.

  6. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  7. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  8. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonagle, T; Sultana, A

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal. To review the effects of token economies for people with schizophrenia, or other serious or chronic mental illnesses, compared with standard care. Electronic searches of Biological Abstracts (1985-1999), CINAHL (1982-1998), The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 1999), The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of Trials (February 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999) and PsycLIT (1987-1998) were supplemented with reference searches, personal contact with trial authors and hand searches. Randomised studies comparing a token economy regime (one in which change is achieved by means of use of non-monetary, non-consumable tokens) to standard care for those with schizophrenia or any other similar chronic or serious mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality rated and data extracted. For dichotomous data relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was estimated. Where possible, the number needed to treat statistic (NNT) was also calculated. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Normal continuous data were summated using the weighted mean difference (WMD). Scale data were presented only for those tools that had attained pre-specified levels of quality. Only three randomised controlled trials could be included in the analyses (total n=110). There were no usable data on target or non-target behaviour. One small study favoured the token economy approach for the outcome 'change in mental state' on the SANS-CV with improvement in negative symptoms at three months (n=40

  9. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perysinakis, Iraklis; Marakaki, Chrisanthi; Avlonitis, Spyridon; Katseli, Anastasia; Vassilatou, Evangeline; Papanastasiou, Lambrini; Piaditis, George; Zografos, George N

    2013-06-01

    Subclinical Cushing syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentalomas has been associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. The management of these patients, be it conservative or surgical, is still debated, but there is accumulating evidence that surgery is best and that laparoscopic adrenalectomy, when possible, is the most preferred procedure. Here we present the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for subclinical Cushing syndrome and determine the effect of this procedure on components of the metabolic syndrome. Twenty-nine patients, 8 men and 21 women with adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical Cushing syndrome who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, were studied retrospectively. They had undergone postoperative follow-up for improvement or worsening of their arterial blood pressure, body weight, and fasting glucose level for a mean period of 77 months. Preoperatively, 17 patients (58.6 %) had arterial hypertension, 14 (48.3 %) had a body mass index exceeding 27 kg/m(2), and 12 (41.4 %) had diabetes mellitus. Postoperatively, a decrease in mean arterial pressure was found in 12 patients (70.6 %), a decrease in body mass index in 6 patients (42.9 %), and an improvement in glycemic control in 5 patients (41.7 %). Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is beneficial in many patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome because it reduces arterial blood pressure, body weight, and fasting glucose levels. Prospective randomized studies are needed to compare laparoscopic adrenalectomy with a conservative approach and to confirm these results.

  10. Subclinical renal abnormalities in young thalassemia major and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Limited data are available about renal involvement in thalassemia patients. Renal dysfunction in these patients seems to be multifactorial attributed mainly to long standing anemia, chronic hypoxia, iron overload and toxicity of iron chelators. Objective: To assess the frequency of subclinical glomerular and ...

  11. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood obesity and its correlation with lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emokpae, M A; Adeleke, S I; Uwumarongie, H O

    2011-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on body mass index. The objectives of the study were (i) to determine whether levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are elevated in obese children, (ii) to compare the serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in obese with non-obese and (iii) to examine the association of subclinical hypothyroidism with lipoproteins and body mass index. Fifty six obese children/adolescent girls aged 10.5 +/- 4.3 years, BMI 31.2 +/- 2.2 kg/m2 and apparently healthy children aged 11.2 +/- 5.2 years, BMI 21.0 +/- 2.1 kg/m2 were evaluated. Serum T3, T4 and TSH were measured using ELECSYS 1010 autoanalyzer while serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and glucose were measured using enzyme catalyzed colorimetric techniques. Subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in 10.7% of obese subjects. Significantly increase levels of T3 (p obese than control subjects. TSH and triglyceride correlated positively with body mass index. Subclinical hypothyroidism was present in 10.7% of obese children. TSH and triglyceride correlated positively with body mass index in childhood/adolescent obesity. There is need for this group ofsubjects to be evaluated for thyroid hormones so that those requiring therapy can be diagnosed and treated.

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients is higher than that of the general population. Undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction may affect the metabolic control and enhance cardiovascular, and other chronic complication risks in diabetic patients. Few studies have examined the relationship between subclinical ...

  13. Prevalence, bacterial etiology and risk factors of subclinical mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high prevalence of subclinical mastitis revealed in Nyeri calls for concerted control measures. The high isolation rate of Staphylococcus species signals the need for improvement of the hygienic standards of these goats during milking and within their pens. Very low antibiotic resistance in the area indicates that most ...

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Is it important in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Eray; Ergin, Rahime Nida; Öztekin, Deniz Can; Kars, Bülent; Çakır, Seda; Sofuoğlu, Kenan

    2017-06-01

    To compare intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes of women with subclinical hypothyroidism with those of euthyroid women. A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Out of 2529 ICSI cycles evaluated, 41 women with hypothyroidism, 28 women with hyperthyroidism, and 128 women with subclinical hyperthyroidism were excluded, and 2336 cycles were analyzed. Women were identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism (case group, n=105) in the presence of a thyroid-stimulating hormone level >4.5 mU/L and normal free T4 and compared with euthyroid controls (n=2231). The mean age, body mass index, day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone level, and antral follicle count of the study patients were similar to the control group (p>0.5). The cycle cancellation rate of the study group was similar to the control group (13.3% vs. 7.6%, p=0.1). The clinical pregnancy rate was 21.2% in the study group, which was significantly lower than the 35.8% in the control group (p=0.04). The take-home baby rate was also significantly lower in the study group compared with the control groups (13.5% vs. 31.4% respectively, p=0.01). Both the clinical pregnancy rate and the take-home baby rate is lower in women with subclinical hypothyroidism at the time of ICSI cycle.

  15. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes mellitus at the Kalafong Diabetes Clinic in Pretoria. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects: Five hundred and sixty-five patients with diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2 or unknown), ...

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2014-09-16

    Sep 16, 2014 ... Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat or not to treat??? Congenital hypothyroidism is 30 times more frequent in newborns with Down syndrome (DS) than in the population of healthy children [1]. Mild isolated plasma thyrotropin. (TSH) elevation with normal thyroxine (T4) ...

  17. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-03

    Oct 3, 2012 ... Original Research: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes mellitus. 106. 2013 Volume 18 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Diabetes mellitus and its associated complications is a major challenge for both the private and state health sector in South Africa. The number of ...

  18. Malondialdehyde level and some enzymatic activities in subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in milk malondialdehyde (MDA) level and some enzymatic activities as a result of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 124 milk samples were collected from 124 lactating cows from the same herd in the period between the 2nd week after calving ...

  19. Prevalence of subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in healthy HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The association between HIV and CVD has been established in many studies. However, information is still lacking on subclinical disease as well as its associated risk factors in this population. This study aimed at ...

  20. Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence, pattern and predictors. ... Mean age was 70.1 ± 6.2 years, 77.7% were married. Prevalence of S-MEM ... Independent clinical predictors of S-MEM included previous head injury, diabetes, history of osteoarthritis of knee joints, and absent acoustic reflex.

  1. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern.

  2. Schizophrenia and employment - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Steven; Johnson, Sonia

    2004-05-01

    Little is known about the extent to which work contributes to the recovery of people with schizophrenia. There is increasing interest in the subject because of new service models and the economic cost of unemployment in people with severe mental illness. A literature search was carried out with the aim of investigating: a). employment rates in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis and the extent to which they have changed over time; b). the barriers to work; c). the factors associated with being employed among people with schizophrenia; and d). whether employment influences other outcomes in schizophrenia. There are wide variations in reported employment rates in schizophrenia. Most recent European studies report rates between 10 % and 20%, while the rate in the US is less clear. There is a higher level of employment among first-episode patients. The employment rate in schizophrenia appears to have declined over the last 50 years in the UK. Barriers to getting employment include stigma,discrimination, fear of loss of benefits and a lack of appropriate professional help. The most consistent predictor of employment is previous work history. Working is correlated with positive outcomes in social functioning, symptom levels, quality of life and self esteem, but a clear causal relationship has not been established. Very low employment rates are not intrinsic to schizophrenia, but appear to reflect an interplay between the social and economic pressures that patients face, the labour market and psychological and social barriers to working.

  3. Schizophrenia on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Murraih H; Tsatalou, Olga-Maria; Barrera, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    YouTube ( www.youtube.com ) is the most popular video-sharing Web site on the Internet and is used by medical students as a source of information regarding mental health conditions, including schizophrenia. The accuracy and educational utility of schizophrenia presentations on YouTube are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of depictions of psychosis in the context of a diagnosis of schizophrenia (referred to in this article as "acute schizophrenia") on YouTube and to assess the utility of these videos as educational tools for teaching medical students to recognize the clinical features of acute schizophrenia. YouTube was searched for videos purporting to show acute schizophrenia. Eligible videos were independently rated by two consultant psychiatrists on two separate occasions 22 days apart for diagnostic accuracy, psychopathology, and educational utility. Videos (N=4,200) were assessed against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority were not eligible for further analysis, mostly because they did not claim to show a patient with schizophrenia (74%) or contained duplicated content (11%). Of 35 videos that met the eligibility and adequacy criteria, only 12 accurately depicted acute schizophrenia. Accurate videos were characterized by persecutory delusions (83%), inappropriate affect (75%), and negative symptoms (83%). Despite the fact that 83% of accurate videos were deemed to have good educational utility compared with 15% of inaccurate videos, accurate and inaccurate videos had similar view counts (290,048 versus 186,124). Schizophrenia presentations on YouTube offer a distorted picture of the condition.

  4. Serum cytokine profile in the subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama M.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining the development or not of visceral leishmaniasis (VL have not been completely identified, but a Leishmania-specific cellular immune response seems to play a fundamental role in the final control of infection. Few studies are available regarding the production of cytokines in the subclinical form of VL, with only the production of IFN-g and TNF-a known. The aim of the present study was to identify immunological markers for the oligosymptomatic or subclinical form of VL. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 784 children aged 0 to 5 years from an endemic area in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, between January 1998 and December 2001. During 30 consecutive months of follow-up, 33 children developed the oligosymptomatic form of the disease and 12 the acute form. During the clinical manifestations, serum cytokine levels were determined in 27 oligosymptomatic children and in nine patients with the acute form using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. In the subclinical form of VL, variable levels of IL-2 were detected in 52.3% of the children, IL-12 in 85.2%, IFN-g in 48.1%, IL-10 in 88.9%, and TNF-a in 100.0%, with the last two cytokines showing significantly lower levels than in the acute form. IL-4 was not detected in oligosymptomatic individuals. Multiple discriminant analysis used to determine the profile or combination of cytokines predominating in the subclinical form revealed both a Leishmania resistance (Th1 and susceptibility (Th2 profile. The detection of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles explains the self-limited evolution accompanied by the discrete alterations observed for the subclinical form of VL.

  5. DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphic is the scientific study of epidermal ridges and their configuration on the palmar region of hand and the fingers and plantar region of sole and toes. Dermatoglyphic pattern, such as Whorls, Arches, Loops and atd angle have been hypothesized to be indirect measure for early abnormal development process that can lead later psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia. Under the genetic background of dermatoglyphic patterns and schizophrenia, the study was undertaken to determine the correlation between them. The present study include 63 male and 46 female of schizophrenic patient diagnosed at Institute of Psychiatry and Human Behaviour(IPHB Hospital, Goa were compared with control group accordingly. The patterns seen on hand and fingers were calculated and compared with the frequency of finger print patterns in control group. It was observed that there is increased frequency of arches and decrease frequency of whorls in control males and females which was significant difference, where as in female schizophrenics there is decrease frequency of radial loop compared to male schizophrenics and significant difference observed in atd angle of right and left hand between female control and female schizophrenics.

  6. Unipolar Depression in Paroxysmal Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Bobrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the current study, the clinical characteristics of unipolar depression in the clinical picture of schizophrenia with the paroxysmal type of disease course are presented. Given the concomitant depression with phobic symptoms, the following clinical variants are marked: depression with generalized social phobia and/or anthropophobia and depression with generalized pathological body sensations and hypochondriacal phobias. In other words, we are talking about a necessity to allocate a special type of schizophrenia with affective structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms. Information on the basic treatment strategy of schizophrenia with depressive structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms in everyday psychiatric practice is also provided.

  7. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, R.; Mortensen, E. L.; Nordgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests....... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  8. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg...... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  9. Dance therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juanjuan; Xia, Jun

    2013-10-04

    Dance therapy or dance movement therapy (DMT) is defined as 'the psychotherapeutic use of movement as a process which furthers the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical integration of the individual'. It may be of value for people with developmental, medical, social, physical or psychological impairments. Dance therapy can be practiced in mental health rehabilitation units, nursing homes, day care centres and incorporated into disease prevention and health promotion programmes. To evaluate the effects of dance therapy for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses compared with standard care and other interventions. We updated the original July 2007 search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group' register in July 2012. We also searched Chinese main medical databases. We included one randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing dance therapy and related approaches with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we calculated a mean difference (MD); for binary outcomes we calculated a fixed-effect risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE approach. We included one single blind study (total n = 45) of reasonable quality. It compared dance therapy plus routine care with routine care alone. Most people tolerated the treatment package but nearly 40% were lost in both groups by four months (1 RCT n = 45, RR 0.68 95% CI 0.31 to 1.51, low quality evidence). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) average endpoint total scores were similar in both groups (1 RCT n = 43, MD -0.50 95% CI -11.80 to 10.80, moderate quality evidence) as were the positive sub-scores (1 RCT n = 43, MD 2.50 CI -0.67 to 5.67, moderate quality evidence). At the end of treatment, significantly more people in the dance therapy group had a greater than 20% reduction in PANSS negative symptom

  10. Psychoeducation for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Merinder, Lars Bertil; Belgamwar, Madhvi R

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia can be a severe and chronic illness characterised by lack of insight and poor compliance with treatment. Psychoeducational approaches have been developed to increase patients’ knowledge of, and insight into, their illness and its treatment. It is supposed that this increased knowledge and insight will enable people with schizophrenia to cope in a more effective way with their illness, thereby improving prognosis. Objectives To assess the effects of psychoeducational interventions compared with standard levels of knowledge provision. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2010). We updated this search November 2012 and added 27 new trials to the awaiting assessment section. Selection criteria All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducation for schizophrenia and/or related serious mental illnesses involving individuals or groups. We excluded quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors extracted data independently from included papers. We contacted authors of trials for additional and missing data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of homogeneous dichotomous data. We used a fixed-effects model for heterogeneous dichotomous data. Where possible we also calculated the numbers needed to treat (NNT), as well as weighted means for continuous data. Main results This review includes a total of 5142 participants (mostly inpatients) from 44 trials conducted between 1988 and 2009 (median study duration ~ 12 weeks, risk of bias - moderate). We found that incidences of non-compliance were lower in the psychoeducation group in the short term (n = 1400, RR 0.52 CI 0.40 to 0.67, NNT 11 CI 9 to 16). This finding holds for the medium and long term. Relapse appeared to be lower in psychoeducation group (n = 1214, RR 0.70 CI 0.61 to 0.81, NNT 9 CI 7 to 14) and this also applied to readmission (n = 206, RR 0.71 CI 0.56 to 0

  11. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dougall, Nadine; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; McDermott, Lisa M; McIntosh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    .... One proposed alternative to drug treatments is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). To date, many research trials to assess effectiveness of TMS for people with symptoms of schizophrenia have been conducted worldwide...

  12. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  13. Proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M H

    This doctoral thesis focuses on brain activity in response to proprioceptive stimulation in schizophrenia. The works encompass methodological developments substantiated by investigations of healthy volunteers and two clinical studies of schizophrenia spectrum patients. American psychiatrist Sandor...... Rado (1890-1972) suggested that one of two un-reducible deficits in schizophrenia was a disorder of proprioception. Exploration of proprioceptive information processing is possible through the measurement of evoked and event related potentials. Event related EEG can be analyzed as conventional time......-series averages or as oscillatory averages transformed into the frequency domain. Gamma activity evoked by electricity or by another type of somatosensory stimulus has not been reported before in schizophrenia. Gamma activity is considered to be a manifestation of perceptual integration. A new load stimulus...

  14. GWAS, Cytomegalovirus Infection, and Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Jakob; Børglum, Anders; Pearce, Brad D

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, good progress has been made in uncovering the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. Even so, as a polygenic disorder, schizophrenia has a complex etiology that is far from understood. Meanwhile, data are being collected enabling the study of interactions between genes...... and the environment. A confluence of data from genetic and environmental exposure studies point to the role of infections and immunity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In a recent study by Børglum et al., a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene CTNNA3 was identified that may provide clues to gene......-environment interactions. The carriers of the minor allele for the SNP had a fivefold risk of later developing schizophrenia if their mothers were CMV positive, while the children not carrying the allele had no excess risk from maternal CMV. In the current paper, we summarize recent advances to clarify a possible...

  15. Supportive therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lucy A; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Adams, Clive E

    2015-04-14

    Supportive therapy is often used in everyday clinical care and in evaluative studies of other treatments. To review the effects of supportive therapy compared with standard care, or other treatments in addition to standard care for people with schizophrenia. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register of trials (November 2012). All randomised trials involving people with schizophrenia and comparing supportive therapy with any other treatment or standard care. We reliably selected studies, quality rated these and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated the risk ratio (RR) using a fixed-effect model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where possible, we undertook intention-to-treat analyses. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) fixed-effect with 95% CIs. We estimated heterogeneity (I(2) technique) and publication bias. We used GRADE to rate quality of evidence. Four new trials were added after the 2012 search. The review now includes 24 relevant studies, with 2126 participants. Overall, the evidence was very low quality.We found no significant differences in the primary outcomes of relapse, hospitalisation and general functioning between supportive therapy and standard care.There were, however, significant differences favouring other psychological or psychosocial treatments over supportive therapy. These included hospitalisation rates (4 RCTs, n = 306, RR 1.82 CI 1.11 to 2.99, very low quality of evidence), clinical improvement in mental state (3 RCTs, n = 194, RR 1.27 CI 1.04 to 1.54, very low quality of evidence) and satisfaction of treatment for the recipient of care (1 RCT, n = 45, RR 3.19 CI 1.01 to 10.7, very low quality of evidence). For this comparison, we found no evidence of significant differences for rate of relapse, leaving the study early and quality of life.When we compared supportive therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy CBT), we again found no significant differences in primary

  16. Schizophrenia: genetics, prevention and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Paolo; Mandelli, Laura; Lorenzi, Cristina; Marino, Elena; Adele, Pirovano; Ferrari, Barbara; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-06-01

    Genetic factors are largely implicated in predisposing to schizophrenia. Environmental factors contribute to the onset of the disorder in individuals at increased genetic risk. Cognitive deficits have emerged as endophenotypes and potential therapeutic targets for schizophrenia because of their association with functional outcome. The aims of this review were to analyse the joint effect of genetic and environmental (G×E) factors on liability to schizophrenia and to investigate relationships between genes and cognitive endophenotypes focusing on practical applications for prevention and rehabilitation. Medline search of relevant studies published between 1990 and 2008. In schizophrenia, examples of G×E interaction include the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) (Val158Met) polymorphism, which was found to moderate the onset of psychotic manifestations in response to stress and to increase the risk for psychosis related to cannabis use, and neurodevelopmental genes such as AKT1 (serine-threonine kinase), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), DTNBP1 (dysbindin) and GRM3 (metabotropic glutamate receptor 3), which were associated with development of schizophrenia in adulthood after exposure to perinatal obstetric complications. Neurocognitive deficits are recognised as core features of schizophrenia that facilitate the onset of the disorder and have a great impact on functional outcome. Neurocognitive deficits are also endophenotypes that have been linked to a variety of genes [COMT, neuregulin (NRG1), BDNF, Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and dysbindin] conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia. Recently, it has emerged that cognitive improvement during rehabilitation therapy was under control of COMT (Val158Met) polymorphism. This review could indicate a pivotal role of psychiatric genetics in prevention and rehabilitation of schizophrenic psychoses.

  17. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  18. [The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A; Malchow, B; Falkai, P; Schmitt, A

    2014-08-01

    For many years, the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia has been the leading theory explaining the aetiology of schizophrenia. However, since the first observation showed that NMDA-receptor antagonists (e. g., PCP) can induce all kinds of schizophrenia symptoms in humans, the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia has been established as an additional explanation model. Apart from the PCP-induced psychoses, many other findings from all areas of modern neuroscience have confirmed and extended the glutamate hypothesis. This review discusses the available evidence for the glutamate hypothesis and puts the different findings into relation. Consecutively, the possibilities for a pharmacological modulation of the glutamate system and recent clinical trials are discussed. To sum up, one could note that the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia is now well-established. The development of glutamatergic antipsychotics is still in the early stages, but there is hope for a new generation of antipsychotics based on the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, recent findings from registration trials could not provide positive findings for the recently developed glutamatergic drugs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. [Forensic aspects of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunnlechner, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown a clear association between schizophrenia and violent behaviour, which cannot be completely explained by co-morbid substance abuse or personality disorders. This increased risk for delinquent behaviour becomes apparent in acts of severe violent crime. Individuals who frequent the penal system often have a history of acute and chronic mental illness, as well as significant rates of co-morbidity; this includes alcohol and drug abuse, lack of motivation in therapy, poor insight regarding their illness, high rates of therapeutic non-compliance, as well as frequent, mostly short-term, contact with general psychiatry prior to forensic institutionalisation. Forensic psychiatric research has developed assessment and treatment tools which are also of great practical importance to general psychiatry.

  20. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation.

  1. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jim L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Methods Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R. The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Results Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Conclusion Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  2. Complement system and small HDL particles are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Sandra; Vives, Gloria; Ferré, Raimon; González, Marta; Guardiola, Montse; Ribalta, Josep; Castro, Antoni

    2012-11-01

    The complement system is involved in the pathogenic course of SLE. These patients exhibit metabolic disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism characterized by a pro-inflammatory status and an accelerated atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of the complement are associated to the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis, lipid and glucose metabolism and inflammatory markers in SLE patients. Sixty-nine consecutive patients with SLE were recruited for the study. Fasting venous blood samples were collected on the same day as the measurements of cIMT were performed. Total plasma lipids and the distribution of subclasses of lipoproteins were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found direct correlations between cIMT values and the levels of C3, C4 and CH50. In multivariate analyses, the mean cIMT from the three territories were predicted by age (β = 0.005, 95% CI: 0.002-0.007, P < 0.001) and the functional hemolytic assay of the complement activity CH50 (β = 0.003, 95% CI: 0.001-0.006, P < 0.0013). The complement components were associated with BMI, SBP and levels of glucose. Small, dense HDL particles also correlated with the three complement components C3, C4 and CH50 in bivariate analyses. In multivariate analyses small HDL particles predicted levels of C3: β = 0.024, 95% CI: 0.013-0.035, P < 0.001; and C4: β = 0.005, 95% CI: 0.002-0.008, P = 0.006. Activation of the complement system measured by functional assay CH50 is related to subclinical atherosclerosis in quiescent lupus patients and is activated by the small dense HDL particles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Valproate for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Xia, Jun; Helfer, Bartosz; Li, Chunbo; Leucht, Stefan

    2016-11-24

    Many people with schizophrenia do not achieve a satisfactory treatment response with ordinary antipsychotic drug treatment. In these cases, various add-on medications are used, and valproate is one of these. To examine whether:1. valproate alone is an effective treatment for schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychoses; and2. valproate augmentation of antipsychotic medication is an effective treatment for the same illnesses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (July 2002; February 2007; July 2012; March 04, 2016). We also contacted pharmaceutical companies and authors of relevant studies in order to identify further trials. We included all randomised controlled trials comparing valproate to antipsychotics or to placebo (or no intervention), whether as the sole agent or as an adjunct to antipsychotic medication for the treatment of people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses. We independently inspected citations and, where possible, abstracts, ordered papers, and re-inspected and quality-assessed these. At least two review authors independently extracted data. We analysed dichotomous data using risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed continuous data using mean differences (MD) and their 95% CI. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) to create a 'Summary of findings' table. The 2012 update search identified 19 further relevant studies, most of which were from China. Thus the review currently includes 26 studies with a total of 2184 participants. All trials examined the effectiveness of valproate as an adjunct to antipsychotics. With the exception of two studies, the studies were small, the participants and personnel were not blinded (neither was outcome assessment), and most were short-term and incompletely reported.For this update we prespecified seven main outcomes of interest: clinical response

  4. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolesc......OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...... and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.......28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. RESULTS...

  5. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soylu Aliye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two distinct forms of clinical hyperthyroidism. The first patient had a clinical presentation of severe cholestasis in the absence of congestive failure related to hyperthyroidism. The second case had developed intrahepatic cholestasis in the presence of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and improved with rifampicin treatment. Conclusion Hyperthyroidism should be a consideration in non-specific liver dysfunction.

  6. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, David J.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Kearney, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older personswith this condition. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving...... 737 adults who were at least 65 years of age and who had persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin level, 4.60 to 19.99 mIU per liter; free thyroxine level within the reference range). A total of 368 patients were assigned to receive levothyroxine (at a starting dose of 50 μg daily, or 25 μg...... if the body weight was Hypothyroid Symptomsscore and Tiredness score on a thyroid...

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive function in people over 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Jansen, Steffy W; van Bodegom, David

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal thyroid hormone levels, and cognitive impairment are both common in older people. While the relation between overt hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment is well established, data on the association...... criteria for eligibility and methodological quality, and data were extracted using standardized forms. Of the 844 reports initially identified, 270 remained after exclusion of duplicates. Of the 270, 15 studies comprising 19,944 subjects, of whom 1,199 had subclinical hypothyroidism were included. Data...... hypothyroidism was not significantly associated with accelerated cognitive decline. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides no evidence that supports an association between SCH and cognitive impairment in relatively healthy older adults....

  8. Risperidone (depot) for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Stephanie; Hosalli, Prakash; Furtado, Vivek A; Davis, John M

    2016-04-14

    Risperidone is the first new generation antipsychotic drug made available in a long-acting injection formulation. To examine the effects of depot risperidone for treatment of schizophrenia or related psychoses in comparison with placebo, no treatment or other antipsychotic medication.To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, cost and cost-effectiveness of risperidone (depot) for schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (December 2002, 2012, and October 28, 2015). We also checked the references of all included studies, and contacted industry and authors of included studies. Randomised clinical trials comparing depot risperidone with other treatments for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Twelve studies, with a total of 5723 participants were randomised to the following comparison treatments: Risperidone depot versus placebo Outcomes of relapse and improvement in mental state were neither measured or reported. In terms of other primary outcomes, more people receiving placebo left the study early by 12 weeks (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.74 95% CI 0.63 to 0.88, very low quality evidence), experienced severe adverse events in short term (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.59 95% CI 0.38 to 0.93, very low quality evidence). There was however, no difference in levels of weight gain between groups (1 RCT, n=400, RR 2.11 95% CI 0.48 to 9.18, very low quality evidence). Risperidone depot versus general oral antipsychotics The outcome of improvement in mental state was not presented due to high levels of attrition, nor were levels of severe adverse events explicitly reported

  9. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this issue Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia En español Send us your comments Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  10. A Bias in the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, William Kent; Wertheimer, Michael

    1976-01-01

    Research shows a relationship between diagnoses of schizophrenia among twins. It was studied whether information that a twin was schizophrenic would bias diagnoses. Such information almost doubled the rater's estimates of probability of schizophrenia in a hypothetical case history. (NG)

  11. Specific Glial Functions Contribute to Schizophrenia Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, A.; de Leeuw, C.A.; Ripke, S.; Hultman, C. M.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.; Smit, A.B.; Posthuma, D.; Verheijen, M.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly polygenic brain disorder. The main hypothesis for disease etiology in schizophrenia primarily focuses on the role of dysfunctional synaptic transmission. Previous studies have therefore directed their investigations toward the role of neuronal dysfunction. However, recent

  12. Is diabetic retinopathy related to subclinical cardiovascular disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, R; Cheung, N; Islam, FMA; Klein, R; Klein, BEK; Cotch, MF; Sharrett, AR; O'leary, D; Wong, TY

    2011-01-01

    Objective Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clinical CVD. Design Population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Participants Nine hundred twenty-seven persons with diabetes without clinical CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Diabetic retinopathy was ascertaine...

  13. Is Diabetic Retinopathy Related to Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Ryo; Cheung, Ning; Islam, FM Amirul; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara EK; Cotch, Mary Frances; Sharrett, A Richey; O’Leary, Daniel; Wong, Tien Y.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. Our study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clinical CVD. DESIGN Population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study PARTICIPANTS Nine hundred and twenty seven persons with diabetes without clinical CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS DR was ascertained from retinal photographs according to modification of the Airlie House Classification system. Vision threatening DR (VTDR) was defined as severe non-proliferative DR, proliferative DR or clinically significant macular edema. Subclinical CVD measures were assessed and defined as follows: high coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, defined as CAC score≥400; low ankle-brachial index (ABI), defined as ABI25% stenosis or presence of carotid plaque. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between DR and subclinical CVD measures. RESULTS The prevalence of DR and VTDR in this sample was 30.0% and 7.2%, respectively. VTDR was associated with a high CAC score (odds ratio [OR] 2.33, 95% condifence interval [CI] 1.15–4.73), low ABI (OR 2.54; 95%CI, 1.08–5.99) and high ABI (OR 12.6, 95% CI, 1.14, 140.6), after adjusting for risk factors including hemoglobin A1c level and duration of diabetes. The association between VTDR and high CAC score remained significant after further adjustment for hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive and cholesterol-lowering medications. DR was not significantly associated with measures of carotid artery disease. CONCLUSIONS In persons with diabetes without a history of clinical CVD, the presence of advanced stage of DR is associated with subclinical coronary artery disease. These findings emphasize the need to be careful about the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for the treatment of DR. PMID:21168222

  14. Prevalence of Pathogens Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Argentinean Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Andrea Dieser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different mastitis pathogens in Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples were collected of 2296 cows from 51 randomly selected herds in Córdoba, Argentina. Somatic cell count was determined in all samples and bacterial examination of the milk samples with a SCC exceeding 200,000 cells/mL was performed. About 54%of cows were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis (SCC ≥200,000/mL. Bacteria were isolated in 83.1% of milk samples subjected to bacteriological analysis. The most frequently isolated pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (52.1%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.2%, Streptococcus agalactiae (4.4% and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.4%. This study demonstrates that among the major pathogens isolated, the contagious bacteria caused most of the subclinical infections of dairy cows in Cordoba, Argentina. Moreover, CNS was the most relevant group of minor pathogens causing subclinical mastitis.

  15. Subclinical ketosis: prevalence and associations with production and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R; Martin, S W

    1984-01-01

    Cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds were monitored for subclinical ketosis for a period of two and one half years. Milk samples were routinely collected and the level of milk ketone bodies determined by the use of a commercial nitroprusside based test powder (reactions scored as negative, +1 or +2). Approximately 92% of positive reactions were observed in the first 65 days of lactation and for that time period the prevalence of ketosis was 12.1%. Based on this prevalence, the minimum possible duration of subclinical ketosis would be 7.9 days and the minimum possible lactational incidence rate would be 12.1%. The prevalence during the first 65 days of lactation in individual herds ranged from 0 to 33.9%. Subclinical ketosis was more likely to be found in cows experiencing metritis than in unaffected cows. Detection of elevated levels of milk ketones also indicated that the cow had a significantly higher risk of having clinical ketosis, metritis or cystic ovaries diagnosed within the following four days. Milk ketone scores of +1 and +2 were found to be associated with a reduction in daily milk production of 1.0 and 1.4 kg of milk respectively. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6713247

  16. Relation between Birth Weight, Growth, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria Helena; Gomes, Filumena Maria da Silva; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Brentani, Alexandra Valéria Maria; Escobar, Ana Maria de Ulhôa; Grisi, Sandra J. F. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Adverse conditions in the prenatal environment and in the first years of life are independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This paper aims to study the relation between birthweight, growth in the first year of life, and subclinical atherosclerosis in adults. Methods. 88 adults aged between 20 and 31 were submitted to sociodemographic qualities, anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, metabolic profile, and evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Birthweight 75th percentile (RC = −0.242, 95% CI [−0.476, −0.008] P 3,500 g was associated with (a) BMI >25.0 kg/m2, (RC = 0.317, 95% CI [0.782, 0.557] P 75th percentile (RC = 0.361, 95% CI [0.169, 0.552] P 75th percentile (RC = −0.253, 95% CI [−0.487, −0.018] P 75th percentile (RC = −0.241, 95% CI [−0.442, −0.041] P 3,500 g and with insufficient weight gain in the first year of life have showed different metabolic phenotypes, but all of them were related to subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:25648854

  17. Relation between Birth Weight, Growth, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Valente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Adverse conditions in the prenatal environment and in the first years of life are independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This paper aims to study the relation between birthweight, growth in the first year of life, and subclinical atherosclerosis in adults. Methods. 88 adults aged between 20 and 31 were submitted to sociodemographic qualities, anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, metabolic profile, and evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Birthweight 75th percentile (RC = −0.242, 95% CI [−0.476, −0.008] P3,500 g was associated with (a BMI >25.0 kg/m2, (RC = 0.317, 95% CI [0.782, 0.557] P75th percentile (RC = 0.361, 95% CI [0.169, 0.552] P75th percentile (RC = −0.253, 95% CI [−0.487, −0.018] P75th percentile (RC = −0.241, 95% CI [−0.442, −0.041] P3,500 g and with insufficient weight gain in the first year of life have showed different metabolic phenotypes, but all of them were related to subclinical atherosclerosis.

  18. [Hopelessness in patients with schizophrenia. Suffering from and with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneman, M; Sabbe, B G C

    2006-01-01

    Clinical experience shows that feelings of hopelessness quite often arise in patients with schizophrenia. To describe these feelings of hopelessness, obtain insight into interrelated factors, distinguish hopelessness from depression, study the influence of hopelessness on suicidal behaviour andfind out how feelings of hopelessness can influence the treatment that is provided. We searched the literature via MEDLINE and PsyCINFO using the key words 'schizophrenia', 'hopelessness', 'demoralization', and 'disappointment'. Demoralization is a broader term than hopelessness and is used quite often. Positive correlations arefound between hopelessness and: (1) awareness of illness; (2) engulfment; and (3) depressive symptoms. Negative correlations are found between hopelessness and: (1) cognitive disorders; and (2) an avoidant coping style. Hopelessness and demoralisation cannot be equalled with depression. Hopelessness clearly heightens suicidal tendencies. Feelings of hopelessness in a patient suffering from schizophrenia signal that closer attention should be given to that patient. Feelings of hopelessness in patients with schizophrenia are not necessarily a sign of pathology but may point to existential suffering. This needs to be recognised by those dealing with persons sufferingfrom schizophrenia,

  19. Cannabis Use and Cognition in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patient group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies t...

  20. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Else-Marie Løberg; Else-Marie Løberg; Kenneth Hugdahl; Kenneth Hugdahl

    2009-01-01

    People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies ...

  1. Nosology, epidemiology and genetics of schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuang, M.T.; Simpson, J.C. (Harvard Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Brockton, MA (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 25 selections. Some of the titles are: The genetics of schizophrenia: An overview; The genetics of schizo-affective disorder and the schizophrenia spectrum; Mathematical models of genetic transmission; and Genetic studies of biochemical, pathophysiological and pharmacological factors in schizophrenia.

  2. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den, B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model include, amongst others, the probability of spontaneous cure, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, trans...

  3. Factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension, obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Виктория Николаевна Плиговка; Юлия Николаевна Шапошникова

    2015-01-01

    The study identified the factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Aim: To identify factors that influence the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Methods. The study involved 75 patients, including 53 patients in the phase of subclinical hypothyroidism and 22 patients in the phase of euthyroidism. All the patients underwent measurement of...

  4. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  5. Subclinical atherosclerosis in low Framingham risk HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Rafael; Reus, Sergio; López, Nicolás; Portilla, Irene; Sánchez-Payá, José; Giner, Livia; Boix, Vicente; Merino, Esperanza; Torrús, Diego; Moreno-Pérez, Óscar; Portilla, Joaquín

    2017-08-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is complex, and differences between HIV-infected patients and general population cannot be completely explained by the higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to analyse the association between inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV patients with low Framingham risk score. Case-control study. Outpatient Infectious Diseases clinic in a university hospital. HIV-1-infected patients aged > 35 years receiving antiretroviral treatment with viral load  5 cigarettes/day; diabetes; hypertension; vascular diseases. subclinical atherosclerosis determined by ultrasonography: common carotid intima-media thickness greater than 0·8 mm or carotid plaque presence. Explanatory variables: ribosomal bacterial DNA (rDNA), sCD14, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-α. Eighty-four patients were included, 75% male, mean age 42 years and mean CD4+ cells 657 ± 215/mm(3) . Median Framingham risk score was 1% at 10 years (percentile 25-75: 0·5-4%). Eighteen patients (21%) had subclinical atherosclerosis; the associated factors were older age (P = 0·001), waist-hip ratio (P = 0·01), time from HIV diagnosis (P = 0·02), rDNA (P = 0·04) and IL-6 (P = 0·01). In multivariate analysis, OR for subclinical atherosclerosis was 7 (95% CI, 1.3-40, P = 0.02) and 9 (95% CI, 1.0-85, P = 0.04) for patients older than 44 years and IL-6 > 6·6 pg/mL, respectively. Well-controlled HIV patients with low Framingham risk score have a high prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, and the main risk factors are age and inflammation. These patients are not receiving primary prophylaxis for cardiovascular events according to current guidelines. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  6. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or Hypothyroxinemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M; Thom, Elizabeth A; Peaceman, Alan M; Varner, Michael W; Sorokin, Yoram; Hirtz, Deborah G; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Thorp, John M; Saade, George; Tita, Alan T N; Rouse, Dwight J; Sibai, Baha; Iams, Jay D; Mercer, Brian M; Tolosa, Jorge; Caritis, Steve N; VanDorsten, J Peter

    2017-03-02

    Subclinical thyroid disease during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes, including a lower-than-normal IQ in offspring. It is unknown whether levothyroxine treatment of women who are identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy improves cognitive function in their children. We screened women with a singleton pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation for subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as a thyrotropin level of 4.00 mU or more per liter and a normal free thyroxine (T4) level (0.86 to 1.90 ng per deciliter [11 to 24 pmol per liter]), and for hypothyroxinemia, defined as a normal thyrotropin level (0.08 to 3.99 mU per liter) and a low free T4 level (hypothyroidism underwent randomization at a mean of 16.7 weeks of gestation, and 526 with hypothyroxinemia at a mean of 17.8 weeks of gestation. In the subclinical hypothyroidism trial, the median IQ score of the children was 97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 94 to 99) in the levothyroxine group and 94 (95% CI, 92 to 96) in the placebo group (P=0.71). In the hypothyroxinemia trial, the median IQ score was 94 (95% CI, 91 to 95) in the levothyroxine group and 91 (95% CI, 89 to 93) in the placebo group (P=0.30). In each trial, IQ scores were missing for 4% of the children. There were no significant between-group differences in either trial in any other neurocognitive or pregnancy outcomes or in the incidence of adverse events, which was low in both groups. Treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia beginning between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation did not result in significantly better cognitive outcomes in children through 5 years of age than no treatment for those conditions. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00388297 .).

  7. Dermatoglyphics in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are controversial evidences on the association between fingerprint traits and schizophrenia. We compared fingerprint traits of patients with schizophrenia and normal individuals in Iranian population. Methods: Finger tip dermal ridge of 290 patients with schizophrenia and 290 normal subjects were studied for four dermal traits. Data was analyzed with Pearson correlation and student′s tests. Results: Finger print patterns and secondary creases were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05. Although mean ridge counts of left and right index fingers of the case group were greater than the control group (p < 0.05, these differences were not significant in females. Conclusions: Probably the left index ridge counts and fluctuating asymmetry in schizophrenic patients are different from those of the normal population. This difference may serve as a diagnostic biological marker for screening people susceptible to schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine predictive value of fingerprint trait as a biomarker for the schizophrenia.

  8. Endogenous subclinical thyroid disorders, physical and cognitive function, depression, and mortality in older individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renate T de Jongh; Paul Lips; Natasja M van Schoor; Kelly J Rijs; Dorly J H Deeg; Hannie C Comijs; Mark H H Kramer; Jan P Vandenbroucke; Olaf M Dekkers

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To what extent endogenous subclinical thyroid disorders contribute to impaired physical and cognitive function, depression, and mortality in older individuals remains a matter of debate. Design...

  9. Positive and negative subclinical symptoms and MCCB performance in non-psychiatric controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Korponay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable data support the phenomenological and temporal continuity between subclinical psychosis and psychotic disorders. In recent years, neurocognitive deficits have increasingly been recognized as a core feature of psychotic illness but there are few data seeking to elucidate the relationship between subclinical psychosis and neurocogntive deficits in non-clinical samples. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between subclinical positive and negative symptoms, as measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB in a large (n = 303 and demographically diverse non-clinical sample. We found that compared to participants with low levels of subclinical positive symptoms, participants with high levels of subclinical positive symptoms performed significantly better in the domains of working memory (p < .001, verbal learning (p = .007 and visual learning (p = .014. Although comparison of participants with high and low levels of subclinical negative symptoms revealed no differences in MCCB performance, we found that individuals with high levels of subclinical negative symptoms performed significantly better on a measure of estimated IQ (WRAT-3 Reading subtest; p = .02 than those with low levels of subclinical negative symptoms. These results are at odds with prior reports that have generally shown a negative relationship between neurocognitive functioning and severity of subclinical psychotic symptoms, and suggest some potential discontinuities between clinically significant psychotic symptoms and sub-syndromal manifestations of psychosis.

  10. Prevalence of subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism in a pregnancy loss clinic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khalid, A S; Joyce, C; O'Donoghue, K

    2013-01-01

    ...% of pregnancies respectively. We examined the prevalence of subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism in women with recurrent miscarriage, late miscarriage and stillbirth attending the Pregnancy Loss Clinic...

  11. Increased left atrial pressure in non-heart failure patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Sairaku

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on the cardiovascular risk is still debated. We aimed to measure the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and the left atrial (LA pressure. Methods The LA pressures and thyroid function were measured in consecutive patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF ablation, who did not have any known heart failure, structural heart disease, or overt thyroid disease. Results Subclinical hypothyroidism (4.5≤ thyroid-stimulating hormone 18 mmHg (odds ratio 3.94, 95% CI 1.28 11.2; P = 0.02. Conclusions Subclinical hypothyroidism may increase the LA pressure in AF patients.

  12. Unresolved Subclinical Hypothyroidism is Independently Associated with Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Oh; Lee, Ihn Suk; Choi, Yoo A; Lee, Sang Ju; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Yoon, Hye Eun; Jang, Yi Sun; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hye Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Suk Young; Hwang, Hyeon Seok

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often have subclinical hypothyroidism. However, few reports have investigated changes in the status of subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients and its clinical significance in CKD progression. Methods: We included 168 patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD stages 2-4. The normalization of subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up was assessed, and the association between transitions in subclinical hypothyroid status and the rate of decline of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. Results: At baseline, 127 patients were euthyroid and 41 (24.4%) patients were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these 41 patients, 21 (51.2%) spontaneously resolved to euthyroid during follow-up. The rate of eGFR decline of patients with resolved subclinical hypothyroidism was similar to that of euthyroid patients. The patients with unresolved subclinical hypothyroidism showed a steeper renal function decline than patients with euthyroidism or resolved subclinical hypothyroidism (all p hypothyroidism than in those who were euthyroid (p = 0.006). In multivariate linear regression for rate of eGFR decrease, unresolved subclinical hypothyroidism (β = -5.77, p = 0.001), baseline renal function (β = -0.12, p hypothyroidism did not resolve to euthyroidism, and this lack of resolution was independently associated with rapid renal function decline. PMID:24396286

  13. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  14. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  15. [Fratricide and Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Leal, Juliana; Martins Valença, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Fratricide is the killing of one's own bother. It's a type of homicide rarely seen on psychiatric practice. This is still a theme which is poorly studied, and not well understood by the scientific literature. To report a case of a men, with paranoid schizophrenia that murdered his own bother and had a psychiatric forensic evaluation to establish his penal responsibility. A psychiatric interview was carried out and the psychiatric diagnosis was established based on the interview and analysis of forensic and medical records, using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Literature review was held about the theme. The examinee was considered not guilty by reason of insanity, due to the presence of a mental disorder that affected her entire understanding and volition of the practiced act. The study of such cases may illustrate and identify motivating factors related to homicidal behavior in individuals with severe mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Clozapine dose for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Selvizhi; Völlm, Birgit A; Huband, Nick

    2017-06-14

    Schizophrenia and related disorders such as schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder are serious mental illnesses characterised by profound disruptions in thinking and speech, emotional processes, behaviour and sense of self. Clozapine is useful in the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders, particularly when other antipsychotic medications have failed. It improves positive symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations) and negative symptoms (such as withdrawal and poverty of speech). However, it is unclear what dose of clozapine is most effective with the least side effects. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of clozapine at different doses and to identify the optimal dose of clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia, schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorders. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (August 2011 and 8 December 2016). All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs), irrespective of blinding status or language, that compared the effects of clozapine at different doses in people with schizophrenia and related disorders, diagnosed by any criteria. We independently inspected citations from the searches, identified relevant abstracts, obtained full articles of relevant abstracts, and classified trials as included or excluded. We included trials that met our inclusion criteria and reported useable data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) again based on a random-effects model. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. We identified five studies that could be included. Each compared the effects of clozapine at very low dose (up to 149 mg/day), low dose (150 mg/day to 300 mg/day) and standard dose (301 mg/day to 600 mg/day). Four of the five included

  17. Predicting risk and the emergence of schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2012-09-01

    This article gives an overview of genetic and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. The presence of certain molecular, biological, and psychosocial factors at certain points in the life span, has been linked to later development of schizophrenia. All need to be considered in the context of schizophrenia as a lifelong brain disorder. Research interest in schizophrenia is shifting to late childhood\\/early adolescence for screening and preventative measures. This article discusses those environmental risk factors for schizophrenia for which there is the largest evidence base.

  18. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  19. [Differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia.

  20. [Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhazen, C; Chauchot, F; Canceil, O; Krebs, M-O; Baylé, F-J

    2003-01-01

    The concept of prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia has frequently been subject to debate. Authors widely admit the existence of early specific and non-specific signs preceding the first psychotic episode; however, they have yet to clearly demonstrate their ability to predict and specify the outbreak of a psychosis. These prodromal symptoms consist of behavioral abnormalities, pseudo-neurotic signs, subtle cognitive and affective changes. All these symptoms vary from patient to patient. In general, it is widely believed that future patients go through a variety of abnormal, subjective experiences that progressively develop during their pre-puberty and puberty periods. However, the limit of this assessment is that an individual could present the same prodromal symptoms without necessarily developing a psychotic illness, as a result of toxic intake, a situational crisis, etc. Furthermore, while the prodrome is a retrospective concept, its value and specificity can only be prospective, given that patients' descriptions of pre-morbid changes may be corrupted by inefficient memory reconstruction. DSM III-R included prodromal symptoms; individual presenting such symptoms would potentially present psychopathological vulnerability to psychosis regardless of associated genetic risk. Several investigations have shed doubts on their measurement's reliability; therefore, this classification is no longer present in the latest version (DSM IV). Moreover, recent neurodevelopemental hypothesis on schizophrenia have paved the way for possible early intervention, especially because early treatments could well improve illness prognosis. This viewpoint is reinforced by the improved tolerance of new anti-psychotic treatment. In this report, we review the key Articles published over the last 15 Years on this matter. We distinguish two schools of thought: on one hand, the German school referring to the validity of particular neuro-psychological symptoms: attention, perception

  1. [Therapy of childhood schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, C

    1977-01-01

    Due to the multifacet genesis and variability of clinical phenomenology, the therapy of childhood schizophrenia must be multidimensional. Formerly applied techniques like electroshock- and insulin-therapy are now replaced by pharmaco-therapy, primarily with phenothiazines, butyrophenones and chlorprothixens. The dosage depends on age, body weight or body surface. Because of extrapyramidal motor side effects, combinations with anticholinergic drugs may be necessary. Psychopharmaco-therapy alone, however, is insufficient. High emphasis must be placed on psychotherapy and educational guidance and counselling of the psychotic child. Participation in play groups, sports, muscial activities, arts and crafts, and acting helps make it possible to improve communication behaviour and to transform aggressive anxiety defense into stabilized control of emotions and impulses. In addition to successive integration of the psychotic child into small groups, play therapy with the single child is meaningful. In this case, a constant and confidential relation between therapist and child is extremely important and only possible if the therapist attempts to place himself into the magic-animistic phantasies of the psychotic child. He has first to learn the psychotic language of his patient in order to support more reality-oriented behaviour processes of the child's thinking, preceiving and performing later on. In this manner, the magic-omnipotent phantasies can be dissolved and an increasing orientation of the child toward reality can be encouraged. This involves strengthening and support of non-pathological ego-functions and initiation of a new level of ego-functioning. Such an integrated developmental concept can best be realized through play therapy.

  2. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  3. Subclinical atherosclerosis and obesity phenotypes among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Susan T; Smulevitz, Beverly; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Reininger, Belinda; McPherson, David D; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2015-03-18

    Data on the influence of obesity on atherosclerosis in Hispanics are inconsistent, possibly related to varying cardiometabolic risk among obese individuals. We aimed to determine the association of obesity and cardiometabolic risk with subclinical atherosclerosis in Mexican-Americans. Participants (n=503) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. Metabolic health was defined as 5.13; or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein >3 mg/L. Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was measured. A high proportion of participants (77.8%) were metabolically unhealthy; they were more likely to be male, older, with fewer years of education, and less likely to meet daily recommendations regarding fruit and vegetable servings. One-third (31.8%) had abnormal carotid ultrasound findings. After adjusting for covariates, mean cIMT varied across the obesity phenotypes (P=0.0001); there was no difference among the metabolically unhealthy regardless of whether they were obese or not. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for covariates, cardiometabolic risk (P=0.0159), but not obesity (P=0.1446), was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. In Mexican-Americans, cardiometabolic risk has a greater effect on early atherosclerosis development than body mass index. Non-obese but metabolically unhealthy participants had similar development of subclinical atherosclerosis as their obese counterparts. Interventions to maintain metabolic health among obese and non-obese patients may be a more important goal than weight loss alone. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  4. Depressive and anxiety disorders and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to

  5. [Concept and clinical significance of subclinical Cushing syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Mitsuhide; Tanabe, Akiyo; Tsuiki, Mika

    2010-03-01

    The clinical significance of subclinical Cushing syndrome has been widely recognized because of its high prevalence in adrenal incidentaloma. Circulatory and metabolic disorders are the most frequent and important complications of the disease state. Since those complications show aggravation during the clinical course and improvement after surgery, appropriate diagnosis and treatment are essential. Diagnostic criteria, especially the cutoff value of plasma cortisol after dexamethasone suppression, are markedly affected by the sensitivity and specificity of cortisol assay methods. Revision of the diagnostic criteria should reflect the prognosis of the disease state.

  6. California mastitis test in the diagnostic of subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crisléia Rodrigues Monção de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation, is the main factor that substantially compromises the milk quality. Several methods can diagnose the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. One these methods, the California Mastitis Test (CMT has as advantages being practical, low cost and the results are immediately available. The CMT method consists of adding the anionic neutral detergent to a milk sample in order to disrupt milk somatic cell membranes and release nucleic material. The viscousity formed by this reaction allows estimating the number of somatic cells (immunity cells presents in the milk. According to the degree of gelatinization obtained in this reaction, the interpretation of the scores varies from zero, no viscosity, to three crosses, highly viscous. This study was aimed to evaluate the CMT of eight dairy herds of different farms in Sao Paulo state, described by the letters A to H. The scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered positive for subclinical mastitis, while 0 was negative. The results were determined in relative frequency (%. It is evident that the herd D is the most affected by subclinical mastitis, because of the greater number of CMT positive (60%. This may be due to the mismanagement and poor conditions of milking. The properties C, F and G require greater attention, as the result of CMT could corroborate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and infected cows can quickly transmit the infection to the healthy ones. Note that the farms A, B and H are the ones with

  7. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sally M; Middleton, Philippa; Cossich, Mary C; Crowther, Caroline A

    2010-07-07

    Over the last decade there has been enhanced awareness of the appreciable morbidity of thyroid dysfunction, particularly thyroid deficiency. Since treating clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism may reduce adverse obstetric outcomes, it is crucial to identify which interventions are safe and effective. To identify interventions used in the management of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy and to ascertain the impact of these interventions on important maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2009). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared a pharmacological intervention for hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy with another intervention or placebo. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted the data. We included three RCTs of moderate risk of bias involving 314 women. In one trial of 115 women, levothyroxine therapy to treat pregnant euthyroid women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies was not shown to reduce pre-eclampsia significantly (risk ratio (RR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 3.48) but did significantly reduce preterm birth by 72% (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.80). One trial of 30 hypothyroid women compared levothyroxine doses, but only reported biochemical outcomes. A trial of 169 women compared the trace element selenomethionine (selenium) with placebo and no significant differences were seen for either pre-eclampsia (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 8.38) or preterm birth (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.20 to 4.61). None of the three trials reported on childhood neurodevelopmental delay.There was a non-significant trend towards fewer miscarriages with levothyroxine, and selenium showed some favourable impact on postpartum thyroid function and decreased incidence of moderate to advanced postpartum thyroiditis. Levothyroxine treatment of clinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy is already standard

  8. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH.......05). These changes were qualitatively similar but quantitatively less pronounced than in 15 women with overt hypothyroidism, also studied. Taking the two groups together (n = 31), pretreatment thyroid function (expressed as either TSH or free T(4) estimate) correlated to CO and SVR as well as the changes induced...... by LT(4) (p hypothyroidism should...

  9. Stochastic modelling to assess economic effects of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Swinkels, J.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  10. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than

  11. Femoral and carotid subclinical atherosclerosis association with risk factors and coronary calcium: the AWHS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Early subclinical atherosclerosis has been mainly researched in carotid arteries. The potential value of femoral arteries for improving the predictive capacity of traditional risk factors is an understudied area. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the association of subclinical ca...

  12. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitti, Piero; Cipriani, Paola; Masedu, Francesco; Romano, Silvio; Berardicurti, Onorina; Liakouli, Vasiliki; Carubbi, Francesco; Di Benedetto, Paola; Alvaro, Saverio; Penco, Maria; Valenti, Marco; Giacomelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV) and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis. We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS), at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis. Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  13. FEATURES PREGNANCY AND BIRTH OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM, LIVING IN THE FAR NORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Николаевна Кравченко

    2017-02-01

    Results. The medication correction of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women in extreme north indicated less thyroid gland, than in women without medication correcting this condition. In newborns of mothers with subclinical hypothyroidism, there has been an increase in the size of the thyroid gland and reduced Apgar score.

  14. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Heemstra, Karen A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Schoemaker, Rik C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the

  15. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  16. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron in the serum of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Hongbin; Guo, Changming; Gao, Li; Liu, Lei; Gao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yanfei; Liu, Guowen

    2011-12-01

    Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron were measured in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. Compared with healthy cows, the subclinically ketotic cows had significantly higher levels of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutirate in serum and significantly lower levels of blood glucose (p ketosis.

  17. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Meagan A.; Mather, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge of students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology class about schizophrenia. Students filled out a questionnaire containing twelve questions on a variety of issues connected to this disorder. The questions were tested in a pilot study using students in a fourth year Psychology course focused on…

  18. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Abstract. Whilst gains have been made in recent years in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, a number of patients still have residual symptoms and disabilities, or simply do not show response to antipsychotic medications. For such 'treatment resistant' patients, there is little by way of randomised controlled data ...

  19. Imbalanced kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Magdalena E; Bhat, Maria; Skogh, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schwieler, Lilly; Engberg, Göran; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Erhardt, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN). Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22) and those of controls (n = 26) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36). CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.027). In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Imbalanced Kynurenine Pathway in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena E. Kegel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN. Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22 and those of controls (n = 26 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36. CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls ( P = 0.027. In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Ocular convergence deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Bolding

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI than the normal adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with schizophrenia exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS is an effective instrument for identifying CI in this population.Twenty participants with schizophrenia (SZ and 20 healthy controls (HC completed the study. The prevalence of CI (15% in the SZ group was slightly higher than reported norms, but the difference was not significant. The SZ group had significantly higher scores on the CISS than the HC group, but the CISS scores did not correlate with clinical measures of CI in individuals with SZ. The only exception was that SZ patients had a significantly reduced fusional reserve as determined by Sheard’s criteria. Further study is needed to determine why individuals with schizophrenia reported symptoms associated with CI even though clinical measures did not support this diagnosis.

  2. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  3. Second Language Acquisition and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that results in language-related symptoms at various discourse levels, ranging from semantics (e.g. inventing words and producing nonsensical strands of similar-sounding words) to pragmatics and higher-level functioning (e.g. too little or too much information given to interlocutors, and tangential…

  4. When apparent schizophrenia is excluded

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the beginning. Mr R was a 30-year-old male who was diagnosed with schizophrenia at the age of 19, after he presented with a typical combination of disorganised behaviour and persecutory delusions, against a background of daily comorbid polysubstance abuse. Owing to a pattern of frequent readmissions and poor ...

  5. Parkinsonian axial signs in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgante, Francesca; Barbui, Corrado; Tinazzi, Michele

    2017-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated evidence of nigro-striatal denervation, disease progression and response to levodopa in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia who developed parkinsonism. In the present study, we investigated whether axial parkinsonian signs might be an early manifestation of parkinsonism in schizophrenia not necessarily related to chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs (AP) drugs. From a baseline cohort of 299 schizophrenic patients who did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for parkinsonism (presence of at least two of the following appendicular signs: bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity), we identified a group of patients who manifested two out of three axial parkinsonian signs (abnormality of trunk posture, hypomimia and short-step gait). Accordingly, we obtained two sub-groups of patients with schizophrenia, with (Schiz-Axial, N = 26), and without parkinsonian axial signs (Schiz-NO-Axial, N = 273). Clinical and demographical variables were compared between groups. The motor section of the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) was employed to measure motor disability. Schiz-Axial patients were significantly older (p = 0.007) and had longer disease duration (p = 0.04) compared to Schiz-NO-Axial. The two groups did not differ for variables related to AP treatment. Total UPDRS motor score (p signs might be an early manifestation of parkinsonism in schizophrenia associated to older age and longer disease duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  7. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  8. Psychiatrist's adherence: a new factor in relapse prevention of schizophrenia. A randomized controlled study on relapse control through telemedicine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniel, F; Novak, T; Bankovska Motlova, L; Capkova, J; Slovakova, A; Trancik, P; Matejka, M; Höschl, C

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to psychotic states has detrimental effects on the long-term outcome of schizophrenia and brain integrity. Therefore, improving relapse prevention is a key component of long-term management of schizophrenia. Previous studies using continuous monitoring of an individual's early signs of relapse and adopting preventative pharmacological interventions, when early signs are detected, showed promising clinical results in terms of relapse risk reduction. This 18-month multi-centre parallel randomized controlled, open label, trial with telemedicine relapse prevention programme ITAREPS failed to show superiority of maintenance plus prodrome-based targeted medication strategy over treatment as usual. The study, marked by low investigator's adherence, confirmed that absence of pharmacological intervention at early stage of prodrome, critically influenced the risk of relapse. This and previous randomized controlled trials with telemedicine programme ITAREPS suggested that substantial improvement in relapse prevention in schizophrenia is likely to be unattainable under current clinical settings. Future preventive strategies in schizophrenia would require rapid pharmacological intervention upon occurrence of subclinical prodromal symptoms that are undetectable under conventional outpatient practice. Studies with ITAREPS suggested that integration of telemedicine relapse prevention systems and visiting nurse service might together represent practical solution capable to address those requirements. The Information Technology Aided Relapse Prevention Programme in Schizophrenia (ITAREPS) presents a telemedicine solution for weekly monitoring and management of schizophrenia. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the programme in reducing the number of hospitalizations during the 18-month multi-centre parallel randomized controlled, open label, trial. Outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized to the active (n = 74) or control group

  9. Subclinical mastitis causes alterations in nitric oxide, total oxidant and antioxidant capacity in cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakisi, Onur; Oral, Hasan; Atakisi, Emine; Merhan, Oguz; Metin Pancarci, S; Ozcan, Ayla; Marasli, Saban; Polat, Bulent; Colak, Armagan; Kaya, Semra

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate total antioxidant (TAC), and oxidant capacity (TOC) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. Brown Swiss and Holstein breed cows were screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) to determine mammary glands with subclinical mastitis. Moreover, somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined electronically in all milk samples. Mammary quarters were classified as healthy (n=25) or subclinical mastitis (n=35) based on CMT scores and somatic cell count (SCC: 200,000/ml) in milk. Nitric oxide, TOC and SCC levels were significantly higher (pmastitis compared to those from healthy mammary quarters. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis results in higher NO concentrations, TOC and SCC, and NO and TOC were positively correlated with SCC. Moreover, alterations in NO levels and TOC in milk could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to screen for subclinical mastitis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging subclinical atherosclerosis: is it ready for prime time? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Ibáñez, Borja; Fuster, Valentín

    2014-10-01

    Imaging subclinical atherosclerosis holds the promise of individualized cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment. The large arsenal of noninvasive imaging techniques available today is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of subclinical atherosclerosis. However, there is a debate about the advisability of clinical screens for subclinical atherosclerosis and which modality is the most appropriate for monitoring risk and atherosclerosis progression. This article offers an overview of the traditional and emerging noninvasive imaging modalities used to detect early atherosclerosis, surveys population studies addressing the value of subclinical atherosclerosis detection, and also examines guideline recommendations for their clinical implementation. The clinical relevance of this manuscript lies in the potential of current imaging technology to improve CV risk prediction based on traditional risk factors and the present recommendations for subclinical atherosclerosis assessment. Noninvasive imaging will also help to identify individuals at high CV who would benefit from intensive prevention or therapeutic interventions.

  11. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huilan; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy.

  12. Subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereflican, M; Sereflican, B; Dagistan, E; Goksugur, N; Kizildag, B

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent aphtous stomatitis (RAS) is an inflammatory oral mucosal disease. It has been known that inflammatory cascade plays important role in the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical atherosclerotic findings and a systemic inflammatory disease, RAS. In total, 32 patients with RAS were matched with 30 control subjects on the basis of age, sex, and major cardiovascular risk factors. Laboratory parameters including lipid profiles were determined for patients and controls. B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess carotid extra-medial thickness (cEMT) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Both cEMT and cIMT in the RAS group were significantly higher than in the control group (P = 0.002 and 0.013, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between cIMT and cEMT (r = 0.381, P = 0.034). cIMT was positively correlated with age, triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure, while cEMT was positively correlated with age in patients with RAS. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study to evaluate cEMT and cIMT in patients with RAS. This study presents morphological evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RAS. Further studies investigating the relationship between atherosclerosis and RAS are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. OCT-guided management of subclinical recurrent retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Houghton, Susan; Stathopoulos, Christina; Munier, Francis L

    2018-02-09

    Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor recurrence in the papillary or macular region is a threat to life and visual prognosis respectively, making early detection indispensable. This study demonstrates the value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the early detection of subclinical tumor recurrence. Since June 2012, hand-held SD-OCT (spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography) of retro-equatorial foci, the optic head nerve and macula, is systematically performed under anesthesia in children treated and followed for Rb. Between June 2012 and January 2017, 16 subclinical recurrent tumors in 14 children were detected only by OCT in flat pigmented scars (n = 9), in type 2 regression (n = 3), on the optic nerve head (n = 3), and as secondary retinal seeding (n = 1). OCT has become invaluable in the modern management of Rb. It allows not only early detection of a lesion before any tumor extension towards the macula or optic nerve head, but also the monitoring of the therapeutic response.

  14. Subclinical leptospirosis may impair athletic performance in racing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamond, Camila; Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2012-12-01

    The infection by Leptospira in horses, in both its acute disease and subclinical forms, is very common, particularly in endemic regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subclinical leptospirosis in the athletic performance of racing thoroughbred horses. Athletic performance of 119 racing Thoroughbred horses from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was calculated by assigning a point value for the results in racing (performance index (PI)), and serology for leptospirosis was conducted. A total of 85 (71.4 %) horses showed reactive titers (≥ 100), and of which 52 had high titers (34 with 400 and 18 with ≥ 800). Although those animals had high titers against Leptospira, no clinical signs associated with leptospirosis were observed. Seventeen (89.5 %) out of the 19 horses with substandard performance were seroreactive with high titers, in contrast with 35 % of seroreactivity in horses with good athletic performance (P horses with substandard athletic performance in contrast to those with good performance (P racing horses, and antibiotic therapy may improve the performance of affected animals.

  15. Association of obstructive sleep apnoea with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Gerhard; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Erdmann, Timo; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Lehmann, Nils; Stang, Andreas; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Bauer, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Teschler, Helmut; Möhlenkamp, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis. This study aimed i) to assess the prevalence of OSA in the general population and ii) to analyse the association of this disorder with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. In a cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study a subgroup of 1604 subjects (791 men, age 50-80 years) underwent OSA screening. Furthermore, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured. OSA was defined as apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥ 15/h. OSA was observed in 29.1% of men and 15.6% of women. In a multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for risk factors AHI was associated with CAC in men aged ≤65 years (estimated log-transformed increase of CAC = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.001-0.50, p = 0.051) and in women of any age (estimated log-transformed increase = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.04-0.41, p = 0.02). Doubling of the AHI was associated with a 19% increase of CAC in men aged ≤65 years and with a 17% increase in women of any age. In the general population aged ≥50 years OSA is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men aged ≤65 years and in women of any age, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvements in insulin sensitivity are blunted by subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2009-02-01

    Exercise- and weight loss-induced improvements in insulin resistance (IR) are variable; some individuals experience robust enhancements in insulin sensitivity, whereas others do not. Thyroid hormone status is related to IR, but it is not clear whether subclinical hypothyroidism may help to explain the variability in improvements in IR with diet and exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine whether thyroid hormone status is related to the improvement in insulin sensitivity and physical fitness after weight loss and exercise training. By retrospective nested case-control analysis, eight subclinical hypothyroid (sHT) subjects and eight matched euthyroid controls underwent a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and peak oxygen uptake test, before and after a 16-wk program of moderate aerobic exercise combined with diet-induced weight loss. All subjects were middle-aged (57.3 +/- 3.3 yr), were overweight to obese (body mass index = 33.1 +/- 0.8 kg m(-2)), and had impaired glucose tolerance. The improvement in insulin sensitivity was significantly lower (P hypothyroidism may interfere with beneficial adaptations on muscle metabolism and physical fitness that typically occur with weight loss and increased physical activity. These results may have significant clinical implications because of the high prevalence of both hypothyroidism and insulin resistance in the aging population.

  17. Cardiac changes with subclinical hypothyroidism in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçaslan, Barış; Tigen, Mustafa Kürşat; Tekin, Ahmet Selami; Ciftçi, Hilmi

    2013-09-01

    Obesity has been linked to a spectrum of minor cardiovascular changes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on cardiac functions and its relations with subclinical hypothyroidism in healthy women. Eighty-eight consecutive "healthy" females (mean age: 31.2±6.6 years) were included in the study. Thyroid function tests and echocardiography studies were performed in all patients. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were also measured. A body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 was considered obese. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was higher in obese subjects (pobese subjects with higher E/e' (p=0.001) and larger left atrial volume (LAV) (pobese subjects (p=0.033). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were significantly higher in obese subjects (p=0.011) and were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, LAV, and LVM. The prevalence of abnormal systolic and diastolic functions showed stepwise increases with higher TSH levels in obese subjects. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of E/e' with anthromorphometric and biochemical parameters, and waist circumference was found to be the strongest independent variable correlated with the E/e' ratio. Cardiac structural and functional deteriorations may be related with subclinical hypothyroidism in obese subjects.

  18. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Genetic predisposition to obesity and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juan; Hong, Jie; Qi, Lu; Cui, Bin; Gu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Lijuan; Miao, Lin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2014-10-10

    Obesity has been associated with increased common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We assessed the association between genetic predisposition to obesity and CCA IMT. The study included 428 young Chinese adults with CCA IMT measured using a high-resolution B-mode tomographic ultrasound system. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) by summing the risk alleles of 6 obesity-associated genetic variants confirmed in our previous analyses. The GRS was significantly associated with greater CCA IMT (pobesity status, but remained significant (p=0.009). In addition, we found that blood pressure significantly modified the association between the GRS and CCA IMT (p for interaction=0.001). The associations between the GRS and CCA IMT were stronger in participants with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg (per 2 allele increment of the GRS relating to 0.028 mm greater CCA IMT, p for trendobesity and development of subclinical atherosclerosis. Elevated blood pressure might amplify the adverse effect of obesity on cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Subclinical Malabsorption of Carbohydrates Prevent Colorectal Cancer? A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Dorcen Bolin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC is high in the western world and low in Asia and Africa. Fibre and starch are thought to be important protective factors, with a strong inverse relationship between starch consumption and CRC incidence. Whether this is true in Asia, particularly, and Africa is debatable. Because rice is the most easily absorbed of carbohydrates, a mechanism whereby there is an increased starch load in the colon in the Asian population needs to be identified. One possible cause is subclinical malabsorption. This is linked to increased mucosal permeability and low gross domestic product (GDP per capita, which reflects poor sanitation and water supplies with increased risk for small bowel bacterial overgrowth leading to mucosal cell damage. A potential cause of the dramatic rise in CRC incidence in Japan may relate to its equally dramatic increase in GDP per capita of 600% over 50 years. This correlation appears to be stronger than with other dietary factors including fruit, vegetables and meat. Worldwide, a close correlation exists among low GDP per capita, low CRC incidence and presumed subclinical malabsorption. All these factors combine to maintain a low incidence of CRC in poorly developed countries.

  1. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  2. Recognition memory for pictorial material in subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Cristina; Murphy, Fionnuala C; Calder, Andrew J; Barnard, Philip J

    2010-11-01

    Depression has been associated with impaired recollection of episodic details in tests of recognition memory that use verbal material. In two experiments, the remember/know procedure was employed to investigate the effects of dysphoric mood on recognition memory for pictorial materials that may not be subject to the same processing limitations found for verbal materials in depression. In Experiment 1, where the recognition test took place two weeks after encoding, subclinically depressed participants reported fewer know judgements which were likely to be at least partly due to a remember-to-know shift. Although pictures were accompanied by negative or neutral captions at encoding, no effect of captions on recognition memory was observed. In Experiment 2, where the recognition test occurred soon after viewing the pictures, subclinically depressed participants reported fewer remember judgements. All participants reported more remember judgements for pictures of emotionally negative content than pictures of neutral content. Together, these findings demonstrate that recognition memory for pictorial stimuli is compromised in dysphoric individuals in a way that is consistent with a recollection deficit for episodic detail and also reminiscent of that previously reported for verbal materials. These findings contribute to our developing understanding of how mood and memory interact. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bleuler and the neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-11-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler's monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler's monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler assumed that schizophrenia has a neural basis, he remained agnostic on possible mechanisms and skeptical about the value of pathological diagnosis. He preferred psychological understanding over neural explanation. He gave hope by making schizophrenia dimensional and less predictive of course and outcome. To make progress now, we need to redefine schizophrenia at the level of the brain.

  4. Synapse pathology and translational applications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 0.7%. Despite its relatively low prevalence, the onset of schizophrenia usually occurs early in life, resulting in a severe lifelong disability for patients and increasing the economic and care burden on their families. This makes schizophrenia one of the most catastrophic mental illnesses. Although the etiology of schizophrenia remains poorly understood, clinical, genetic, and pharmacological studies have indicated that its pathophysiology involves synaptic disturbances. Here, I review the evidence suggesting synaptic disturbance as the causal pathophysiology of schizophrenia and discuss the possible application of synaptic intervention as a novel therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. The Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia Disorders: Perspectives From the Spectrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siever, Larry J; Davis, Kenneth L

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This overview focuses on neurobiological abnormalities found in subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, the prototype of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and chronic schizophrenia...

  6. Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle East and Africa — 3- and 6-month efficacy and safety results. The Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

  7. Bleuler and the Neurobiology of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler’s monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler’s monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler as...

  8. Substance abuse and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Addington, J; Addington, D

    1997-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs or alcohol. This vulnerability can interfere with the course and treatment of the disorder and may also have a detrimental effect on already compromised cognitive functioning. This study has a matched, cross-sectional design and compares the social and cognitive functioning and the symptoms of 33 schizophrenia subjects who abuse substances with 33 nonabusing schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were matched on sex, age,...

  9. Amygdalofrontal functional disconnectivity and aggression in schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoptman, Matthew J; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J; Shehzad, Zarrar E; Kelly, A M Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X; Javitt, Daniel C; Milham, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    ..., which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity in right inferior frontal regions was associated with higher levels of aggression...

  10. Splitting in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    .... A purpose of this study is to examine relationships between psychological process of splitting and disturbed cognitive and affective functions in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD...

  11. Neurocognitive functioning and cannabis use in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit substance used among schizophrenia patients. The effects of cannabis are mediated through the endocannabinoid system, which is a major regulator of neurotransmission and may be disturbed in schizophrenia. Though cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is well established, the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia patients are still unclear. This paper reviews 19 studies that examine the cognitive effects of cannabis on schizophrenia by comparing cognitive functioning of cannabis-using and non-using schizophrenia patients across a vast range of domains (memory, attention and processing speed, executive functions, visuospatial, psychomotor and language). Of the studies included in the review, 11 reported better cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users, 5 found minimal or no difference between the groups and 3 found poorer cognitive functions among cannabis-using schizophrenia patients compared to non-users. The inconsistencies in the studies reviewed may stem from significant methodological variance between the studies regarding patient selection, adequate controls, cognitive measures used, measures of cannabis use, additional drugs used, and clinical aspects of schizophrenia. These methodological issues are discussed, as well as possible explanations for the results presented and suggestions for future research in this field.

  12. Neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: update 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapoport, J L; Giedd, J N; Gogtay, N

    2012-01-01

    ... greatest potential to modify or extend, the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Longitudinal whole-population studies support a dimensional, rather than categorical, concept of psychosis...

  13. Discrimination within Recognition Memory in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Sponheim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d' to consider false recognition of new items. Using the Recurring Figures Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, we studied a sample of schizophrenia probands and the first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, as well as probands with bipolar disorder and first-degree biological relatives to assess the specificity of recognition memory dysfunction to schizophrenia. The schizophrenia sample had poorer recognition discrimination in both nonverbal and verbal modalities; no such deficits were identified in first-degree biological relatives or bipolar disorder probands. Discrimination in schizophrenia and bipolar probands failed to benefit from the geometric structure in the designs in the manner that controls did on the nonverbal test. Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs. Episodic memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is present for a variety of stimulus domains and reflects poor use of item content to increase discrimination of old and new items.

  14. A review of schizophrenia research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, K Y; Salina, A A

    2014-08-01

    Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.

  15. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Schizophrenia and prospective memory impairments: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2017-11-22

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future. Prospective forgetting has been shown to be one of the key cognitive impairments that contribute to medication non-adherence, reduced independence, and social dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia. This review aimed to provide an up to date appraisal of the nature and extent of PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk and to discuss clinical applications in this area. We searched and reviewed relevant studies in this area between 2013 and August 2017. Findings of studies conducted so far indicate that PM is severely impaired in schizophrenia. The most frequent type of PM errors in individuals with schizophrenia is no response, or failure to carry out the intended action. PM impairments in schizophrenia have been found to be related to everyday functioning. For individuals with schizophrenia, a number of assessment techniques have been developed to assess PM. These include: self-report questionnaires, computerized tasks, psychometric test batteries, and virtual reality tasks. So far, a few studies have used the compensatory approach to improve PM performance in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk, and the results reported are promising. Based on findings of these studies, suggestions for the development of interventions for PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia are provided. PM dysfunction is an important impairment in individuals with schizophrenia, and more rehabilitation studies to improve PM performance in these individuals are needed.

  17. [Neuroimaging studies of social cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Noriko; Murai, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    In various social situations, individuals with schizophrenia often have difficulties in keeping appropriate relationships with others. To elucidate the neural basis of such difficulties, we explored associations between brain morphological alterations and dysfunction of social cognition in schizophrenia, using MRI. Several important findings have been yielded: For instance, amygdala volume reduction was correlated with impaired facial emotion recognition ability, while reductions in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with impairment in emotion attribution to protagonists in social situations. These results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have various domains of impaired social cognition. Moreover, in schizophrenia, the brain regions involved in such impairments might differ according to the domains of social cognition.

  18. Polymorphism rs2073618 of the osteoprotegerin gene as a potential marker of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskovič, Aleš; Ramuš, Sara Mankoč; Pražnikar, Zala Jenko; Šantl Letonja, Marija; Cokan Vujkovac, Andreja; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Gaspar, Ludovit; Kruzliak, Peter; Petrovič, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    The OPG/RANKL/RANK (osteoprotegerin/receptor-activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/receptor-activator of nuclear factor κB) axis has been recently linked to the development of atherosclerosis and plaque destabilization. We have investigated whether polymorphism rs2073618 of the OPG gene is associated with subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 595 subjects with T2DM were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis (carotid intima media thickness, plaque thickness, and plaques presence) were assessed with ultrasound at the time of recruitment. Genotyping for rs2073618 (a missense variant located in exon I of the OPG gene) was performed, and OPG serum levels were determined by ELISA. Compared to the GG genotype, the CC genotype of the rs2073618 polymorphism had a significantly increased risk for the presence of carotid plaque (OR = 2.54, 95 % CI = 1.22-5.28, p = 0.01). No statistically significant difference could be detected (p = 0.68) upon comparing median values of serum OPG levels among studied genotype groups in subjects with T2DM. Multivariable linear regression analyses in T2DM subjects demonstrated that GC and CC genotypes (p = 0.03 and p = 0.003), together with statin therapy (p = 0.009), were independent predictors of the number of carotid segments with plaques. Despite the fact that OPG rs2073618 genotypes failed to predict the serum OPG levels as there was no statistical difference among compared genotypes, our results demonstrate that the rs2073618 polymorphism could be a possible genetic marker for the prediction of increased risk for carotid plaque burden as a measure of advanced subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM subjects.

  19. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  20. Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrolmolouk Yassaee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy. There are no data from Iran about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, thyrotropin (TSH was measured in 3158 pregnant women irrespective of gestational age from October 2008-March 2012. If TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester or more than 3 mIU/L in the second or third trimester, free T4 was measured to diagnose subclinical / overt hypothyroidism. If serum free T4 was in the normal range (0.7-1.8 ng/dl the diagnosis was subclinical hypothyroidism and if below the normal range, overt hypothyroidism was diagnosed. Results: A total of 3158 pregnant women were evaluated. One hundred forty seven of them were diagnosed as hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism were present in 131 (89.1% and 16 (10.9% women respectively. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 4.15%. Most of the subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases were diagnosed in the first trimester. Conclusion: It appears logical to check TSH during pregnancy due to the observed prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  1. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Ibañez, Borja; López-Melgar, Beatriz; Laclaustra, Martín; Oliva, Belén; Mocoroa, Agustín; Mendiguren, José; Martínez de Vega, Vicente; García, Laura; Molina, Jesús; Sánchez-González, Javier; Guzmán, Gabriela; Alonso-Farto, Juan C; Guallar, Eliseo; Civeira, Fernando; Sillesen, Henrik; Pocock, Stuart; Ordovás, José M; Sanz, Ginés; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Fuster, Valentín

    2015-06-16

    Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mean age, 45.8 years; 63% male) to evaluate the systemic extent of atherosclerosis in the carotid, abdominal aortic, and iliofemoral territories by 2-/3-dimensional ultrasound and coronary artery calcification by computed tomography. The extent of subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as presence of plaque or coronary artery calcification ≥1, was classified as focal (1 site affected), intermediate (2-3 sites), or generalized (4-6 sites) after exploration of each vascular site (right/left carotids, aorta, right/left iliofemorals, and coronary arteries). Subclinical atherosclerosis was present in 63% of participants (71% of men, 48% of women). Intermediate and generalized atherosclerosis was identified in 41%. Plaques were most common in the iliofemorals (44%), followed by the carotids (31%) and aorta (25%), whereas coronary artery calcification was present in 18%. Among participants with low Framingham Heart Study (FHS) 10-year risk, subclinical disease was detected in 58%, with intermediate or generalized disease in 36%. When longer-term risk was assessed (30-year FHS), 83% of participants at high risk had atherosclerosis, with 66% classified as intermediate or generalized. Subclinical atherosclerosis was highly prevalent in this middle-aged cohort, with nearly half of the participants classified as having intermediate or generalized disease. Most participants at high FHS risk had subclinical disease; however, extensive atherosclerosis was also present in a substantial number of low-risk individuals, suggesting added value of imaging for diagnosis and prevention. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01410318. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Art therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, R; Milnes, D

    2005-10-19

    Many people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses continue to experience symptoms in spite of medication. In addition to medication, creative therapies, such as art therapy, may be helpful. Art therapy allows exploration of the patient's inner world in a non-threatening way through a therapeutic relationship and the use of art materials. It was mainly developed in adult psychiatric inpatient units and was designed for use with people for whom verbal psychotherapy would be impossible. To review the effects of art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia compared with standard care and other psychosocial interventions. We updated the search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (February 2005), hand searched reference lists and 'Inscape' (the Journal of the British Association of Art Therapists), and contacted relevant authors. We included all randomised controlled trials that compared art therapy with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from the studies. We excluded data where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow up. For continuous outcomes we calculated a weighted mean difference and its 95% confidence interval. For binary outcomes we calculated a fixed effects risk ratio (RR), its 95% confidence interval (CI) and a number needed to treat (NNT). The search identified 61 reports but only two studies (total n=137) met the inclusion criteria. Both compared art therapy plus standard care with standard care alone. More people completed the therapy if allocated to the art therapy group compared with standard care in the short (n=90, 1 RCT, RR 0.97 CI 0.41 to 2.29), medium (n=47, 1 RCT, RR 0.34 CI 0.15 to 0.80) and long term (n=47, 1 RCT, RR 0.96 CI 0.57 to 1.60). Data from one mental state measure (SANS) showed a small but significant difference favouring the art-therapy group (n=73, 1 RCT, WMD -2.3 CI -4.10 to -0.5). In

  3. Vitamin supplementation increases risk of subclinical mastitis in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-10-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts subclinical mastitis.

  4. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts subclinical mastitis. PMID:20739447

  5. Evaluation of LDL-Cholesterol / HDL-Cholesterol Ratio as Predictor of Dyslipidemia in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Kottagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as a serum TSH concentration above the upper limit of the reference range when serum T3 and T4 concentrations are within reference ranges. Subclinical thyroid disease is a laboratory diagnosis. Patients with subclinical disease have few or no definitive clinical signs or symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. It has been associated with higher levels of some cardiovascular risk factors. Despite some conflicting results, many studies have found that subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism have total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels higher than euthyroid subjects. The association between subclinical hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia is well known. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find the importance of Low Density Lipoprotein – Cholesterol / Higher Density Lipoprotein - Cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio rather than measurement of individual lipid profile parameters in bringing to light the dyslipidemic state associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: We studied 30 subclinical hypothyroid cases with age above 35 yrs and 30 age matched euthyroid controls. Serum T3, T4, TSH were estimated by ELISA method, serum total cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol by enzymatic CHOD-PAP method, and LDL cholesterol using Friedewald formula. Results: We found the significant increase in the serum levels of TSH (p < 0.001, Total cholesterol (p<0.001, LDL cholesterol (p<0.001, and LDL-C/HDL-C (p<0.001, Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001. There was no significant change in the levels of serum T3, T4, HDL- cholesterol. Conclusion: Increased levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and increased LDL-C/HDL-C ratio are seen in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. LDL-C/HDLC ratio is a better indicator for dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroid cases.

  6. Imaging dopamine transmission in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laruelle, M. [New York, Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Insitute. Brain Imaging Division

    1998-09-01

    Over the last ten years, several positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) studies of the dopamine (DA) system in patients with schizophrenia were performed to test the hypothesis that DA hyperactivity is associated with this illness. In this paper are reviewed the results of fifteen brain imaging studies comparing indices of DA function in drug naive or drug free patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: thirteen studies included measurements of Da D{sub 2} receptor density, two studies compared amphetamine-induced DA release, and two studies measured DOPA decarboxylase activity, an enzyme involved in DA synthesis. It was conducted a meta-analysis of the studies measuring D{sub 2} receptor density parameters, under the assumption that all tracers labeled the same population of D{sub 2} receptors. This analysis revealed that, compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia present a significant but mild elevation of D{sub 2} receptor density parameters and a significant larger variability of these indices. It was found no statistical evidence that studies performed with radiolabeled butyrophenones detected a larger increase in D{sub 2} receptor density parameters than studies performed with other radioligands, such as benzamides. Studies of presynaptic activity revealed an increase in DA transmission response to amphetamine challenge, and an increase in DOPA decarboxylase activity. Together, these data are compatible with both pre- and post-synaptic alterations of DA transmission in schizophrenia. Future studies should aim at a better characterization of these alterations, and at defining their role in the pathophysiology of the illness.

  7. Domains of Awareness in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleen, J.; Greenwood, K.; David, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are often characterized as lacking insight or awareness into their illness and symptoms, yet despite considerable research, we still lack a full understanding of the factors involved in causing poor awareness. Within schizophrenia, there has been shown to be a fractionation across dimensions of awareness into mental illness: of being ill, of symptoms, and of treatment compliance. Recently, attention has turned to evidence of a fractionation between awareness of illness and of cognitive impairments and functioning. The current study investigated the degree of fractionation across a broad range of domains of function in schizophrenia and how each domain may be associated with neuropsychological functioning, clinical, mood, and demographic variables. Thirty-one mostly chronic stable patients with schizophrenia completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of psychopathology, including mood. Cognitive insight and awareness of illness, symptoms, memory, and behavioral functioning were also measured. Insight and awareness were assessed using a combination of semistructured interview, observer-rated, self-rated, and objective measures, and included measures of the discrepancy between carer and self-ratings of impairment. Results revealed that awareness of functioning in each domain was largely independent and that awareness in each domain was predicted by different factors. Insight into symptoms was relatively poor while insight into cognitive deficits was preserved. Relative to neuropsychological variables, cognitive insight, comprising self-certainty and self-reflexivity, was a greater predictor of awareness. In conclusion, awareness is multiply fractionated and multiply determined. Therapeutic interventions could, therefore, produce beneficial changes within specific domains of awareness. PMID:20851850

  8. Implicit emotion perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    Explicit but not implicit facial emotion perception has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. In this study, we used newly developed technology in social neuroscience to examine implicit emotion processing. It has been shown that when people look at faces, they automatically infer social traits, and these trait judgments rely heavily on facial features and subtle emotion expressions even with neutral faces. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects completed a computer task with 30 well-characterized neutral faces. They rated each face on 10 trait judgments: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. The degree to which trait ratings were predicted by objectively-measured subtle emotion expressions served as a measure of implicit emotion processing. Explicit emotion recognition was also examined. Trait ratings were significantly predicted by subtle facial emotional expressions in controls and patients. However, impairment in the implicit emotion perception of fear, happiness, anger and surprise was found in patients. Moreover, these deficits were associated with poorer everyday problem-solving skills and were relatively independent of explicit emotion recognition. Implicit emotion processing is impaired in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Deficits in implicit and explicit emotion perception independently contribute to the patients' poor daily life skills. More research is needed to fully understand the role of implicit and explicit processes in the functional deficits of patients, in order to develop targeted and useful remediation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Test-day records as a tool for subclinical ketosis detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gantner Vesna; Potočnik K.; Jovanovac Sonja

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence, as well as the effect of subclinical ketosis on daily milk yield, was observed using 1.299,630 test-day records collected from January 2000 to December 2005 on 73,255 Slovenian Holstein cows. Subclinical ketosis was indicated by the fat to protein ratio (F/P ratio) higher than 1.5 in cows that yielded between 33 to 50 kg of milk per day (Eicher, 2004). The ketosis index was defined in relation to the timing of subclinical ketosis detection to the subsequent measures of test-da...

  10. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1...... overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity.......OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...

  11. Prevalence of subclinical coccidiosis in broiler farms in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Zafer; Guven, Esin; Akcay, Aytac; Kar, Sirri; Nalbantoglu, Serpil; Cakmak, Ayse

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Eimeria spp. oocysts in fecal samples collected from 1,108 broiler houses in six regions, representing about 12% of all broiler farms in Turkey, was studied using the modified McMaster method. The age of the chickens in the 1,108 pens varied from 1 to 50 days. Oocysts were found in 602 (54.3%) of these broiler houses, and the mean OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) in those samples was 36,498.7 (50-952,000). No indication of clinical coccidiosis or other clinically evident infection or wide mortality was encountered in any of the pens studied. Further study showed that the age of the chickens, the occurrence of diarrhea on the houses and the density of broiler breeding in the area correlated with subclinical coccidiosis prevalence.

  12. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kr. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  13. Submental thyroid ectopy might cause subclinical hypothyroidism in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid ectopy is a rare condition resulting from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the gland. Sublingual is the most common thyroid ectopy; all other ectopic thyroid locations occur very rare. There are no reports in the literature that describe the clinical course of patients with congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid ectopy. Methods and Results: We present a child with congenital hypothyroidism detected on neonatal screening which had a subclinical course during follow-up. Scintigraphy revealed submental thyroid ectopy, a rare ectopic location and no orthotopic thyroid gland. Conclusion: Our case is unique because of the rare ectopic thyroid location but also of the unexpected clinical course; however, further thyroid monitoring is required for the therapy adjustment and detection of any changes in the ectopic tissue.

  14. Management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: are we too simplistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, Georg; Peeters, Robin P; Chan, Shiao Y; Bernal, Juan; Bouchard, Philippe; Salvatore, Domenico; Boelaert, Kristien; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Guideline advice of many societies on the management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy suggests treatment when TSH serum levels exceed 2.5 mU/l. Justification of this procedure is based on limited experience, mainly from studies carried out in patients with positive thyroid-specific antibodies and higher TSH levels that classically define the condition in the non-pregnant state. Taking into account a lack of clear understanding of the regulation of thyroid hormone transport through the utero-placental unit and in the absence of foetal markers to monitor the adequacy of thyroxine treatment, this review attempts to discuss currently available data and suggests a more cautious approach. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esman

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...... and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1...... overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity....

  16. Violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such

  17. Dyschromatopsia in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Marker of Subclinical Involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgueiras, Helena; Parra, Joana; Cruz, Simão; Pereira, Pedro; Santos, Ana F; Rua, Adriana; Meira, Dália; Fonseca, Pedro; Pedrosa, Catarina; Cardoso, João N; Almeida, Cristina; Araújo, Maria; Santos, Ernestina

    2016-09-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), even in the absence of a clinical episode of optic neuritis (ON), the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) may be damaged leading to dyschromatopsia. Subclinical dyschromatopsia has been described in MS associated with lower motor and cognitive performances. To set the prevalence of dyschromatopsia in eyes of MS patients without a history of ON, to compare its prevalence in patients with and without ON history, and to explore the association between dyschromatopsia and disease duration, average peripapillary RNFL thickness, macular volume, and cognitive and motor performances. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at multiple medical centers. Data were collected after single neurological and ophthalmological evaluations. Dyschromatopsia was defined by the presence of at least 1 error using Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates. In our population of 125 patients, 79 patients (63.2%) never had ON and 35 (28.8%) had unilateral ON. The prevalence of dyschromatopsia in eyes of patients without ON was 25.7%. Patients with dyschromatopsia had a statistically significant lower RNFL thickness (P = 0.004 and P = 0.040, right and left eyes, respectively) and worse performance in symbol digit modalities test (P = 0.012). No differences were found in macular volume or motor function tasks. Dyschromatopsia occurs frequently in MS patients. It may be associated with a worse disease status and possibly serve as a marker for the detection of subclinical disease progression since it was detected even in the absence of ON. It correlated with thinner peripapillary RNFL thickness and inferior cognitive performance.

  18. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes

  19. Schizophrenia: A Review for Family Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Donna R.

    2000-01-01

    Marriage and family counselors can play important roles for both the person with schizophrenia and his or her family. This article provides a resource for family counselors that includes a clinically relevant summary of the schizophrenia literature, its associated family burden, and applicable interventions and issues. (Contains 64 references.)…

  20. Changing the course of schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. Glazer WM, iohnsiorte BM, Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia] Clin Psychiatry W97; 58; Suppl 10, 50-54. 3. Robinson DG, Woerner MG, McMenimon M, Mendelowitz A, Bilder RM. Symptomatic and functional recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  1. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  2. Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia | Naude | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Depressive symptoms are prevalent, underrecognised and clinically important in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia patients are associated with distinct morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a ...

  3. Lilliputian hallucinations in Schizophrenia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trichloroethylene poisoning.1,3-7 Lilliputian hallucinations were first described in schizophrenia by Lewis8, but have been reported as a rare phenomenon. In this report we describe a patient with schizophrenia who presented predominantly with Lilliputian hallucinations and review the literature with respect to Lilliputian.

  4. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie Løberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

  5. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia | Jones | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article selectively reviews the literature treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and emphasises the importance of an holistic approach to individual patients. Keywords: schizophrenia, treatment resistance, antipsychotics, augmentation, psychosocial treatments. South African Psychiatry Review Vol. 9(1) 2006: 17-23 ...

  6. Violent Self-Harm in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Catherine S.; Taylor, Steve; Tippins, Val; Turkington, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a substantial lifetime suicide risk, especially by violent means. Little published work exists on self-harm (SH) in this population. The goal of this study was to examine whether patients with schizophrenia were also more likely to self-harm in a violent manner. A retrospective analysis performed on method, motive,…

  7. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... cognitive behaviour therapy were described as useful treat- ment modalities for schizophrenic patients who comorbidly suffer from panic and anxiety.10. Panic symptoms. Panic disorder is an often unrecognized, but common comorbid illness in schizophrenia.19 Arieti attributed the etiology of schizophrenia ...

  8. #Schizophrenia: Use and misuse on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Adam J; Tandon, Neeraj; Yang, Lawrence H; Duckworth, Ken; Torous, John; Seidman, Larry J; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2015-07-01

    The role and prevention of stigma in mental illness is an area of evolving research. The present study is the first to examine the use and misuse of the word 'schizophrenia' on Twitter.com in comparison with another illness (diabetes) by analyzing Tweets that use the adjective and noun forms of schizophrenia and diabetes. Tweets containing one of four search terms (#schizophrenia, #schizophrenic, #diabetes, #diabetic) were collected over a forty-day time period. After establishing inter-rater reliability, Tweets were rated along three dimensions: medical appropriateness, negativity, and sarcasm. Chi square tests were conducted to examine differences in the distributions of each parameter across illnesses and across each word form (noun versus adjective). Significant differences were seen between the two illnesses (i.e., among "schizophrenia", "schizophrenic", "diabetes", and "diabetic") along each parameter. Tweets about schizophrenia were more likely to be negative, medically inappropriate, sarcastic, and used non-medically. The adjective ("schizophrenic") was more often negative, medically inappropriate, sarcastic, and used non-medically than the noun "schizophrenia." Schizophrenia tweets were more likely to be negative and sarcastic when used non-medically and in a medically inappropriate manner. Our findings confirm the presence of a great deal of misuse of the term schizophrenia on Twitter, and that this misuse is considerably more pronounced by the adjectival use of the illness. These findings have considerable implications for efforts to combat stigma, particularly for youth anti-stigma efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnostic and treatment hierarchical reductionisms have resulted in an oversight of anxiety syndromes in schizophrenia. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of different anxiety disorders in schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on inpatients of a tertiary care psychiatric hospital using a prospective, purposive sampling technique. The study consisted of 93 schizophrenia patients and a similar number of normal controls. The schizophrenia patients and controls were evaluated for psychopathology and the presence of anxiety disorder. Results: The prevalence of anxiety disorder was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients (45.16% compared to controls (16.12%. Further, the prevalence of panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients. No significant correlation was observed between anxiety disorder scores and psychopathology scores. Conclusions: The prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders (panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and OCD in schizophrenia is significantly higher in the general population. The onset of anxiety disorder commonly precedes the onset of schizophrenia.

  10. Social-Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Kirsch, Peter

    Patients with schizophrenia not only suffer from prototypical psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations and from cognitive deficits, but also from tremendous deficits in social functioning. However, little is known about the interplay between the cognitive and the social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Our chapter gives an overview on behavioral, as well as functional imaging studies on social cognition in schizophrenia. Main findings on cognitive and motivational deficits in schizophrenia are reviewed and introduced within the context of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. The reviewed findings suggest that disturbed "social brain" functioning in schizophrenia, depending on the specific context, can either lead to a neglect of the emotions and intentions of others or to the false attribution of these emotions and intentions in an emotionally neutral social content. We integrate these findings with the current knowledge about aberrant dopaminergic firing in schizophrenia by presenting a comprehensive model explaining core symptoms of the disorder. The main implication of the presented model is that neither cognitive-motivational, nor social-cognitive deficits alone cause schizophrenia symptoms, but that symptoms only emerge by the interplay of disturbed social brain functioning with aberrant dopaminergic firing.

  11. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  12. The Role of Inflammation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert eMüller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHigh levels of pro-inflammatory substances such as cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenia patients. Animal models of schizophrenia show that under certain conditions an immune disturbance during early life, such as an infection-triggered immune activation, might trigger lifelong increased immune reactivity. A large epidemiological study clearly demonstrated that severe infections and autoimmune disorders are risk factors for schizophrenia. Genetic studies have shown a strong signal for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p22.1, in a region related to the human leucocyte antigen (HLA system and other immune functions. Another line of evidence demonstrates that chronic (disstress is associated with immune activation. The vulnerability-stress-inflammation model of schizophrenia includes the contribution of stress on the basis of increased genetic vulnerability for the pathogenesis

  13. Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Ophoff, Roel A; Steinberg, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease...... conform to classical nosological disease boundaries. Certain CNVs confer not only high relative risk of schizophrenia but also of other psychiatric disorders. The structural variations associated with schizophrenia can involve several genes and the phenotypic syndromes, or the 'genomic disorders', have.......2. Our findings implicating the MHC region are consistent with an immune component to schizophrenia risk, whereas the association with NRGN and TCF4 points to perturbation of pathways involved in brain development, memory and cognition....

  14. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The DSM-5 list of diagnoses concerning schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders is expected to be revised and graduated from mild to severe. The proposed changes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia affect demands for characteristic symptoms, clarify relation to pervasive developmental...... disorders, and eliminate the classic subtypes of schizophrenia. A dimensional assessment will be measured on a 0-4 point scale. It is recommended that the concept of attenuated psychosis syndrome is further investigated. The propositions affecting characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia might increase...... stigmatization and pharmacological treatment on poor indication. The introduction of dimensional assessments may make schizophrenia subtyping redundant and has the potential to enrich clinical practice and bridge communication between child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. The most recent guidelines...

  15. Stereotype Knowledge and Endorsement in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Luigi; D'Alpaos, Francesca; Carraro, Luciana; Pavan, Florencia; Galfano, Giovanni; Forti, Bruno

    2017-09-07

    Social cognition is severely impaired in schizophrenia. Emotion processing, attributional biases, and theory of mind are often impaired, as well as the understanding of shared social knowledge. So far, little is known about stereotype knowledge and endorsement in schizophrenia. White patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy respondents reported both their personal beliefs and the predicted beliefs of other people toward Black (study 1) and Gypsy individuals (study 2). Results showed that respondents in the clinical sample displayed less stereotype endorsement as compared to the matched healthy respondents. Most importantly, the contents of the responses provided by the 2 samples were strongly overlapped. Findings indicate that individuals with schizophrenia tend to hold less negative attitudes toward stigmatized outgroups and, most notably, that knowledge about culturally transmitted stereotypes is relatively preserved in schizophrenia. Future research should address the generalizability of the findings in relation to the perception of other stigmatized social groups. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I

    2016-01-01

    We studied schizophrenia liability in a Danish population-based sample of 44 twin pairs (13 MZ, 31 DZ, SS plus OS) in order to replicate previous twin study findings using contemporary diagnostic criteria, to examine genetic liability shared between schizophrenia and other disorders, and to explore...... whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...... liability specified variance attributable to additive genetic and non-shared environmental factors, this model did not differ significantly from a model that also included non-additive genetic factors, consistent with recent interview-based twin studies. Schizophrenia showed strong genetic links to other...

  17. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  18. Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, H.; Rujescu, D.; Cichon, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account...... and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33......,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses...

  19. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  20. Osteoporosis Associated with Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most common global mental diseases, with prevalence of 1%. Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed to diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis, than the normal. In comparison with the metabolic syndrome, for instance, there are little reports about osteoporosis which occurs secondary to antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. There are extensive recent works of literature indicating that osteoporosis is associated with schizophrenia particularly in patients under psychotropic medication therapy. As osteoporotic fractures cause significantly increased morbidity and mortality, it is quite necessary to raise the awareness and understanding of the impact of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia on physical health in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will review the relationship between schizophrenia, antipsychotic medication, hyperprolactinaemia, and osteoporosis.

  1. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaal, Walid; Mahmmod, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow......Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders...... was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (≥3). Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between...

  2. Fourier analysis of videokeratography data : Clinical usefulness in grade I and subclinical keratoconus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sideroudi, Haris; Labiris, Georgios; Georgatzoglou, Kimon; Ditzel, Fienke; Siganos, Charalambos; Kozobolis, Vassilios

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the contribution of Fourier analysis of videokeratographic data in the diagnosis of subclinical keratoconus and keratoconus. SETTING: Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University, Alexandroupolis, Greece. DESIGN: Observational case series. METHODS: The following

  3. Associations between life stress and subclinical cardiovascular disease are partly mediated by depressive and anxiety symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Stress experienced during childhood or adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not clear whether associations are already prevalent on a subclinical cardiovascular level. This study investigates associations between indicators of life stress and

  4. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Halasa, T.; Schaik, van G.; Hogeveen, H.; Nielen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics of

  5. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke : An Individual Participant Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Blum, Manuel R.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Drechsler, Christiane; Luben, Robert N.; Hofman, Albert; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Medici, Marco; Iervasi, Giorgio; Stott, David J.; Ford, Ian; Bremner, Alexandra; Wanner, Christoph; Ferrucci, Luigi; Newman, Anne B.; Dullaart, Robin P.; Sgarbi, Jose A.; Ceresini, Graziano; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Imaizumi, Misa; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Walsh, John P.; Razvi, Salman; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cappola, Anne R.; Voelzke, Henry; Franco, Oscar H.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Rodondi, Nicolas; Peeters, Robin P.

    Objective: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Data Sources and Study Selection: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished

  6. Hemodynamic Markers and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Postmenopausal Women With Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Athanasouli, Fani; Pappa, Theodora; Labrinoudaki, Irene; Papamichael, Christos; Polymeris, Antonis; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Vemmou, Anastasia; Sarika, Leda; Terpos, Evangelos; Alevizaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ...: The objective of the study was to assess whether pHPT is associated with hemodynamic markers and subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women under a cross-sectional case-control design. Methods...

  7. The 2015 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Endogenous Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Bartalena, Luigi; Cooper, David S

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) is caused by Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and multinodular goitre. Its diagnosis is based on a persistently subnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroid hormone levels within their respective...

  8. A Genomic Analysis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Hippocampus and Neocortex of the Developing Brain -- JN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the early postnatal period has severe neurological consequences for the developing offspring. The impact of milder degrees of perturbation of the thyroid axis, typically considered subclinical, however, has not been established. Thyroid hormo...

  9. Long-Term Outcome in Levothyroxine Treated Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Concomitant Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition that may lead to impaired cardiac function. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the effects of levothyroxine treatment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and heart disease. DESIGN: This was a register-based historical cohort...... study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was composed of Danish primary care patients and hospital outpatients age 18 years and older with established heart disease who were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism in 1997-2011. Patients were stratified according to whether they claimed a subsequent...... myocardial infaction and stroke, and all-cause hospital admissions. RESULTS: Of 61 611 patients with a diagnosis of cardiac disease having their first time thyroid function testing, 1192 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 73.6 [SD ± 13.3] y, 63.8% female) were included, of whom 136 (11...

  10. Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens.

  11. Efficacy of Levothyroxine in Migraine Headaches in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    MIROULIAEI, Mehrdad; FALLAH, Razieh; BASHARDOOST, Nasrollah; PARTOVEE, Mina; ORDOOEI, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this article: Mirouliaie M, Fallah R, Partovee M, Ordooei M. Efficacy of Levothyroxine in Migraine Headaches in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012;6(4):23-26. AbstractObjectiveHypothyroidism may be an exacerbating factor for  primary headaches and migraine is one of the most common primary headaches in childhood. Thepurpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism on children with migraine headache.M...

  12. Betel Nut Chewing and Subclinical Ischemic Heart Disease in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study investigated the association between betel nut chewing and subclinical ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. A total of 394 male patients aging ≥45 years and without previous heart disease were studied. Among them 349 had no habit of chewing betel nut and 45 possessed the habit for ≥5 years. Subclinical IHD was diagnosed by a Minnesota-coded resting electrocardiogram and was present in 71 cases. Statistical analyses were perform...

  13. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotufo Paulo A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively. Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively. No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia.

  14. Serum amyloid A isoforms in serum and milk from cows with Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević-Filipović, Milica; Ilić, Vesna; Vujčić, Zoran; Dojnov, Biljana; Stevanov-Pavlović, Marija; Mijačević, Zora; Božić, Tatjana

    2012-01-15

    Serum amyloid A proteins (SAA) are very sensitive acute phase proteins, displaying multiple isoforms in plasma and different body fluids. They are currently under investigation as biomarkers of diseases. The aim of the present study was to compare the concentration and isoform expression of SAA in serum and milk of cows with bacteriologically negative milk (control group) and naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) subclinical mastitis (subclinical mastitis group). Somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriological analyses were performed to establish the control and subclinical mastitis group. SAA concentration was evaluated using a commercial ELISA kit, while expression of different isoforms (serum A-SAA and milk M-SAA3 isoforms) was visualized by denaturing isoelectrical focusing and immunoblotting. The SAA concentrations in sera and milk of cows in the subclinical mastitis group were three and 100 times higher than in those from the control group of cows, respectively. Cows in the subclinical mastitis group had more acidic SAA isoforms in serum with the most prominent one at pI 5.5. This isoform was not detected in sera from the control group. Milk samples in the subclinical mastitis group contained abundant highly alkaline M-SAA3 isoforms and most of the serum isoforms, except for that at pI 5.5. In the subclinical mastitis group SAA isoforms with equivalent pI as serum isoforms accounted for 20% of the total SAA concentration in milk. There were significant differences in the concentrations and isoform patterns of SAA in serum and milk between the control and subclinical mastitis groups of cows. Also, we demonstrated that serum SAA isoforms were not transferred to milk proportion to their plasma content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, T; Lyngbæk, S; Eugen-Olsen, J

    2011-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a plasma marker of low grade inflammation and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. We wanted to investigate whether suPAR was associated with markers of subclinical organ damage.......The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a plasma marker of low grade inflammation and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. We wanted to investigate whether suPAR was associated with markers of subclinical organ damage....

  16. Factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension, obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Николаевна Плиговка

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Aim: To identify factors that influence the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Methods. The study involved 75 patients, including 53 patients in the phase of subclinical hypothyroidism and 22 patients in the phase of euthyroidism. All the patients underwent measurement of anthropometric parameters. They were identified lipid profile, CRP, TSH, T4. Determination of IMT was performed using color Doppler ultrasound machine with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer. Statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS 13.0.Results. A study of patients showed that the comparison group matched for age, sex, BMI. The levels of atherogenic lipids and CRP were statistically higher in the subclinical hypothyroidism group compared with the control group. A mathematical analysis showed that TSH affects indicators such as the IMT, CRP and BMI.In subclinical hypothyroidism group were statistically significantly higher levels of atherogenic lipids, CRP as compared with the control group. Mathematical analysis showed that the significant factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism are the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone, CRP and BMI.Conclusions: Significant factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism is the TSH, CRP and BMI. The level of TSH above 10.2 mIU/L is associated with the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism

  17. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diaz-Olmos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP. METHODS: All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free-T4 and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO. RESULTS: The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01. There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l did not change the results. CONCLUSION: In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  18. Selenium supplementation could restore euthyroidism in subclinical hypothyroid patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirola, Ilenia; Gandossi, Elena; Agosti, Barbara; Delbarba, Andrea; Cappelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid is an organ with one of the highest selenium concentrations, containing many selenoproteins implicated in thyroid hormone metabolism. Treatment with levothyroxine has been recommended for all subclinical hypothyroid patients with TSH levels > 10 mU/L, whereas for those with TSHSelenium supplementation could restore euthyroidism in one third of subclinical hypothyroidism patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (6): 567-571).

  19. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Ruscitti

    Full Text Available Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis.We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis.We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS, at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis.Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  20. Concurrent and Sustained Cumulative Effects of Adolescent Marijuana Use on Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Hipwell, Alison; Lewis, David A; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents who regularly use marijuana may be at heightened risk of developing subclinical and clinical psychotic symptoms. However, this association could be explained by reverse causation or other factors. To address these limitations, the current study examined whether adolescents who engage in regular marijuana use exhibit a systematic increase in subclinical psychotic symptoms that persists during periods of sustained abstinence. The sample comprised 1,009 boys who were recruited in 1st and 7th grades. Self-reported frequency of marijuana use, subclinical psychotic symptoms, and several time-varying confounds (e.g., other substance use, internalizing/externalizing problems) were recorded annually from age 13 to 18. Fixed-effects (within-individual change) models examined whether adolescents exhibited an increase in their subclinical psychotic symptoms as a function of their recent and/or cumulative history of regular marijuana use and whether these effects were sustained following abstinence. Models controlled for all time-stable factors (default) and several time-varying covariates as potential confounds. For each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their expected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms rose by 21% and their expected odds of experiencing subsequent subclinical paranoia or hallucinations rose by 133% and 92%, respectively. The effect of prior regular marijuana use on subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms persisted even when adolescents stopped using marijuana for a year. These effects were after controlling for all time-stable and several time-varying confounds. No support was found for reverse causation. These results suggest that regular marijuana use may significantly increase the risk that an adolescent will experience persistent subclinical psychotic symptoms.

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansournia, N; Riyahi, S; Tofangchiha, S; Mansournia, M A; Riahi, M; Heidari, Z; Hazrati, E

    2017-03-01

    Association of subclinical hypothyroidism with type 2 diabetes and its complications has been previously documented. These reports were, however, inconclusive and mainly gathered from Chinese and East Asian populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its relationship with diabetic nephropathy in Iranian individuals with type 2 diabetes, drawn from a white Middle Eastern population with an increasing prevalence of diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 255 Iranian participants with type 2 diabetes and without history of thyroid disorders were included. Patients with TSH > 4.2 mIU/L and normal T4 were classified as having subclinical hypothyroidism. Diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed based on abnormal 24-h urinary albumin or protein measurements (24-h urinary albumin ≥30 mg/day or 24-h urinary protein ≥150 mg/day). Multivariate logistic regression was employed to obtain the OR for the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy. We found that subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy were as prevalent as 18.1 and 41.2 %, respectively, among the participants. We also found that subclinical hypothyroidism was independently associated with higher rates of diabetic nephropathy, after multivariable adjustment (OR [95 % CI] 3.23 [1.42-7.37], p = 0.005). We found that the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in Iranian diabetic population was among the highest rates reported to date. Our data supported the independent association of subclinical hypothyroidism with diabetic nephropathy, calling for further investigations to evaluate their longitudinal associations.

  2. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mea......-risk individuals, suggesting added value of imaging for diagnosis and prevention. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01410318....

  3. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, I...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  4. [Epigenetics of schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivollier, F; Lotersztajn, L; Chaumette, B; Krebs, M-O; Kebir, O

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a frequent and disabling disease associated with heterogeneous psychiatric phenotypes. It emerges during childhood, adolescence or young adulthood and has dramatic consequences for the affected individuals, causing considerable familial and social burden, as well as increasing health expenses. Although some progress has been made in the understanding of their physiopathology, many questions remain unsolved, and the disease is still poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis regarding psychotic disorders proposes that a combination of genetic and/or environmental factors, during critical periods of brain development increases the risk for these illnesses. Epigenetic regulations, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene x environment interactions at the level of the genome and may provide a potential substrate to explain the variability in symptom severity and family heritability. Initially, epigenetics was used to design mitotic and meiotic changes in gene transcription that could not be attributed to genetic mutations. It referred later to changes in the epigenome not transmitted through the germline. Thus, epigenetics refers to a wide range of molecular mechanisms including DNA methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides and post-translational histone modifications. These mechanisms alter the way the transcriptional factors bind the DNA, modulating its expression. Prenatal and postnatal environmental factors may affect these epigenetics factors, having responsability in long-term DNA transcription, and influencing the development of psychiatric disorders. The object of this review is to present the state of knowledge in epigenetics of schizophrenia, outlining the most recent findings in the matter. We did so using Pubmed, researching words such as 'epigenetics', 'epigenetic', 'schizophrenia', 'psychosis', 'psychiatric'. This review summarizes evidences mostly for two epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation and post

  5. Betel nut chewing and subclinical ischemic heart disease in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2010-11-04

    Background. This study investigated the association between betel nut chewing and subclinical ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. A total of 394 male patients aging ≥45 years and without previous heart disease were studied. Among them 349 had no habit of chewing betel nut and 45 possessed the habit for ≥5 years. Subclinical IHD was diagnosed by a Minnesota-coded resting electrocardiogram and was present in 71 cases. Statistical analyses were performed considering confounding effects of age, diabetic duration, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and metabolic control status. Results. Betel nut chewers were younger and had higher prevalence of smoking (86.7% versus 60.5%), higher body mass index, poorer glycemic control, and higher prevalence of subclinical IHD (28.9% versus 16.6%). Patients with subclinical IHD were older and had higher prevalence of betel nut chewing (18.0% versus 9.9%). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for subclinical IHD for chewers versus nonchewers was 4.640 (1.958-10.999). The adjusted odds ratios in younger or older patients divided by the median age of 63 years were similar: 4.724 (1.346-16.581) and 4.666 (1.278-17.028), respectively. Conclusions. Betel nut chewing is significantly associated with increased risk of subclinical IHD.

  6. Expert opinion on ranking risk factors for subclinical mastitis using a modified Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, N M; Lievaart, J J

    2013-05-01

    To collate the expert opinion of Australian dairy practitioners on the relative importance of risk factors for subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. A modified Delphi technique was used to collect the data over two rounds. First, participants were asked to complete a survey involving ranking the level of importance of 42 risk factors on the incidence of subclinical mastitis on a scale from 1 to 10 for two categories of subclinical mastitis; contagious and environmental. After presenting and discussing the results of the first survey, the participants were asked to complete the same survey a second time. To rank the risk factors and identify the consensus amongst the participants, the median and total variation of answers were calculated and compared between the two surveys. The most important factors identified by the respondents after the second survey for contagious subclinical mastitis were: Teat Disinfection Post-milking, Management of High Cell Count Cows and Presence of Chronically Infected Mastitis Cows in the Herd. The most important factors for environmental subclinical mastitis were Cleanliness of the Environment and Technique of Teat Disinfection Post-milking. A movement toward consensus for the more important factors and a movement away from consensus for the less important factors in the second survey were observed. The most important factors for subclinical mastitis were found to be: teat disinfection post-milking, management of high cell count cows, presence of chronically infected mastitis cows in the herd and cleanliness of the environment.

  7. Proteomics of inflammatory and oxidative stress response in cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Romana; Piras, Cristian; Kovačić, Mislav; Samardžija, Marko; Ahmed, Hany; De Canio, Michele; Urbani, Andrea; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Soggiu, Alessio; Bonizzi, Luigi; Roncada, Paola

    2012-07-19

    Cow serum proteome was evaluated by three different complementary approaches in the control group, subclinical and clinical mastitis in order to possibly find differential protein expression useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of mastitis as well as for an early diagnosis of the disease. The systemic inflammatory and oxidative stress response in cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were observed. The collected evidence shows a differential protein expression of serpin A3-1, vitronectin-like protein and complement factor H in subclinical mastitis in comparison with the control. It was also found a differential protein expression of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, serpin A3-1, C4b-binding protein alpha chain, haptoglobin and apolipoprotein A-I in clinical mastitis compared to the control. Among the inflammatory proteins up-regulated in clinical mastitis, vitronectin is over-expressed in both subclinical and clinical mastitis indicating a strong bacterial infection. This suggests vitronectin as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of the onset of mastitis as well as a valuable marker for diagnosis of the subclinical form of the disease. Obtained data could be useful for the detection of mastitis during the subclinical phase and for a better comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the onset of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Short Telomere Load, Telomere Length, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The PESA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Fuster, Valentin; Dorado, Beatriz; Soberón, Nora; Flores, Ignacio; Gallardo, Mercedes; Pocock, Stuart; Blasco, María A; Andrés, Vicente

    2016-05-31

    Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is associated with cardiovascular ischemic events and mortality in humans, but data on its association with subclinical atherosclerosis are scarce. Whether the incidence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with the abundance of critically short telomeres, a major trigger of cellular senescence, remains unknown. The authors conducted a cross-sectional exploration of the association between subclinical atherosclerosis burden and both average LTL and the abundance of short telomeres (%LTLSubclinical Atherosclerosis) study. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated by coronary artery calcium scan and 2-dimensional/3-dimensional ultrasound in different aortic territories. Statistical significance of differences among multiple covariates was assessed with linear regression models. Independent associations of telomere parameters with plaque presence were evaluated using general linear models. In men and women, age was inversely associated with LTL (Pearson's r = -0.127, p subclinical atherosclerosis. Longitudinal follow-up of PESA participants will assess long-term associations between telomere length and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Subclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with low to medium calculated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Armeni, Eleni; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Kazani, Maria; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Creatsa, Maria; Alexandrou, Andreas; Fotiou, Stylianos; Papamichael, Christos; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon

    2013-03-20

    The menopausal status is closely related with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, it is still not included in risk stratification by total cardiovascular risk estimation systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent of subclinical vascular disorders in young healthy postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study consecutively recruited 120 healthy postmenopausal women without clinically overt CVD or diabetes, aged 41-60 years and classified as not high-risk by the Heartscore (subclinical atherosclerosis. Subclinical atherosclerosis and the presence of at least one plaque were identified in 55% and 28% of women, respectively. Subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis had higher age, years since menopause, HOMA-IR and blood pressure. By multivariate analysis years since menopause and systolic blood pressure independently determined subclinical atherosclerosis while 79% of intermediate-risk women (Heartscore 2-4.9%) being in menopause for at least 4 years would be reclassified to a higher risk for the presence of atherosclerosis. Subclinical atherosclerosis was highly prevalent in postmenopausal women with low to medium Heartscore. Thus our data suggest that menopausal status and associated risk factors should be additionally weighted in risk calculations, regarding primary prevention strategies in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism in a pregnancy loss clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A S; Joyce, C; O'Donoghue, K

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have associated pregnancy loss with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as elevated thyroid-stimulating-hormone level, with normal free thyroxine. In overt hypothyroidism, the free thyroxine is low. Subclinical and overt hypothyroidism occurs in 0.25-2.5% and 0.2-0.3% of pregnancies respectively. We examined the prevalence of subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism in women with recurrent miscarriage, late miscarriage and stillbirth attending the Pregnancy Loss Clinic. Data was collected from the Pregnancy Loss Clinic records. Women with sporadic miscarriages, autoimmune disorders, thrombophilias and known hypothyroidism were excluded. Two-hundred-and-sixty-two women were included. Median maternal age was 35 years (range 18-47). Subclinical and undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism was found in 11.45% of women. Twenty-two women (8.39%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, eight (3.05%) had undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism. Results were compared to women with ongoing pregnancies. A proportion of women attending the clinic had subclinical or undiagnosed overt hypothyroidism, raising the suspicion of causation in unexplained pregnancy loss.

  11. Non-Autoimmune Subclinical and Overt Hypothyroidism in Idiopathic Steroid-resistant Nephrotic Syndrome in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Vidhya; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Rajappa, Medha

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the frequency of non-autoimmune subclinical and overt hypothyroidism in children with idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). This cross-sectional study recruited 30 children (age 1-18 y) with idiopathic SRNS; and 30 healthy controls. Serum T3, T4 and TSH were performed in cases as well as controls. Anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibody tests were performed in all cases. Non-autoimmune subclinical or overt hypothyroidism was detected in 10 out of 30 children with idiopathic SRNS; 2 had overt hypothyroidism, while 8 patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with SRNS had a mean (SD) TSH value 4.55 (4.64) mIU/L that was higher as compared to controls (1.88 (1.04) mIU/L) (Phypothyroidism (2 cases) and grade III subclinical hypothyroidism (1 case) were subsequently started on levothyroxine therapy. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism seems to be high in idiopathic SRNS, with almost one-third of children having overt or subclinical non-autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  12. Deficiency of schnurri-2, an MHC enhancer binding protein, induces mild chronic inflammation in the brain and confers molecular, neuronal, and behavioral phenotypes related to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Kobayashi, Katsunori; Hagihara, Hideo; Ohira, Koji; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Umemori, Juzoh; Toyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Hironori K; Kuroiwa, Mahomi; Maeda, Jun; Atsuzawa, Kimie; Esaki, Kayoko; Yamaguchi, Shun; Furuya, Shigeki; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Walton, Noah M; Hayashi, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Hidenori; Higuchi, Makoto; Usuda, Nobuteru; Suhara, Tetsuya; Nishi, Akinori; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki; Ishii, Shunsuke; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Schnurri-2 (Shn-2), an nuclear factor-κB site-binding protein, tightly binds to the enhancers of major histocompatibility complex class I genes and inflammatory cytokines, which have been shown to harbor common variant single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with schizophrenia. Although genes related to immunity are implicated in schizophrenia, there has been no study showing that their mutation or knockout (KO) results in schizophrenia. Here, we show that Shn-2 KO mice have behavioral abnormalities that resemble those of schizophrenics. The mutant brain demonstrated multiple schizophrenia-related phenotypes, including transcriptome/proteome changes similar to those of postmortem schizophrenia patients, decreased parvalbumin and GAD67 levels, increased theta power on electroencephalograms, and a thinner cortex. Dentate gyrus granule cells failed to mature in mutants, a previously proposed endophenotype of schizophrenia. Shn-2 KO mice also exhibited mild chronic inflammation of the brain, as evidenced by increased inflammation markers (including GFAP and NADH/NADPH oxidase p22 phox), and genome-wide gene expression patterns similar to various inflammatory conditions. Chronic administration of anti-inflammatory drugs reduced hippocampal GFAP expression, and reversed deficits in working memory and nest-building behaviors in Shn-2 KO mice. These results suggest that genetically induced changes in immune system can be a predisposing factor in schizophrenia.

  13. Cannabinoids and schizophrenia: therapeutic prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, P J; Guy, G W; Di Marzo, V

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one third of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia do not achieve adequate symptom control with standard antipsychotic drugs (APs). Some of these may prove responsive to clozapine, but non-response to APs remains an important clinical problem and cause of increased health care costs. In a significant proportion of patients, schizophrenia is associated with natural and iatrogenic metabolic abnormalities (obesity, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus), hyperadrenalism and an exaggerated HPA response to stress, and chronic systemic inflammation. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the brain plays an important role in maintaining normal mental health. ECS modulates emotion, reward processing, sleep regulation, aversive memory extinction and HPA axis regulation. ECS overactivity contributes to visceral fat accumulation, insulin resistance and impaired energy expenditure. The cannabis plant synthesises a large number of pharmacologically active compounds unique to it known as phytocannabinoids. In contrast to the euphoric and pro-psychotic effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), certain non-intoxicating phytocannabinoids have emerged in pre-clinical and clinical models as potential APs. Since the likely mechanism of action does not rely upon dopamine D2 receptor antagonism, synergistic combinations with existing APs are plausible. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of the non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) are well established and are summarised below. Preliminary data reviewed in this paper suggest that CBD in combination with a CB1 receptor neutral antagonist could not only augment the effects of standard APs but also target the metabolic, inflammatory and stress-related components of the schizophrenia phenotype.

  14. [Schizophrenia-like personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, T; Arolt, V

    2009-03-01

    According to DSM-IV the cluster A personality disorders include paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. There exists a phenomenological similarity between the experience and behaviour of the so-called odd or eccentric personality disorders and the symptoms of schizophrenia. Evidence of common etiological factors is still the best for the schizotypal personality disorder. The cluster A personality disorders are among the less common personality disorders with a high co-occurrence. Present findings about the neurobiological substrate of the schizotypal personality disorder are discussed also taking neuropsychological results into consideration. A central prerequisite of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment of cluster A personality disorders is a strong therapeutic patient relationship.

  15. Genetics and etiopathophysiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, Janet L; Mikesell, Marci J; McMurray, Cynthia T

    2002-10-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most common, devastating, and least understood neuropsychiatric illnesses present in the human population. Despite decades of research involving neurochemical, neuroanatomical, neuropathologic, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychological, and genetic approaches, no clear etiopathophysiology has been elucidated. Among the most robust findings, however, is the contribution of genetics to disease development. Statistical models suggest that susceptibility to the disorder is governed by the effects of multiple genes, coupled with environmental and stochastic factors. This review briefly summarizes recent etiopathologic findings and hypotheses, with special attention to genetics.

  16. Obesity, subclinical myocardial injury, and incident heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumele, Chiadi E; Coresh, Josef; Lazo, Mariana; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Blumenthal, Roger S; Folsom, Aaron R; Selvin, Elizabeth; Ballantyne, Christie M; Nambi, Vijay

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to evaluate the association of obesity with a novel biomarker of subclinical myocardial injury, cardiac troponin T measured with a new high-sensitivity assay (hs-cTnT), among adults without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Laboratory evidence suggests a relationship between obesity and myocardial injury that may play a role in the development of heart failure (HF), but there is limited clinical data regarding this association. We evaluated 9,507 participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study without baseline CVD (Visit 4, 1996 to 1999). We assessed the cross-sectional association of body mass index (BMI) with high (≥14 ng/l) and measurable (≥3 ng/l) hs-cTnT levels after multivariable regression. We further evaluated the independent and combined associations of BMI and hs-cTnT with incident HF. Higher BMI was independently associated with a positive, linear increase in the likelihood of high hs-cTnT, with severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m(2)) associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.59 to 3.06) for high hs-cTnT after adjustment. Over 12 years of follow-up, there were 869 incident HF events. Obesity and hs-cTnT were both independently associated with incident HF, and individuals with severe obesity and high hs-cTnT had a greater than 9-fold higher risk of incident HF (hazard ratio: 9.20 [95% confidence interval: 5.67 to 14.93]) than individuals with normal weight and undetectable hs-cTnT. Among individuals without CVD, higher BMI has an independent, linear association with subclinical myocardial injury, as assessed by hs-cTnT levels. Obesity and hs-cTnT provide independent and complementary prognostic information regarding the risk of incident HF. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 70. Epicardial fat quality effect on subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abazid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epicardial fat quality measured as Hounsfield Unit (HU by computed tomography has significant impact on atherosclerosis. Excessive epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is considered a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. There are limited data, however, about the quality of epicardial fat as a CAD risk factor. We investigated the relation between EAT volume and quality and subclinical CAD defined by positive coronary artery calcification (CAC using computed tomography (CT. We reviewed 609 CT scans to assess the EAT volume, which was measured by manually tracing the parietal pericardial sac on axial images. Fat density was recorded in mean Hounsfield units (HU. Coronary calcium scores were measured using the Agatston method. The patients’ mean age was 50 ± 11 years, and 398 (65.4% were men. The mean EAT volume was 65 ± 27 cm3, and it had a density of 87.0 ± 3.4 HU. Calcium was present in 135 (22% of the patients: 97 (16% of the total were men and 38 (6% were women. There was no difference between the sexes in regard to EAT volume (66 ± 27 vs. 63 ± 26, p = 0.34 or density (87.4 ± 3.2 vs. 87.0 ± 3.6, p = 0.28. Obese patients (body mass index ⩾30 kg/m2 had significantly higher EAT volumes than nonobese patients (73 ± 30 vs. 61 ± 29, p = 0.011, but no difference was seen in CAC (33 ± 97 vs. 27 ± 103, p = 0.34 or fat density (87.7 ± 4.0 vs. 88.0 ± 2.7, p = 0.48. Univariate regression analyses showed that higher fat attenuation (HU was associated with a lower coronary atherosclerosis hazard ratio (HR (0.871, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.790–0.948, p < 0.0001, and an increased EAT volume was associated with more CAC (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.078–1.245, p = 0.0001. The quality of EAT, measured as HU on CT, is a strong predictor of subclinical CAD as defined by coronary artery calcifications, with a higher HU associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis.

  18. Evaluation of Dream Content among Patients with Schizophrenia, their Siblings, Patients with Psychiatric Diagnoses other than Schizophrenia, and Healthy Control

    OpenAIRE

    Leeba Rezaie; Masoud Rezaei; Schwebel, David C.; Golrokh Younesi; Masoud Tahmasian; Habibolah Khazaie; Mehrak Mohamadi; Arezo Ghanbari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder with unknown etiology that causes cognitive impairment, affecting thinking, behavior, social function, sleep and dream content. This study considered the dream content of patients with schizophrenia, siblings of patients with schizophrenia, patients with psychiatric diagnoses other than schizophrenia, and a group of healthy controls. The aim of this study was to compare the dream content of patients with schizophrenia with dream content...

  19. Dysregulations of Synaptic Vesicle Trafficking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbujo, Chijioke N; Sinclair, Duncan; Hahn, Chang-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness which is experienced by about 1 % of individuals worldwide and has a debilitating impact on perception, cognition, and social function. Over the years, several models/hypotheses have been developed which link schizophrenia to dysregulations of the dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin receptor pathways. An important segment of these pathways that have been extensively studied for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is the presynaptic neurotransmitter release mechanism. This set of molecular events is an evolutionarily well-conserved process that involves vesicle recruitment, docking, membrane fusion, and recycling, leading to efficient neurotransmitter delivery at the synapse. Accumulated evidence indicate dysregulation of this mechanism impacting postsynaptic signal transduction via different neurotransmitters in key brain regions implicated in schizophrenia. In recent years, after ground-breaking work that elucidated the operations of this mechanism, research efforts have focused on the alterations in the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of presynaptic neurotransmitter release molecules in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric conditions. In this review article, we present recent evidence from schizophrenia human postmortem studies that key proteins involved in the presynaptic release mechanism are dysregulated in the disorder. We also discuss the potential impact of dysfunctional presynaptic neurotransmitter release on the various neurotransmitter systems implicated in schizophrenia.

  20. Sibling caregivers of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijung Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are an important source of family caregiving. Unfortunately, limited information is available about sibling caregivers because existing studies have focused on other family relationships such as parents, spouses, and children. To fill the knowledge gap, the purpose of this study is to describe Korean sibling caregivers’ experience with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Guided by Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological methodology, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with eight individuals who have a sibling (1 diagnosed with schizophrenia and (2 hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric unit. We discerned six key themes: sorrow, burnout, shame, different perspectives in life, acceptance, and responsibility. We categorized these themes into three groups: suffering, hope, and responsibility and obligation. Sibling caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia experience a mixture of several emotions. Participants loved their brother or sister with schizophrenia, but at the same time they felt shame and fear. While they were burdened by the responsibilities of caregiving, they remained loyal to their sibling with schizophrenia, continuing to help their siblings reach their full potential. Although participants were confused about the symptoms of schizophrenia, they were committed to learning more about the illness. Because we conducted the current study in Korea, the findings of this study may be unique to Korea culture. Further studies are needed to compare and contrast nuanced differences in sibling caregivers’ experience among different cultural groups.

  1. Vergence eye movements in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolding, Mark S; Lahti, Adrienne C; White, David; Moore, Claire; Gurler, Demet; Gawne, Timothy J; Gamlin, Paul D

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that smooth pursuit eye movements are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. However, under normal viewing conditions, targets move not only in the frontoparallel plane but also in depth, and tracking them requires both smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. Although previous studies in humans and non-human primates suggest that these two eye movement subsystems are relatively independent of one another, to our knowledge, there have been no prior studies of vergence tracking behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, we have investigated these eye movements in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. We found that patients with schizophrenia exhibited substantially lower gains compared to healthy controls during vergence tracking at all tested speeds (e.g. 0.25 Hz vergence tracking mean gain of 0.59 vs. 0.86). Further, consistent with previous reports, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly lower gains than healthy controls during smooth pursuit at higher target speeds (e.g. 0.5 Hz smooth pursuit mean gain of 0.64 vs. 0.73). In addition, there was a modest (r≈0.5), but significant, correlation between smooth pursuit and vergence tracking performance in patients with schizophrenia. Our observations clearly demonstrate substantial vergence tracking deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In these patients, deficits for smooth pursuit and vergence tracking are partially correlated suggesting overlap in the central control of smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological aspects of cannabis consumption in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders are major health issues with particular implications for both the individual and the medical system. Epidemiological data show a more frequent consumption of drugs in schizophrenic patients when compared to the general population. Studies have shown that the abuse of substances is the most common comorbidity associated with schizophrenia. Among illicit substances, cannabis is the most commonly encountered among patients with schizophrenia. Similar clinical features of schizophrenia and cannabis consumption could be explained by some common neurobiological implications. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor stimulation is associated with psychotic-type phenomena and schizophrenia and NMDA receptors are involved in the clinical effects of cannabis consumption. Thus, the CB1 receptors that are spread mainly at the level of the NMDA secretory neurons are activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Moreover, cannabis abuse in association with other factors may contribute in triggering schizophrenia. Therefore, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia that abuse substances such as cannabis could represent a special category of patients that require a complex therapeutic approach, especially considering the multiple problems implicated, such as reduced compliance with treatment, unfavorable evolution and prognosis with multiple relapses and frequent hospitalizations.

  3. Alignment and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Suzanne L K; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Drake, Richard J

    2008-09-01

    We predicted that participants with schizophrenia would be able to successfully "align" during conversation in the context of impaired theory of mind. Alignment is a process by which interlocutors' representations of the conversational situation converge; and it may, in part, explain how people with schizophrenia can often participate successfully in dialogue despite experiencing impaired mentalising. Fifty-nine people with schizophrenia and 38 healthy adults completed a standardised, empirical conversational alignment task with a mentalising component and a measure of current IQ. The patients also completed two independent theory of mind tests. We used ANCOVAs to compare the groups' performances. The participants with schizophrenia and the healthy participants demonstrated equivalent alignment skills even though the schizophrenia participants displayed clear theory of mind difficulties. Symptom subtype analyses found no differences between subtype groups in alignment, but healthy controls and remitted patients performed significantly better on the mentalising component than the paranoia group. These results are consistent with the schizophrenia participants having intact alignment skills alongside mentalising impairments. We propose that this explains why people with schizophrenia can often participate successfully in conversation but have difficulties with more complex dialogues, with resolving misunderstandings, and with untangling ambiguities during conversation.

  4. Personality dimensions in schizophrenia: A family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M

    2017-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that personality traits differ in schizophrenia patients and family members compared to controls, suggesting familial risk. This study evaluated personality traits in a family study of schizophrenia, as well as the relationship between personality traits and symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two schizophrenia patients, 28 adult non-psychotic relatives, and 27 community controls completed the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Schizophrenia patients differed on many dimensions of the DAPP-BQ compared to controls and/or relatives: affective lability, anxiousness, callousness, conduct problems, cognitive dysregulation, identity problem, intimacy, insecure attachment, low affiliation, narcissism, oppositionality, restricted expression, self-harm, submissiveness, and suspiciousness. No differences were found between relatives and controls. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, associations were found between personality and particularly general symptoms, as well as social functioning. Personality traits can be conceptualized as an extended phenotype in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín García-Peiró

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient’s fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment. TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele.

  6. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  7. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  8. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  9. Schizophrenia--a victim's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, K

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone "coma treatment" and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983-1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of "iatrogenic" psychiatric treatment-iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me-an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind.

  10. Eye tracking disturbances in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the frequency of different types of eye tracking disturbances in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Smooth pursuit eye movements were studied by electro-oculography (EOG in 22 schizophrenic patients (ICD-10 criteria and 15 age and sex-matched controls. The studied parameters included average pursuit gain, number of saccades, the frequency of different types of saccades (catch-up, back-up, anticipatory saccades, and disturbances during fixation. The results were analysed statistically. Results: The average pursuit gain was significantly affected in patients for target velocity of 30°/sec (p=0.007. The catch-up and back-up saccades were more common in cases than controls but the difference was not significant (p=0.39 and 0.36 respectively. The anticipatory saccades were significantly more frequent in cases than controls (p<0.0001 for both 15°/sec and 30°/sec target velocities. This was also correlated with the duration of illness. Conclusion: Anticipatory saccades are significantly more frequent during eye tracking in schizophrenia and appear to be an objective marker for the disease.

  11. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  12. Delayed early proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hemmingsen, RP; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    It was first suggested that disordered proprioception was a core feature of schizophrenia by Sandor Rado in 1953. Using a recently designed proprioceptive event-related potential paradigm based on a change of load, we studied 12 unmedicated male out-patients with schizophrenia and 24 controls....... In the patients, the early contralateral parietal activity was delayed and later central activity had increased amplitude, but gating was unaffected. The results could be understood within the "deficiency of corollary discharge" model of schizophrenia but not within the "filtering" theory. Further studies...

  13. Methamphetamine enhances the development of schizophrenia in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huabing; Lu, Qiong; Xiao, Enhua; Li, Qiuyun; He, Zhong; Mei, Xilong

    2014-02-01

    Although there is some evidence that methamphetamine (MA) abuse may play a causative role in the development of schizophrenia, studies directly linking these 2 are rare. In our study, the effect of MA abuse on the development of schizophrenia was investigated in 15 MA abusers who are offspring of patients with schizophrenia and 15 siblings of MA abusers without a history of drug abuse. Cognitive deficits and resting-state brain function were evaluated in all participants. Correlations between cognitive deficits and schizophrenia development were investigated. Significantly more cognitive impairments were observed in MA abusers, compared with their siblings without a history of drug use. Significant abnormalities in regional homogeneity (ReHo) signals were observed in resting brain in MA abusers. Decreased ReHo was found to be distributed over the bilateral cingulate gyrus, right Brodmann area 24, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex. Seven MA abusers were diagnosed with schizophrenia, while 1 control sibling was diagnosed with schizophrenia during the 5-year follow-up. The cognitive scores correlated with the development of schizophrenia in MA abusers. Our study provides direct evidence for the causative role of MA use in the etiology of schizophrenia and highlights the role of MA-induced brain abnormalities in cognitive deficiency and development of schizophrenia.

  14. Husbandry risk factors associated with subclinical coccidiosis in young cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E S E; Smith, R P; Ellis-Iversen, J

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an observational longitudinal study of cattle farms in England and Wales, which aimed to identify management practices associated with the presence of Eimeria spp. infection in young cattle. Thirty cattle farms situated in England and Wales were selected and one group of more than 20 young cattle aged 5-18 months of age was monitored on each farm. Three variables were identified as significantly associated with status in a multivariable model. The odds of finding Eimeria spp. were lower on farms that kept sheep on the same premises as the cattle, as was an increase in the maximum age within the sampled group. The latter probably reflects the development of post-infection immunity within the sampled animals. Good water-trough hygiene protected against Eimeria spp. oocyst excretion, with the odds of detection being higher on farms where it was reported that the water troughs were not cleaned and emptied more than once per month. The value of frequent emptying and cleaning of water troughs in reducing the exposure of calves to Eimeria spp. and thus lowering the impact of coccidiosis, both clinical and subclinical should be communicated to cattle farmers. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic Acidosis and Subclinical Metabolic Acidosis in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kalani L

    2017-10-13

    Metabolic acidosis is not uncommon in CKD and is linked with bone demineralization, muscle catabolism, and higher risks of CKD progression and mortality. Clinical practice guidelines recommend maintaining serum total CO2 at ≥22 mEq/L to help prevent these complications. Although a definitive trial testing whether correcting metabolic acidosis improves clinical outcomes has not been conducted, results from small, single-center studies support this notion. Furthermore, biologic plausibility supports the notion that a subset of patients with CKD have acid-mediated organ injury despite having a normal serum total CO2 and might benefit from oral alkali before overt acidosis develops. Identifying these individuals with subclinical metabolic acidosis is challenging, but recent results suggest that urinary acid excretion measurements may be helpful. The dose of alkali to provide in this setting is unknown as well. The review discusses these topics and the prevalence and risk factors of metabolic acidosis, mechanisms of acid-mediated organ injury, results from interventional studies, and potential harms of alkali therapy in CKD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Young Women With Abdominal Obesity Have Subclinical Myocardial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Bianca L; La Gerche, André; Naughton, Geraldine A; Obert, Philippe; Kemp, Justin G

    2015-09-01

    Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effect of abdominal obesity on myocardial function in young obese women remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cardiac morphology and function, myocardial deformation, and mechanical indices, in young women with and without abdominal obesity. Cross-sectional analyses of 39 women with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm) and 33 nonobese control subjects (waist circumference factors including anthropometric, hypertension, biochemistry, and fitness were also assessed. Standard echocardiography results for cardiac morphology and function were similar between groups, with the exception of larger left atrial dimensions in women with abdominal obesity (P ≤ 0.05). Compared with control subjects, women with abdominal obesity also demonstrated reduced systolic and diastolic mitral annular plane velocities, increased left atrial pressure surrogates (E/diastolic mitral annular plane velocity), and prolonged timing measures of diastolic function including isovolumic relaxation time and transmitral deceleration time (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, longitudinal strain and diastolic strain rate were reduced in women with abdominal obesity (P ≤ 0.05) but circumferential deformation and myocardial mechanics (twist indices and rotation) were preserved. Markers of abdominal obesity retained an independent direct correlation with parameters of cardiac dysfunction, explaining 12%-39% of the overall variability. A young, otherwise healthy group of women with abdominal obesity displayed subclinical cardiac dysfunction indicated using selected tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography measures. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease among premenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCLURE, Candace K.; CATOV, Janet M.; NESS, Roberta B.; SCHWARZ, Eleanor Bimla

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine the association between lactation and maternal subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD). Study Design The Women and Infants Study of Healthy Hearts enrolled 607 mothers who delivered a singleton between 1997 and 2002. In 2007, participating mothers underwent measurements of carotid intima-media thickness, lumen diameter (LD), adventitial diameter (AD), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to estimate the associations between lactation and sCVD. Results Compared with mothers who breastfed for ≥3 months after every birth, mothers who never breastfed exhibited a 0.13mm larger LD (95%CI 0.04,0.22) and a 0.12mm larger AD (95%CI 0.02,0.22) in models adjusting for age, parity, birth outcome, sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, family history, gestational weight gain, early adult BMI, current BMI, CRP, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, glucose and insulin levels. Conclusions Mothers who do not breastfeed have vascular characteristics associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22727348

  18. Clinical, Microbiological and Hematological Findings in Ovine Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marina Mot

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its richness in nutrients, milk represents a complete and balanced food that can be prepared from many other important products in human nutrition. But milk is also a medium of culture for numerous microorganisms. Although milk possesses antimicrobial mechanisms, in many cases it can be contaminated by endogenous or exogenous sources. This microorganism contamination of sheep milk and finished products depreciate its qualitative and produce severe food poisoning to consumers. In this study aimed a bacteriological control of five samples of milk haphazardly collected from six particular herds of sheep in the western part of the country. In parallel was carried out a clinical examination of the animal, insisting on mammary gland and examination of blood samples collected from the same animals. In laboratory was performed a bacteriological examination of milk samples and leucogram on blood samples. The identified bacterial species in milk samples were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium. Although it started from the idea that the animals were healthy, it was still identified in more than half of the subjects examined subclinical mammary gland infections.

  19. Plasma IL-5 concentration and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Angela; McLeod, Olga; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Gertow, Karl; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Deleskog, Anna; Persson, Jonas; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Gustafsson, Sven; Söderberg, Stefan; Öhrvik, John; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genetic variants robustly associated with coronary artery disease were reported in the vicinity of the interleukin (IL)-5 locus, and animal studies suggested a protective role for IL-5 in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we set this work to explore IL-5 as a plasma biomarker for early subclinical atherosclerosis, as determined by measures of baseline severity and change over time of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods We used biobank and databases of IMPROVE, a large European prospective cohort study of high-risk individuals (n = 3534) free of clinically overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, in whom composite and segment-specific measures of cIMT were recorded at baseline and after 15 and 30 months. IL-5 was measured with an immunoassay in plasma samples taken at baseline. Results IL-5 levels were lower in women than in men, lower in the South than in North of Europe, and showed positive correlations with most established risk factors. IL-5 showed significant inverse relationships with cIMT change over time in the common carotid segment in women, but no significant relationships to baseline cIMT in either men or women. Conclusions Our results suggest that IL-5 may be part of protective mechanisms operating in early atherosclerosis, at least in women. However, the relationships are weak and whereas IL-5 has been proposed as a potential molecular target to treat allergies, it is difficult to envisage such a scenario in coronary artery disease. PMID:25587992

  20. Is inflammaging an auto[innate]immunity subclinical syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giunta Sergio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The low-grade, chronic, systemic inflammatory state that characterizes the aging process (inflammaging results from late evolutive-based expression of the innate immune system. Inflammaging is characterized by the complex set of five conditions which can be described as 1. low-grade, 2. controlled, 3. asymptomatic, 4. chronic, 5. systemic, inflammatory state, and fits with the antagonistic pleiotropy theory on the evolution of aging postulating that senescence is the late deleterious effect of genes (pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatorythat are beneficial in early life. Evolutionary programming of the innate immune system may act via selection on these genetic traits. Here I propose that the already acquired knowledge in this field may pave the way to a new chapter in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity: the auto-innate-immunity syndromes. Indeed, differently from the well known chapter of conventional autoimmune diseases and syndromes where the main actor is the adaptive immunity, inflammaging may constitute the subclinical paradigm of a new chapter of autoimmunity, namely that arising from an autoimmune inflammatory response of the innate-immune-system, an old actor of immunity and yet a new actor of autoimmunity, also acting as a major determinant of elderly frailty and age-associated diseases.

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism and myocardial function in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, C; Grandone, A; Di Salvo, G; Corona, A M; Di Sessa, A; Pascotto, C; Calabrò, R; Toraldo, R; Perrone, L; del Giudice, E Miraglia

    2013-09-01

    Pediatric obesity is an important health problem representing a major public health concern worldwide in the last decades. An isolated elevation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) with normal levels of thyroid hormones is frequently found in obese children. It has been named Isolated Hyperthyreotropinemia or Subclinical Hypothyroidism (SCH) and may be considered a consequence of obesity. Evidence exists that SCH is related to impairment of both systolic and diastolic myocardial function in the adult population. The aim of our study is to establish if obesity-related SCH influences myocardial function in children. We examined 34 obese children and adolescents with SCH and 60 obese children with normal TSH levels who underwent Doppler echocardiographic to evaluate myocardial function. Global systolic function as assessed by Ejection Fraction (EF) was comparable between groups, however Right Ventricle pressure global systolic function and pressure were significantly reduced in SCH group. Mitral annulus peak systolic (MAPSE) excursion lateral and MAPSE septum resulted significantly reduced in SCH group. Tissue Doppler imaging peak systolic motion (TDI-S) was reduced in SCH group. Diastolic function also showed significant modifications in SCH group. These results suggest possible involvement of cardiac function in obese children with SCH resulting in both abnormal diastolic function and reduced longitudinal systolic function. This new insight into cardiovascular consequences of obesity-related SCH in children could influence clinical approach to such patients by pediatric endocrinologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens Christian

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (pobese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity.

  3. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; Casey, Brian M; McIntire, Donald D; Cunningham, F Gary

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously identified during an index pregnancy to have subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). From 2000 to 2003, thyroid analytes were measured in 17,298 women. Using their index pregnancy thyroid-analyte classification, pregnancy outcomes were compared between the returning cohorts. There were 6,985 women previously screened and subsequently delivered at our hospital though 2011 with 230 (3.3%) designated to have SCH and 6,645 (95.1%) euthyroid. Significant differences between the two cohorts included risk for diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.7, p = 0.005), gestational diabetes (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.69, p = 0.015), and stillbirth (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.05 to 11.68, p = 0.042). After adjustment, the increased likelihood of diabetes (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40, p = 0.032) and stillbirth (adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.49, p = 0.048) persisted. Women identified during a previous pregnancy with SCH are at increased risk for some adverse perinatal outcomes during a subsequent pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Impact on Fertility, Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usadi, Rebecca S; Merriam, Kathryn S

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy was classically thought to be low; however, with new definition of normal TSH range in pregnancy, there has been an increase in the percentage of women who meet classification for SCH. The diagnosis of SCH is important not only for monitoring for maternal conversion to overt hypothyroidism, but also for identifying obstetric and neonatal outcomes related to SCH. Although there have been proven associations between maternal overt hypothyroidism and adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes, there has been conflicting data on the correlation between SCH and these outcomes. Recent data from a meta-analysis found an increased risk of pregnancy loss, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes, and neonatal death for women with SCH compared to euthyroidism in pregnancy. Research studies have not demonstrated a distinct benefit from treatment of SCH, and the professional societies are divided on their recommendations for treating SCH. Additionally, universal screening of SCH is controversial at present. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Clinical efficacy of therapeutic intervention for subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, R; Lin, L; Long, Y; Zhang, J; Huang, J

    2016-11-21

    This study explored the effects of levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We analyzed the effects on pregnancy outcomes with respect to gestational week when the desired thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was reached as well as the length of time required to reach the target level during L-T4 treatment. This study enrolled 457 patients diagnosed with SCH upon initial thyroid function screening. Subjects were assigned to the treatment group (N = 184), and the control group (N = 273). Two variables were analyzed in the treatment group: the gestational week when the target TSH level was achieved and the length of time required to reach the target level during treatment. Based on these criteria, the treatment group was further divided into subgroups, including three subgroups based on the time required to reach target levels (8 weeks) and gestational week when the target TSH level was achieved (before the 12th, between the 12th-28th, and after the 28th gestational week). The overall risk of complications in the control group was significantly higher than in the treatment group (P 8 weeks treatment duration (P pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with SCH. The shorter the treatment duration required to reach the target TSH level and the earlier the gestational week when the target TSH level is achieved through treatment, the lower the incidence of complications.

  6. Incidence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Frida Hosseini; Johansson, Bengt; Möllerström, Gunnar; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Skjöldebrand-Sparre, Lottie

    2017-11-01

    Untreated and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with adverse pregnancy complications such as increased risk of miscarriage, hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. However, in Sweden, screening for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is only recommended for women with a high risk of thyroid disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of clinical and SCH in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this prospective study, 1298 pregnant women were divided into three groups: one unselected general screening group (n = 611), one low-risk group comprising women without risk factors for thyroid disorder (n = 511), and one high-risk group comprising women with an inheritance or suspicion of thyroid disease or undergoing treatment for thyroid disease (n = 88). Serum was obtained up to gestational week 13, and thyrotropin (TSH) was analyzed. The incidences of thyroid dysfunction in the three screening groups were 9.8% in the general screening group, 9.6% in the low-risk group, and 10.2%, p = 0.948, in the high-risk group. In the women with known hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment, 50.6% had serum TSH levels above 2.0 mIU/L. High-risk screening is not useful in predicting which women are at risk of thyroid disease in early pregnancy since ∼10% of women with SCH or hypothyroidism could not be diagnosed in this way.

  7. Subclinical carbon monoxide poisoning in our health area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, I.G.; Testa, A.F.; Sangrador, C.O.; Garcia, M.T.A.; Berrocal, J.L.S.; Pastor, N.R.; Martin, J.M.; Garcia, L.S.; Garcia, M.C.F.; Maire-Richard, E.G. [Hospital of Virgen Concha, Zamora (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    We present an observation study on the relationship between high levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) and subclinical poisoning by carbon monoxide (CO) in our health area. The study was carried out in February and March 2000 in 228 over 18-year-old patients of both sexes who went to the Emergency Room for various reasons. After an informed consent was conceded, a venous blood sample was obtained in order to determine the level of COHB; later, we collected the anthropometric data, the data relative to the tobacco use, and the data of the type of heating at home. The values limit of the COHB obtained were the following: in non smokers, 1.9%; in 1-10 cigarettes/day smokers, 5.2%; in 11-20 cigarettes/day smokers, 6.9%; in {gt}20 cigarettes/day smokers, 9.6%. A COHB high level was observed in 25% of the patients regardless of the smoking habits, being the coal-dust slack brazier the source of most frequent exposure to CO.

  8. Biomarkers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients with Autoimmune Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Profumo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is accelerated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and psoriatic arthritis (PsA. We investigated a possible association of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs, nitric oxide (NO, 3-nitrotyrosine, vitamin A, vitamin E, and β-carotene serum levels with subclinical atherosclerosis in RA and PsA. By the use of ELISA, we observed higher ox-LDL levels in patients with intima-media thickness (IMT > 1 than in patients with IMT ≤ 1 and a negative correlation between NO levels and IMT values. By the use of high-performance liquid chromatography, we determined higher levels of vitamin A in patients with PsA and IMT ≤ 1 than in controls and lower levels of β-carotene in patients with RA and PsA than in controls. β-carotene concentrations were negatively correlated to the duration of disease in RA. Our study confirms that ox-LDLs and NO may be markers of accelerated atherosclerosis in RA and PsA whereas vitamins seem to be associated only to the presence of the autoimmune disorders.

  9. Sub-clinical Alcohol Consumption and Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Michael D; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2017-06-01

    While it is well established that gambling disorder is associated with alcohol use disorder, less is known regarding whether sub-clinical alcohol consumption increases gambling behavior. This study examined the effects of varying levels of alcohol consumption on clinical and cognitive measures. The sample consisted of 572 non-treatment seeking gamblers age 18-29 who were divided into three groups: non-current drinkers, current drinkers who did not qualify for an alcohol use disorder, and those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). All subjects were assessed on gambling pathology, severity and impulsivity using the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling and the Barratt Impulsive Scale-11 and select cognitive tests. In all of the clinical measures, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group was significantly more likely than the non-current and current drinkers to be a pathologic gambler and to be impulsive, compulsive and depressed. On cognitive tasks, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group had significantly worse strategy use on a spatial working memory task than both other groups. This study suggests that the relationship between alcohol and gambling may only exist when pathology in both alcohol consumption and gambling behavior is present. Examining this relationship with alcohol consumption as a continuous variable would provide additional insight into the potential effects alcohol consumption has on gambling behavior.

  10. Myocardial Performance Index for Patients with Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Aziz; Doğan, Abdullah; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal

    2017-05-25

    BACKGROUND Hypothyroid has several effects on the cardiovascular system. Global myocardial performance index (MPI) is used in assessment of both left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function. We compared MPI in hypothyroidism patients vs. normal control subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-two hypothyroid patients were divided into 2 groups: a subclinical hypothyroid (SH) group (n=50), and an overt hypothyroid (OH) group (n=32). The healthy control group (CG) constituted of 37 patients. TSH, FT3, and FT4, anti-TPO, anti-TG, insulin, lipid values, and fasting glucose levels were studied. All patients underwent an echocardiographic examination. Myocardial performance indexes were assessed and standard echocardiographic examinations were investigated. RESULTS MPI averages in OH, SH, and control groups were 0.53±0.06, 0.51±0.05, and 0.44±0.75 mm, respectively. MPI was increased in the OH and SH groups in comparison to CG (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS MPI value was significantly higher in hypothyroid patients in comparison to the control group, showing that regression in global left ventricular functions is an important echocardiographic finding. Future studies are required to determine the effects of this finding on long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

  11. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Development, Nuclear Power Plant, Uranium, Missiles, Space Firm Protested, Satellite, Rocket Launching, Nuclear Submarine, Environmental, Radioactivity, Nuclear Plant...

  12. Relation of subclinical serum creatinine elevation to adverse in-hospital outcomes among myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gilad; Gal-Oz, Amir; Khoury, Shafik; Keren, Gad; Shacham, Yacov

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury is associated with adverse outcomes after acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It remains unclear, however, whether subclinical increase in serum creatinine that does not reach the consensus criteria for acute kidney injury is also related to adverse outcomes in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We conducted a retrospective study of 1897 consecutive STEMI patients between January 2008 and May 2016 who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention, and in whom acute kidney injury was not diagnosed throughout hospitalization. We investigated the incidence of subclinical acute kidney injury (defined as serum creatinine increase of ≥ 0.1 and < 0.3 mg/dl) and its relation to a composite end point of adverse in hospital outcomes. Subclinical acute kidney injury was detected in 321 patients (17%). Patients with subclinical acute kidney injury had increased rate of the composite end point of adverse in-hospital events (20.3% vs. 9.7%, p<0.001), a finding which was independent of baseline renal function. Individual components of this end point (occurrence of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, need for mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality) were all significantly higher among patients with subclinical acute kidney injury ( p< 0.05 for all). In a multivariable regression model subclinical acute kidney injury was independently associated with higher risk for adverse in-hospital events (odds ratio 1.92.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.97, p=0.004). Among STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, small, subclinical elevations of serum creatinine, while not fulfilling the consensus criteria for acute kidney injury, may serve as a significant biomarker for adverse outcomes.

  13. Clinical utility of ocular residual astigmatism and topographic disparity vector indexes in subclinical and clinical keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, David P; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Soto-Negro, Roberto; Ruiz-Fortes, Pedro; Artola, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to characterize the distribution of the vector parameters ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) and topography disparity (TD) in a sample of clinical and subclinical keratoconus eyes, and to evaluate their diagnostic value to discriminate between these conditions and healthy corneas. This study comprised a total of 43 keratoconic eyes (27 patients, 17-73 years) (keratoconus group), 11 subclinical keratoconus eyes (eight patients, 11-54 years) (subclinical keratoconus group) and 101 healthy eyes (101 patients, 15-64 years) (control group). In all cases, a complete corneal analysis was performed using a Scheimpflug photography-based topography system. Anterior corneal topographic data was imported from it to the iASSORT software (ASSORT Pty. Ltd), which allowed the calculation of ORA and TD. Mean magnitude of the ORA was 3.23 ± 2.38, 1.16 ± 0.50 and 0.79 ± 0.43 D in the keratoconus, subclinical keratoconus and control groups, respectively (p keratoconus, subclinical keratoconus and control groups, respectively (p keratoconus. The diagnostic ability of these parameters for the detection of subclinical keratoconus was more limited (ORA: cutoff 1.17 D, sensitivity 60.0 %, specificity 84.2 %; TD: cutoff 1.29 D, sensitivity 80.0 %, specificity 80.2 %). The vector parameters ORA and TD are able to discriminate with good levels of precision between keratoconus and healthy corneas. For the detection of subclinical keratoconus, only TD seems to be valid.

  14. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part B focuses on the ways in which experimental data may be analyzed to furnish information about nuclear parameters and nuclear models in terms of which the data are interpreted.This book discusses the elastic and inelastic potential scattering amplitudes, role of beta decay in nuclear physics, and general selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. The nuclear shell model, fundamental coupling procedure, vibrational spectra, and empirical determination of the complex potential are also covered. This publication is suitable for graduate students preparing for exper

  15. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  16. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in the Southwestern Iran and detection of cutoff point for NEFA and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Ardavan Nowroozi; Nazifi, Saeed; Ghasrodashti, Abbas Rowshan; Olyaee, Ahad

    2011-06-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is simply a condition marked by increased levels of circulating ketone bodies without the presence of the clinical signs of ketosis. Subclinical ketosis can cause economic losses through decreased milk production and association with preparturient diseases. Limited information is available regarding the prevalence of SCK in dairy herds in Southwestern Iran. The objectives of this study were (i) determination of the cutoff point of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of SCK using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and (ii) determination of prevalence of subclinical ketosis in apparently healthy dairy cattle in Southwestern Iran. From October to December 2009, a total of 100 clinically healthy multiparous Holstein cows (3-8 years old) were randomly selected from 16 dairy herds around Kazerun, Fars Province, Iran. The cows had two-six lactations, with body weight ranging from 500 to 650 kg. Blood samples for each cow were taken at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post parturition and 3-4h after the morning feeding. The optimal cutoff point was set, by the ROC method, to >0.26 mmol/L for NEFA, and ketosis in all of the 2, 4 and 6 weeks postpartum. The results suggest that, a cut-off point of 0.26 mmol/L for NEFA concentrations can be used during early lactation for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis and making management decisions for prevention and treatment. Glucose cannot be a good criterion for diagnosis of SCK and it does not appear to be useful for monitoring subclinical ketosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative Motor Activity Differentiates Schizophrenia Subtypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walther, Sebastian; Horn, Helge; Razavi, Nadja; Koschorke, Philipp; Müller, Thomas J; Strik, Werner

    2009-01-01

    ...: In total, 60 patients with schizophrenia (35 paranoid, 12 catatonic, 13 disorganized) were investigated using continuous wrist actigraphy over 24 h in an inpatient setting on average 38 days after admission...

  18. Schizophrenia and psychoneuroimmunology: an integrative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2015-05-01

    Since decades immunological aberrancies have been reported in schizophrenia patients. As schizophrenia represents a heterogenous disorder with a variety of clinical manifestations, complex interactions between the immune system in the brain might have important etiological implications. Recent findings of altered expression of immune-related genes, changes of peripheral and central cytokines, antibodies and immune cells point toward dysbalanced immune response processes in schizophrenia. Based on immunogenetic factors, immune dysfunctions caused by infections, increased autoimmune reactivity and low-grade inflammatory processes in the periphery as well as in central nervous system may affect neurobiological circuits including changed neurotransmitter metabolisms contributing to pathophysiological alterations in schizophrenia. These immunological abnormalities might provide tools for better diagnostic characterization of this heterogenous disease and on the other side, they may also support the development of immune-related therapeutic strategies.

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOBACCO DEPENDENCE AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Widhidewi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence in schizophrenia patients is a problem that got more concern, withfew treatment options. Peoples with schizophrenia have a prevalence rate of cigarettesmoking two until four times higher than the general population. Consequently, patientsalso have a lower smoking quit rate than the general population. Tobacco dependence inthis population may complicate symptoms and also has adverse physiological effects onpatients. Besides that, patients with schizophrenia tend to smoke more heavily thansmokers in general population. This can increased smoking-related morbidity andmortality and impose a significant financial burden on patients. Recent studiesdemonstrated that patients with schizophrenia smoke before the onset of the illness andalso start smoking earlier than the average population. Patients become psychotic earlierthan patients who do not smoke, and require higher dose of anti-psychotic medications.

  20. A Role for Noncoding Variation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Roussos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A large portion of common variant loci associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia reside within noncoding sequence of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate promoter and enhancer enrichment in schizophrenia variants associated with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL. The enrichment is greater when functional annotations derived from the human brain are used relative to peripheral tissues. Regulatory trait concordance analysis ranked genes within schizophrenia genome-wide significant loci for a potential functional role, based on colocalization of a risk SNP, eQTL, and regulatory element sequence. We identified potential physical interactions of noncontiguous proximal and distal regulatory elements. This was verified in prefrontal cortex and -induced pluripotent stem cell–derived neurons for the L-type calcium channel (CACNA1C risk locus. Our findings point to a functional link between schizophrenia-associated noncoding SNPs and 3D genome architecture associated with chromosomal loopings and transcriptional regulation in the brain.

  1. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  2. [Does cannabis use lead to schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekeren, K

    2011-11-02

    There is a high comorbidity between cannabis use and schizophrenia. Several factors contribute to this comorbidity: secondary development of addiction, cannabis-related induction of psychosis and shared neurobiological alterations. Meanwhile, there is evidence that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that a frequent cannabis use doubles the risk for schizophrenia. Interestingly, schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis use often show significantly better performances in neuropsychological tests than patients without cannabis use. This is nevertheless not due to a positive effect of cannabis, but a sign of cannabis-related psychosis induction in subjects with a higher level of function and less cognitive impairment. Whether cannabis use leads to schizophrenia is determined by the individual vulnerability.

  3. Telepsychiatry and carer education for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haley, C

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scientific evidence, most families of people with schizophrenia in Europe never receive a carer education programme. We evaluated whether a carer education course delivered by telepsychiatry was as effective as a carer education course delivered in situ.

  4. Functional disorganization of representations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagnol, A; Pachoud, B; Claudel, B; Granger, B

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this article describes a model of disorganization of representations in schizophrenia. We assume that subjects with schizophrenia have some interfering activity in memory. Such an interfering activity induces a functional decontextualization of information and the reciprocal is true. This model accounts for different classes of cognitive troubles that have been observed in schizophrenia. In the second part, we describe a text-comprehension experiment that studies two paradigmatic cases of episodic and semantic contextualization of information: the "compartmentalization" and the "thematization" of fictional narratives. Compartmentalization refers to the way in which representations of different narratives are separated in memory; thematization refers to the way in which representations of one narrative are structured in function of a theme. In our experiment, compartmentalization and thematization are assessed by a method of priming in word recognition. In agreement with our model, the results show that subjects with schizophrenia are impaired in compartmentalization and thematization when compared with anxious-depressed subjects.

  5. The nature of relapse in schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emsley, Robin; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Asmal, Laila; Harvey, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple relapses characterise the course of illness in most patients with schizophrenia, yet the nature of these episodes has not been extensively researched and clinicians may not always be aware...

  6. The intercontinental schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (IC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intercontinental schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (IC-SOHO) study: baseline clinical and functional characteristics and antipsychotic use patterns in the North Africa and Middle Eastern (AMEA) region: original article.

  7. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  8. Brain connectomics imaging in schizophrenia study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin

    2017-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder of which the biological underpinning is still unclear. Increasing evidence in neuroscience has indicated that schizophrenia arises from abnormal connections within or between networks, hence called dysconnectvity syndrome. Recently, we established an automatic method to analyze integrity of the white matter tracts over the whole brain based on diffusion MRI data, named tract-based automatic analysis (TBAA), and used this method to study white matter connection in patients with schizophrenia. We found that alteration of tract integrity is hereditary and inherent; it is found in siblings and in patients in the early phase of disease. Moreover, patients with good treatment outcome and those with poor outcome show distinctly different patterns of alterations, suggesting that these two groups of patients might be distinguishable based on the difference in tract alteration. In summary, the altered tracts revealed by TBAA might become potential biomarkers or trait markers for schizophrenia.

  9. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample...... was seen between OPCRIT-derived ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses (kappa=0.87). Thus, this study demonstrates high reliability of the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia and even more so of the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....... of 100 subjects was assessed using the operational criteria OPCRIT checklist for psychotic and affective illness. The most recent principal and clinical ICD-10 diagnosis was compared with diagnoses generated by the OPCRIT instrument. Data documented very high sensitivity (93%) and positive predictive...

  10. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  11. Subjective experience and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Tomori, Martina; Parnas, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal ideation and behavior are a frequent complication of schizophrenia. Although a number of risk factors have been identified, specific features of suicidality in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, 19 patients with schizophrenia were interviewed in depth on their suicidal...... ideation and intentions, followed by a qualitative phenomenological analysis of the material. Solitude with inability to participate in human interactions and feelings of inferiority were found to be the main sources of suicidal ideation. These experiences seem to resemble ordinary depressive reactions......, yet we found them to be reflective of a more basic self-alienation and incapacity for immersion in the shared world. Ignoring this experiential level of patients' disturbances may lead to trivialization (and misjudgment) of the experiences at the root of suicidality in schizophrenia....

  12. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  13. Intersubjectivity and Psychopathology in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between...... psychopathology and intersubjectivity in the schizophrenia spectrum through the prism of the "we." First, we explore the role of intersubjectivity in the current schizophrenia spectrum definitions and discuss the main contemporary research trends. Second, we recollect some of the classical accounts...... of schizophrenia, which offer a different perspective on the pervasive and often persistent intersubjective difficulties in these conditions. Third, capitalizing on recent advances in collective intentionality studies, we present and discuss a conceptual framework of the "we" and of how the "we" may be disrupted...

  14. The temporal relationship between schizophrenia and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...... people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....

  15. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample...... of 100 subjects was assessed using the operational criteria OPCRIT checklist for psychotic and affective illness. The most recent principal and clinical ICD-10 diagnosis was compared with diagnoses generated by the OPCRIT instrument. Data documented very high sensitivity (93%) and positive predictive...... value (87%) of ICD-10 schizophrenia and an overall good agreement between clinical and OPCRIT-derived diagnoses (kappa=0.60). An even higher positive predictive value was obtained when diagnoses were amalgamated into a diagnostic entity of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (98%). Near perfect agreement...

  16. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    44 years worldwide. ... of emotion among people with schizophrenia. They found that ethnicity also influences perception of the ... felt inside the female sexual organ, abdomen or throat. Mamlambo. (a hallucination of a beautiful seductive ...

  17. Amygdalofrontal Functional Disconnectivity and Aggression in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J.; Shehzad, Zarrar E.; Kelly, A.M. Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Javitt, Daniel C.; Michael P. Milham

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. However, it is less clear to what extent abnormalities are exhibited in ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, despite their involvement in social cognitive dysfunction and aggression, which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity i...

  18. The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan-Ćusa, Bjanka; Šagud, Marina; Radoš, Iva

    2016-03-01

    Neurosteroid dehydropiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS) are reported to have modulatory effects on neuronal excitabillity and synaptic plasticity. DHEA and DHEAS are synthesized in central and peripheral nervous system from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from peripheral sources. There is accumulating evidence that alterations in DHEA(S) levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The possible effects of DHEA(S) as augmentation therapy in schizophrenia, related to psychological and somatic aspects of this disease, are discussed.

  19. [Negative symptoms, emotion and cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M; Adida, M

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, treatment of schizophrenia has been essentially focussed on positive symptoms managing. Yet, even if these symptoms are the most noticeable, negative symptoms are more enduring, resistant to pharmacological treatment and associated with a worse prognosis. In the two last decades, attention has shift towards cognitive deficit, as this deficit is most robustly associated to functional outcome. But it appears that the modest improvement in cognition, obtained in schizophrenia through pharmacological treatment or, more purposely, by cognitive enhancement therapy, has only lead to limited amelioration of functional outcome. Authors have claimed that pure cognitive processes, such as those evaluated and trained in lots of these programs, may be too distant from real-life conditions, as the latter are largely based on social interactions. Consequently, the field of social cognition, at the interface of cognition and emotion, has emerged. In a first part of this article we examined the links, in schizophrenia, between negative symptoms, cognition and emotions from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, investigation of emotion in schizophrenia may also hold relevant premises for understanding the physiopathology of this disorder. In a second part, we propose to illustrate this research by relying on the heuristic value of an elementary marker of social cognition, facial affect recognition. Facial affect recognition has been repeatedly reported to be impaired in schizophrenia and some authors have argued that this deficit could constitute an endophenotype of the illness. We here examined how facial affect processing has been used to explore broader emotion dysfunction in schizophrenia, through behavioural and imaging studies. In particular, fMRI paradigms using facial affect have shown particular patterns of amygdala engagement in schizophrenia, suggesting an intact potential to elicit the limbic system which may however not be advantageous. Finally, we

  20. New Targets for Prevention of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidman, Larry J; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-01-01

    A number of influences have converged that make this Special Theme Issue timely: "A New Direction: Considering Developmentally Sensitive Targets for Very Early Intervention in Schizophrenia". These factors include: 1. the substantial knowledge about premorbid developmental vulnerabilities...... to psychosis, especially regarding schizophrenia; 2. the promising results emerging from interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis and; 3. the recognition that the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. These factors have together led to a perspective...

  1. Identifying Gene-Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual...... of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap...

  2. Selective Loss of Smaller Spines in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Matthew L; Alhassan, Jamil; Newman, Jason T; Richard, Michelle; Gu, Hong; Kelly, Ryan M; Sampson, Alan R; Fish, Kenneth N; Penzes, Peter; Wills, Zachary P; Lewis, David A; Sweet, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    Decreased density of dendritic spines in adult schizophrenia subjects has been hypothesized to result from increased pruning of excess synapses in adolescence. In vivo imaging studies have confirmed that synaptic pruning is largely driven by the loss of large or mature synapses. Thus, increased pruning throughout adolescence would likely result in a deficit of large spines in adulthood. Here, the authors examined the density and volume of dendritic spines in deep layer 3 of the auditory cortex of 20 schizophrenia and 20 matched comparison subjects as well as aberrant voltage-gated calcium channel subunit protein expression linked to spine loss. Primary auditory cortex deep layer 3 spine density and volume was assessed in 20 pairs of schizophrenia and matched comparison subjects in an initial and replication cohort (12 and eight pairs) by immunohistochemistry-confocal microscopy. Targeted mass spectrometry was used to quantify postsynaptic density and voltage-gated calcium channel protein expression. The effect of increased voltage-gated calcium channel subunit protein expression on spine density and volume was assessed in primary rat neuronal culture. Only the smallest spines are lost in deep layer 3 of the primary auditory cortex in subjects with schizophrenia, while larger spines are retained. Levels of the tryptic peptide ALFDFLK, found in the schizophrenia risk gene CACNB4, are inversely correlated with the density of smaller, but not larger, spines in schizophrenia subjects. Consistent with this observation, CACNB4 overexpression resulted in a lower density of smaller spines in primary neuronal cultures. These findings require a rethinking of the overpruning hypothesis, demonstrate a link between small spine loss and a schizophrenia risk gene, and should spur more in-depth investigations of the mechanisms that govern new or small spine generation and stabilization under normal conditions as well as how this process is impaired in schizophrenia.

  3. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  4. [Cognition, social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2010-01-01

    The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia

  5. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, David L.; Sanna, Lawrence J.; Roberts, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide an overview of social cognition in schizophrenia. The column begins with a short introduction to social cognition. Then, we describe the application of social cognition to the study of schizophrenia, with an emphasis on key domains (i.e., emotion perception, Theory of Mind, and attributional style). We conclude the column by discussing the relationship of social cognition to neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functioning, with an eye toward strateg...

  6. Schizophrenia: two-faced meaning of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Naudin, Jean

    2002-12-08

    The authors stress the current two-faced meaning of vulnerability that conveys both an objective and a subjective direction of sense, leading to a naturalistic model as well as a humanistic one. These models are heirs of both the Kraepelinian and Bleulerian conceptions of schizophrenia. Coping strategies and resilience are core concepts of the humanistic model. Research on these protective factors may be of major importance in the current debate on prevention in schizophrenia. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a ...

  8. Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Kedir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia. Data on the study subjects’ background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150 μg/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC was 58.1 μg/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13 and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50, but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52. Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy.

  9. Efficacy in treatment of subclinical cervical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Russomano

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The treatment of the subclinical Human papillomavirus (HPV infection of the uterine cervix is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of any therapy for subclinical HPV infection of the cervix without intraepithelial neoplasia, via a search in the medical literature. METHOD: We performed a systematic review with a comprehensive reference search in Medline, LILACS, Excerpta Medica, AIDSLINE, Popline, Cochrane Library and other authors' reference lists to identify experimental studies of therapy for subclinical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix. In order to identify unpublished studies, we also contacted experts in the area, clinical trial registries, pharmaceutical industries, government and research institutions. We also searched on the Internet and in the book-of-abstracts of some medical conferences. The studies identified were masked and selected by inclusion criteria to help ascertain their internal validity. The data about regression or progression of HPV infection were extracted from the studies included. RESULTS: We identified 67 studies related to the treatment of subclinical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix. Only five clinical trials matched the inclusion criteria and none demonstrated significant differences between the experimental group and the control group concerning regression of HPV infection (with or without CIN I or progression to higher grades of CIN. CONCLUSION: The evidence we found in the medical literature regarding the efficacy of any therapy for subclinical HPV infection without intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix was unsatisfactory.

  10. Betel Nut Chewing and Subclinical Ischemic Heart Disease in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    2011-01-01

    Methods. A total of 394 male patients aging ≥45 years and without previous heart disease were studied. Among them 349 had no habit of chewing betel nut and 45 possessed the habit for ≥5 years. Subclinical IHD was diagnosed by a Minnesota-coded resting electrocardiogram and was present in 71 cases. Statistical analyses were performed considering confounding effects of age, diabetic duration, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and metabolic control status. Results. Betel nut chewers were younger and had higher prevalence of smoking (86.7% versus 60.5%, higher body mass index, poorer glycemic control, and higher prevalence of subclinical IHD (28.9% versus 16.6%. Patients with subclinical IHD were older and had higher prevalence of betel nut chewing (18.0% versus 9.9%. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for subclinical IHD for chewers versus nonchewers was 4.640 (1.958–10.999. The adjusted odds ratios in younger or older patients divided by the median age of 63 years were similar: 4.724 (1.346–16.581 and 4.666 (1.278–17.028, respectively. Conclusions. Betel nut chewing is significantly associated with increased risk of subclinical IHD.

  11. Milk protein profiles in response to Streptococcus agalactiae subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongthaisong, Pongphol; Katawatin, Suporn; Thamrongyoswittayakul, Chaiyapas; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the milk protein profiles of normal milk and those of milk during the course of subclinical mastitis, caused by natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used to assess protein profiles and to identify the proteins. The results showed that S. agalactiae subclinical mastitis altered the protein profiles of milk. Following Mascot database matching, 11 and 12 protein types were identified in the milk collected from healthy and S. agalactiae subclinical mastitic udders, respectively. The distinct presence of the antibacterial protein cathelicidin-1 was detected in infected milk samples, which in turn was highly correlated to the severity of subclinical mastitis as represented by the milk somatic cell count (r = 0.616), but not the bacterial count. The protein profile of milk reveals changes in the host response to S. agalactiae intramammary infection; cathelicidin-1 could therefore serve as a biomarker for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Impact of subclinical and clinical mastitis on sensitivity to pain of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M D P; Silveira, I D B; Fischer, V

    2015-12-01

    A total of 90 cows from three commercial farms were used to evaluate the relationship between subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis and thermal nociceptive threshold. Milk strips from all udder quarters were tested for clinical mastitis with visual inspection of milk and udder alterations and for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test. Milk yield was recorded, milk was sampled and further analyzed for somatic cells count (SCC). Cows were considered healthy when SCC200 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder, with moderate subclinical mastitis when SCC>500 000 cells/ml and no visual alterations in milk and/or udder and with clinical mastitis when visual alterations in milk and/or udder were detected. Nociceptive threshold was evaluated with the thermal threshold meter apparatus applied to the rear legs. Thermal threshold (TT) decreased when we compared healthy cows with cows presenting clinical mastitis and tended to decrease when we compare healthy cows with those with moderate subclinical mastitis. TT was lower at the ipsilateral rear leg compared with the contralateral leg to the infected mammary gland. TT linearly decreases as log10SCC increased and it showed sharp decrease as log10SCC exceed the value of 6.4. Increase in one unit of log10SCC increased the odds of low thermal threshold (lower than 55.8°C). Subclinical mastitis might be a welfare issue as it tended to decrease nociceptive thermal threshold.

  13. Correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi-Dadras, Mohammad; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza; Abdollahimajd, Fahimeh; Younespour, Shima; Partovi Kia, Masoud; Zargari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic factor that was overexpressed in both psoriatic and atherosclerotic lesions. In a prospective controlled study, we investigated the correlation between serum levels of VEGF and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Sixty patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited to the study. Mean intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (MIMT-CCA) and serum VEGF levels of all subjects were measured. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as having an MIMT-CCA ≥0.8 mm. Serum VEGF levels in psoriatic patients were significantly higher compared with healthy controls (P subclinical atherosclerosis (P subclinical atherosclerosis was significantly associated with serum VEGF levels, age, disease duration, and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). This study supported the possible role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis in psoriatic patients. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Association of NAFLD with subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary-artery disease: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Javier; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, using tests of subclinical atherosclerosis. To evaluate the influence of NAFLD on subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). We reviewed Pubmed and EMBASE. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 14 studies and were classified in two groups. Ten studies aimed the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and four studies the presence of coronary artery disease. To assess subclinical atherosclerosis, we selected studies with pathological carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and with presence of carotid plaques. We considered coronary artery disease when patients showed at least 50% stenosis at one or more major coronary arteries. NAFLD was assessed by ultrasound (US) and liver biopsy. NAFLD showed a higher prevalence of pathological CIMT [35.1% (351/999) vs. 21.8% (207/948); p subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The right management of these patients could modify the natural history both liver and cardiovascular disease.

  15. The Association Between Endocan Levels and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yaya; Zhang, Yaqiong; Shi, Weiya; Liu, Juxiang; Li, Yonghong; Zhou, Zubang; He, Qijuan; Wei, Suhong; Liu, Jing; Quan, Jinxing

    2017-05-01

    Proinflammatory conditions induced by circulating factors in diabetes play a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction and related vascular complications. Endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 or endocan is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan secreted primarily by the vascular endothelium. Although endocan has been shown to be a potential biomarker in coronary heart disease, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS) in diabetes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the correlation between serum endocan levels and subclinical AS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients (n = 69) with T2DM were included. All the patients were stratified based on the absence (n = 42) or presence (n = 27) of subclinical AS. Healthy subjects (n = 28) served as controls. Serum levels of endocan, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were measured. Endocan levels were significantly elevated in both the T2DM (0.89 ± 0.28ng/mL) and T2DM with subclinical AS (1.20 ± 0.33ng/mL) groups relative to the control group (0.68 ± 0.24ng/mL) (P subclinical AS (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.43-2.73, P subclinical AS in patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between diabetic retinopathy and subclinical atherosclerosis in China: Results from a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Teng, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the association of diabetic retinopathy with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional community-based study was performed among 1607 patients aged 40 years or older in Shanghai. Non-mydriatic digital fundus photography examination was used in diabetic retinopathy detection. Presence of elevated carotid intima-media thickness or carotid plaque was defined as subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 15.1% in total patients. Patients with diabetic retinopathy were more likely to have elevated carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque and subclinical atherosclerosis than those without diabetic retinopathy (37.9% vs 30.7%, 57.6% vs 49.6% and 64.6% vs 57.1%, respectively). The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increased odds of subclinical atherosclerosis (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-3.60) after full adjustments. The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetics in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Relation of Framingham Risk Score to Subclinical Atherosclerosis Evaluated Across Three Arterial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Roksana; Hodis, Howard N; Detrano, Robert; Liu, Chao-ran; Liu, Chi-hua; Mack, Wendy J

    2008-01-01

    The Framingham risk score (FRS) is widely used in clinical practice to identify subjects at high risk for developing coronary heart disease (CHD). However, FRS may not accurately identify subjects at risk. We measured subclinical atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and aorta with the presence of calcium (CAC and AC, respectively) and in the common carotid artery by intima-media thickness (CIMT) in 498 healthy subjects. The distribution of these subclinical atherosclerosis measures was evaluated across 3 strata of the FRS. CAC, AC and CIMT were significantly independently associated with FRS. The FRS increased with the number of arterial sites with atherosclerosis. Sixty-nine percent of the subjects categorized in the low risk group (FRS20%) had 1 or more vascular imaging studies demonstrating subclinical atherosclerosis. Among the low risk group, subjects with atherosclerosis had a longer history of lifetime smoking compared to those without atherosclerosis. In conclusion, subclinical atherosclerosis is prominent across the spectrum of FRS. Evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis in different arterial sites in addition to FRS may be useful in targeting subjects for lifestyle and other interventions. PMID:18805105

  18. Efficacy of axial and tangential corneal topography maps in detecting subclinical keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummanapalli, Shyam Sunder; Potluri, Haresh; Vaddavalli, Pravin Krishna; Sangwan, Virender S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and compare the efficacy of axial and tangential corneal topography maps obtained using the Orbscan IIz scanning-slit device to distinguish differences in eyes with subclinical keratoconus from normal eyes. LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Axial and tangential maps of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces were obtained in eyes of patients with subclinical keratoconus (normal fellow eye of an eye with clinically diagnosed keratoconus). The following measurements were obtained from each map and compared between the 2 groups: location of the corneal apex in millimeters relative to the corneal vertex, dioptric power at the corneal apex and corneal vertex, corneal irregularity indices at 3.0 mm and 5.0 mm, anterior-posterior apex ratio, and inferior-superior dioptric asymmetry value. Maps were obtained in 71 eyes (71 patients) with subclinical keratoconus and 76 normal eyes (76 patients). The tangential posterior apex curvature was significantly steeper than the axial posterior apex curvature in both groups (P keratoconus eyes from normal eyes. The anterior-posterior apex ratio on the tangential map and 5.0 mm irregularity index of the posterior corneal surface were highly sensitive and specific for early detection of subclinical keratoconus. Tangential corneal topography maps should be considered in preoperative subclinical keratoconus screening. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLINICAL LAMINITIS AND DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC EXAM IN HOLSTEIN COWS IN THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Amaral Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical laminitis has been responsible for economic losses in dairy industry; thus, its diagnostic    is very important to prevent negative responses to milk production industry. The aim of this study  was to identify lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period with presence or absence of radiographic signs linked to this disease in Holstein cows. The cows were evaluated during the transition period and categorized into two groups (with and without laminitis according to the lesions associated with this subclinical disease. The radiological dynamic was performed in two target points during the transition period (prepartum and postpartum, with the objective of determining capsular position possible alterations and third phalanx bone degeneration (F3. There was no effect of the presence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis regarding the position of the third phalanx to the hoof wall (p>0.05. Significant radiographic angular differences (p0.05. Overall, this study did not show radiographic signs of phalangeal misalignment in the hoof of dairy cows with lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period . Keywords:  aseptic pododermatitis; bovines; complementary exams; hoof.

  20. The Natural History of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwaru, Lily L.; Rariy, Chevon M.; Arnold, Alice M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Studies of long-term outcomes of subclinical hypothyroidism have assessed only baseline thyroid function, despite natural transitions to euthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism over time. Objective: We provide estimates of persistence, resolution, and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism over 4 yr, stratified by baseline TSH, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status, age, and sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were 3996 U.S. individuals at least 65 yr old enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected at baseline in 459 individuals not taking thyroid medication. Main Outcome Measure: Thyroid function was evaluated at 2 and 4 yr and initiation of thyroid medication annually. Results were stratified by baseline TSH, TPOAb status, age, and sex. Results: Persistence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 56% at 2 and 4 yr. At 2 yr, resolution was more common with a TSH of 4.5–6.9 mU/liter (46 vs. 10% with TSH 7–9.9 mU/liter and 7% with TSH ≥10 mU/liter; P hypothyroidism (P hypothyroidism were common between 2 and 4 yr. Age and sex did not affect transitions. Conclusions: Subclinical hypothyroidism persists for 4 yr in just over half of older individuals, with high rates of reversion to euthyroidism in individuals with lower TSH concentrations and TPOAb negativity. Future studies should examine the impact of transitions in thyroid status on clinical outcomes. PMID:22438233

  1. P300 event related potential application to cognitive status assessment of the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

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    Dejanović M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of thyroid function are often accompanied by cognitive and affective disorders. Assessment of cognitive status in the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism represents a possibility for early diagnostics of cognitive impairment and timely introduction of necessary pharmacotherapy treatment. The aim of this study was to quantify whether there are P3 event related potential (ERP deviations as electrophysiological markers of cognitive activity in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. P300 potentials were examined in thirty patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and in 30 healthy subjects of the control group. P300 was recorded using the classic auditory oddball paradigm, with 20% of target and 80% of non-target stimuli. The results analysis showed a significantly longer latency P300 and reduced amplitude P300 in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid subjects. There is also a statistically significant negative correlation between the results of a mini mental state examination and the P300 latency at Fz electrode (r= -0.47, p <0.01 and Cz electrode (r= -0.43, p =0.017. P300 ERP is important in the evaluation of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, due to the sensitivity in the detection cognitive disorders.

  2. The genetic validation of heterogeneity in schizophrenia

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    Moritani Makiko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Schizophrenia is a heritable disorder, however clear genetic architecture has not been detected. To overcome this state of uncertainty, the SZGene database has been established by including all published case-control genetic association studies appearing in peer-reviewed journals. In the current study, we aimed to determine if genetic variants strongly suggested by SZGene are associated with risk of schizophrenia in our case-control samples of Japanese ancestry. In addition, by employing the additive model for aggregating the effect of seven variants, we aimed to verify the genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia diagnosed by an operative diagnostic manual, the DSM-IV. Methods Each positively suggested genetic polymorphism was ranked according to its p-value, then the seven top-ranked variants (p Results No statistically significant deviation between cases and controls was observed in the genetic risk-index derived from all seven variants on the top-ranked polymorphisms. In fact, the average risk-index score in the schizophrenia group (6.5+/-1.57 was slightly lower than among controls (6.6+/-1.39. Conclusion The current work illustrates the difficulty in identifying universal and definitive risk-conferring polymorphisms for schizophrenia. Our employed number of samples was small, so we can not preclude the possibility that some or all of these variants are minor risk factors for schizophrenia in the Japanese population. It is also important to aggregate the updated positive variants in the SZGene database when the replication work is conducted.

  3. The social brain hypothesis of schizophrenia

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    BURNS, JONATHAN

    2006-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis is a useful heuristic for understanding schizophrenia. It focuses attention on the core Bleulerian concept of autistic alienation and is consistent with well-replicated findings of social brain dysfunction in schizophrenia as well as contemporary theories of human cognitive and brain evolution. The contributions of Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Wittgenstein allow us to arrive at a new "philosophy of interpersonal relatedness", which better reflects the "embodied mind" and signifies the end of Cartesian dualistic thinking. In this paper I review the evolution, development and neurobiology of the social brain - the anatomical and functional substrate for adaptive social behaviour and cognition. Functional imaging identifies fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal cortical networks as comprising the social brain, while the discovery of "mirror neurons" provides an understanding of social cognition at a cellular level. Patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities in a wide range of social cognition tasks such as emotion recognition, theory of mind and affective responsiveness. Furthermore, recent research indicates that schizophrenia is a disorder of functional and structural connectivity of social brain networks. These findings lend support to the claim that schizophrenia represents a costly by-product of social brain evolution in Homo sapiens. Individuals with this disorder find themselves seriously disadvantaged in the social arena and vulnerable to the stresses of their complex social environments. This state of "disembodiment" and interpersonal alienation is the core phenomenon of schizophrenia and the root cause of intolerable suffering in the lives of those affected. PMID:16946939

  4. Thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

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    Smith, Matthew J; Wang, Lei; Cronenwett, Will; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Csernansky, John G

    2011-03-01

    Biomarkers are needed that can distinguish between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to inform the ongoing debate over the diagnostic boundary between these two disorders. Neuromorphometric abnormalities of the thalamus have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia and linked to core features of the disorder, but have not been similarly investigated in individuals with schizoaffective disorder. In this study, we examine whether individuals with schizoaffective disorder have a pattern of thalamic deformation that is similar or different to the pattern found in individuals with schizophrenia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 47), individuals with schizoaffective disorder (n = 15), and controls (n = 42). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping was used to obtain three-dimensional surfaces of the thalamus. Multiple analyses of variance were used to test for group differences in volume and measures of surface shape. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder have similar thalamic volumes. Thalamic surface shape deformation associated with schizophrenia suggests selective involvement of the anterior and posterior thalamus, while deformations in mediodorsal and ventrolateral regions were observed in both groups. Schizoaffective disorder had distinct deformations in medial and lateral thalamic regions. Abnormalities distinct to schizoaffective disorder suggest involvement of the central and ventroposterior medial thalamus which may be involved in mood circuitry, dorsolateral nucleus which is involved in recall processing, and the lateral geniculate nucleus which is involved in visual processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

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    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  6. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

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    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  7. The muscarinic system, cognition and schizophrenia.

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    Carruthers, Sean P; Gurvich, Caroline T; Rossell, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    An increasing body of evidence has implicated the central muscarinic system as contributing to a number of symptoms of schizophrenia and serving as a potential target for pharmaceutical interventions. A theoretical review is presented that focuses on the central muscarinic system's contribution to the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aim is to bridge the void between pertinent neuropsychological and neurobiological research to provide an explanatory account of the role that the central muscarinic system plays in the symptoms of schizophrenia. First, there will be a brief overview of the relevant neuropsychological schizophrenia literature, followed by a concise introduction to the central muscarinic system. Subsequently, we will draw from animal, neuropsychological and pharmacological literature, and discuss the findings in relation to cognition, schizophrenia and the muscarinic system. Whilst unifying the multiple domains of research into a concise review will act as a useful line of enquiry into the central muscarinic systems contribution to the symptoms of schizophrenia, it will be made apparent that more research is needed in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

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    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  9. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

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    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  10. Models of Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

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    Powell, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to answer questions regarding environmental influences on both neural and behavioral development. In an effort to better understand the developmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, animal models have been developed, which seek to model the etiology and/or the pathophysiology of schizophrenia or specific behaviors associated with the disease. Developmental models specific to schizophrenia have focused on epidemiological risk factors (e.g., prenatal viral insult, birth complications) or more heuristic models aimed at understanding the developmental neuropathology of the disease (e.g., ventral hippocampal lesions). The combined approach of behavioral and neuroanatomical evaluation of these models strengthens their utility in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and developing new treatment strategies. PMID:21312409

  11. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L was 5d. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 5 DIM were 6.1 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 to 16.0] to develop a DA than cows first testing SCK positive at 6 DIM or later. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 7 DIM were 4.5 times more likely (95% CI = 1.7 to 11.7) to be removed from the herd, were 0.7 times as likely (95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8) to conceive to first service, and produced 2.2 kg less milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1

  12. Risperidone versus placebo for schizophrenia.

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    Rattehalli, Ranganath D; Zhao, Sai; Li, Bao Guo; Jayaram, Mahesh B; Xia, Jun; Sampson, Stephanie

    2016-12-15

    Risperidone is the first new-generation antipsychotic drug made available in the market in its generic form. To determine the clinical effects, safety and cost-effectiveness of risperidone compared with placebo for treating schizophrenia. On 19th October 2015, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We checked the references of all included studies and contacted industry and authors of included studies for relevant studies and data. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing oral risperidone with placebo treatments for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Two review authors independently screened studies, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), and the 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and the 95% CI. We created a 'Summary of findings table' using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). The review includes 15 studies (N = 2428). Risk of selection bias is unclear in most of the studies, especially concerning allocation concealment. Other areas of risk such as missing data and selective reporting also caused some concern, although not affected on the direction of effect of our primary outcome, as demonstrated by sensitivity analysis. Many of the included trials have industry sponsorship of involvement. Nonetheless, generally people in the risperidone group are more likely to achieve a significant clinical improvement in mental state (6 RCTs, N = 864, RR 0.64, CI 0.52 to 0.78, very low-quality evidence). The effect withstood, even when three studies with >50% attrition rate were removed from the analysis (3 RCTs, N = 589, RR 0.77, CI 0.67 to 0.88). Participants receiving placebo were less

  13. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S; Anderson, Elaine J; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Dakin, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target's appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism as an independent risk factor for colorectal neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guifang; Mu, Xuefeng; Xing, Huizhi; Xu, Ruibiao; Sun, Guangxi; Dong, Chonghai; Pan, Qichuan; Xu, Chao

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm is increasing sharply. It has been reported that both colorectal neoplasm and cardiovascular disease share similar common risk factors. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) occurs in 4-20% of the adult population and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, no study has yet explored the relationship between SCH and colorectal neoplasm. Our objectives were to clarify the association between the two conditions. This is a case-control study. A total of 273 cases of colorectal neoplasm were first identified, and a 1:3 matched random sample of 819 controls was then collected using strata according to age, and gender. The medical records of all these patients were retrieved. Blood pressure, body mass index, and thyroid function were determined. Colonoscopies were performed by experienced gastroenterologists. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to explore the relationship between SCH and colorectal neoplasm. Remarkably, the prevalence rate of SCH was significantly higher in colorectal neoplasm (+) group, compared with colorectal neoplasm (-) group (Pneoplasm was found in 67 (34.9%) subjects in SCH group, which was more than that in euthyroid group (P=0.002). Moreover, patients with SCH were more likely to have advanced colonic lesion and colorectal cancer compared with euthyroid subjects (P=0.028 and 0.036, respectively). After adjusting for the factors of blood pressure, body mass index, history of hypertension and smoking, an association still existed between colorectal neoplasm and SCH (OR=1.689, 95% CI: 1.207-2.362, P=0.002). A strong association between SCH and colorectal neoplasm was firstly identified. SCH was found to be an independent risk factor for colorectal neoplasm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Subclinical Rickets Cause SCFE? A Prospective, Pilot Study.

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    Arkader, Alexandre; Woon, Regina P; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common disorder of the growing hip; however, its etiology remains unknown. Vitamin D (25-OH) is a major regulator of bone homeostasis and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the major causes of rickets, and rickets has been associated with SCFE. Increased body mass index (BMI) has been linked to SCFE and obese children are known to have lower vitamin D levels. Therefore, we hypothesize that children who develop SCFE may have subclinical rickets predisposing them to the development of physeal disease. This was a pilot, prospective study designed to determine the relationship between vitamin D, bone, muscle, and fat in patients with SCFE. We enrolled 20 consecutive patients with idiopathic SCFE aged 9 to 14 years. Upon diagnosis, vitamin D, PTH, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone blood levels were obtained. A single-slice computed tomography was used to measure cortical bone density (CBD) of the femur. Demographics, BMI, and the results obtained were compared to generate a relationship between vitamin D levels and SCFE. Twenty patients were enrolled, 13 males and 7 females, at an average age of 12 years (range, 9 to 14 y), and mean BMI% was 93.9 (range, 81.3 to 99.5). There were 15 stable and 5 unstable SCFE. Overall, mean and SD values for vitamin D, 25-OH were within the normal range (43.9 ± 13.5). We found no difference in values in vitamin D between nonobese (BMI children are known to have lower levels of vitamin D and a higher prevalence of SCFE, we found no correlation between low vitamin D and the development of SCFE in this subset of patients.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lokesh Kumar; Sharma, Neera; Gadpayle, Adesh Kisanji; Dutta, Deep

    2016-11-01

    Hyperprolactinemia has been reported in 0-57% of primary hypothyroidism. Data on hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is scant and inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in ScH. Consecutive patients diagnosed to have normal thyroid function, ScH or overt primary hypothyroidism underwent serum prolactin, gonadotropins, testosterone and estradiol estimation. Patients with pregnancy, pituitary adenomas, secondary hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, comorbid states and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From initially screened 4950 patients, hormonal data from 2848 individuals who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. The occurrence of hyperprolactinemia (females:males) was highest in primary hypothyroidism (42.95%:39.53%) (n=192), followed by ScH (35.65%:31.61%) (n=770) and euthyroid individuals (2.32%:2.02%) (n=1886) (P10mIU/L (females: males) was 25.56%:20.73%, 49.07%:50% and 61.43%:35.71% respectively (Phypothyroidism. In females, testosterone was lowest in patients with primary hypothyroidism. In males, serum estradiol was significantly higher, and testosterone significantly lower in men with ScH and primary hypothyroidism. Regression analysis revealed serum TSH followed by free T4, to be best predictors of serum prolactin in both sexes. Hyperprolactinemia is common in ScH, especially in those with TSH>7.5mIU/L. ROC analysis confirmed that TSH≥7.51mIU/L in females and ≥8.33mIU/L in males had a sensitivity of ≈50% with a very high specificity of >90% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin screening may be warranted in ScH with TSH>7.5mIU/L, and may form an indication for treating ScH. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism rats

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    Ningning Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to observe adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT rats and to determine whether levothyroxine (LT4 treatment affects these changes. Sixty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group; sHT A, B and C groups and the sHT + T4 group. The sHT rats were induced by methimazole (MMI and the sHT + T4 rats were administered LT4 treatment after 8 weeks of MMI administration. Thyroid function and lipid levels were measured using radioimmunoassays and enzymatic colorimetric methods, respectively. Serum adiponectin (APN, chemerin, TNF-α, endothelin (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured using ELISA kits and a nitric-reductive assay. The expression of APN, chemerin and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured in experimental rats using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Hematoxylin–eosin (HE staining was used to observe changes in adipose tissue. The sHT rats had significantly higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, TNF-α, chemerin, ET-1, total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and lower levels of APN and NO than those in control and sHT + T4 rats. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, the levels of chemerin, TNF-α, ET-1, LDL-C, TC and triglyceride (TG were positively correlated with TSH, but APN and NO levels were negatively correlated with TSH. These findings demonstrated that high TSH levels contribute to the changes of adipokines and endothelial dysfunction in sHT, but LT4 treatment ameliorates those changes.

  18. Correction of subclinical coagulation disorders before percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veelo, Denise P.; Vlaar, Alexander P.; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Levi, Marcel; Paulus, Frederique; Berends, Fenny; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) can be safely performed in patients with severe coagulation disorders if these are carefully corrected immediately before the procedure. However, it is currently unclear whether PDT can be performed safely in patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with uncorrected mild coagulation disorders. Materials and methods In a randomised controlled trial we determined the effect of correction of mild coagulation disorders on bleeding during and after PDT. ICU patients planned for bedside PDT with: (i) a prothrombin time (PT) between 14.7–20.0 seconds, (ii) a platelet count between 40–100×109/L and/or (iii) active treatment with acetylsalicylic acid were randomised to receive infusion with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (“correction”) versus no transfusion (“no correction”) before PDT. Results We randomised 35 patients to the “correction” group and 37 patients to the “no correction” group. In patients who received FFP, the decrease in PT was marginal (mean decrease 0.40±0.56 seconds); the median increase in platelet counts after transfusion of platelets was 35 [11–47]x109/L. The median blood loss was 3 [IQR: 1–6] grams in the “correction” group and 3 [IQR: 2–6] grams in the “no correction” group (P=0.96). Discussion Bleeding during and after bedside PDT in ICU patients with mild coagulation disorders is rare in our setting. Correction of subclinical coagulation disorders by transfusion of FFP and/or platelets does not affect bleeding. PMID:22337277

  19. [Subclinical sensorineural hearing loss in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-González, José Luis; Villegas-González, Mario Jesús; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique; Montero-Cantu, Carlos Alberto; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernán; Garza-Elizondo, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The rheumatoid arthritis is a clinical entity capable to cause hearing impairment that can be diagnosed promptly with high frequencies audiometry. To detect subclinical sensorineural hearing loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cross-sectional study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis performing high frequency audiometry 125Hz to 16,000Hz and tympanometry. The results were correlated with markers of disease activity and response to therapy. High frequency audiometry was performed in 117 female patients aged from 19 to 65 years. Sensorineural hearing loss was observed at a sensitivity of pure tones from 125 to 8,000 Hz in 43.59%, a tone threshold of 10,000 to 16,000Hz in 94.02% patients in the right ear and in 95.73% in the left ear. Hearing was normal in 8 (6.84%) patients. Hearing loss was observed in 109 (93.16%), and was asymmetric in 36 (30.77%), symmetric in 73 (62.37%), bilateral in 107 (91.45%), unilateral in 2 (1.71%), and no conduction and/or mixed hearing loss was encountered. Eight (6.83%) patients presented vertigo, 24 (20.51%) tinnitus. Tympanogram type A presented in 88.90% in the right ear and 91.46% in the left ear, with 5.98 to 10.25% type As. Stapedius reflex was present in 75.3 to 85.2%. Speech discrimination in the left ear was significantly different (p = 0.02)in the group older than 50 years. No association was found regarding markers of disease activity, but there was an association with the onset of rheumatoid arthritis disease. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a high prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss for high and very high frequencies. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: intellectual development of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Hossein Ghorbani; Tohidi, Maryam; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Behrooz, Ebrahim Ghorbani; Tehranidoost, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-10-01

    The effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (M-SCH) on the neuropsychological development of the offspring are not clear. We evaluated the intellectual development of children of mothers who had M-SCH during the pregnancy for these children. Sixty-two children were recruited. After excluding those age 15, 44 were enrolled. The mothers of these children were part of a sub-pool of 90, of 441 hypothyroid women of reproductive age seen in Tehran endocrine clinics between 1991 and 2003 and who were observed during gestation. Mothers were receiving levothyroxine (LT4) before gestation. Mothers of 19 children (control group) had normal serum thyrotropin (TSH) during the pregnancy that produced these children. Mothers of the other 25 children had increased TSH during the comparable pregnancy. Nineteen mothers had M-SCH (case group) and six had overt hypothyroidism. Serum TSH and free T4 (FT4) and urine iodine were measured, and seven cognitive performance and intelligence quotient (IQ) tests were performed. Case children were similar to control children with respect to gender, age, parental education, maternal age at time of pregnancy and at the time of their hypothyroidism, percent mothers having thyroid peroxidase antibodies, LT4 dose of mothers during pregnancy, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, and duration of breast feeding. Maternal TSH (mean ± standard deviation) in the case group during their mother's pregnancies was 11.3 ± 5.3 and 1.4 ± 1.0 mU/L in the controls (p hypothyroid mothers is similar in those whose mothers have M-SCH during pregnancy compared with those whose mothers have normal serum TSH concentrations during pregnancy.