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Sample records for subclinical endometritis 4h

  1. [Evaluation of the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in dairy cattle using ultrasound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Mirjam; Drillich, Marc; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine signs of subclinical endometritis found by ultrasound that are associated with reduced fertility in dairy cows. The maximum diameter of the uterine lumen was determined by ultrasound in 324 cows without clinical signs of endometritis after evaluation of the genital tract 21 to 27 days postpartum. Cows were classified into healthy or with subclinical endometritis by three threshold values for the maximum uterine lumen diameter of 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm or 0.8 cm. Examinations by rectal palpation and ultrasound as well as classifications were repeated 14 days later. In addition, ovaries were scanned by ultrasound to determine the stage of the estrous cycle. In a subgroup of 103 cows the echotexture of the uterus and its contents was evaluated. In these cows the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by a scoring system. The diameter of the uterine lumen was significantly affected by stage of the estrous cycle at the time of examination. However, no effects were found for the stage of the cycle at the time of examination on subsequent reproductive performance. A uterine lumen with a maximum diameter of more than 0.2 cm showed a significant negative association with conception rate and proportion of cows pregnant. Classification based on higher threshold values did not reveal an association with reproductive performance. Echogenic content in the uterus also decreased reproductive performance. A classification based on the echotexture of the uterus and its contents revealed significant differences between healthy cows and cows with subclinical endometritis regarding the proportion of cows inseminated and pregnant. The results of this study showed that the diagnostic of bovine endometritis should be broadend by ultrasonography. The definition of subclinical endometritis diagnosed by means of ultrasonography has to be evaluated in further studies.

  2. Subclinical Endometritis Diagnosed through Cytobrush and Reproductive Performance in Cattle from the Municipality of Pupiales, Colombia

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    Darío Antonio Vallejo Timarán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the distribution of subclinical endometritis and the reproductive behavior of dairy cattle diagnosed through endometrial cytology from the Municipality of Pupiales, Nariño. Materials and methods: A reproductive assessment was carried out (rectal palpation, ultrasonography and evaluation of vaginal mucus to determine the absence of early gestation and of clinical signs of uterine infection, and 174 cows were sampled through cervical catheterization and the technique of Cytobrush starting 30 days after birth. Consequently, the population under study was organized based on ovarian function (empty cycling normal or anestrous and the status of the uterus (with or without endometritis. Results: 43 cows (24.7% showed cellular changes indicative of an active inflammatory process originated in the endometrium. 79.06% of the animals diagnosed with subclinical endometritis were cyclic and had low reproductive performance. Conclusion: The high impact of subclinical endometritis in fertility and reproductive efficiency was determined. An early reproductive assessment must be performed, together with tests that make it possible to determine the presence of concomitant subclinical conditions.

  3. Endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis of dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds

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    Reátegui J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (% PMN-N as an indicator of endometritis sub clinic in dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds, by the method of endometrial cytology. 94 dairy cows were sampled, and were grouped by genotypic characteristics as: Group 1: 47 Holstein Friesian cows; Group 2: 47 Jersey cows, both between 21 and 56 days postpartum. It were evaluated: age, body condition, lactation number, number of birth, date of birth and days in milk to obtain the sample data were evaluated with a test of homogeneity based on statistical Chi square (p 0.05 was found in any of the variables studied, the% PMN-N reached a range between 0.4% and 4.4%, with an average of 2.2% still below the values indicating the present investigation reports the% PMN-N by genetic group both as multiparous or primiparous cows showed no significant differences between them. It has be concluded that the overall frequency for SE in different genotype cows did show statistically significant differences (p>0.05, however the presence of PMN-N as an indicator of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows of different genotype with 2 and 4 lactations showed differences statistically significant (p<0.05.

  4. Effects of 1 or 2 treatments with prostaglandin F₂α on subclinical endometritis and fertility in lactating dairy cows inseminated by timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Greco, L F; Ayres, H; Favoreto, M G; Carvalho, M R; Galvão, K N; Santos, J E P

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of the current study were to investigate the efficacy of PGF₂α as a therapy to reduce the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and improve pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in cows subjected to a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. A total of 1,342 lactating Holstein dairy cows were allocated randomly at 25 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to remain as untreated controls (control, n=454) or to receive a single PGF₂α treatment at 39 ± 3 DIM (1PGF, n=474) or 2 treatments with PGF(α at 25 ± 3 and 39 ± 3 DIM (2PGF, n=414). All cows were enrolled in the double Ovsynch program at 48 ± 3 DIM and were inseminated at 75 ± 3 DIM. A subset of 357 cows had uterine samples collected for cytological examination at 25 ± 3, 32 ± 3, and 46 ± 3 DIM to determine the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Subclinical endometritis was defined by the presence of ≥ 5% PMNL. Vaginal discharge score was evaluated at 25 ± 3 DIM and used to define the prevalence of purulent vaginal discharge. Body condition score was assessed at 25 ± 3 DIM. Pregnancy was diagnosed 32 d after AI and reconfirmed 28 d later. At 32 ± 3 DIM, the prevalence of subclinical endometritis was reduced by treatment with PGF₂α at 25 ± 3 DIM in 2PGF (control=23.5% vs. 1PGF=28.3% vs. 2PGF=16.7%); however, this benefit disappeared at 46 ± 3 DIM, and 14% of the cows remained with subclinical endometritis. One or 2 treatments with PGF₂α did not influence P/AI on d 32 or 60 after timed AI, which averaged 39.9 and 35.2%. Similarly, treatment with PGF₂α had no effect on pregnancy loss between 32 and 60 d of gestation (11.9%). Cows diagnosed with both purulent vaginal discharge and subclinical endometritis had the lowest P/AI and the highest pregnancy loss compared with those diagnosed with only 1 of the 2 diseases or compared with cows having no diagnosis of uterine diseases. Interestingly, subclinical endometritis depressed P/AI and increased pregnancy loss only

  5. Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

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    Barrio, M.; Vigo, M.; Quintela, L.A.; Becerra, J.J.; García-Herradón, P.J.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Fernandez-Sanchez, F.I.; Prieto, A.; Cainzos, J.; Peña, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65). Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3). From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods. (Author)

  6. Determination of the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and evaluation of molecular characterization of Escherichia coli (E-coli separated of them in mares repeat breeder in Yazd province

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    Taktaz Hafshejani Taghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli are known as the most common cause of reproductive tract infection in mare. Due to the progressive process of antibiotics use and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the aim of this study is evaluate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated. In this study, 60 mares were used with infertility background. Diagnosis of endometritis was performed using history and ultrasonography. Cytology, culture, Antibiogram were done of samples and PCR test was used to examine the gene virulence and antibiotic resistance. E-coli bacteria was isolated 48/33 % from sample culture. In PCR test 66/21 % of bacteria had virulence gene. It was determined, the lowest resistance to chloramphenicol about 38/15% and greatest resistance into ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin with 23/69 percent, respectively. 93% samples cytology had neutrophil more than two and the agent of 50% showed E. coli. The cause of half of subclinical endometritis in infertile maresis E-coli bacteriaEscherichia coli are known as the most common cause of reproductive tract infection in mare. Due to the progressive process of antibiotics use and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the aim of this study is evaluate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated. In this study, 60 mares were used with infertility background. Diagnosis of endometritis was performed using history and ultrasonography. Cytology, culture, Antibiogram were done of samples and PCR test was used to examine the gene virulence and antibiotic resistance. E-coli bacteria was isolated 48/33 % from sample culture. In PCR test 66/21 % of bacteria had virulence gene. It was determined, the lowest resistance to chloramphenicol about 38/15% and greatest resistance into ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin with 23/69 percent, respectively. 93% samples cytology had

  7. Activation of persistent Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in mares with subclinical endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rønn; Skive, Bolette; Christoffersen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) may be underdiagnosed due to traditional diagnostic methods lacking sensitivity and specificity. We serendipitously identified a bacterial growth medium (bActivate) that appeared capable of inducing...

  8. Long-term alteration of follicular steroid concentrations in relation to subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M P; Ledgard, A M; Beaumont, S E; Berg, M C; McNatty, K P; Peterson, A J; Back, P J

    2011-11-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effect of subclinical endometritis (scEndo) on ovarian follicular steroid concentrations in early postpartum pasture-fed dairy cows. Mixed-age lactating dairy cows (n = 169) were examined to ascertain uterine health status on d 21 postpartum (±3 d). From this herd, a cohort of scEndo and uninfected cows (n = 47) were selected using uterine cytology to determine scEndo. To ensure cows with scEndo were selected for the study, a conservative threshold [>18% polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells among uterine nucleated cells] was chosen as a selection threshold. Ovarian follicular dynamics were assessed by ultrasonography on d 21, 42, and 63 postpartum. On the latter 2 d, all follicles >4 mm in diameter were ablated, and 4 d later, the largest (F1) and second largest (F2) follicles were measured and their follicular fluid aspirated. Hematological variables and plasma metabolites were measured also on these days to further characterize scEndo cows. On d 21, the prevalence of scEndo was approximately 9% in this herd; by d 42 infections had self-resolved in the majority (81%) of those cows classified as having scEndo on d 21. The scEndo cows had a delayed return to cyclicity; however, no effect was evident on ovarian follicle size or growth rate. Weeks after scEndo had self-resolved and cyclicity was restored, decreased (P = 0.07) testosterone and increased (P = 0.07) cortisol concentrations were evident in F1 follicles of scEndo compared with uninfected cows. Progesterone concentrations of F1 increased (P cows, whereas estradiol, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations were decreased (P cows. These 3 steroids also differed (P size categories of scEndo but not uninfected cows. On d 21, mean plasma albumin concentration was decreased (P = 0.02) in scEndo cows. In summary, early postpartum scEndo had surprisingly long-term influences on the steroid concentrations of ovarian follicles long after infections had self

  9. Diagnosis of endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Composition useful for diagnosing, treating or activating dormant infection of pathogen e.g. endometritis in a subject, comprises compound selected from anti-dormancy factor, pro-inflammatory compound and resuscitation-promoting factor......Composition useful for diagnosing, treating or activating dormant infection of pathogen e.g. endometritis in a subject, comprises compound selected from anti-dormancy factor, pro-inflammatory compound and resuscitation-promoting factor...

  10. Vaginal Fornix Discharge Cellularity and Its Leukocyte Esterase Activity for Diagnosis of Endometritis in Dairy Cows

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    Abolfazl HAJIBEMANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of some strip test markers (i.e., leukocyte esterase (LE activity, protein, nitrate and pH for diagnosis of endometritis in dairy cows using vaginal fornix discharge. Also, the total white blood cell count (t-WBC/l of this secretion and degenerative changes of neutrophils in cervical cytology were used as alternative methods to predict progression of the endometritis severity. Holstein cows (n=215 between 30-40 days in milk (DIM were included and examined. Giemsa-stained smear was prepared from cervical mucus. Cervical cytology test was considered as reference screening method for the detection of subclinical endometritis. The LE activity and t-WBC in the vaginal fornix discharge of subclinical endometritis cows were significantly higher than those from healthy cows. Sensitivity and specificity were 78% and 73% for LE10 activity (10 minutes after contacting with discharges and 60% and 69% for t-WBC (cut off point=210 cells/l for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis, respectively. There was a good agreement between LE10 activity, t-WBC and cervical cytology test with a Kappa coefficient of 0.4 and 0.42, respectively (P<0.0001. Total WBC count in discharge and degenerative neutrophils (DN percentages increase simultaneously with the degree and severity of endometritis. There was a highly significant (P<0.01 correlation between t-WBC and some reagent strip test markers (LE activity, protein and nitrate in clear discharge of studied cows. In conclusion, the present results suggest the LE activity and t-WBC in vaginal fornix discharge could be used as non-invasive reliable and valid methods for screening of subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy herds.

  11. Microbiological diagnosis of postpartum endometritis

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    N. A. Korobkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the uterus microflora in healthy women and in the patients with postpartum endometritis using the method of quantitative assessment of contamination of the material. Further examination revealed polymicrobial etiology of the postpartum endometritis. The leading role in the etiological structure belongs to opportunistic microorganisms: enterococci, enterobacteria (preferably Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis, and non-spore forming anaerobes (predominantly - Peptostreptococcus spp. аnd Bacteroides spp., located in the uterus, in most cases, a bulk quantity as aerobically-anaerobic associations.

  12. Endometritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the uterus. It can be due to chlamydia, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, or a mix of normal vaginal bacteria. ... be performed: Cultures from the cervix for chlamydia , gonorrhea , and other organisms Endometrial biopsy ESR ( erythrocyte sedimentation ...

  13. Postabortal endometritis and isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbacci, M B; Spence, M R; Kappus, E W; Burkman, R C; Rao, L; Quinn, T C

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 505 unselected women presenting for induced abortion was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and to determine if cervical isolation of C trachomatis before abortion increases the risk of postabortal endometritis. A comparison of direct fluorescent antibody (slide) test with tissue culture for diagnosing C trachomatis infection also was evaluated in this population. C trachomatis was identified by culture in 89 patients (17.6%) and by direct slide test in 85 patients (16.8%). Six of 17 patients with postabortal endometritis were culture positive for C trachomatis, with a significant correlation between C trachomatis infection and development of endometritis observed (P less than .05). These data suggest C trachomatis may play an important role in postabortal endometritis.

  14. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis: an unusual pathological entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells. We, hereby, report a case of 45 year multigravida female with irregular menstrual history, clinically diagnosed as carcinoma and ...

  15. Definitions and diagnosis of postpartum endometritis in dairy cows.

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    Dubuc, J; Duffield, T F; Leslie, K E; Walton, J S; LeBlanc, S J

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this observational study were to determine and compare diagnostic criteria for postpartum endometritis in dairy cows. Data generated from 1,044 Holstein cows (6 herds) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial were used. Cows were examined for endometritis at 35±3 d (exam 1) and 56±3 d (exam 2) after parturition, using endometrial cytology (cytobrush technique), vaginal discharge scoring (Metricheck device; Simcrotech, Hamilton, New Zealand), and cervical diameter measurement (transrectal palpation). Reproductive data were recorded until 200 d after parturition. Diagnostic criteria for cytological and clinical endometritis were determined based on detrimental effect on subsequent reproductive performance, using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models accounting for the effect of herd clustering. Comparison of diagnostic criteria was performed using endometrial cytology as reference test or by quantifying the agreement between diagnostic approaches. At exam 1, diagnostic criteria were ≥6% polymorphonuclear cells and mucopurulent or worse (purulent or foul) vaginal discharge for cytological and clinical endometritis, respectively. At exam 2, diagnostic criteria were ≥4% polymorphonuclear cells and mucopurulent or worse vaginal discharge for cytological and clinical endometritis, respectively. Cows were classified as having cytological endometritis only, clinical endometritis only, or both cytological and clinical endometritis. Prevalence at exam 1 was 13.5, 9.4, and 5.8% for cytological endometritis only, clinical endometritis only, and both cytological and clinical endometritis, respectively. The detrimental effects of cytological and clinical endometritis on reproductive performance were additive. Among cows with clinical endometritis, only 38 and 36% had cytological endometritis at exam 1 and exam 2, respectively. Combination of diagnostic criteria improved neither the accuracy for predicting cytological endometritis nor the

  16. Subclinical Hypothyroid

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    Mohammad Reza Kalantar Hormozi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: subclnical hypothyroid (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a midly Elevated TSH, is common in adults. Subclinical hypothyroid is a risk factor for developing hypothyroidism complication . the goal of screening is to identify and treatment patients with sublinical hypothyroid before they develop these complication. Methods: The sample size of this study was the articles indexed in pubmed,ovid, tripdatabase, new spring link black coehrane, Elsevirer, Embase and contained the terms subclinical hypothyroid, Anti-tpo, Thyrotropin, levothyroxine trapy. Results: 831 articles were found that 75 articles were investigated for this issue. The results are discussed under. The subtile such as subclinical hypothyroid, screening for subclinical hypothyroid, Indication of treatment of Subclinical hypothyroid. Conclusion: In this summary, we tried to review the current literature about definition, Indection of screening and treatment of subclinical hypothyroid and reach a comprehensive guidline for practical significance of this subject in routines practice.

  17. Prevention of postpartal endometritis: Antibiotic of choice

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    Jovanović Nebojša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In spite of the advances of modern medicine, puerperal infection is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality of women in postpartal period. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of microorganisms in the cervicovaginal region of women in labor, as well as the frequency of puerperal endometritis in order to determine optimal treatment for isolated microorganisms and to prevent postpartal endometritis. Methods In this study, all women who gave birth to a healthy child per vias naturalis during the past two years in a tertiary health institution, Institute of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Centre of Serbia, were analyzed. The investigation involved 6,391 women in labor. Cervicovaginal smear was taken from all patients before labor, on admission for delivery, and sent to microbiological analysis. Standard procedures of bacterial cultivation were used. For statistical analysis of the results, we used the statistical programme SPSS 15. Results A single microorganism was isolated from each smear of 612 women and in 52 patients two microorganisms were registered in the same smear. We identified 10 sorts of microorganisms, out of which Escherichia coli (in 43.8% of cases, and Enterococcus spp. (in 27.9% of cases were the most frequent ones. Due to the appropriate approach, there were no cases of puerperal endometritis registered. Reactivity tests showed that Escherichia coli was sensitive to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, Enterococcus spp. to macrolides and cephalosporines, while both types of microorganisms were sensitive to synthetic penicillins and fluoroquinolines. Conclusion The study results show that 10.9% of pregnant women have positive findings of the cervicovaginal smear and that infection prevention should be directed towards Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. by administration of the listed antibiotics.

  18. Risk factors for postpartum endometritis and the effect of endometritis on reproductive performance in dairy cows in Korea.

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    Kim, Ill-Hwa; Kang, Hyun-Gu

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for postpartum endometritis by evaluating several reproductive factors in individual cows, and to determine the effect of endometritis on the subsequent reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea. The data, including health status, parity and body condition score (BCS) of cows, and calving date, were collected from 320 cows in eight dairy herds calving from January 2001 to October 2002. We used logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these factors on endometritis. A stepwise procedure, used to obtain the appropriate model with alpha=0.05, revealed that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and parity are the important risk factors for endometritis. The mean intervals from calving to first service and conception were prolonged (Pconception rate was lower (Pconception was higher (P<0.05) in the endometritis group (1.9) than in the non-endometritis group (1.6). We conclude that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and cow parity are strongly correlated with the development of postpartum endometritis, which decreases reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea.

  19. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H

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    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  20. Endometritis post-cesárea: factores de riesgo.

    OpenAIRE

    BURGOS SALINAS, Silvia; CARBAJAL ARROYO, Luz; SAONA UGARTE, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo de endometritis post-cesárea (EPC). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo caso-control en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia del 1 de Enero de 1992 al 31 de Julio de1996. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó análisis bivariado y multivariado de regresión logística. Resultados: Durante este período se detectaron 82 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de endometritis, seleccionándose aleatoriamente i...

  1. Endometritis post-cesárea: factores de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos Salinas, Silvia; Carbajal Arroyo, Luz; Saona Ugarte, Pedro

    1999-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo de endometritis post-cesárea (EPC). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo caso-control en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia del 1 de Enero de 1992 al 31 de Julio de1996. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó análisis bivariado y multivariado de regresión logística. Resultados: Durante este período se detectaron 82 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de endometritis, seleccionándose aleatoriamente i...

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated...... with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. METHODS: First, 90...... follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...

  3. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

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    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  4. [Subclinical hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, J

    2013-10-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as abnormal low TSH level with thyroid hormones within their reference range. This laboratory condition may be symptomatic in a relevant number of patients leading to tachycardia, sweating, nervousness, anxiety and insomnia. The risk for cardiovascular disease is increased with more frequent atrial fibrillation and increased left ventricular mass including diastolic dysfunction. Cardiovascular mortality and overall mortality surmounts the average of the normal population. Longterm TSH suppression leads to decreased bone mineral density and an increased fracture rate in the hip and in the spine. After evaluation of underlying causes, therapy should be considered, especially if TSH levels are below 0.1 mIU/l. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Endometritis post-cesárea: factores de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Burgos Salinas

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo de endometritis post-cesárea (EPC. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo caso-control en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia del 1 de Enero de 1992 al 31 de Julio de1996. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó análisis bivariado y multivariado de regresión logística. Resultados: Durante este período se detectaron 82 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de endometritis, seleccionándose aleatoriamente igual número de pacientes operadas de cesárea con puerperio normal. Los factores relacionados con un riesgo significativo de EPC fueron: edad materna menor de 21 años y valores de hematocrito post-operatorio menor o igual a 30%. En el grupo de pacientes con endometritis el 45.1% de las pacientes tuvieron infección concomitante, siendo la infección de herida operatoria (29.3% y la del tracto urinario (11% las más frecuentes. ( Rev Med Hered 1999; 10:105-110 .

  6. Dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Čaparević Zorica; Bojković Gradimir; Stojanović Dragoš Lj.; Ilić Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as an increased serum TSH and normal serum FT4 concentration. In subclinical hypothyroidism, thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies are frequently present. Subclinical hypothyroidism may have endogenous or exogenous causes. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is rather high. The number of patients progressing to overt hypothyroidism may be higher. These patients may be asymptomatic, or have only mild symptoms or a single sym...

  7. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  8. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  9. 4-H Afterschool – Making an Impact

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    JoLene Bunnell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available 4-H Afterschool is making a positive impact on youth, families, and their communities. Utah State University Extension has implemented a 4-H Afterschool club at four elementary schools in low-income neighborhoods. At each of the sites, 4-H offers sixteen different project clubs. Survey results indicate that the 4-H Afterschool program is building positive social skills in the youth, providing positive alternatives to idleness and antisocial behavior, and supporting parents in the primary role of care giving. The Afterschool clubs incorporate project activities, a service learning component, and a final showcase for the parents. Youth development professionals, using the experiential learning model of 4-H, can affect positive change within their communities by implementing a 4-H Afterschool program.

  10. Clinical endometritis in an Argentinean herd of dairy cows: risk factors and reproductive efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, M J; Magnasco, R P; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Risco, C A; de la Sota, R L

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical and metabolic risk factors for clinical endometritis, the likelihood for having a normal vaginal discharge during postpartum, and the effects of endometritis on milk yield, reproductive efficiency, and metabolic status in Holstein cows. The study was conducted in a commercial dairy herd (Cordoba, Argentina) where 303 Holstein cows were enrolled. Cows were body condition scored (1 to 5) and tail bled on -14, 7, 21, 31, 41, and 50 d relative to parturition. Cows having a vaginal discharge with presence of pus between 21 and 41 d postpartum (dpp) were diagnosed as having clinical endometritis. Plasma blood samples were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and blood urea nitrogen using commercial kits and insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin, and leptin by RIA. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED, PROC GENMOD, and PROC PHREG of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Abnormal calving and puerperal metritis increased the risk for endometritis [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.21 for both]. High prepartum NEFA and high postpartum BHBA increased the risk for endometritis (AOR=1.003 and 1.001, respectively), whereas high prepartum blood urea nitrogen reduced it (AOR=0.853). Cut-offs of 456.6 μM NEFA and 402.5 μM BHBA had sensitivities of 0.69 and 0.58, and specificities of 0.88 and 0.86, respectively. The likelihood for having normal vaginal discharge increased with time (∼1% × dpp) and with normal calving. Cows with endometritis had higher milk yield than normal herdmates (27.8±0.9 vs. 25.7±0.4 kg/d), lower risk for pregnancy by 100 dpp (AOR=0.10), higher nonpregnancy risk by 200 dpp (AOR=2.87), and higher risk for culling than normal cows (AOR=2.28). Cows with endometritis had a lower hazard rate (0.44) for pregnancy and had approximately 70 d longer calving-to-conception intervals. Finally, endometritis had no effect on metabolic hormones. In conclusion, the risk for clinical

  11. Effects of prophylactic antibiotics on endometrial flora in women with postcesarean endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, E R; Wallace, P A

    1998-08-01

    To determine the effect of prophylactic antibiotics on endometrial and endocervical microflora upon diagnosis of postcesarean endometritis. The medical records of patients enrolled in open-label comparative trials of therapeutic antibiotics for postpartum endometritis between 1989 and 1994 were reviewed (n = 682). Endometritis was diagnosed by a standard definition that included fever and localizing signs. Endometrial cultures were obtained by a sheathed injection/aspiration technique. Aerobes and anaerobes were isolated by standard microbiologic techniques. The primary outcome, endometrial and endocervical microflora, was compared in women who received intravenous ampicillin (2 g every 6 hours for 1-3 doses), cephalosporin (2 g every 6 hours for 1-3 doses), or no prophylaxis. Secondary outcomes included the cure of endometritis and the prevalence of wound infection in the three groups. Four hundred sixty-five of 682 patients (67%) had a cesarean delivery. One hundred fifty-one patients received ampicillin prophylaxis, 100 patients received cefazolin prophylaxis, 18 patients received extended-spectrum antibiotics, and 196 patients received no prophylaxis. Patients who received cefazolin prophylaxis had a significant increase in enterococcus (P women who develop endometritis. Whereas these changes had no effect on endometritis cure rate (power > 80%), the association between cefazolin prophylaxis followed by an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and wound infection may warrant caution against the use of the combination.

  12. Endometritis treatment with a PGF2alpha analog does not improve reproductive performance in a large dairy herd in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Miguel Eduardo; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel María

    2005-03-15

    In Argentina, most dairy cows with endometritis are treated with prostaglandin (PGF(2alpha) or its analogs) and insemination is withheld until there are no signs of endometritis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate if this method of managing endometritis enhances reproductive performance. Three experiments were conducted over 4 years in a large farm in the west of Buenos Aires province. In Experiment 1, half of the cows diagnosed with endometritis (>1.5-fold difference in diameter of uterine horns, as determined by rectal palpation) received standard endometritis management (treatment with tiaprost, a PGF(2alpha) analog, rectal palpation every 20 days, and withholding of AI until endometritis apparently resolved) and the other half was untreated, with AI at the first estrus after the voluntary waiting period. Untreated cows were inseminated and conceived 20 days earlier than treated cows, and the pregnancy rate by Day 90 postpartum was higher in the untreated group. In Experiment 2, cows with endometritis were divided into four groups according to the severity of symptoms; within each group, cows were allocated to treatment or control, as in Experiment 1. Although first service conception rate decreased as endometritis severity increased, reproductive performance in treated versus control cows was similar to that of Experiment 1 (with no interaction due to degree of endometritis). Re-evaluation of the treated cow (to confirm uterine "normality") may have been responsible for the delay in conception in both experiments. The objective of Experiment 3 was to determine the effects of tiaprost treatment on clinically normal postpartum cows (no evidence of endometritis). Tiaprost treatment reduced the interval from calving to conception in multiparous cows, but it delayed conception and reduced the conception rate in primiparous cows. In conclusion, treatment with tiaprost impaired reproductive performance in primiparous cows (in the absence of

  13. 4-H NFPA Fluid Power Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnett, Erika D

    2016-01-01

    The 4-H NFPA Fluid Power Challenge partnered Purdue Polytechnic Institute and Indiana 4-H with the National Fluid Power Association and Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power to provide teams of Indiana youth in 6-8th grades with opportunity to learn about hydraulics, engineering design, and other STEM skills. This created an opportunity to give youth a learning experience with STEM through hands-on, experiential learning activities. Youth experienced a one day workshop in which they wo...

  14. [Treatment of chronic bovine endometritis and factors for treatment success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, M; Tenhagen genannt Emming, S; Hoedemaker, M

    2005-01-01

    In a controlled field trial, 178 dairy cows with chronic endometritis and at least 21 days in lactation were randomly assigned to four different treatment groups: prostaglandin F2alpha intramuscularly (PG, 5 mg dinoprost (5 ml Dinolytic), n = 51), intrauterine antibiotics (AB; 400 mg ampicillin + 800 oxacillin (20 ml Totocillin), n = 49), intrauterine antiseptics (AS; 100 ml 4% Lotagen, n = 50); control (C, no initial treatment, n = 28). Before treatment, uterine swabs for bacteriologic examination and blood samples for determination of serum progesterone concentrations were collected. Two weeks following the first treatment, cows were reexamined. In case no clinical cure was diagnosed, treatment was repeated and control cows were treated for the first time with one of the three treatments mentioned above. The four treatment groups did not differ with respect to the clinical cure or reproductive performance. Therefore, factors that might have an influence on clinical cure and fertility were evaluated. With increasing duration of lactation, the clinical cure after a single treatment increased significantly over all treatment groups from 59.5% (treatment before day 42 postpartum) to 79.6% (treatment following day 42 postpartum) (P conception rate and a lower pregnancy index were obtained when the treatment was performed following day 42 postpartum (P size had a negative effect on clinical cure over all groups (first treatment clinical cure: 68.2% (small uteri) vs 44.4% (large uteri); P 0.05). Isolation of Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes negatively influenced first treatment clinical cure over all treatment groups (79.0% vs 31.5%) and within treatment groups (P conception increased compared with the other treatment groups, when A. pyogenes was detected. Isolation of unspecific bacteria and the presence or absence of a corpus luteum only had minor effects over all and within the PG, AS and C group. Within the AB group, presence of luteal tissue was connected with a

  15. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the endometrium of gilts with different stages of endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Koonjaenak, Seri; Tummaruk, Padet

    2011-11-01

    The present study determined the association among the expression of COX-2, stages of endometritis, and types and number of local immune cells infiltrating into the gilts' endometrium. The uterine tissues from 24 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts identified as acute endometritis (n = 7), chronic endometritis (n = 7), and normal endometrium (n = 10) were included. The tissues were prepared for both histological and immunohistochemical investigations. The immunoexpression of COX-2 in every layer of the gilts' endometria was appraised by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method via image analysis; and was reported as percentage of positive area and staining index. The results revealed that the immunoexpression of COX-2 was found only in the surface epithelial layer. The gilts with acute endometritis possessed higher both percentage of positive area (68.99% versus 4.50% and 3.43%, P < 0.001) and staining index (1.13 versus 0.05 and 0.04, P < 0.001) than those with chronic endometritis and normal endometrium, respectively. Positive correlations between the number of surface epithelial neutrophils and percentage of COX-2 positive area (r = 0.47, P = 0.022), as well as mean staining index (r = 0.44, P = 0.032) were observed. In conclusion, the immunoexpression of COX-2 was found strongest in the gilts with acute endometritis, meanwhile it was not different between those with chronic endometritis and normal endometrium. This suggested that the expression of COX-2 might be dependent not only on the infiltration of local immune cells in the endometrium, but also on the duration of exposure with inflammatory agents.

  16. Benchmarking the Kansas 4-H Judging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Taylor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the methods and policies associated with 4-H project judging at the county level within the Kansas 4-H Program. Extension Agents surveyed about current 4-H judging processes indicated a variety of methods used. Data collected showed that 21.8% of the counties surveyed practiced some type of project judging without the 4-H member present. In regard to feedback received by the youth in non-livestock project judging, 64.1% of counties reported both verbal and written forms of feedback, with 25.6% receiving only verbal. In livestock project judging, 93.8% reported that youth receive feedback only verbally. The majority of non-livestock projects are judged using the Danish system, while the number of livestock projects judged are split among both the Danish system and peer system of competitive judging. It was concluded that a wide-variety of judging methods are used, resulting in incongruent programs offered to 4-H members.

  17. Profiling inflammatory biomarkers in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) postpartum: Potential early indicators of bovine clinical endometritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, Mounir; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Kaidi, Rachid; Meade, Kieran G; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2017-11-01

    Endometritis significantly impacts fertility and milk yield, thus reducing profitability of the dairy production. In cows that develop endometritis, normal postpartum endometrial inflammation is dysregulated. Here, we propose that endometrial inflammation is reflected in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) which could therefore be used as a prognostic tool. CVM was collected from 20 dairy cows (10 with clinical endometritis and 10 healthy) 7 and 21 days postpartum (DPP). Polymorphonuclear (PMN), mononuclear leukocyte and epithelial cells were counted, total protein levels were estimated and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and C5b were analyzed by ELISA in CVM. PMN were consistently high in CVM from 7 to 21 DPP, but were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis 21 DPP compared with healthy cows. In contrast, there were more epithelial cells in healthy cows 21 DPP than in clinical endometritis animals. Total protein levels decreased significantly in CVM from healthy cows between days 7 and 21 postpartum. All inflammatory biomarkers except C5b, remained high in cows with clinical endometritis from 7 to 21 DPP, indicating sustained and chronic endometrial inflammation. IL1, IL-6, IL-8 and Hp levels were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis compared to healthy cows 21 DPP. Interestingly IL-1β levels were raised in CVM from clinical endometritis but not in healthy cows 7 DPP suggesting that early measurement of IL-1β levels might provide a useful predictive marker of clinical endometritis. In contrast, SAA and C5b levels were increased in healthy cows 21 DPP, compared to cows with clinical endometritis suggesting that these acute phase proteins might have an anti-inflammatory role. Our results show that CVM is convenient for profiling disease-associated changes in key inflammatory molecules postpartum and reaffirms that sustained inflammation is a key feature of clinical endometritis in the dairy cow. Copyright

  18. [Subclinical thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrazil, V

    2007-01-01

    Subclinical thyroids disease (STD) is recently defined term in clinical thyroidology, which includes mainly functional disorders. Basic diagnostic signs are: normal values of thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3) and elevated TSH level (subclinical hypothyroidism) or suppresed TSH level (subclinical hyperthyroidism). In a category of STD may be included subclinical autoimunne thyroiditis (elevated level of thyroid antigens antibodies and/or hypoechogenity in sonographic screen, increased volume of the thyroid without clinical symptoms and/or autoimminity) and microscopic lesions of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be dangerous for tendency to development of manifest hypothyroidism and for risk of disorders of lipid profile and development of atherosclerosis and its organ complication (esp. myocardial infarction). Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor of cardiac arythmias and probably can increase a risk of cardiovascular mortality) as well for osteoporosis (esp. in peri- and post-climacteric women), and last but not least for degenerative diseases of brain (?). Indication of treatment of STD is a matter of controversies. Recomendations of experts, varied from "no therapy, monitoring only" to "treat always". Treatment of risk groups (esp. pregnant women) is probably nowadays a most rationale recommendations since results of sofisticated prospective studies will be available.

  19. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  20. 4-H Textile Science Beginner Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jan

    This packet contains three 4-H projects for students beginning the sewing sequence of the textile sciences area. The projects cover basics of sewing using sewing machines, more difficult sewing machine techniques, and hand sewing. Each project provides an overview of what the student will learn, what materials are needed, and suggested projects…

  1. Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometritis, which is one of the most common diseases in dairy cows postpartum, causes severe economic losses, including increased open days, calving intervals, and numbers of services to achieve conception. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasound method and its agreement with the endometrium cytology method, which is used to diagnose cytological endometritis in beef cows. Moreover, we determined which method has higher sensitivity and specificity at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted 20-35 days postpartum. A total of 53 clinically healthy beef cows (28 Brangus and 25 Kedah-Kelantan breeds from three beef farms were obtained. All cows were evaluated at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, using ultrasound and cytobrush endometrial examination methods to diagnose cytological endometritis. Results: Endometrial cytology result showed that 11.3% (6/53 and 9.4% (5/53 of the cows exhibited cytological endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, respectively. A weak-to-moderate agreement found between the diagnostic methods (k=0.29 - 0.50; p<0.01 and k=0.38 - 0.49 at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of beef cows that were positive to cytological endometritis was low (polymorphonuclear cells, =8% at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Results showed that the ultrasound method is useful and practical for diagnosing endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. This method exhibited 60% sensitivity, 93.8% specificity, and a 0.50 kappa value, especially when presence of intrauterine fluids and measurement of cervix diameter used in combination.

  2. Comparison of clinical signs and bacterial isolates of postpartum endometritis in holstein dairy cows in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the uterine bacteria in cows with endometritis and to compare other characteristics in cases of endometritis without bacterial growth, with Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes or other bacteria. In total, 86 Holstein cows with postpartum endometritis from 13 commercial dairy herds were sampled once between 21-35 days postpartum. We used several diagnostic techniques for endometritis such as external observation, vaginal exam, rectal palpation, ultrasonography, and cervical and uterine cytological examination. Clear mucus with flakes of pus (E1, mucopurulent discharge (E2, and purulent discharge (E3 are three groups of endometritis. A transcervical double-guarded swab was used for bacterial sampling. The samples were cultured aerobic and anaerobically and biochemical tests were used for differentiation. Measurements were compared between groups: A, no growth (n=47; B, positive bacterial growth without T. pyogenes (n=21; and C, positive bacterial growth with T. pyogenes (n=18. There were no differences (P>0.05 in uterine wall thickness, body condition score (BCS and milk yield between the groups. The uterine horn diameter was largest in groups A (4.30±0.88 in comparison with groups B (4.81±1.17 and C (5.53±2.17 (P<0.05. The percentage of neutrophiles in smears of the uterine discharge (45.7±33.4 in group C was higher (P<0.05 than in groups A (14.5±22.7 and B (23.5±24.0. Eighty-three percent of group C have shown purulent discharge. In conclusion, the facultative anaerobe T. pyogenes may be the most common bacterial agent of postpartum endometritis in Holstein dairy cows in Iran.

  3. Implementation of vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery to decrease endometritis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Laura; Paternostro, Amanda; Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Baxter, Jason; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-01-17

    Endometritis is a postpartum complication that is more common after cesarean delivery. It frequently requires intravenous antibiotic administration, prolonged hospital stays, and carries a risk of sepsis or abscess formation. Precesarean vaginal preparation has been shown to decrease the risk of endometritis in patients who have labored or have ruptured membranes. The objective of this study was to assess the practical implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery and the subsequent effect on endometritis rates in a clinical setting. This is a before-after retrospective cohort study evaluating the first 6 months of implementation of a vaginal cleansing protocol at a single institution. The primary outcome was the rate of implementation. Secondary outcomes included endometritis and other postoperative complications. The rate of implementation after 6 months was 68.3% (p < .001) and postoperative endometritis rates decreased from 14.0% before implementation to 11.7% after implementation (p .49, OR 0.77, CI 0.36-1.62). Postoperative fever decreased from 22.3% to 18.3% (p .256, OR 0.70, CI 0.37-1.30) and infectious wound complications were 4.5% and 5.8%, respectively (p .76, OR 1.07, CI 0.69-3.64). Implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery in women with ruptured membranes or in labor has high uptake, but in almost a third of eligible women it was not performed. The implementation, has led to a clinical, although not statistical, decrease in postoperative endometritis. Continued research is needed to explore how to improve uptake of this quality improvement measure.

  4. OUR EXPERIENCES IN TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRITIS USING LOTAGEN® IN DIARY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Ćutuk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this research was to explore the efficiency of intrauterine application of 4% solution of Lotagen® in the treatment of chronic endometritis of different severity, and to examine the effects of therapy to the breeding-reproductive parameters in animals treated under the real field conditions. Research was conducted between May 2005 - March 2007 by analyzing the data from the protocol of artifitial insemination and treatment of sterility in the county of Sanski Most. Research included dairy cows from 95 stables when chronic endometritis was diagnosed by clinical examination (n=126 at the earliest 21 day postpartum. Animals were treated intrauterinelly with 100 to 180 ml (primiparous and multiparous of 4% solution of Lotagen® during puerperium or in estrus, after puerperium. Out of total of 126 dairy cows with chronic endometritis treated with Lotagen® once or more times, including a group of non-treated animals, clinical healing was noted in 117 animals (92,8%, artificial insemination was performed in 115 (87,3% and 95 animals had conception (86,3%. Due to the lack of clinical healing, fertility loss or some other reasons, 31 cows were excluded (24,6% from breeding and this research. The treatment results as well as some fertility parameters were affected by severity of chronic endometritis and time of therapy introduction. The more time elapsed from parturition, the severity of endometritis decreased. Consequently, the percentage of cured animals after the first treatment increased from 59,5% to 79,6% (P < 0,05. Percentage of healing in E 1-2 (endometritis catarrhalis et mucopurulenta was 68,2% after the first treatment and was significant in relation to 44,4% in E 3-4 (endometritis purulenta et pyometra. Taking into consideration the conception accomplished in two examined groups, obvious differences are shown: experimental group - 91,5%, control group - 76,9% (P<0,05. The effects of treatment to the breeding-reproductive parameters

  5. Synthesis of Polyfunctionalized 4H-Pyrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Bihani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amberlyst A21 catalyzed one-pot three-component coupling of aldehyde and malononitrile with active methylene compounds such as acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important polyfunctionalized 4H-pyrans has been reported. Simple experimental procedure, no chromatographic purification, no hazardous organic solvents, easy recovery and reusability of the catalyst, and room temperature reaction conditions are some of the highlights of this protocol for the synthesis of pharmaceutically relevant focused libraries.

  6. Update on subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2011-04-15

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (as in Graves disease or toxic nodular goiter), administration of thyroid hormone for treatment of malignant thyroid disease, or unintentional excessive thyroid hormone therapy. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons who have suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels compared with those who have low but detectable levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation in older adults, and with decreased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women; however, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unknown. There is lesser-quality evidence suggesting an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and other cardiovascular effects, including increased heart rate and left ventricular mass, and increased bone turnover markers. Possible associations between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality of life parameters, cognition, and increased mortality rates are controversial. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to address the effects of early treatment on potential morbidities to help determine whether screening should be recommended in the asymptomatic general population.

  7. Treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Andreassen, Mikkel; Petersen, Claus L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate structure and function of the heart in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) before and after obtaining euthyroidism by radioactive iodine treatment, using high precision and observer-independent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. METHODS...

  8. Clonal Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus post breeding endometritis in thoroughbred broodmares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Söderlind, Maja; Rydemann Rudefalk, Sofia

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares with infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the study was to inv......Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares with infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the study...... was to investigate whether clonal or genetically distinct S. zooepidemicus strains isolated from mares with endometritis were associated with mare risk factors and the outcome of natural cover. Uterine swabs were obtained from mares with intrauterine fluid after natural cover (n=31) at thoroughbred stud farms...... in Australia. Fifty two percent of the mares (n=16) were diagnosed with infectious endometritis, and S.zooepidemicus was isolated in 81% (n=13) of these mares. Up to four S. zooepidemicus isolates were selected from each mare with growth of S. zooepidemicus and isolates from an additional five mares were...

  9. Infectious endometritis is associated with endometrial expression of lactoferrin in broodmares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Møller Nielsen, Jesper

    with clinical signs of endometritis and/or a history of previous un-successful breeding were selected for the study. Two biopsies were obtained from each mare. One biopsy was used for bacterial culture and cytology and one biopsy was used for RNA extraction. Relative gene-expression analyses were performed...

  10. A Descriptive View of the 4-H Club Experience Through the Lens of 4-H Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Guion

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available 4-H like other youth development programs should be generally marked by the presence of three features of optimal youth programming: 1. youth participation and leadership, 2. positive adult-youth relationships, and 3. skill building activities (Lerner, 2004. This paper reviews a study which examined the extent to which 4-H youth felt they had “opportunities” to engage in different learning experiences, and provide leadership to those experiences within their clubs. The study also examined the youth’s perceptions about whether their experience in the 4-H Club helped them spend more time with their parents, have a positive relationship with another adult and do things independently. An examination of whether there is a difference in life skill development in 4-H based on certain key demographic variables is also discussed. The results of this study are shared as well as implications for practice and recommendations for further research.

  11. PHENOTYPIC PROFILE OF B-LYMPHOCYTES IN WOMEN WITH CHRONIC ENDOMETRITIS AND ADNEXITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Savchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate phenotypic profile of B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of the patients with chronic endometritis and adnexitis. The study involved 89 women in their reproductive age (18 to 45 years with chronic endometritis (48 cases and adnexitis (41 cases. Ninety-eight healthy agematched women participated as a control group. Phenotypic B-cell subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry performed with direct immunofluorescent staining of peripheral cells from whole blood using the following antibody panel: CD5-FITC/CD23-PE/CD19-ECD/CD45-PC5/CD27-PC7. A significantly reduced B-lymphocyte content was revealed in peripheral blood of women with chronic endometritis and adnexitis. The reduced cell numbers occurred due to reduced B2 (main fraction of B-lymphocytes and as B1 cells (minor fraction which determines insufficient reactivity of specific humoral immune response, including immune reactions at the mucous membranes. However, percentage of B2-lymphocytes was decreased only in endometriosis, whereas patients with adnexitis showed decrease in both relative and absolute counts of this B cell subpopulation. A decreased content of naive B-cells in the peripheral blood is another feature of the B cell phenotypic profile in chronic endometritis and adnexitis. Moreover, the drop of the naive B-cell levels in patients with adnexitis proved to be more pronounced than in persons with endometritis. Expression of CD23- antigen (a low-affinity receptor for IgE has been investigated as a functional marker of B cells. All the studied peripheral B cell subpopulations expressing CD23 were decreased in the patients with chronic endometritis. The numbers of different B cell fractions expressing CD23 antigen were also reduced in the women with chronic adnexitis as compared to the levels detected in patients with chronic endometritis. Alterations of the B-cell immunity were more pronounced in chronic adnexitis, due to more extensive

  12. Neutrophil extracellular traps formation by bacteria causing endometritis in the mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebordão, M R; Carneiro, C; Alexandre-Pires, G; Brito, P; Pereira, C; Nunes, T; Galvão, A; Leitão, A; Vilela, C; Ferreira-Dias, G

    2014-12-01

    Besides the classical functions, neutrophils (PMNs) are able to release DNA in response to infectious stimuli, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and killing pathogens. The pathogenesis of endometritis in the mare is not completely understood. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro capacity of equine PMNs to secrete NETs by chemical activation, or stimulated with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (Szoo), Escherichia coli (Ecoli) or Staphylococcus capitis (Scap) strains obtained from mares with endometritis. Ex vivo endometrial mucus from mares with bacterial endometritis were evaluated for the presence of NETs. Equine blood PMNs were used either without or with stimulation by phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA), a strong inducer of NETs, for 1-3h. To evaluate PMN ability to produce NETs when phagocytosis was impaired, the phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin (Cyt) was added after PMA. After the addition of bacteria, a subsequent 1-h incubation was carried out in seven groups. NETs were visualized by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and anti-histone. Ex vivo samples were immunostained for myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. A 3-h incubation period of PMN + PMA increased NETs (p Ecoli or Scap (p < 0.05). Ex vivo NETs were present in mares with endometritis. Scanning electron microscopy showed the spread of NETs formed by smooth fibers and globules that can be aggregated in thick bundles. Formation of NETs and the subsequent entanglement of bacteria suggest that equine NETs might be a complementary mechanism in fighting some of the bacteria causing endometritis in the mare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Pascual-Corrales, Eider; Galofre, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient’s medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves’ disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels. We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment. In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation). PMID:23843809

  14. The effect of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis and reproductive indices in lactating Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). C...

  15. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  16. OUR EXPERIENCES IN TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRITIS USING LOTAGEN® IN DIARY COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Amel Ćutuk; Nasir Sinanović; Benjamin Čengić; Tarik Mutevelić; Hidajet Pajić; Nazif Varatanović

    2012-01-01

    Goal of this research was to explore the efficiency of intrauterine application of 4% solution of Lotagen® in the treatment of chronic endometritis of different severity, and to examine the effects of therapy to the breeding-reproductive parameters in animals treated under the real field conditions. Research was conducted between May 2005 - March 2007 by analyzing the data from the protocol of artifitial insemination and treatment of sterility in the county of Sanski Most. Research inclu...

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  18. SENSIBILITY OF MICROCULTIVATION ASSAY DERMATOBAC® FOR FUNGAL ENDOMETRITIS DIAGNOSIS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriky Akio de Oliveira Tongu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among different etiologic factors, fungal endometritis is a common cause of decreased mare’s fertility. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of Dermatobac®, a microculture system originallydevelopedfortheisolationoffungithatconcerns Human Medicine. In Experiment 1, standard (ATCC strains of Candida (n=4 and Aspergyllus (n=1 were grown and visually analyzed daily for 7 days. For Experiment 2, 34 mares were selected and subjected to material harvesting for completion of uterine cytology as well as seeding with Dermatobac®. After 24h of cultivation, the macroscopic observation of all Candida and Aspergyllus strains (Experiment 1 was possible. In Experiment 2, five animals showed presence of yeast on cytologic slides (14.71%, results also confirmed sowing in Dermatobac® system (100% sensitivity. Five false positive cases were observed, characterized by microbiological growth in Dermatobac® but not confirmed by endometrial cytology, determining specificity of 85%. However, the results did not compromise the efficiency of Dermatobac® system given all contaminants presented differentiated morphology and higher growing time (P<0.05 when compared to the major etiological agents of equine fungal endometritis. The Dermatobac® system proved to be efficient for the macroscopic diagnosis of fungal endometritis in horses, showing conclusive information only after 24 hours of culture.

  19. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin levels in crossbred cows with endometritis following different therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Biswal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the serum variations of two major acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA and haptoglobin (Hp levels in crossbred endometritis cows following pre and post immunomodulation therapy. Materials and Methods: 21 endometritis cows were randomly assigned to three groups (n=7 and treated with three different immunomodulators while seven healthy cows served as control. Uterine flushing collected from all animals was subjected to bacteriological study and serum samples were analyzed for SAA and Hp by sandwich ELISA method. Results: Escherichia coli was most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria (6.02 × 106 CFU/ml while Staphylococcus (0.86 × 106 CFU/ml and Streptococcus (0.52 × 106 CFU/ml were most predominant Gram-positive species isolated from uterine flushing. The pre-treatment SAA values (μg/ml varied significantly (p<0.01 between the treatment groups whereas no difference was observed in post-treatment groups. No significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for Hp values between the treatment groups, but the mean SAA (μg/ml and Hp (μg/ml levels were significantly (p<0.01 higher in pre-treatment when compared to post-treatment within the groups. Conclusion: In the diagnosis and monitoring of bovine endometritis, both SAA and Hp might serve as reliable biomarkers.

  20. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.

  1. Effect of diagnosis and treatment of clinical endometritis based on vaginal discharge score grading system in postpartum Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Hiroaki; Fujikura, Atsushi; Wijayagunawardane, Missaka M P; Vos, Peter L A M; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Takagi, Mitsuhiro

    2017-09-12

    In this study, the prevalence, effectiveness of diagnosis, and treatment based on vaginal discharge score (VDS) of clinical endometritis in cattle were evaluated. To detect clinical endometritis and classify its severity, vaginoscopy was performed during 21 to 60 days postpartum in 164 Holstein cows consisting of 229 lactations. Groups were defined using the 4-point VDS scale. Study groups included the following: non-endometritis (VDS=0; no/clear mucus; NEM group; n=168); mild endometritis, no treatment (VDS=1; mucus containing flecks of white/off-white pus; NTR group; n=30); and severe endometritis, treated with PGF2α (VDS≥2; discharge containing 50% pus, and fluid or uterine horn asymmetry; TEM group; n=31). Cows treated with PGF2α that did not recover (VDS≥1, n=5) received intrauterine procaine penicillin and streptomycin. Prevalence of clinical endometritis (VDS≥1) was 26.6%. The NTR group required significantly more artificial inseminations per pregnancy than NEM and TEM groups (2.8 ± 1.8 vs 2.0 ± 1.3, 1.9 ± 0.8, Pcows was higher in the NTR group compared to the NEM (P=0.012) and TEM (P=0.076) groups. In the TEM group, calving to first artificial insemination interval tended to be higher in cows treated 41 to 60 days postpartum than cows treated 29 to 40 days postpartum (97.2 ± 27.1 vs 74.4 ± 19.7, P=0.084). Our study suggests that cows with VDS=1 may require treatment to recover fertility. Diagnosis and treatment of clinical endometritis based on a VDS grading system may improve dairy herd reproductive performance.

  2. Therapy of bovine endometritis with prostaglandin F2α: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimerl, P; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the conducted meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of the treatment of bovine endometritis with PGF(2α) by statistical means. Postpartum uterine infections have a high prevalence and a very negative effect on reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Because of a wide discordance between research results, a meta-analysis of the efficacy of the treatment of bovine endometritis with PGF(2α) was conducted. A comprehensive literature search was performed using online databases to reveal a total of 2,307 references. In addition, 5 articles were retrieved by reviewing citations. After applying specific exclusion criteria and evaluating specific evidence parameters, 5 publications, comprising 6 trials, were eligible for being analyzed by means of meta-analysis. Data for each trial were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis software Review Manager (version 5.1; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Estimated effect sizes of PGF(2α) were calculated on calving to first service and calving to conception interval. Prostaglandin F(2α) treatment of cows with chronic endometritis had a negative effect on both reproductive performance parameters. Heterogeneity was substantial for calving to first service and calving to conception interval [I(2) (measure of variation beyond chance)=100 and 87%, respectively]; therefore, random-effects models were used. Sensitivity analysis as well as subgroup analysis showed that the performance of randomization was influential in modifying effect size of PGF(2α) treatment. The funnel plot illustrated a publication bias toward smaller studies that reported a prolonged calving to conception interval after a PGF(2α) treatment. We conclude that the investigation of this subject by means of meta-analysis did not reveal an improvement of reproductive performance of cows with endometritis after treatment with PGF(2α). Furthermore, there is a shortage of comparable high quality studies investigating

  3. The 4-H Club Meeting: An Essential Youth Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.

    2015-01-01

    The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…

  4. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  5. Prevalent Approaches to Professional Development in State 4-H Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.; Worker, Steven M.; Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Lewis, Kendra M.; Schoenfelder, Emily; Brian, Kelley

    2017-01-01

    High-quality 4-H programming requires effective professional development of educators. Through a mixed methods study, we explored professional development offered through state 4-H programs. Survey results revealed that both in-person and online delivery modes were used commonly for 4-H staff and adult volunteers; for teen volunteers, in-person…

  6. Associations of prepartum body condition score with occurrence of clinical endometritis and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Ali; Ahmadi, Mohammad Rahim; Vatankhah, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of periparturient body condition score on the occurrence of clinical endometritis and postpartum resumption of ovarian activity in dairy cows. Eighty-seven lactating Holstein cows, fed with a total mixed ration diet, were included into the study. Body condition scoring (using a 5-point scale with quarter-point divisions) was performed by the same investigator using the visual technique every 2 weeks, from 2 weeks before until 6 weeks after calving. Palpation of the reproductive tract and ultrasonographic assessment of ovaries for detection of corpus luteum using a rectal linear probe was also performed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after calving. Cows with clinical endometritis had significantly lower body condition score (BCS) than normal cows at all weeks pre- and postcalving, and cows that did not ovulate until 45 days after calving had a significantly lower BCS pre- and postpartum. Cows that did not ovulate until 45 days after calving also lost more BCS from 2 weeks before to 4 weeks after calving. Besides, first ovulation after calving take occurred later in cows with clinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, low BCS is a risk factor for postpartum endometritis and delayed cyclicity in dairy cows. BCS loss from dry-off to early lactation and occurrence of clinical endometritis can significantly affect postpartum ovarian activity.

  7. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R

    1989-08-19

    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  8. Patients with secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis towards the induced anti-tuberculosis drug category 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdhana, Raditya; Sutrisno, Sutrisno; Sugiri, Yani Jane; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Wiyasa, Arsana

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which can affect various organs, including human's genital organs such as the endometrium. Tuberculosis endometritis can cause clinical symptoms of secondary amenorrhea and infertility. Infertility in genital TB caused by the involvement of the endometrium. The case presentation is 33-year-old woman from dr. Saiful Anwar Public Hospital to consult that she has not menstruated since 5 years ago (28 years old). The diagnosis was done by performing a clinical examination until the diagnosis of secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis is obtained. A treatment by using category I of anti-tuberculosis drugs was done for 6 months, afterward an Anatomical Pathology observation found no signs of the tuberculosis symptoms. Based on that, patient, who was diagnosed to have secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis endometritis, has no signs of tuberculosis process after being treated by using category I of anti-tuberculosis drugs for 6 months.

  9. Heuristic approach to the classification of postpartum endometritis and its forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balashova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe work is dedicated to the development of a method of automated medical diagnosis based on the description of biomedical systems using two parameters: energy, reflecting the interaction of its elements, and entropy characterizing the organization of the system. The violations of the energy-entropy cycle of biomedical systems is reflected in the symptoms of the disease. Statistical link between the symptoms of the condition of the body and the nature of excitation of its elements best expressed in the heuristic description of the system state. High accuracy classification of the patient's condition is achieved by using heuristic detection methods. In the proposed approach, allowing to estimate the probability of correct diagnosis increases the accuracy of the classification, and the estimated minimum amount of training samples and the capacity of its constituent signs. Classification technique consists in averaging the characteristic values in the selected classes, the preparation of the complex of symptoms of the most important signs of the disease, to conduct a "rough" diagnostic threshold rules that allow to distinguish severe forms of the disease, then differential diagnosis the severity of the disease. The proposed method was tested for classification of the forms of puerperal endometritis (mild, moderate, severe. The training sample contained 70 case histories. Syndrome to classify the patient's condition was composed of 17 characteristics. Threshold diagnosis has allowed to establish the presence of disease and to separate heavy. Differential diagnosis was used for classification of mild and moderate severity of postpartum endometritis. The accuracy of the classification of forms of postpartum endometritis amounted to 97.1%.

  10. The effect of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis and reproductive indices in lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). Cervical cytology, reagent strip test and cell counting by means of Neubauer hemocytometer were carried out in both examinations. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 1 were 45.5, 34.5 and 53.6% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 2, 3 were 66.7, 84.6 and 56.0% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively. Overall, proportions of successfully treated cows were 55.0, 58.2 and 54.7% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively ( p > 0.05). In placebo, none of the parameters were significantly different between first and second examination, while we found the significant differences in percentage of neutrophils and leukocyte esterase activity in other groups ( p conception rate of cows was higher in Z. multiflora compared to other groups; however, this difference was not significant. In conclusion, pen + strep and Z. multiflora extract can be effective on the clinical endometritis and may improve reproductive performance. The extract of Z. multiflora can be useful as an alternative therapy for treatment of clinical endometritis in lactating dairy cows.

  11. Decreased rates of nosocomial endometritis and urinary tract infection after vaginal delivery in a French surveillance network, 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Girard, Raphaële; Chapuis, Catherine; Depaix, Florence; Dumas, Anne-Marie; Gignoux, Chantal; Haond, Catherine; Lafarge-Leboucher, Joëlle; Launay, Carine; Tissot-Guerraz, Françoise; Vincent, Agnès; Fabry, Jacques

    2008-06-01

    To identify independent risk factors for endometritis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after vaginal delivery, and to monitor changes in nosocomial infection rates and derive benchmarks for prevention. Prospective study. We analyzed routine surveillance data for all vaginal deliveries between January 1997 and December 2003 at 66 maternity units participating in the Mater Sud-Est surveillance network. Adjusted odds ratios for risk of endometritis or UTI were obtained using a logistic regression model. The overall incidence rates were 0.5% for endometritis and 0.3% for UTI. There was a significant decrease in the incidence and risk of endometritis but not of UTI during the 7-year period. Significant risk factors for endometritis were fever during labor, parity of 1, and instrumental delivery and/or manual removal of the placenta. Significant risk factors for UTI were urinary infection on admission, premature rupture of membranes (more than 12 hours before admission), blood loss of more than 800 mL, parity of 1, instrumental delivery, and receipt of more than 5 vaginal digital examinations. Each maternity unit received a poster showing graphs of the number of expected and observed cases of UTI and endometritis associated with vaginal deliveries, which enabled each maternity unit to determine their rank within the network and to initiate prevention programs. Although routine surveillance means additional work for maternity units, our results demonstrate the usefulness of regular targeted monitoring of risk factors and of the most common nosocomial infections in obstetrics. Most of the information needed for monitoring is already present in the patients' records.

  12. Effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the endometrial inflammatory response to induced infectious endometritis in susceptible mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Woodward, Elizabeth; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-01-01

    endometritis based on their endometrial histopathology and ability to clear an induced uterine inflammation. To investigate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy, the mares were inoculated with 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) Escherichia coli in three consecutive estrus cycles in a modified cross-over study...... inoculation. Endometrial biopsies were recovered 3, 24 and 72 h post inoculation. Relative gene-expression analyses were performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was modulated by administration of GC. Expression of proinflammatory...

  13. Utilizing 4-H in Afterschool Settings: Two Approaches for Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Rudd

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As our communities grow and change, afterschool programs represent an avenue to bring resources to populations which would otherwise not be available to them. Combining 4-H with the afterschool environment can be beneficial in supporting and raising the quality of afterschool programs being offered. This article explores the benefits and challenges of two approaches of implementing 4-H programming in afterschool settings: the 4-H managed program that is created and run solely by 4-H faculty and staff and the 4-H afterschool partnerships which are facilitated in partnership with existing afterschool programs. Regardless of the approach, combining 4-H with afterschool programs can strengthen well established programs and can enhance the quality of all afterschool programs.

  14. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilek, Kevin Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join 4-H have been more thoroughly researched than the reasons they quit. This study explores why youth choose to discontinue membership…

  15. Is the use of Gunnera perpensa extracts in endometritis related to antibacterial activ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. McGaw

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome extracts of Gunnera perpensa are used in traditional remedies in South Africa to treat endometritis both in humans and animals. An investigation was undertaken to determine whether this plant possesses antibacterial activity, which may explain its efficacy. Gunnera perpensa rhizome extracts were prepared serially with solvents of increasing polarity and tested for antibacterial activity. Test bacteria included the Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A moderate to weak level of antibacterial activity in most of the extracts resulted, with the best minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 2.61 mg ml-1 shown by the acetone extract against S. aureus. The extracts were also submitted to the brine shrimp assay to detect possible toxic or pharmacological effects. All the extracts were lethal to the brine shrimp larvae at a concentration of 5 mg ml-1. The acetone extract was extremely toxic at 1 mg ml-1, with some toxicity evident at 0.1 mg ml-1. The remainder of the extracts generally displayed little activity at concentrations lower than 5 mg ml-1. In summary, the results indicate that although the extracts demonstrated a level of pharmacological activity, the relatively weak antibacterial activity is unlikely to justify the use of G. perpensa rhizomes in the traditional treatment of endometritis. Rather, the slightly antibacterial nature of the rhizomes may contribute to an additive effect, along with their known uterotonic activity, to the overall efficacy of the preparation.

  16. Picture This: 4-H Press Corps Builds Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Christy D.

    2018-01-01

    A picture is worth a thousand words! Extension professionals are often looking for the picture that best captures an event and tells its story. Look beneath the surface, though, and a picture is worth much more. Developing a 4-H press corps results in a collection of useful photos but has the added benefit of providing 4-H members with an…

  17. Embracing Scientific and Engineering Practices in 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worker, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The 4-H Science Initiative has renewed efforts to strengthen 4-H programmatic and evaluation efforts in science and engineering education. A fundamental component of this initiative is to provide opportunities to youth to aid in their development of science process skills; however, emerging research stresses the importance of engaging youth in…

  18. 4-H Participation and Science Interest in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Katherine; Carlos, Ramona M.; Barnett, Cynthia; Smith, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the impacts of participation in 4-H on young people's interest and participation in science. Survey data were collected from relatively large and ethnically diverse samples of elementary and high school-aged students in California. Results indicated that although elementary-grade 4-H members are not more…

  19. Council of Presidents: A Multifaceted Idea for 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Alayne

    2015-01-01

    Communication between 4-H professionals and the youth they work with is an important part of a successful 4-H program. By creating a Council of Presidents comprised of officers of all the clubs in your county, you can increase communication while assuring your program addresses all four essential elements. The Council is also as a vehicle for…

  20. The Perfect Mindstorm: 4-H Robotics in Afterschool Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Francis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As the 4-H Science, Engineering and Technology (SET Mission Mandate unfolds, robotics provides an opportunity to involve youth in SET activities. Utah 4-H utilized Lego Mindstorms Robotics kits to teach youth about robotics. Evaluations demonstrated that robots increase youth’s interest in science, engineering and technology.

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Should we treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Christopher; Vaidya, Bijay

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (also known as compensated hypothyroidism or mild hypothyroidism) is a condition associated with a raised serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) but a normal serum free thyroxine (FT4). It is common, affecting about 10% of women above the age of 55 years. Autoimmunity is the commonest cause of subclinical hypothyroidism. About 2.5% of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism progress to clinically overt hypothyroidism each year; the rate of progression is higher in patients with thyroid autoantibodies and higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels. However, thyroid function normalises spontaneously in up to 40% cases. Only a small minority of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism have symptoms, and the evidence to support that levothyroxine ameliorate the symptoms in these patients is weak. Subclinical hypothyroidism in younger patients (treatment can prevent these risks, although a large observational study of the UK general practice research database has shown that levothyroxine may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in younger patients (hypothyroidism should be made after careful consideration of the patient's age, the presence of symptoms, the presence of thyroid antibodies and other risk factors such as cardiovascular disease.

  2. Subclinical pertussis in incompletely vaccinated and unvaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subclinical whooping cough) does in fact occur. Recent studies have shown subclinical disease in vaccinated infants ... through home visits by a community health nurse with ..... The current study extends the knowledge of contagious spread of ...

  3. Draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain S31A1, isolated from equine infectious endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Piedade, Isabelle; Skive, Bolette; Christensen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus S31A1, a strain isolated from equine infectious endometritis in Denmark. Comparative analyses of this genome were done with four published reference genomes: S. zooepidemicus strains MGCS10565, ATCC 35246, and H70 and S...

  4. Epitaxial growth of unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures on 4H Au nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi; Chen, Ye; Zhu, Yihan; Wang, Jie; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanomaterials normally adopt the same crystal structure as their bulk counterparts. Herein, for the first time, the unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures have been synthesized on 4H Au nanoribbons (NRBs) via solution-phase epitaxial growth under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the 4H Au NRBs undergo partial phase transformation from 4H to face-centered cubic (fcc) structures after the metal coating. As a result, a series of polytypic 4H/fcc bimetallic Au@M (M = Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu) core-shell NRBs has been obtained. We believe that the rational crystal structure-controlled synthesis of metal nanomaterials will bring new opportunities for exploring their phase-dependent physicochemical properties and promising applications.

  5. Epitaxial growth of unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures on 4H Au nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2016-09-12

    Metal nanomaterials normally adopt the same crystal structure as their bulk counterparts. Herein, for the first time, the unusual 4H hexagonal Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu nanostructures have been synthesized on 4H Au nanoribbons (NRBs) via solution-phase epitaxial growth under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the 4H Au NRBs undergo partial phase transformation from 4H to face-centered cubic (fcc) structures after the metal coating. As a result, a series of polytypic 4H/fcc bimetallic Au@M (M = Ir, Rh, Os, Ru and Cu) core-shell NRBs has been obtained. We believe that the rational crystal structure-controlled synthesis of metal nanomaterials will bring new opportunities for exploring their phase-dependent physicochemical properties and promising applications.

  6. The "RESEAU MATER": An efficient infection control for endometritis, but not for urinary tract infection after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Girard, Raphaële; Berland, Michel

    "RESEAU MATER" is useful to monitor nosocomial infections in maternity and contributes to the decreasing trend of it, since its implementation. Specifically, this network demonstrates its efficiency in the control of endometritis following vaginal deliveries, but not in the control of urinary tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine whether the difference between the control of endometritis and of urinary tract infection could be explained by an unsuitable regression model or by an unsuitable care policy concerning urinary cares. This study includes (1) the analysis of historic data of the network and (2) the description of French guidelines for maternity cares and available evaluations, concerning endometritis and urinary tract infection prevention. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the total study period of 1999-2013, for these infections and their risk factors. The endometritis frequency is decreasing, in association with no significant evolution of associated risk factors, but urinary tract infection frequency is constant, in association with a increasing trend of its risk factors such as intermittent catheterization and epidural analgesia. In French guidelines, all preventive measures against endometritis are clearly broadcasted by all field operators, and repeated audits have reinforced the control of their application. But preventive measures against urinary tract infection seem to be broadcasted exclusively in the circle of infection prevention agencies and not in the obstetrics societies or in the Health Ministry communication. Urinary tract infection prevention requires a clearer public and professional policy in favor of a more efficient urinary cares, with a specific target to maternity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J

    1992-12-01

    In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.

  8. CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY OF BACTERIAL GROWTH FROM EXOTIC COWS SUFFERING FROM ENDOMETRITIS UNDER PAKISTANI CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriology of endometritis and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates in Holstein Friesian and Jersey cows maintained at Research Institute for Physiology of Animal Reproduction, Bhunikey, District Kasur were carried out. Out of 100 samples, 89 contained different strains of bacteria and 11 were found bacteriologically sterile. Different species of bacteria isolated from these samples were, Bacillus subtilis (08.99%, Corynebacterium pyogenes (19.10%, Escherichia coli (29.21%, Neisseria meningitides (03.37%, Staphylococcus aureus (23.60%, Streptococcus pneumonia (03.37% and Streptococcus pyogenes (12.36%. The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that the highest number of isolates (92% were sensitive to neomycin, followed by doxycyline (89%. Clindramycin showed the lowest results in terms of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity (51%.

  9. Group A Streptococcal Endometritis: Report of an Outbreak and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A Memish

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of group A streptococcus (gas postpartum endometritis were diagnosed within 24 h following uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Investigation by the infection control service identified all 10 obstetric personnel who performed any invasive procedure on both cases. These personnel were questioned about a recent history of sore throat, skin lesions, vaginal or rectal symptoms. Throat and rectal cultures were obtained for gas from all 10 personnel. A carrier was identified among the personnel screened. This nurse was removed from direct patient care and treated with a two-week course of oral clindamycin and rifampin with documentation of carrier eradication of gas at the end of therapy, 30 days, 60 days and six months post-treatment. All three isolated strains were identical by restriction endonuclease analysis and by M and T typing. Rapid implementation of infection control measures were successful in arresting this outbreak, with no further cases of gas occurring in the subsequent year.

  10. Can 4-H Involvement Have a Positive Impact on 4-H Youth’s Bullying Beliefs and Behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Duncan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying has negative emotional and physical effects on youth which often continues into adulthood. Bullying can contribute to emotional distress which is often more difficult to detect in victims.  Documented effects of bullying include depression, anxiety, bitterness, elevated levels of stress, as well as negative feelings of self-image and low self-esteem. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that involvement in the state 4-H program has on bullying beliefs and behaviors. This study found that 94% of the participants (senior high students agreed that 4-H helped them to shape their belief towards bullying; 84% either agreed or strongly agreed that 4-H has helped them be more confident around strangers; and 93% indicated that 4-H helped them to gain confidence in situations so they could speak up for themselves.

  11. Categorization of endometritis and its association with ovarian follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake, and milk yield in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrushanth, M; Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Colazo, M G

    2016-10-15

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of different categories of endometritis on follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield (MY) in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 126) were examined for endometritis on 25 ± 1 day postpartum (DPP) using vaginoscopy, transrectal ultrasonography, and endometrial cytology to determine the presence and type of vaginal discharge, uterine fluid, and proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, respectively. Cows that had mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or presence of uterine fluid, no mucopurulent vaginal discharge or uterine fluid but 8% or more PMN, and mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or uterine fluid and 8% or more of PMN were defined as having clinical (CLIN; n = 45), cytological (CYTO; n = 15), and clinical and cytological (CLINCYTO; n = 30) endometritis, respectively. Cows that had none of the above pathological conditions were classified as unaffected (UNAF; n = 36). The diameter of the largest follicle at first examination, intervals from calving to first dominant (diameter = 10 mm) follicle, preovulatory size (diameter = 16 mm) follicle, ovulation, presence of follicular cyst, and proportion of ovular cows at 35 and 65 DPP were recorded as the measures of follicular growth and ovulation. None of the ovarian follicular parameters analyzed was affected by categories of endometritis. The first service conception rate tended (P = 0.06) to differ among categories of endometritis; cows that had CLIN and CLINCYTO endometritis were four times less likely to conceive to the first insemination compared to UNAF cows. Cows that had CLIN (hazard ratio: 0.52) and CLINCYTO (hazard ratio: 0.40) endometritis had decreased likelihood of pregnancy at 150 DPP compared to UNAF cows. Similarly, cows diagnosed as having CLINCYTO endometritis had decreased likelihood (hazard ratio: 0.48) of pregnancy at 250 DPP compared to UNAF cows. The DMI and MY up to 5

  12. A comparison of 3 antibiotic regimens for prevention of postcesarean endometritis: an historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Erin; Duff, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Prophylactic antibiotics are of proven value in decreasing the frequency of postcesarean endometritis. The beneficial effect of prophylaxis is enhanced when the antibiotics are administered before the surgical incision as opposed to after the clamping of the umbilical cord. However, the optimal antibiotic regimen for prophylaxis has not been established firmly. The purpose of this study was to compare 3 different antibiotic regimens for the prevention of postcesarean endometritis. This retrospective historical cohort study was conducted at the University of Florida, which is a tertiary care facility that serves a predominantly indigent patient population. In the period January 2003 to December 2007, our standard prophylactic antibiotic regimen for all women who had cesarean delivery was cefazolin (1 g) administered immediately after the baby's umbilical cord was clamped. In November 2008, we began to administer the combined regimen of cefazolin (1 g intravenously) plus azithromycin (500 mg intravenously); both were given 30-60 minutes before the skin incision. In the period of January-December 2014, we continued the dual agent regimen but based the dose of cefazolin on the patient's body mass index: 2 g intravenously if the body mass index was 30 kg/m(2). The surgical technique was consistent throughout all 3 time periods. Our primary endpoint was the frequency of endometritis in each time period. This diagnosis was based on fever ≥37.5°C, lower abdominal pain and tenderness, the exclusion of other localizing signs of infection, and the requirement for administration of therapeutic antibiotics. In the first year after beginning the new antibiotic regimen, we also monitored the frequency of neonatal sepsis evaluations and compared it with the frequency that was recorded during the year immediately preceding the change in antibiotic regimens. During the entire period 2003-2014, 29,633 women delivered at our institution; 6455 women (22%) had a cesarean delivery. In

  13. Platysmal myoclonus in subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hock-Luen; Lim, Erle Chuen-Hian

    2005-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with various movement disorders, such as chorea and tremors. We report on a young Chinese woman with an unusual presentation of myoclonus, involving both platysmal muscles, in association with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The myoclonus was preceded by symptoms of hyperthyroidism, namely weight loss, menstrual disturbances, and heat intolerance. The movements abated with clonazepam and hyperthyroidism was treated with carbimazole. The myoclonus recurred briefly when she stopped taking clonazepam, but she has since remained well and euthyroid. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society

  14. pattern of subclinical thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, A.; Marri, M.H.; Qureshi, A.H.; Qamar, M.A.; Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) in local population visiting a hospital laboratory for thyroid function tests. Design: It was a hospital - based study carried in consecutive patients who reported for thyroid function tests in the hospital laboratory. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in combined military Hospital, Quetta during June 1999 to September 2000. Subject and methods: Serum samples of 917 patients living in Quetta and its surrounding were analysed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) free thyroxin (FT4), and total tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentration using chemiluminescence technique on hormone auto analyser (LIA-Mat - Sangtech Germany). Results: Out of 917 patients, 287 (23%) were found to be having SCTD while overt thyroid disease was found in 288 (31%) patients. Prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism (SCO) and sub-clinical hyperthyroidism (sce) was found to be almost equal with a profound female preponderance in both the groups. SCO was more common in children (<12 years of age). Conclusion: Almost every fourth patient reporting for thyroid function tests was diagnosed as having SCTD - a disease entity that is still not well known and that poses diagnostic and management problems for the pathologists and clinicians. (author)

  15. Mycoplasma infection in the uterus of early postpartum dairy cows and its relation to dystocia and endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed Elshabrawy; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Tezuka, Erisa; Ito, Hideki; Devkota, Bhuminand; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Osawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence of mycoplasma infection in the uterus of postpartum Holstein dairy cows and its relationship to the occurrence of endometritis. The genital tracts of 209 cows from three dairy farms in the Iwate Prefecture, Japan, were examined at Weeks 5 and 7 postpartum. The condition of the cervicovaginal mucus was assessed using a Metricheck device and assigned a score from 0 (clear mucus) to 4 (purulent material with fetid odor). Intrauterine samples (N = 418) were collected at Weeks 5 and 7 postpartum using a cytobrush. After its withdrawal, swab samples were placed in mycoplasma culture broth at 37 °C for 72 hours. A novel and rapid polymerase chain reaction was used to detect seven mycoplasma species (Mycoplasma bovis, M. arginini, M. bovigenitalium, M. californicum, M. bovirhinis, M. alkalescens, and M. canadense). The cytobrush was also rolled gently along the length of a glass slide for subsequent polymorphonuclear neutrophil count. The diagnostic criteria for cytological endometritis were 6% or more and 4% or more polymorphonuclear neutrophils at Weeks 5 and 7, respectively. From a subset of cows, additional swabs were rolled against the cytobrush and then placed in transport medium. These samples were then plated on specific agar plates and cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to identify other bacteria present. The incidence of dystocia at the last calving was compared in mycoplasma positive and negative cows. Of the seven mycoplasma species, only M. bovigenitalium was detected; it was detected in 31 of the 418 uterine swabs (7.4%). Twenty-four cows were positive for M. bovigenitalium (eight cows at Week 5, nine cows at Week 7, and seven cows at both Weeks 5 and 7). The incidence of dystocia was higher (P dystocia at last calving and subsequent uterine infection with other bacteria. In addition, the incidence of cytologic endometritis was higher (P dystocia and with cytologic endometritis in postpartum dairy cows

  16. Pyometra caused by carrying of an intrauterine device for a period of forty years and chronic endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Nada 1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, thus streaching its walls and thinning and enlarging the uterus. This change is characteristic of the senium period of life, when the uterus is atrophie with a stenotic cervical canal. It most frequently occurs as a result of secondary infection of the cancerogenic tissue of the uterus and additional stenosation and clogging up of cervical canal by a malignant process. Apart from carcinomas of the body and uterus cervix, pyometra less often can occur in other illnesses such as senile endometritis and senile colpitis. As pyometra most frequently occurs in uterine carcinomas, in detection of this state, we must think of malignancy and direct our examination to this direction. In this paper we present a patient in whom pyometra developed because she carried an intrauterine device for forty years that resulted in chronic endometritis. The main symptoms for which the patient was admited to hospital were abdominal pain and intensive suppurative vaginal excretion a month after removal of intrauterine device. The diagnosis of pyometra was made by gynaecological and ultrasound examinations, and also on the basis of gynecological and ultrasound examinations one month after chronic endometritis was confirmed. On the basis of this finding we suspected that chronic endometritis was caused by this state. By cytological, PAP and histopathological examinations of samples obtained by explorative curettage and biopsy of the uterine cervix, malignant changes were eliminated a possible cause. By laboratory analysis and bacteriological examination of the uterine cavity and vaginal excretion, inflammatory changes of the uterine mocous membrane were confirmed as a cause of the pyometra. This conditions was due to carrying the intrauterine device for more decades. The therapy consisted of dilatation of the cervical canal and evacuation of accumulated suppurative contents and irrigation of uterine cavity with 3

  17. [Subclinical hyperthyroidism: from diagnosis to treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvilain, B

    2012-09-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a common clinical entity. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as a serum TSH below the reference range but a normal T4 and T3 level in an asymptomatic patient. Whether or not subclinical hyperthyroidism should be treated remains a matter of debate. Cross-sectional studies and longitudinal population-based studies demonstrate association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and risk of atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis and cardiovascular and global mortality. However, there are no randomized clinical trials answering the question whether long term-health outcomes are improved by the treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism. Therefore in the absence of evidence for or against treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism, it seems appropriate to follow algorithms that consider the level of TSH and the presence of risks factors (age > 65 years, osteoporosis, post menopause and cardiac disease).

  18. Marketing Strategies for Recruiting 4-H Members in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Nestor, Cheryl; Lawrence, Layle D.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Woloshuk, Jean; Mulkeen, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    According to a survey of 174 West Virginia 4-H members aged 13-18, the Internet and word of mouth were most effective in recruiting new members. Active messages stressing camps, fun, and friendship had the most influence on retention. A statewide marketing plan was recommended. (SK)

  19. Chemical Mechanical Polishing Optimization for 4H-SiC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neslen, Craig

    2000-01-01

    .... Preliminary chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) studies of 1 3/8" 4H-SiC wafers were performed in an attempt to identify the polishing parameter values that result in a maximum material removal rate and thus reduce substrate polishing time...

  20. A Phenomenological Look at 4-H Volunteer Motives for Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…

  1. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  2. Cytological evaluation of inflammation of the uterus and influence of endometritis on selected reproductive parameters in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There were two aims of this study. One was to evaluate the postpartum state of the reproductive system in cows based on ultrasonography, bacterial culture, and cytological examination of the uterus. The other was to determine whether postpartum endometritis affects the subsequent state of the endometrium, and, in consequence, selected reproductive parameters in cows. The study was conducted on 60 cows: the experimental group of 30 cows with endometritis, and 30 cows free of uterine inflammation (control. The percentage of leukocytes in both groups was similar only on day 5 of postpartum. In all subsequent tests (26, 40, 61 d postpartum, the percentage of leukocytes in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.001, both in samples collected with a brush and in lavage samples. Involution of the uterus in the experimental group was also slower (P < 0.001. The analysed reproductive parameters were markedly less favourable in the experimental group than in the control. The study showed that postpartum inflammation of the uterus can persist for a long time in the form of endometritis, causing substantial deterioration of reproductive parameters in cows. The authors suggest that cytological evaluation of the uterus, preferably using a brush, should be performed as soon as possible after parturition, even before day 21, up to which time puerperal metritis may still persist. Evaluation of the inflammatory process based on the number of leukocytes and the quality of endometrial cells is important.

  3. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Albani, Adriana; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Campo, Michela; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Morelli, Valentina; Zampetti, Benedetta; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Subclinical Cushing's syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality. The subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2-2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment. The Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS): (1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (2) How to screen the populations at risk? (3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma? (4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome has to be searched for? (5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome surgically or conservatively treated? Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing's syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

  4. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  5. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  6. The diagnosis of chronic endometritis in infertile asymptomatic women: a comparative study of histology, microbial cultures, hysteroscopy, and molecular microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Cicinelli, Ettore; Garcia-Grau, Iolanda; Gonzalez-Monfort, Marta; Bau, Davide; Vilella, Felipe; De Ziegler, Dominique; Resta, Leonardo; Valbuena, Diana; Simon, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Chronic endometritis is a persistent inflammation of the endometrial mucosa caused by bacterial pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Although chronic endometritis can be asymptomatic, it is found in up to 40% of infertile patients and is responsible for repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage. Diagnosis of chronic endometritis is based on hysteroscopy of the uterine cavity, endometrial biopsy with plasma cells being identified histologically, while specific treatment is determined based on microbial culture. However, not all microorganisms implicated are easily or readily culturable needing a turnaround time of up to 1 week. We sought to develop a molecular diagnostic tool for chronic endometritis based on real-time polymerase chain reaction equivalent to using the 3 classic methods together, overcoming the bias of using any of them alone. Endometrial samples from patients assessed for chronic endometritis (n = 113) using at least 1 or several conventional diagnostic methods namely histology, hysteroscopy, and/or microbial culture, were blindly evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of 9 chronic endometritis pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. The sensitivity and specificity of the molecular analysis vs the classic diagnostic techniques were compared in the 65 patients assessed by all 3 recognized classic methods. The molecular method showed concordant results with histological diagnosis in 30 samples (14 double positive and 16 double negative) with a matching accuracy of 46.15%. Concordance of molecular and hysteroscopic diagnosis was observed in 38 samples (37 double positive and 1 double negative), with an accuracy of 58.46%. When the molecular method was compared to microbial culture

  7. Co3(PO42·4H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Co3(PO42·4H2O, tricobalt(II bis[orthophosphate(V] tetrahydrate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The title compound is isotypic with its zinc analogue Zn3(PO42·4H2O (mineral name hopeite and contains two independent Co2+ cations. One Co2+ cation exhibits a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination, while the second, located on a mirror plane, has a distorted octahedral coordination environment. The tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ is bonded to four O atoms of four PO43− anions, whereas the six-coordinate Co2+ is cis-bonded to two phosphate groups and to four O atoms of four water molecules (two of which are located on mirror planes, forming a framework structure. In addition, hydrogen bonds of the type O—H...O are present throughout the crystal structure.

  8. Annealing of Al implanted 4H silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallen, A; Suchodolskis, A; Oesterman, J; Abtin, L; Linnarsson, M

    2006-01-01

    Al ions were implanted with multiple energies up to 250 keV at elevated temperatures in n-type 4H SiC epitaxial layers to reach a surface concentration of 1x10 20 cm -3 . These samples were then annealed at temperatures between 1500 and 1950 deg. C. A similar 4H SiC epitaxial sample was implanted by MeV Al ions to lower doses and annealed only at 200 and 400 deg. C. After annealing, cross-sections of the samples were characterized by scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM). The results show that the resistivity of high-dose Al implanted samples has not reached a saturated value, even after annealing at the highest temperature. For the MeV Al implanted sample, the activation of Al has not yet started, but a substantial annealing of the implantation induced damage can be seen from the SSRM depth profiles

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciąkowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  10. [Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek-Trzciąkowska, Aleksandra; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2013-08-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  11. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  12. Subclinical Hypercorticism: the Necessity of Diagnostic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.N. Kvacheniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering certain difficulties in subclinical hypercorticism diagnosis, the object of this work is to focus attention of doctors in different areas on the necessity of thorough examination of patients with pathological conditions that may be the manifestation of Cushing’s syndrome (arterial hypertension, obesity, impaired carbohydrate metabolism and osteoporosis. The laboratory diagnosis is the instrument for early subclinical hypercorticism detection.

  13. Got Dating: Outcomes of a Teen 4-H Relationship Retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Brower

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To support youth in developing healthy relationships, state and county staff collaborated to offer a statewide overnight teen retreat to teach health relationship skills. Evaluation of 64 youth participants from rural and urban counties found significant increases in posttest knowledge of relationship skills for both male and female youth. Youth also reported that the content was very helpful and worth repeating. Program success may be attributed to addressing the interesting and needed subject of dating relationships as well as involvement of state ambassador and collegiate 4-H members as teachers. Implications and replication suggestions are outlined.

  14. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in the Southwestern Iran and detection of cutoff point for NEFA and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Ardavan Nowroozi; Nazifi, Saeed; Ghasrodashti, Abbas Rowshan; Olyaee, Ahad

    2011-06-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is simply a condition marked by increased levels of circulating ketone bodies without the presence of the clinical signs of ketosis. Subclinical ketosis can cause economic losses through decreased milk production and association with preparturient diseases. Limited information is available regarding the prevalence of SCK in dairy herds in Southwestern Iran. The objectives of this study were (i) determination of the cutoff point of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of SCK using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and (ii) determination of prevalence of subclinical ketosis in apparently healthy dairy cattle in Southwestern Iran. From October to December 2009, a total of 100 clinically healthy multiparous Holstein cows (3-8 years old) were randomly selected from 16 dairy herds around Kazerun, Fars Province, Iran. The cows had two-six lactations, with body weight ranging from 500 to 650 kg. Blood samples for each cow were taken at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post parturition and 3-4h after the morning feeding. The optimal cutoff point was set, by the ROC method, to >0.26 mmol/L for NEFA, and ketosis in all of the 2, 4 and 6 weeks postpartum. The results suggest that, a cut-off point of 0.26 mmol/L for NEFA concentrations can be used during early lactation for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis and making management decisions for prevention and treatment. Glucose cannot be a good criterion for diagnosis of SCK and it does not appear to be useful for monitoring subclinical ketosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cultural Core Competencies: Perceptions of 4-H Youth Development Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Fox

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As society grows increasingly diverse, it is critical that youth development professionals are equipped with cultural core competencies. This descriptive study gauged the perceived level of cultural competence among 4-H Youth Development professionals from a Southern state in the United States. Based on the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competency (PRKC Model (Stone & Rennekamp, 2004, youth development professionals rated their cultural competence (equity, access, and opportunity in eight core competency areas. Based on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 0 = No knowledge to 4 = Expert, youth development professionals evaluated their cultural competence ranging from 0.66 to 4.00. According to an interpretive scale, most youth development professionals rated their competence as intermediate. Participants reported the skills of active listening and an open attitude as areas in which they felt most competent. Areas of least competence were community outreach policies and procedures. No significant relationships existed between the demographic variables of gender, degree earned, and field of study when compared to perceived cultural competence. The findings will be used to detect deficiencies and create opportunities for professional training and development experiences in supporting the cultural competence and growth of youth professionals.

  16. Presence of superantigen genes and antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus isolates obtained from the uteri of dairy cows with clinical endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J-L; Ding, Y-X; Zhao, H-X; He, X-L; Li, P-F; Li, Z-F; Guan, H; Guo, X

    2014-10-11

    Clinical endometritis is an important disease of dairy cattle and results in decreased reproductive performance. This disease is caused by contamination of the uterus with a broad spectrum of microorganisms after calving. In this study, staphylococcal isolates from the uterus of dairy cows with clinical endometritis were tested for their distribution of superantigen (SAg) genes and antimicrobial resistance. Between the 127 staphylococcal isolates collected in this study, 10 species were identified. The predominant strain identified was Staphylococcus aureus (n=53), followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=38) and Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=22). PCR analysis demonstrated that most isolates (63.0 per cent) harboured at least one SAg gene. The most commonly observed SAg gene and genotype was selj (38.6 per cent) and sec-selj-seln (24.0 per cent), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to penicillin (79.5 per cent), ampicillin (71.7 per cent), erythromycin (56.7 per cent), and tetracycline (52.0 per cent). PCR analysis demonstrated that the antimicrobial resistance determinants ermA, ermB, ermC, tetK, tetM and blaZ were detected in 0 per cent, 44.4 per cent, 51.4 per cent, 68.2 per cent, 13.6 per cent and 86.1 per cent of the erythromycin, tetracycline and β-lactam resistant isolates, respectively. There were 22 (17.3 per cent of all isolates) coagulase-negative staphylococci shown to be methicillin resistant. In the methicillin-resistant isolates, significant resistances to ampicillin, erythromycin and penicillin were observed (P<0.01). The results of this study demonstrate that staphylococci recovered from dairy cows with clinical endometritis contain an extensive and complex prevalence of SAg genes. Significant resistances to antibiotics were also seen, highlighting the need for the rational appliance of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Higher prevalence of chronic endometritis in women with endometriosis: a possible etiopathogenetic link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicinelli, Ettore; Trojano, Giuseppe; Mastromauro, Marcella; Vimercati, Antonella; Marinaccio, Marco; Mitola, Paola Carmela; Resta, Leonardo; de Ziegler, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the association between endometriosis end chronic endometritis (CE) diagnosed by hysteroscopy, conventional histology, and immunohistochemistry. Case-control study. University hospital. Women with and without endometriosis who have undergone hysterectomy. Retrospective evaluation of 78 women who have undergone hysterectomy and were affected by endometriosis and 78 women without endometriosis. CE diagnosed based on conventional histology and immunohistochemistry with anti-syndecan-1 antibodies to identify CD138 cells. The prevalence of CE was statistically significantly higher in the women with endometriosis as compared with the women who did not have endometriosis (33 of 78, 42.3% vs. 12 of 78, 15.4% according to hysteroscopy; and 30 of 78, 38.5% vs. 11 of 78, 14.1% according to histology). The women were divided into two groups, 115 patients without CE and 41 patients with CE. With univariate analysis, parity was associated with a lower risk for CE, and endometriosis was associated with a statistically significantly elevated risk of CE. Using multivariate analysis, parity continued to be associated with a lower incidence of CE, whereas endometriosis was associated with a 2.7 fold higher risk. The diagnosis of CE is more frequent in women with endometriosis. Although no etiologic relationships between CE and endometriosis can be established, this study suggests that CE should be considered and if necessary ruled out in women with endometriosis, particularly if they have abnormal uterine bleeding. Identification and appropriate treatment of CE may avoid unnecessary surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  19. Pulmonary functions in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Gulfidan; Saler, Tayyibe; Saglam, Zuhal Aydan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ataoglu, Esra; Demir, Tuncalp; Temiz, Levent Umit

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether alterations in pulmonary function takes place in subclinical hypothyroidism by examining the diffusion lung capacity and muscle strength of such patients. This is a descriptive study conducted in 2009 at Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Hundred and twenty-six patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 58 age and sex matched individuals were recruited. Simple spirometry tests were performed, and pulmonary diffusion capacity (DLco) and muscle strength were measured. ScH patients showed a significant reduciton of the following pulmonary function tests (% predicted value) as compared with control subjects: FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF25-75, FEF25-75%, DLco, DLco/VA, Pimax, Pimax% and Pemax%. These data indicate that pulmonary functions are effected in subclinical hypothyrodism. Therefore patients with or who are at high risk of having subclinical hypothyroidism, should be subjected to evaluation of pulmonary functions with simple spirometry.

  20. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2015-01-01

    . Levels of thyroid function were defined as euthyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.45-4.49 mIU/L), subclinical hyperthyroidism (TSH hypothyroidism (TSH ≥4.50-19.99 mIU/L) with normal thyroxine concentrations. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was hip...... fracture. Any fractures, nonspine fractures, and clinical spine fractures were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Among 70,298 participants, 4092 (5.8%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 2219 (3.2%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism. During 762,401 person-years of follow-up, hip fracture occurred in 2975...... hyperthyroidism (excluding thyroid medication users) was associated with HRs of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.19-1.93) for hip fracture, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.16-1.74) for any fracture, and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.01-2.99) for spine fracture. No association was found between subclinical hypothyroidism and fracture risk. CONCLUSIONS...

  1. Trueperella pyogenes isolated from dairy cows with endometritis in Inner Mongolia, China: Tetracycline susceptibility and tetracycline-resistance gene distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dexian; Zhao, Jingcui; Wang, Qiuxia; Liu, Yaochuan; Tian, Chunlian; Zhao, Yujun; Yu, Lihui; Liu, Mingchun

    2017-04-01

    Trueperella pyogenes plays a crucial role in endometritis pathogenesis and is also associated with many infections, including metritis, mastitis, arthritis and liver abscessation, in many domestic animals. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in T. pyogenes isolated from dairy cows with endometritis in Inner Mongolia, China, and we assessed tetracycline-resistance gene distribution among the isolates. Our results indicated that 68.7% and 62.5% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, respectively, and the rate of resistance to metacycline was 18.8%. The tetracycline resistance gene tetK was present in all isolates (n = 32), whereas the tetM gene was identified in 12.5% and 9.4% of the isolates, in the chromosome and plasmid, respectively. Strains carrying tetW were also common in the chromosome and plasmid, with abundances of 53.1% and 46.9%, respectively. However, tetO and otrA were absent in all isolates. The resistance phenotype analysis indicated that 6.3% of strains were susceptible to all tetracyclines, while 3.1% showed resistance to all tetracyclines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibacterial Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles on Endometritis Caused by Prevotella melaninogenica and Arcanobacterum pyogenes in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine postpartum diseases remain one of the most significant and highly prevalent illnesses with negative effects on the productivity, survival, and welfare of dairy cows. Antibiotics are generally considered beneficial in the treatment of endometritis; however, frequent usage of each antibiotic drug is reason for the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR of the pathogenic microorganisms, representing a major impediment for the successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases in both humans and animals. We synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with an average size of 10 nm using the novel biomolecule apigenin as a reducing and stabilizing agent, and evaluated the efficacy of the AgNPs on the MDR pathogenic bacteria Prevotella melaninogenica and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from uterine secretion samples. AgNPs inhibited cell viability and biofilm formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the metabolic toxicity of the AgNPs was assessed through various cellular assays. The major toxic effect of cell death was caused by an increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content, and nitric oxide. The formation of ROS is considered to be the primary mechanism of bacterial death. Therefore, the biomolecule-mediated synthesis of AgNPs shows potential as an alternative antimicrobial therapy for bovine metritis and endometritis.

  3. Intergenerational Panels at Centennial Events: Stimulating Discussion about Continuity and Change in the 4-H Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew S.; Weikert, Ben; Scholl, Jan; Rushton, Mya

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an intergenerational strategy for organizations planning centennial celebratory events. The methods and findings from the 4-H through the Generations session conducted at the joint 4-H Leadership Conference and 4-H Leaders Forum to celebrate the Pennsylvania 4-H Centennial are reported. Youth and adult participants shared…

  4. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a) Fund-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem may be carried out for specific educational purposes. Such fund-raising programs and use of the 4-H name and emblem on, or associated with, products, and services...

  5. Determination of optimal diagnostic criteria for purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Dubuc, J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this observational study were to identify the optimal diagnostic criteria for purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) and cytological endometritis (ENDO) using vaginal discharge, endometrial cytology, and leukocyte esterase (LE) tests, and to quantify their effect on subsequent reproductive performance. Data generated from 1,099 untreated Holstein cows (28 herds) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial were used in this study. Cows were examined at 35 (± 7) d in milk for PVD using vaginal discharge scoring and for ENDO using endometrial cytology and LE testing. Optimal combinations of diagnostic criteria were determined based on the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC) to predict pregnancy status at first service. Once identified, these criteria were used to quantify the effect of PVD and ENDO on pregnancy risk at first service and on pregnancy hazard until 200 d in milk (survival analysis). Predicting ability of these diagnostic criteria was determined using area under the curve (AUC) values. The prevalence of PVD and ENDO was calculated as well as the agreement between endometrial cytology and LE. The optimal diagnostic criteria (lowest AIC) identified in this study were purulent vaginal discharge or worse (≥ 4), ≥ 6% polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) by endometrial cytology, and small amounts of leukocytes or worse (≥ 1) by LE testing. When using the combination of vaginal discharge and PMNL percentage as diagnostic tools (n = 1,099), the prevalences of PVD and ENDO were 17.1 and 36.2%, respectively. When using the combination of vaginal discharge and LE (n = 915), the prevalences of PVD and ENDO were 17.1 and 48.4%. The optimal strategies for predicting pregnancy status at first service were the use of LE only (AUC = 0.578) and PMNL percentage only (AUC = 0.575). Cows affected by PVD and ENDO had 0.36 and 0.32 times the odds, respectively, of being pregnant at first service when using PMNL percentage compared with that of unaffected

  6. 1400 V 4H-SiC power MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Casady, J.B.; Rowland, L.B.; Valek, W.F.; Brandt, C.D. [Northrop Grumman Sci. and Technol. Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Silicon carbide (4H-SiC), power U-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (UMOSFETs) were fabricated and characterized from room temperature to 200 C. The devices had a 12 {mu}m thick lightly doped n-type drift layer, and a nominal channel length of 4 {mu}m. When tested under Fluorinert{sup TM} at room temperature, blocking voltages ranged from 1.3 kV to 1.4 kV. Effective channel mobility ranged from 1.5 cm{sup 2}/V.s at room temperature with a gate bias of 32 V (oxide field {proportional_to} 3.5 MV/cm) up to 7 cm{sup 2}/V.s at 100 C with an applied gate bias of 26 V (oxide field {proportional_to} 2.9 MV/cm). Specific on-resistance (R{sub on,sp}) was calculated to be as low as 74 m{Omega}.cm{sup 2} at 100 C under the same gate bias. Fowler-Nordheim measurements with positive gate bias on actual UMOS devices indicated thermionic field injection at elevated temperatures. (orig.) 8 refs.

  7. Using narrow-band imaging with conventional hysteroscopy increases the detection of chronic endometritis in abnormal uterine bleeding and postmenopausal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mustafa; Ulubay, Mustafa; Alanbay, Ibrahim; Keskin, Uğur; Karasahin, Emre; Yenen, Müfit Cemal

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary study was designed to evaluate whether a narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopic light source could detect chronic endometritis that was not identifiable with a white light hysteroscope. A total of 86 patients with endometrial pathology (71 abnormal uterine bleeding and 15 postmenopausal bleeding) were examined by NBI endoscopy and white light hysteroscopy between February 2010 and February 2011. The surgeon initially observed the uterine cavity using white light hysteroscopy and made a diagnostic impression, which was recorded. Subsequently, after pressing a button on the telescope, NBI was used to reevaluate the endometrial mucosa. The median age of the patients was 40 years (range: 30-60 years). Endometritis was diagnosed histologically. Six cases of abnormal uterine bleeding (6/71, 8.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.17) and one case of postmenopausal bleeding (1/15, 6%, 95%CI 0.01-0.29) were only diagnosed with chronic endometritis by NBI (7/86, 8.1%, 95%CI 0.04-0.15). Capillary patterns of the endometrium can be observed by NBI and this method can be used to assess chronic endometritis. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Autopilot regulation for the Linac4 H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, G.; Lettry, J.; Mattei, S.; Lefort, B.; Costa, V. J. Correia

    2017-08-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV H- linear accelerator part of the upgrade of the LHC injector chain. Its cesiated surface H- source is designed to provide a beam intensity of 40-50mA. It is operated with periodical Cs-injection at typically 30 days intervals [1] and this implies that the beam parameters will slowly evolve during operation. Autopilot is a control software package extending CERN developed Inspector framework. The aim of Autopilot is to automatize the mandatory optimization and cesiation processes and to derive performance indicators, thus keeping human intervention minimal. Autopilot has been developed by capitalizing on the experience from manually operating the source. It comprises various algorithms running in real-time, which have been devised to: • Optimize the ion source performance by regulation of H2 injection, RF power and frequency. • Describe the performance of the source with performance indicators, which can be easily understood by operators. • Identify failures, try to recover the nominal operation and send warning in case of deviation from nominal operation. • Make the performance indicators remotely available through Web pages.Autopilot is at the same level of hierarchy as an operator, in the CERN infrastructure. This allows the combination of all ion source devices, providing the required flexibility. Autopilot is executed in a dedicated server, ensuring unique and centralized control, yet allowing multiple operators to interact at runtime, always coordinating between them. Autopilot aims at flexibility, adaptability, portability and scalability, and can be extended to other components of CERN's accelerators. In this paper, a detailed description of the Autopilot algorithms is presented, along with first results of operating the Linac4 H- Ion Source with Autopilot.

  9. Subclinical form of the American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elinor Alves Gama

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis (VL shows nonspecific clinical manifestations, with difficulties being frequently met in its clinical characterization and diagnostic confirmation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to define the clinical-laboratory profile of this clinical form. A cohort study was conducted in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, from January/1998 to December/2000, with monthly follow-up of 784 children aged 0-5 years. Based on the clinical-laboratory parameters reported in the literature, four categories were established, with the children being classified (according to their clinical-evolutive behavior as asymptomatic (N = 144, as having the subclinical form (N = 33 or the acute form (N = 12 or as subjects "without VL" (N = 595. Multiple discriminant analysis demonstrated that the combination of fever, hepatomegaly, hyperglobulinemia, and increased blood sedimentation rate (BSR can predict the subclinical form of VL as long as it is not associated with splenomegaly or leukopenia. Subjects with the subclinical form did not show prolonged or intermittent evolution or progression to the acute form of VL. Subclinical cases have a profile differing from the remaining clinical forms of VL, being best characterized by the combination of fever, hepatomegaly, hyperglobulinemia, and increased BSR.

  10. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: clinical features and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Palmieri, Emiliano Antonio; Klain, Michele; Schlumberger, Martin; Filetti, Sebastiano; Lombardi, Gaetano

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism appears to be a common disorder. It may be caused by exogenous or endogenous factors: excessive TSH suppressive therapy with L-thyroxine (L-T4) for benign thyroid nodular disease, differentiated thyroid cancer, or hormone over-replacement in patients with hypothyroidism are the most frequent causes. Consistent evidence indicates that 'subclinical' hyperthyroidism reduces the quality of life, affecting both the psycho and somatic components of well-being, and produces relevant signs and symptoms of excessive thyroid hormone action, often mimicking adrenergic overactivity. Subclinical hyperthyroidism exerts many significant effects on the cardiovascular system; it is usually associated with a higher heart rate and a higher risk of supraventricular arrhythmias, and with an increased left ventricular mass, often accompanied by an impaired diastolic function and sometimes by a reduced systolic performance on effort and decreased exercise tolerance. It is well known that these abnormalities usually precede the onset of a more severe cardiovascular disease, thus potentially contributing to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in these patients. In addition, it is becoming increasingly apparent that subclinical hyperthyroidism may accelerate the development of osteoporosis and hence increased bone vulnerability to trauma, particularly in postmenopausal women with a pre-existing predisposition. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and its related clinical manifestations are reversible and may be prevented by timely treatment.

  11. Investigating the microbiome of the bovine uterus in relation to endometritis, a costly disease for dairy farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødtness Vesterby Knudsen, Lif; Rasmussen, Eva Láadal; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    Endometritis is inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus, affecting up to 20% of the dairy cows after calving in Denmark. The disease causes reduced pregnancy rates, which often leads to culling of the cows and is costly for the farmer. Until now, investigations of which pathogens may cause....... Not being limited to bacteria that are suited to growth under laboratory conditions, this study promises a more comprehensive insight into the microbiome of the dairy cow uterus than has previously been offered. Cows (n=40) on a Danish dairy herd were randomly selected on the basis of a uterine score...... indicating that the cows had uterine pathology. Uterine fluid was aspirated and if necessary the uterus was flushed with 30 ml sterile saline solution in order to retrieve uterine material. The fluid was placed in RNAlater. An endometrial biopsy was retrieved and the tissue placed in RNAlater. The cows were...

  12. Tratamento da endometrite puerperal com antibioticoterapia parenteral exclusiva Treatment of puerperal endometritis using a regimen with exclusive parenteral antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Duarte

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a efetividade e segurança da antibioticoterapia parenteral hospitalar exclusiva para tratamento da endometrite puerperal, em população de baixo nível socioeconômico. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico prospectivo, que avaliou 21 puérperas com diagnóstico de endometrite puerperal, cujas gestações foram resolvidas em hospital universitário por cesárea (52,4% ou parto normal (47,6. A amostra caracterizou-se por baixo nível socioeconômico e de escolaridade. Foram submetidas ao regime de antibioticoterapia parenteral exclusiva, apenas durante o período de internação (grupo ATP-EX. Os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos de série histórica do mesmo serviço (20 casos submetidas a antibioticoterapia parenteral hospitalar, complementada por terapia via oral ambulatorial (grupo ATP+VO. As pacientes foram avaliadas clinicamente em retornos periódicos visando identificar casos de recidivas e complicações infecciosas. RESULTADOS: uma paciente do grupo ATP+VO necessitou de reinternação no 6º dia após a alta por recrudescência da endometrite. Não foi observada nenhuma complicação entre as pacientes do grupo ATP-EX. CONCLUSÃO: para o tratamento de endometrite puerperal, não foi observado benefício adicional com a adição da antibioticoterapia oral complementar após a alta. Os resultados com o uso da antibioticoterapia parenteral exclusiva durante a internação indicam que esse esquema pode ser utilizado com segurança em população de baixo nível socioeconômico.PURPOSE: to analyze the effectiveness and safety of exclusive hospital parenteral antibiotic therapy to treat puerperal endometritis in a population of low socioeconomic level. METHODS: a prospective clinical trial evaluated 21 puerperae with a diagnosis of postpartum endometritis, whose deliveries occurred at a university hospital by cesarean section (52.4% or normal delivery (47.6%. The sample was characterized by low socioeconomic and

  13. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: current concepts and scintigraphic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intenzo, Charles; Jabbour, Serge; Miller, Jeffrey L; Ahmed, Intekhab; Furlong, Kevin; Kushen, Medina; Kim, Sung M; Capuzzi, David M

    2011-09-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as normal serum free thyroxine and a free triiodothyronine level, with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and is usually undetectable. Although patients with this diagnosis have no or few signs and symptoms of overt thyrotoxicosis, there is sufficient evidence that it is associated with a relatively higher risk of supraventricular arrhythmias as well as the acceleration or the development of osteoporosis. Consequently, the approach to the patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism is controversial, that is, therapeutic intervention versus watchful waiting. Regardless, it is imperative for the referring physician to identify the causative thyroid disorder. This is optimally accomplished by a functional study, namely scintigraphy. Recognition of the scan findings of the various causes of subclinical hyperthyroidism enables the imaging specialist to help in diagnosing the underlying condition causing thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression thereby facilitating the workup and management of this thyroid disorder.

  14. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Y Demidova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart disease, incident atrial fibrillation, and cardiac dysfunction.

  15. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    T Y Demidova; I N Drozdova

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart diseas...

  16. Subclinical Cushing's syndrome: current concepts and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, George N; Perysinakis, Iraklis; Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-01-01

    Clinically inapparent adrenal masses which are incidentally detected have become a common problem in everyday practice. Approximately 5-20% of adrenal incidentalomas present subclinical cortisol hypersecretion which is characterized by subtle alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis due to adrenal autonomy. This disorder has been described as subclinical Cushing's syndrome, since there is no typical clinical phenotype. The diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome is based on biochemical evaluation; however, there is still no consensus for the biochemical diagnostic criteria. An abnormal 1mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) as initial screening test in combination with at least one other abnormal test of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been advocated by most experts for the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome. DST is the main method of establishing the diagnosis, while there is inhomogeneity of the information that other tests provide. Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 or impaired glucose tolerance, central obesity, osteoporosis/vertebral fractures and dyslipidemia are considered as detrimental effects of chronic subtle cortisol excess, although there is no proven causal relationship between subclinical cortisol hypersecretion and these morbidities. Therapeutic strategies include careful observation along with medical treatment of morbidities potentially related to subtle cortisol hypersecretion versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The optimal management of patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not yet defined. The conservative approach is appropriate for the majority of these patients; however, the duration of follow-up and the frequency of periodical evaluation still remain open issues. Surgical resection may be beneficial for patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 or abnormal glucose tolerance and obesity.

  17. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  18. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836826

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  19. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  20. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  1. 4-H Programs with a Focus on Including Youth with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Mitzi; Henderson, Karla; Luken, Karen; Bialeschki, Deb; Casey, Mary, II

    2002-01-01

    Intentionally Inclusive 4-H Club Programs is a pilot project intended to create accessible 4-H environments for people with disabilities. An experiential curriculum for 9-12 year-olds was developed and used in three North Carolina counties. Formative evaluation showed how 4-H staff are raising awareness and involving youth and volunteers with…

  2. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  3. A Study of Urban 4-H Club Programs in Thirty Cities of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Joseph C.

    This report covers a six-month sabbatical travel study of urban 4-H programs in 30 United States cities. The purpose of the study was to search for 4-H programs and methods which were being used successfully with urban boys and which might be adapted for use in other urban situations. Interviews with professional 4-H personnel, aides, and leaders…

  4. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radha Krishnan; Soumini; Adithya

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH ) and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of ...

  5. Extension Staffing Models to Serve 4-H Clientele in Changing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna R. Gillespie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to budget cuts in 2002, 4-H staffing models were restructured. The response by University of Idaho Extension was intended to continue meeting the needs of Idaho’s citizens with fewer UI Extension faculty. This staffing reorganization led to the formation of the District III 4-H Team who united to bring stronger 4-H programs to south central Idaho and expand programs to underserved audiences. Information from surveys and interviews over the past seven years reflects the effectiveness, challenges and successes of the District III 4-H Team. In Making the Best Better: 4-H Staffing Patterns and Trends in the Largest Professional Network in the Nation (2007, author Kirk A. Astroth notes a nationwide change in 4-H leadership at the county level from 4-H faculty to program assistants or coordinators. The information gathered in our research may help other states determine staffing models to meet the needs of clientele in these changing times.

  6. Synthesis of symmetrical 2,2',4,4'-tetrasubstituted [4,4'-bithiazole]-5,5'(4H,4'H)-diones and their reactions with some nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth K.; Bray, Diana D.; Kjær, Anders

    1997-01-01

    steric factors. X-Ray crystallography established the structure of the dehydrodimer (4R*,4R'*)-2,2'-diethoxy-4,4'-dibenzyl-[4,4'-bithiazole]-5,5'(4H,4 'H)-dione. One stereoisomer of 2,2'-diphenyl-4,4'-dimethyl-[4,4'-bithiazole]-5,5'(4H,4'H)-dione and a mixture of the stereoisomers 2,2'-diphenyl-4......-carboxylic acid and piperidylamide, was established by X-ray crystallography. Treatment of stereoisomeric mixtures of 2,2'-diethoxy-4,4'-bithiazolones with HCl in benzene gave the corresponding racemic and meso bis-(N-carboxythioanhydride)s. A stereoisomeric mixture of the bis...

  7. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  8. Bold Ideas for the 4th H in 4-H: Teen Identified Concerns and Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Brown; Bonnie Braun; JoAnne Leatherman

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes a literature review; teen-identified health concerns and issues; and teen bold ideas for actions. Findings from the National 4-H Council and Molina Healthcare Teens Take on Health initiative are provided and implications for 4-H programming tied to the new Cooperative Extension National Framework for Health and Wellness are addressed. The article is intended as background for Extension educators, volunteers and administrators as they review the 4-H Healthy Living Missi...

  9. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs , pregnancy outcomes , neuropsychiatric issues , metabolic syndrome , and dyslipidemia . This review will summarize the current data related to the effects of SCH on cardiovascular risk , SCH in pregnancy , in dyslipedemia and clinical guidelines on management of this condition . The evidence has been updated by a Pub med search on the risks and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism of most recent articles published until March 2015

  10. Transformational Leadership and Its Relationship to Adult 4-H Volunteers' Sense of Empowerment in Youth Development Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of 4-H Youth Development Educators to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. There were 498 Oregon adult 4-H volunteers randomly selected to participate. Participants rated the leadership style of their 4-H Youth Development Educator (YDE) using Bass…

  11. Bold Ideas for the 4th H in 4-H: Teen Identified Concerns and Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a literature review; teen-identified health concerns and issues; and teen bold ideas for actions. Findings from the National 4-H Council and Molina Healthcare Teens Take on Health initiative are provided and implications for 4-H programming tied to the new Cooperative Extension National Framework for Health and Wellness are addressed. The article is intended as background for Extension educators, volunteers and administrators as they review the 4-H Healthy Living Mission Mandate, learn what mattered to teens and consider how to incorporate the findings into state and local 4-H youth development programming.

  12. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: When to Consider Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Suh, Se Young

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (e.g., in Graves disease, toxic nodular goiter, or transient thyroiditis), by administration of thyroid hormone to treat malignant thyroid disease, or by unintentional excessive replacement therapy. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism in the general population is about 1% to 2%; however, it may be higher in iodinedeficient areas. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L than in persons with low but detectable thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation and heart failure in older adults, increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and decreased bone mineral density and increased bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. However, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unclear. A possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality-of-life parameters and cognition is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic persons. The American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommend treating patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L if they are older than 65 years or have comorbidities such as heart disease or osteoporosis.

  13. Hemostasis in Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hyperthyroidism on hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present review focuses on hemostatic changes in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; goiter, nodular; ...

  14. Subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentaloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, B.; Betancourt, V.C.; Padilla, P.; De la Barca, M.

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypercortisolism (HS) is diagnosed in a patient with no Cushing's syndrome manifest phenotype but with autonomic cortisol secretion. Harmful effects of chronic subtle excess of cortisol have been demonstrated, such as hypertension (AHT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) or glucose intolerance, obesity, osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and dyslipidemia. It has been suggested that subclinical hypercortisolism may itself be a vascular risk factor. In order to identify the presence of subclinical hypercortisolism and its main clinical manifestations in patients with adrenal incidentalomas treated at the endocrinology service of the 'Arnaldo Milian Castro' Clinical Surgical Hospital, a descriptive cross-sectional investigation was carried out from 2012 to 2015 The sample of intentional type was made up of 34 patients older than 18 years and diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas. Age, sex, toxic habits, questioning results, physical examination and the necessary diagnostic investigations were analyzed. The results showed a predominance of females, over 60 years old, with toxic habits and family and personal history of hypertension and DM2. Palpitations, low back pain, asthenia and obesity with pigmentation of the skin were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated levels of cortisol occurred in the majority of patients. Imaging diagnosis showed left lesions and less than 4.0 cm and adrenal adenoma was the most frequent histopathological diagnosis. It was demonstrated that subclinical hypercortisolism is present in an important group of patients with adrenal incidentalomas, is not as asymptomatic, and is related to the presence of vascular risk factors, and other comorbidities

  15. Subclinical abortions in patients treated with clomiphene citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.C.; Tang, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-subunit, 39 treatment cycles of clomiphene citrate therapy were studied prospectively for incidence of subclinical abortions. Eight treatment cycles resulted in clinically recognizable pregnancies and three other treatment cycles ended up with subclinical abortions. The plasma progesterone levels in patients with subclinical abortions at the 13th day after ovulation were lower than those in patients with normal pregnancies. (author)

  16. 4-H Youth Development: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential…

  17. Global 4-H Network: Laying the Groundwork for Global Extension Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jennifer; Miller, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive study examining 4-H programs in Africa, Asia, and Europe was conducted to provide understanding and direction in the establishment of a Global 4-H Network. Information regarding structure, organizational support, funding, and programming areas was gathered. Programs varied greatly by country, and many partnered with other 4-H…

  18. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  19. Compound hypernucleus interpretation of the Λ4H formation probabilities in the stopped K- absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Sano, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Wakai, M.; Bando, H.

    1988-06-01

    For the abundant Λ 4 H production observed in the stopped K - absorption on light nuclei, a theoretical model is proposed, in which the basic ingredient is formation and fragmentation of a Λ compound nucleus. The estimated Λ 4 H formation probabilities per stopped K - are in rather good agreement with the observed values. (author)

  20. The 4-H Youth Development Professionals Workload Relationship to Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Stark

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine what job responsibilities Extension 4-H youth development professionals (n=241 chose to spend their work time doing and how the workload related to their job satisfaction and burnout is discussed in this paper. Workload was determined using the 4-H Professional, Research, Knowledge, and Competencies (4-H PRKC. Professionals identified their level of job satisfaction and burnout. Based on the previous research on workload, burnout, and job satisfaction, 4-H youth development professionals are prime candidates for experiencing low job satisfaction and increased burnout, which may lead to professionals leaving the organization early. 4-H youth development professionals reported being satisfied with their job and felt very little burnout. Even with the positive job satisfaction and low burnout, there are strategies shared for each of the 4-H PRKC domains to help 4-H professionals continue to have a high level of job satisfaction and low burnout. Many of the strategies that are shared in this paper are applicable to not only 4-H youth development professionals but to any professional who works in the field of youth development.

  1. Volunteer Administration Leadership Proficiency and Leadership Styles: Perceptions of Southern Region 4-H County Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Nicole L. P.; Rudd, Rick D.

    2005-01-01

    Volunteers play an integral role in supporting the mission of 4-H programs in the southern region. For this reason their proficiency in volunteer administration competence and perceived leadership style is important. The researchers sought to examine both the perceived proficiency of 4-H faculty in the southern region in seven competencies…

  2. Factors Related to the Developmental Experiences of Youth Serving as 4-H Camp Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David N.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental experiences of high-school-aged 4-H youth volunteering as counselors at Louisiana 4-H summer camps. A total of 288 counselors from 10 different camping sessions participated in the study. The Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 and the Developmental Experience Survey measured the personal…

  3. Low damage electrical modification of 4H-SiC via ultrafast laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Minhyung; Cahyadi, Rico; Wendorf, Joseph; Bowen, Willie; Torralva, Ben; Yalisove, Steven; Phillips, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of 4H-SiC under ultrafast laser irradiation in the low fluence regime (engineering spatially localized structural and electronic modification of wide bandgap materials such as 4H-SiC with relatively low surface damage via low temperature processing.

  4. Synthesis of 2-amino-4H-chromene derivatives under microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing method to construct the 2-amino-4H-chromene skeleton. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials and methods .... ing 2-amino-4H-chromene (3a–r) derivatives in good .... Students. Supplementary information. The electronic supporting information ...

  5. Addressing the Needs of Children of Offenders: The 4-H LIFE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynna J. Lawson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available 4-H LIFE represents a promising approach to addressing the needs of children of offenders and their caregivers. The 4-H Living Interactive Family Education (LIFE Program was established in 1999 at the Potosi Correctional Center, a maximum security prison. 4-H LIFE is an enhanced or therapeutic visitation program with three key components: 1. parent engagement; 2. parent education; 3. 4-H activities for children of offenders, led by the incarcerated parents. Since inception, 141 youths between the ages of 5 and 18 have participated; 59 incarcerated fathers and 106 caregivers have also been engaged at PCC. Program evaluations suggest that parent-child outcomes improved. In 2005, 4-H LIFE received the Annie E. Casey Foundation Family Strengthening Award.

  6. Investigating the Utilization of Research Evidence in the 4-H Youth Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette H. Bikos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acquisition, interpretation, and utilization of research evidence in the 4-H Youth Development Program from the frame of Social Cognitive Theory. Utilizing Consensual Qualitative Research, we interviewed twenty 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers from seven states. Results indicated four domains, which covered participants’ definitions of research utilization, their experiences utilizing research, the process of acquiring and distributing research, and barriers and facilitators to research utilization. Participants described research use primarily in terms of improving 4-H programs. They discussed their level of confidence (i.e. self-efficacy in finding and applying research evidence and their beliefs about the outcomes of research utilization (i.e. outcomes expectancy. Participants mentioned such barriers as not knowing where to look for research, lack of time, lack of funding, and difficulty applying research findings to their work. The facilitators included support from other 4-H colleagues and availability of 4-H specific conferences, publications, and curriculum databases.

  7. Measuring the Influences of Youth Participation in Ohio 4-H Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Homan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Findings from a multi-component 4-H camp marketing and enrollment study of Ohio 4-H camps are highlighted. Significant influencers on the camp enrollment decision (parents, other adults, peers, siblings, and the respective camper are evaluated as well as the effectiveness of various marketing techniques. The data found in this study indicates that the decision to enroll in camp is most influenced by the respective 4-H camper; however parents are also a strong factor in the choice to participate in 4-H camps. Alumni parents report significantly higher influence in the camp enrollment decision than those parents who are not alumni of 4-H. Personal methods of promoting camps were rated the most effective in reaching potential camp audiences.

  8. Relationships between plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin concentrations in multiparous dairy cows with cytological endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmann, Merle; Kurykin, Jevgeni; Kaart, Tanel; Mällo, Gret-Kristel; Waldmann, Andres

    2018-04-21

    Cytological endometritis (CYTO) is a uterine inflammation characterised by the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in endometrial cytology. This observational study evaluated the association of blood plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin concentrations at -2 weeks prepartum, +1 week and +3 weeks postpartum with the development of CYTO in 119 multiparous Holstein cows. Overall CYTO prevalence was 30.3 per cent. Multivariable logistic regression model revealed the odds of developing CYTO were 3.54 times (P=0.018) greater in cows with week -2 prepartum IGF-1 concentrations less than 74.6 ng/ml and 4.41 times (P=0.004) higher in cows with week +1 postpartum IGF-1 concentrations less than 13.2 ng/ml than the odds of this health outcome in cows with IGF-1 concentrations at least 74.6 and13.2 ng/ml, respectively. Additionally, cows with body condition score (BCS) up to 2.75 at week -2 prepartum and cows experiencing calving-related disorders and/or ill health had higher risk for CYTO compared with cows with BCS=3.50-3.75 (OR=6.8, P=0.049) and cows without health complications (OR=3.1, P=0.030). Insulin was not a significant predictor for CYTO in the model. Our findings provide further evidence that reduced dairy cow fertility associated with low plasma concentrations of IGF-1 is in part mediated through the inflammatory status of the uterus. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  10. Fatal radiation pneumonia following subclinical busulfan injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soble, A.R.; Perry, H.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with polycythemia vera received a moderate dose (480 mg) of busulfan intermittently over a 6 year period and later developed Hodgkin's disease. Following split-course upper mantle, chest irradiation, he developed rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is postulated that the hyperacute organ failures (lung and bone marrow) resulted from augmentation of subclinical busulfan-induced damage of these organs by additive radiation effect. It is recommended that in patients who have had antineoplastic chemotherapy, major radiotherapy to the cervicothoracic region be accompanied by careful monitoring of respiratory and hematopoietic function, both before and during radiotherapy

  11. Pregnancy aggravates proteinuria in subclinical glomerulonephritis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Poelman, RT; Schuiling, GA

    Because subclinical renal disease may be aggravated during pregnancy-as reflected in the occurrence of proteinuria, for example-we investigated whether a subclinical glomerulonephritis (SG) in the non-pregnant rat (passive Heymann nephritis), a condition without proteinuria, is aggravated when the

  12. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the

  13. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  14. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer.

  15. P-wave dispersion in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, R; Akbay, E; Camsari, A; Ozcan, T

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure maximum P wave duration (Pmax) and P wave dispersion (PWD), which can be indicators for the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when increased, and to reveal their relationship with thyroid hormone levels in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Seventy-one patients with sublinical thyrotoxicosis (34 endogenous, 37 exogenous) and 69 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin) on electrocardiogram recordings were measured and PWD was calculated as Pmax-Pmin. Pmax (pendogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with the control group. Pmax (pexogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis compared with the control group. Pmax (p=0.710) and PWD (p=0.127) were not significantly different in patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients. Pmax and PWD negatively associated with TSH in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. In the present study, we observed that Pmax and PWD were longer in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Lack of a difference in Pmax and PWD between patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to support the idea that hormone levels rather than the etiology of thyrotoxicosis affect the heart.

  16. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Heijer, M. den; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical

  17. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular system: time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-05-19

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Exogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state caused by L-thyroxine administration. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter, various forms of thyroiditis, in areas with endemic goiter and particularly in elderly subjects. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is currently the subject of numerous studies and it yet remains controversial particularly as it relates to its treatment and to cardiovascular impact nevertheless established effects have been demonstrated. Recently, acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses and recurrent acute pulmonary embolism have been reported associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism without L-thyroxine administration. So, it is very important to recognize and to treat promptly also endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Observational Study from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Mathrubootham; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Vishwanathan, Latha; Subbarayan, Anbezhil

    2018-03-15

    To assess the natural history and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism and to study factors which help predict evolution of subclinical hypothyroidism into overt hypothyroidism. Longitudinal study in 40 children (2-16 yrs) presenting with subclinical hypothyroidism in a tertiary care unit in Chennai, India. Patients showing evidence of overt hypothyroidism or thyroid stimulating hormone ≥15 mIU/mL during follow-up were started on thyroxine. Others were followed up with 3-monthly thyroid function tests up to one year. At the end of our study period 3 (7.5%) were overtly hypothyroid, 16 (40%) remained as subclinical hypothyroid, and 21 (52.5%) became euthyroid. Evidence of auto- immunity at baseline was a significant (Phypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children, with thyroid stimulating hormone upto 15 mIU/L and irrespective of thyroid autoimmunity, needs only periodic clinical and biochemical follow up. Thyroid autoimmunity may point to an increased probability of progression to overt hypothyroidism.

  19. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which......BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with depressive symptoms in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data and data on subclinical hyperthyroidism are scarce. METHODS: In the Leiden sub-study of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among...

  20. Fabrication of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes with high breakdown voltages

    CERN Document Server

    Kum, B H; Shin, M W; Park, J D

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the fabrication and the breakdown characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). Optimal processing conditions for the ohmic contacts were extracted using the transmission-line method (TLM) and were applied to the device fabrication. The Ti/4H-SiC SBDs with Si sub x B sub y passivation showed a maximum reverse breakdown voltage of 268 V with a forward current density as high as 70 mA/cm sup 2 at a forward voltage of 2 V. The breakdown of the Pt. 4H-SiC SBDs without any passivation occurred at near 110 V. It is concluded that the breakdown enhancement in the Ti/4H-SiC SBDs can be attributed to the passivation; otherwise, excess surface charge near the edge of the Schottky contact would lead to electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause field emission.

  1. Etch pit investigation of free electron concentration controlled 4H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Yeol; Shin, Yun Ji; Kim, Jung Gon; Harima, Hiroshi; Kim, Jihyun; Bahng, Wook

    2013-04-01

    Etch pits were investigated using the molten KOH selective etching method to examine dependence of etch pit shape and size on free electron concentration. The free electron concentrations of highly doped 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) were controlled by proton irradiation and thermal annealing, which was confirmed by a frequency shift in the LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled (LOPC) mode on micro-Raman spectroscopy. The proton irradiated sample with 5×1015 cm-2 fluence and an intrinsic semi-insulating sample showed clearly classified etch pits but different ratios of threading screw dislocation (TSD) and threading edge dislocation (TED) sizes. Easily classified TEDs and TSDs on proton irradiated 4H-SiC were restored as highly doped 4H-SiC after thermal annealing due to the recovered carrier concentrations. The etched surface of proton irradiated 4H-SiC and boron implanted SiC showed different surface conditions after activation.

  2. Ohio 4-H Agents' and Volunteer Leaders' Perceptions of the Volunteer Leadership Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)

  3. Positive Temperature Coefficient of Breakdown Voltage in 4H-SiC PN Junction Rectifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neudeck, Philip

    1998-01-01

    ...-suited SiC polytype for power device implementation. This paper reports the first experimental measurements of stable positive temperature coefficient behavior observed in 4H-SiC pn junction rectifiers...

  4. Physical vapor transport growth and properties of SiC monocrystals of 4H polytype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, G.; Hobgood, H.M.; Balakrishna, V.; Dunne, G.; Hopkins, R.H. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Electron. Sensors and Syst. Div.

    1997-07-01

    The physical vapor transport technique can be employed to fabricate large diameter silicon carbide crystals (up to 50 mm diameter) exhibiting uniform 4H-polytype over the full crystal volume. Crystal growth rate is controlled to first order by temperature conditions and ambient pressure. 4H-polytype uniformity is controlled by polarity of the seed crystal and the growth temperature. 4H-SiC crystals exhibit crystalline defects mainly in the form of dislocations with densities in the 10{sup 4} cm{sup -2} range and micropipe defects, the latter having densities as low as 10 cm{sup -2} in best crystals. Electrical conductivity in 4H-SiC bulk crystals ranges from <10{sup -2} {Omega} cm, n-type, to insulating (>10{sup 15} {Omega} cm) at room temperature. (orig.) 33 refs.

  5. Hemostasis in Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hyperthyroidism on hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present review focuses on hemostatic changes in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; goiter, nodular; hemostasis; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation disorders; venous thromboembolism; bleeding; fibrinolysis. The articles that were related to hyperthyroidism and hemostasis are used in this manuscript. Results Hyperthyroidism, either overt or subclinical, renders a hypercoagulable state, although there are several studies with contradictory findings in the literature. Hypercoagulability may be caused by an increase in the level of various coagulation factors such as factor (F) VIII, FX, FIX, von Willebrand F (vWF), and fibrinogen, while hypofibrinolysis by changes in coagulation parameters such as a decrease in plasmin and plasmin activator or an increase in α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor Conclusions Although many reports are in favor of a hypercoagulable state in overt hyperthyroidism but this finding at the biochemical level and its clinical implication, on the occurrence of VTE, has yet to be confirmed. PMID:29201071

  6. Perceptions of 4-H Extension Educators and Volunteer Leaders toward the Inclusion of Youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder(s in 4-H Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chido Mpofu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenges, attitudes, training and support systems needed by 4-H extension educators and volunteer leaders in order to successfully and effectively include youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD in their programs are discussed within this article. Data were collected from extension educators and volunteer leaders in a Northeastern state. The results revealed that 4-H extension educators and volunteer leaders are not adequately trained to include youth with ADHD despite the fact that they may have one or two children with these symptoms in their clubs. For inclusion to be meaningful for youth with ADHD we recommend training for extension educators and volunteer leaders on characteristics of ADHD, its implication for youth involvement as well as techniques/ways of meeting the learning styles of youth with ADHD.

  7. Ferromagnetism in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Wei Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal. An initial increase in proton dose leads to pronounced ferromagnetism, accompanying with obvious increase in vacancy concentration. Further increase in irradiation dose lowers the saturation magnetization with the decrease in total vacancy defects due to the defects recombination. It is found that divacancies are the mainly defects in proton irradiated 4H-SiC and responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  8. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk of carotid atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosu Kim

    Full Text Available The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on vascular atherosclerosis remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction and carotid plaques, which are an early surrogate marker of systemic atherosclerosis.The study included 21,342 adults with consistent thyroid hormonal status on serial thyroid function tests (TFTs and carotid artery duplex ultrasonography at a health screening center between 2007 and 2014. The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on baseline carotid plaques and newly developed carotid plaques during 5-year follow-up was determined by logistic regression analyses and GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations, respectively.Carotid plaques were more common in the subclinical hypothyroidism (55.6% than the euthyroidism (47.8% at baseline. However, in multivariable analysis, thyroid status was not a significant risk for the carotid plaques at baseline. Instead, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age (P <0.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.023, fasting blood glucose (P = 0.030, and creatinine (P = 0.012 were associated with baseline carotid plaques in subclinical hypothyroidism. In longitudinal analyses of subjects who were followed up for more than 5 years, there was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of new carotid plaques according to time between subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and those with euthyroidism (P = 0.392.Sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction did not affect the baseline or development of carotid plaques in healthy individuals.

  9. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. PMID:27779276

  10. Subclinical pulmonary involvement in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dansin, E.; Wallaert, B.; Jardin, M.R.; Remy, J.; Hatron, P.Y.; Tonnel, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    A recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces has been reported in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) and a normal chest radiograph. These findings defined the concept of subclinical alveolitis (SCA). To determine whether SCA may be associated with CT signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD), the authors of this paper compared bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings and high-resolution (HRCT) scans in 36 patients with CVD and normal chest radiographs (systemic sclerosis [SS, n = 21], rheumatoid arthritis [RA, n = 9], primary Sjogren's syndrome [PS, n = 6]). HRCT scans were obtained in supine and prone positions. Results of BAL revealed SCA in 17/36 patients (47%); lymphocyte SCA in 4/36 (24%); neutrophil SCA in 7/36 (41%); and mixed SCA in 6/36 (35%)

  11. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  12. ON THE ORIGIN OF C_4H AND CH_3OH IN PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Johan E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    The formation pathways of different types of organic molecules in protostellar envelopes and other regions of star formation are subjects of intense current interest. We present here observations of C_4H and CH_3OH, tracing two distinct groups of interstellar organic molecules, toward 16 protostars in the Ophiuchus and Corona Australis molecular clouds. Together with observations in the literature, we present C_4H and CH_3OH data from single-dish observations of 40 embedded protostars. We find no correlation between the C_4H and CH_3OH column densities in this large sample. Based on this lack of correlation, a difference in line profiles between C_4H and CH_3OH, and previous interferometric observations of similar sources, we propose that the emission from these two molecules is spatially separated, with the CH_3OH tracing gas that has been transiently heated to high (∼70–100 K) temperatures and the C_4H tracing the cooler large-scale envelope where CH_4 molecules have been liberated from ices. These results provide insight in the differentiation between hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry in embedded protostars.

  13. Functional Trajectories, Cognition, and Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamoon, Mandip S; Cheung, Ying-Kuen; Gutierrez, Jose; Moon, Yeseon P; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B

    2018-03-01

    Cognition and education influence functional trajectories, but whether associations differ with subclinical brain infarcts (SBI) or white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) is unknown. We hypothesized that SBI and WMHV moderated relationships between cognitive performance and education and functional trajectories. A total of 1290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and were followed for 7.3 years (mean) with annual functional assessments with the Barthel index (range, 0-100). Magnetic resonance imaging measurements included pathology-informed SBI (PI-SBI) and WMHV (% total cranial volume). Generalized estimating equation models tested associations between magnetic resonance imaging variables and baseline Barthel index and change in Barthel index, adjusting for demographic, vascular, cognitive, and social risk factors, and stroke and myocardial infarction during follow-up. We tested interactions among education level, baseline cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State score), and functional trajectories and ran models stratified by levels of magnetic resonance imaging variables. Mean age was 70.6 (SD, 9.0) years; 19% had PI-SBI, and mean WMHV was 0.68%. Education did not modify associations between cognition and functional trajectories. PI-SBI modified associations between cognition and functional trajectories ( P =0.04) with a significant protective effect of better cognition on functional decline seen only in those without PI-SBI. There was no significant interaction for WMHV ( P =0.8). PI-SBI, and greater WMHV, were associated with 2- to 3-fold steeper functional decline, holding cognition constant. PI-SBI moderated the association between cognition and functional trajectories, with 3-fold greater decline among those with PI-SBI (compared with no PI-SBI) and normal baseline cognition. This highlights the strong and independent association between subclinical markers and patient-centered trajectories over time. © 2018 American Heart

  14. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Waiz, M.; Al-Saadi, Rabab N.; Al-Saadi, Zahida A.; Al-Rawi, Faiza A.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to investigate a group of Iraqi woman with proved genital vulval warts, to seek evidence of human papillomavirus infection in apparently normal looking cervixes and to investigate the natural history of infection. From December 1997 to August 1998, 20 women with vulval warts were enrolled along with 20 aged-matched control cases without warts. Their ages ranged between 19-48 years with a mean of 30.4 years, (+/- standard deviation = 2.3) for patients and 18-48 years with a mean of 29.7 (+/- standard deviation = 2.7) for the control group. General and gynecological examinations were carried out. Cervical swabs for associated genital infection, papilloma smears, speculoscopy and directed punch biopsies were carried out to detect subclinical human papillomavirus infections of the cervix and associated intraepithelial neoplasm. Cytology results showed that 11 (55%) of patients had evidence of cervical infection by human papillomavirus, 6 (30%) showed mild dysplastic changes, 3 (15%) showed moderate dysplastic changes, whilst 2 (10%) showed no dysplastic changes. Speculoscopy and acetowhitening was positive in 11 (55%) and collated histological results showed evidence of human papillomavirus infection in 9 patients (45%). As for the control group one case (5%) had evidence of human papillomavirus infection. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection is more common than was previously thought among Iraqi women. It may appear alone or in association with vulval or exophytic cervical warts, or both, and may be more common than the clinically obvious disease. Speculoscopy as an adjunctive method to colposcopy was found to be a simple and an easy to perform technique. Its combination with cytology gave relatively good results when it was used as a triage instrument, and may have a more promising performance in the future. (author)

  15. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism-A Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, R.; Anwer, M. S.; Khan, F. A.; Ijaz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the development of overt hyperthyroidism in a cohort of patients of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCR) and in subjects with normal thyroid function tests. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Sept 2006 to Sept 2007. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients of SCR and almost equal number of age and sex-matched subjects with normal Thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study as controls. Subclinical hyperthyroid patients and controls were followed for a period of one year on a six monthly basis. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and serum TSH, total T3 and free T4 were estimated. The clinical history, physical examination and TFT results were recorded. Five ml of blood was collected for serum thyroid profile in plain tube. Hormonal analysis(TSH, T4 and T3) was done for the patients and the controls enrolled in the study. The TFTs was analyzed using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay technique on Immulite 2000 an automated, random access, immunoassay analyzer. Results: Six (12%) out of 50 cases of the SCR patients and 2 (4%) out of 50 controls developed overt hyperthyroidism. SCR had no significant risk for conversion to overt hyperthyroidism as compared to healthy controls in this study. In addition to initial levels of serum TSH were one of important predictor for conversion of SCR to overt hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: Patients with SCR have no significant risk but showed an increase in frequency of conversion to overt hyperthyroidism (12% in this study) as compared to controls. (author)

  16. 4-H & FFA Livestock Projects: Life Skills Gained and Knowledge Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle N. Holmgren

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Junior Livestock shows are one of the most popular 4-H and FFA projects in Utah. Thousands of youth participate in these shows from every county in Utah. County extension agents and FFA advisors spend much time with livestock committees, leaders, parents, and youth engaged in livestock shows. Can public funds spent on salaries be justified for county 4-H extension agents and FFA advisors who work with junior livestock shows? To help answer this question, 413 youth involved in livestock shows in Utah were surveyed in 2001. Youth were asked to share skills learned from their livestock projects. Value statements along with specific content skills were measured in the survey. The results indicate that from their 4-H and FFA projects, youth learned to accept responsibility, follow instructions, gain self-confidence, follow instructions, “do the right thing” as well as a variety of other values and content skills.

  17. Regioselective Synthesis of 3-Amino-4-arylisoxazol-5(4H)-ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Won; Lee, Ihl Young Choi; Lim, Hee Jong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We have demonstrated a new and efficient method for the synthesis of 3-substituted aminoisoxazoles from readily available thiocarbamoyl esters. Mercury (II) chloride appeared to be a Lewis acid of choice among the metals tested in this cyclodesulfurization reaction. Application of this method for the synthesis of substituted aminopyrazoles is now under investigation in our laboratory. 3-Aminoisoxazol-5(4H)-one is an important building block of many biologically active compounds including antimicrobial and antioxidant, K channel opener, and kinase inhibitors. Besides, it could be transformed to fused heterocyclic compounds such as indoles, imidazopyridines, and isoxazolopyrimidines. Condensation reaction of α-cyanoacetate with hydroxylamine was a well known method to access either 3-aminoisoxazol-5(4H)-one or isomeric 5-aminoisoxazol-3(4H)-one depending upon condition. For instance, reaction under the neutral condition provided 3-aminoisoxazolone isomer via acetamidoxime intermediate, whereas 5-aminoisoxazolone isomer was obtained under the alkaline condition.

  18. Addressing Criteria in the Development of a New 4-H Foods Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan McConnell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As youth and society changes, 4-H projects must change and adapt. Make it with Mixes, a 4-H curriculum, provides a new way of looking at food preparation. It may be one of the first state foods projects created without an emphasis on “from scratch” cooking or baking. Aimed at beginning 4-H members, ages 9 to 13, the project teaches cooking skills with the aid of commercial mixes. However, the main focus of the project is on making comparisons between food labels, costs per serving, and recognizing quality food products. Science and mathematics activities are also incorporated into the curriculum. This article discusses the organization, criteria and strategies used to create this new foods project.

  19. Regioselective Synthesis of 3-Amino-4-arylisoxazol-5(4H)-ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Won; Lee, Ihl Young Choi; Lim, Hee Jong

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated a new and efficient method for the synthesis of 3-substituted aminoisoxazoles from readily available thiocarbamoyl esters. Mercury (II) chloride appeared to be a Lewis acid of choice among the metals tested in this cyclodesulfurization reaction. Application of this method for the synthesis of substituted aminopyrazoles is now under investigation in our laboratory. 3-Aminoisoxazol-5(4H)-one is an important building block of many biologically active compounds including antimicrobial and antioxidant, K channel opener, and kinase inhibitors. Besides, it could be transformed to fused heterocyclic compounds such as indoles, imidazopyridines, and isoxazolopyrimidines. Condensation reaction of α-cyanoacetate with hydroxylamine was a well known method to access either 3-aminoisoxazol-5(4H)-one or isomeric 5-aminoisoxazol-3(4H)-one depending upon condition. For instance, reaction under the neutral condition provided 3-aminoisoxazolone isomer via acetamidoxime intermediate, whereas 5-aminoisoxazolone isomer was obtained under the alkaline condition

  20. Positive Youth Development Life Skills Gained at the Iowa 4-H Youth Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Allen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests 4-H programs build Life Skills such as leadership, communication, citizenship and learning. However, 4-H programs vary from long-term on-going experiences to shorter, more intense opportunities. This paper discusses a program evaluation articulating the life skill development of participants in a 3-day residential State 4-H Conference on a Midwestern college campus. The Life Skills assessed were in the areas of leadership, citizenship, communication, and learning as part of overall Life Skill development. Participants were youth ages 14-18 years. A retrospective pretest-posttest was used to evaluate skill development and understanding. Analysis, including paired sample t-tests, indicated growth in each of the 12 common outcome measures evaluated. This study supports the importance of purposeful planning and youth engagement in the learning process to achieve desired life skill outcomes.

  1. Youth and Adult Perceptions of a New Technology in California 4-H: The Online Record Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra M. Lewis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth development research suggests that adult volunteers have the potential to influence the how and when youth engage with technology as a legitimate form of program participation. The adults’ comfort levels with technology, coupled with the historical structure of the youth development organization itself, shapes which technologies are made available to, adopted by, or perceived as relevant or useful to youth. This study explores how adults and youth members of California 4-H perceived the 4-H Online Record Book (ORB, an electronic version of the traditional  4-H record book. Survey data from 236 self-identified users and non-users of ORB provided feedback about their use of and feelings towards ORB, with youth expressing more positive feelings towards ORB and adults feeling more negative about the system. Youth however, felt supported by adults to use ORB.

  2. Facile synthesis and herbicidal evaluation of 2-aryl-4h-3, 1-benzoxazin-4-ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Khan, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones carrying an aryl functional group at position-2. Synthesized compounds tested for herbicidal activity at three different doses (500 micro g/mL, 50 micro g/mL and 5 micro g/mL). Most of the compounds exhibited significant herbicidal activity against Lemna aequinocitalis welv at higher dose (500 micro g/mL). Among the tested compounds 2-phenyl-4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (3a) and 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (3l) completely inhibited the plant growth at 500 and 50 micro g/mL concentrations. All the synthetic compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, EI-MS and elemental analysis. (author)

  3. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  4. Ab initio investigation of thermodynamic stability and structure of cell molecules B3N4H8 and Be4O4H8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyaev, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ab initio calculation methods (RHF/6-31G, MP2(full)/6-31G and MP2(full)/6-311++G) ) are used to investigate thermodynamic stability, energy and structural characteristics of different position isomers of isoelectron B 3 N 4 H 8 (1) and Be 4 O 4 H 8 (2) systems with cubane structure. High thermodynamic stability of these system is shown. Decomposition of structure (1) into two 1,3,2,4-diazadiborethidine molecules or four molecules of iminoborane HBNH is an endothermal process and needs 10.1 (RHF/6-31G), 39/6 (MP2(full)/6-31G) Cal/mol and 140.6 (RHF/6-31G), 161.4 (MP2(full)/6-31G) Cal/mol accordingly. Decomposition of structure (2) into two 1,3,2,4-dioxydiberyllotidine or four molecules of HBeOH is an endothermal process too and needs 22.1 (RHF/6-31G), 39.8 (MP2(full)/6-31G) Cal/mol and 127.1(RHF/6-31G), 155.2 MP2(full)/6-31G) Cal/mol accordingly. Geometrical characteristics of simple BeH 2 , Be 2 , Be 2 H 2 , Be 2 H 4 , BeO, Be 2 O 2 molecules are calculated [ru

  5. Ge incorporation inside 4H-SiC during Homoepitaxial growth by chemical vapor deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Alassaad, Kassem; Soulière, Véronique; Cauwet, François; Peyre, Hervé; Carole, Davy; Kwasnicki, Pawel; Juillaguet, Sandrine; Kups, Thomas; Pezoldt, Jörg; Ferro, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    8 pages; International audience; In this work, we report on the addition of GeH4 gas during homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC by chemical vapour deposition. Ge introduction does not affect dramatically the surface morphology and defect density though it is accompanied with Ge droplets accumulation at the surface. The Ge incorporation level inside the 4H-SiC matrix, ranging from few 1017 to few 1018 at.cm-3, was found to be mainly affected by the growth temperature and GeH4 flux. Other growth par...

  6. Lipids in newly discovered subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive correlation between the levels of TSH and cholesterol levels, while levels between TSH levels triglicrerida negative correlation with the clinical and subclinical form of reduced thyroid function.

  7. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed El Kholy

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... In children with subclinical hypothyroidism, The American. Thyroid Association ... reflects mild hypothyroidism that could harm brain growth and development in the ... results in a normal cognitive development [9]. In conclusion ...

  10. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo SH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.Keywords: suicidal behavior, subclinical hyperthyroidism, anxiolytics

  11. Subclinical Laminitis in Dairy Cattle: 205 Selected Cases

    OpenAIRE

    BAKIR, Ali BELGE Bahtiyar

    2005-01-01

    The economic importance of lameness in dairy cattle has newly been recognized in Turkey. Lameness incidence in Turkey has been reported to be between 13% and 58%, which is similar to that of other countries where 4% and 55% incidence rates have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sole lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in the hooves of dairy cattle in Van, Turkey. The risk factors for subclinical laminitis are proposed and discussed. The so...

  12. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, E; den Heijer, M; van Dijk, A P J; Hermus, A

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical hyperthyroidism, for example, effects on heart and bone mass, are discussed. Guidelines for treatment are given, based on expert opinion.

  13. Analysis of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Influence on Parameters of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pankiv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available State of subclinical hypothyroidism can be considered as the optimal model for assessing the significance of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH for bone tissue in clinical practice. Objective: to make a comparative analysis of the impact of subclinical hyperthyroidism of various origins on the performance of bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism parameters. Materials and methods. The study in an outpatient setting included 112 women with a diagnosis of subclinical hyperthyroidism and duration of menopause for at least 5 years. Among the examinees, endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has been detected in 78 women (group I, exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on the background of suppressive levothyroxine therapy (group II — in 34. The control group (group III included 20 women without thyroid dysfunction. Results. The study first conducted a comparative analysis of bone metabolism, BMD indicators, as well as parameters of phosphorus and calcium, blood lipids in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism of various origins. A positive correlation between markers of bone metabolism and free triiodothyronine (fT3 as hormones necessary for the development of the skeleton and to maintain its homeostasis indicates a physiological effect of parathyroid hormone and fT3 on bone tissue. It is shown that the bone metabolism and BMD depend not only on the content of TSH, but also on the causes of subclinical hyperthyroidism.Conclusions. In postmenopausal women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, there is a significant decline in BMD indices, more pronounced in the bones with the cortical structure. A negative correlation between markers of bone metabolism and TSH has been observed among all patients included in the study.

  14. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hall mobility maps for 4H-silicon carbide by Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźny, J; Lisik, Z; Podgórski, J

    2014-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Single Particle approach was used to analyze electron transport in 4H-SiC taking into account the influence of the magnetic field. Within the numerical approach it was possible to evaluate electron Hall mobility and the Hall factor for the wide range of donor concentrations and temperatures varying from 300 K up to 700 K

  16. Choose and Tell Cards: A 4-H Cloverbud Resource for Promoting Public Speaking and Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechschulte, Jill; Scheer, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Choose and Tell is a curriculum for 4-H Cloverbud members that introduces them to public speaking and life skill enhancement (communication and social interaction). Choose and Tell consists of activity cards analogous to a deck of cards. Activity card titles include Wash and Comb Your Hair, Plant a Seed, and Floss Your Teeth. The activities are…

  17. Thermally stimulated capacitance in gamma irradiated epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwara Raja, P.; Narasimha Murty, N. V. L.

    2018-04-01

    Deep level defects in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) fabricated on n-type epitaxial 4H-SiC have been identified by thermally stimulated capacitance (TSCAP) spectroscopy prior to and after 60Co-gamma irradiation. The TSCAP measurements on the non-irradiated SBDs reveal two electron traps at Ec-0.63 eV (˜250 K) and Ec-1.13 eV (˜525 K), whereas only one trap at Ec-0.63 eV is identified by conventional thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements. Hence, TSCAP spectroscopy is more effective in identifying deep level defects in epitaxial 4 H-SiC SBDs as compared to the TSC spectroscopy. Upon exposure to 60Co-gamma rays up to a dose of 100 Mrad, significant changes in the concentration of the traps at Ec-0.63 eV, Ec-1.13 eV, and one new trap at Ec-0.89 eV (˜420 K) are observed. The electrical characteristics of the SBDs are considerably changed after gamma irradiation. The dominant mechanisms responsible for the irradiation induced changes in the SBD electrical characteristics are analyzed by incorporating the trap signatures in the commercial Silvaco® TCAD device simulator. The extracted trap parameters of the irradiated SBDs may be helpful in predicting the survival of 4H-SiC SBD detectors at higher irradiation levels.

  18. Factors Related to Motivating Adult Somalis with Refugee Status to Volunteer for 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mitchell D.; Ouellette, Kristy L.

    2016-01-01

    Focus group interviews were held with adult Somali immigrants to assess their likelihood of volunteering for 4-H in Maine. This qualitative study was undertaken to identify best practices for engaging the growing Somali-Mainer population as a volunteer base. Results of the study demonstrate that Somali immigrant adults are willing to volunteer for…

  19. Participant Comfort with and Application of Inquiry-Based Learning: Results from 4-H Volunteer Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Heidi; Stevenson, Anne; Meyer, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how a one-time training designed to support learning transfer affected 4-H volunteers' comfort levels with the training content and how comfort levels, in turn, affected the volunteers' application of tools and techniques learned during the training. Results of a follow-up survey suggest that the training participants…

  20. Proven Effectiveness of Missouri 4-H Camps in Developing Life Skills in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D. Klem

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Camping is generally believed to be a context for positive youth development. The 4-H Camp environments presumably focus on the development of life skills including managing and thinking; relating and caring; giving and working and; living and being. However, the effectiveness of the Missouri 4-H Camp environments in developing life skills among campers had never been evaluated in a consistent manner across the multiple camping programs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of these camp programs, resident campers within the 10-13 year age range were surveyed about their camping experience during the summer of 2005 and a similar group was surveyed in 2006. Parents of campers were also surveyed both years to gather their perceptions of 4-H Camp’s impact on their children in developing the life skill areas identified above. Parents and youth agreed strongly that the 4-H Camp experience was substantially valuable in developing the life skills identified in the Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1998.

  1. Tinkering with Technology: A Library Workshop to Support 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Beth; Williamson, Evan

    2017-01-01

    When University of Idaho (UI) Extension brought the Idaho 4-H Teen Conference to UI's main campus, the conference organizers collaborated with UI librarians to organize a workshop in the library's newly established makerspace, the Making, Innovating, and Learning Laboratory (MILL). In the MILL, the students used cutting-edge technology to foster…

  2. County Clustering for the California 4-H Youth Development Program: Impacts and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Aarti; Dasher, Harry Steve; Young, Jane Chin

    2012-01-01

    In response to budgetary constraints, a new staffing structure, the Pilot Leadership Plan, was proposed for California's 4-H Youth Development Program. County clusters were formed, each led by a coordinator. The plan was piloted for 2 years to provide insight into how county clustering could support Extension staff to increase and enhance program…

  3. (Zn-doped PVA)/n-4H-SiC (MPS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-23

    May 23, 2018 ... A comparative study on dielectric behaviours of Au/(Zn-doped. PVA)/n-4H-SiC .... To form MPS structures, the prepared PVA (Zn nanoparticle- doped) ..... 95 2885. [26] MacCallum J R and Vincent C A 1989 Polymer electrolyte.

  4. SPICE Modeling of Body Bias Effect in 4H-SiC Integrated Circuit Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    2017-01-01

    The DC electrical behavior of n-type 4H-SiC resistors used for realizing 500C durable integrated circuits (ICs) is studied as a function of substrate bias and temperature. Improved fidelity electrical simulation is described using SPICE NMOS model to simulate resistor substrate body bias effect that is absent from the SPICE semiconductor resistor model.

  5. Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emo, Kenneth Roy

    Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

  6. Synthesis of new series of 3-hydroxy/acetoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. 3-Hydroxy-2-aryl/heteroaryl-4H-chromones 4(a–n) were synthesized from appropriate chalcones. 3(a–n) and acetylated to afford the corresponding acetoxy derivatives 5(a–n). All compounds were evalu- ated for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli and Pseu-.

  7. Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…

  8. On the Evaluation of Gate Dielectrics for 4H-SiC Based Power MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the assessment of gate dielectric for 4H-SiC MOSFETs using technology based two-dimensional numerical computer simulations. Results are studied for variety of gate dielectric candidates with varying thicknesses using well-known Fowler-Nordheim tunneling model. Compared to conventional SiO2 as a gate dielectric for 4H-SiC MOSFETs, high-k gate dielectric such as HfO2 reduces significantly the amount of electric field in the gate dielectric with equal gate dielectric thickness and hence the overall gate current density. High-k gate dielectric further reduces the shift in the threshold voltage with varying dielectric thicknesses, thus leading to better process margin and stable device operating behavior. For fixed dielectric thickness, a total shift in the threshold voltage of about 2.5 V has been observed with increasing dielectric constant from SiO2 (k=3.9 to HfO2 (k=25. This further results in higher transconductance of the device with the increase of the dielectric constant from SiO2 to HfO2. Furthermore, 4H-SiC MOSFETs are found to be more sensitive to the shift in the threshold voltage with conventional SiO2 as gate dielectric than high-k dielectric with the presence of interface state charge density that is typically observed at the interface of dielectric and 4H-SiC MOS surface.

  9. Bio-Security Proficiencies Project for Beginning Producers in 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Borba, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Improving bio-security practices among 4-H members who raise and show project animals is important. Bio-security measures can reduce the risk of disease spread and mitigate potential health and economic risks of disease outbreaks involving animal and zoonotic pathogens. Survey data provided statistical evidence that the Bio-Security Proficiencies…

  10. Trends of 4H-club based Farmers' Academy and Farm Succession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the process by which the principles of the 4H club is adapted into Farmers' Academy through which the problem of farm succession is tackled among the highly aging Japanese farmers. The farming populace as a subset of the whole aging population is being reinvigorated through the graduates of the ...

  11. Endocrine Aspects of 4H Leukodystrophy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Billington

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 4H leukodystrophy is an autosomal recessive RNA polymerase III-related leukodystrophy, characterized by hypomyelination, with or without hypodontia (or other dental abnormalities and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Case Presentation. We describe a 28-year-old female who presented with primary amenorrhea at the age of 19. She had a history of very mild neurological and dental abnormalities. She was found to have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hypomyelination. The diagnosis of 4H leukodystrophy was made. She was subsequently found to have mutations in the POLR3B gene, which encodes the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase III. She wished to become pregnant and failed to respond to pulsatile GnRH but achieved normal follicular growth and ovulation with subcutaneous gonadotropin therapy. Discussion. Patients with 4H leukodystrophy may initially present with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, particularly if neurological and dental manifestations are subtle. Making the diagnosis has important implications for prognosis and management. Progressive neurologic deterioration is expected, and progressive endocrine dysfunction may occur. Patients with 4H leukodystrophy should be counseled about disease progression and about this disease’s autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. In those who wish to conceive, ovulation induction may be achieved with subcutaneous gonadotropin therapy, but pulsatile GnRH does not appear to be effective.

  12. Managing for Motivation: Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Its Application to 4-H Leadership. National Intern Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Walter J.

    A study examined the organizational factors contributing to the motivation of 4-H volunteer leaders. A modified form of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory served as the research design of the study. A total of 149 4-H leaders were interviewed regarding thirteen job factors: recognition; personal growth; relationships with other 4-H leaders,…

  13. E-Learning for 4-H Volunteers: Who Uses It, and What Can We Learn from Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Kristy L.; Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Lobley, Jennifer; Gross, Kerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Orienting and training 4-H volunteers are critical to individuals and the organization. The two-part study reported here re-establishes the profile of the 4-H volunteer and evaluates both the format and content of e-Learning for 4-H Volunteers modules launched in 2006. Volunteers from seven states perceived that online modules made learning more…

  14. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.0-4h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.0-4h_embryos dm3 TFs and others Embryo 0-4h embryos SRX041388,SRX0...16153,SRX013109,SRX025484 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.0-4h_embryos.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.2-4h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.2-4h_embryos dm3 No description Embryo 2-4h embryos ERX008189,ERX0...08195,ERX008192,ERX008185 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.2-4h_embryos.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.0-4h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.0-4h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 0-4h embryos SRX013030,SRX013...RX013103,SRX025484,SRX013031,SRX1426951,SRX013094 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.0-4h_embryos.bed ...

  17. Experimental Durability Testing of 4H SiC JFET Integrated Circuit Technology at 727 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David; Neudeck, Phil; Chen, Liangyu; Chang, Carl; Lukco, Dorothy; Beheim, Glenn M

    2016-01-01

    We have reported SiC integrated circuits (IC's) with two levels of metal interconnect that have demonstrated prolonged operation for thousands of hours at their intended peak ambient operational temperature of 500 C [1, 2]. However, it is recognized that testing of semiconductor microelectronics at temperatures above their designed operating envelope is vital to qualification. Towards this end, we previously reported operation of a 4H-SiC JFET IC ring oscillator on an initial fast thermal ramp test through 727 C [3]. However, this thermal ramp was not ended until a peak temperature of 880 C (well beyond failure) was attained. Further experiments are necessary to better understand failure mechanisms and upper temperature limit of this extreme-temperature capable 4H-SiC IC technology. Here we report on additional experimental testing of custom-packaged 4H-SiC JFET IC devices at temperatures above 500 C. In one test, the temperature was ramped and then held at 727 C, and the devices were periodically measured until electrical failure was observed. A 4H-SiC JFET on this chip electrically functioned with little change for around 25 hours at 727 C before rapid increases in device resistance caused failure. In a second test, devices from our next generation 4H-SiC JFET ICs were ramped up and then held at 700 C (which is below the maximum deposition temperature of the dielectrics). Three ring oscillators functioned for 8 hours at this temperature before degradation. In a third experiment, an alternative die attach of gold paste and package lid was used, and logic circuit operation was demonstrated for 143.5 hours at 700 C.

  18. High efficiency 4H-SiC betavoltaic power sources using tritium radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christopher; Portnoff, Samuel [Widetronix Corp., Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States); Spencer, M. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Realization of an 18.6% efficient 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) large area betavoltaic power source using the radioisotope tritium is reported. A 200 nm 4H-SiC P{sup +}N junction is used to collect high-energy electrons. The electron source is a titanium tritide (TiH{sup 3}{sub x}) foil, or an integrated titanium tritide region formed by the diffusion of tritium into titanium. The specific activity of the source is directly measured. Dark current measured under short circuit conditions was less than 6.1 pA/cm{sup 2}. Samples measured with an external tritium foil produced an open circuit voltage of 2.09 V, short circuit current of 75.47 nA/cm{sup 2}, fill factor of 0.86, and power efficiency of 18.6%. Samples measured with an integrated source produced power efficiencies of 12%. Simulations were done to determine the beta spectrum (modified by self absorption) exiting the source and the electron hole pair generation function in the 4H-SiC. The electron-hole pair generation function in 4H-SiC was modeled as a Gaussian distribution, and a closed form solution of the continuity equation was used to analyze the cell performance. The effective surface recombination velocity in our samples was found to be 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6 }cm/s. Our analysis demonstrated that the surface recombination dominates the performance of a tritium betavoltaic device but that using a thin P{sup +}N junction structure can mitigate some of the negative effects.

  19. Human pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) after repeated doses taken 4 h apart Human pharmacology of MDMA after repeated doses taken 4 h apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Magí; Tomillero, Angels; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Yubero, Samanta; Papaseit, Esther; Roset, Pere-Nolasc; Pujadas, Mitona; Torrens, Marta; Camí, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular psychostimulant, frequently associated with multiple administrations over a short period of time. Repeated administration of MDMA in experimental settings induces tolerance and metabolic inhibition. The aim is to determine the acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics resulting from two consecutive 100mg doses of MDMA separated by 4h. Ten male volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. The four conditions were placebo plus placebo, placebo plus MDMA, MDMA plus placebo, and MDMA plus MDMA. Outcome variables included pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic parameters. After a second dose of MDMA, most effects were similar to those after a single dose, despite a doubling of MDMA concentrations (except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time). After repeated MDMA administration, a 2-fold increase was observed in MDMA plasma concentrations. For a simple dose accumulation MDMA and MDA concentrations were higher (+23.1% Cmax and +17.1% AUC for MDMA and +14.2% Cmax and +10.3% AUC for MDA) and HMMA and HMA concentrations lower (-43.3% Cmax and -39.9% AUC for HMMA and -33.2% Cmax and -35.1% AUC for HMA) than expected, probably related to MDMA metabolic autoinhibition. Although MDMA concentrations doubled after the second dose, most pharmacological effects were similar or slightly higher in comparison to the single administration, except for systolic blood pressure and reaction time which were greater than predicted. The pharmacokinetic-effects relationship suggests that when MDMA is administered at a 4h interval there exists a phenomenon of acute tolerance to its effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vitro Efficacy of Nonantibiotic Treatments on Biofilm Disruption of Gram-Negative Pathogens and an In Vivo Model of Infectious Endometritis Utilizing Isolates from the Equine Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Ryan A; McCue, Patrick M; Borlee, Grace I; Loncar, Kristen D; Hennet, Margo L; Borlee, Bradley R

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the ability of the equine clinical treatments N-acetylcysteine, EDTA, and hydrogen peroxide to disrupt in vitro biofilms and kill equine reproductive pathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Klebsiella pneumoniae) isolated from clinical cases. N-acetylcysteine (3.3%) decreased biofilm biomass and killed bacteria within the biofilms of E. coli isolates. The CFU of recoverable P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae isolates were decreased, but the biofilm biomass was unchanged. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide (1%) decreased the biofilm biomass and reduced the CFU of E. coli isolates, K. pneumoniae isolates were observed to have a reduction in CFU, and minimal effects were observed for P. aeruginosa isolates. Chelating agents (EDTA formulations) reduced E. coli CFU but were ineffective at disrupting preformed biofilms or decreasing the CFU of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae within a biofilm. No single nonantibiotic treatment commonly used in equine veterinary practice was able to reduce the CFU and biofilm biomass of all three Gram-negative species of bacteria evaluated. An in vivo equine model of infectious endometritis was also developed to monitor biofilm formation, utilizing bioluminescence imaging with equine P. aeruginosa isolates from this study. Following infection, the endometrial surface contained focal areas of bacterial growth encased in a strongly adherent "biofilm-like" matrix, suggesting that biofilms are present during clinical cases of infectious equine endometritis. Our results indicate that Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the equine uterus are capable of producing a biofilm in vitro, and P. aeruginosa is capable of producing biofilm-like material in vivo. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Hipertiroidismo subclínico Subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbet Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El hipertiroidismo subclínico se define por la presencia de niveles disminuidos o no detectables de tirotropina, asociados a concentración de tetrayodotironina y triyodotironina libres dentro de parámetros normales. Su prevalencia en la población varía entre un 0,5 y un 16 % aproximadamente, y es el tratamiento con levotiroxina sódica la causa más frecuente. No siempre resulta tan asintomático, y las afectaciones principales ocurren sobre el sistema cardiovascular y óseo. Esta condición médica puede ser reversible espontáneamente. Por lo controversial del tema, el presente trabajo trata los aspectos clínicos más relevantes y la conducta a seguir.Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by presence of decreased o non-detected levels of thyrotropin, associated with free concentrations of tetraiodothyronine and triiodothyromime within normal parameters. Its prevalence in population differs between 0,5 % and 16 % approximately, and the sodium Levothyroxine treatment is the more frequent cause. Not always it is so asymptomatic, and main affections occur on cardiovascular and osseous system. This medical condition may be spontaneously reversible. Due to controversial of this topic, present paper approaching the more significant clinical features and the strategy to go on.

  2. Subclinical Inflammatory Status in Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been advocated as a possible common central mechanism for developmental cognitive impairment. Rett syndrome (RTT is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2. Here, we investigated plasma acute phase response (APR in stage II (i.e., “pseudo-autistic” RTT patients by routine haematology/clinical chemistry and proteomic 2-DE/MALDI-TOF analyses as a function of four major MECP2 gene mutation types (R306C, T158M, R168X, and large deletions. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate values (median 33.0 mm/h versus 8.0 mm/h, P<0.0001 were detectable in RTT, whereas C-reactive protein levels were unchanged (P=0.63. The 2-DE analysis identified significant changes for a total of 17 proteins, the majority of which were categorized as APR proteins, either positive (n=6 spots or negative (n=9 spots, and to a lesser extent as proteins involved in the immune system (n=2 spots, with some proteins having overlapping functions on metabolism (n=7 spots. The number of protein changes was proportional to the severity of the mutation. Our findings reveal for the first time the presence of a subclinical chronic inflammatory status related to the “pseudo-autistic” phase of RTT, which is related to the severity carried by the MECP2 gene mutation.

  3. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P < .05), whereas the 3DE RV ejection fraction was reduced in this group, but with borderline significance. Two-dimensional echocardiographic longitudinal RV and RA strain were significantly reduced in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Frailty Among Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgini, Vanessa S.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Harrison, Stephanie Litwack; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Both subclinical thyroid dysfunction and frailty are common among older individuals, but data on the relationship between these 2 conditions are conflicting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the cross-sectional and prospective associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and frailty and the 5 frailty subdomains (sarcopenia, weakness, slowness, exhaustion, and low activity). Setting and Design: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study is a prospective cohort study. Participants: Men older than 65 years (n = 1455) were classified into 3 groups of thyroid status: subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 26, 1.8%), subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 102, 7.0%), and euthyroidism (n = 1327, 91.2%). Main Outcome Measures: Frailty was defined using a slightly modified Cardiovascular Health Study Index: men with 3 or more criteria were considered frail, men with 1 to 2 criteria were considered intermediately frail, and men with no criteria were considered robust. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between baseline thyroid function and the 3 categories of frailty status (robust/intermediate/frail) as well as the prospective association between baseline thyroid function and subsequent frailty status and mortality after a 5-year follow-up. Results: At baseline, compared with euthyroid participants, men with subclinical hyperthyroidism had an increased likelihood of greater frailty status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–5.34), particularly among men aged hyperthyroidism were not consistently associated with overall frailty status or frailty components. Conclusion: Among community-dwelling older men, subclinical hyperthyroidism, but not subclinical hypothyroidism, is associated with increased odds of prevalent but not incident frailty. PMID:26495751

  5. Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H 2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within ??2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol-1 K-1 for 1/n CH4??H 2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  6. Solid-state microwave annealing of ion-implanted 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, Siddarth G.; Tian, Yong-lai; Ridgway, Mark C.; Mahadik, Nadeemullah A.; Qadri, Syed B.; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state microwave annealing was performed at temperatures up to 2120 deg, C for 30 s on ion-implanted 4H-SiC in N 2 ambient. The surface roughness in the samples annealed without a surface cap at 1950 deg, C is 2.65 nm for 10 μm x 10 μm atomic force microscopy scans. The sheet resistances measured on Al + - and P + -implanted 4H-SiC, annealed by microwaves, are lower than the best conventional furnace annealing results reported in literature. X-ray diffraction spectra indicate alleviation of the lattice damage induced by the ion-implantation and also incorporation of most of the implanted species into substitutional lattice sites

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Transport in 4H- and 6H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C. C.; You, A. H.; Wong, E. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of electron transport properties at high electric field region in 4H- and 6H-SiC are presented. This MC model includes two non-parabolic conduction bands. Based on the material parameters, the electron scattering rates included polar optical phonon scattering, optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering are evaluated. The electron drift velocity, energy and free flight time are simulated as a function of applied electric field at an impurity concentration of 1x10 18 cm 3 in room temperature. The simulated drift velocity with electric field dependencies is in a good agreement with experimental results found in literature. The saturation velocities for both polytypes are close, but the scattering rates are much more pronounced for 6H-SiC. Our simulation model clearly shows complete electron transport properties in 4H- and 6H-SiC.

  8. Formation of condensed phosphates when heating CdO with NH4H2PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atstinya, L.Zh.; Dindune, A.P.; Konstant, Z.A.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made on process of CdO thermal condensation with NH 4 H 2 PO 4 depending on the ratio of basic substances and temperature synthesis conditions. It was established that reaction between CdO and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 of pure for analysis grade was initiated when basic mixtures were pounded with a pestle. Heating of cadmium-ammonium triphosphate with products of ammonium dihydrophosphate polycondensation in 330-350 deg C range resulted to CdNH 4 (PO 3 ) 3 formation. Exoeffect on DTA curves corresponded at 540 deg C to formation of α-Cd(PO 3 ) 2 . α-Cd(PO 3 ) 2 → β-Cd(PO 3 ) 2 transition took place at 810 deg C with successive melting of β-Cd(PO 3 ) 2 at 850 deg C, which was supported by the DTA curve and sharp change of the relative electric conductivity

  9. Fabrication and characteristics of a 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fengping; Zhang Yuming; Lue Hongliang; Zhang Yimen; Guo Hui; Guo Xin

    2011-01-01

    4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes with four kinds of design have been fabricated and characterized using two different processes in which one is fabricated by making the P-type ohmic contact of the anode independently, and the other is processed by depositing a Schottky metal multi-layer on the whole anode. The reverse performances are compared to find the influences of these factors. The results show that JBS diodes with field guard rings have a lower reverse current density and a higher breakdown voltage, and with independent P-type ohmic contact manufacturing, the reverse performance of 4H-SiC JBS diodes can be improved effectively. Furthermore, the P-type ohmic contact is studied in this work. (semiconductor devices)

  10. Uncertainties of Electron Capture Cross Sections In Be4+ + H(1s) Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez, L.; Illescas, Clara; Jorge, Alba; Errea, L.F.; Rabadán, I.; Suárez, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have considered one-electron systems where the theoretical methods are well established. The use of different computational alternatives enables the accurate evaluation of nl-partial cross sections in a wide range of collision energies. In the presentation we have analyzed the uncertainties of n-partial charge exchange (CX) cross sections in Be 4+ + H(1s) collisions, which are relevant in tokamak plasmas and experimental data are not available.

  11. A two-dimensional yttrium phthalate coordination polymer, [Y4(H2O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    polymer, [Y4(H2O)2(C8H4O4)6]∞, I. The Y ions in I are present in four different ... Co etc., the analogous lanthanide ions are also being investigated.2–10 The .... O(18). –237(3). –913(3). 7101(2). 37(1). O(19). –3693(3). –1348(3). 10459(3).

  12. High Resolution Topography Analysis on Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC Epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, I.; Nagano, M.; Tsuchida, H.; Chen, Y.; Dudley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in a 4H-SiC epitaxial layer are investigated using high-resolution synchrotron topography. Six types of TED image are confirmed to correspond to the Burgers vector directions by a comparison of computer simulated images and observed topography images in crystal boundaries. Using a mapping method, a wide spatial distribution of the six types of TED is examined in a quarter section of a 2-inch wafer.

  13. Hydrogen generation due to water splitting on Si - terminated 4H-Sic(0001) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfang; Li, Qiqi; Yang, Cuihong; Rao, Weifeng

    2018-02-01

    The chemical reactions of hydrogen gas generation via water splitting on Si-terminated 4H-SiC surfaces with or without C/Si vacancies were studied by using first-principles. We studied the reaction mechanisms of hydrogen generation on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Our calculations demonstrate that there are major rearrangements in surface when H2O approaches the SiC(0001) surface. The first H splitting from water can occur with ground-state electronic structures. The second H splitting involves an energy barrier of 0.65 eV. However, the energy barrier for two H atoms desorbing from the Si-face and forming H2 gas is 3.04 eV. In addition, it is found that C and Si vacancies can form easier in SiC(0001)surfaces than in SiC bulk and nanoribbons. The C/Si vacancies introduced can enhance photocatalytic activities. It is easier to split OH on SiC(0001) surface with vacancies compared to the case of clean SiC surface. H2 can form on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface with C and Si vacancies if the energy barriers of 1.02 and 2.28 eV are surmounted, respectively. Therefore, SiC(0001) surface with C vacancy has potential applications in photocatalytic water-splitting.

  14. Characterization of a n+3C/n−4H SiC heterojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamisawa, R. A.; Mihaila, A. [Department of Power Electronics, ABB Corporate Research Center, CH-5405 Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland); Farkas, I.; Hsu, C.-W.; Janzén, E. [Semiconductor Materials, IFM, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Teodorescu, V. S. [National Institute of Material Physics, R-077125 Bucharest-Măgurele (Romania); Afanas' ev, V. V. [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Rahimo, M. [ABB Semiconductors, Fabrikstrasse 3, CH-5600 Lenzburg (Switzerland)

    2016-04-04

    We report on the fabrication of n + 3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diodes (HJDs) potentially promising the ultimate thermal stability of the junction. The diodes were systematically analyzed by TEM, X-ray diffraction, AFM, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, indicating the formation of epitaxial 3C-SiC crystal on top of 4H-SiC substrate with continuous interface, low surface roughness, and up to ∼7 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} dopant impurity concentration. The conduction band off-set is about 1 V as extracted from CV measurements, while the valence bands of both SiC polytypes are aligned. The HJDs feature opening voltage of 1.65 V, consistent with the barrier height of about 1.5 eV extracted from CV measurement. We finally compare the electrical results of the n + 3C/n-4H SiC heterojunction diodes with those featuring Si and Ge doped anodes in order to evaluate current challenges involved in the fabrication of such devices.

  15. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4H Is under Transcriptional Control of p65/NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Rossi, Annalisa; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Falcone, Cristina; Pisano, Antonio; Vecchio, Eleonora; Pontoriero, Marilena; Scala, Iris; Scialdone, Annarita; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Mimmi, Selena; Palmieri, Camillo; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    Protein synthesis is mainly regulated at the initiation step, allowing the fast, reversible and spatial control of gene expression. Initiation of protein synthesis requires at least 13 translation initiation factors to assemble the 80S ribosomal initiation complex. Loss of translation control may result in cell malignant transformation. Here, we asked whether translational initiation factors could be regulated by NF-κB transcription factor, a major regulator of genes involved in cell proliferation, survival, and inflammatory response. We show that the p65 subunit of NF-κB activates the transcription of eIF4H gene, which is the regulatory subunit of eIF4A, the most relevant RNA helicase in translation initiation. The p65-dependent transcriptional activation of eIF4H increased the eIF4H protein content augmenting the rate of global protein synthesis. In this context, our results provide novel insights into protein synthesis regulation in response to NF-κB activation signalling, suggesting a transcription-translation coupled mechanism of control. PMID:23776612

  16. Photodissociation of C3H5Br and C4H7Br at 234 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Kook; Paul, Dababrata; Hong, Ki Ryong; Cho, Ha Na; Kim, Tae Kyu; Lee, Kyoung Seok

    2012-01-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of cyclopropyl bromide (C-3H 5 Br) and cyclobutyl bromide (C 4 H 7 Br) at 234 nm was investigated. A two-dimensional photofragment ion-imaging technique coupled with a [2+1] resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization scheme was utilized to obtain speed and angular distributions of the nascent Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms. The recoil anisotropies for the Br and Br* channels were measured to be βBr = 0.92 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.52 ± 0.04 for C 3 H 5 Br and βBr = 1.10 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.49 ± 0.05 for C 4 H 7 Br. The relative quantum yield for Br was found to be ΦBr = 0.13 ± 0.03 and for C 3 H 5 Br and C 4 H 7 Br, respectively. The soft radical limit of the impulsive model adequately modeled the related energy partitioning. The nonadiabatic transition probability from the 3A' and 4A' potential energy surfaces was estimated and discussed

  17. Ab initio study of the O4H(+) novel species: spectroscopic fingerprints to aid its observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, F George D; Hernández-Lamoneda, Rámon

    2015-06-28

    A detailed ab initio characterization of the structural, energetic and spectroscopic properties of the novel O4H(+) species is presented. The equilibrium structures and relative energies of all multiplet states have been determined systematically by analyzing static and dynamical correlation effects. The two and three body dissociation processes have been studied and indicate the presence of conical intersections in various states including the ground state. Comparison with available thermochemical data is very good, supporting the applied methodology. The reaction, H3(+) + O4→ O4H(+) + H2, was found to be exothermic ΔH = -19.4 kcal mol(-1) and therefore, it is proposed that the product in the singlet state could be formed in the interstellar medium (ISM) via collision processes. To aid in its laboratory or radioastronomy detection in the interstellar medium we determined spectroscopic fingerprints. It is estimated for the most stable geometry of O4H(+) dipole allowed electronic transitions in the visible region at 429 nm and 666 nm, an intense band at 1745 cm(-1) in the infrared and signals at 40.6, 81.2 and 139.2 GHz in the microwave region at 10, 50 and 150 K respectively, relevant for detection in the ISM.

  18. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents: Is It Clinically Relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Gawlik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is a common clinical problem, its diagnosis tends to be incidental. According to the definition, it should be asymptomatic, only detectable by screening. The presence or coincidence of any symptoms leads to L-thyroxine treatment. The clinical presentation, especially in younger patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, is still under dispute. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to review the literature from the past seven years. The literature search identified 1,594 potentially relevant articles, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria. Few studies focus on the symptomatology of subclinical hypothyroidism, and most of them analyzed a small number of subjects. A significant correlation was found by some authors between subclinical hypothyroidism and a higher risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and migraine. No evidence of the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on weight, growth velocity, and puberty was revealed. As the quality of most studies is poor and no definite conclusions can be drawn, randomized, large-scale studies in children and adolescents are warranted to determine the best care for patients with SH.

  19. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T 4 or free T 4 . This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  1. [Demonstration of subclinical pulmonary alveolitis in spondylarthropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, P; Bonnet, D; Chouc, P Y; Molinier, S; Raphenon, G; Martet, G; Merouze, F; de Muizon, H

    1994-05-01

    Restrictive ventilatory dysfunction, lowered diffusing capacity, and apical fibrosis have been reported in ankylosing spondylitis. To investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities, we studied distal airspace cytology by performing bronchoalveolar lavage in 34 spondyloarthropathy patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n = 16; reactive arthritis, n = 4; axial psoriatic arthritis, n = 2; and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy with HLA B27-positivity in every case but one, n = 12). Mean age was 32.4 +/- 13.7 years. None of the study patients had apical fibrosis, lower respiratory tract infection, or exposure to airborne pollutants other than tobacco smoke. The control group was composed of nine subjects who had no lung or inflammatory diseases and were not using medications. Significantly higher proportions of lymphocytes were found in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from patients, as compared with controls. This difference was not influenced by smoking or medication use (non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, sulfasalazopyridine). Alveolar lymphocytosis was not correlated with laboratory tests for disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum IgA levels) or with the presence of restrictive ventilatory dysfunction. Increases in the proportion of lymphocytes were of similar magnitude in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and in those with other spondyloarthropathies. Absolute total cell counts and relative neutrophil counts were similar in patients and controls. However, among the patients with spondyloarthropathies, those with a disease duration of more than five years had a significantly higher proportion of neutrophils than those with a disease duration of less than five years. These findings demonstrate that spondyloarthropathy patients have subclinical lymphocyte alveolitis. Although of unclear significance, this alveolitis may be related to the development of apical fibrosis in some patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  2. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  3. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  4. Evaluation of endothelial function in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that FMD decreased in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients which could be partially restored by treatment. These findings suggest that treatment of subclinical hyperthyroid state could improve endothelial dysfunction and at the end decreased the cardiovascular complications.

  5. Infrared reflectance as a diagnostic adjunct for subclinical commotio retinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commotio retinae (CR is an outer retinal disorder following blunt trauma to the eye. Histologically it is characterized by disruption of the photoreceptor outer segments (OS, typically without injury to other retinal layers. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT the condition is visible as hyper-reflectivity of the OS. Most cases of CR are associated with transient grey-white discoloration of the retina and are easily diagnosed clinically, but there have been reports of OCT-confirmed CR without retinal discoloration. It is likely that this subclinical variant of CR is under-recognized as the OCT features of CR are subtle. Here, we report a case of OCT-confirmed subclinical CR that demonstrated prominent infrared hypo-reflectance, using the infrared protocol of the SPECTRALIS® OCT, Heidelberg Engineering. This case suggests that infrared reflectance may have a role in diagnosing cases of subclinical CR.

  6. Therapeutic Effect of Nisin Z on Subclinical Mastitis in Lactating Cows▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-tr...

  7. File list: His.Emb.20.AllAg.0-4h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.20.AllAg.0-4h_embryos dm3 Histone Embryo 0-4h embryos SRX013030,SRX013003,S...RX013029,SRX013103,SRX1426953,SRX1426951,SRX013031,SRX013094 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Emb.20.AllAg.0-4h_embryos.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.2-4h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.2-4h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 2-4h embryos SRX127437,SRX482...X372808,SRX197573,SRX183890,SRX197576,SRX661062,SRX183886 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.2-4h_embryos.bed ...

  9. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical and transcatheter bioprosthetic aortic valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Tarun; Søndergaard, Lars; Friedman, John

    2017-01-01

    rates of transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs; 4·18 TIAs per 100 person-years vs 0·60 TIAs per 100 person-years; p=0·0005) and all strokes or TIAs (7·85 vs 2·36 per 100 person-years; p=0·001). INTERPRETATION: Subclinical leaflet thrombosis occurred frequently in bioprosthetic aortic valves, more commonly...... outcomes after TAVR with the new-generation valves, prevention and treatment of subclinical leaflet thrombosis might offer a potential opportunity for further improvement in valve haemodynamics and clinical outcomes. FUNDING: RESOLVE (Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute) and SAVORY (Rigshospitalet)....

  10. Haemodynamic changes following treatment of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Wiinberg, N; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism has profound effects on the cardiovascular system, including reduced systemic vascular resistance (SVR) due to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells, enhanced heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO) due to an increase in cardiac diastolic relaxation, contractility and heart...... rate. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by reduced serum TSH levels despite free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) estimates within the reference range, in subjects with no obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We measured haemodynamic changes (using impedance cardiography......) in subjects with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism in order to elucidate whether these patients had signs of excess thyroid hormone at the tissue level....

  11. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  12. Development of 10 kV 4H-SiC JBS diode with FGR termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Runhua; Tao Yonghong; Cao Pengfei; Wang Ling; Li Rui; Chen Gang; Bai Song; Li Yun; Zhao Zhifei

    2014-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and electrical characteristics of the 4H-SiC JBS diode with a breakdown voltage higher than 10 kV are presented. 60 floating guard rings have been used in the fabrication. Numerical simulations have been performed to select the doping level and thickness of the drift layer and the effectiveness of the edge termination technique. The n-type epilayer is 100 μm in thickness with a doping of 6 × 10 14 cm −3 . The on-state voltage was 2.7 V at J F = 13 A/cm 2 . (semiconductor devices)

  13. Interdependence: Ninth and Newest Critical Element for 4-H Positive Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A. Astroth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past 15 years, a list of eight critical elements has provided a strong foundation for articulating the positive youth development focus of 4-H programs and efforts. Now it is time to revisit this list and update the critical elements for positive youth development. Interdependence is proposed as a 9th critical element that should be included. Research is cited for the importance of this element that was not included in the original list in 1998, and a call is made for a national think tank to update the critical elements.

  14. Generating Youth Interest in Science Careers Through 4-H Health Science Explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hutson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health Science Explorations is a Maryland 4-H Program for youth ages ten and older. Hospital-based multi-day summer sessions and clubs that meet regularly, enable youth to interact with health care professionals in authentic medical settings. The program introduces youth to local health career opportunities, fosters science literacy and interest in science careers, and teaches healthy lifestyle practices. The authors share strategies to guide other educators through the process of developing their own science career exploration programs.

  15. New Line Lists for planetological applications: HC3N and C4H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, A.; Benilan, Y.; Fayt, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board Cassini, after four years of operation in Saturnian orbit with over thirty close fly-bys of Titan, has obtained spectra in the far and mid-infrared with a spectral resolution of 0.5 cm-1. Mismatch between observed spectra and model spectra obtained from the available line lists has led us to study the bending bands of HC3N and C4H2, the longest carbon chains observed on Titan. Our experimental study for HC3N (Jolly et al. 2007, J.Mol.Spec) has shown that band intensities had to be revised and that including hot bands with lower level as high as 1300 cm-1 was necessary to model our experimental spectra at 0.5 cm-1 resolution. A new extended line list could be obtained by fitting high resolution data with the help of a global analysis. This line list was made available to the astronomers of the CIRS team and will be included in the next version of the GEISA data base. Thanks to the precision of the new spectroscopic data, 13C isotopologues of HC3N have been detected and quantified for the first time in the atmosphere of Titan (Jennings et al. 2008, ApJL). Search for the 15N isotopologues of HC3N will also be presented. The proportion of hot bands is even more important for C4H2 than for HC3N and a new extended line list was absolutely necessary to improve the CIRS spectral analysis. We will present a new line list and show comparison between synthetic spectra and experimental spectra of C4H2 obtained between 193 and 296 K at 0.1 and 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Comparison of model spectra to CIRS observations of C4H2 at 220 and 630 cm-1 will also be presented. Detections of hot bands and isotopes in cold environments such as Titan will be emphasized.

  16. 4H-SiC JFET Multilayer Integrated Circuit Technologies Tested Up to 1000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, D. J.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.; Chang, C. W.; Lukco, D.; Beheim, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of semiconductor electronics at temperatures above their designed operating envelope is recognized as vital to qualification and lifetime prediction of circuits. This work describes the high temperature electrical testing of prototype 4H silicon carbide (SiC) junction field effect transistor (JFET) integrated circuits (ICs) technology implemented with multilayer interconnects; these ICs are intended for prolonged operation at temperatures up to 773K (500 C). A 50 mm diameter sapphire wafer was used in place of the standard NASA packaging for this experiment. Testing was carried out between 300K (27 C) and 1150K (877 C) with successful electrical operation of all devices observed up to 1000K (727 C).

  17. PHASE CHANGES ON 4H AND 6H SIC AT HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT PHASE CHANGES ON 4H AND 6H SIC AT HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION. The oxidation on two silicon carbide contain 6H phase and contains 6H and 4H phases has been done.  Silicon carbide is ceramic non-oxide with excellent properties that potentially used in industry.  Silicon carbide is used in nuclear industry as structure material that developed as light water reactor (LWR fuel cladding and as a coating layer in the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR fuel.  In this study silicon carbide oxidation simulation take place in case the accident in primary cooling pipe is ruptured.  Sample silicon carbide made of powder that pressed into pellet with diameter 12.7 mm and thickness 1.0 mm, then oxidized at temperature 1000 oC, 1200 oC dan 1400 oC for 1 hour.  The samples were weighted before and after oxidized.  X-ray diffraction con-ducted to the samples using Panalytical Empyrean diffractometer with Cu as X-ray source.  Diffraction pattern analysis has been done using General Structure Analysis System (GSAS software. This software was resulting the lattice parameter changes and content of SiC phases.  The result showed all of the oxidation samples undergoes weight gain.  The 6S samples showed the highest weight change at oxidation temperature 1200 oC, for the 46S samples showed increasing tendency with the oxidation temperature.  X-ray diffraction pattern analysis showed the 6S samples contain dominan phase 6H-SiC that matched to ICSD 98-001-5325 card.  Diffraction pattern on 6S showed lattice parameter, composition and crystallite size changes.  Lattice parameters changes had smaller tendency from the model and before oxidation.  However, the lowest silicon carbide composition or the highest converted into other phases up to 66.85 %, occurred at oxidation temperature 1200 oC.  The 46S samples contains two polytypes silicon car-bide.  The 6H-SiC phases matched by ICSD 98-016-4972 card and 4H-SiC phase matched by ICSD 98

  18. Demonstration of a 4H SiC betavoltaic nuclear battery based on Schottky barrier diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Dayong; Yuan Weizheng; Gao Peng; Yao Xianwang; Zang Bo; Zhang Lin; Guo Hui; Zhang Hongjian

    2008-01-01

    A 4H SiC betavoltaic nuclear battery is demonstrated. A Schottky barrier diode is utilized for carrier separation. Under illumination of Ni-63 source with an apparent activity of 4 mCi/cm 2 an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V and a short circuit current density of 29.44 nA/cm 2 are measured. A power conversion efficiency of 1.2% is obtained. The performance of the device is limited by low shunt resistance, backscattering and attenuation of electron energy in air and Schottky electrode. It is expected to be significantly improved by optimizing the design and processing technology of the device. (authors)

  19. Demonstration of a 4H SiC Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Based on Schottky Barrier Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Yong, Qiao; Wei-Zheng, Yuan; Peng, Gao; Xian-Wang, Yao; Bo, Zang; Lin, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Hong-Jian, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A 4H SiC betavoltaic nuclear battery is demonstrated. A Schottky barrier diode is utilized for carrier separation. Under illumination of Ni-63 source with an apparent activity of 4 mCi/cm 2 an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V and a short circuit current density of 29.44 nA/cm 2 are measured. A power conversion efficiency of 1.2% is obtained. The performance of the device is limited by low shunt resistance, backscattering and attenuation of electron energy in air and Schottky electrode. It is expected to be significantly improved by optimizing the design and processing technology of the device

  20. Nitrogen doping efficiency during vapor phase epitaxy of 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, L.B.; Brandt, C.D. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Burk, A.A. Jr. [Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology Lab., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This work examines the interrelationships among doping efficiency, mole fraction, and Si/C ratio for intentional doping of 4H-SiC during vapor phase epitaxy using N{sub 2}. For four Si/C ratios, the doping concentration increased linearly as a function of increasing N{sub 2} partial pressure with a slope of 1.0 {+-} 0.03. Variation of propane mole fraction while the SiH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} mole fractions were kept constant revealed two different modes of nitrogen incorporation, corresponding to carbon-rich and silicon-rich conditions. (orig.) 14 refs.

  1. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and subclinical cerebrovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, L H.; Hogan, P E.; Bryan, N R.; Kuller, L H.; Margolis, K L.; Bettermann, K; Wallace, R B.; Lao, Z; Freeman, R; Stefanick, M L.; Shumaker, S A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) hormone therapy (HT) trials reported that conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases risk for all-cause dementia and global cognitive decline. WHIMS MRI measured subclinical cerebrovascular disease as a possible mechanism to explain cognitive decline reported in WHIMS. Methods: We contacted 2,345 women at 14 WHIMS sites; scans were completed on 1,424 (61%) and 1,403 were accepted for analysis. The primary outcome measure was total ischemic lesion volume on brain MRI. Mean duration of on-trial HT or placebo was 4 (CEE+MPA) or 5.6 years (CEE-Alone) and scans were conducted an average of 3 (CEE+MPA) or 1.4 years (CEE-Alone) post-trial termination. Cross-sectional analysis of MRI lesions was conducted; general linear models were fitted to assess treatment group differences using analysis of covariance. A (two-tailed) critical value of α = 0.05 was used. Results: In women evenly matched within trials at baseline, increased lesion volumes were significantly related to age, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, lower post-trial global cognition scores, and increased incident cases of on- or post-trial mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. Mean ischemic lesion volumes were slightly larger for the CEE+MPA group vs placebo, except for the basal ganglia, but the differences were not significant. Women assigned to CEE-Alone had similar mean ischemic lesion volumes compared to placebo. Conclusions: Conjugated equine estrogen–based hormone therapy was not associated with a significant increase in ischemic brain lesion volume relative to placebo. This finding was consistent within each trial and in pooled analyses across trials. GLOSSARY 3MSE = modified Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI = body mass index; CEE = conjugated equine estrogen; CVD = cerebrovascular disease; HT = hormone therapy; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MPA

  2. Gentamicin Nephrotoxicity in Subclinical Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donita L.

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin and to define the mechanisms which predispose to nephrotoxicity in subclinical renal disease. Subtotally nephrectomized beagle dogs were used as a model for human beings with compromised renal function secondary to a reduced number of functional nephrons. Using ultrastructural morphometry, light microscopy and clinical chemistry data, the model was defined and the nephrotoxic responses of intact dogs administered recommended doses of drug were compared to the response of subtotally nephrectomized dogs administered reduced doses based on each animal's clearance of drug. Lysosomal and mitochondrial morphometric changes suggested mechanisms for increased sensitivity. To determine if increased sensitivity in this model was dependent on altered serum concentrations, variable rate infusions based on individual pharmacokinetic disposition of drug were administered using computer-driven infusion pumps. Identical serum concentration-time profiles were achieved in normal dogs and subtotally nephrectomized dogs, however, toxicity was significantly greater in nephrectomized dogs. The difference in the nephrotoxic response was characterized by administering supratherapeutic doses of drug to dogs. Nephrectomized dogs given a recommended dose of gentamicin became oliguric during the second week of treatment and increasingly uremic after withdrawal of drug. In contrast, intact dogs administered 2 times the recommended dose of gentamicin become only slightly polyuric during week 4 of treatment. The need to individualize dosage regimens based on drug clearance and not serum creatinine nor creatinine clearance alone was substantiated by describing the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin in spontaneously occurring disease states. Four individualized dosage regimens with differing predicted efficacy were then administered to nephrectomized dogs to determine their relative nephrotoxic

  3. Features of the structure of phospho- and arsenouranic acids of the composition of HPUO2x4H2O and HAsUO6x4H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernorukov, N.G.; Karyakin, N.V.; Chernorukov, G.N.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of crystal phases of the composition HPUO 6 x4H 2 O and HAsUO 6 x4H 2 O has been studied using the methods of IR spectroscopy, thermography, X-ray phase analysis and calorimetry. The nature and binding energy of water within the compounds mentioned are determined. 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. 4H-SiC surface energy tuning by nitrogen up-take

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitthan, E., E-mail: eduardo.pitthan@ufrgs.br [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); PGMICRO, UFRGS, 91509-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Amarasinghe, V.P. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Xu, C.; Gustafsson, T. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Stedile, F.C. [PGMICRO, UFRGS, 91509-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Química, UFRGS, 91509-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Feldman, L.C. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Wettability modification of 4H-SiC as a function of nitrogen adsorption is reported. • SiC surface energy was significantly reduced as nitrogen was incorporated. • Modifications obtained were proved to be inert to etching and stable against time. • Variable control of SiC surface provides new opportunities for biomedical applications. - Abstract: Surface energy modification and surface wettability of 4H silicon carbide (0001) as a function of nitrogen adsorption is reported. The surface wettability is shown to go from primarily hydrophilic to hydrophobic and the surface energy was significantly reduced with increasing nitrogen incorporation. These changes are investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The surface energy was quantitatively determined by the Fowkes model and interpreted primarily in terms of the variation of the surface chemistry with nitrogen coverage. Variable control of SiC surface energies with a simple and controllable atomic additive such as nitrogen that is inert to etching, stable against time, and also effective in electrical passivation, can provide new opportunities for SiC biomedical applications, where surface wetting plays an important role in the interaction with the biological interfaces.

  5. Co3(PO4)2·4H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hoon; Clegg, Jack K.; Lindoy, Leonard F.; Lu, G. Q. Max; Park, Yu-Chul; Kim, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of Co3(PO4)2·4H2O, tricobalt(II) bis­[ortho­phosphate(V)] tetra­hydrate, were obtained under hydro­thermal conditions. The title compound is isotypic with its zinc analogue Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O (mineral name hopeite) and contains two independent Co2+ cations. One Co2+ cation exhibits a slightly distorted tetra­hedral coordination, while the second, located on a mirror plane, has a distorted octa­hedral coordination environment. The tetra­hedrally coordinated Co2+ is bonded to four O atoms of four PO4 3− anions, whereas the six-coordinate Co2+ is cis-bonded to two phosphate groups and to four O atoms of four water mol­ecules (two of which are located on mirror planes), forming a framework structure. In addition, hydrogen bonds of the type O—H⋯O are present throughout the crystal structure. PMID:21200978

  6. 4-H Youth Development Professionals’ Perceptions of Youth Development Core Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Fox

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the perceived level of competence among 4-H Youth Development Agents from a Southern state in the United States. The findings will be used to identify gaps in and opportunities for professional training and development experiences in supporting the competence and growth of youth professionals. Based on the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competency Model (Stone & Rennekamp, 2004, youth development professionals rated their youth development competence in nine youth development core competency areas. Utilizing a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1=no knowledge to 5=expert, youth development professionals rated their youth development competence ranging from 3.12 to 3.54. According to an interpretive scale, youth development professionals rated their competence as intermediate. Staff felt most competent in the areas of current youth issues, career opportunities for youth, and family structures/relationships. Staff felt least competent in the area of mental development of youth. No one identified themselves as an expert in the areas of psychological development, emotional development, and current youth issues.

  7. Taking Congress Home: Effects of NC 4-H Congress on Youth Behaviors and Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Silliman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This evaluation report describes the outcomes and quality of the 2006 North Carolina 4-H Congress, an annual five-day teen conference focused on citizenship, leadership, and service. A majority of returning youth cited Congress experiences as significant in their continued learning and practice in citizenship, leadership, and service learning. Likewise, most youth participants in the 2006 conference indicated that they planned to participate in more citizenship, community leadership, and service activities in their home communities. A Youth Program Climate survey revealed that youth viewed NC 4-H Congress as a setting where service was important, where they learned to accept differences, teamwork was emphasized, and where they were able to make a difference in the lives of others. Three implications of the evaluation report are discussed: 1 value of a youth leadership conference for educating and inspiring youth in citizenship, leadership, and service; 2 evaluation methodology, including engaging youth leaders in design and use of conference data; and 3 marketing and accountability opportunities resulting from program evaluations.

  8. Self-irradiation damage in 4H-SiC by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Miaomiao; Wang Qingyu; Li Taosheng; Li Zhongyu

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear technology is closely and inseparably related to the improvements of materials irradiation performance. The irradiation damage of nuclear materials is an important issue of characteristics and difficulties. Because of the excellent features, SiC becomes one of the candidate materials for the cladding material and structure material in fast neutron reactor and fusion reactor. As one of the polytypes, 4H-SiC has prospective important applications in a strong irradiation environment. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to study the irradiation-induced cascade damage in single-crystalline 4H-SiC to get the microscopic evolution during the irradiation, in the aim of getting access to the detail that we cannot get from experiments. The software LAMMPS was used to simulate the damage formation process and the recovery process. The results showed that the initial project direction, the temperature and PKA energy exerted significant effects on the number and morphology of defects. (authors)

  9. Electrically active defects in n-type 4H- and 6H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, J.P. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Solid State Electronics]|[IBM Research Div., T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Aboelfotoh, M.O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Solid State Electronics]|[North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Raleigh, NC (United States); Svensson, B.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Solid State Electronics

    1998-06-01

    We have found that in 6H-SiC, irradiation induced defects can become mobile at temperatures as low as 200 C. Through isochronal and isothermal annealing a level at 0.51 eV below the conduction band (with a capture cross-section of 2 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}), appears to disassociate through a first order process with an activation energy of 1.45 eV+/-0.1 eV. In 4H-SiC, we have observed two irradiation induced defects assigned the positions 0.62 eV and 0.68 eV below E{sub c} (with capture cross-sections of 4 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} and 5 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}, respectively) which are found to be unstable at room temperature with time. SIMS analysis indicates that in both 6H- and 4H-SiC the defect levels are not due to the incorporation of the transition metals Ti, V, or Cr. Additionally, in both polytypes of SiC that were examined, the defects are found to display acceptor-like behavior as no evidence of a Poole-Frenkel shift was observed during DLTS measurements. (orig.) 10 refs.

  10. Burning Behaviour of High-Pressure CH4-H2-Air Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo D'Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental characterization of the burning behavior of gaseous mixtures has been carried out, analyzing spherical expanding flames. Tests were performed in the Device for Hydrogen-Air Reaction Mode Analysis (DHARMA laboratory of Istituto Motori—CNR. Based on a high-pressure, constant-volume bomb, the activity is aimed at populating a systematic database on the burning properties of CH4, H2 and other species of interest, in conditions typical of internal combustion (i.c. engines and gas turbines. High-speed shadowgraph is used to record the flame growth, allowing to infer the laminar burning parameters and the flame stability properties. Mixtures of CH4, H2 and air have been analyzed at initial temperature 293÷305 K, initial pressure 3÷18 bar and equivalence ratio  = 1.0. The amount of H2 in the mixture was 0%, 20% and 30% (vol.. The effect of the initial pressure and of the Hydrogen content on the laminar burning velocity and the Markstein length has been evaluated: the relative weight and mutual interaction has been assessed of the two controlling parameters. Analysis has been carried out of the flame instability, expressed in terms of the critical radius for the onset of cellularity, as a function of the operating conditions.

  11. Investing in Professional Development: Building and Sustaining a Viable 4-H Youth Workforce for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A. Astroth

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive youth development outcomes are influenced by a competent, highly trained work force that enjoys their work with young people. The youth work field has struggled with how to keep and motivate front line youth workers given the heavy workloads, low pay, lack of recognition and irregular time demands to compete with family responsibilities. Professional development is a key strategy for retaining and motivating youth workers. A model of professional development called the Western 4-H Institute has been developed and held now for two sessions. Results from participants indicate that this strategy can have a positive influence on job satisfaction, competencies, and retention. In fact, only 10 percent of participants had left during the intervening 5 years, and job satisfaction had increased significantly over time. Organizational loyalty among participants is not high, but with early career professionals, they may still be trying to find their niche. A regional training model has shown itself to be effective in supporting 4-H youth professionals and is building a sustainable workforce for the future.

  12. Effect of defects on electrical properties of 4H-SiC Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Karoui, M.; Gharbi, R.; Alzaied, N.; Fathallah, M.; Tresso, E.; Scaltrito, L.; Ferrero, S.

    2008-01-01

    Most of power electronic circuits use power semiconductor switching devices which ideally present infinite resistance when off, zero resistance when on, and switch instantaneously between those two states. Switches and rectifiers are key components in power electronic systems, which cover a wide range of applications, from power transmission to control electronics and power supplies. Typical power switching devices such as diodes, thyristors, and transistors are based on a monocrystalline silicon semiconductor or silicon carbide. Silicon is less expensive, more widely used, and a more versatile processing material than silicon carbide. The silicon carbide (SiC) has properties that allow devices with high power voltage rating and high operating temperatures. The technology overcomes some crystal growth obstacles, by using the hydrogen in the fabrication of 4H-SiC wafers. The presence of structural defects on 4H-SiC wafers was shown by different techniques such as optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of different SiC polytypes inclusions was found by Raman spectroscopy. Schottky diodes were realized on investigated wafers in order to obtain information about the correlation between those defects and electrical properties of the devices. The diodes with voltage breakdown as 600 V and ideality factor as 1.05 were obtained and characterized after packaging

  13. Volunteer Educators' Influence on Youth Participation and Learning in 4-H STEM Learning by Design Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worker, Steven Michael

    The purpose of this study was to describe the co-construction of three 4-H STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning by design programs by volunteer educators and youth participants in the 4-H Youth Development Program. The programs advanced STEM learning through design, a pedagogical approach to support youth in planning, designing, and making shareable artifacts. This pedagogical approach is a special case of project-based learning, related to the practices found in the science learning through design literature as well as the making and tinkering movements. Specifically, I explored adult volunteer educators' roles and pedagogical strategies implementing the 4-H Junk Drawer Robotics curriculum (Mahacek, Worker, and Mahacek, 2011) and how that, in turn, afforded and constrained opportunities for youth to display or report engagement in design practices; learning of STEM content; strengthening tool competencies; dispositions of resilience, reciprocity, and playfulness; and psychological ownership. The curriculum targeted middle school youth with a sequence of science inquiry activities and engineering design challenges. This study employed naturalist and multiple-case study methodology relying on participant observations and video, interviews with educators, and focus groups with youth within three 4-H educational robotics programs organized by adult 4-H volunteer educators. Data collection took place in 2014 and 2015 at Santa Clara with an educator and seven youth; Solano with three educators and eight youth; and Alameda with an educator and seven youth. Data analysis revealed six discrete categories of pedagogy and interactions that I labeled as participation structures that included lecture, demonstration, learning activity, group sharing, scripted build, and design & build. These participation structures were related to the observed pedagogical practices employed by the educators. There was evidence of youth engagement in design

  14. Subclinical nutritional rickets among adolescents in Kaghan Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tanveer Hussain; Hassan, Mukhtiar; Siddiqui, Tahir Saeed

    2014-09-01

    To determine the occurrence of subclinical rickets and its causing factors among adolescent students of schools in Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Observation cross-sectional study. Department of Biochemistry and Health Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra, Ayub Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from March to April 2012. Sixty seven students (34 boys and 33 girls) age between 11 - 16 years included in the study from different schools of Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Characteristic, serum biochemical and nutritional status were measured for all the participants. On the basis of biochemical finding the boys and girls students were divided in to two groups, normal subjects and subclinical rickets (absent symptoms with altered biochemistry). Twenty six participants, 19 (73%) girls and 07 (27%) boys had biochemical abnormality but no clinical signs and symptoms of rickets. Low vitamin D and high alkaline phosphatase level were observed in 26 (100%), 21 (81%), low calcium in 17 (65%) and low phosphorus 7 (27%) subjects with subclinical rickets. None had high parathormone level above normal range. Nutritional intake of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D was found less than the recommended daily intake in all the participants. Subclinical rickets is common problem among adolescent students especially in girls which is due to low nutritional intakes and avoidance of sunshine due to environmental and traditional impacts.

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. I. Prevalence and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has a prevalence of approx. 6% in the general population; it is more common in females and in the elderly. The incidence of progression to overt hypothyroidism is 5-15% per year; women with positive thyroid antibodies are especially at risk. The biological significance

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. ... hypothyroidism (SCH) and vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. ... However, gender (p = 0.076), BMI (p = 0.092), and smoking (P = 0.715) were not ...

  17. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stott, D.J.; Rodondi, N.; Kearney, P.M.; Ford, I.; Westendorp, R.G.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Sattar, N.; Aubert, C.E.; Aujesky, D.; Bauer, D.C.; Baumgartner, C.; Blum, M.R.; Browne, J.P.; Byrne, S.; Collet, T.H.; Dekkers, O.M.; Elzen, W.P. den; Puy, R.S. Du; Ellis, G.; Feller, M.; Floriani, C.; Hendry, K.; Hurley, C.; Jukema, J.W.; Kean, S.; Kelly, M.; Krebs, D.; Langhorne, P.; McCarthy, G.; McCarthy, V.; McConnachie, A.; McDade, M.; Messow, M.; O'Flynn, A.; O'Riordan, D.; Poortvliet, R.K.; Quinn, T.J.; Russell, A.; Sinnott, C.; Smit, J.W.A.; Dorland, H.A. Van; Walsh, K.A.; Walsh, E.K.; Watt, T.; Wilson, R.; Gussekloo, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older persons with this condition. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving

  18. Malondialdehyde level and some enzymatic activities in subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in milk malondialdehyde (MDA) level and some enzymatic activities as a result of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 124 milk samples were collected from 124 lactating cows from the same herd in the period between the 2nd week after calving ...

  19. Subclinical Nutritional Rickets Among Adolescents in Kaghan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, T. H.; Hassan, M.; Siddiqui, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of subclinical rickets and its causing factors among adolescent students of schools in Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Study Design: Observation cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Health Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra, Ayub Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from March to April 2012. Methodology: Sixty seven students (34 boys and 33 girls) age between 11 - 16 years included in the study from different schools of Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Characteristic, serum biochemical and nutritional status were measured for all the participants. On the basis of biochemical finding the boys and girls students were divided in to two groups, normal subjects and subclinical rickets (absent symptoms with altered biochemistry). Results: Twenty six participants, 19 (73%) girls and 07 (27%) boys had biochemical abnormality but no clinical signs and symptoms of rickets. Low vitamin D and high alkaline phosphatase level were observed in 26 (100%), 21 (81%), low calcium in 17 (65%) and low phosphorus 7 (27%) subjects with subclinical rickets. None had high parathormone level above normal range. Nutritional intake of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D was found less than the recommended daily intake in all the participants. Conclusion: Subclinical rickets is common problem among adolescent students especially in girls which is due to low nutritional intakes and avoidance of sunshine due to environmental and traditional impacts. (author)

  20. A comparison of clinical vs subclinical skin pickers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuthen, Nancy J; Curley, Erin E; Tung, Esther S; Ittah, Karen; Qasem, Atheer; Murad, Sari; Odlaug, Brian L; Leibovici, Vera

    2016-05-01

    Skin-picking disorder (SPD) was recognized as its own entity for the first time in DSM-5. The existing SPD literature is limited and, to date, no study has examined the differences between clinical and sub- clinical SPD. Identifying differences between these 2 groups may improve diagnostic accuracy, treatment, and prevention efforts. Israeli adults (N = 4,325) from 2 previous studies were examined for the presence of clinical and subclinical SPD. Individuals with clinical SPD (n = 150) vs subclinical SPD (n = 219) were compared on skin-picking characteristics, psychological phenomena, and clinical correlates. There were many similarities between clinical and subclinical skin pickers. Individuals with clinical SPD, however, had more severe skin picking, greater associated functional impairment, greater perceived stress, and greater depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and were also more likely to have a first-degree relative with SPD. This study suggests that although there are some similarities between clinical and subclinical SPD, there also are distinct differences in the clinical presentation. Understanding these differences may be an important factor in treatment and prevention planning.

  1. Haemodynamic changes following treatment of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Wiinberg, N; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    rate. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by reduced serum TSH levels despite free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) estimates within the reference range, in subjects with no obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We measured haemodynamic changes (using impedance cardiography...

  2. Should we treat mild subclinical/mild hyperthyroidism? Yes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) should be treated, remains a matter of debate because there are no randomized clinical trials answering the question if treatment improves long-term health outcomes. Cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based sudies demonstrate clear

  3. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-03

    Oct 3, 2012 ... Original Research: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes mellitus. 106. 2013 Volume 18 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Diabetes mellitus and its associated complications is a major challenge for both the private and state health sector in South Africa. The number of ...

  4. Altered fructosamine and lipid fractions in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Sridevi V; Manjrekar, Poornima A; Udupa, Vinit A; Vivian, D'Souza

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in the lipoprotein metabolism. To study the lipid and the glycaemic abnormalities in the subclinical hypothyroidism cases and to compare the same with the euthyroid, overt hypothyroid and the hyperthyroid subjects. Four groups, euthyroid (Group-I), hypothyroid (Group-II), subclinical hypothyroid (Group-III) and hyperthyroid (Group-IV), which consisted of 30 subjects each, of either sex, who were aged 25-55 years, underwent Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile and total T3, T4 and TSH estimations. The subjects who were on lipid lowering or thyroid disorder drugs and known diabetics were excluded from the study. In Group-III, all the lipid fractions were comparable to those of Group-II and they were significantly deranged, as compared to those of Group-I. The fructosamine levels were significantly higher in Group-II and Group-III (phypothyrodism, the subclinical hypothyroid cases also need to be treated similarly. The fructosamine values which are largely in excess of the FPG values, indicate a higher propensity to glycation and a decreased turnover of the proteins in the hypothyroid and the subclinical hypothyroid pools. Vice versa is true of the hyperthyroid pool. Fructosamine can be included in the thyroid work up of the patients to assess the metabolic function and the subsequent response after the initiation of the therapy.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance profile in bacterial isolates from subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate subclinical mastitis causing pathogens in dairy lactating cows and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in rural and peri-urban areas of Thika, Mathioya and Kieni East Sub County. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to screen one hundred and sixteen lactating ...

  6. Prevalence of subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in healthy HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested for subclinical CVD using 3 tools: Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) to measure for the presence of peripheral artery disease, 12 lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) for electrical abnormalities and transthoracic Echocardiography (ECHO), to measure abnormalities in cardiac structure and function. At analysis, patients where ...

  7. Serum cytokine profile in the subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama M.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining the development or not of visceral leishmaniasis (VL have not been completely identified, but a Leishmania-specific cellular immune response seems to play a fundamental role in the final control of infection. Few studies are available regarding the production of cytokines in the subclinical form of VL, with only the production of IFN-g and TNF-a known. The aim of the present study was to identify immunological markers for the oligosymptomatic or subclinical form of VL. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 784 children aged 0 to 5 years from an endemic area in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, between January 1998 and December 2001. During 30 consecutive months of follow-up, 33 children developed the oligosymptomatic form of the disease and 12 the acute form. During the clinical manifestations, serum cytokine levels were determined in 27 oligosymptomatic children and in nine patients with the acute form using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. In the subclinical form of VL, variable levels of IL-2 were detected in 52.3% of the children, IL-12 in 85.2%, IFN-g in 48.1%, IL-10 in 88.9%, and TNF-a in 100.0%, with the last two cytokines showing significantly lower levels than in the acute form. IL-4 was not detected in oligosymptomatic individuals. Multiple discriminant analysis used to determine the profile or combination of cytokines predominating in the subclinical form revealed both a Leishmania resistance (Th1 and susceptibility (Th2 profile. The detection of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles explains the self-limited evolution accompanied by the discrete alterations observed for the subclinical form of VL.

  8. Myxedema coma in a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallipedhi, Akhila; Vali, Hamza; Okosieme, Onyebuchi

    2011-01-01

    Myxedema coma is the extreme manifestation of hypothyroidism, typically seen in patients with severe biochemical hypothyroidism. Its occurrence in association with subclinical hypothyroidism is extremely unusual. We describe a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism who developed clinical manifestations of myxedema coma. A 47-year-old woman presented to our endocrine clinic with complaints of fatigue and biochemical findings of subclinical hypothyroidism. She was started on treatment with thyroxine (T4) but remained unwell and was later admitted to hospital with hormone profile showing persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (elevated thyrotropin and normal free T4 [FT4] and free triiodothyronine [FT3]): FT4 10.7 pmol/L (reference range 10.3-24.5), FT3 2.7 pmol/L (reference range 2.67-7.03), and thyrotropin 6.09 mU/L (reference range 0.4-4.0). She subsequently developed hypothermia (temperature 33.2°C), circulatory collapse, and coma. Biochemical profile showed hyponatremia, elevated creatinine phosphokinase, metabolic acidosis, and renal failure. An echocardiogram revealed a moderate-sized pericardial effusion. We diagnosed myxedema coma and started treatment with intravenous T3. She responded dramatically with improvement in level of consciousness and normalization of metabolic parameters. We found no explanation other than hypothyroidism to account for the presentation. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests excluded adrenal insufficiency, and serum gonadotrophins were within the normal reference range. FT4 estimation by equilibrium dialysis excluded analytical interference, and molecular analysis for the thyroid hormone receptor β gene associated with thyroid hormone resistance was negative. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of myxedema coma in a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The reason for normal thyroid hormone levels is unclear but may reflect deviation from a higher pre-morbid set-point. The case

  9. Irradiation of 4H-SiC UV detectors with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, E. V.; Lebedev, A. A.; Bogdanova, E.; Berenquier, B.; Ottaviani, L.; Violina, G. N.; Skuratov, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors based on Schottky barriers to 4H-SiC are formed on lightly doped n-type epitaxial layers grown by the chemical vapor deposition method on commercial substrates. The diode structures are irradiated at 25°C by 167-MeV Xe ions with a mass of 131 amu at a fluence of 6 × 10 9 cm −2 . Comparative studies of the optical and electrical properties of as-grown and irradiated structures with Schottky barriers are carried out in the temperature range 23–180°C. The specific features of changes in the photosensitivity and electrical characteristics of the detector structures are accounted for by the capture of photogenerated carriers into traps formed due to fluctuations of the conduction-band bottom and valence-band top, with subsequent thermal dissociation

  10. Ion implantation damage annealing in 4H-SiC monitored by scanning spreading resistance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchodolskis, A.; Hallen, A.; Linnarsson, M.K.; Osterman, J.; Karlsson, U.O.

    2006-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the damage annealing process and dopant defect incorporation and activation we have implanted epitaxially grown 4H-SiC layers with high doses of Al + ions. Cross-sections of the samples are investigated by scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) using a commercial atomic force microscopy (AFM). The defects caused by the implanted ions compensate for the doping and decrease the charge carrier mobility. This causes the resistivity to increase in the as-implanted regions. The calculated profile of implanted ions is in good agreement with the measured ones and shows a skewed Gaussian shape. Implanted samples are annealed up to 400 deg. C. Despite these low annealing temperatures we observe a clear improvement of the sample conductivity in the as-implanted region

  11. Annealing Behavior of Al-Implantation-Induced Disorder in 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.; Jiang, Weilin; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Janson, Martin; Hallen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Single crystal 4H-SiC films were implanted at 150 K with 1.1 MeV Al 2 2+ and subsequently annealed at elevated temperatures. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) results indicate that the relative Si disorder at the damage peak recovers significantly as the annealing temperature increases. However, the residual Si disorder is more resistant to high-temperature annealing in the region of the implanted Al. The maximum concentration of Al profile measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) is a factor of 1000 lower than the level of the residual Si disorder at the same region. Analysis of these results indicates that the excess residual Si disorder around the implanted Al projected range cannot be accounted for by just the Al interstitials; instead, it appears that each implanted Al stabilizes or inhibits recovery for an equivalent of a few hundred Si interstitials under the current experimental conditions

  12. Perceived Effectiveness of Youth-Adult Partnerships on Enhancing Life Skill Development through 4-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sallee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if youth and adult participants in the 4-H Environmental Impact program perceive youth?adult partnerships as an effective means to enhance the youths’ development of life skills. The study further sought to discover the perceived obstacles that may keep youth and adults from participating in equal partnerships. The life skills of: Leadership, Cooperation, Service Learning, and Planning and organizing were enhanced through the youths’ participation in the youth-adult partnership. Through this research there was evidence that many of the youth participants did perceive themselves as equal team members when participating in this youth-adult partnership. The research indicated the greatest perceived obstacle that kept youth from engaging was not much time after homework and other activities. It is recommended that all participants in newly formed youth-adult partnerships receive training on how to implement this type of program, and how to participate equally.

  13. Plasma ignition and steady state simulations of the Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Yasumoto, M; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Grudiev, A

    2014-01-01

    The RF heating of the plasma in the Linac4 H- ion source has been simulated using an Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision method (PIC-MCC). This model is applied to investigate the plasma formation starting from an initial low electron density of 1012 m-3 and its stabilization at 1018 m-3. The plasma discharge at low electron density is driven by the capacitive coupling with the electric field generated by the antenna, and as the electron density increases the capacitive electric field is shielded by the plasma and induction drives the plasma heating process. Plasma properties such as e-/ion densities and energies, sheath formation and shielding effect are presented and provide insight to the plasma properties of the hydrogen plasma.

  14. Characterization of N-doped multilayer graphene grown on 4H-SiC (0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezki, Hakim; Jaffré, Alexandre; Alamarguy, David; Alvarez, José; Kleider, Jean-Paul; Boutchich, Mohamed; Ho, Kuan-I; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Large-area graphene film doped with hetero-atoms is of great interest for a wide spectrum of nanoelectronics applications, such as field effect devices, super capacitors, fuel cells among many others. Here, we report the structural and electronic properties of nitrogen doped multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC (0001). The incorporation of nitrogen during the growth causes an increase in the D band on the Raman signature indicating that the nitrogen is creating defects. The analysis of micro-Raman mapping of G, D, 2D bands shows a predominantly trilayer graphene with a D band inherent to doping and inhomogeneous dopant distribution at the step edges. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicates an n type work function (WF) of 4.1 eV. In addition, a top gate FET device was fabricated showing n-type I-V characteristic after the desorption of oxygen with high electron and holes mobilities

  15. Defect-driven inhomogeneities in Ni /4H-SiC Schottky barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumakha, S.; Ewing, D. J.; Porter, L. M.; Wahab, Q.; Ma, X.; Sudharshan, T. S.; Brillson, L. J.

    2005-12-01

    Nanoscale depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) of Ni diode arrays on 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers reveals a striking correspondence between deep level defects and electrical transport measurements on a diode-by-diode basis. Current-voltage measurements display both ideal and nonideal diode characteristics due to multiple barriers within individual contacts. Near-interface DRCLS demonstrates the presence of three discrete midgap defect levels with 2.2, 2.45, and 2.65eV emission energies whose concentrations vary on a submicron scale among and within individual diodes, correlating with barrier inhomogeneity. These results also suggest that SiC native defect levels can account for the maximum range of n-type barrier heights.

  16. Training Teens to Teach Agricultural Biotechnology: A National 4-H Science Demonstration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Ripberger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a National 4-H Science agricultural biotechnology demonstration project and the impact of the pilot programs on the teenage leaders and teachers. A total of 82 teenagers were extensively trained, who in turn, engaged 620 youth participants with agricultural biotechnology education in afterschool and summer programs in five states. This article details the national and state level trainings for these teen teachers as well as the content rich partners from agribusinesses, agricultural commodity groups, and universities who supported their involvement. The impact on the content knowledge, science process and life skills, and program development and implementation skills of the teen leaders and teachers was evaluated using multiple instruments over multiple administrations (pre-training, post-training, and post-teaching. Results indicate significant gains in most areas assessed. Project recommendations and future plans are also discussed.

  17. Raman characterization of damaged layers of 4H-SiC induced by scratching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Nakashima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent development of device fabrication of SiC is awaiting detailed study of the machining of the surfaces. We scratched 4H-SiC surfaces with a sliding microindenter made of a SiC chip, and characterized machining affected layers by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results of the Raman measurement of the scratching grooves revealed that there were residual stress, defects, and stacking faults. Furthermore, with heavy scratching load, we found clusters of amorphous SiC, Si, amorphous carbon, and graphite in the scratching grooves. Analysis of the Raman spectra showed that SiC amorphization occurs first and surface graphitization (carbonization is subsequently generated through the phase transformation of SiC. We expect that the Raman characterization of machined surfaces provides information on the machining mechanism for compound semiconductors.

  18. 4H-SiC gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casady, J.B.; Agarwal, A.K.; Rowland, L.B.; Siergiej, R.R.; Seshadri, S.; Mani, S.; Sanger, P.A.; Brandt, C.D. [Northrop Grumman Sci. and Technol. Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Barrows, J.; Piccone, D. [Silicon Power Corp., Malvern, PA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    4H-SiC inverted, asymmetrical gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs) were fabricated and characterized over an ambient temperature range of 25 C to 390 C. Device performance was evaluated with respect to forward drop, current density, and blocking voltage. At room temperature, forward blocking voltages of up to 1000 V were achieved in smaller area devices (6.5 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2} active area) while larger area devices (3.63 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} active area) could block up to 700 V. Reverse blocking was approximately 50 V for these asymmetrical devices. Current densities were evaluated up to 3500 A/cm{sup 2}, with the forward voltage drop strongly affected by temperature and anode contact resistance. (orig.) 11 refs.

  19. The significance of radiology in the diagnosis of pyometra (endometritis post oestrum) in dogs: An evaluation of the correlation between radiographic and laboratoy findings in 131 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bree, H. van; Schepper, J. de; Capiau, E.

    1988-01-01

    In 131 bitches with proven pyometra or endometritis post oestrum (E. P. O.) a retrospective study of the lateral abdominal radiograph was carried out. In 31 (24%) of the cases (group 1) the uterine silhouette could not be perceived on the survey radiograph. In the other 100 cases (group 2) the uterus was clearly visible. Its diameter was measured and compared to the length of the second lumbar vertebra. The values for this ratio ranged between 0.4 and 3.5. The smallest uterine diameter perceived on the plain lateral abdominal radiograph measured 12 mm. Within group 2 the degree of uterine distension was significantly correlated with the number of white blood cells and the serum haptoglobin concentration. This correlation suggests a relation between the degree of uterine distension, the amount of uterine pus, the degree of uterine inflammation and the general inflammatory and stress reaction. Renal failure was more frequently observed in bitches with a greatly enlarged uterus than with a normal or only slightly enlarged uterus, although the degree of renal failure was not correlated to the uterine diameter. Within group 2 the closed type of pyometra was associated with a more enlarged uterus, but not with a higher leucocytosis [de

  20. Synthesis of N-(5-(Substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine from 4-Amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin D. Panchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available N-(4H-1,2,4-Triazol-4-ylacetamide (2 were prepared by reaction of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole (1 with acetyl chloride in dry benzene. It has been reacted with various aromatic aldehyde to afford 3-(substitutedphenyl-N-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylacrylamide (3a-e. The synthesis of N-(5-substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine (4a-e is achieved by the cyclisation of 3a-e with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and IR spectroscopic studies. The purity of the compounds was checked by thin layer chromatography.

  1. The fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX® score in subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX® score is the 10-year estimated risk calculation tool for bone fracture that includes clinical data and hip bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to elucidate the ability of the FRAX® score in discriminating between bone fracture positive and negative pre- and post-menopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods. The bone mineral density (by DXA, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level, free thyroxine (fT4 level, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb titre, osteocalcin and beta-cross-laps were measured in 27 pre- and post-menopausal women with newly discovered subclinical hyperthyroidism [age 58.85 ± 7.83 years, body mass index (BMI 27.89 ± 3.46 kg/m2, menopause onset in 46.88 ± 10.21 years] and 51 matched euthyroid controls (age 59.69 ± 5.72 years, BMI 27.68 ± 4.66 kg/m2, menopause onset in 48.53 ± 4.58 years. The etiology of subclinical hyperthyroisims was autoimmune thyroid disease or toxic goiter. FRAX® score calculation was performed in both groups. Results. In the group with subclinical hyperthyroidism the main FRAX® score was significantly higher than in the controls (6.50 ± 1.58 vs 4.35 ± 1.56 respectively; p = 0.015. The FRAX® score for hip was also higher in the evaluated group than in the controls (1.33 ± 3.92 vs 0.50 ± 0.46 respectively; p = 0.022. There was no correlations between low TSH and fracture risk (p > 0.05. The ability of the FRAX® score in discriminating between bone fracture positive and negative pre- and postmenopausal female subjects (p < 0.001 is presented by the area under the curve (AUC plotted via ROC analysis. The determined FRAX score cut-off value by this analysis was 6%, with estimated sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 75.9%, respectively. Conclusion. Pre- and postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism have higher FRAX® scores and thus

  2. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and the Risk for Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Christina D.; Blum, Manuel R.; da Costa, Bruno R.; Baumgartner, Christine; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P.; Aujesky, Drahomir; Bauer, Douglas C.; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures conflict. Purpose To assess the risk for hip and nonspine fractures associated with subclinical thyroid dysfunction among prospective cohorts. Data Sources Search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1946 to 16 March 2014) and reference lists of retrieved articles without language restriction. Study Selection Two physicians screened and identified prospective cohorts that measured thyroid function and followed participants to assess fracture outcomes. Data Extraction One reviewer extracted data using a standardized protocol, and another verified data. Both reviewers independently assessed methodological quality of the studies. Data Synthesis The 7 population-based cohorts of heterogeneous quality included 50 245 participants with 1966 hip and 3281 nonspine fractures. In random-effects models that included the 5 higher-quality studies, the pooled adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism versus euthyrodism were 1.38 (95% CI, 0.92 to 2.07) for hip fractures and 1.20 (CI, 0.83 to 1.72) for nonspine fractures without statistical heterogeneity (P = 0.82 and 0.52, respectively; I2 = 0%). Pooled estimates for the 7 cohorts were 1.26 (CI, 0.96 to 1.65) for hip fractures and 1.16 (CI, 0.95 to 1.42) for nonspine fractures. When thyroxine recipients were excluded, the HRs for participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism were 2.16 (CI, 0.87 to 5.37) for hip fractures and 1.43 (CI, 0.73 to 2.78) for nonspine fractures. For participants with subclinical hypothyroidism, HRs from higher-quality studies were 1.12 (CI, 0.83 to 1.51) for hip fractures and 1.04 (CI, 0.76 to 1.42) for nonspine fractures (P for heterogeneity = 0.69 and 0.88, respectively; I2 = 0%). Limitations Selective reporting cannot be excluded. Adjustment for potential common confounders varied and was not adequately done across all studies. Conclusion Subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with

  3. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jim L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Methods Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R. The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Results Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Conclusion Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  4. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Flowers, Joanne W; Tudiver, Fred; Wilson, Jim L; Punyasavatsut, Natavut

    2006-04-19

    Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  5. Buffer-eliminated, charge-neutral epitaxial graphene on oxidized 4H-SiC (0001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirikumara, Hansika I.; Jayasekera, Thushari

    2016-01-01

    Buffer-eliminated, charge-neutral epitaxial graphene (EG) is important to enhance its potential in device applications. Using the first principles Density Functional Theory calculations, we investigated the effect of oxidation on the electronic and structural properties of EG on 4H-SiC (0001) surface. Our investigation reveals that the buffer layer decouples from the substrate in the presence of both silicate and silicon oxy-nitride at the interface, and the resultant monolayer EG is charge-neutral in both cases. The interface at 4H-SiC/silicate/EG is characterized by surface dangling electrons, which opens up another route for further engineering EG on 4H-SiC. Dangling electron-free 4H-SiC/silicon oxy-nitride/EG is ideal for achieving charge-neutral EG.

  6. Enhanced interfacial and electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with lanthanum silicate passivation interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian; Cheng, Xinhong; Zheng, Li; Ye, Peiyi; Li, Menglu; Shen, Lingyan; Li, Jingjie; Zhang, Dongliang; Gu, Ziyue; Yu, Yuehui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with an untra-thin LaSiO_x passivation layer and Al_2O_3 gate dielectric was fabricated. • The detrimental SiO_x interfacial layer could be effectively restrained by the LaSiO_x passivation layer. • The passivation mechanism of LaSiO_x was analyzed by HRTEM, XPS and electrical measurements. • The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with a LaSiO_x passivation layer shows excellent device characteristics. • This technique provides an efficient path to improve dielectrics/4H-SiC interfaces for future high-power device applications. - Abstract: The detrimental sub-oxide (SiO_x) interfacial layer formed during the 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor fabrication will drastically damage its device performance. In this work, an ultrathin lanthanum silicate (LaSiO_x) passivation layer was introduced to enhance the interfacial and electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with Al_2O_3 gate dielectric. The interfacial LaSiO_x formation was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with ultrathin LaSiO_x passivation interlayer shows excellent interfacial and electrical characteristics, including lower leakage current density, higher dielectric breakdown electric field, smaller C–V hysteresis, and lower interface states density and border traps density. The involved mechanism implies that the LaSiO_x passivation interlayer can effectively restrain SiO_x formation and improve the Al_2O_3/4H-SiC interface quality. This technique provides an efficient path to improve dielectrics/4H-SiC interfaces for future high-power device applications.

  7. Convergence of Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    SiC with Computational Cell Size by Ariana Beste and DeCarlos E Taylor Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory Convergence of Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size by Ariana Beste...Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  8. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Substituted Piperazinyl-quinazolin-3(4H-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Raghavendra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several substituted-quinazolin-3(4H-ones were synthesized by condensation of 2-chloro-N-(4-oxo-substituted-quinazolin-3(4H-yl-acetamides with various substituted piperazines through single step reaction. Elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Synthesized quinazolin-4-one derivatives were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  9. The Effectiveness of the Teens Reaching Youth 4-H Model in a Childhood Nutirition and Physical Activity Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes Strong, Kristen Rae

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates are on the rise. There are detrimental physical and psychological health effects associated with childhood obesity. Society needs proven methods of delivering nutrition and physical activity education to children. The Teens Reaching Youth (TRY) 4-H model has been shown to be effective at delivering curriculum in a variety of topics. To assess the effectiveness of the TRY 4-H model at delivering nutrition and physical activity education to youth, grades third throug...

  10. Interface properties of 4H-SiC MOS structures studied by a slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, M.; Kawasuso, A.; Ichimiya, A.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Interfacial defects existing near the SiO 2 /SiC interface are an important issue for fabrication of high performance SiC devices. We investigate a thermally grown SiO 2 /SiC layer of 4H-SiC MOS structure by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The Doppler broadening of annihilation quanta was measured as a function of the incident positron energy and the gate bias. Applying a negative gate bias, significant increases in S-parameters were observed. This indicates the migration of implanted positrons towards the SiO 2 /SiC interface and annihilation at interfacial defects. Ultraviolet (UV) ray irradiation was used to extract the influence of the positron trapping to the interfacial states. S-parameters in the interface region were reduced by UV irradiation. This shows that positron trapping probability decreased because the charge state of interfacial defects changed to positive. From the recovery of S-parameters after 24 hours, the interfacial states discharge slowly and exist in large quantities, because the changes of S-parameter by the UV irradiation are larger than changes induced by bias change. (orig.)

  11. Two-dimensional simulations of multi-hollow VHF SiH4/H2 plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A triode multi-hollow VHF SiH4/H2 plasma (60 MHz was examined at a pressure of 20 Pa by two-dimensional simulations using the fluid model. In this study, we considered the effect of the rate constant of reaction, SiH3 + SiH3→SiH2 + SiH4, on the plasma characteristics. A typical VHF plasma of a high-electron density with a low-electron temperature was obtained between two discharge electrodes. Spatial profiles of SiH3+, SiH2+, SiH3- and SiH3 densities were similar to that of the electron density while the electron temperature had a maximum value near the two discharge electrodes. It was found that the SiH3 radical density did not decrease rapidly near the substrate and the electron temperature was lower than 1 eV, suggesting that the triode multi-hollow plasma source can provide high quality amorphous silicon with a high deposition rate.

  12. Comparison of nickel, cobalt, palladium, and tungsten Schottky contacts on n-4H-silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, V. E.; Chawanda, A.; Nyamhere, C.; Auret, F. D.; Mazunga, F.; Jaure, T.; Chibaya, B.; Omotoso, E.; Danga, H. T.; Tunhuma, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), tungsten (W) and palladium (Pd) Schottky contacts on n-type 4H-SiC in the 300-800 K temperature range. Results extracted from I-V measurements of Schottky barrier diodes showed that barrier height (ФBo) and ideality factor (n) were strongly dependent on temperature. Schottky barrier heights for contacts of all the metals showed an increase with temperature between 300 K and 800 K. This was attributed to barrier inhomogeneities at the interface between the metal and the semiconductor, which resulted in a distribution of barrier heights at the interface. Ideality factors of Ni, Co and Pd decreased from 1.6 to 1.0 and for W the ideality factor decreased from 1.1 to 1.0 when the temperature was increased from 300 K to 800 K respectively. The device parameters were compared to assess advantages and disadvantages of the metals for envisaged applications.

  13. Modeling and fabrication of 4H-SiC Schottky junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martychowiec, A.; Pedryc, A.; Kociubiński, A.

    2017-08-01

    The rapidly growing demand for electronic devices requires using of alternative semiconductor materials, which could replace conventional silicon. Silicon carbide has been proposed for these harsh environment applications (high temperature, high voltage, high power conditions) because of its wide bandgap, its high temperature operation ability, its excellent thermal and chemical stability, and its high breakdown electric field strength. The Schottky barrier diode (SBD) is known as one of the best refined SiC devices. This paper presents prepared model, simulations and description of technology of 4H-SiC Schottky junction as well as characterization of fabricated structures. The future aim of the application of the structures is an optical detection of an ultraviolet radiation. The model section contains a comparison of two different solutions of SBD's construction. Simulations - as a crucial process of designing electronic devices - have been performed using the ATLAS device of Silvaco TCAD software. As a final result the paper shows I-V characteristics of fabricated diodes.

  14. Is UO2HPO4,4H2O a proton conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skou, E.; Andersen, I.G.K.; Simonsen, K.E.; Andersen, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    HUP (UO 2 HPO 4 ,4H 2 O) was washed with water until decomposition. The composition was followed by X-ray diffraction. The experiments show that HUP can be washed free of mother liquor without destruction. The washing time necessary is several days. Washing with water for several weeks converts HUP to a new phase. The ac-conductivity of discs of HUP washed free of mother liquor was 1.3x10 -4 ohm -1 cm -1 , an order of magnitude lower than values reported in literature for discs of unwashed HUP. The ac-conductivity of a cell containing the washing solution after it was equilibrated with HUP was measured. Replacement of some of the liquid with HUP taken from the same washing experiment diminished the conductivity of the cell. The conductivity of HUP is therefore lower than the conductivity of the liquid (1.3x10 -3 ohm -1 cm -1 ). The authors conclude that the high conductivities of HUP reported in literature are caused by adhering liquid, and do not reflect intrinsic conductivity of the material. (Auth.)

  15. High Power Self-Aligned, Trench-Implanted 4H-SiC JFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamvoukakis K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process technology for the fabrication of 4H-SiC trenched-implanted-gate 4H–SiC vertical-channel JFET (TI-VJFET has been developed. The optimized TIVJFETs have been fabricated with self-aligned nickel silicide source and gate contacts using a process sequence that greatly reduces process complexity as it includes only four lithography steps. A source-pillars sidewall oxidation and subsequent removal of the metallization from the top of the sidewall oxide ensured isolation between gate and source. Optimum planarization of the source pillars top has been performed by cyclotene spin coating and etch back. The effect of the channel geometry on the electrical characteristics has been studied by varying its length (0.3 and 1.2μm and its width (1.5-5μm. The voltage blocking exhibits a triode shape, which is typical for a static-induction transistor (SIT operation. The transistors exhibited high ON current handling capabilities (Direct Current density >1kA/cm2 and values of RON ranging from 6 - 12 mΩ•cm2 depending on the channel length. Maximum voltage blocking was 800V limited by the edge termination. The maximum voltage gain was 51. Most transistors were normally-on. Normally-off operation has been observed for transistors lower than 2μm channel width (mask level and deep implantation.

  16. Immobilization of streptavidin on 4H-SiC for biosensor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Elissa H.; Davydov, Albert V.; Motayed, Abhishek; Sundaresan, Siddarth G.; Bocchini, Peter; Richter, Lee J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Steffens, Kristen; Zangmeister, Rebecca; Schreifels, John A.; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2012-01-01

    A sequential layer formation chemistry is demonstrated for the functionalization of silicon carbide (SiC) appropriate to biosensing applications. (0 0 0 1) 4H-SiC was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and subsequently biotinylated for the selective immobilization of streptavidin. Atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, fluorescence microscopy, and contact angle measurements were utilized to determine the structure, thickness, wettability, and reactivity of the resulting surface after each functionalization step. Optimization of the APTES layer was found to be critical to the success of the subsequent steps; multilayer, polymeric films resulted in irreproducible behavior. It was shown that there was significant non-specific (electrostatic) binding of streptavidin to APTES functionalized SiC, thus revealing the importance of a uniform biotinylation step prior to streptavidin attachment. The experimental results demonstrate that the APTES functionalized and biotinylated SiC surface has the potential to be employed as a biosensing platform for the selective detection of streptavidin molecules.

  17. Volunteer educators bring their own ideas about effective teaching to a 4-H curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Worker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth programs implemented during out-of-school time often rely on volunteers. These volunteers are responsible for selecting and adapting curriculum and facilitating activities, so their pedagogical practices become primary contributors to program quality, and ultimately, youth outcomes. To describe volunteers' pedagogical practices, I conducted a qualitative case study at three sites where volunteer educators were implementing a design-based 4-H curriculum. The curriculum advanced youth scientific literacy by supporting scientific inquiry in conjunction with planning, designing and making shareable artifacts. Through detailed observations, videos and focus groups, I identified six common pedagogical practices, though educators differed widely in which ones they used. Pragmatic and structural constraints shaped their choices, as did their professional identification as engineers, or not, and their relative comfort with engineering. To support volunteer educators in implementing a learner-centered educational program, curricula designers might be more specific in recommending and explaining pedagogical practices, and program managers might better train volunteer educators in those preferred practices.

  18. Study of 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky diode using field guard ring termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng-Ping, Chen; Yu-Ming, Zhang; Hong-Liang, Lü; Yi-Men, Zhang; Jian-Hua, Huang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that the 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode, PiN diode and junction barrier Schottky diode terminated by field guard rings are designed, fabricated and characterised. The measurements for forward and reverse characteristics have been done, and by comparison with each other, it shows that junction barrier Schottky diode has a lower reverse current density than that of the Schottky barrier diode and a higher forward drop than that of the PiN diode. High-temperature annealing is presented in this paper as well to figure out an optimised processing. The barrier height of 0.79 eV is formed with Ti in this work, the forward drop for the Schottky diode is 2.1 V, with an ideality factor of 3.2, and junction barrier Schottky diode with blocking voltage higher than 400 V was achieved by using field guard ring termination. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. 63Ni schottky barrier nuclear battery of 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Ying Li; Yong Ren; Xue-Jiao Chen; Da-Yong Qiao; Wei-Zheng Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a 4H-SiC Schottky betavoltaic nuclear battery based on MEMS fabrication technology are presented in this paper. It uses a Schottky diode with an active area of 3.14 mm 2 to collect the charge from a 4 mCi/cm 2 63 Ni source. Some of the critical steps in process integration for fabricating silicon carbide-based Schottky diode were addressed. A prototype of this battery was fabricated and tested under the illumination of the 63 Ni source with an activity of 0.12 mCi. An open circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.27 V and a short circuit current density (J SC ) of 25.57 nA/cm 2 are measured. The maximum output power density (P max ) of 4.08 nW/cm 2 and power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.01% is obtained. The performance of this battery is expected to be significantly improved by using larger activity and optimizing the design and processing technology of the battery. By achieving comparable performance with previously constructed p-n or p-i-n junction energy conversion structures, the Schottky barrier diode proves to be a feasible approach to achieve practical betavoltaics. (author)

  20. Investigation of dislocations in 8° off-axis 4H-SiC epilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui-Xia, Miao; Yu-Ming, Zhang; Yi-Men, Zhang; Xiao-Yan, Tang; Qing-Feng, Gai

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that the etching morphology of dislocations in 8° off-axis 4H-SiC epilayer is observed by using a scanning electronic microscope. It is found that different types of dislocations correspond with different densities and basal plane dislcation (BPD) array and threading edge dislocation (TED) pileup group lie along some certain crystal directions in the epilayer. It is concluded that the elastic energy of threading screw dislocations (TSDs) is highest and TEDs is lowest among these dislocations, so the density of TSDs is lower than TEDs. The BPDs can convert to TEDs but TSDs can only propagate into the epilyer in spite of the higher elastic energy than TEDs. The reason of the form of BPDs array in epilayer is that the big step along the basal plane caused by face defects blocked the upstream atoms, and TEDs pileup group is that the dislocations slide is blocked by dislocation groups in epilayer. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  1. Kinetic mechanism of V-shaped twinning in 3C/4H-SiC heteroepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Jia, Ren-Xu, E-mail: rxjia@mail.xidian.edu.cn [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi' an 710071 (China); Wu, Hong-Ming [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Feng, Zhe Chuan [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan and Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Detection Technology, Guangxi Key Laboratory for the Relativistic Astrophysics, College of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Lin, Hao-Hsiung [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan and Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-05-15

    The authors investigated the kinetic mechanism of V-shaped twinning in 3C/4H-SiC heteroepitaxy. A fourfold V-shaped twinning complex was found, and its interface was measured with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Two linear coherent boundaries and a nonlinear incoherent boundary (also called the double-position boundary) were observed. On the basis of the HRTEM results, the authors proposed an adatom migration growth model, in which the activation barrier at the coherent boundary is much lower than that at the incoherent boundary. From a kinetic perspective, adatoms are prone to migrate to the side of the boundary with the lower potential energy if they have sufficient thermal energy to overcome the activation barrier. In the case of a coherent boundary, the growth rates of the domains either side of the boundary can be balanced through the intermigration of adatoms, leading to a linear boundary. Conversely, it is difficult for adatoms to migrate across an incoherent boundary, which results in asynchronous growth rates and a nonlinear boundary.

  2. Mechanism of nanosecond laser drilling process of 4H-SiC for through substrate vias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byunggi; Iida, Ryoichi; Doan, Duc Hong; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    Role of optical parameters on nanosecond laser drilling of 4H-SiC was experimentally studied. Using ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser, parametric studies on effects of wavelength (1064 nm or 532 nm), beam profile (Gaussian or Bessel), and ambient condition (air or water) were conducted. The wavelengths which have large optical penetration depth were selected as wavefront has to propagate through materials to generate Bessel beam. The experimental results showed that carbonization of SiC surface accelerates thermal ablation of the materials with fluence under the lattice melting threshold. Especially, pattern of side lobes with small fluence was formed by irradiation of Bessel beam. The pattern disturbed penetration of wavefronts through materials. Implementation of water environment was not effective to suppress carbonization and had slight effect on improvement of drilling quality. For this reason, deep drilling with small entrance was not achieved using Bessel beam. Irradiation of 1064 nm Gaussian beam with large fluence led to formation of critical amount of re-solidified silicon due to the large optical penetration depth. Carbonization and silicon formation had a significant effect on unique fluence dependence of drilling depth. Absorption mechanism was studied as well to discuss effect of wavelength on processing characteristics.

  3. Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmołek, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Dąbrowski, P.; Strupiński, W. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopciuszyński, M.; Jałochowski, M. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-21

    We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 5–10 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

  4. Incorporating isolated molybdenum (Mo) atoms into Bilayer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han; Wan, Wen; Li, Hui; Wong, Swee Liang; Lv, Lu; Gao, Yongli; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The atomic structures and electronic properties of isolated Mo atoms in bilayer epitaxial graphene (BLEG) on 4H-SiC(0001) are investigated by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). LT-STM results reveal that isolated Mo dopants prefer to substitute C atoms at α-sites, and preferentially locate between the graphene bilayers. First-principles calculations confirm that the embedding of single Mo dopants within BLEG is energetically favorable as compared to monolayer graphene. The calculated bandstructures show that Mo-doped BLEG is n-doped, and each Mo atom introduces a local magnetic moment of 1.81 μB. Our findings demonstrate a simple and stable method to incorporate single transition metal dopants into the graphene lattice to tune its electronic and magnetic properties for possible use in graphene spin devices. NRF-CRP (Singapore) grants R-143-000-360-281and R-144-000-295-281. ``Shenghua Professorship'' startup funding from CSU and the support from the NSF of China (Grant No.11304398).

  5. A review on cardiovascular diseases originated from subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2012-01-15

    Thyroid hormones play an important role on the cardiovascular systems and thyroid disorder ultimately have a profound adverse effects on myocardium and vascular functions. There are extensive reports on the role of overt thyroid dysfunction which adversely can modify the cardiovascular metabolism but even at the present of some controversial reports, the subclinical thyroid disorders are able also to manipulate cardiovascular system to some extent. The aim of this study is to review the cardiovascular disorders accompanied with subclinical hypothyroidism. It is concluded that adverse effect of thyroid malfunction on myocardium and vascular organs are through the direct role of thyroid hormone and dyslipidemia on heart muscle cells at nuclear level and vascular system, respectively. It seems many cardiovascular disorders initially would not have been occurred in the first place if the thyroid of affected person had functioned properly, therefore thyroid function tests should be one of a prior laboratory examinations in cardiovascular disorders.

  6. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soylu Aliye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two distinct forms of clinical hyperthyroidism. The first patient had a clinical presentation of severe cholestasis in the absence of congestive failure related to hyperthyroidism. The second case had developed intrahepatic cholestasis in the presence of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and improved with rifampicin treatment. Conclusion Hyperthyroidism should be a consideration in non-specific liver dysfunction.

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism, mood, and cognition in older adults: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Russell T; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Hennessey, James V; Ryan, Joseph J; Stern, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    To perform a critical review of the literature on the mood and cognitive changes associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), with an emphasis on older adults. To evaluate these data against the Consensus Statement on the management of SCH from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Thyroid Association, and The Endocrine Society. A comprehensive literature review. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with an increased risk of mood and cognitive dysfunction, although the strength of this association and the efficacy of replacement hormone therapy require further investigation. It remains unclear whether SCH leads to significant mood and cognitive impairments in most older patients. More research is required to determine the nature and extent of this association and whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy is appropriate and effective in treating SCH-associated neurobehavioral impairments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Arida, Ricardo M; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; de Albuquerque, Marly; Machado, Hélio R; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2010-04-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death. Information concerning risk factors for SUDEP is conflicting, but high seizure frequency is a potential risk factor. Additionally, potential pathomechanisms for SUDEP are unknown, but it is very probable that cardiac arrhythmias during and between seizures or transmission of epileptic activity to the heart via the autonomic nervous system potentially play a role. In parallel, several studies have shown a link between hormones and epilepsy. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of thyroid hormones and epilepsy is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, we propose in this paper that SUDEP, at least in some cases, could be related with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    by LT(4) (p treatment in SH results in changes in hemodynamic parameters of potentially beneficial character. SH and overt hypothyroidism should......In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH......) and T(3) estimates) LT(4) treatment resulted in 6% reduction in supine MAP (p treatment (p

  10. Pentacam top indices for diagnosing subclinical and definite keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Simultaneous evaluation of BAD_D, 5th order vertical coma aberration, IVA, and ISV, especially when the pattern of the corneal curvature is normal, can detect subclinical keratoconus with high sensitivity and specificity. As for definite keratoconus, each of the BAD_D, mean keratometry, and 3rd order vertical coma aberration indices has a desirable diagnostic validity. However, the aforementioned indices do not negate the importance of widely recognized and acceptable indices like keratometry and central corneal thickness.

  11. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Mukesh Kr.; Thombare, N. N.; Mondal, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from mil...

  12. The Clinical Study on 39 Cases of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Cheol Jae; Ahn, Weon Jeon; Lee, Houn Young; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1986-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism can be defined as an asymptomatic state in which a reduction in thyroid activity has been compensated by an increased TSH output to maintain an euthyroid state. We analysed clinical features, laboratory data, and pathologic findings in 39 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism who were diagnosed at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital from Aug. 1984 to June, 1985. 1) The age distribution was from sixteen to sixty-nine and mean age was 34.8. Peak incidence was in the 4th decade and 3rd, 5th, 6th decade in order. 2) The sex distribution showed female preponderance with a ratio of 18.5 to 1. 3) The major presenting manifestations were nonspecific ones such as fatigue, indigestion, and anorexia. 4) Physical examination revealed diffuse goiter in 47.6%. Major abnormalities were no gross abnormality (30.9%), nodular goiter and facial edema. 5) There was no significant difference of the basal serum T3 and T4 concentrations between subclinical hypothyroidism and normal controls (p>0.05). 6) The basal serum TSH concentration of subclinical hypothyroidism (32.61±14.95 μU/ml) was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3.92±1.05 μU/ml) (p<0.005). 7) Microsomal antibody was detected in 80.6% and thyroglobulin antibody was detected in 30%. 8) The pathologic findings in 26 cases revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 76.9% (lymphocytic type, 34.6%; oxyphilic type, 26.9%; fibrotic type, 15.4%). The others were adenomatous goiter (15.4%), adenomatous carcinoma (3.8%) and subacute thyroiditis (3.8%).

  13. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Aliye; Taskale, Mustafa Gurkan; Ciltas, Aydin; Kalayci, Mustafa; Kumbasar, A Baki

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two disti...

  14. The Clinical Study on 39 Cases of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheol Jae; Ahn, Weon Jeon; Lee, Houn Young; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-03-15

    Subclinical hypothyroidism can be defined as an asymptomatic state in which a reduction in thyroid activity has been compensated by an increased TSH output to maintain an euthyroid state. We analysed clinical features, laboratory data, and pathologic findings in 39 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism who were diagnosed at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital from Aug. 1984 to June, 1985. 1) The age distribution was from sixteen to sixty-nine and mean age was 34.8. Peak incidence was in the 4th decade and 3rd, 5th, 6th decade in order. 2) The sex distribution showed female preponderance with a ratio of 18.5 to 1. 3) The major presenting manifestations were nonspecific ones such as fatigue, indigestion, and anorexia. 4) Physical examination revealed diffuse goiter in 47.6%. Major abnormalities were no gross abnormality (30.9%), nodular goiter and facial edema. 5) There was no significant difference of the basal serum T3 and T4 concentrations between subclinical hypothyroidism and normal controls (p>0.05). 6) The basal serum TSH concentration of subclinical hypothyroidism (32.61+-14.95 muU/ml) was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3.92+-1.05 muU/ml) (p<0.005). 7) Microsomal antibody was detected in 80.6% and thyroglobulin antibody was detected in 30%. 8) The pathologic findings in 26 cases revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 76.9% (lymphocytic type, 34.6%; oxyphilic type, 26.9%; fibrotic type, 15.4%). The others were adenomatous goiter (15.4%), adenomatous carcinoma (3.8%) and subacute thyroiditis (3.8%).

  15. Electromyographic Findings in Overt Hypothyroidism and Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Oğuz Akarsu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism may cause neurologic signs and symptoms as its effects neuromuscular system like many other systems. Subclinical hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid dysfuntion, it may cause neuromuscular signs and symptoms. In this retrospective study, it is aimed to compare neuromuscular symptoms and electromyographic (EMG manifestations between hypothyroid patients and control group with normal thyroid function and without a disease causing polyneuropathy. METHODS: 31 overt hypothyroidic, 139 subclinic hypothyroidic patients and 50 individuals with normal thyroid function, without a disease causing polyneuropathy, as control group whom made EMG for another reason were included to the study. Neuromuscular symptoms, neurological examination and electrophysiological findings was obtained from the patient records. RESULTS: In our study, we observed frequent neuromuscular complaints such as fatigue, morning stiffness, cramp, general pain and paresthesia in favor of both for overt and subclinic hypothyroidism. Carpal Tunnel Syndrom(CTS, was statistically higher in overt hypothyroidism group than control group. CTS was also observed higher in subclinic hypothyroidism group when compared with control group but it didn't reach to statistical significance. We did not detect polyneuropathy in any group. Motor nerve velocity and compound muscle action potential amplitudes were found to be statistically significant difference between hypothyroid ve control group. CONCLUSION: Since motor fibres' and neuromuscular area's being affected in hypothyroidism, which we interpret to happen due to basal metabolism's slowing down, can show a significant recovery after thyroid replacement therapy. We consider that, in further studies, comparison of electrophysiological findings after treatment with the findings of pre -treatment is necessary

  16. Prediabetes is not a risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyung-Min; Cho, Young-Rak; Lee, Seung-Whan; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Won, Ki-Bum; Ann, Soe Hee; Kim, Yong-Giun; Kim, Shin-Jae; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Hak; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Koh, Eun Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Park, Joong-Yeol; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jaewon; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2017-09-15

    There are limited data regarding the influence of glycemic status on the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in asymptomatic individuals. We analyzed 6434 asymptomatic individuals who underwent CCTA. The degree and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were assessed by CCTA, and ≥50% diameter stenosis was defined as significant. Of study participants, 2197 (34.1%), 3122 (48.5%), and 1115 (17.3%) were categorized as normal, prediabetic and diabetic individuals, respectively. Compared with normal individuals, there were no statistically differences in the adjusted odds ratios of prediabetic individuals for significant coronary artery stenosis (0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.22, p=0.888), any plaque (0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07, p=0.483), calcified plaque (0.90, 95% CI 0.79-1.01, p=0.080), non-calcified plaque (1.02, 95% CI 0.88-1.17, p=0.803), and mixed plaque (1.00, 95% CI 0.82-1.22, p=0.983). However, adjusted odds ratios for significant coronary artery stenosis (1.71, 95% CI 1.34-2.19, pprediabetic individuals were not associated with an increased risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sympathovagal response to orthostatism in overt and in subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goichot, B; Brandenberger, G; Vinzio, S; Perrin, A E; Geny, B; Schlienger, J L; Simon, C

    2004-04-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the physiological variation of R-R intervals, reflecting the sympathovagal balance. In both overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism, a relative increase in sympathetic activity has been demonstrated, mainly due to a decrease in vagal activity. The modifications of HRV during orthostatism in normal subjects resemble those seen in hyperthyroidism. We have studied the response of 19 patients with overt hyperthyroidism and 12 with subclinical hyperthyroidism during orthostatism using HRV and compared the results to those of 32 healthy controls. In the three groups, the R-R intervals decreased in the same proportion after orthostatism. The low frequency power (LF)/[LF + high frequency power (HF)] ratio, which reflects the sympathetic tone, also increased in the same proportion in the three groups. However, the mechanisms of the modulation of the sympathovagal balance during orthostatism were different among the three groups. In controls, the relative increase of sympathetic tone after orthostatism was due principally to a decrease in vagal tone (reflected by decreased power in the HF band), while in overt hyperthyroidism, where the power in the HF band was already minimal in the lying position, there was a clear increase in the LF band power during orthostatism. The results were intermediate in the subclinical hyperthyroidism group, reflecting a continuum of effects of the thyroid hormone excess on the autonomic nervous system. Our study shows that despite an apparent normal cardiovascular adaptation to orthostatism in hyperthyroidism, the modulation of the autonomic nervous system is profoundly modified.

  18. The diagnostic effects of s-TSH and TRH stimulating test on subclinical thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shujun; Wang Wenliang; Lu Shuyan; Zheng Linong; Hu Changjun; Fang Xiaozheng; Zheng Huian; Ma Meizhen

    2002-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the diagnostic effects of supersensitive TSH on diagnosing subclinical thyroid function with only once s-TSH detection and with TRH stimulating tests. TRH stimulating tests have been undertaken for 90 patients with different thyroid disease and 58 normal subjects. Diagnostic basal levels of s-TSH test in control group, subclinical hyperthyroidism group and subclinical hypothyroidism group were 2.20 +- 1.85 mIU/L, 0.54 +- 0.3 mIU/L and 9.08 +- 6.3 mIU/L, respectively, the levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism group were significantly higher than that of normal subjects group (P s -TSH>30 mIU/L. Dynamic observing of TRH stimulating tests have more effect than that of only once s-TSH detection in diagnosing subclinical thyroid function

  19. POSTPARTUM BOVINE ENDOMETRITIS TREATMENT BY INTRAUTERINE AND INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION OF OXITETRACYCLINE TRATAMENTO DE ENDOMETRITE BOVINA PÓS PUERPERAL PELAS VIAS INTRAMUSCULAR E INTRA-UTERINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alexandre Alves Torres

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the postpartum bovine endometritis treatment by intrauterine and intramuscular administration of tetracycline. Forty six cross bred cows diagnosed by gynecological exam with postpartum endometritis were assigned randomly in two treatments: G1 (n=21 - animals were treated with one intramuscular (IM dose of tetracycline (20 mg/Kg of body weight, while in G2 (n=25 animals were treated with one intrauterine (IU dose of tetracycline (30 mg/Kg of body weight. No difference (p>0.05 was observed in the recovery rate between the two treatments (61.9 X 76.0%, G1 and G2, respectively. The interval from treatment until first estrous was 33.9±22.6 versus 14.8 ±10.9 days (P<0.05 and until first service was 54.7 ± 33.9 versus 27.2 ± 20.3 days (P<0.05; for G1 and G2, respectively. No difference (p>0.05 was observed in the number of services per conception between G1 (1.54 and G2 (1.3. The treatment cost was lower for the G1 (U$ 3.51 versus U$ 5.00. Although not to have had differences in the clinical recovery rate, the use of the oxitetracycline managed for way IU in the postpuerperal treatment of endometrites in cows revealed more efficient in the reduction of the interval between the treatment and first heat and first insemination, beyond presenting lower cost that the treatment with oxitetracycline managed for way IM

    KEY WORDS: Bovine, postpartum endometritis, intrauterine, intramuscular, oxitetracicline.
    Este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar a eficiência do uso da oxitetracilina, administrada pelas vias intramuscular (IM e intrauterina (IU, no tratamento de endometrites em vacas no período pós-puerperal. Foram utilizados 46 animais mestiços que apresentaram quadro clínico de endometrite, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos: G1 (n=21 – tratado com uma dose de 30 mg/Kg PV de oxitetraciclina por via IM, e G2 (n=25  – uma infusão de 20 mg/Kg PV de

  20. Si/C and H coadsorption at 4H-SiC{0001} surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachowicz, E., E-mail: elwira@ifd.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wrocław, Plac M. Borna 9, PL-50-204 Wrocław (Poland); Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Pawińskiego 5a, PL-02-106 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Si on C-terminated and C on Si-terminated surface adsorb in the H{sub 3} hollow site. • The preferred adsorption site is in contrary to the stacking order of bulk crystal. • The presence of hydrogen increases the adsorption energy of Si/C. • Hydrogen weakens the bonds between the adsorbed Si or C and the surface. • Carbon adsorbs on top of the surface carbon on the C-terminated surface. • With both C and H on Si-terminated surface the surface state vanishes. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) study of adsorption of 0.25 monolayer of either Si or C on 4H-SiC{0001} surfaces is presented. The adsorption in high-symmetry sites on both Si- and C-terminated surfaces was examined and the influence of the preadsorbed 0.25 ML of hydrogen on the Si/C adsorption was considered. It was found out that for Si on C-terminated surface and C on Si-terminated the most favourable is threefolded adsorption site on both clean and H-precovered surface. This is contrary to the bulk crystal stacking order which would require adsorption on top of the topmost surface atom. In those cases, the presence of hydrogen weakens the bonding of the adsorbate. Carbon on the C-terminated surface, only binds on-top of the surface atom. The C−C bond-length is almost the same for the clean surface and for one with H and equals to ∼1.33 Å which is shorter by ∼0.2 than in diamond. The analysis of the electronic structure changes under adsorption is also presented.

  1. Predictors and impacts of colostrum consumption by 4h after birth in newborn beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homerosky, E R; Timsit, E; Pajor, E A; Kastelic, J P; Windeyer, M C

    2017-10-01

    Newborn beef calf vigor is a vital survival characteristic that promotes timely colostrum consumption. Modified APGAR scores intended to identify compromised calves are not widely adopted due to impracticality, inconsistent associations with blood gas disturbances, and unclear recommendations for intervention. The objectives were to: (1) determine differences in at-birth blood parameters between calves that were successful in colostrum consumption by 4h (CC4) compared to those that failed; (2) develop a Beef Calf Vigor Assessment by determining calving characteristics and clinical examination parameters associated with CC4; and (3) evaluate impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and treatment risk. As a predictor for CC4, suckle reflex had the highest specificity (98%), whereas calving ease had the highest sensitivity (89%). Calves with a weak suckle reflex had 41.6 (95% CI: 7.4-787.5) times greater odds of failed CC4 compared to calves with a strong suckle reflex (P24g/L serum IgG; OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.2-34.4; P=0.02), and higher odds of being treated (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4; P=0.03) than those that succeeded. Measuring suckle reflex in combination with calving ease was a quick and easy method to assess newborn beef calf vigor. The value of this Beef Calf Vigor Assessment was further emphasized by the negative impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and pre-weaning health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of sodium borohydride synthesis on NaBH4-H2 system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakoglu, F. oeznur; Kurtulus, Guelbahar

    2007-01-01

    The hazards and negative impacts of fossil fuel usage on environment and the prospect of fossil fuel depletion in near future have urged scientists to search for and use clean energy sources and alternative fuels. Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the effects of global warming. Although it is currently more expensive than other fuels, it will be cheaper following further developments in hydrogen technologies from production till end-use. Hydrogen storage is a critical issue in terms of safety and economics of hydrogen energy system. Chemical hydrides are an attractive hydrogen storage method due to their potential of achieving high volumetric and gravimetric storage densities. Among chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) is given a big attention, due to its 10.8% theoretical hydrogen storage capacity. Hydrogen, which can be released by sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction on-site, can be used in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at anode. on the other hand, sodium borohydride solution can be used directly in a borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) at anode. Like the other chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride has been an expensive material up to now, constituting a major obstacle to commercialization of sodium borohydride as a hydrogen storage method. This paper aims to give an approximate estimation process cost of the NaBH 4 -H 2 system by taking into account both the energy and raw material costs, starting with sodium borohydride production till recycling of it. Two different methods to synthesize sodium borohydride are analyzed and their effects on total cost are compared. It was found that the usage of Bayer process to synthesize sodium borohydride makes the overall sodium borohydride - hydrogen system cost higher than the total cost of the alternative process which starts with the production of sodium borohydride from borax decahydrate. (authors)

  3. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Aydin experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Akin; Deniz Alic Ural; Mehmet Gultekin; Kerem Ural

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The aim of this field trial was to investigate the relationships among subclinical laminitis, hematological, ruminal and faecal alterations. Materials and Methods. To this extent dairy cows presenting subclinical laminitis (n=11) and to those of other healthy cows without laminitis (n=10) were enrolled and assigned into two groups. All animals were receiving the same daily ration formulated to contain 47% cornsilage and 18% hay, mainly. Effects of subclinical laminitis chal...

  4. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den, B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model include, amongst others, the probability of spontaneous cure, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, trans...

  5. Subclinical depression in Urban Indian adolescents: Prevalence, felt needs, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M.; Vijay Sagar, K. John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subclinical depression in adolescents constitutes a risk factor for future clinical depression and hence warrants examination. However, there is a paucity of research that documents subclinical depression among adolescents in India. Objectives: (a) To investigate the prevalence of subclinical depression in urban school-going adolescents; (b) to investigate the problems and felt needs of these adolescents; (c) to examine depression-related variables; and (d) to examine the relation...

  6. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or Hypothyroxinemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brian M; Thom, Elizabeth A; Peaceman, Alan M; Varner, Michael W; Sorokin, Yoram; Hirtz, Deborah G; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Thorp, John M; Saade, George; Tita, Alan T N; Rouse, Dwight J; Sibai, Baha; Iams, Jay D; Mercer, Brian M; Tolosa, Jorge; Caritis, Steve N; VanDorsten, J Peter

    2017-03-02

    Subclinical thyroid disease during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes, including a lower-than-normal IQ in offspring. It is unknown whether levothyroxine treatment of women who are identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy improves cognitive function in their children. We screened women with a singleton pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation for subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as a thyrotropin level of 4.00 mU or more per liter and a normal free thyroxine (T 4 ) level (0.86 to 1.90 ng per deciliter [11 to 24 pmol per liter]), and for hypothyroxinemia, defined as a normal thyrotropin level (0.08 to 3.99 mU per liter) and a low free T 4 level (hypothyroidism underwent randomization at a mean of 16.7 weeks of gestation, and 526 with hypothyroxinemia at a mean of 17.8 weeks of gestation. In the subclinical hypothyroidism trial, the median IQ score of the children was 97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 94 to 99) in the levothyroxine group and 94 (95% CI, 92 to 96) in the placebo group (P=0.71). In the hypothyroxinemia trial, the median IQ score was 94 (95% CI, 91 to 95) in the levothyroxine group and 91 (95% CI, 89 to 93) in the placebo group (P=0.30). In each trial, IQ scores were missing for 4% of the children. There were no significant between-group differences in either trial in any other neurocognitive or pregnancy outcomes or in the incidence of adverse events, which was low in both groups. Treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia beginning between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation did not result in significantly better cognitive outcomes in children through 5 years of age than no treatment for those conditions. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00388297 .).

  7. Non-Micropipe Dislocations in 4H-SiC Devices: Electrical Properties and Device Technology Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Huang, Wei; Dudley, Michael; Fazi, Christian

    1998-01-01

    It is well-known that SiC wafer quality deficiencies are delaying the realization of outstandingly superior 4H-SiC power electronics. While efforts to date have centered on eradicating micropipes (i.e., hollow core super-screw dislocations with Burgers vectors greater than or equal to 2c), 4H-SiC wafers and epilayers also contain elementary screw dislocations (i.e., Burgers vector = 1c with no hollow core) in densities on the order of thousands per sq cm, nearly 100-fold micropipe densities. While not nearly as detrimental to SiC device performance as micropipes, it has recently been demonstrated that elementary screw dislocations somewhat degrade the reverse leakage and breakdown properties of 4H-SiC p(+)n diodes. Diodes containing elementary screw dislocations exhibited a 5% to 35% reduction in breakdown voltage, higher pre-breakdown reverse leakage current, softer reverse breakdown I-V knee, and microplasmic breakdown current filaments that were non-catastrophic as measured under high series resistance biasing. This paper details continuing experimental and theoretical investigations into the electrical properties of 4H-SiC elementary screw dislocations. The nonuniform breakdown behavior of 4H-SiC p'n junctions containing elementary screw dislocations exhibits interesting physical parallels with nonuniform breakdown phenomena previously observed in other semiconductor materials. Based upon experimentally observed dislocation-assisted breakdown, a re-assessment of well-known physical models relating power device reliability to junction breakdown has been undertaken for 4H-SiC. The potential impact of these elementary screw dislocation defects on the performance and reliability of various 4H-SiC device technologies being developed for high-power applications will be discussed.

  8. Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC films in a vertical hot-wall CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoguo, Yan; Feng, Zhang; Yingxi, Niu; Fei, Yang; Xingfang, Liu; Lei, Wang; Wanshun, Zhao; Guosheng, Sun; Yiping, Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC epilayers was performed on 4° off-axis 4H-SiC substrates in a home-made vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using H2-SiH4-C2H4-HCl. The effect of the SiH4/H2 ratio and reactor pressure on the growth rate of 4H-SiC epilayers has been studied successively. The growth rate increase in proportion to the SiH4/H2 ratio and the influence mechanism of chlorine has been investigated. With the reactor pressure increasing from 40 to 100 Torr, the growth rate increased to 52 μm/hand then decreased to 47 μm/h, which is due to the joint effect of H2 and HCl etching as well as the formation of Si clusters at higher reactor pressure. The surface root mean square (RMS) roughness keeps around 1 nm with the growth rate increasing to 49 μm/h. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrate that 96.7 μm thick 4H-SiC layers of good uniformity in thickness and doping with high crystal quality can be achieved. These results prove that chloride-based fast epitaxy is an advanced growth technique for 4H-SiC homoepitaxy. Project supported by the National High Technology R&D Program of China (No. 2014AA041402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474113, 61274007, 61574140), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 4132076, 4132074), the Program of State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute (No. SGRI-WD-71-14-004), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS.

  9. Unresolved Subclinical Hypothyroidism is Independently Associated with Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Oh; Lee, Ihn Suk; Choi, Yoo A; Lee, Sang Ju; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Yoon, Hye Eun; Jang, Yi Sun; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hye Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Suk Young; Hwang, Hyeon Seok

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often have subclinical hypothyroidism. However, few reports have investigated changes in the status of subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients and its clinical significance in CKD progression. Methods: We included 168 patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD stages 2-4. The normalization of subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up was assessed, and the association between transitions in subclinical hypothyroid status and the rate of decline of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. Results: At baseline, 127 patients were euthyroid and 41 (24.4%) patients were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these 41 patients, 21 (51.2%) spontaneously resolved to euthyroid during follow-up. The rate of eGFR decline of patients with resolved subclinical hypothyroidism was similar to that of euthyroid patients. The patients with unresolved subclinical hypothyroidism showed a steeper renal function decline than patients with euthyroidism or resolved subclinical hypothyroidism (all p hypothyroidism than in those who were euthyroid (p = 0.006). In multivariate linear regression for rate of eGFR decrease, unresolved subclinical hypothyroidism (β = -5.77, p = 0.001), baseline renal function (β = -0.12, p hypothyroidism did not resolve to euthyroidism, and this lack of resolution was independently associated with rapid renal function decline. PMID:24396286

  10. Synthesis and crystal structure of hydrogen selenates K(HSeO4)(H2SeO4) and Cs(HSeO4)(H2SeO4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, S.I.; Morozov, I.V.; Zakharov, M.A.; Kemnitz, E.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen selenates of the compositions K(HSeO 4 )(H 2 SeO 4 ) and Cs(HSeO 4 )(H 2 SeO 4 ) are synthesized by the reaction of alkali metal carbonates with an excess of the concentrated selenic acid. The X-ray diffraction study showed that both compounds are isostructural to the corresponding hydrogen sulfates. The difference in the systems of hydrogen bonding are caused by various combinations of the acceptor functions of the oxygen atoms in the HSeO 4 and H 2 SeO 4 groups

  11. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  12. A new physics-based self-heating effect model for 4H-SiC MESFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Quanjun; Zhang Yimen; Zhang Yuming

    2008-01-01

    A new self-heating effect model for 4H-SiC MESFETs is proposed based on a combination of an analytical and a computer aided design (CAD) oriented drain current model. The circuit oriented expressions of 4H-SiC low-field electron mobility and incomplete ionization rate, which are related to temperature, are presented in this model, which are used to estimate the self-heating effect of 4H-SiC MESFETs. The verification of the present model is made, and the good agreement between simulated results and measured data of DC I – V curves with the self-heating effect is obtained. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical propertiesx)

  13. Skynet Junior Scholars: From Idea to Enactment--Tales from the Trenches I. Implementation in 4-H settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Jason; Feldman, Lynn; Gurton, Suzanne; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Hoette, Vivian L.; Murray, Jenny; Zastrow, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    The creators of Skynet Junior Scholars were ambitious to say the least when they set out to:- Develop online tools that enable middle school and high school aged youth to use robotic optical and radio telescopes to do astronomy- Create an inquiry-based curriculum that promotes critical thinking and scientific habits of mind- Proactively incorporate Principles of Universal Design in all SJS development tasks to ensure access by blind/low vision and deaf/hard of hearing youth- Prepare 180 adult youth leaders from diverse backgrounds including museum educators, amateur astronomers, teachers 4-H leaders to facilitate SJS activities in a variety of settings.After 3 years of development SJS is in full implementation mode. As of August, 2015, 105 youth leaders and leader supervisors from 24 states have completed professional development and many have formed SJS youth groups. In this paper we describe what it takes for a successful implementation of Skynet Junior Scholars in a 4-H setting, from the viewpoint of adult leaders in the trenches who have created novel implementation models to make SJS work in diverse environments from monthly 4-H meetings to immersive residential camps.4-H is the nation's largest positive youth development organization, with a membership of more than six million young people in the U.S. In 2003 the national organization formed a strong commitment to STEM education with the goal to "to engage one million new youth in a dynamic process of discovery and exploration in science, engineering and technology to prepare them to meet the challenges of the 21st century". Skynet Junior Scholars has formed a strong and growing partnership with state 4-H agencies in West Virginia and Wisconsin, with a goal of establishing SJS as a national 4-H curriculum.Skynet Junior Scholars is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 1223687, 1223235 and 1223345.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of subclinical seizures during scalp video-EEG monitoring in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bo; Wang, Shan; Yang, Linglin; Shen, Chunhong; Ding, Yao; Guo, Yi; Wang, Zhongjin; Zhu, Junming; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Meiping

    2017-08-01

    This study first aimed to establish the prevalence and predictors of subclinical seizures in patients with epilepsy undergoing video electroencephalographic monitoring, then to evaluate the relationship of sleep/wake and circadian pattern with subclinical seizures. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 742 consecutive patients admitted to our epilepsy center between July 2012 and October 2014. Demographic, electro-clinical data and neuroimage were collected. A total of 148 subclinical seizures were detected in 39 patients (5.3%) during video electroencephalographic monitoring. The mean duration of subclinical seizures was 47.18 s (range, 5-311). Pharmacoresistant epilepsy, abnormal MRI and the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges were independently associated with subclinical seizures in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Subclinical seizures helped localizing the presumed epileptogenic zone in 24 (61.5%) patients, and suggested multifocal epilepsy in five (12.8%). In addition, subclinical seizures occurred more frequently in sleep and night than wakefulness and daytime, respectively, and they were more likely seen between 21:00-03:00 h, and less likely seen between 09:00-12:00 h. Thirty patients (76.9%) had their first subclinical seizures within the first 24 h of monitoring while only 7.7% of patients had their first subclinical seizures detected within 20 min. Subclinical seizures are not uncommon in patients with epilepsy, particularly in those with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, abnormal MRI or interictal epileptiform discharges. Subclinical seizures occur in specific circadian patterns and in specific sleep/wake distributions. A 20-min VEEG monitoring might not be long enough to allow for their detection.

  15. Field dependence of the electron drift velocity along the hexagonal axis of 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, P. A., E-mail: Pavel.Ivanov@mail.ioffe.ru; Potapov, A. S.; Samsonova, T. P.; Grekhov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The forward current–voltage characteristics of mesa-epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky diodes are measured in high electric fields (up to 4 × 10{sup 5} V/cm) in the n-type base region. A semi-empirical formula for the field dependence of the electron drift velocity in 4H-SiC along the hexagonal axis of the crystal is derived. It is shown that the saturated drift velocity is (1.55 ± 0.05) × 10{sup 7} cm/s in electric fields higher than 2 × 10{sup 5} V/cm.

  16. Reversible Photoinduced Reductive Elimination of H2 from the Nitrogenase Dihydride State, the E4(4H) Janus Intermediate

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoyanov, Dmitriy; Khadka, Nimesh; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dean, Dennis R.; Seefeldt, Lance C.; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that N2 reduction by nitrogenase involves the obligatory release of one H2 per N2 reduced. These studies focused on the E4(4H) ‘Janus intermediate’, which has accumulated four reducing equivalents as two [Fe-H-Fe] bridging hydrides. E4(4H) is poised to bind and reduce N2 through reductive elimination (re) of the two hydrides as H2, coupled to the binding/reduction of N2. To obtain atomic-level details of the re activation process, we carried out in situ 450 nm photoly...

  17. Enhanced interfacial and electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with lanthanum silicate passivation interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh_cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zheng, Li, E-mail: zhengli@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ye, Peiyi; Li, Menglu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shen, Lingyan; Li, Jingjie; Zhang, Dongliang; Gu, Ziyue [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with an untra-thin LaSiO{sub x} passivation layer and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric was fabricated. • The detrimental SiO{sub x} interfacial layer could be effectively restrained by the LaSiO{sub x} passivation layer. • The passivation mechanism of LaSiO{sub x} was analyzed by HRTEM, XPS and electrical measurements. • The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with a LaSiO{sub x} passivation layer shows excellent device characteristics. • This technique provides an efficient path to improve dielectrics/4H-SiC interfaces for future high-power device applications. - Abstract: The detrimental sub-oxide (SiO{sub x}) interfacial layer formed during the 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor fabrication will drastically damage its device performance. In this work, an ultrathin lanthanum silicate (LaSiO{sub x}) passivation layer was introduced to enhance the interfacial and electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric. The interfacial LaSiO{sub x} formation was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The 4H-SiC MOS capacitor with ultrathin LaSiO{sub x} passivation interlayer shows excellent interfacial and electrical characteristics, including lower leakage current density, higher dielectric breakdown electric field, smaller C–V hysteresis, and lower interface states density and border traps density. The involved mechanism implies that the LaSiO{sub x} passivation interlayer can effectively restrain SiO{sub x} formation and improve the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/4H-SiC interface quality. This technique provides an efficient path to improve dielectrics/4H-SiC interfaces for future high-power device applications.

  18. Complexing in (NH4)2SeO4-UO2SeO4 H2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    Isotherm of solubility in the (NH 4 ) 2 SeO 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O system has been constructed at 25 deg C. (NH 4 ) 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x6H 2 O formation is established for the first time and certain its physicochemical properties are determined. Regularities of complexing in the R 2 Se) 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O systems, where R-univalent cation are under discussion. 6 refs.; 3 tabs

  19. Characterization of double Shockley-type stacking faults formed in lightly doped 4H-SiC epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T.; Hayashi, S.; Naijo, T.; Momose, K.; Osawa, H.; Senzaki, J.; Kojima, K.; Kato, T.; Okumura, H.

    2018-05-01

    Double Shockley-type stacking faults (2SSFs) formed in 4H-SiC epitaxial films with a dopant concentration of 1.0 × 1016 cm-3 were characterized using grazing incident X-ray topography and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The origins of 2SSFs were investigated, and it was found that 2SSFs in the epitaxial layer originated from narrow SFs with a double Shockley structure in the substrate. Partial dislocations formed between 4H-type and 2SSF were also characterized. The shapes of 2SSFs are related with Burgers vectors and core types of the two Shockley partial dislocations.

  20. Search for 4H, 5H and 6H nuclei in the 11B-induced reaction on 9Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Borcea, C.; Dlouhy, Z.

    1985-01-01

    In the 11 B(88.0 MeV)+ 9 Be reaction the energy spectra of the 14 O, 15 O and 16 O nuclei have been measured to obtain some information about their partners in the exit channel - the neutron-rich hydrogen isotopes 4 H, 5 H and 6 H. The unbound levels in the 4 H and 6 H systems have been observed at excitation energies of 3.5 +- 0.5 MeV (GITA approximately 1 MeV) and 2.6 +- 0.5 MeV (GITA=1.5 +- 0.3 MeV), respectively

  1. Development of High Quality 4H-SiC Thick Epitaxy for Reliable High Power Electronics Using Halogenated Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    defects :=()llowed by a second buffer epilayer gro\\\\ th with ~: urn thickness with high n-type dopi:1g (- 5£17 cm-3) for the same C/Si ratio of ~1.4 at...gradient, pressure , etc.) can further reduce the parasitic deposition, especially in TFS-growth. • Thick epitaxy on-axis 4H-SiC Growth at High Growth...From - To) 08/02/2016 Final Technical Report 01-Apr-10 Through 31-Mar-14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Development of High Quality 4H

  2. Fast Homoepitaxial Growth of 4H-SiC Films on 4° off-Axis Substrates in a SiH4-C2H4-H2 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Sun Guo-Sheng; Liu Xing-Fang; Zhang Feng; Dong Lin; Zheng Liu; Yan Guo-Guo; Liu Sheng-Bei; Zhao Wan-Shun; Wang Lei; Zeng Yi-Ping; Wang Zhan-Guo; Li Xi-Guang; Yang Fei

    2013-01-01

    Homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC epilayers is conducted in a SiH 4 -C 2 H 4 -H 2 system by low pressure hot-wall vertical chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Thick epilayers of 45 μm are achieved at a high growth rate up to 26 μm/h under an optimized growth condition, and are characterized by using a Normaski optical microscope, a scanning electronic microscope (SEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD), indicating good crystalline quality with mirror-like smooth surfaces and an rms roughness of 0.9 nm in a 5 μm × 5μm area. The dependence of the 4H-SiC growth rate on growth conditions on 4° off-axis 4H-SiC substrates and its mechanism are investigated. It is found that the H 2 flow rate could influence the surface roughness, while good surface morphologies without Si droplets and epitaxial defects such as triangular defects could be obtained by increasing temperature

  3. Nido-Carborane building-block reagents. 2. Bulky-substituent (alkyl)2C2B4H6 derivatives and (C6H5)2C2B4H6: synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyter, H.A. Jr.; Grimes, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The preparation and chemistry of nido-2,3-R 2 C 2 C 2 B 4 H 6 carboranes in which R is n-butyl, isopentyl, n-hexyl, and phenyl was investigated in order to further assess the steric and electronic influence of the R groups on the properties of the nido-C 2 B 4 cage, especially with respect to metal complexation at the C 2 B 3 face and metal-promoted oxidative fusion. The three dialkyl derivatives were prepared from the corresponding dialkylacetylenes via reaction with B 5 H 9 and triethylamine, but the diphenyl compound could not be prepared in this manner and was obtained instead in a thermal reaction of B 5 H 9 with diphenylacetylene in the absence of amine. All four carboranes are readily bridge-deprotonated by NaH in THF, and the anions of the dialkyl species, on treatment with FeCl 2 and air oxidation, generate the respective R 4 C 4 B 8 H 8 carborane fusion products were R = n-C 4 H 9 , i-C 5 H 11 or n-C 6 H 13 . The diphenylcarborane anion Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 5 - did not form detectable metal complexes with Fe 2+ , Co 2+ , or Ni 2+ , and no evidence of a Ph 4 C 4 B 8 H 8 fusion product has been found. Treatment of Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 6 with Cr(CO) 6 did not lead to metal coordination of the phenyl rings, unlike (PhCH 2 ) 2 C 2 B 4 H 6 , which had previously been shown to form mono- and bis(tricarbonylchromium) complexes. However, the reaction of Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 5 - , CoCl 2 , and (PhPCH 2 ) 2 did give 1,1-(Ph 2 PCH 2 ) 2 -1-Cl-1,2,3-Co(Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 4 ), the only case in which metal complexation of the diphenylcarborane was observed. 14 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  4. Insulin resistance and glucose levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S.H.; Fazal, N.; Yasir, M.; Asif, N.; Rafi, T.

    2017-01-01

    To compare insulin resistance and glycemic indicators among subjects with euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology and Medicine, PNS Hafeez, Islamabad, in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from December 2015 to September 2016. Methodology: Subjects referred for executive screening of apparently healthy population (without any known history of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or other chronic ailments), were included. Subjects were grouped as euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Results: Median (IQR) insulin resistance indices including fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance in subjects with group-1 (n=176, 87%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 0.5 - 3.5 mIU/L) and group-2 (n=26, 13%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 3.51 - 15 mIU/L) were 7.6 (6.70) vs. 11.4 (13.72, p=0.040) and 1.77 (1.79) vs. 2.8 (3.07, p=0.071). The median differences for fasting plasma glucose were 5.0 (1.0) in group-1 vs. 5.0 (1.47) for Group-2 [p=0.618], and glycated hemoglobin was 5.60 (1.1) vs. 5.60 (1.7, p=0.824). Homeostasis Model Assessment for beta sensitivity index in paradox showed slightly higher values for group-2 [median (IQR) 86.67 (92.94)] than group-1 [111.6 (189.64, p= 0.040)]. Conclusion: Measures of insulin resistance including Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance and fasting insulin levels were significantly different between subjects with euthyroidism and having subclinical hypothyroidism. (author)

  5. Acute phase proteins in the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Shahabeddin; Khoshvaghti, Ameneh; Jafarzadeh, Seyed Reza; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Nowrouzian, Iradj

    2009-12-01

    The California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly used for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. Acute phase proteins (APPs), as alternative biomarkers of mastitis, may increase in concentration in the absence of macroscopic changes in the milk, or may precede the onset of clinical signs. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of APPs measured in milk and in serum with bacterial culture for the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis. One hundred and seventy-five Holstein cows were randomly selected from 7 dairy farms. Quarter milk and serum samples were taken from all cows. Milk samples were analyzed using a CMT and SCC, and for haptoglobin (MHp) and amyloid A (MAA) concentrations, and were also submitted for bacterial culture. Serum samples obtained concurrently were analyzed for haptoglobin (SHp) and amyloid A (SAA). Two-sample Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney) test was used to compare SCC, MAA, MHp, SAA, and SHp concentrations between culture-positive and culture-negative animals. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of each test using bacterial culture as the reference method. MAA concentration was the most accurate of the 5 tests, with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 98.3% at concentrations >16.4 mg/L. MAA and MHp had significantly larger areas under the curve than the respective serum proteins, SAA and SHp. The results suggest that measuring haptoglobin and amyloid A in milk is more accurate than serum analysis for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows.

  6. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Overt hypothyroidism is disease associated with accelerated arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is associated with increased cardiovascular risk is contraversial. As SH is a high prevalence thyroid dysfunction, specially in older women, it is important to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in these patients and that was the aim of this study. Methods. We examined 30 patients with SH and 20 healthy controls. Subclinical hypothireoidism was defined as an elevated thyrotropin (TSH (> 4.5 mU/L and normal free thyroxine (FT4 level. In all the participants we determined body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, TSH, FT4, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, antibodies to thyroglobulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglicerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. Results. Mean BMI in patients with SH was significantly higher (p < 0.05, as well as diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01 compared with the controls. Average levels of total cholesterol (5.40±0.62 vs 5.06±0.19 mmol/l, p < 0.01 and triglycerides (2.16±0.56 vs 1.89±0.24 mmol/l, p < 0.05 were also significantly higher in the group with SH. Individual analysis revealed that the percentage of patients with SH having borderline elevated total cholesterol (63.33%, hypertrigliceridemia (43.33% and elevated total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (26.67% were significantly higher than the percentage in the controls. No significant correlation between TSH and lipid parameters was detected. Conclusion. Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with higher BMI, diastolic hypertension, higher total cholesterol and triglicerides levels and higher total cholesterol/HDL cholesterols ratio. This might increase the risk of accelerated arteriosclerosis in patients with SH.

  8. Depressive and anxiety disorders and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to

  9. California mastitis test in the diagnostic of subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crisléia Rodrigues Monção de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation, is the main factor that substantially compromises the milk quality. Several methods can diagnose the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. One these methods, the California Mastitis Test (CMT has as advantages being practical, low cost and the results are immediately available. The CMT method consists of adding the anionic neutral detergent to a milk sample in order to disrupt milk somatic cell membranes and release nucleic material. The viscousity formed by this reaction allows estimating the number of somatic cells (immunity cells presents in the milk. According to the degree of gelatinization obtained in this reaction, the interpretation of the scores varies from zero, no viscosity, to three crosses, highly viscous. This study was aimed to evaluate the CMT of eight dairy herds of different farms in Sao Paulo state, described by the letters A to H. The scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered positive for subclinical mastitis, while 0 was negative. The results were determined in relative frequency (%. It is evident that the herd D is the most affected by subclinical mastitis, because of the greater number of CMT positive (60%. This may be due to the mismanagement and poor conditions of milking. The properties C, F and G require greater attention, as the result of CMT could corroborate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and infected cows can quickly transmit the infection to the healthy ones. Note that the farms A, B and H are the ones with

  10. Possible Subclinical Leaflet Thrombosis in Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkar, Raj R; Fontana, Gregory; Jilaihawi, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A finding of reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was noted on computed tomography (CT) in a patient who had a stroke after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) during an ongoing clinical trial. This finding raised a concern about possible subclinical leaflet thrombosis...... patients and 1 of 115 patients, respectively; P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was shown in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves. The condition resolved with therapeutic anticoagulation. The effect of this finding on clinical outcomes including stroke needs further...

  11. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated...

  12. Solvothermal synthesis and characterisation of new one-dimensional indium and gallium sulphides: [C1N4H26]0.5[InS2] and [C1N4H26]0.5[GaS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaqueiro, Paz

    2006-01-01

    Two new main group metal sulphides, [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [InS 2 ] (1) and [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [GaS 2 ] (2) have been prepared solvothermally in the presence of 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isostructural and crystallise in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /n (Z=4), with a=6.5628(5), b=11.2008(9), c=12.6611(9) A and β=94.410(4) o (wR=0.035) for compound (1) and a=6.1094(5), b=11.2469(9), c=12.7064(10) A and β=94.313(4) o (wR=0.021) for compound (2). The structure of [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [MS 2 ] (M=In,Ga) consists of one-dimensional [MS 2 ] - chains which run parallel to the crystallographic a axis and are separated by diprotonated amine molecules. These materials represent the first example of solvothermally prepared one-dimensional gallium and indium sulphides. -- Graphical abstract: [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [InS 2 ] and [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [GaS 2 ], prepared under solvothermal conditions, consist of one-dimensional [MS 2 ] - chains separated by diprotonated 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine molecules

  13. Subclinical avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in human, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Horby, Peter; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le Nguyen, Hang Khanh; Hoang, Phuong Mai Vu; Nguyen, Khanh Cong; de Jong, Menno D.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Farrar, Jeremy; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern

  14. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than

  15. Long-term outcome in levothyroxine treated patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and concomitant heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2016-01-01

    Context: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition that may lead to impaired cardiac function. Objective: This study sought to examine the effects of levothyroxine treatment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and heart disease. Design: This was a register-based historical cohort s...

  16. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  17. Subclinical and overt thyroid dysfunction and risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2014-01-01

    hypothyroidism with TSH of 5-10 mIU/L [IRR 0.92 (95% CI 0.86-0.98)]. CONCLUSIONS: Heart failure is the leading cause of an increased cardiovascular mortality in both overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH 5-10 mIU/L might be associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality....

  18. Stochastic modelling to assess economic effects of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Swinkels, J.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  19. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Heemstra, Karen A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Schoemaker, Rik C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the

  20. Wetlands Are Wonderlands. Leader/Teacher Guide and Member/Youth Guide. 4-H Marine Education Series-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenen, Kimberly, Ed.; Goettel, Robin G., Ed.

    This guide, for a 4-H wetlands project, is designed for sixth to eighth grade youth and their leaders interested in learning and doing aquatic science activities that can help the environment. The project provides basic wetland information with one or more activities for each of six sections: (1) What is a wetland?; (2) value of wetlands; (3)…

  1. [Nebraska 4-H Wheat Science School Enrichment Project, Teacher/Leader Guides 213-222 and 227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Inst. of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    Through the 4-H Wheat Science project, students learn the importance of wheat from the complete process of growing wheat to the final product of bread. The curriculum is designed to include hands-on experiences in science, consumer education, nutrition, production economics, vocabulary, and applied mathematics. Teachers can select those units out…

  2. Spectral Properties of Novel 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones With Substituted Benzylidene and Phenyl Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palcut, Marián

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, five novel (4Z)-4-benzylidene-2-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones (azlactones) were investigated by the infra-red (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of the 1H and 13C nuclei. The spectral properties of the oxazolone ring were monitored with respect to the subst...

  3. Inclusion of Body Bias Effect in SPICE Modeling of 4H-SiC Integrated Circuit Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    2017-01-01

    The DC electrical behavior of n-type 4H-SiC resistors used for realizing 500 degrees Celsius durable integrated circuits (ICs) is studied as a function of substrate bias and temperature. Improved fidelity electrical simulation is described using SPICE NMOS model to simulate resistor substrate body bias effect that is absent from the SPICE semiconductor resistor model.

  4. Inclusion of Body-Bias Effect in SPICE Modeling of 4H-SiC Integrated Circuit Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    2017-01-01

    The DC electrical behavior of n-type 4H-SiC resistors used for realizing 500 C durable integrated circuits (ICs) is studied as a function of substrate bias and temperature. Improved fidelity electrical simulation is described using SPICE NMOS model to simulate resistor substrate body bias effect that is absent from the SPICE semiconductor resistor model.

  5. Blue Sky Below My Feet. Adventures in Space Technology, Forces, Fibers, Foods. 4-H Leader/Teacher Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manholt, Donna; And Others

    This teaching guide for 4th through 6th grade classes integrates science, language arts, and math concepts into ready-to-use space and space technology lessons. Significant learning outcomes for this curriculum are linked to Ohio's educational objectives for science in an at-a-glance curriculum matrix. A summary of the significant 4-H life skills…

  6. CH4/H2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching for GaAs-based field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassel, van J.G.; Es, van C.M.; Nouwens, P.A.M.; Maahury, J.H.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma etch processes with CH4/H2/AR have been investigated on different III–Vsemiconductor materials (GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, and InP). The passivation depth as a function of the GaAs carrierconcentration and the recovery upon annealing at different temperatures

  7. Study of the properties of plasma of CH4/H2 and its interactions with liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambus, G.; Patino, P.

    2003-01-01

    Properties of a CH 4 /H 2 plasma, as a reducing agent in heterogeneous reactions with one olefin hydrocarbon, were studied in this work. The characterization of the plasma was carried out by means of optical emission spectroscopy, by varying the gas composition (CH 4 /H 2 ) and the working pressure, in a radio frequency discharge. The variation of the relative populations of H and CH radicals was followed, at pressures between 0.001 and 0.4 mbar and CH 4 /H 2 proportions 1:1 to 1:5. The conditions selected for treating squalene were 0.1 mbar and CH 4 /H 2 of 1:5. Although these conditions did not yield the maximum intensities for the two signals, these were strong enough and black carbon and polymers ceased from being produced under this regime. At 5 C, more than two double bonds per molecule, out of six, were hydrogenated with the plasma in 12 hours. (Author)

  8. Youths Perceive Some Improvement in Substance Abuse Prevention Knowledge, Skills, and Assets from Participation in 4-H Health Rocks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Kane T.; Donaldson, Joseph L.; Naylor, Mitchell; LeBleu, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The 4-H Health Rocks! curriculum aims to reduce use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs and promote healthful lifestyle choices among 8- to 14-year-old youths. A retrospective "post-then-pre" survey of Tennessee participants was aimed at describing the demographic characteristics of participants and investigating respondents'…

  9. A combined HRND and HREM study of degradation collapse in NH4+/H3O+ β"-alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, John O.; Eriksson, Anders; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction (HRND) from single crystals, and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) are combined to study the deammoniation of NH4+/H3O+ β"-alumina on heating above 200°C. HRND shows the emergence of extra reflections which cannot be indexed in terms of the original β...

  10. From Threshers to Thrashers: In Montana, 4-H Takes a Modern Spin To Engage "Blue-Ribbon Kids."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linik, Joyce Riha

    2002-01-01

    A 4-H skateboard club in Bozeman, Montana offers kids community service and educational opportunities as well as something to do after school. Adult and college-student volunteers teach a skateboarding curriculum and help kids fix boards and design ramps. Club members have learned public speaking, fundraising, city planning, and civic involvement…

  11. Three Component Synthesis of Substituted 4H-[1,3]Dioxin Derivatives Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hosseini-Tabatabaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction between aryl aldehydes, acetylacetone and alkyl isocyanides in solvent-free conditions provided a simple and efficient one-pot route for the synthesis of 1-(2-alkylamino-6-methyl-4-aryl-4H-[1,3]dioxin-5-ylethanone derivatives in excellent yields.

  12. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of sorghum [Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench] gene SbC4H1 restricts lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first hydroxylase enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and its content and activity affects the lignin synthesis. In this study, we isolated a C4H gene SbC4H1 from the suppression subtractive hybridization library of brown midrib (bmr) mutants of Sorghum b...

  13. Effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on amniotic fluid cells oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Tanja R; Dolicanin, Zana C; Djordjevic, Natasa Z

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we researched the effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on the amniotic fluid cells oxidative metabolism during the first trimester of pregnancy. Oxidative stress and damage biomarkers were assayed in the amniotic fluid cells of healthy and pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Obtained results show that amniotic fluid cells of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism have significantly higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers (superoxide anion, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxide and micronuclei frequency), but lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione in comparison to healthy pregnant women. We also showed that oxidative stress biomarkers were positively correlated with micronuclei frequency and lipid peroxide concentration in amniotic fluid cells of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. The present study provides the first evidence for prooxidative effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on the fetus obtained by the estimating oxidative metabolism in the amniotic fluid cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An improved analytical model of 4H-SiC MESFET incorporating bulk and interface trapping effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema Lata Rao, M.; Narasimha Murty, N. V. L.

    2015-01-01

    An improved analytical model for the current—voltage (I-V) characteristics of the 4H-SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) on a high purity semi-insulating (HPSI) substrate with trapping and thermal effects is presented. The 4H-SiC MESFET structure includes a stack of HPSI substrates and a uniformly doped channel layer. The trapping effects include both the effect of multiple deep-level traps in the substrate and surface traps between the gate to source/drain. The self-heating effects are also incorporated to obtain the accurate and realistic nature of the analytical model. The importance of the proposed model is emphasised through the inclusion of the recent and exact nature of the traps in the 4H-SiC HPSI substrate responsible for substrate compensation. The analytical model is used to exhibit DC I-V characteristics of the device with and without trapping and thermal effects. From the results, the current degradation is observed due to the surface and substrate trapping effects and the negative conductance introduced by the self-heating effect at a high drain voltage. The calculated results are compared with reported experimental and two-dimensional simulations (Silvaco®-TCAD). The proposed model also illustrates the effectiveness of the gate—source distance scaling effect compared to the gate—drain scaling effect in optimizing 4H-SiC MESFET performance. Results demonstrate that the proposed I-V model of 4H-SiC MESFET is suitable for realizing SiC based monolithic circuits (MMICs) on HPSI substrates.

  15. An improved analytical model of 4H-SiC MESFET incorporating bulk and interface trapping effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M. Hema Lata; Murty, N. V. L. Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    An improved analytical model for the current—voltage (I–V) characteristics of the 4H-SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) on a high purity semi-insulating (HPSI) substrate with trapping and thermal effects is presented. The 4H-SiC MESFET structure includes a stack of HPSI substrates and a uniformly doped channel layer. The trapping effects include both the effect of multiple deep-level traps in the substrate and surface traps between the gate to source/drain. The self-heating effects are also incorporated to obtain the accurate and realistic nature of the analytical model. The importance of the proposed model is emphasised through the inclusion of the recent and exact nature of the traps in the 4H-SiC HPSI substrate responsible for substrate compensation. The analytical model is used to exhibit DC I–V characteristics of the device with and without trapping and thermal effects. From the results, the current degradation is observed due to the surface and substrate trapping effects and the negative conductance introduced by the self-heating effect at a high drain voltage. The calculated results are compared with reported experimental and two-dimensional simulations (Silvaco®-TCAD). The proposed model also illustrates the effectiveness of the gate—source distance scaling effect compared to the gate—drain scaling effect in optimizing 4H-SiC MESFET performance. Results demonstrate that the proposed I–V model of 4H-SiC MESFET is suitable for realizing SiC based monolithic circuits (MMICs) on HPSI substrates. (semiconductor devices)

  16. High-Throughput Computational Screening of the Metal Organic Framework Database for CH4/H2 Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Cigdem; Erucar, Ilknur; Keskin, Seda

    2018-01-31

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been considered as one of the most exciting porous materials discovered in the last decade. Large surface areas, high pore volumes, and tailorable pore sizes make MOFs highly promising in a variety of applications, mainly in gas separations. The number of MOFs has been increasing very rapidly, and experimental identification of materials exhibiting high gas separation potential is simply impractical. High-throughput computational screening studies in which thousands of MOFs are evaluated to identify the best candidates for target gas separation is crucial in directing experimental efforts to the most useful materials. In this work, we used molecular simulations to screen the most complete and recent collection of MOFs from the Cambridge Structural Database to unlock their CH 4 /H 2 separation performances. This is the first study in the literature, which examines the potential of all existing MOFs for adsorption-based CH 4 /H 2 separation. MOFs (4350) were ranked based on several adsorbent evaluation metrics including selectivity, working capacity, adsorbent performance score, sorbent selection parameter, and regenerability. A large number of MOFs were identified to have extraordinarily large CH 4 /H 2 selectivities compared to traditional adsorbents such as zeolites and activated carbons. We examined the relations between structural properties of MOFs such as pore sizes, porosities, and surface areas and their selectivities. Correlations between the heat of adsorption, adsorbility, metal type of MOFs, and selectivities were also studied. On the basis of these relations, a simple mathematical model that can predict the CH 4 /H 2 selectivity of MOFs was suggested, which will be very useful in guiding the design and development of new MOFs with extraordinarily high CH 4 /H 2 separation performances.

  17. Reversible Photoinduced Reductive Elimination of H2 from the Nitrogenase Dihydride State, the E(4)(4H) Janus Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoyanov, Dmitriy; Khadka, Nimesh; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dean, Dennis R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Hoffman, Brian M

    2016-02-03

    We recently demonstrated that N2 reduction by nitrogenase involves the obligatory release of one H2 per N2 reduced. These studies focus on the E4(4H) "Janus intermediate", which has accumulated four reducing equivalents as two [Fe-H-Fe] bridging hydrides. E4(4H) is poised to bind and reduce N2 through reductive elimination (re) of the two hydrides as H2, coupled to the binding/reduction of N2. To obtain atomic-level details of the re activation process, we carried out in situ 450 nm photolysis of E4(4H) in an EPR cavity at temperatures below 20 K. ENDOR and EPR measurements show that photolysis generates a new FeMo-co state, denoted E4(2H)*, through the photoinduced re of the two bridging hydrides of E4(4H) as H2. During cryoannealing at temperatures above 175 K, E4(2H)* reverts to E4(4H) through the oxidative addition (oa) of the H2. The photolysis quantum yield is temperature invariant at liquid helium temperatures and shows a rather large kinetic isotope effect, KIE = 10. These observations imply that photoinduced release of H2 involves a barrier to the combination of the two nascent H atoms, in contrast to a barrierless process for monometallic inorganic complexes, and further suggest that H2 formation involves nuclear tunneling through that barrier. The oa recombination of E4(2H)* with the liberated H2 offers compelling evidence for the Janus intermediate as the point at which H2 is necessarily lost during N2 reduction; this mechanistically coupled loss must be gated by N2 addition that drives the re/oa equilibrium toward reductive elimination of H2 with N2 binding/reduction.

  18. Experimental Durability Testing of 4H SiC JFET Integrated Circuit Technology at 727 Degrees Centigrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liangyu; Chang, Carl W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Beheim, Glenn M.

    2016-01-01

    We have reported SiC integrated circuits (ICs) with two levels of metal interconnect that have demonstrated prolonged operation for thousands of hours at their intended peak ambient operational temperature of 500 degrees Centigrade. However, it is recognized that testing of semiconductor microelectronics at temperatures above their designed operating envelope is vital to qualification. Towards this end, we previously reported operation of a 4H-SiC JFET IC ring oscillator on an initial fast thermal ramp test through 727 degrees Centigrade. However, this thermal ramp was not ended until a peak temperature of 880 degrees Centigrade (well beyond failure) was attained. Further experiments are necessary to better understand failure mechanisms and upper temperature limit of this extreme-temperature capable 4H-SiC IC technology.Here we report on additional experimental testing of custom-packaged 4H-SiC JFET IC devices at temperatures above 500 degrees Centigrade. In one test, the temperature was ramped and then held at 727 degrees Centigrade, and the devices were periodically measured until electrical failure was observed. A 4H-SiC JFET on this chip electrically functioned with little change for around 25 hours at 727 degrees Centigrade before rapid increases in device resistance caused failure. In a second test, devices from our next generation 4H-SiC JFET ICs were ramped up and then held at 700 degrees Centigrade (which is below the maximum deposition temperature of the dielectrics). Three ring oscillators functioned for 8 hours at this temperature before degradation. In a third experiment, an alternative die attach of gold paste and package lid was used, and logic circuit operation was demonstrated for 143.5 hours at 700 degrees Centigrade.

  19. Frequency of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Brazilian HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmazo, Péricles Sidnei; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Shiraishi, Flávio Gobbis; Bazan, Rodrigo; Okoshi, Katashi; Hueb, João Carlos

    2018-04-09

    AIDS as well as atherosclerosis are important public health problems. The longer survival among HIV-infected is associated with increased number of cardiovascular events in this population, and this association is not fully understood. To identify the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients compared to control subjects; to analyze associations between atherosclerosis and clinical and laboratory variables, cardiovascular risk factors, and the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score (FCRS). Prospective cross-sectional case-control study assessing the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in 264 HIV-infected patients and 279 controls. Clinical evaluation included ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries, arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), laboratory analysis of peripheral blood, and cardiovascular risk according to FCRS criteria. The significance level adopted in the statistical analysis was p media thickness was higher in the HIV group than in controls (p media thickness, was not associated with carotid plaque frequency, and did not alter the mechanical characteristics of the arterial system (PWV and AIx). HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of atherosclerosis in association with classical cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment with protease inhibitors does not promote functional changes in the arteries, and shows no association with increased frequency of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries. The FCRS may be inappropriate for this population.

  20. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and neighbourhood deprivation in an urban region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragano, Nico; Hoffmann, Barbara; Stang, Andreas; Moebus, Susanne; Verde, Pablo E.; Weyers, Simone; Moehlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Mann, Klaus; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Siegrist, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Inhabitants of deprived neighbourhoods are at higher risk of coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate the hypothesis that social inequalities at neighbourhood level become already manifest in subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, as defined by electron-beam computed tomography derived measures. Coronary artery calcification was assessed as a marker of atherosclerosis in a population based sample of 4301 men and women (45-75 years) without a history of coronary heart disease. Participants lived in three adjacent cities in Germany and were examined between 2000 and 2003 as part of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Individual level data was combined with neighbourhood level information about unemployment, welfare and living space per inhabitant. This dataset was analysed with descriptive and multilevel regression methods. An association between neighbourhood deprivation and subclinical coronary calcification was observed. After adjustment for age and individual socioeconomic status male inhabitants of high unemployment neighbourhoods had an odds ratio of 1.45 (1.11, 1.96) of exhibiting a high calcification score (>75th percentile) compared to men living in low unemployment areas. The respective odds for women was 1.29 (0.97, 1.70). Additional explorative analyses suggest that clustering of unhealthy lifestyles in deprived neighbourhoods contributes to the observed association. In conclusion, findings suggest that certain neighbourhood characteristics promote the emergence of coronary atherosclerosis. This might point to a pathway from neighbourhood deprivation to manifest coronary heart disease

  1. Outcome of in vitro fertilization in women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, YunYing; Zhong, LanPing; Guan, Jie; Guo, RuiJin; Niu, Ben; Ma, YanPing; Su, Heng

    2017-05-25

    Previous studies examining associations between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome indicate some benefits of levothyroxine (LT4) treatment. But IVF outcomes in treated SCH women whose serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) concentration did and did not exceed 2.5 mIU/L before the IVF cycle has not been studied thoroughly. In this study, we performed a prospective cohort study with 270 treated subclinical hypothyroidism patients undergoing their first IVF retrieval cycle at a single cite. SCH in women receiving LT4 replacement with a basal TSH level between 0.2-2.5mIU/L displayed a similar rate of clinical pregnancy (47.4% vs 38.7%, P = .436), miscarriage (7.4% vs 16.7%, P = .379) and live birth (43.9% vs 32.3%, P = .288) compared to women with a basal TSH level between 2.5-4.2 mIU/L. Strictly controlled TSH (less than 2.5 mIU/L) before IVF may have no effect on the pregnancy rate in LT4 treated SCH women.

  2. The Slime Production by Yeasts Isolated from Subclinical Mastitic Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyla Türkyılmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate yeasts from subclinical mastitic cows and to investigate the slime production by the isolated yeasts. The material used in this study included 339 milk samples from 152 dairy cattle with subclinical mastitis. Milk was plated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Forty-one samples (12.1% of total milk samples were found positive for the yeast by API 20 C AUX identification system. The isolated yeasts were classified into four genera of Candida, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus and Saccharomyces. The Candida species were following: C. krusei, C. kefyr, C. guilliermondii, C. famata, C. rugosa and C. utulis. Other yeasts were identified as Trichosporon mucoides, T. asahii, Cryptococcus laurentii, C.  neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Slime production was tested on Congo red brain heart infusion agar and evaluated according to Congo red phenomenon. Fifteen (36.6% strains were slime factor positive: seven were C. krusei, four C. kefyr, one C. guilliermondii, one C. famata, one T. asahii, and one C. laurentii. The results of the present study indicate that yeast mastitis is significant for causing economic losses and slime production is mostly found in non-albicans Candida species. Therefore, non-albicans Candida species should be examined for slime production.

  3. Does Subclinical Malabsorption of Carbohydrates Prevent Colorectal Cancer? A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Dorcen Bolin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC is high in the western world and low in Asia and Africa. Fibre and starch are thought to be important protective factors, with a strong inverse relationship between starch consumption and CRC incidence. Whether this is true in Asia, particularly, and Africa is debatable. Because rice is the most easily absorbed of carbohydrates, a mechanism whereby there is an increased starch load in the colon in the Asian population needs to be identified. One possible cause is subclinical malabsorption. This is linked to increased mucosal permeability and low gross domestic product (GDP per capita, which reflects poor sanitation and water supplies with increased risk for small bowel bacterial overgrowth leading to mucosal cell damage. A potential cause of the dramatic rise in CRC incidence in Japan may relate to its equally dramatic increase in GDP per capita of 600% over 50 years. This correlation appears to be stronger than with other dietary factors including fruit, vegetables and meat. Worldwide, a close correlation exists among low GDP per capita, low CRC incidence and presumed subclinical malabsorption. All these factors combine to maintain a low incidence of CRC in poorly developed countries.

  4. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  5. Subclinical thyrotoxicosis in an outpatient population - predictors of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Belinda J; Brownlie, Bevan E W; Frampton, Chris M; Turner, John G

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with endogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis (SCT) may subsequently require treatment for overt disease. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of progression to hyperthyroidism and factors influencing this outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of outcome in 96 consecutive patients (aged 16-91 years) diagnosed with SCT over a 6-year period. Individuals with secondary causes of TSH suppression were excluded. Mean follow-up was 3·8 years. The significance of age, gender, family history of thyrotoxicosis, symptoms at presentation, thyroid nodule(s) on clinical examination, entry TSH level, antithyroid antibody status and (99m) Tc pertechnetate thyroid imaging results on subsequent development of overt thyrotoxicosis was assessed. Progression to overt thyrotoxicosis was seen in 8% at 1 year, 16% at 2 years, 21% at 3 years and 26% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis determined that diagnosis as determined by scintiscan to be the only independent predictor of outcome (P = 0·003) with the cumulative percentage requiring therapy at 5 years being 9% for subclinical Graves' disease, 21% for multinodular goitre and 61% for the autonomous nodule subgroup. Progression of SCT to overt hyperthyroidism occurred at a rate of 5-8% per year with disease aetiology, as determined by thyroid scintigraphy, significantly influencing risk of progression. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Design-dependent gauge factors of highly doped n-type 4H-SiC piezoresistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, T; Briand, D; De Rooij, N F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the experimentally obtained gauge factor (GF) of 4H-SiC piezoresistors, fabricated out of the n-type epitaxial layer and characterized on millimeter-size SiC cantilever beams at room temperature. It was found that the GF is dependent on the piezoresistor's length and width. Piezoresistors narrower than approximately 30 µm showed a width-dependent GF. The highest GF of 20.8 was obtained with a single element piezoresistor in transverse orientation. In longitudinal orientation, the highest GF was −10, which was obtained with a clustered piezoresistor with plural identical elements. Essential factors to consider for the design of optimum 4H-SiC piezoresistors for a Wheatstone bridge configuration are presented. (paper)

  8. The 4-H Health Rocks! Program in Florida: Outcomes on Youth Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusami Kumaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.

  9. Suppression of carbon desorption from 4H-SiC by irradiating a remote nitrogen plasma at a low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabayashi, Masaharu; Kurihara, Kazuaki; Sasaki, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    We remotely irradiated a nitrogen plasma onto the carbon-side surface of 4H-SiC at a low temperature, and examined the effect of sample cooling on the characteristics of the nitride layer. An improved nitride layer, which had higher concentrations of carbon and silicon and a lower concentration of oxygen, was formed in the region at depths of more than 0.6–0.9 nm from the top surface. The depth of the fragile nitride layer in the top region, where no improved characteristics of the nitride layer were observed, became smaller with sample cooling. In addition, on the basis of the experimental results, we discussed the difference in the activation energy of the nitriding reaction of 4H-SiC supported by atomic nitrogen and molecular nitrogen in the metastable \\text{A}3Σ \\text{u} + state.

  10. Effect of annealing temperature on the contact properties of Ni/V/4H-SiC structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Chong Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A sandwich structure of Ni/V/4H-SiC was prepared and annealed at different temperatures from 650 °C to 1050 °C. The electrical properties and microstructures were characterized by transmission line method, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A low specific contact resistance of 3.3 × 10-5 Ω·cm2 was obtained when the Ni/V contact was annealed at 1050 °C for 2 min. It was found that the silicide changed from Ni3Si to Ni2Si with increasing annealing temperature, while the vanadium compounds appeared at 950 °C and their concentration increased at higher annealing temperature. A schematic diagram was proposed to explain the ohmic contact mechanism of Ni/V/4H-SiC structure.

  11. Single photon sources in 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Y.; Umeda, T.; Okamoto, M.; Kosugi, R.; Harada, S.; Haruyama, M.; Kada, W.; Hanaizumi, O.; Onoda, S.; Ohshima, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present single photon sources (SPSs) embedded in 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). They are formed in the SiC/SiO2 interface regions of wet-oxidation C-face 4H-SiC MOSFETs and were not found in other C-face and Si-face MOSFETs. Their bright room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) was observed in the range from 550 to 750 nm and revealed variable multi-peak structures as well as variable peak shifts. We characterized a wide variety of their PL spectra as the inevitable variation of local atomic structures at the interface. Their polarization dependence indicates that they are formed at the SiC side of the interface. We also demonstrate that it is possible to switch on/off the SPSs by a bias voltage of the MOSFET.

  12. Modeling of silicon etching in CF sub 4 /O sub 2 and CF sub 4 /H sub 2 plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trachtenberg, I.; Edgar, T.F. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (US)); Venkatesan, S.P. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (US))

    1990-07-01

    A one-dimensional radial flow reactor model that includes fairly detailed free radical gas-phase chemistry has been developed for the etching of silicon in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasmas. Attention has been restricted to transport and reaction of neutral species. The model equations were solved by orthogonal collocation. The sensitivities of the model predictions to flow rate, inlet gas composition, electron density, silicon loading, and other factors have been examined. The major loss path for fluorine atoms is different in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} systems, and this results in significant qualitative differences in the parametric sensitivities of the two systems.

  13. Exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism: effect on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico Moreno, Karol; Paoli de Valeri, Mariela; Odreman, Rodolfo; Núñez, Tulio; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on left ventricular structure and function. Twenty-three patients of both sexes, aged 27 to 70 years, with a diagnosis of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (serum thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] ≤ 0.4mU/ml and normal free thyroxine [FT4]) were evaluated. The patients had been taking levothyroxine in suppressive doses for an average of 6.7 years (1 to 35 years). Twenty euthyroid individuals matched for age, sex and body mass index were selected as controls. A medical history was obtained and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis were quantified in all subjects. To evaluate left ventricular structure and function, as well as atrial conduction time, a two-dimensional echocardiogram and pulsed echo and tissue echo Doppler with electrocardiography monitoring were performed. The index of hemodynamic compensation of the left ventricular mass was calculated. Hyperthyroid symptom scores were significantly higher in patients than in controls (p=0.0001). A positive correlation was found between hyperthyroidism scores and FT4 (p=0.005) and ejection fraction (p=0.04) and a negative correlation was found with TSH levels (p=0.03). End-diastolic volume, stroke volume, cardiac output and stroke work were significantly higher in patients with SH (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.05 and p=0.01, respectively). A positive correlation was found between fractional shortening and FT4 level (p=0.022) and levothyroxine dose (p=0.016) and between stroke work and FT4 level (p=0.034). Left ventricular mass, diastolic function and atrial conduction time were similar in patients and controls. Our study suggests that patients with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism have hemodynamic changes resulting from adaptation to the biological effects of levothyroxine on the cardiovascular system. However, structural changes are not produced. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights

  14. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, David J; Rodondi, Nicolas; Kearney, Patricia M; Ford, Ian; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Mooijaart, Simon P; Sattar, Naveed; Aubert, Carole E; Aujesky, Drahomir; Bauer, Douglas C; Baumgartner, Christine; Blum, Manuel R; Browne, John P; Byrne, Stephen; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Dekkers, Olaf M; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Du Puy, Robert S; Ellis, Graham; Feller, Martin; Floriani, Carmen; Hendry, Kirsty; Hurley, Caroline; Jukema, J Wouter; Kean, Sharon; Kelly, Maria; Krebs, Danielle; Langhorne, Peter; McCarthy, Gemma; McCarthy, Vera; McConnachie, Alex; McDade, Mairi; Messow, Martina; O'Flynn, Annemarie; O'Riordan, David; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E; Quinn, Terence J; Russell, Audrey; Sinnott, Carol; Smit, Jan W A; Van Dorland, H Anette; Walsh, Kieran A; Walsh, Elaine K; Watt, Torquil; Wilson, Robbie; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2017-06-29

    The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older persons with this condition. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving 737 adults who were at least 65 years of age and who had persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin level, 4.60 to 19.99 mIU per liter; free thyroxine level within the reference range). A total of 368 patients were assigned to receive levothyroxine (at a starting dose of 50 μg daily, or 25 μg if the body weight was Hypothyroid Symptoms score and Tiredness score on a thyroid-related quality-of-life questionnaire at 1 year (range of each scale is 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more symptoms or tiredness, respectively; minimum clinically important difference, 9 points). The mean age of the patients was 74.4 years, and 396 patients (53.7%) were women. The mean (±SD) thyrotropin level was 6.40±2.01 mIU per liter at baseline; at 1 year, this level had decreased to 5.48 mIU per liter in the placebo group, as compared with 3.63 mIU per liter in the levothyroxine group (PHypothyroid Symptoms score (0.2±15.3 in the placebo group and 0.2±14.4 in the levothyroxine group; between-group difference, 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.0 to 2.1) or the Tiredness score (3.2±17.7 and 3.8±18.4, respectively; between-group difference, 0.4; 95% CI, -2.1 to 2.9). No beneficial effects of levothyroxine were seen on secondary-outcome measures. There was no significant excess of serious adverse events prespecified as being of special interest. Levothyroxine provided no apparent benefits in older persons with subclinical hypothyroidism. (Funded by European Union FP7 and others; TRUST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01660126 .).

  15. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  17. The diagnostic value of late-night salivary cortisol for diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Idris; Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Demir, Nazan; Aktas, Gokce; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Late-night salivary cortisol is a frequently used and easily implemented diagnostically valuable test for the diagnosis of overt Cushing's syndrome. The use of late-night salivary cortisol in the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome is somewhat controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic value of late-night salivary cortisol in diagnosing subclinical Cushing's syndrome and compare it with 24-hour urinary free cortisol levels (UFC). The study consisted of 33 cases of subclinical Cushing's syndrome, 59 cases of non-functioning adrenal adenoma, and 41 control subjects. Late-night salivary cortisol and UFC were measured in all the cases. The diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome was based on combined results of 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test > 1.8 μg/dL and ACTH Cushing's syndrome were significantly higher than in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma and the control group (p Cushing's syndrome were determined as 82% and 60%, respectively. Using a cut-off value of 137 μg/day, the sensitivity and specificity of UFC was determined as 18% and 90%, respectively. Because the sensitivity of late-night salivary cortisol for the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome is limited, using it as the sole screening test for subclinical Cushing's syndrome may lead to false negative results. However, using it as an adjunct test to other tests may be beneficial in the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 487-492).

  18. Transmission electron microscopy studies of C3N4H4 treated at high pressure and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, R C; Chen, L C; Zhu, J L; Li, F Y; Liu, Z X; Qin, Z C; Yu, T N; Jin, C Q; Duan, X F; Zhang, Z

    2002-01-01

    C 3 N 4 H 4 was treated at 6.0 GPa and 1500 deg C for 2.5 min. Powder x-ray measurement shows that the sample is decomposed and a hexagonal graphite phase forms. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that small amounts of diamond and amorphous carbon phase coexist with the graphite phase. Parallel electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis was also carried out for these phases

  19. The MgSeO4-UO2SeO4-H2O system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.; Serezhkin, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The method of isothermal solubility at 25 deg C has been used to study MgSeO 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O system. Formation of the new compound Mg 2 (UO 2 ) 3 (SeO 4 ) 5 X32H 2 O, congruently soluble in water is stated. Thermographic and X-ray diffraction investigations of the prepared magnesium selenato-uranylate and products of its dehydration are conducted

  20. Designing 4H-SiC P-shielding trench gate MOSFET to optimize on-off electrical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoung, Sinsu; Hong, Young-sung; Lee, Myung-hwan; Nam, Tae-jin

    2018-02-01

    In order to enhance specific on-resistance (Ron,sp), the trench gate structure was also introduced into 4H-SiC MOSFET as Si MOSFET. But the 4H-SiC trench gate has worse off-state characteristics than the Si trench gate due to the incomplete gate oxidation process (Šimonka et al., 2017). In order to overcome this problem, P-shielding trench gate MOSFET (TMOS) was proposed and researched in previous studies. But P-shielding has to be designed with minimum design rule in order to protect gate oxide effectively. P-shielding TMOS also has the drawback of on-state characteristics degradation corresponding to off state improvement for minimum design rule. Therefore optimized design is needed to satisfy both on and off characteristics. In this paper, the design parameters were analyzed and optimized so that the 4H-SiC P-shielding TMOS satisfies both on and off characteristics. Design limitations were proposed such that P-shielding is able to defend the gate oxide. The P-shielding layer should have the proper junction depth and concentration to defend the electric field to gate oxide during the off-state. However, overmuch P-shielding junction depth disturbs the on-state current flow, a problem which can be solved by increasing the trench depth. As trench depth increases, however, the breakdown voltage decreases. Therefore, trench depth should be designed with due consideration for on-off characteristics. For this, design conditions and modeling were proposed which allow P-shielding to operate without degradation of on-state characteristics. Based on this proposed model, the 1200 V 4H-SiC P-shielding trench gate MOSFET was designed and optimized.

  1. Intervention pursuant to article 4(h) of the Constitutive Act of the African Union without United Nations Security Council authorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Amvane, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Article 4(h) of the Constitutive Act of the African Union (AU) establishes the right of the Union to intervene in a member state to prevent grave violations of human rights. It does not state whether the AU should request prior authorisation from the United Nations (UN) Security Council, leading to many interpretations. Many articles were written on this issue at a time when the AU and the Security Council were not in confrontation. However, the situation has changed since the controversy ove...

  2. Preparing Teens for Success: Building 21st Century Skills through a 4-H Work-Based Learning Program

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa M. Ferrari; Nate Arnett; Graham Cochran

    2008-01-01

    There is widespread concern that youth lack the skills essential for job success and are entering the workplace unprepared. To address issues of workforce preparation, Extension educators at an urban 4-H education center created the Job Experience and Training (JET) program, a work-based learning program for teens. JET is conducted over a six-month period, culminating in an eight-week summer work experience in collaboration with a local park district. Supervisors and teens completed a perform...

  3. Pressure-induced change in the Raman spectra of ionic liquid [DEME][BF4]-H2O mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Y; Abe, H; Goto, T; Miyashita, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have measured Raman spectral changes of N,N,diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate, [DEME][BF 4 ]-H 2 O mixtures under high pressure. All the Raman spectra of mixtures of water concentrations below 50.0 mol% H 2 O changed at around 1 GPa at room temperature. The spectrum at high pressure is completely different from that obtained by cooling the sample at a normal pressure.

  4. Reaction mechanisms at 4H-SiC/SiO2 interface during wet SiC oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Toru; Hori, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori; Kageshima, Hiroyuki; Uematsu, Masashi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    The reaction processes at the interface between SiC with 4H structure (4H-SiC) and SiO2 during wet oxidation are investigated by electronic structure calculations within the density functional theory. Our calculations for 4H-SiC/SiO2 interfaces with various orientations demonstrate characteristic features of the reaction depending on the crystal orientation of SiC: On the Si-face, the H2O molecule is stable in SiO2 and hardly reacts with the SiC substrate, while the O atom of H2O can form Si-O bonds at the C-face interface. Two OH groups are found to be at least necessary for forming new Si-O bonds at the Si-face interface, indicating that the oxidation rate on the Si-face is very low compared with that on the C-face. On the other hand, both the H2O molecule and the OH group are incorporated into the C-face interface, and the energy barrier for OH is similar to that for H2O. By comparing the calculated energy barriers for these reactants with the activation energies of oxide growth rate, we suggest the orientation-dependent rate-limiting processes during wet SiC oxidation.

  5. Crystal phase-based epitaxial growth of hybrid noble metal nanostructures on 4H/fcc Au nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qipeng; Wang, An-Liang; Gong, Yue; Hao, Wei; Cheng, Hongfei; Chen, Junze; Li, Bing; Yang, Nailiang; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yifu; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Ye; Fan, Zhanxi; Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Jinping; Luo, Jun; Li, Shuzhou; Gu, Lin; Zhang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    Crystal-phase engineering offers opportunities for the rational design and synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials with unusual crystal phases that normally do not exist in bulk materials. However, it remains a challenge to use these materials as seeds to construct heterometallic nanostructures with desired crystal phases and morphologies for promising applications such as catalysis. Here, we report a strategy for the synthesis of binary and ternary hybrid noble metal nanostructures. Our synthesized crystal-phase heterostructured 4H/fcc Au nanowires enable the epitaxial growth of Ru nanorods on the 4H phase and fcc-twin boundary in Au nanowires, resulting in hybrid Au-Ru nanowires. Moreover, the method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Rh, Ru-Rh and Ru-Pt nanorods on the 4H/fcc Au nanowires to form unique hybrid nanowires. Importantly, the Au-Ru hybrid nanowires with tunable compositions exhibit excellent electrocatalytic performance towards the hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline media.

  6. Structural and optical modification in 4H-SiC following 30 keV silver ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Priya Darshni; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yakimova, Rositsa; Yazdi, G. Reza

    2018-05-01

    The market of high power, high frequency and high temperature based electronic devices is captured by SiC due to its superior properties like high thermal conductivity and high sublimation temperature and also due to the limitation of silicon based electronics in this area. There is a need to investigate effect of ion irradiation on SiC due to its application in outer space as outer space is surrounded both by low and high energy ion irradiations. In this work, effect of low energy ion irradiation on structural and optical property of 4H-SiC is investigated. ATR-FTIR is used to study structural modification and UV-Visible spectroscopy is used to study optical modifications in 4H-SiC following 30 keV Ag ion irradiation. FTIR showed decrease in bond density of SiC along the ion path (track) due to the creation of point defects. UV-Visible absorption spectra showed decrease in optical band gap from 3.26 eV to 2.9 eV. The study showed degradation of SiC crystallity and change in optical band gap following low energy ion irradiation and should be addressed while fabricationg devices based on SiC for outer space application. Additionally, this study provides a platform for introducing structural and optical modification in 4H-SiC using ion beam technology in a controlled manner.

  7. The thermal neutron detection using 4H-SiC detectors with 6LiF conversion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatko, B.; Bohacek, P.; Sekacova, M.; Arbet, J.; Sagatova, A.; Necas, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we have examined 4H-SiC detector using a thermal neutron source and studied its detection properties. The detector was exposed to neutrons generated by 238 Pu-Be radiation source. The detection properties of 4H-SiC detectors were evaluated considering the use of the 6 LiF conversion. We prepared 4H-SiC Schottky contact detectors based on high-quality of epitaxial layer. The current-voltage characteristic show operating region between 100 V and 400 V. The detector was connected to the spectrometric set-up and used for detection of alpha particles from 241 Am. Following the 6 LiF conversion layer was applied on the Schottky contact of detector and the detection of thermal neutrons was performed. We are able to resolve alpha particles and tritons which are products of nuclear reaction between thermal neutrons and conversion layer. Also bare detector was used for neutron detection to clearly show significant influence of the used conversion layer.(authors)

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive function in people over 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Jansen, Steffy W; van Bodegom, David

    2015-01-01

    from the 15 studies was pooled, and meta-analyzed cross-sectionally for global cognition [assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)], executive function, and memory, using random effects models. Pooled effect size (ES) for MMSE was -0.01 (95% CI -0.09, 0.08), with heterogeneity (I (2)) of 55......Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal thyroid hormone levels, and cognitive impairment are both common in older people. While the relation between overt hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment is well established, data on the association...... between SCH and cognitive impairment are conflicting. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess available evidence on the association of SCH with cognition in community dwelling, relatively healthy older adults. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, COCHRANE, CINAHL, Psyc...

  9. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, David J.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Kearney, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    737 adults who were at least 65 years of age and who had persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin level, 4.60 to 19.99 mIU per liter; free thyroxine level within the reference range). A total of 368 patients were assigned to receive levothyroxine (at a starting dose of 50 μg daily, or 25 μg......) thyrotropin level was 6.40±2.01 mIU per liter at baseline; at 1 year,this level had decreased to 5.48 mIU per liter in the placebo group, as compared with3.63 mIU per liter in the levothyroxine group (P

  10. Functional capacity and muscular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuters, Vaneska S; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima S; Vigário, Patrícia S; Almeida, Cloyra P; Buescu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Márcia M; de Castro, Carmen L N; Gold, Jaime; Vaisman, Mario

    2009-10-01

    Neuromuscular abnormalities and low exercise tolerance are frequently observed in overt hypothyroidism, but it remains controversial if they can also occur in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). The aim of this study is to evaluate neuromuscular symptoms, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in sHT, compared with healthy euthyroid individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed with 44 sHT and 24 euthyroid outpatients from a university hospital. Neuromuscular symptoms were questioned. Muscle strength was tested for neck, shoulder, arm, and hip muscle groups, using manual muscle testing (MMT). Quadriceps muscle strength was tested with a chair dynamometer and inspiratory muscle strength (IS) by a manuvacuometer. Functional capacity was estimated based on the peak of oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min), using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Cramps (54.8% versus 25.0%; P muscle strength by MMT and the coexistence of neuromuscular complaints in patients with sHT may indicate neuromuscular dysfunction.

  11. Subclinical hypothyroidism in danish lean and obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2017-01-01

    : The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (p... developmental stage, whereas fasting serum fT4 concentrations were associated positively only with WHtR. The odds ratio of exhibiting SH was 1.8 when being overweight/obese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). Conclusion: The prevalence of SH was higher among......Objective: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children...

  12. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kr. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  13. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular risk: recommendations for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Christopher; Davila, Maria I; Bhat, Mallika; Frishman, William H; Weiss, Irene A

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHy), the mildest form of hyperthyroidism, is diagnosed in patients having a persistently low or undetectable serum concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal free T4 and T3 concentrations. Although overt hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, the cardiovascular risk of SHy is controversial. Multiple studies have demonstrated an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, especially in older individuals with TSH levels effects of SHy on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are not clear, but recent meta-analyses suggest a modest increase in mortality, with the risk increasing with age and associated with the lowest TSH levels. The long-term consequences of SHy in young- and middle-aged adults, and in those with TSH levels are mildly low, are uncertain. For these reasons, guidelines for treatment are based on patient age, the degree of TSH suppression, symptoms consistent with hyperthyroidism, and overall cardiovascular and osteoporotic fracture risks.

  14. Test-day records as a tool for subclinical ketosis detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gantner Vesna; Potočnik K.; Jovanovac Sonja

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence, as well as the effect of subclinical ketosis on daily milk yield, was observed using 1.299,630 test-day records collected from January 2000 to December 2005 on 73,255 Slovenian Holstein cows. Subclinical ketosis was indicated by the fat to protein ratio (F/P ratio) higher than 1.5 in cows that yielded between 33 to 50 kg of milk per day (Eicher, 2004). The ketosis index was defined in relation to the timing of subclinical ketosis detection to the subsequent measures of test-da...

  15. Reproductive Hormones and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Bhasin, Shalender; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas Mitchell, Emma; Matthews, Karen A; Jasuja, Ravi; Santoro, Nanette

    2018-05-18

    Reproductive hormones are understood to be important to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. However, standard estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) assays lack sensitivity at the levels of postmenopausal women. Investigate relations of mass spectrometry-assessed estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and subclinical CVD in women. 304 peri- and postmenopausal women, aged 40-60 years, and free of clinical CVD underwent subclinical CVD measurements. E1, E2, and T were assayed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; Free T (FT) was estimated using ensemble allostery models. Associations between hormones and outcomes were analyzed using regression models adjusting for CVD risk factors. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT), inter-adventitial diameter (IAD), plaque; brachial flow mediated dilation (FMD). Higher E1 was related to higher FMD [b(SE)=.77(.37), p=.04], indicating better endothelial function. Higher E2 was related to lower IAD [b(SE)=-.07(.02), p=.004], indicating less carotid remodeling. Higher SHBG was related to higher FMD [b(SE)=1.31(.40), p=.001], yet higher IAD [b(SE)=.15(.06), p=.02] and carotid plaque [OR (95%CI)=1.84(1.16-2.91), p=.009]. Higher FT was associated with lower FMD [b(SE)=-1.58(.52), p=.003], yet lower IAD [b(SE)=-.19(.08), p=.01] and carotid plaque [OR(95%CI)=.49(.28-.88), p=.02]. Thus, higher SHBG and lower FT was associated with better endothelial function, yet greater carotid remodeling and plaque. Endogenous E1 levels were related to endothelial function and E2 to vascular remodeling, suggesting distinct roles of these estrogens. SHBG and free testosterone have a complex role and depend on the vessel under study.

  16. Personality traits in subclinical and non-obsessive-compulsive volunteers and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R O; Steketee, G; Cohn, L; Griess, K

    1994-01-01

    Theorists from a variety of perspectives have asserted that obsessive compulsives are more risk-aversive, perfectionistic and guilt-ridden than non-obsessive compulsives, and that these characteristics are central features of the disorder. Furthermore, several have hypothesized that the parents of obsessive compulsives are characterized by risk-aversion, perfectionism, and high levels of criticism. Little research exists which corroborates these hypotheses, however. The present investigation examined these hypotheses among subclinical obsessive compulsives. In two different samples, subclinical obsessive compulsives were found to be more risk-aversive, perfectionistic, and guilt-ridden. Subclinical obsessive compulsives also perceived their parents to be more overprotective. The findings regarding other parental traits were less clear. There was some support for the hypothesis that the parents of subclinical obsessive compulsives are more risk-aversive, and that fathers are more critical and perfectionistic.

  17. Factors of health in the protection against death and cardiovascular disease among adults with subclinical atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention traditionally emphasizes risk-factor control, recent evidence also supports the promotion of "health-factors" associated with cardiovascular wellness. However, whether such health-factors exist among adults with advanced subclinical atherosclerosis is un...

  18. Subclinical myocardial dysfunction by tissue Doppler echocardiography in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcila Fontes de Lima Gomes Lucena

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated subclinical myocardial dysfunction using TDI in asymptomatic PAPS patients. TDI is non-invasive and cost effective. Prospective studies including a large number of participants in order to confirm these preliminary data are needed.

  19. Acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2012-04-05

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with coronary heart disease or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Nowadays, there is growing interest regarding endogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses in a 75-year-old Italian woman with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke : An Individual Participant Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Blum, Manuel R.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Drechsler, Christiane; Luben, Robert N.; Hofman, Albert; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Medici, Marco; Iervasi, Giorgio; Stott, David J.; Ford, Ian; Bremner, Alexandra; Wanner, Christoph; Ferrucci, Luigi; Newman, Anne B.; Dullaart, Robin P.; Sgarbi, Jose A.; Ceresini, Graziano; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Imaizumi, Misa; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Walsh, John P.; Razvi, Salman; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cappola, Anne R.; Voelzke, Henry; Franco, Oscar H.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Rodondi, Nicolas; Peeters, Robin P.

    Objective: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Data Sources and Study Selection: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished

  1. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Halasa, T.; Schaik, van G.; Hogeveen, H.; Nielen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics of

  2. The 2015 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Endogenous Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Bartalena, Luigi; Cooper, David S

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) is caused by Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and multinodular goitre. Its diagnosis is based on a persistently subnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroid hormone levels within their respective...

  3. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Stroke Events and Fatal Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaker, Layal; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the risk of stroke associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Published prospective cohort studies were identified through a systematic search through November 2013 without restrictions in several databases. Unpublished...... studies were identified through the Thyroid Studies Collaboration. We collected individual participant data on thyroid function and stroke outcome. Euthyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 0.45-4.49 mIU/L, and subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as TSH levels of 4.5-19.9 mIU/L with normal T4 levels....... DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We collected individual participant data on 47 573 adults (3451 subclinical hypothyroidism) from 17 cohorts and followed up from 1972-2014 (489 192 person-years). Age- and sex-adjusted pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for participants with subclinical hypothyroidism compared...

  4. A Genomic Analysis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Hippocampus and Neocortex of the Developing Brain -- JN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the early postnatal period has severe neurological consequences for the developing offspring. The impact of milder degrees of perturbation of the thyroid axis, typically considered subclinical, however, has not been established. Thyroid hormo...

  5. Associations between life stress and subclinical cardiovascular disease are partly mediated by depressive and anxiety symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Stress experienced during childhood or adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not clear whether associations are already prevalent on a subclinical cardiovascular level. This study investigates associations between indicators of life stress and

  6. Premature subclinical atherosclerosis in children and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anna-Helene; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C; Karup Pedersen, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show that Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is associated with early subclinical signs of atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation per se may be an important driver but other known risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin insensitivity, a physically inactive lifestyle...

  7. Structure, ferroelectric ordering, and semiempirical quantum calculations of lanthanide based metal-organic framework: [Nd(C4H5O6)(C4H4O6)][3H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bhat Zahoor; Want, Basharat

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the structure and ferroelectric behavior of a lanthanide based metal-organic framework (MOF), [Nd(C4H5O6)(C4H4O6)][3H2O]. X-ray crystal structure analyses reveal that it crystallizes in the P41212 space group with Nd centres, coordinated by nine oxygen atoms, forming a distorted capped square antiprismatic geometry. The molecules, bridged by tartrate ligands, form a 2D chiral structure. The 2D sheets are further linked into a 3D porous framework via strong hydrogen-bonding scheme (O-H…O ≈ 2.113 Å). Dielectric studies reveal two anomalies at 295 K and 185 K. The former is a paraelectric-ferroelectric transition, and the later is attributed to the freezing down of the motion of the hydroxyl groups. The phase transition is of second order, and the spontaneous polarization in low temperature phase is attributed to the ordering of protons of hydroxyl groups. The dielectric nonlinearity parameters have been calculated using Landau- Devonshire phenomenological theory. In addition, the most recent semiempirical models, Sparkle/PM7, Sparkle/RM1, and Sparkle/AM1, are tested on the present system to assay the accuracy of semiempirical quantum approaches to predict the geometries of solid MOFs. Our results show that Sparkle/PM7 model is the most accurate to predict the unit cell structure and coordination polyhedron geometry. The semiempirical methods are also used to calculate different ground state molecular properties.

  8. Characterization technique for inhomogeneous 4H-SiC Schottky contacts: A practical model for high temperature behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezeanu, G.; Pristavu, G.; Draghici, F.; Badila, M.; Pascu, R.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a characterization technique for 4H-SiC Schottky diodes with varying levels of metal-semiconductor contact inhomogeneity is proposed. A macro-model, suitable for high-temperature evaluation of SiC Schottky contacts, with discrete barrier height non-uniformity, is introduced in order to determine the temperature interval and bias domain where electrical behavior of the devices can be described by the thermionic emission theory (has a quasi-ideal performance). A minimal set of parameters, the effective barrier height and peff, the non-uniformity factor, is associated. Model-extracted parameters are discussed in comparison with literature-reported results based on existing inhomogeneity approaches, in terms of complexity and physical relevance. Special consideration was given to models based on a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights on the contact surface. The proposed methodology is validated by electrical characterization of nickel silicide Schottky contacts on silicon carbide (4H-SiC), where a discrete barrier distribution can be considered. The same method is applied to inhomogeneous Pt/4H-SiC contacts. The forward characteristics measured at different temperatures are accurately reproduced using this inhomogeneous barrier model. A quasi-ideal behavior is identified for intervals spanning 200 °C for all measured Schottky samples, with Ni and Pt contact metals. A predictable exponential current-voltage variation over at least 2 orders of magnitude is also proven, with a stable barrier height and effective area for temperatures up to 400 °C. This application-oriented characterization technique is confirmed by using model parameters to fit a SiC-Schottky high temperature sensor's response.

  9. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Ruscitti

    Full Text Available Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis.We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis.We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS, at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis.Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  10. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Olmos, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Antônio-Carlos; Penalva, Daniele Queirós Fucciolo; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Benseñor, Isabela Martins

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP). All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (free-T4) and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01). There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l) did not change the results. In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  11. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diaz-Olmos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP. METHODS: All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free-T4 and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO. RESULTS: The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01. There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l did not change the results. CONCLUSION: In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  12. [POSSIBLE CAUSES OF INEFFICIENT MONOTHERAPY OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM WITH L-THYROXIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnevsky, A V; Kravchenko, A Ya; Drobysheva, E S; Fes'kova, A A

    2015-01-01

    Substitution therapy with L-thyroxin was recognized in 2012 to be the method of choice for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism. However it does not always allow to achieve normalization of all metabolic parameters. The aim of our work was to search for and analyze data on the possible mechanisms responsible for the failure of replacement hormonal therapy with L-thyroxin with a view to changing the therapeutic strategy for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

  13. Subclinical nephritic syndrome in children cohabiting with pediatric patients, Presenting acute nephritic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Tinoco Gustavo Adolfo; Julio-Barrios Emil

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: subclinical nephritic syndrome is the presence of hematuria, hypocomplementemiaand/or proteinuria without the presence of signs and/or symptoms.Objective: to determine the incidence of subclinical nephritic syndrome in childrenliving with pediatric patients diagnosed with acute nephritic syndrome.Methods: family visit to identify children living together in the two previous months, with pediatric patients hospitalized with acute nephritic syndrome, at Hospital InfantilNapoleon F...

  14. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis in a Patient with Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: A Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Swati; Shaikh, Mohammed Aslam; Gummadi, Thejaswi

    2016-01-01

    Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis (TPP) is an uncommon disorder. Though many cases of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis are reported in overt hyperthyroidism, hypokalaemic paralysis in subclinical hyperthyroidism is very rare. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by circulating TSH levels below reference range and normal thyroid hormone levels. We describe a case of 32-year-old Asian male who presented to the emergency department with acute onset weakness and hypokalaemia with no previous h...

  15. Concurrent and Sustained Cumulative Effects of Adolescent Marijuana Use on Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Hipwell, Alison; Lewis, David A; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents who regularly use marijuana may be at heightened risk of developing subclinical and clinical psychotic symptoms. However, this association could be explained by reverse causation or other factors. To address these limitations, the current study examined whether adolescents who engage in regular marijuana use exhibit a systematic increase in subclinical psychotic symptoms that persists during periods of sustained abstinence. The sample comprised 1,009 boys who were recruited in 1st and 7th grades. Self-reported frequency of marijuana use, subclinical psychotic symptoms, and several time-varying confounds (e.g., other substance use, internalizing/externalizing problems) were recorded annually from age 13 to 18. Fixed-effects (within-individual change) models examined whether adolescents exhibited an increase in their subclinical psychotic symptoms as a function of their recent and/or cumulative history of regular marijuana use and whether these effects were sustained following abstinence. Models controlled for all time-stable factors (default) and several time-varying covariates as potential confounds. For each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their expected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms rose by 21% and their expected odds of experiencing subsequent subclinical paranoia or hallucinations rose by 133% and 92%, respectively. The effect of prior regular marijuana use on subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms persisted even when adolescents stopped using marijuana for a year. These effects were after controlling for all time-stable and several time-varying confounds. No support was found for reverse causation. These results suggest that regular marijuana use may significantly increase the risk that an adolescent will experience persistent subclinical psychotic symptoms.

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansournia, N; Riyahi, S; Tofangchiha, S; Mansournia, M A; Riahi, M; Heidari, Z; Hazrati, E

    2017-03-01

    Association of subclinical hypothyroidism with type 2 diabetes and its complications has been previously documented. These reports were, however, inconclusive and mainly gathered from Chinese and East Asian populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its relationship with diabetic nephropathy in Iranian individuals with type 2 diabetes, drawn from a white Middle Eastern population with an increasing prevalence of diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 255 Iranian participants with type 2 diabetes and without history of thyroid disorders were included. Patients with TSH > 4.2 mIU/L and normal T4 were classified as having subclinical hypothyroidism. Diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed based on abnormal 24-h urinary albumin or protein measurements (24-h urinary albumin ≥30 mg/day or 24-h urinary protein ≥150 mg/day). Multivariate logistic regression was employed to obtain the OR for the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy. We found that subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy were as prevalent as 18.1 and 41.2 %, respectively, among the participants. We also found that subclinical hypothyroidism was independently associated with higher rates of diabetic nephropathy, after multivariable adjustment (OR [95 % CI] 3.23 [1.42-7.37], p = 0.005). We found that the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in Iranian diabetic population was among the highest rates reported to date. Our data supported the independent association of subclinical hypothyroidism with diabetic nephropathy, calling for further investigations to evaluate their longitudinal associations.

  17. Autonomic nervous system function in chronic exogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis and the effect of restoring euthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustatia-Rutten, Carmen F A; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Heemstra, Karen A; Smit, Johannes W A; Schoemaker, Rik C; Romijn, Johannes A; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and subclinical hyperthyroidism is mainly based upon cross-sectional studies in heterogeneous patient populations, and the effect of restoration to euthyroidism in subclinical hyperthyroidism has not been studied. We investigated the long-term effects of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on the autonomic nervous system and the potential effects of restoration of euthyroidism. This was a prospective single-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The study was performed at a university hospital. A total of 25 patients who were on more than 10-yr TSH suppressive therapy after thyroidectomy was examined. Patients were studied at baseline and subsequently randomized to a 6-month thyroid hormone substitution regimen to obtain either euthyroidism or maintenance of the subclinical hyperthyroid state. Urinary excretion of catecholamines and heart rate variability were measured. Baseline data of the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients were compared with data obtained in patients with hyperthyroidism and controls. Urinary excretion of norepinephrine and vanillylmandelic acid was higher in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients compared with controls and lower compared with patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Heart rate variability was lower in patients with hyperthyroidism, intermediate in subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, and highest in the healthy controls. No differences were observed after restoration of euthyroidism. Long-term exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has effects on the autonomic nervous system measured by heart rate variability and urinary catecholamine excretion. No differences were observed after restoration to euthyroidism. This may indicate the occurrence of irreversible changes or adaptation during long-term exposure to excess thyroid hormone that is not remedied by 6-month euthyroidism.

  18. Actoprotective properties of 7'-((3-thio-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylmethyltheophylline derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gotsulya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the study of actoprotective activity of compounds, which combine sintons of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and theophylline. Materials and methods. The first time synthesized 7'-((3-thio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylmethyltheophylline derivatives have been used for the research. The systemic toxicity and the acute toxicity of the studied compounds have been performed by the rapid method of Prozorovskiy to determine the optimal conditions for dispensing substances. Experiments have been conducted on a group of white nonlinear rats, 159–221 g weight. During the study of actoprotective activity the method of forced immersion in water with a load of 10% by weight of the rats has been used. The substances were administered at a dose 1/10 of LD50, and the reference drug «Riboxin» at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The swim time was recorded in seconds. The control group of animals was used for comparison; these animals received saline solution intraperitoneally 20 minutes before immersion. The obtained results were statistically processed using the standard software package of Microsoft Office 2007 and «STATISTICA@ for Windows 6.0». Results. According to the results of conducted researches it has been established that the most active compound among the studied was 7'-((5-(2-hydroxyethylthio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylmethyltheophylline, which increased the duration of swimming by 14.31% comparing to control group, whereas the reference drug increased it by 20.57%. It has been established that 2-((5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio-N'-(3,4-difluorobenzylideneacetohydrazide also increases the duration of swimming. Conclusion. The study of actoprotective activity of 13 first time synthesized compounds has been conducted. 7'-((5-(2-Hydroxyethylthio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylmethyltheophylline has been detected as the most active compound among the studied ones.

  19. Nuclear radiation detector based on ion implanted p-n junction in 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervisch, V.; Issa, F.; Ottaviani, L.; Lazar, M.; Kuznetsov, A.; Szalkai, D.; Klix, A.; Lyoussi, A.; Vermeeren, L.; Hallen, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new device detector based on ion implanted p-n junction in 4H-SiC for nuclear instrumentation. We showed the interest to use 10 Boron as a Neutron Converter Layer in order to detect thermal neutrons. We present the main results obtained during irradiation tests performed in the Belgian Reactor 1. We show the capability of our detector by means of first results of the detector response at different reverse voltage biases and at different reactor power (authors)

  20. Effect of 3.0 MeV helium implantation on electrical characteristics of 4H-SiC BJTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Hallen, Anders; Ghandi, Reza; Domeij, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of 4H-SiC power bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) under the influence of a high-energy helium ion beam was studied. Epitaxially grown npn BJTs were implanted with 3.0 MeV helium in the fluence range of 10 10 -10 11 cm -2 . The devices were characterized by their current-voltage (I-V) behaviour before and after the implantation, and the results showed a clear degradation of the output characteristics of the devices. Annealing these implanted devices increased the interface traps between passivation oxide and the semiconductor, resulting in an increase of base current in the low-voltage operation range.

  1. Impact of optical phonon scattering on inversion channel mobility in 4H-SiC trenched MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, Katsuhiro; Kawaji, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Onishi, Toru; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Kensaku; Yamamoto, Toshimasa

    2017-04-01

    Temperature characteristics of the channel mobility were investigated for 4H-SiC trenched MOSFETs in the range from 30 to 200 °C. The conventional model of channel mobility limited by carrier scattering is based on Si-MOSFETs and shows a greatly different channel mobility from the experimental value, especially at high temperatures. On the other hand, our improved mobility model taking into account optical phonon scattering yielded results in excellent agreement with experimental results. Moreover, the major factors limiting the channel mobility were found to be Coulomb scattering in a low effective field (<0.7 MV/cm) and optical phonon scattering in a high effective field.

  2. Short-Circuit Characterization of 10 kV 10A 4H-SiC MOSFET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    The short-circuit capability of a power device is highly relevant for converter design and fault protection. In this paper a 10kV 10A 4H-SiC MOSFET is characterized and its short circuit withstand capability is studied and analyzed at 6 kV DC-link voltage. The test setup for this study is also...... introduced as its design, especially the inductance in the switching loop, can affect the experimental results. The study aims to present insights specific to the device which are different from that of silicon (Si) based devices. During the short-circuit operation, MOSFET saturation current, ID...

  3. Ultrasound mediated, iodine catalyzed green synthesis of novel 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Sumaiya; Govindaraju, Santhosh; Khan, Riyaz-ur-Rahaman; Pasha, Mohamed Afzal

    2015-05-01

    An efficient synthesis of a novel series of twelve substituted 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran derivatives was achieved by a one-pot three-component cyclocondensation reaction of heteroaryl aldehydes, malononitrile and active methylene compounds catalyzed by iodine in aqueous medium under ultrasound irradiation. In comparison with conventional methods, our protocol is convenient and offers several advantages, such as shorter reaction time, higher yields, milder conditions and environmental friendliness. We have herein successfully demonstrated the synergistic outcome of multi-component reaction (MCR) and sonication to offer a facile route for the design of these derivatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NH4In(SeO4)2x4H2O crystal structure interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatov, E.A.; Kuz'min, Eh.A.; Ilyukhin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The rhomb method has been applied to interpret the structure of monoclinic ammonium indium selenate NH 4 In(SeO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O the elementary cell of which contains Z=4 formula units (a=10.728, b=9.434, c=11.086 A, γ=101.58). The space group is P2 1 /b. The structure foundation is composed of [In(SeO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O] 1- mixed layers parallel to (100). ''Free'' H 2 O molecules and NH 4 + cations are situated between the layers

  5. Proteomics of inflammatory and oxidative stress response in cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Romana; Piras, Cristian; Kovačić, Mislav; Samardžija, Marko; Ahmed, Hany; De Canio, Michele; Urbani, Andrea; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Soggiu, Alessio; Bonizzi, Luigi; Roncada, Paola

    2012-07-19

    Cow serum proteome was evaluated by three different complementary approaches in the control group, subclinical and clinical mastitis in order to possibly find differential protein expression useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of mastitis as well as for an early diagnosis of the disease. The systemic inflammatory and oxidative stress response in cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were observed. The collected evidence shows a differential protein expression of serpin A3-1, vitronectin-like protein and complement factor H in subclinical mastitis in comparison with the control. It was also found a differential protein expression of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, serpin A3-1, C4b-binding protein alpha chain, haptoglobin and apolipoprotein A-I in clinical mastitis compared to the control. Among the inflammatory proteins up-regulated in clinical mastitis, vitronectin is over-expressed in both subclinical and clinical mastitis indicating a strong bacterial infection. This suggests vitronectin as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of the onset of mastitis as well as a valuable marker for diagnosis of the subclinical form of the disease. Obtained data could be useful for the detection of mastitis during the subclinical phase and for a better comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the onset of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stochastic modelling to assess economic effects of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, Wilma; Swinkels, Jantijn; Hogeveen, Henk

    2007-11-01

    Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model included the probability of cure after treatment, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, transmission of infection to other cows, and physiological effects of the infection. Using basic input parameters for Dutch circumstances, the average economic costs per cow of an untreated chronic subclinical mastitis case caused by Str. uberis in a single quarter from day of diagnosis onwards was euro109. With treatment, the average costs were higher (euro120). Thus, for the average cow, treatment was not efficient economically. However, the risk of high costs was much higher when cows with chronic subclinical mastitis were not treated. A sensitivity analysis showed that profitability of treatment of chronic subclinical Str. uberis mastitis depended on farm-specific factors (such as economic value of discarded milk) and cow-specific factors (such as day of diagnosis, duration of infection, amount of transmission to other cows and cure rate). Therefore, herd level protocols are not sufficient and decision support should be cow specific. Given the importance of cow-specific factors, information from the current model could be applied to automatic decision support systems.

  7. Atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism and erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-11-05

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that sub-clinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with CHD or mortality from cardiovascular causes but is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Moreover increased factor X activity in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism represents a potential hypercoagulable state. It has been also reported an acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries associated with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and with a myocardial bridge too. It has been also reported an acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Furthermore it has been reported that at highly increased hematocrit levels patients may experience hyperviscosity symptoms. We present a case of atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism and erythrocytosis. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-Autoimmune Subclinical and Overt Hypothyroidism in Idiopathic Steroid-resistant Nephrotic Syndrome in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Vidhya; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Rajappa, Medha

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the frequency of non-autoimmune subclinical and overt hypothyroidism in children with idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). This cross-sectional study recruited 30 children (age 1-18 y) with idiopathic SRNS; and 30 healthy controls. Serum T3, T4 and TSH were performed in cases as well as controls. Anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibody tests were performed in all cases. Non-autoimmune subclinical or overt hypothyroidism was detected in 10 out of 30 children with idiopathic SRNS; 2 had overt hypothyroidism, while 8 patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with SRNS had a mean (SD) TSH value 4.55 (4.64) mIU/L that was higher as compared to controls (1.88 (1.04) mIU/L) (Phypothyroidism (2 cases) and grade III subclinical hypothyroidism (1 case) were subsequently started on levothyroxine therapy. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism seems to be high in idiopathic SRNS, with almost one-third of children having overt or subclinical non-autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  9. Tuning the work function of monolayer graphene on 4H-SiC (0001) with nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günes, Fethullah; Arezki, Hakim; Alamarguy, David; Alvarez, José; Kleider, Jean-Paul; Boutchich, Mohamed; Pierucci, Debora; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim; Dappe, Yannick J

    2015-01-01

    Chemical doping of graphene is a key process for the modulation of its electronic properties and the design and fabrication of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices. Here, we study the adsorption of diluted concentrations of nitric acid (HNO_3) onto monolayer graphene/4H-SiC (0001) to induce a variation of the graphene work function (WF). Raman spectroscopy indicates an increase in the defect density subsequent to the doping. Moreover, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) was utilized to quantify the WF shift. UPS data show that the WF of the graphene layer decreased from 4.3 eV (pristine) down to 3.8 eV (30% HNO_3) and then increased to 4.4 eV at 100% HNO_3 concentration. These observations were confirmed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This straightforward process allows a large WF modulation, rendering the molecularly modified graphene/4H-SiC(0001) a highly suitable electron or hole injection electrode. (paper)

  10. New Mononuclear Cu(II Complexes and 1D Chains with 4-Amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela M. Dîrtu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of two mononuclear Cu(II NH2trz complexes [Cu(NH2trz4(H2O](AsF62 (I and [Cu(NH2trz4(H2O](PF62 (II as well as two coordination polymers [Cu(μ2-NH2trz2Cl]Cl∙H2O (III and [Cu(μ2-NH2trz2Cl] (SiF60.5∙1.5H2O (IV are presented. Cationic 1D chains with bridging bis-monodentate μ2-coordinated NH2trz and bridging μ2-coordinated chloride ligands are present in III and IV. In these coordination polymers, the Cu(II ions are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled with J = −128.4 cm−1 for III and J = −143 cm−1 for IV (H = −JΣSiSi+1, due to the nature of the bridges between spin centers. Inter-chain interactions present in the crystal structures were taken into consideration, as well as g factors, which were determined experimentally, for the quantitative modeling of their magnetic properties.

  11. Optical beam induced current measurements based on two-photon absorption process in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, H.; Raynaud, C.; Bevilacqua, P.; Tournier, D.; Planson, D. [Ampère Laboratory - UMR 5005, 21, Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Vergne, B. [Franco-Allemand Institute of Saint-Louis ISL, 5, Rue du Général Cassagnou, 68300 Saint-Louis (France)

    2014-02-24

    Using a pulsed green laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, a duration pulse of ∼1 ns, and a mean power varying between 1 and 100 mW, induced photocurrents have been measured in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes. Considering the photon energy (2.33 eV) and the bandgap of 4H-SiC (3.2 eV), the generation of electron-hole pair by the conventional single photon absorption process should be negligible. The intensity of the measured photocurrents depends quadratically on the power beam intensity. This clearly shows that they are generated using two-photon absorption process. As in conventional OBIC (Optical Beam Induced Current), the measurements give an image of the electric field distribution in the structure under test, and the minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the decrease of the photocurrent at the edge of the structure. The extracted minority carrier lifetime of 210 ns is consistent with results obtained in case of single photon absorption.

  12. Optical beam induced current measurements based on two-photon absorption process in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, H.; Raynaud, C.; Bevilacqua, P.; Tournier, D.; Planson, D.; Vergne, B.

    2014-01-01

    Using a pulsed green laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, a duration pulse of ∼1 ns, and a mean power varying between 1 and 100 mW, induced photocurrents have been measured in 4H-SiC bipolar diodes. Considering the photon energy (2.33 eV) and the bandgap of 4H-SiC (3.2 eV), the generation of electron-hole pair by the conventional single photon absorption process should be negligible. The intensity of the measured photocurrents depends quadratically on the power beam intensity. This clearly shows that they are generated using two-photon absorption process. As in conventional OBIC (Optical Beam Induced Current), the measurements give an image of the electric field distribution in the structure under test, and the minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the decrease of the photocurrent at the edge of the structure. The extracted minority carrier lifetime of 210 ns is consistent with results obtained in case of single photon absorption

  13. First-Order SPICE Modeling of Extreme-Temperature 4H-SiC JFET Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    A separate submission to this conference reports that 4H-SiC Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) digital and analog Integrated Circuits (ICs) with two levels of metal interconnect have reproducibly demonstrated electrical operation at 500 C in excess of 1000 hours. While this progress expands the complexity and durability envelope of high temperature ICs, one important area for further technology maturation is the development of reasonably accurate and accessible computer-aided modeling and simulation tools for circuit design of these ICs. Towards this end, we report on development and verification of 25 C to 500 C SPICE simulation models of first order accuracy for this extreme-temperature durable 4H-SiC JFET IC technology. For maximum availability, the JFET IC modeling is implemented using the baseline-version SPICE NMOS LEVEL 1 model that is common to other variations of SPICE software and importantly includes the body-bias effect. The first-order accuracy of these device models is verified by direct comparison with measured experimental device characteristics.

  14. Optical and magnetic resonance signatures of deep levels in semi-insulating 4H SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.E.; Glaser, E.R.; Shanabrook, B.V.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied semi-insulating (SI) 4H SiC grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) and by high-temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and infrared photoluminescence (IR-PL) to better understand the defect(s) responsible for the SI behavior. Although intrinsic defects such as the isolated carbon vacancy and in some cases the isolated Si vacancies have previously been observed by EPR in undoped SI SiC, their concentrations are an order of magnitude too low to be responsible for the SI behavior. We are able to observe the EPR signature of the carbon vacancy-carbon antisite pair (V C -C Si ) pair defect in an excited state of its 2+ charge state in all PVT samples and some HTCVD samples. We also establish the IR-PL signature of this EPR center as the UD2 spectrum - a set of four sharp lines between 1.1 and 1.15 eV previously observed by Magnusson et al. in neutron-irradiated 4H-SiC. We also observe the UD1 line, a pair of sharp IR-PL lines at ∼1.06 eV and UD3, a single sharp line at ∼1.36 eV. We propose a simple model for the SI behavior in material in which the (V C -C Si ) pair defect is the dominant deep defect

  15. Synthesis, in vitro and in silico antimalarial activity of 7-chloroquinoline and 4H-chromene conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, A; Muthukumaran, J; Manhas, Ashan; Srivastava, Kumkum; Krishna, R; Rao, H Surya Prakash

    2015-10-15

    A new series of chloroquinoline-4H-chromene conjugates incorporating piperizine or azipane tethers were synthesized and their anti-malarial activity were evaluated against two Plasmodium falciparum strains namely 3D7 chloroquine sensitive (CQS) and K1 chloroquine resistant (CQR). Chloroquine was used as the standard and also reference for comparison. The conjugates exhibit intense UV absorption with λmax located at 342 nm (log ε=4.0), 254 nm (log ε=4.2), 223 nm (log ε=4.4) which can be used to spectrometrically track the molecules even in trace amounts. Among all the synthetic compounds, two molecules namely 6-nitro and N-piperazine groups incorporated 7d and 6-chloro and N-azapane incorporated 15b chloroquinoline-4H-chromene conjugates showed significant anti-malarial activity against two strains (3D7 and K1) of P. falciparum. These values are lesser than the values of standard antimalarial compound. Molecular docking results suggested that these two compounds showing strong binding affinity with P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) and also they occupy the co-factor position which indicated that they could be the potent inhibitors for dreadful disease malaria and specifically attack the glycolytic pathway in parasite for energy production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Complexation in the system K2SeO4-UO2SeO4-H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.; Kuchumova, N.V.; Serezhkin, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Complexation in the system K 2 SeO 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O at 25 degrees C is studied by isothermal solubility. Congruently soluble K 2 UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 ·4H 2 O (I) and incongruently soluble K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 ·6H 2 O (II) are observed. The unit-cell constants of I and II are determined from an X-ray diffraction investigation. For I, a = 12,969, b = 11.588, c = 8.533 angstrom, Z = 4, space group Pmmb. For II, a = 23.36, b = 6.784, c = 13.699 angstrom, β = 104.42 degrees, Z = 4, space group P2/m, P2, or Pm. Complexes I and II are representatives of the crystal-chemical groups AB 2 2 M 1 and A 2 T 3 3 M 1 , respectively, of uranyl complexes

  17. Effect of Barrier Metal Based on Titanium or Molybdenum in Characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ben Karoui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical properties were extracted by I-V and C-V analysis, performed from 10 K to 450 K. When the annealing temperature varied to 400 °C, the Schottky barrier height (SBH increased from 0.85 Ev to 1.20 eV in Ti/4H-SiC whereas in the Mo/4H-SiC the SBH varied from 1.04 eV to 1.10 eV. Deformation of J-V-T characteristics was observed in two types of devices when the temperature decreases from 300 K to 10 K. The electrical properties and the stability of the devices have been correlated to the fabrication processes and to the metal/semiconductor interfaces. Mo-based contacts show better behaviour in forward polarization when compared to the Ti-based Schottky contacts, with ideality factors close to the unity even after the annealing process. However, Mo-based contacts show leakage currents higher than that measured on the more optimized Ti-based Schottky.

  18. Experimental investigation of slow-positron emission from 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Weng, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Slow-positron emission from the surfaces of as-grown n-type 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC (silicon carbide) with a conversion efficiency of ∼10 -4 has been observed. After 30 min of 1000 deg. C annealing in forming gas, the conversion efficiency of the n-type 6H-SiC sample was observed to be enhanced by 75% to 1.9x10 -4 , but it then dropped to ∼10 -5 upon a further 30 min annealing at 1400 deg. C. The positron work function of the n-type 6H-SiC was found to increase by 29% upon 1000 deg. C annealing. For both p-type 4H-SiC and p-type 6H-SiC materials, the conversion efficiency was of the order of ∼10 -5 , some ten times lower than that for the n-type materials. This was attributed to the band bending at the p-type material surface which caused positrons to drift away from the positron emitting surface. (author)

  19. A Qualitative Evaluation of the 4-H Record Book in Light of the PYD Concepts: Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and Generosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette H. Bikos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The highlights of a study of the 4-H Record Book (RB in light of the four positive youth development (PYD concepts: belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity are discussed in this paper. Utilizing qualitative methods we interviewed 21 participants (14 leaders, 9 recent 4-H alumni from 9 states. Results describe the ways in which participants perceived that the RB (a supports the four PYD concepts (e.g., “RB fosters independence through the goal setting, monitoring, and appraising process” and (b does not support, or should be revised to support the concept (e.g., “RB competitions may hinder mastery”. Our results support the RB as a PYD intervention but we recommend that states/counties consider these results when revising RBs. In light of concerns about age and developmental appropriateness, we suggest that the most pressing question is whether or not the traditionally formatted RB is appropriate for all 4-Hers. We encourage RB committees to engage professionals with developmental expertise (e.g., educators in RB revisions.

  20. Evaluation of sintering effects on SiC-incorporated UO2 kernels under Ar and Ar–4%H2 environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Chinthaka M.; Lindemer, Terrence B.; Hunt, Rodney D.; Collins, Jack L.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Snead, Lance L.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is suggested as an oxygen getter in UO 2 kernels used for tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particle fuels and to prevent kernel migration during irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry analyses performed on sintered kernels verified that an internal gelation process can be used to incorporate SiC in UO 2 fuel kernels. Even though the presence of UC in either argon (Ar) or Ar–4%H 2 sintered samples suggested a lowering of the SiC up to 3.5–1.4 mol%, respectively, the presence of other silicon-related chemical phases indicates the preservation of silicon in the kernels during sintering process. UC formation was presumed to occur by two reactions. The first was by the reaction of SiC with its protective SiO 2 oxide layer on SiC grains to produce volatile SiO and free carbon that subsequently reacted with UO 2 to form UC. The second process was direct UO 2 reaction with SiC grains to form SiO, CO, and UC. A slightly higher density and UC content were observed in the sample sintered in Ar–4%H 2 , but both atmospheres produced kernels with ∼95% of theoretical density. It is suggested that incorporating CO in the sintering gas could prevent UC formation and preserve the initial SiC content