Sample records for subclavian wired temporary

  1. Technical developments: use of targeting guide wire in left subclavian puncture during percutaneous implantation of port-catheter systems using the catheter tip fixation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Kato, Takeharu; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tanaka, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo, Kyoto 602-8566 (Japan)


    Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new method in approaching the access route percutaneously for the implantable port-catheter system for repeated hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. Fifteen patients underwent port-catheter system placement via the left subclavian artery with the catheter tip fixed within the gastroduodenal artery with embolic materials and a catheter side hole opening to the common hepatic artery. Before port-catheter placement, the right gastric artery was embolized via the femoral catheter access. Then a 0.035-in. guide wire was inserted from the right femoral artery to the left subclavian artery. The guide wire was left in place during puncture by the needle as an access route for catheter placement. At the time of puncture, the tip of the puncture needle was aimed at the guide wire placed in the subclavian artery beforehand. In all 15 patients the procedure was successfully completed in a reasonable time (mean time 95.0 min, range 50-240 min). Complications occurred in two patients: a transient numbness of the arm in 1 patient and a mild hematoma detected in the subcutaneous pocket in another patient. This experience indicates the possibility of using a targeting guide wire in puncture of the subclavian artery as an access route for catheter placement. (orig.)

  2. Subclavian steal syndrome without subclavian stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Cwinn, MD


    Full Text Available Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS has been well described in the setting of subclavian stenosis. We describe an unusual case of SSS caused by a high-flow arteriovenous dialysis fistula in the absence of subclavian stenosis, provide a review of the literature, and propose that arteriovenous fistula-induced SSS is an underdiagnosed cause of syncope in this population of patients.

  3. Bilateral Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amini


    Full Text Available Bilateral subclavian steal syndrome is a rare condition. It is usually due to reversal of vertebral blood flow in the setting of bilateral proximal subclavian or left subclavian plus innominate artery severe stenosis or occlusion. This finding may cause cerebral ischemia related to upper extremities exercise. We report a case of bilateral subclavian steal secondary to total occlusion of the innominate and left subclavian arteries in a patient who presented with cardiomyopathy and flow reversal in the right carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries.

  4. Feasibility of customised unipolar conversion using bipolar temporary pacing wires in patients after surgical repair of congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Peters, Bjoern; Miera, Oliver; Ewert, Peter; Yilmaz, Sevim; Berger, Felix; Schmitt, Boris


    Temporary pacing wires play a crucial role in the diagnosis and therapy of post-operative arrhythmia after surgery for congenital heart disease. At present, bipolar pacing wires are used in most institutions. In case of functional failure of these wires, a unipolar mode of stimulation and sensing should be theoretically possible as a rescue procedure. We tested the feasibility of the customised unipolar mode in 18 post-operative patients with congenital heart disease (age 9.2 ± 13.9 months, weight 6.3 ± 3.8 kg, and cardiopulmonary bypass time 70 ± 29 minutes). As there are two possible unipolar configurations, there are twice the number of testing parameters; of those, we compared sensing (mV) and pacing thresholds (V at 0.5 ms). Atrial sensing was significantly better in the unipolar modes (p < 0.001, p < 0.003). The ventricular unipolar sensing did not differ significantly in the "better" of the two possible configurations from the bipolar values (p = 0.363). For the unipolar pacing thresholds, only the "better" unipolar configuration did not differ significantly from the bipolar measurements (atrial: p = 0.058, ventricular: p = 0.138). There was no exit block or undersensing. The results demonstrate that unipolar stimulation and sensing using bipolar epicardial temporary pacing wires is feasible. In the case of failure of bipolar temporary pacing wires, this modality represents an easy rescue measure that in such cases should always be considered.

  5. Treatment of trans-scaphoid perilunate dislocations using a volar approach with scaphoid osteosynthesis and temporary Kirschner wire fixation. (United States)

    Malović, Mario; Pavić, Roman; Milosević, Milan


    Trans-scaphoid perilunate fracture dislocations (TSPLD) are uncommon injuries and constitute about 3% of all carpal injuries. Up to 25% of these high energy trauma cases go undiagnosed. Presented are 43 (3 female, 40 male) consecutive patients treated for dorsal TSPLD, all were closed fractures. Patients were between 17 and 66 years old. Twenty male patients were injured in active duty military service. Surgical treatment was made with a volar approach using titanium cannulated headless compression screws (3.2 mm) placed via a guide wire. Repositioning the dislocated carpus is then conducted using 3 temporary fixation Kirschner wires (1.6 mm). The patient had a volar short arm splint for 4 weeks, then given an orthosis. Triple fixation Kirschner wires were removed 6-8 weeks postoperatively. Mean followup period was 29 months (range 20-38). The average Mayo wrist score for all 43 patients is 87 (good) (range 65-99). All patients returned to their previous employment.

  6. Carotid-subclavian bypass for subclavian steal syndrome following coarctation repair in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Chowning


    Full Text Available A 19 year old man presented with dizziness that was exacerbated while using left arm. On investigation, subclavian steal syndrome (SSS was diagnosed. He underwent left carotid to subclavian bypass with relief of symptoms. Subclavian steal syndrome, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with the history of subclavian artery manipulation in the past in proper settings.

  7. Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery: A Life‑threatening Anomaly that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lusoria artery or aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is a rare anatomical variation of the origin of the right subclavian artery. Essentially, right subclavian artery originates from the brachiocephalic artery, but in 0.4-1.8% of the general population it may arise directly from the aortic arch distal to the left subclavian artery.

  8. Validation of subclavian duplex velocity criteria to grade severity of subclavian artery stenosis. (United States)

    Mousa, Albeir Y; Morkous, Ramez; Broce, Mike; Yacoub, Michael; Sticco, Andrew; Viradia, Ravi; Bates, Mark C; AbuRahma, Ali F


    Validation of subclavian duplex ultrasound velocity criteria (SDUS VC) to grade the severity of subclavian artery stenosis has not been established or systematically studied. Currently, there is a paucity of published literature and lack of practitioner consensus for how subclavian duplex velocity findings should be interpreted in patients with subclavian artery stenosis. The objective of the present study was to validate SDUS measurements using subclavian conventional or computed tomography angiogram (subclavian angiogram [SA])-derived measurements. Secondary objectives included measuring the correlation between SDUS peak systolic velocities and SA measurements, and to determine the optimal cutoff value for predicting significant stenosis (>70%). This is a retrospective review of all patients with suspected subclavian artery stenosis and a convenience sample of carotid artery patients who underwent SDUS and SA from May 1999 to July 2013. SA reference vessel and intralesion minimal lumen diameters were measured and compared with SDUS velocities obtained within 3 months of the imaging study. Percent stenosis was calculated using the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial method for detecting stenosis in a sufficiently large cohort. Receiver operating characteristic curves was generated for SDUS VC to predict >70% stenosis. Velocity cutoff points were determined with equal weighting of sensitivity and specificity. We examined 268 arteries for 177 patients. The majority of the arteries were for female patients (52.5%) with a mean age of 66.7 ± 11.1 years. Twenty-three arteries had retrograde vertebral artery flow and excluded from further analysis. For the remaining 245 arteries, the average peak systolic velocity was 212.6 ± 110.7 cm/s, with a range of 45-626 cm/s. Average stenosis was 25.8% ± 28.2%, with a range of 0% to 100%. Following receiver operating characteristic analysis, we found a cutoff value of >240 cm/s to be most predictive

  9. Pseudo subclavian steal syndrome: Case report. (United States)

    Konda, Sneha; Dayawansa, Samantha; Singel, Soren; Huang, Jason H


    Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is a condition that results from restricted blood flow to the posterior portions of the brain, which are primarily served by the vertebral and basilar arteries. It is the most common cause of vertigo in the elderly and is usually accompanied by impaired vision and sensation. Congenital abnormalities, atherosclerosis, stroke and/or trauma may all lead to decreased vertebrobasilar circulation. A syndrome called Subclavian Steal Syndrome (SSS), which manifests with similar neurological symptoms but with a different pathophysiology, may also cause VBI. A middle-aged female presented with gradual onset fainting and vertigo attacks. Cardiac, auditory and autonomic etiologies were investigated and excluded. Clinical findings and presentation were highly suggestive of subclavian steal. However, subsequent CT angiography showed normal subclavian arteries. Instead, findings included a persistent right trigeminal artery (PTA), stenosis of the right proximal internal carotid artery, atresis of the left vertebral artery and distal segment of right vertebral artery, congenitally compromised changes in vertebral circulation (bilateral absence of the posterior communicating arteries (PCOMs)) and an absent anterograde vertebrobasilar circulation. Symptoms resolved after carotid endarterectomy. Due to the absence of a normally developed posterior circulation, the PTA was the main source of blood supply for the patient. Development of recent artheromatous changes in the right internal carotid artery, however, resulted in decreased blood through PTA, further compromising posterior circulation. This resulted in vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and manifested in symptomology similar to SSS. This clinical encounter illustrates the relative contribution of anatomical and vasoocclusive factors in closely mimicking symptoms of subclavian steal syndrome. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Percutaneous recanalization of refractory dialysis-related subclavian vein obstruction : a case with needle puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Chronic central venous occlusion presents a difficult management problem, particularly when the occlusion cannot be traversed with a guide wire, a step which is essential for endovascular treatment such as balloon angioplasty and stent placement. We describe a less invasive technique in which the venous occlusion is traversed with a Rosch-Uchida Transjugular Liver Access Set. This procedure may be useful in cases where the involved extremity must be preserved for hemodialysis and where subclavian vein occlusion is refractory to traditional revascularization methods. (author)

  11. Percutaneous subclavian artery stent-graft placement following failed ultrasound guided subclavian venous access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkup Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound guidance for central and peripheral venous access has been proven to improve success rates and reduce complications of venous cannulation. Appropriately trained and experienced operators add significantly to diminished patient morbidity related to venous access procedures. We discuss a patient who required an arterial stent-graft to prevent arterial hemorrhage following inadvertent cannulation of the proximal, ventral, right subclavian artery related to unsuccessful ultrasound guided access of the subclavian vein. Case presentation During pre-operative preparation for aortic valve replacement and aorto-coronary bypass surgery an anesthetist attempted ultrasound guided venous access. The ultrasound guided attempt to access the right jugular vein failed and the ultrasound guided attempt at accessing the subclavian vein resulted in inappropriate placement of an 8.5 F sheath in the arterial system. Following angiographic imaging and specialist consultations, an arterial stent-graft was deployed in the right subclavian artery rather than perform an extensive anterior chest wall resection and dissection to extract the arterial sheath. The patient tolerated the procedure, without complication, despite occlusion of the right internal mammary artery and the right vertebral artery. There were no neurologic sequelae. There was no evidence of hemorrhage after subclavian artery sheath extraction and stent-graft implantation. Conclusion The attempted ultrasound guided puncture of the subclavian vein resulted in placement of an 8.5 F subclavian artery catheter. Entry of the catheter into the proximal subclavian artery beneath the medial clavicle, the medial first rib and the manubrium suggests that the operator, most likely, did not directly visualize the puncture needle enter the vessel with the ultrasound. The bones of the anterior chest impede the ultrasound beam and the vessels in this area would not be visible to ultrasound

  12. [Prosthesis interposition in the case of subclavian artery transposition]. (United States)

    György, G; Acosta Alvarez, P


    When we can't realize the reimplantation because of technical difficulties, special cases are presented during transposition from the subclavian artery to the primitive carotid artery. In these cases, between primitive carotid artery and the subclavian artery and also the vertebral artery, Gore-tex's tubes were implanted with favourable results.

  13. Retroesophageal right subclavian artery: A case report and review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a case of an adult male cadaver with a retroesophageal right subclavian artery. Objective: To highlight the significance of a retroesophageal right subclavian artery, especially its clinical and surgical implications. Method: Is a report of a case of an anomalous vessel found during routine student dissection of ...

  14. Intrathoracic lipoma masquerading as subclavian artery trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munro, P T


    A 58 year old man was admitted to the accident and emergency department following an industrial accident in which he sustained a three part fracture dislocation of his right humerus. Chest radiography revealed a large mass in the right upper hemithorax and, when the patient became hypotensive, an emergency thoracotomy was performed. The mass was found to be a massive intrathoracic lipoma. This case shows how preexisting intrathoracic lesions may be mistaken for subclavian or great vessel trauma following violent shoulder girdle injury. The differential diagnosis of traumatic and non-traumatic intrathoracic mass lesions in chest radiography should be considered carefully.

  15. Surgical Treatment of Atherosclerotic Lesions of the Subclavian Artery (United States)

    Cohn, Lawrence H.; Fogarty, Thomas J.; Daily, Pat O.; Silverman, James F.; Shumway, Norman E.


    Of eight patients with atherosclerotic lesions (seven occlusive, one aneurysmal) of the subclavian artery, five were operated upon because of the subclavian steal and three for severe ischemia of the hand and fingers. Removal or bypass of these lesions was uniformly successful in relieving symptoms. In most cases transcervical carotid-subclavian saphenous vein bypass graft is the treatment of choice, provided no carotid obstruction exists or, if there is obstruction, it can be dealt with at operation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:4639853

  16. Rock climbing-related subclavian vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Lutter, Christoph; Monasterio, Erik; Schöffl, Volker


    Paget-Schroetter syndrome, also known as upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT), is a rare condition, characterised by a (sub-) total occlusion of the axillary-subclavian venous system due to thrombosis. UEDVT is the most common vascular condition among athletes so far; although the general incidence is low, this problem will become more frequent as a result of increased participation in climbing sports. The purpose of this report is to illustrate two cases in rock climbers where UEDVT developed during rock climbing or bouldering. Fortunately, both patients were diagnosed relatively early after the symptoms began, despite the ambiguity of UEDVT symptoms. This relatively unfamiliar condition may become more highly recognised as a potentially serious differential diagnosis of unspecific pain of the shoulder. Rock climbers are disposed to develop UEDVT due to frequent stress on the upper extremities during training or competition. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Supraclavicular versus Infraclavicular Subclavian Vein Catheterization in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsien Lu


    Conclusion: In our study, we found that there was no statistically significant difference among the 4 SVC locations in effectiveness of operation or in risk of complication. There was a tendency to damage the subclavian arteries through the supraclavicular route.

  18. Isolated Subclavian Vein Injury: A Rare and High Mortality Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Iscan


    Full Text Available Isolated subclavian vein injuries are rarely seen without concomitant arterial injury, bone fracture, damage to brachial plexus, and thoracal traumas. Our case was brought to the emergency service 6 hours after he had been shot at the shoulder with a firearm. After detection of extravasation from the left axillary and subclavian vein on arteriographic and venographic examinations, he was operated on. An autogenous saphenous vein graft was interposed between subclavian and axillary veins. Cardiac arrest developed twice because of hypovolemia, which was resolved with medical therapy. Subclavian vein injuries have a more mortal course when compared with the injuries to the subclavian arteries. Its most important reason is excessive blood loss and air embolism because of delayed arrival to hospital. As is the case in all vascular injuries, angiography is the most important diagnostic examination. If the general health state of the patient permits, arteriography and venography should be performed in patients potentially exposed to vascular injuries. In patients with extreme blood loss and deteriorated health state, direct surgical exploration of the injury site, containment of the bleeding, and venous repair are life-saving approaches.

  19. Novel experience of laser-assisted 'inside-out' central venous access in a patient with bilateral subclavian vein occlusion requiring pacemaker implantation. (United States)

    Aye, Thandar; Phan, Thanh Trung; Muir, Douglas Findlay; Linker, Nicholas John; Hartley, Richard; Turley, Andrew John


    This new laser facilitated 'inside-out' technique was used for transvenous pacemaker insertion in a pacemaker-dependent patient with bilateral subclavian occlusion and a failed epicardial system who is not suitable for a transfemoral approach. Procedure was undertaken under general anaesthesia with venous access obtained from right femoral vein and left axillary vein. 7F multipurpose catheter was used to enter proximal edge of the occluded segment of subclavian vein via femoral approach, which then supported stiff angioplasty wires and microcatheters to tunnel into the body of occlusion. When encountered with impenetrable resistance, 1.4 mm Excimer laser helped delivery of a Pilot 200 wire, which then progressed towards the distal edge of occlusion. Serial balloon dilatations allowed wire tracked into subintimal plane, advanced towards left clavicle using knuckle wire technique, which was then externalized with blunt dissection from infraclavicular pocket area. It was later changed to Amplatz superstiff wire exiting from both ends to form a rail, which ultimately allowed passage of pacing leads after serial balloon dilatation from clavicular end. Our hybrid 'inside-out' technique permitted transvenous pacemaker insertion without complication and this is, to our knowledge, the first case using laser in this context.

  20. Delayed Presentation of Catheter-Related Subclavian Artery Pseudoaneurysm

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    Hwa Rim Kang


    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization is a common diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in modern clinical practice. Pseudoaneurysms of the subclavian artery are rare and usually occur immediately after the causative event, whether the cause was trauma or a medical procedure. Here we report the rare case of a 71-year-old woman with delayed presentation of catheter-related subclavian pseudoaneurysm. The patient was treated for aspiration pneumonia with respiratory failure in another hospital. The patient's chest wall swelling began two weeks after the initial catheterization in the other hospital, probably because of slow leakage of blood from the injured subclavian artery caused by incomplete compression of the puncture site and uremic coagulopathy. She was successfully treated with ultrasound-guided thrombin and angiography-guided histoacryl injection without stent insertion or surgery. Her condition improved, and she was discharged to her home.

  1. Supraclavicular versus Infraclavicular Subclavian Vein Catheterization in Infants


    Wen-Hsien Lu; Mei-Ling Yao; Kai-Sheng Hsieh; Pao-Chin Chiu; Ying-Yao Chen; Chu-Chuan Lin; Ta-Cheng Huang; Chu-Chin Chen


    Central venous catheterization is an important procedure for infant patients for a number of different purposes, including nutritional support, surgical operation, hemodynamic monitoring, and multiple lines for critical care medications. Subclavian vein catheterization (SVC) is one of the central vein catheterization techniques. SVC can be performed from 4 different locations: right supraclavicular (RSC), left supraclavicular (LSC), right infraclavicular (RIC), and left infraclavicular (LIC)....

  2. Anomalous Origin of the Subclavian Artery Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anomalous origin of the right subclavian artery is a well- known anomaly; in most instances it is not responsible for symptoms and is an incidental finding at angiography, surgery or autopsy.'" If symptoms of tracheal compres- sion occur, surgical relief of the abnormal vascular ring is necessary. It is the purpose of this report ...

  3. Left subclavian artery revascularization as part of thoracic stent grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saouti, N.; Hindori, V.; Morshuis, W.J.; Heijmen, R.H.


    OBJECTIVES: Intentional covering of the left subclavian artery (LSA) as part of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can cause (posterior) strokes or left arm malperfusion. LSA revascularization can be done as prophylaxis against, or as treatment of, these complications. We report our

  4. Entrapment of Guide Wire in an Inferior Vena Cava Filter: A Technique for Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed Kamel, E-mail:; Saddekni, Souheil [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology (United States); Hamed, Maysoon Farouk [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Anesthesia (United States); Fitzpatrick, Farley [Radiology Specialists of Louisville (United States)


    Entrapment of a central venous catheter (CVC) guide wire in an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a rare, but reported complication during CVC placement. With the increasing use of vena cava filters (VCFs), this number will most likely continue to grow. The consequences of this complication can be serious, as continued traction upon the guide wire may result in filter dislodgement and migration, filter fracture, or injury to the IVC. We describe a case in which a J-tipped guide wire introduced through a left subclavian access without fluoroscopic guidance during CVC placement was entrapped at the apex of an IVC filter. We describe a technique that we used successfully in removing the entrapped wire through the left subclavian access site. We also present simple useful recommendations to prevent this complication.

  5. Subclavian vein aneurysm secondary to a benign vessel wall hamartoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Interventional Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Spaeth, Maya [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States); Prasad, Vinay [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States); McConnell, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States)


    Venous aneurysms are rare clinical entities, particularly in children, and their presentation and natural history often depend on the anatomical location and underlying etiology. We present a single case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a palpable right supraclavicular mass. Imaging evaluation with CT, conventional venography, MRI and sonography revealed a large fusiform subclavian vein aneurysm with an unusual, mass-like fibrofatty component incorporated into the vessel wall. The girl ultimately required complete resection of the right subclavian vein with placement of a synthetic interposition graft. This case provides a radiology/pathology correlation of an entity that has not previously been described as well as an example of the utility of multiple imaging modalities to aid diagnosis and preoperative planning. (orig.)

  6. Blood flow-vessel interaction in a subclavian aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru M. MOREGA


    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical mode and numerical simulation results of the blood flow-structural interaction, which occurs in a saccular aneurysm emerging out of the left subclavian artery, using computational domains made of by medical images reconstruction. A correlation between the total force per area acting upon the artery walls by the pulsatile blood flow and the rupture probability are also investigated.

  7. Rarely Cause Of Disphagia: Aberrant Insertion of the Right Subclavian Artery


    Büyükkaya A et al.


    The lusorian artery (Aberrant Insertion of the Right Subclavian Artery) is a rare anomaly of the right subclavian artery. Normally this anomaly causes no symptoms during life span. Dysphagia can be caused %10 percent of the adult patience with this anomaly which was first described by Bayford as “lusorian disphagia”. The purpose of this case report is present the aberrant insertion of the right subclavian artery with symptomatic disphagia and its radiological findings because of its rarity in...

  8. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  11. A case of sudden death due to spontaneous right subclavian artery dissection. (United States)

    Majdoub, Wael; Mosbahi, Amal; Beji, Meriem; Sriha, Badreddine; Turki, Elyes


    Acute subclavian artery dissection (SAD) is a rare entity which is usually associated with several vascular abnormalities and traumatic events. Spontaneous SAD remains exceptional and often affects the left artery. We report the autopsy case of a 29-year-old female who died suddenly following a spontaneous dissection of the right subclavian artery.

  12. Thrombosis caused by polyurethane double-lumen subclavian superior vena cava catheter and hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Maria Rørbæk; Frifelt, J J; Smith-Sivertsen, C


    During an 18-month period, 82 consecutive patients (37 women and 45 men), with a mean age of 50 yr (range 15 to 74), underwent hemodialysis with 91 polyurethane double-lumen subclavian superior vena cava catheters inserted via the right subclavian vein. Upon catheter removal, venograms were...

  13. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. Subclavian Artery Pseudoaneurysm in an Unusual Case of Digital Gangrene. (United States)

    Majhi, Bhuban; Pal, Nandita


    A young male patient presented at a tertiary care hospital with cold and bluish left upper limb accompanied with digital gangrene arousing suspicion of peripheral vascular disease. History did not reveal any high-risk behavior. Clinical examination and subsequent investigations lead to the diagnosis of acute infective endocarditis of native aortic valve along with peripheral embolism caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fogarty's balloon embolectomy was done following which patient developed pseudoaneurysm of the left subclavian artery. These iatrogenic sequelae were managed with the resection of the pseudoaneurysm and prolonged antibiotic therapy as per the culture and sensitivity report.

  18. Radiographic mislead: apparent arterial placement of subclavian central venous catheter due to mediastinal shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaji Mathew


    Full Text Available Optimal placement of central venous catheters (CVC is essential for accurate monitoring of central venous pressure (CVP in major surgeries and ensuring long-term use of the catheter for managing the critically ill patient. Accidental subclavian artery catheterization is one of the most serious complications of the procedure. Radiography is commonly used to ensure optimal placement of CVC tip and rule out subclavian artery catheterization in the absence of Doppler ultrasound and a pressure transducer. We present a case of a haemodynamically unstable and hypoxaemic patient with mediastinal shift, in which the anaesthesiologist was in a dilemma about the arterial placement of the right subclavian CVC. The CVC crossing the midline due to mediastinal shift gave the false impression of it being placed in subclavian artery rather than the vein. Subsequently, it was proved to be correctly placed in the subclavian vein.

  19. Management Strategy for Patients With Chronic Subclavian Vein Thrombosis. (United States)

    Keir, Graham; Marshall, M Blair


    We performed a systematic review to determine best practice for the management of patients with chronic or subacute subclavian vein thrombosis. This condition is best managed with surgical excision of the first rib followed by long-term anticoagulation. Interventional techniques aimed at restoring patency are ineffective beyond 2 weeks postthrombosis. Additional therapeutic options should be made based on the severity of symptoms as well as vein status. Patients with milder symptoms are given decompression surgery followed by anticoagulation whereas patients with more severe symptoms are considered for either a jugular vein transposition or saphenous patch based on the vein characteristics. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stridor and Horner's syndrome, weeks after attempted right subclavian vein cannulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, TS; Drijver, Y; Stegeman, CA; Boonstra, PW; Ligtenberg, JJM; Tulleken, JE; Zijlstra, JG

    A 23-year-old woman presented with renal failure resulting from polycystic kidney disease (PKD) aggravated by tubulointerstitial nephritis. Emergency haemodialysis was planned, and cannulation of the right subclavian vein was attempted, but failed. During this procedure, inadvertent arterial

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of aortopulmonary window associated with aberrant subclavian artery. (United States)

    Louis-Jacques, Adetola F; Običan, Sarah G; Nguyen, Thieu; Odibo, Anthony


    Aortopulmonary window is a rare cardiac developmental anomaly characterised by a communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery. Aortopulmonary window may be isolated or associated with cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, interrupted aortic arch, and tetralogy of Fallot. We report a case of aortopulmonary window associated with aberrant subclavian artery based on fetal two-dimensional echocardiogram. The mother was referred for fetal echocardiography because of multiple fetal anomalies. Prenatal echocardiography at 30 weeks of gestation revealed a defect between the main and right pulmonary arteries and the ascending aorta (type III). The patient was born at 38 weeks of gestation via caesarean delivery, and was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit because of respiratory failure and multiple congenital anomalies. Postnatal echocardiogram and cardiac MRI confirmed the prenatal findings. In addition, this patient had severe Dandy-Walker malformation and renal anomalies with poor prognosis. The family decided to withdraw respiratory care support on day of life 4, and the neonate passed away shortly after.

  2. A modified approach to supraclavicular subclavian vein catheter placement: the pocket approach. (United States)

    Gorchynski, Julie; Everett, Worth W; Pentheroudakis, Eleni


    Central venous access is often necessary for the administration of fluids, blood products, and medications. Several approaches to supraclavicular subclavian venous access have been described. This study examines the effectiveness of central venous catheter placement utilizing an alternative set of anatomic landmarks for supraclavicular subclavian vein access. This was a two phase study. The first portion involved subclavian vein cannulation using a supraclavicular approach in 28 cadavers. The specific set of anatomic landmarks for the supraclavicular approach, termed the "pocket approach," is described. Cadavers were subsequently dissected to verify appropriate line placement. The second portion was a chart review of Emergency Department (ED) patients who underwent attempted subclavian vein catheter placement utilizing the pocket approach. Charts were extracted following education of the ED faculty and resident staff to determine: 1) Success of subclavian line placement, 2) The incidence of pneumothorax, and 3) The use of supraclavicular subclavian access in the trauma setting, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and in patients who had cervical collars. In 28 cadavers, the success rate of the pocket approach was 100% (34/34; 95% CI 90% to 100%). Chart review of the 68 patients revealed a success rate of 90% (61/68; CI 80% to 96%). No pneumothoraces were recorded (0/68; CI 0% to 5%). The pocket approach was used successfully in 11 patients with cervical collars, (100%, CI 72% to 100%) and in 15 of 16 patients undergoing CPR (94%, CI 70% to 100%). In four fresh cadavers, the average distance from the posterior subclavian vein to the subclavian artery was 0.40cm, and the dome of the pleura was 1.75cm posterior to the vein. Our data suggest that the supraclavicular pocket approach to subclavian vein cannulation is a useful and safe method of adult central venous catheterization, with complication and success rates comparable to more common approaches. The

  3. Bedside prediction of right subclavian venous catheter insertion length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Ji Choi


    Full Text Available Background and objective: The present study aimed to evaluate whether right subclavian vein (SCV catheter insertion depth can be predicted reliably by the distances from the SCV insertion site to the ipsilateral clavicular notch directly (denoted as I-IC, via the top of the SCV arch, or via the clavicle (denoted as I-T-IC and I-C-IC, respectively. Method: In total, 70 SCV catheterizations were studied. The I-IC, I-T-IC, and I-C-IC distances in each case were measured after ultrasound-guided SCV catheter insertion. The actual length of the catheter between the insertion site and the ipsilateral clavicular notch, denoted as L, was calculated by using chest X-ray. Results: L differed from the I-T-IC, I-C-IC, and I-IC distances by 0.14±0.53, 2.19±1.17, and -0.45 ±0.68 cm, respectively. The mean I-T-IC distance was the most similar to the mean L (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.89. The mean I-IC was significantly shorter than L, while the mean I-C-IC was significantly longer. Linear regression analysis provided the following formula: Predicted SCV catheter insertion length (cm = -0.037 + 0.036 × Height (cm + 0.903 × I-T-IC (cm (adjusted r2 =0.64. Conclusion: The I-T-IC distance may be a reliable bedside predictor of the optimal insertion length for a right SCV cannulation.

  4. Left subclavian artery revascularization as part of thoracic stent grafting. (United States)

    Saouti, Nabil; Hindori, Vikash; Morshuis, William J; Heijmen, Robin H


    Intentional covering of the left subclavian artery (LSA) as part of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can cause (posterior) strokes or left arm malperfusion. LSA revascularization can be done as prophylaxis against, or as treatment of, these complications. We report our experience with the surgical technique, indications and the results of LSA revascularization. Between 2000 and 2013, 51 patients of 444 patients who were treated by TEVAR, had LSA revascularization. All elective patients had a preoperative work-up with magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the circle of Willis. In all, surgical access was through a left supraclavicular incision only. The majority (90%) had prophylactic LSA revascularization because of incomplete circle of Willis and or dominant left vertebral artery (LVA) (n=29), patent left internal mammary artery (n=1), prevention spinal cord ischaemia (SCI) (n=2), prevention left arm ischaemia due to small LVA (n=2) and LVA origin in arch (n=1). Fourteen percent had secondary revascularization, either immediate because of malperfusion of the left arm (n=2) or late after TEVAR because of persisting left arm claudication (n=5). In 12 patients, the following early complications were observed: re-exploration for bleeding, n=1; left recurrent nerve paralysis, n=2; left phrenic nerve paralysis, n=1; left sympathetic chain neuropraxia, resulting in Horner's syndrome, n=3; Chyle duct lesions, resulting in persistent Chyle leakage, n=3. Neither strokes nor SCI was observed. One patient experienced occlusion of the bypass at 6 months. The present study shows that the procedure of LSA revascularization as part of TEVAR is safe with low morbidity consisting of mainly (transient) nerve palsy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Subclavian Vein Stenosis/Occlusion Following Transvenous Cardiac Pacemaker and Defibrillator Implantation: Incidence, Pathophysiology and Current Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian O'Leary


    Full Text Available Subclavian vein stenosis is a common, but usually asymptomatic, complication following cardiac device placement. In addition to reviewing the literature on incidence, pathogenesis and management options for this important clinical problem, we describe two cases of symptomatic subclavian vein occlusion following pacemaker/defibrillator placement and successful treatment with venoplasty and stenting.

  6. Bilateral Subclavian Vein Occlusion in a SAPHO Syndrome Patient Who Needed an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator. (United States)

    Ishizuka, Masato; Yamamoto, Yuko; Yamada, Shintaro; Maemura, Sonoko; Nakata, Ryo; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takizawa, Masataka; Uozumi, Hiroki; Ikenouchi, Hiroshi


    A 79-year-old Asian man was hospitalized because of progressive exertional dyspnea with decreasing left ventricular ejection fraction and frequent non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Pre-procedure venography for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation showed occlusion of the bilateral subclavian veins. In consideration of subcutaneous humps in the sterno-clavicular area and palmoplantar pustulosis, we diagnosed him as having synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome and speculated that it induced peri-osteal chronic inflammation in the sterno-clavicular area, resulting in occlusion of the adjacent bilateral subclavian veins. An automatic external defibrillator (AED) was installed in the patient's house and total subcutaneous ICD was considered. Venous thrombosis in SAPHO syndrome is not frequent but has been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral subclavian vein occlusion in a SAPHO syndrome patient who needs ICD implantation.

  7. [Percutaneous catheterization of the subclavian vein and/or the Pirogoff angle]. (United States)

    Millet, J P; Wintrebert, P


    The approach to the sub-clavian venous axis being carried out blindly, the difficulties encountered oblige one: - to avoid the danger (pleural dome in particular); - to guide the catheter along the sub-clavian axis (and not in the jugular vein) and therefore to know the anatomical landmarks and a precise method. A variant of the CARLE technique, that which is proposed is based on no other anatomical argument than the direction of the sub-clavian axis and of its junction. The puncture site is higher and more external, a guiding finger shows the pathway in such a way as to try and leave the dangers behind the pathway of the needle. The obligatory long tunnelization of the catheter, becomes an advantage (fights against the danger of infection) to be added to the already known advantages of this pathway.

  8. Right Aortic Arch and Kommerell's Diverticulum Repaired without Reconstruction of Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery. (United States)

    Osawa, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Daisuke; Orii, Kouan; Hosaka, Shigeru; Fukuda, Shoji; Akashi, Okihiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi


    Right aortic arch with Kommerell's diverticulum is a very rare situation. Surgical treatment is recommended for symptomatic patients or asymptomatic patients with a large diverticulum. However planning the strategy of operation is difficult without a 3D imaging. We report a case of a 57-year-old man with right aortic arch, Kommerell's diverticulum, and aberrant left subclavian artery. After a 3D-CT imaging, the patient underwent descending aortic replacement without reconstruction of aberrant left subclavian artery. After operation, there was no signs or symptoms of ischemia of the left arm. If the reconstruction of the aberrant subclavian artery was too difficult, closing its orifice is an acceptable decision. It has been found advantageous because of a decrease blood loss and a shorter cardiopulmonary bypass duration. If an ischemia of the arm is noticed, additional reconstruction will have to be considered. 3D-CT imaging was very useful to have a proper orientation and plan for the operative strategy.

  9. Subclavian artery occlusion and pseudoaneurysm caused by lung apex mucormycosis: successful treatment with transcatheter embolization. (United States)

    Economopoulos, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Kontopoulou, Christina; Brountzos, Elias N


    Subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion in young patients are usually post-traumatic. We report the case of a 33-year-old diabetic woman with subclavian artery occlusion and pseudoaneurysm formation caused by pulmonary mucormycosis infection. The patient presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, Horner's syndrome, and absent left arm pulses. A cystic lesion of the left lung apex was found by imaging, was surgically resected, and was histologically diagnosed as mucormycosis infection. Magnetic resonance angiography depicted a left subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion adjacent to the mucormycosis lesion. To protect against thromboembolic complications and rupture, the pseudoaneurysm was embolized with coils. The patient is clinically well 1 year after the intervention with no perfusion of the pseudoaneurysm.

  10. Jugular versus subclavian totally implantable access ports: Catheter position, complications and intrainterventional pain perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumhans, Cedric, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, RWTH-Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Mahnken, Andreas H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, RWTH-Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute, RWTH-Aachen University (Germany); Ocklenburg, Christina [Institute of Medical Statistics, University Hospital, RWTH-Aachen University (Germany); Keil, Sebastian; Behrendt, Florian F.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schoth, Felix [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, RWTH-Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)


    Purpose: To determine the safest and most tolerable method for totally implantable access ports (TIAPs) particularly in regard to patient's pain perception and catheter-related complications. Materials and methods: From January 2007 to October 2008 a subcutaneous TIAP (Bardport, Bard Access System, UT, USA) was implanted in 138 oncological patients (60 male, 78 female; 18-85 years old; mean age of 56 {+-} 6 years) by experienced interventional radiologists. 94 TIAP were implanted through the subclavian vein (subclavian group) and 44 TIAP were implanted through the internal jugular vein (jugular group). Intrainterventional pain perception (visual analogue scale from 1 to 10), postinterventional catheter tip migration and radiation dose were documented for each method and implantation side and differences were compared with Wilcoxon t-test. For ordinal variables, comparison of two groups was performed with the Fisher's exact test. Results: No severe periinterventional complication occurred. Inadvertent arterial punctures without serious consequences were reported in one case for the jugular group versus four cases in the subclavian group. Significantly (p < 0.05) lower pain perception, radiation dose and tip migration rate were observed in the jugular group. Catheter occlusions occurred in 4% (n = 4) of the subclavian group versus 2% (n = 1) of the jugular group. The corresponding values for vein thrombosis and catheter dislocation were 3% (n = 3) and 1% (n = 1) in the subclavian group, while none of those complications occurred in the jugular group. Conclusion: Both techniques, the TIAP implantation via fluoroscopy-guided subclavian vein puncture and via ultrasound-guided jugular vein puncture, are feasible and safe. Regarding intrainterventional pain perception, radiation dose, postinterventional catheter tip position and port function the jugular vein puncture under ultrasound guidance seems to be advantageous.

  11. Subclavian artery stenosis caused by non-specific arteritis (Takayasu disease): treatment with Palmaz stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskovic, J.; Jankovic, S.; Lusic, I.; Cambj-Sapunar, L.; Mimica, Z.; Bacic, A


    A 32-year old woman was admitted to the hospital with a sudden onset of right-sided hemiplegia and aphasia. Immediate angiographic examination revealed a severe form of type I Takayasu arteritis with occlusion of all supra-aortic vessels, with the exception of the left subclavian artery which was, however, almost completely occluded 1 cm proximal to the origin of the left vertebral artery. Since the latter provided the entire blood supply to the brain tissues, an immediate attempt was undertaken to dilate the left subclavian artery; when this was unrewarding, stenting of the lesion was successfully accomplished with excellent primary and 6-month follow-up results.

  12. Ultrasound-Guided Subclavian Vein Cannulation in Neonate via Supraclavicular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Balaban


    Full Text Available Central venous cannulation of infants may be challenging. Ultrasonography is recommended and has been found superior to classic landmark technique in pediatric central venous cannulation. The cannulation of the subclavian vein using supraclavicular approach under real-time ultrasound guidance is a novel technique. It may have advantages over ultrasound-guided jugular vein cannulation in specific patients. We report a case of 3200-gram 20-day-old anencephalic neonate who had a diffuse generalized edema. The neonate was cannulated successfully via subclavian vein using supraclavicular approach under ultrasound guidance.

  13. [The accidental cannulation of subclavian artery in a patient undergoing CABG]. (United States)

    Dabrowski, Wojciech R; Biernacka, Jadwiga T; Kotlińska, Edyta; Nestorowicz, Andrzej


    Obtaining central venous access is a standard procedure necessary for safe anesthesia in patients undergoing surgery with extracorporeal circulation. It is well known that jugular way is safer and causes less complication than subclavian. The authors present a case of accidental left subclavian artery cannulation during left internal jugular vein catheterisation. Due to the complex character of myocardial revascularization procedure with extracorporeal circulation and specific catheter localization surgical removal was necessary. This case underline well documented high risk of internal jugular vein cannulation even in operating room condition.

  14. Placement of central venous access via subclavian vein under fluoroscopic guidance with intravenous contrast injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook; Do, Young Soo; Kim, Seung Hoon; Yoh, Kyu Tong; Ro, Duk Woo; Kim, Bo Kyung [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Hickman catheter placement via the subclavian vein under fluoroscopic guidance with intravenous contrast injection. During an eleven-month period, 187 Hickman catheters were percutaneously placed in 167 consecutive patients in an interventional radiology suite. Subclavian venous puncture was made with injection of contrast medium into the peripheral venous line. After subclavian venous access had been obtained, a subcutaneous tunnel was created using a peel-away sheath or a tunneler. The Hickman catheters were inserted through a peel-away sheath, the distal tip of which was as the junction of the right atrium and the superior vena cava. One hundred and eighty-six Hickman catheters were successfully placed ; the one failure was due to anatomical tortuosity of the vein (0.53%). Complications included one case of subclavian vein occlusion (0.53%) ; three of line occlusion by thrombus (1.6%) ; one of oozing at the suture site (0.53%) ; six of infection or inflammation (3.2%) ; eight of natural removal (4.2%) ; one case of air embolism (0.53%) and two of malposition (0.1%). Major complications such as pneumothorax or arterial puncture leading to mediastinal hemorrhage did not, however, occur. The authors concluded that radiologic Hickman catheter placement offers advantages over traditional approaches in terms of safety, convenience, and time and cost savings.

  15. [Coronary subclavian steal syndrome: two cases after coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, L.; Damgaard, S.


    , was diagnosed with CSSS and treated by transposition of the proximal IMA from the subclavian artery to the aorta. Patient B was diagnosed with CSSS by control angiography. Myocardial scintigraphy showed reversible silent ischemia. He was offered treatment, but refused as he was symptom-free Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3/31...

  16. "Classical Blalock-Taussig shunt" gone wrong: Confusing the right common carotid with right subclavian artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammed Idhrees


    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl underwent classical Blalock-Taussig shunt at 5 months of age. Computed tomography evaluation showed "Adachi type H" pattern of aortic arch vessels with the right common carotid artery being anastomosed to the right pulmonary artery mistaking it for the right subclavian artery.

  17. An anatomic landmark to simplify subclavian vein cannulation: the "deltoid tuberosity"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Goedecke, Achim; Keller, Christian; Moriggl, Bernhard; Wenzel, Volker; Bale, Reto; Deibl, Martina; Moser, Patrizia; Lirk, Philipp


    The subclavian vein is frequently used to obtain central venous access. Several landmarks exist to determine the puncture site and angle, but they may require patient manipulation and anatomic measurements. We studied the feasibility of using the deltoid tuberosity, located on the lateral aspect of

  18. Comparison of the visualisation of the subclavian and axillary veins: An ultrasound study in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Roger, Claire; Sadek, Meriem; Bastide, Sophie; Jeannes, Pascal; Muller, Laurent; Bobbia, Xavier; Lefrant, Jean-Yves


    To compare the area of the lumen of the axillary and subclavian veins using ultrasound (US) in 50 healthy volunteers. Using an ultrasound device, depth, area, short axis vein length and long axis vein, vein-artery and vein-pleura distances were measured for axillary and subclavian approaches. The mean cross-sectional area of the axillary vein was greater than the mean cross-sectional area of the subclavian vein (327±89 mm(2) versus 124±46 mm(2), Pvisualised in 3 and 45 volunteers, respectively (Pvisualisation of the axillary vein under US is greater than that for the subclavian vein, mainly due to a better alignment with the long axis of the axillary vein leading to a greater cross-sectional area of the axillary vein. NCT01647815. Copyright © 2016 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Hemodialysis shunts-related subclavian vein stenosis : treatment with self-expandable metallic stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Gyee; Lee, Young Chul; Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Sang Young; Choi, Su Jin Na [Chonnam Univ. College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness of placement of self-expandable stents in hemodialytic shunt-related subclavian vein stenosis. Self-expandable metallic stent was placed in nine patients with hemodialytic shunt-related subclavian vein stenosis. In seven cases, angioplasty was attempted before stent placement; in five, stents were placed immediately after failed angioplasty; and in two, due to restenosis after angioplasty. Procedures involved a 10mm diameter, 7-10cm length Wallstent in eight cases, and a 10mm diameter, 8cm length Hanaro stent in one. In all cases, clinical follow-up, which included physical examination and the measurement of venous resistance pressure during hemodialysis, was performed. The follow-up period was between 5 months and 1 year 7 months. Repeated intervention was performed if restenosis was detected. The stenotic sites were in eight cases the site of a previous subclavian venous line, and in one, the site of anatomic narrowing at the thoracic inlet of the subclavian vein. The technical success rate was 100%;a resulting complication was stent migration into the right atrium in one case in which a Hanaro stent had been used; this was removed by snaring. During follow-up of the eight patients in whon stent placement was successful, restenosis developed in three cases. This occurred during the 7th, 8th, and 15th month, respectively. Two such cases were treated by balloon dilatation. In hemodialytic shunt-related subclavian vein stenosis, treatment involving the use of a self-expandable metallic stent is useful, especially for treating a lesion which has not responded to angioplasty with a high patency rate.

  20. Comparison of retavase and urokinase for management of spontaneous subclavian vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Gelabert, Hugh A; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Rigberg, David A


    Thrombolysis is an essential first step in the surgical management of acute spontaneous axillo-subclavian vein thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome). During the past decade, Urokinase became the standard thrombolytic agent until temporarily withdrawn from the market. In its absence, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA) was introduced and attained widespread use. A direct comparison of the efficacy of these two agents in this setting has not been published. The goal of this study is to compare thrombolytic agents in the management of acute Paget-Schroetter syndrome. This study is based on a retrospective review of 30 consecutive patients (15 Urokinase, 15 r-TPA) who underwent thrombolysis and surgery for Paget-Schroetter syndrome. Our hypothesis is that thromblysis with Urokinase and r-TPA is equally safe and effective in management of acute axillo-subclavian vein thrombosis. Primary outcome measures include success of lysis, hemorrhagic complications, subclavian vein patency at completion of treatment, resolution of presenting symptoms, and restitution of normal arm function. There were no significant differences in the primary outcome measures: success of lysis, hemorrhagic complication, perioperative bleeding, and subclavian vein patency. Time to completion of lysis was slightly shorter with r-TPA (but this did not achieve statistical significance). One patient in each group suffered incomplete lysis of thrombus. One patient in the r-TPA group required transfusion due to surgical bleeding. No patient received transfusion due to thrombolysis-related bleeding. All patients experienced resolution of symptoms and return of arm function. Our findings support the hypothesis that Urokinase and r-TPA are similarly safe and successful for management of spontaneous axillo-subclavian vein thrombosis. Given these results, secondary factors such as cost, availability, and familiarity with the different agents will likely determine the agent of choice.

  1. An alternative central venous route for cardiac surgery: supraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization. (United States)

    Kocum, Aysu; Sener, Mesut; Calıskan, Esra; Bozdogan, Nesrin; Atalay, Hakan; Aribogan, Anis


    To evaluate the clinical success rate, safety, and usefulness for intraoperative central venous pressure monitoring, and the intravenous access of the supraclavicular subclavian vein approach when compared with the infraclavicular subclavian vein approach and the internal jugular vein approach for central venous catheterization during open-chest cardiac surgery. A prospective, randomized, single-center study. A university hospital. One hundred ninety-five patients scheduled for open-chest cardiac surgery. The study population consisted of patients for whom central vein catheterization was intended during cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized to 3 groups according to the route of central vein catheterization: the supraclavicular group: the supraclavicular approach for the subclavian vein (n = 65); the infraclavicular group: the infraclavicular approach for the subclavian vein (n = 65); and the jugular group: the internal jugular vein approach (n = 65). After the induction of anesthesia, central venous catheterization was performed according to the assigned approach. The success rates for the assigned approach were 98%, 98%, and 92% for the supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and jugular groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The success rates in the first 3 attempts in patients who were catheterized successfully according to the assigned approach were 96%, 100%, and 96% for the supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and jugular groups, respectively (p > 0.05). There was no difference among groups in catheter insertion time (p > 0.05). After sternal retraction, central venous pressure trace loss and difficulty in fluid infusion were significantly more frequent in the infraclavicular group (21%) when compared with the supraclavicular (3%) and jugular groups (0%) (p = 0.01). There was no difference among groups in terms of catheter malposition, complications during catheterization, and rate of catheter-related infection. The supraclavicular approach for subclavian vein

  2. Automatic wire twister. (United States)

    Smith, J F; Rodeheaver, G T; Thacker, J G; Morgan, R F; Chang, D E; Fariss, B L; Edlich, R F


    This automatic wire twister used in surgery consists of a 6-inch needle holder attached to a twisting mechanism. The major advantage of this device is that it twists wires significantly more rapidly than the conventional manual techniques. Testing has found that the ultimate force required to disrupt the wires twisted by either the automatic wire twister or manual techniques did not differ significantly and was directly related to the number of twists. The automatic wire twister reduces the time needed for wire twisting without altering the security of the twisted wire.

  3. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna


    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  4. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC


    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  5. Temporary internal pacing. (United States)

    Ortiz Díaz-Miguel, R; Gómez Grande, M L


    Technology and insertion techniques for cardiac temporary internal pacing have experienced a remarkable development over the last few years. Despite this fact, the procedure continues to have potentially fatal associated complications. Temporary internal pacing is indicated for the treatment of bradyarrhythmias or tachyarrhythmias refractory to conventional treatment, or arrhythmias causing cardiovascular or clinical instability of the patient. On the other hand, the indications of temporary cardiac pacing are far less well defined than those of permanent pacing. Since the decision of implementing temporary pacing is complex and delicate, it should always be carefully considered, and over-indication should be avoided. We must base these decisions on robust knowledge of the arrhythmias that may benefit from temporary internal pacing, and should also acquire the habit of considering external temporary pacing among other less aggressive treatments, and to make the best use of new technologies such as echocardiography that add accuracy to the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Aorta-LITA Bypass Grafting with Saphenous Vein in a Patient Undergoing Coronary Artery Surgery with Subclavian Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Çağlı


    Full Text Available The internal thoracic artery (ITA is the primary graft for coronary artery bypass grafting and can not be used if there is subclavian artery stenosis (SAS. Aorto-axillary, carotid-subclavian bypass and also angioplasty with stenting or other interventional treatments are acceptable procedures for SAS treatment. Aorta-ITA bypass with saphenous vein can be alternative and simple technique for SAS to save Winslow pathway for patients with peripheral artery disease.

  7. Endovascular treatment of the subclavian artery aneurysm in high-risk patient - a single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan


    Full Text Available We present our first experience with endovascular treatment of 6 subclavian artery aneurysms (SAA occurring in five male and one female patient. All patients, in our studies, according to ASA classification were high risk for open repair of SAA. The etiology of the all aneurysms was atherosclerosis degeneration of the artery. Two aneurysms were of intrathoracic location, then the other were extrathoracic. Symptoms related to subclavian artery aneurysms were present in two patients, compression and chest pain in one, and hemorrhage shock in second, while the remaining patients were asymptomatic. We preferred the Viabhan endoprosthesis for endovascular repair in 5 cases. In one patient with ruptured of subclavian artery aneurysm who was high-risk for open repair we made combined endovascular procedure. First at all, we covered the origin of left subclavian artery with thoracic stent graft and after that we put two coils in proximal part of subclavian artery. There was no operative mortality, and the early patency rate was 100%. The follow-up period was from 3 months to 3 years. During this period, one patient died of heart failure and one patient required endovascular reoperation due to endoleak type I. Endovascular treatment is recommended for all patients with subclavian artery aneurysm whenever this is possible due to anatomical reasons especially in high-risk patient with intrathoracic localization of aneurysm, to prevent potential complications.

  8. Penetrating neck injury: Collaterals for another life after ligation of common carotid artery and subclavian artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Babu


    Full Text Available Neck, being not protected by skeleton, is vulnerable to external trauma and injury which involves blood vessels, trachea, esophagus and other endocrine and nervous system organs. Vascular injuries can not only cause potentially life-threatening hemorrhage but also need profound surgical expertise in management. Development of collateral circulation in neck is well known; however, there is scarcity of literature on the role of collateral formation in neck trauma. Here, we present a unique case of penetrating gunshot injury to neck with right common carotid and right subclavian artery injury with hemorrhagic shock managed with ligation of these vessels as a life-saving procedure. The patient presented with no neurological or motor deficits in immediate postoperative period owing to the collateral circulation between right vertebral artery and right common carotid and right subclavian artery.

  9. Spontaneous Subclavian Vein Thrombosis in a Healthy Adolescent Cheerleader: A Case of Paget-Schroetter Syndrome. (United States)

    Chu, Andrew S; Harkness, Julia; Witmer, Char M


    We present the case of a healthy 13-year-old female adolescent who developed acute progressive swelling and pain in her right upper extremity that was secondary to an acute deep venous thrombosis of her right subclavian vein. Dynamic imaging revealed subclavian vein compression at the junction of the first rib and proximal third of the clavicle consistent with Paget-Schroetter syndrome, also known as effort-related thrombosis. The compressive etiology of her thrombus was most likely related to her cheerleading activity, in which she served as the pyramid base. The patient received multimodal therapy including anticoagulation, mechanical and site-directed thrombolysis, and a first rib resection. This case illustrates that frontline providers should have a high index of suspicion for an upper extremity thrombosis in pediatric patients who present with unilateral arm swelling.

  10. Malpositioning of Central Venous Catheter from Right to Left Subclavian Vein: A Rare Complication. (United States)

    Takhar, P Rajendra; Motilal, Bunkar; Savita, Arya


    Invasive monitoring with central venous catheter (CVC) is a valuable tool now a day in Intensive Care Units and in postoperative hemodynamically unstable patients. It is often employed for administering medications and parenteral nutrition. In most of the instances, these catheters are inserted using proper topographical landmarks and ultrasonography-guided methods. Central venous cannulation is associated now and then with unexpected complications despite the use of all precautions and help of imaging techniques. There is a wide variety of complications related to the central venous cannulation including malpositioning. Malpositioning of the catheter into contralateral subclavian is an extremely unusual event. Here, we report a rare case of malpositioning of CVC from the right to the left subclavian vein also we outline how the misplacement was identified and effectively managed.

  11. Aberrant right subclavian artery and calcified aneurysm of kommerell's diverticulum: an alternative approach (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose Rubio J; Quiroga, Sierra JL; Nazar, Adrio B; Comendador, Martinez JM; Carro, Garcia J


    We report a 72 year-old man with dysphagia and dizziness. Aortography and Computed tomographic scans revealed the aberrant right subclavian artery arising from a calcified aneurysm of the Kommerell's diverticulum and bilateral carotid artery disease with atherosclerotic narrowing. Surgical relief was accomplished by excluding the aneurysm from circulation through the aortic arch and a 10 mm graft was interposed between the aberrant artery and the ascending aorta. PMID:18613969

  12. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server


    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  13. Internal Jugular and Subclavian Vein Thrombosis in a Case of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Moriwaki


    Full Text Available Central venous catheter insertion and cancer represent some of the important predisposing factors for deep venous thrombosis (DVT. DVT usually develops in the lower extremities, and venous thrombosis of the upper extremities is uncommon. Early diagnosis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis are of importance, because it is a precursor of complications such as pulmonary embolism and postthrombotic syndrome. A 47-year-old woman visited our department with painful swelling on the left side of her neck. Initial examination revealed swelling of the region extending from the left neck to the shoulder without any redness of the overlying skin. Laboratory tests showed a white blood cell count of 5,800/mm3 and an elevated serum C-reactive protein of 4.51 mg/dL. Computed tomography (CT of the neck revealed a vascular filling defect in the left internal jugular vein to left subclavian vein region, with the venous lumina completely occluded with dense soft tissue. On the basis of the findings, we made the diagnosis of thrombosis of the left internal jugular and left subclavian veins. The patient was begun on treatment with oral rivaroxaban, but the left shoulder pain worsened. She was then admitted to the hospital and treated by balloon thrombectomy and thrombolytic therapy, which led to improvement of the left subclavian venous occlusion. Histopathologic examination of the removed thrombus revealed adenocarcinoma cells, indicating hematogenous dissemination of malignant cells.

  14. Right-sided aortic arch with anomalous origin of the left subclavian artery: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučurević Goran


    Full Text Available Introduction. A right-sided aortic arch is a rare congenital defect of the aorta with incidence of 0.05% to 0.1% reported in published series. Usually it is associated with congenital heart anomalies and esophageal and tracheal compression symptoms. We present a case of a right-sided aortic arch of anomalous left subclavian artery origin, accidentally revealed during multislice CT (MSCT supraaortic branches angiography. Case Outline. A 53-year-old female patient was examined at the Outpatients’ Unit of the Vascular Surgery University Clinic for vertigo, occasional dizziness and difficulty with swallowing. Physical examination revealed a murmur of the left supraclavicular space, with 15 mmHg lower rate of arterial tension on the left arm. Ultrasound of carotid arteries revealed 60% stenosis of the left subclavian artery and bilateral internal carotid artery elongation. MSCT angiography revealed a right-sided aortic arch with aberrant separation of the left subclavian artery that was narrowed 50%, while internal carotid arteries were marginally elongated. There was no need for surgical treatment or percutaneous interventions, so that conservative treatment was indicated. Conclusion. A right-sided aortic arch is a very rare anomaly of the location and branching of the aorta. Multislice CT angiography is of great importance in the diagnostics of this rare disease.

  15. Evaluating vertebral artery dominancy before T4 lung cancer surgery requiring subclavian artery reconstruction. (United States)

    Sekine, Yasuo; Saitoh, Yukio; Yoshino, Mitsuru; Koh, Eitetsu; Hata, Atsushi; Inage, Terunaga; Suzuki, Hidemi; Yoshino, Ichiro


    To evaluate vertebral artery (VA) dominancy and the risk of brain infarction in T4 lung cancer patients with tumor invasion into the subclavian artery. We reconstructed the subclavian artery in 10 patients with T4 non-small cell lung cancer. The histological stages were IIIA in eight patients and IIIB in two patients. We evaluated the VA dominancy by performing a four-vessel study preoperatively and investigated the relationship between the methods of VA treatment and postoperative brain complications, retrospectively. Seven patients had a superior sulcus tumor (SST) and three had direct invasion into the mediastinum. Based on the tumor location, a transmanublial approach was used in five patients and a posterolateral hook incision was used in the other five. All subclavian artery (SA) reconstructions were done using an artificial woven graft. Preoperative angiography of the VA revealed poor development of the contralateral side in two patients. One of these patients suffered a severe brain infarction on postoperative day 2, which proved fatal. In the other patient, the VA was connected to the left SA graft by a side-to-end anastomosis and there was no postoperative brain complication. Preoperative SA and VA angiography is mandatory for identifying the need for VA reconstruction in lung cancer patients with major arterial invasion.

  16. Right Aortic Arch and Kommerell’s Diverticulum Repaired without Reconstruction of Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Osawa


    Full Text Available Right aortic arch with Kommerell’s diverticulum is a very rare situation. Surgical treatment is recommended for symptomatic patients or asymptomatic patients with a large diverticulum. However planning the strategy of operation is difficult without a 3D imaging. We report a case of a 57-year-old man with right aortic arch, Kommerell’s diverticulum, and aberrant left subclavian artery. After a 3D-CT imaging, the patient underwent descending aortic replacement without reconstruction of aberrant left subclavian artery. After operation, there was no signs or symptoms of ischemia of the left arm. If the reconstruction of the aberrant subclavian artery was too difficult, closing its orifice is an acceptable decision. It has been found advantageous because of a decrease blood loss and a shorter cardiopulmonary bypass duration. If an ischemia of the arm is noticed, additional reconstruction will have to be considered. 3D-CT imaging was very useful to have a proper orientation and plan for the operative strategy.

  17. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G


    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  18. Endovascular Treatment of an Iatrogenic Right Internal Jugular Vein- Right Subclavian Artery Fistula and Pseudoaneurysm During the Attempt of a Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eui Min; Kim, Hyun Lee; Kim, Dong Hyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Complications during the placement of a central venous catheter, via the right internal jugular vein puncture include local hematoma, hemothorax, pneumothorax, central vein thrombosis, and hemopericardium. Iatrogenic right internal jugular vein-right subclavian artery fistula with the formation of right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysms is an extremely rare complication in patients undergoing a central vein puncture. We report the case of a patient who developed a local hematoma at the vein puncture site and dyspnea due to a right internal jugular vein-subclavian artery fistula and a right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm at the mediastinum after puncture of right internal jugular vein. The patient was successfully treated by embolization using microcoils.

  19. Laser Wire Stripper (United States)


    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  20. Contemporary management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries-A Western Trauma Association multicenter review. (United States)

    Waller, Christine J; Cogbill, Thomas H; Kallies, Kara J; Ramirez, Luis D; Cardenas, Justin M; Todd, S Rob; Chapman, Kayla J; Beckman, Marshall A; Sperry, Jason L; Anto, Vincent P; Eriksson, Evert A; Leon, Stuart M; Anand, Rahul J; Pearlstein, Maura; Capano-Wehrle, Lisa; Cothren Burlew, Clay; Fox, Charles J; Cullinane, Daniel C; Roberts, Jennifer C; Harrison, Paul B; Berg, Gina M; Haan, James M; Lightwine, Kelly


    Subclavian and axillary artery injuries are uncommon. In addition to many open vascular repairs, endovascular techniques are used for definitive repair or vascular control of these anatomically challenging injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the relative roles of endovascular and open techniques in the management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries comparing hospital outcomes, and long-term limb viability. A multicenter, retrospective review of patients with subclavian or axillary artery injuries from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014, was completed at 11 participating Western Trauma Association institutions. Statistical analysis included χ, t-tests, and Cochran-Armitage trend tests. A p value less than 0.05 was significant. Two hundred twenty-three patients were included; mean age was 36 years, 84% were men. An increase in computed tomography angiography and decrease in conventional angiography was observed over time (p = 0.018). There were 120 subclavian and 119 axillary artery injuries. Procedure type was associated with injury grade (p < 0.001). Open operations were performed in 135 (61%) patients, including 93% of greater than 50% circumference lacerations and 83% of vessel transections. Endovascular repairs were performed in 38 (17%) patients; most frequently for pseudoaneurysms. Fourteen (6%) patients underwent a hybrid procedure. Use of endovascular versus open procedures did not increase over the duration of the study (p = 0.248). In-hospital mortality rate was 10%. Graft or stent thrombosis occurred in 7% and graft or stent infection occurred in 3% of patients. Mean follow-up was 1.6 ± 2.4 years (n = 150). Limb salvage was achieved in 216 (97%) patients. The management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries still requires a wide variety of open exposures and procedures, especially for the control of active hemorrhage from more than 50% vessel lacerations and transections. Endovascular repairs were used most often for

  1. Flicking-wire drag tensioner (United States)

    Dassele, M. A.; Fairall, H.


    Wire-drag system improves wire profile and applies consistent drag to wire. Wire drag is continuously adjustable from zero drag to tensile strength of wire. No-sag wire drag is easier to thread than former system and requires minimal downtime for cleaning and maintenance.

  2. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)


    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  4. Essays on temporary migration


    Mestres Domenech, J.


    My thesis dissertation focuses on the temporariness of migration, its diverse effects as well as on migration selection. The first paper, A Dynamic Model of Return Migration analyzes the decision process underlying return migration using a dynamic model. We explain how migrants decide whether to stay or to go back to their home country together with their savings and consumption decisions. We simulate our model with return intentions and perform policy simulations. The se...

  5. Ease of Using a Dedicated Percutaneous Closure Device after Inadvertent Cannulation of the Subclavian Artery: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Devriendt


    Full Text Available Inadvertent puncture of the subclavian artery is a relatively frequent and potentially disastrous complication of attempted central venous access. Due to its noncompressible location, accidental subclavian arterial cannulation may result in hemorrhage as the sheath is removed. We report a new case of successful percutaneous closure of the subclavian artery which had been inadvertently cannulated, using a closure device based on a collagen plug (Angio-Seal, St. Jude Medical. This was performed in a patient who had received maximal antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapies because of prior coronary stenting in the context of cardiogenic shock. There was no prior angiographic assessment, as arterial puncture was presumed to have been distal to the right common artery and vertebral arteries. No complications were observed in this high-risk patient, suggesting that this technique could be used once the procedure has been evaluated prospectively.

  6. Subclavian artery aneurysm in a patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. (United States)

    Yasuda, Shota; Imoto, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Keiji; Uranaka, Yasuko; Kurosawa, Kenji; Masuda, Munetaka


    We describe our experience of surgical treatment in a 28-year-old woman with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A right subclavian artery aneurysm was detected. The right vertebral artery arose from the aneurysm. Digital subtraction angiography showed interruption of the left vertebral artery. The aneurysm was excised and the right vertebral artery was anastomosed end-to-side to the right common carotid artery under deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. The patient remained very well 4 years after surgery, with no late vascular complication. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing


    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.


    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  8. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Photovoltaic Wire Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  10. Concomitant aorto-right subclavian artery bypass with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a case report. (United States)

    Tazume, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Ken; Fukui, Toshihiro


    Atherosclerotic stenosis of the brachiocephalic artery sometimes occurs in patients with coronary artery disease, and can cause stroke during the perioperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting. We describe the case of a 77-year old male with severe stenosis of the brachiocephalic artery and severe coronary artery disease. He successfully underwent aorto-right subclavian artery bypass that was performed concomitantly with off-pump coronary artery bypass. Concomitant aorto-subclavian artery bypass with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is a therapeutic option that minimizes the risk of perioperative stroke in patients with brachiocephalic artery stenosis and coronary artery disease.

  11. Arterial reconstruction of the brachiocephalic trunk and the subclavian arteries. 10 years' experience with a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Hansen, Hans Jørgen Buchardt


    -three reconstructive procedures were performed together with two arterial ligations (four patients were operated on bilaterally and one patient was operated on twice on the same side). There were 30 transthoracic procedures, essentially endarterectomies, and 35 supraclavicular procedures, mostly carotid......-subclavian bypasses and transpositions of the subclavian artery to the common carotid artery. One patient died (1.5 per cent). Serious complications occurred in additional four cases. In the follow-up study data on all the patients were available. During the follow-up period, ranging from four to 124 months (mean 43...

  12. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  13. A temporary face support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.I.; Bakhtin, V.N.; Tolkachev, N.I.


    A temporary face support is proposed. It includes a beam supported by hydraulic jacks on the housing of the cutter-loader with a working tool and rotary pressure regulator. It differs in that to decrease the volume of unsecured roofing in the face space between the leading edge of the beam and the cutting tool of the cutter-loader, the beam is hinged onto the housing of the rotary pressure regulator by a fastened connecting rod, and the hydraulic jacks are provided with additional powered elements with a mechanism that regulates the length of the cut-off plate of the hydraulic pump when the seam pressure changes.

  14. A mixed-reality part-task trainer for subclavian venous access. (United States)

    Robinson, Albert R; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Cooper, Lou Ann; Lizdas, David; Luria, Isaac; Lampotang, Samsun


    Mixed-reality (MR) procedural simulators combine virtual and physical components and visualization software that can be used for debriefing and offer an alternative to learn subclavian central venous access (SCVA). We present a SCVA MR simulator, a part-task trainer, which can assist in the training of medical personnel. Sixty-five participants were involved in the following: (1) a simulation trial 1; (2) a teaching intervention followed by trial 2 (with the simulator's visualization software); and (3) trial 3, a final simulation assessment. The main test parameters were time to complete SCVA and the SCVA score, a composite of efficiency and safety metrics generated by the simulator's scoring algorithm. Residents and faculty completed questionnaires presimulation and postsimulation that assessed their confidence in obtaining access and learner satisfaction questions, for example, realism of the simulator. The average SCVA score was improved by 24.5 (n=65). Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed significant reductions in average time (F=31.94, Peducational tool (M=4.9). An SCVA mixed simulator offers a realistic representation of subclavian central venous access and offers new debriefing capabilities.

  15. Association of aberrant right subclavian artery with abnormal karyotype and microarray results. (United States)

    Svirsky, Ran; Reches, Adi; Brabbing-Goldstein, Dana; Bar-Shira, Anat; Yaron, Yuval


    The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence of chromosomal aberration (both microscopic and sub-microscopic) in fetuses with an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) detected by ultrasonographic anomaly scan. The study included 62 pregnant women whose fetuses were diagnosed with ARSA who were referred for genetic counseling. Of these, 55 patients underwent amniocentesis and 7 declined invasive testing. All 55 amniocentesis samples were tested by standard G-banding and chromosomal microarray, except for 2 samples for which only karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization for 22q11.2 deletions were performed. Of the 55 women who underwent amniocentesis, 5 were detected with trisomy 21 (9.1%), all of whom had additional ultrasound findings. Among the 14 fetuses with ARSA and additional ultrasound findings, the incidence of trisomy 21 was 35.7%. In fetuses with isolated ARSA, no chromosomal aberrations were detected by standard cytogenetic analysis and only one (1.9%) deleterious copy number variants (CNV) was detected by chromosomal microarray. Aberrant right subclavian artery with additional ultrasound findings constitute a strong predictor for aneuploidy. However, when ARSA is found in isolation, it confers no increased risk for aneuploidy or pathogenic CNVs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of aberrant right subclavian artery in an unselected population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin; Han, Byoung Hee; Kim, Young Hwa; Yoon, So Young; Lee, Yoo Mi; Jeon, Hye Su; Park, Bo Kyung [Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) among unselected fetuses and to evaluate its association with chromosomal abnormalities and other congenital anomalies.In all, 7,547 fetuses (gestational age, 20 to 34 weeks) were examined using routine antenatal sonography at our institution between April 2014 and September 2015. The right subclavian artery was assessed using grayscale and color Doppler ultrasonography in the transverse 3-vessel and tracheal view, and confirmed in the coronal plane. ARSA was found in 28 fetuses (0.4%). Further, 27 of these 28 fetuses were euploid (96.4%). Trisomy 18 was the only chromosomal anomaly (3.6%) found in the study sample. ARSA was an isolated finding in 23 of the 28 cases (82.1%). In the remaining three cases (10.7%), ARSA was accompanied with extracardiac anomalies. Other cardiac defects were present in three cases (10.7%). Isolated ARSA does not seem to be associated with a significantly increased risk of aneuploidy. However, the possibility of fetal karyotyping, which is a more invasive procedure, should be discussed in the light of the overall risk of the fetus.

  17. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This motivated us to study the LL model of a quantum wire, with Fermi liquid leads and the unusual feature of ... of quantized conductance even in clean quantum wires and a novel odd–even effect in the presence of a .... But in one dimension, it is well-known that the FL theory breaks down, and the ground state is a ...

  18. Commercial and Industrial Wiring. (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  19. Ultrasonic duplex scanning in atherosclerotic disease of the innominate, subclavian and vertebral arteries. A comparative study with angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelboom, B.C.; Ackerstaff, R.G.A.; Hoeneveld, H.; Slowikowski, J.M.; Moll, F.L.; Ludwig, J.W.


    Ultrasonic duplex scanning of the vertebral artery has a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.83 for the detection of an obstructive lesion of 50% or more at the site of the ostium. For the subclavian arteries these values are respectively 0.73 and 0.91. For both vessels the test has a very

  20. A Right-sided Aortic Arch with Kommerell's Diverticulum of the Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery Presenting with Syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Yang


    Full Text Available A right-sided aortic arch with an aneurysm of the aberrant subclavian artery is a rare disease. We report a case of Kommerell's diverticulum of an aberrant left subclavian artery in a patient with a right-sided aortic arch. Fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. A number of operative strategies are described. Right thoracotomy provides good exposure and avoids the morbidity associated with bilateral thoracotomy or sternotomy and thoracotomy. In our patient with symptoms of dysphagia, syncope, and left subclavian steal syndrome, a left thoracotomy was used. The repair was accomplished by division of a left ligamentum arteriosum, obliteration of the Kommerell's aneurysm, and an aorto-subclavian bypass. Postoperative complications included left vocal cord palsy and Horner's syndrome. Hoarseness and left ptosis recovered spontaneously 3 months after surgery, and the patient remained symptom-free at the 1-year follow-up. We believe a left thoracotomy for direct repair of Kommerell's diverticulum is a simple and safe method without the increased morbidity found in other procedures.

  1. Prosthetic Subclavian-Aortic Bypass as a Safe Surgical Technique for the Coarctation of the Aorta in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Refatllari


    CONCLUSION: Coarctation of the aorta in adults is treated with optimal early results at our surgical centre. Subclavian-aortic bypass grafting requires less aortic dissection, can be performed with a partially occluding clamp, and does not compromise the spinal cord vascularization.

  2. Elastocaloric effect of Ni-Ti wire for application in a cooling device (United States)

    Tušek, J.; Engelbrecht, K.; Mikkelsen, L. P.; Pryds, N.


    We report on the elastocaloric effect of a superelastic Ni-Ti wire to be used in a cooling device. Initially, each evaluated wire was subjected to 400 loading/unloading training cycles in order to stabilize its superelastic behavior. The wires were trained at different temperatures, which lead to different stabilized superelastic behaviors. The stabilized (trained) wires were further tested isothermally (at low strain-rate) and adiabatically (at high strain-rate) at different temperatures (from 312 K to 342 K). We studied the impact of the training temperature and resulting superelastic behavior on the adiabatic temperature changes. The largest measured adiabatic temperature change during loading was 25 K with a corresponding 21 K change during unloading (at 322 K). A special focus was put on the irreversibilities in the adiabatic temperature changes between loading and unloading. It was shown that there are two sources of the temperature irreversibilities: the hysteresis (and related entropy generation) and the temporary residual strain immediately after unloading, respectively. The latter results in the temporary bending of the wire and reduced negative adiabatic temperature change. The paper also shows the impact of the applied strain on the adiabatic temperature changes as well as the distribution of the elastocaloric effect over the wire during loading in the case of two wires trained at different temperatures and the virgin wire, respectively. In the end, we propose guidelines about the required material properties for an efficient elastocaloric cooling device.

  3. Association of left subclavian artery coverage without revascularization and spinal cord ischemia in patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair: A Vascular Quality Initiative® analysis. (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro Gr; Woo, Karen; Beck, Adam W; Scali, Salvatore T; Weaver, Fred A


    Objectives Investigate the impact of left subclavian artery coverage without revascularization on spinal cord ischemia development in patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Methods The Vascular Quality Initiative thoracic endovascular aortic repair module (April 2011-July 2014) was analyzed. Patients undergoing left subclavian artery coverage were divided into two groups according to revascularization status. The association between left subclavian artery revascularization with the primary outcome of spinal cord ischemia and the secondary outcome of stroke was assessed with multivariable analysis adjusting for between-group baseline differences. Results The left subclavian artery was covered in 508 (24.6%) of the 2063 thoracic endovascular aortic repairs performed. Among patients with left subclavian artery coverage, 58.9% underwent revascularization. Spinal cord ischemia incidence was 12.1% in the group without revascularization compared to 8.5% in the group undergoing left subclavian artery revascularization (odds ratio (95%CI): 1.48(0.82-2.68), P = 0.189). Multivariable analysis adjustment identified an independent association between left subclavian artery coverage without revascularization and the incidence of spinal cord ischemia (adjusted odds ratio (95%CI): 2.29(1.03-5.14), P = 0.043). Although the incidence of stroke was also higher for the group with a covered and nonrevascularized left subclavian artery (12.1% versus 8.5%), this difference was not statistically significant after multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio (95%CI): 1.55(0.74-3.26), P = 0.244). Conclusion For patients undergoing left subclavian artery coverage during thoracic endovascular aortic repair, the addition of a revascularization procedure was associated with a significantly lower incidence of spinal cord ischemia.


    Atanasova, D; Markov, D; Pavlova, E


    The development of the fetal aorta ends with the formation of the aortic arch which normally branches into three blood vessels: 1) a. brachiocephalica (a. innominata), which divides into the right subclavian artery (RSA) and the right carotid artery; 2) the left carotid artery; and 3) the left subclavian artery. Occasionally, RSA originates as a separate fourth branch of the aortic arch, passing behind the trachea with an oblique course to the right shoulder. This rare variant is called an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) and is observed in approximately 2% of normal individuals. On the other hand, the reported incidence of ARSA varies between 25 and 37% in cases with Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities. To evaluate the success rate of ultrasound visualization of the fetal RSA between 18 and 23 weeks of gestation and to establish the importance of the prenatal diagnosis of ARSA in the risk assessment for fetal chromosomal abnormalities in the second trimester. Three experienced sonographers scanned 992 fetuses in MC "Markovs", Sofia between 01.09.2013-01.06.2014 with Voluson 730 Expert (GE Healthcare) ultrasound equipment. Visualization of RSA was successful in 92.7% of cases. Overall, 17 cases with ARSA were diagnosed in the study period. ARSA was an isolated sonographic finding in 13 of them. The remaining 4 cases had additional pathology. In the first case ARSA was associated with a short femurand humerus, short nasal bone and borderline nuchal thickness without any other soft markers or structural abnormalities. Trisomy 21 was diagnosed after amniocentesis and the pregnancy was terminated at patient's request. In the second case ARSA was associated with severe polymalformation syndrome. Trisomy 18 was diagnosed by DNA analysis post abortem. In the third case ARSA was associated with an unilateral cleft lip and cleft palate. Abnormalities of the fetal karyotype and Di George syndrome were excluded by amniocentesis. The fourth case was

  5. Ultrathin Nanocrystalline Magnetic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Chiriac


    Full Text Available The magnetic characteristics of FINEMET type glass-coated nanowires and submicron wires are investigated by taking into account the structural evolution induced by specific annealing all the way from a fully amorphous state to a nanocrystalline structure. The differences between the magnetic properties of these ultrathin wires and those of the thicker glass-coated microwires and “conventional” wires with similar structures have been emphasized and explained phenomenologically. The domain wall propagation in these novel nanowires and submicron wires, featuring a combination between an amorphous and a crystalline structure, has also been studied, given the recent interest in the preparation and investigation of new materials suitable for the development of domain wall logic applications.

  6. Dual wire weld feed proportioner (United States)

    Nugent, R. E.


    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  7. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G


    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  8. J-tipped guidewire as a target for puncture of the subclavian artery in the placement of a reservoir port and catheter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, Yukihiro; Kusano, Shoichi [Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, 359-0042, Saitama (Japan); Makita, Kohzoh [Department of Radiology, Social Insurance Chuo General Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)


    The aim of this study was to verify the feasibility of using a J-tipped guidewire as a target for puncture of the subclavian artery in the placement of a reservoir port and catheter system (RPCS). Twenty-five patients with various hepatic malignancies underwent percutaneous implantation of an RPCS through the left subclavian artery for regional chemotherapy. To successfully puncture the left subclavian artery, a J-tipped guidewire was used as a target with fluoroscopic guidance. Technical success and complication rates, and numbers of puncture failures, were retrospectively analyzed. Implantation of the RPCS was successful in all patients. Eight (32%) patients had minor complications and no patient had major complications. The number of puncture failures per patient was 0 to 1 (mean=0.32). The J-tipped guidewire is a safe and appropriate target for puncture of the subclavian artery in the placement of an RPCS. (orig.)

  9. The effects of the Trendelenburg position and intrathoracic pressure on the subclavian cross-sectional area and distance from the subclavian vein to pleura in anesthetized patients. (United States)

    Kwon, Mi-Young; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Kang, Hye-Ju; Kil, Ho-Young; Jang, Kee-Hoon; Koo, Min-Seok; Lee, Gunn-Hee; Lee, Myung-Ae; Kim, Tae-Yop


    The effects of maneuvers to increase intrathoracic pressure and of Trendelenburg position on the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the subclavian vein (SCV) and the relationship between the SCV and adjacent structures have not been investigated. In ultrasonography-guided SCV catheterization (N = 30), the CSA of the SCV and the distance between the SCV and pleura (DSCV-pleura) were determined during 10-second airway opening, and 10-second positive inspiratory hold with 20 cm H2O in the supine position (S-0, and S-20) and the 10° Trendelenburg position (T-0, and T-20). In addition to a statistical significance of P pleura differences of ≥15% were defined as clinically relevant changes. CSA (mean [95% confidence interval]) in S-20, T-0, and T-20 (1.02 [0.95-1.14] cm(2), 1.04 [0.95-1.15] cm(2), and 1.14 [1.04-1.24] cm(2), respectively) was significantly larger than a CSA in S-0 (0.93 [0.86-1.00] cm(2), all P pleura measurements (mean) in S-20 and T-20 (0.61 and 0.60 cm) were significantly shorter than those in S-0 (0.70 cm, all P pleura were not clinically meaningful (≥15%). The combined application of inspiratory hold and Trendelenburg position provided a greater and more relevant degree of CSA increase without compromising DSCV-pleura, which may facilitate SCV catheterization. Further investigations are needed to determine whether these results affect the success rate of catheterization and the risk of procedural injury.

  10. Transcending Organization in Temporary Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal

    Because of their temporary nature, work and employment in project based organizations are different from what we used to see in traditional organizational forms. Temporary employment, entailing less stability within the organization changes how employment and work are organized. Temporary systems...... are organized by transcending organization that go beyond the individual firm and replaces what used to be organized inside the firm. Following several calls for further research on these topics, this dissertation is a small step along the way as it investigates how work and employment are organized...... in temporary systems that lack stability and formal order. It advances our understanding of transcending organization in creative industries by adopting a practice based perspective. Empirically, the dissertation presents an in-depth study of the Danish film industry, which is an extreme case of a project...

  11. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager or...

  12. [Right-side aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and Kommerell's diverticulum. A cause of vascular ring]. (United States)

    Tamayo-Espinosa, Tania; Erdmenger-Orellana, Julio; Becerra-Becerra, Rosario; Balderrabano-Saucedo, Norma; Segura-Standford, Begoña

    The right-side aortic arch may be associated with aberrant left subclavian artery, in some cases this artery originates from an aneurismal dilation of the aorta called Kommerell's diverticulum. A report is presented on 2 cases of vascular ring formed by a right-side aortic arch, anomalous left subclavian artery, Kommerell's diverticulum and left patent ductus arteriosus. A review the literature was also performed as regards the embryological development and the imaging methods used to help in the diagnosis of this rare vascular anomaly. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Repair of Multiple Subclavian and Axillary Artery Aneurysms in a 58-Year-Old Man with Marfan Syndrome. (United States)

    Dolapoglu, Ahmet; de la Cruz, Kim I; Preventza, Ourania; Coselli, Joseph S


    Dilation of the ascending aorta and aortic dissections are often seen in Marfan syndrome; however, true aneurysms of the subclavian and axillary arteries rarely seem to develop in patients who have this disease. We present the case of a 58-year-old man with Marfan syndrome who had undergone a Bentall procedure and thoracoabdominal aortic repair for an aortic dissection and who later developed multiple aneurysmal dilations of his right subclavian and axillary arteries. The aneurysms were successfully repaired by means of a surgical bypass technique in which a Dacron graft was placed between the carotid and brachial arteries. We also discuss our strategy for determining the optimal surgical approach in these patients.

  14. Wire core reactor for NTP (United States)

    Harty, R. B.


    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution.

  15. Aberrant right vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch distal to the left subclavian artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Soo Heui; Baek, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    We present a rare case of an aberrant right vertebral artery originated from the distal aortic arch. This issue has been incidentally detected on a preoperative CT angiography after a stabbing injury of the cervical spinal cord. Normally, the right vertebral artery originates from the right subclavian artery. Therefore, in this case report we will review the incidence and the embryological mechanism of this aberrant course of the right vertebral artery and we will discuss as well the clinical importance of this variation.

  16. Influence of Mechanical Ventilation on the Incidence of Pneumothorax During Infraclavicular Subclavian Vein Catheterization: A Prospective Randomized Noninferiority Trial. (United States)

    Kim, Eugene; Kim, Hyun Joo; Hong, Deok Man; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Bahk, Jae-Hyon


    It remains unclear whether we have to interrupt mechanical ventilation during infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterization. In practice, the clinicians' choice about lung deflation depends on their own discretion. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of mechanical ventilation on the incidence of pneumothorax during infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterization. A total of 332 patients, who needed subclavian venous catheterization, were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups: catheterizations were performed with the patients' lungs under mechanical ventilation (ventilation group, n = 165) or without mechanical ventilation (deflation group, n = 167). The incidences of pneumothorax and other complications such as arterial puncture, hemothorax, or catheter misplacements and the success rate of catheterization were compared. The incidences of pneumothorax were 0% (0/165) in the ventilation group and 0.6% (1/167) in the deflation group. The incidence of pneumothorax in the deflation group was 0.6% higher than that in the ventilation group and the 2-sided 90% confidence interval for the difference was (-1.29% to 3.44%). Because the lower bound for the 2-sided 90% confidence interval, -1.29%, was higher than the predefined noninferiority margin of -3%, the inferiority of the ventilation group over the deflation group was rejected at the .05 level of significance. Other complication rates and success rates of catheterization were comparable between 2 groups. The oxygen saturation dropped below 95% in 9 patients in the deflation group, while none in the ventilation group (P = .007). The success and complication rates were similar regardless of mechanical ventilation. During infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterization, interruption of mechanical ventilation does not seem to be necessary for the prevention of pneumothorax.

  17. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E


    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  18. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris


    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  19. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J


    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  20. Prosthetic Subclavian-Aortic Bypass as a Safe Surgical Technique for the Coarctation of the Aorta in Adults. (United States)

    Refatllari, Ali; Likaj, Ermal; Dumani, Selman


    Coarctation represents 5-8% of congenital heart disease. Residual hypertension remains the main problem after late correction. Surgical treatment in the adult remains a challenge for the surgeon. Our prefered method used in this category is the Subclavian-aortic bypass. We have reviewed our registry for the period of 12 years (1998- 2010) and we found a group of 18 adult patients being operated for coarctation of the aorta. The mean age of this group of patients was 24.7 ± 8.43 years (range 16-42 years). 13 were males and 5 females. Sugical technique: Most of the patients (13 pts, 72%) which were obviously treated with subclavian-aortic bypass with a Dacron prostheses. Mean preoperative and postoperative pressure gradients measured by echocardiography were 77.7 ± 20.16 mmHg and 22.3 ± 9.14 mmHg respectively. No mortality was observed in this series of patients. Chylothorax was the only complication observed in one patient in the early postoperative period. Coarctation of the aorta in adults is treated with optimal early results at our surgical centre. Subclavian-aortic bypass grafting requires less aortic dissection, can be performed with a partially occluding clamp, and does not compromise the spinal cord vascularization.

  1. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, Kirschner wires (K-wire) were used to achieve a closed intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wires for the treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in ...

  2. Aberrant right subclavian artery in fetuses with Down syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Scala, C; Leone Roberti Maggiore, U; Candiani, M; Venturini, P L; Ferrero, S; Greco, T; Cavoretto, P


    The primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) in fetuses with Down syndrome. Secondary objectives were to assess the prevalence of ARSA in euploid fetuses, the feasibility of ultrasound evaluation of the right subclavian artery (RSA) in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, the performance of ARSA in screening for trisomy 21 and its association with other abnormalities. Web-based databases (PubMed, EMBASE and MEDLINE) were searched up to July 2014. The STROBE, PRISMA and QUIPS instruments were used to assess all included studies and for reporting of methodology, results and conclusions. Original studies that reported prenatal ultrasound evaluation of ARSA, assessment of its prevalence in Down-syndrome and euploid fetuses, feasibility of ultrasound evaluation of the RSA in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and correlation of ARSA with other abnormalities were included, excluding duplications and case reports. Collected data were summarized to estimate prevalence and feasibility. A meta-analysis was performed pooling the study-specific positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-), detection rates and false-positive rates for trisomy 21. Prevalence of ARSA in Down-syndrome fetuses was 23.6% (95% CI, 19.4-27.9%), whereas in euploid fetuses it was 1.02% (95% CI, 0.86-1.10%). Ultrasound evaluation of the RSA course and origin in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy was feasible in 85% and 98% of cases (first and second trimester, respectively) and it was directly related to sonographic experience and fetal crown-rump length and inversely related to maternal body mass index. In more than 20% of fetuses with ARSA there was an association with other abnormalities but ARSA seemed to be an independent marker of trisomy 21. The meta-analysis showed that ARSA is a significant risk factor for Down syndrome (pooled LR+ = 26.93, 95% CI, 19.36-37.47, P for effect Down syndrome. Additional

  3. Wiring for space applications program (United States)

    Hammoud, Ahmad


    The insulation testing and analysis consists of: identifying and prioritizing NASA wiring requirements; selecting candidate wiring constructions; developing test matrix and formulating test program; managing, coordinating, and conducting tests; and analyzing and documenting data, establishing guidelines and recommendations.

  4. Debate: Wired versus Wireless. (United States)

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash


    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  5. Wired vs. Wireless. (United States)

    Fielding, Randall


    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  6. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta


    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...

  7. Gaseous wire detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J.


    This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations.

  8. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  9. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A


    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  10. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.


    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  11. Temporary Clusters and Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter; Bathelt, Harald; Malmberg, Anders


    to distant markets and technologies. Third, it compares such temporaryclusters with permanent territorial hubs within their respective sector or industry. If regularparticipation in temporary clusters could satisfy a firm's need to learn through interactionwith suppliers, customers, peers and rivals, why...... or participating in such events are means toidentify the current market frontier, take stock of relative competitive positions and formfuture plans. These events exhibit many of the characteristics ascribed to permanentclusters, albeit in a temporary, periodic and intensified form. The temporary clusters...... is the phenomenon of permanent clusteringso pervasive?The answer, it is claimed, lies in the restrictions imposed on economic activity whenknowledge and ideas are transformed into valuable products and services. The paper shedsnew light on how interaction among firms in current clusters coincides...

  12. Obelix Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  13. [Aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria) and the risk for trisomy 21. Retrospective study of 11,479 fetopathological examinations]. (United States)

    Carles, D; Pelluard, F; André, G; Nocart, N; Sauvestre, F


    The aberrant right subclavian artery is a malformation of the aortic arch present at less than 2 % of the individuals in the general population. This incidence is higher in trisomy 21, making it possible use the aberrant right subclavian artery as a prenatal marker of trisomy 21. This work, which relates to a series of 11,479 consecutive fetal autopsies aims to measure the force of association between the aberrant right subclavian artery and trisomy 21, to confront our results with the sonographic series previously published and to contribute to assess the place that can have this sign in the echographic screening and the fetopathologic diagnosis of trisomy 21. The isolated presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery does not represent an argument sufficient for the indication of a karyotype. But the detection of this anomaly must make pay a special attention in search of other associated signs. On the results of this study, the aberrant right subclavian artery has to be considered as a part of the spectrum not only of trisomy 21, but also of many other congenital syndromes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Command Wire Sensor Measurements (United States)


    NPS anechoic chamber is located in Spanagel Hall, Room 604. Although the chamber was built for instruction purposes only, it can be used for research...thesis is to investigate the wire scattering behavior and clutter characteristics through measurements performed in the NPS anechoic chamber. The...research has successfully resolved the various multipath components within the anechoic chamber. The transmit-receive coupling between the antennas was

  15. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton


    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  16. Nursing Intervention During Temporary Care (United States)

    Curry, Judith B.


    The role of the professional nurse in asseviating or minimizing the separation anxiety and traumatic impact on families during temporary placement of a retarded child in a residential facility is seen in two case studies of girls 3 and 12 years of age. (Author/MC)

  17. Temporary risk identification in urolithiasis. (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya


    We have been using a risk index calculation for urolithiasis, which included most of the identifiable factors promoting calculogenesis. However, it was observed that the frequency of a patient getting stone problem was not uniform in spite of similarity of the risk index in the permanent setting. Also, many of the risk indices could be changed by dietary or lifestyle modifications. The objective of this paper was to calculate the temporary risk index of a patient at the time of each visit and correlate with stone activity during such periods, so that appropriate advice could be given on drugs, diet and lifestyle changes. The temporary risk index score was based on four symptoms, namely pain (0, nil; 1, vague pain; 2, mild; 3, moderate; 4, severe; 5, excruciating), haematuria (0, nil; 1, turbid; 2, cloudy; 3, reddish; 4, occasional frank blood; 5, continuous frank blood), burning sensation (0, nil; 1, minimal; 2, moderate; 3, terminal severe; 4, occasional excruciating; 5, continuous excruciating), and dysuria (0, nil; 1, minimal; 2, moderate; 3, terminal severe; 4, occasional excruciating, 5, continuous excruciating), ultrasonography for back pressure (0, nil; 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, severe kidney and ureter; 4, unilateral total; 5, bilateral total anuria) and eight urine deposit findings (0, nil; 1, +; 2, 2+; 3, 3+; 4, 4+; 5, plenty), red blood cells, pus cells, whewellite crystals, weddellite crystals, phosphate crystals, uric acid/ammonium urate crystals, crystal clumping and crystal aggregation making a total of 13 parameters. Each parameter was given values ranging from 0 to 5. The total score was calculated and chemotherapeutic regimes were decided base on the score, which varied from 0 to 65. Hundred randomly selected patients who had been visiting the stone clinic for a minimum of five occasions were included in the study. The total scores of temporary risk were correlated with the permanent clinical risk score mentioned earlier. The temporary risk of the

  18. Dual wire welding torch and method (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.


    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  19. Management of the left subclavian artery and neurologic complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin O; Holt, Peter J; Nienaber, Christoph; Fairman, Ronald M; Heijmen, Robin H; Thompson, Matt M


    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) of various pathologies has been associated with peri-interventional neurologic complication rates of up to 15%. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the management of the left subclavian artery (LSA) on neurologic complications and to define subgroups that might benefit from LSA revascularization. The Medtronic Thoracic Endovascular Registry (MOTHER; Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif), consists of data from five sponsored trials and one institutional series incorporating 1010 patients undergoing TEVAR from 2002 to 2010. Perioperative stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) rates were described according to the management of the LSA and presenting pathology. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors associated with perioperative neurologic complications. Of 1002 patients included in the analysis, stroke occurred in 48 (4.8%), and SCI developed in 42 (4.2%) ≤ 30 days of surgery. The stroke rate was 2.2% in patients with no coverage of the LSA vs 9.1% with coverage alone and 5.1% in patients who underwent LSA revascularization before coverage (P < .001). This relationship was strongest in the aneurysm group. Coverage of the LSA without revascularization was independently associated with stroke (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-7.1), specifically in the posterior territory (OR, 11.7; 95% CI, 2.5-54.6), as was previous cerebrovascular accident (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 2.2-23.1; P = .001), whereas a covered LSA was not associated with an increased risk of SCI. Coverage of the LSA without revascularization is an important modifiable risk factor for stroke in patients undergoing TEVAR for a thoracic aortic aneurysm. Prior revascularization appears to protect against posterior circulation territory stroke. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Complications of Central Venous Totally Implantable Access Port: Internal Jugular Versus Subclavian Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Young Jung

    Full Text Available Background: Totally implantable access port (TIAP provides reliable, long term vascular access with minimal risk of infection and allows patients normal physical activity. With wide use of ports, new complications have been encountered. We analyzed TIAP related complications and evaluated the outcomes of two different percutaneous routes of access to superior vena cava. Methods: All 172 patients who underwent port insertion with internal jugular approach (Group 1, n = 92 and subclavian approach (Group 2, n = 79 between August 2011 and May 2013 in a single center were analyzed, retrospectively. Medical records were analyzed to compare the outcomes and the occurrence of port related complications between two different percutaneous routes of access to superior vena cava. Results: Median follow-up for TIAP was 278 days (range, 1-1868. Twenty four complications were occurred (14.0%, including pneumothorax (n = 1, 0.6%, migration/malposition (n = 4, 2.3%, pinch-off syndrome (n = 4, 2.3%, malfunction (n = 2, 1.1%, infection (n = 8, 4.7%, and venous thrombosis (n = 5, 2.9%. The overall incidence was 8.7% and 20.3% in each group (p = 0.030. Mechanical complications except infectious and thrombotic complications were more often occurred in group 2 (p = 0.033. The mechanical complication free probability is significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.040. Conclusions: We suggest that the jugular access should be chosen in patients who need long term catheterization because of high incidence of mechanical complication, such as pinch-off syndrome.

  1. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.


    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  2. Reduction in wire tension caused by wire clamping and wire tensioner removal: an experimental Ilizarov frame study. (United States)

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjørn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A


    The stability of an external ring fixator mainly depends on wire tension. Wire fixators should maintain the tension during both wire clamping to the ring and removal of the tensioner device. In the present study the loss in wire tension related to fixator clamping and wire tensioner removal using three different wire fixator designs was studied. The fixators were based on two different cannulated bolts and a washer. Effects from two different pretension levels in combination with three different bolt torque levels upon loss in wire tension were described. Emitted wire vibration frequency was used to assess the corresponding wire tension. Wire tension was determined after each wire fixator tightening and after the removal of the wire tensioner. Increased bolt torque led to a small decrease in tension for both pretension levels. A considerable higher tension loss was measured when removing the wire tensioner. In all cases, the combination of a new cannulated bolt and a washer maintained the highest tension.

  3. Should intentional endovascular stent-graft coverage of the left subclavian artery be preceded by prophylactic revascularisation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigang, Ernst; Parker, Jack A T C; Czerny, Martin


    subclavian artery (LSA) limiting the proximal landing zone site without proximal vessel coverage. In patients in whom the distance between the LSA and aortic lesion is too short, extension of the landing zone can be obtained by covering the LSA's origin with the endovascular stent graft (ESG). This manoeuvre...... and analysed three basic treatment concepts for LSA revascularisation in TEVAR patients (prophylactic, conditional prophylactic and no prophylactic LSA revascularisation). The available evidence supports prophylactic revascularisation of the LSA before ESG LSA coverage when preoperative imaging reveals...

  4. Subclavian perivascular block for open reduction and internal fixation of left midshaft humeral fracture--a case report. (United States)

    Rukewe, A; Ogunlade, S O; Idowu, O A; Aderinto, D A


    Traumatic injuries affecting bones of the hand and forearm often require peripheral nerve blocks for analgesia and surgical intervention. The successful use of subclavian perivascular block as a sole anaesthetic for orthopaedic surgery has not been reported in our environment. We report the use of this technique for open reduction and internal fixation of a left midshaft humeral fracture. The trunk of the brachial plexus was localized by a Polystim II nerve stimulator. Complete sensorimotor block was achieved within 15 minutes and surgery lasted 55 minutes without complications. This technique obviated the use of general anaesthesia with its risks. The surgeon and the patient were satisfied with the quality of the anaesthesia.

  5. Review of wire chamber aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.


    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Combining Wired and Wireless Networks for a QoS-Aware Broadband Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip


    We show how integrated planning of wired and wireless infrastructures can be used to build a QoS-aware broadband infrastructure. The outset is a case study of the municipality of Hals, a rural community in Denmark, where the objective is to establish a broadband infrastructure reaching all...... To The Home for primary connections and Fixed Wireless Access for backup. This is implemented over 15 years, during which temporary solutions ensure sufficient QoS and reliability for all users. These temporary solutions form parts of the final solutions....

  7. Aberrant right subclavian artery presenting as tracheoesophagial fistula in a 50-year-old lady: Case report of a rare presentation of a common arch anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Ehtesham Hussain Naqvi


    Full Text Available A 50-year-old, woman with a 2-year history of progressive dysphagia and 2-month history of chronic cough was referred to our center in a state of generalized sepsis. Provisional diagnosis of carcinoma esophagus with tracheoesophagial fistula was made. Evaluation of the patient revealed an aberrant right subclavian artery with retroesophageal course with compression of the esophagus and trachea with fistulous communication in between. The patient was managed with medical stabilization and with feeding jejunostomy, but she succumbed to underlying severe sepsis. This presentation of aberrant subclavian artery at this advanced age rare and is therefore reported.

  8. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray


    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  9. Temporary Residences: a becoming project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ingaramo


    Full Text Available Among the experimental actions fostered so far by the Compagnia di San Paolo through its Housing Program, committed in handling the complex and fragmented housing discomfort issue, the Temporary Dwellings initiative represents a unique and innovative experience, as it actually offers the chance to activate a proper managerial direction around and about the real estate development processes. In particular, the Temporary Dwellings action is marked by two key aspects: a structured co-planning vision and projects selected through a requests for proposal system. The process in the whole aims on the one hand at reaching an high transparent level of decision making , while, on the other hand, at developing a continuous and mutual monitoring and matching activity between the Housing Program and the group of cross-curricular experts teamed up in the project: technicians, designers, managers, psychologists, contractors, and the other local stakeholders.

  10. Large capacity temporary visual memory (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.


    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  11. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow


    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  12. Polymyalgia rheumatica and systemic giant cell arteritis. Bioptic findings of the subclavian arteries in a case of aortic arch syndrome. (United States)

    Di Giacomo, V; Fraioli, A; Carmenini, G; Schietroma, M; Meloni, F; Grossi, F


    A 64 year old woman complained of aches and stiffness of the neck and the shoulders with fever and E.S.R. increase. A nonsteroid anti-inflammatory treatment was unsuccessful. A clinical examination revealed absence of both radial pulses and presence of murmurs at level of the carotids. The angiographic findings confirmed an aortic arch syndrome with severe stenosis of the subclavian and axillary arteries. The diagnostic approach, in spite of a negativity of the temporal artery biopsy, was for systemic giant cell arteries with general manifestations of polymyalgia rheumatica. The biopsies of both subclavian arteries, performed during a surgery revascularization, showed a typical giant cell arteries in acute stage. The histopathological pattern of extratemporal giant cell arteries obtained by means of a surgical biopsy is really uncommon, being the previous reports performed on necroscopic findings only. In addition this case confirms that polymyalgia rheumatica implies a systemic arteries even if the clinical and histopathological signs of temporal arteritis are lacking. Therefore the temporal artery should be only considered as a particular and inconstant localization of this vasculitis.

  13. Most Wired 2006: measuring value. (United States)

    Solovy, Alden


    As the Most Wired hospitals incorporate information technology into their strategic plans, they combine a"balanced scorecard"approach with classic business analytics to measure how well IT delivers on their goals. To find out which organizations made this year's 100 Most Wired list, as well as those named in other survey categories, go to the foldout section.

  14. Left subclavian-carotid bypass in a 38-year old female with brain ischemic symptoms secondary to Takayasu’s arteritis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Hinojosa, MD MSc.


    Discussion/Conclusion: This case illustrates the clinical presentation of TA affecting both carotid arteries; open revascularization via carotid subclavian bypass grafting was successfully performed with minimal morbidity, complete resolution of symptoms and improvement of the patient’s quality of life. Revascularization procedures when indicated should be performed while the disease is inactive and close surveillance is mandatory.

  15. Anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the abdominal aorta with aberrant right subclavian artery and left patent ductus arteriosus. (United States)

    Fu, Songling; Xie, Chunhong; Gong, Fangqi; Zhu, Weihua


    Anomalous origin of the pulmonary artery (AOPA) from the aorta is a rare congenital heart malformation. This report describes a case of AOPA from the abdominal aorta in association with an aberrant right subclavian artery and a patent ductus arteriosus, which never has been reported previously in the literature.

  16. Virtual planning for vertical control using temporary anchorage devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Accorsi


    Full Text Available The new and innovative technologies are unprecedentedly improving the level of proficiency in orthodontics in the recent history of this area of expertise. The proliferation of advances, such as self-ligating systems, temporary anchorage devices, shape-memory wires, robotically wire bending, intraoral scanners, cone-beam computed tomography, bring the virtual planning, and confection of dental devices through CAD/CAM systems to the real world. In order to get efficiency and efficacy in orthodontics with these new technologies, we must understand the importance of systemically managed clinical information, medical, and dentistry history of the patients, including the images resources, which ensures the use of a communication that is assisted by the technology, with an interdisciplinary team so that the database is able to help and support the process of therapeutic decision-making. This paper presents the clinical case of a borderline patient for orthognathic surgery who had his final treatment planning supported by these new tools for three-dimensional diagnosis and virtual planning.

  17. Diagnostic value of computerized tomography venography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of subclavian vein and superior vena in chronic renal failure patients. (United States)

    Bakhshoude, Banafsheh; Ravari, Hassan; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Rad, Masoud Pezeshki


    Currently, venography is the standard diagnostic method to examine veins before implementing access, which is invasive in nature. Computerized tomography venography (CTV) can simultaneously indicate deep and superficial venous systems in the upper extremity and their relation to the surrounding anatomical structures; however, its diagnostic value in the detection of central venous disease has yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of CT venography compared to venography in the diagnosis of stenosis and the occlusion of subclavian veins and the superior vena in renal failure patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to September 2015 on patients with chronic renal failure undergoing upper extremity venography at the Radiology Department of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. We excluded patients with catheters in their jugular and subclavian vein routes, venous hypertension with reverse-function fistula, or sensitivity to contrast agents. Several factors, including age, gender, catheterization record in jugular and subclavian veins, and fistula record in the upper extremity, as well as clinical symptoms consisting of edema, dermatitis, and ulcers in these organs, were recorded in the corresponding form. Then, the patients consecutively underwent indirect venography and CT venography and traces of stenosis (more than 50%) or complete occlusion in the subclavian vein and superior vena were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS software by the chi-squared test, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated by means of MedCalc Online, version 16.2. The study was conducted on 40 patients (26 males and 14 females) with a mean age of 46.7 ± 10.4 years. In this study, 58 subclavian veins, as well as 32 superior vena cava, were studied. The results showed that the diagnostic value of CTV in the detection of subclavian stenosis had a sensitivity and a specificity

  18. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.


    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  19. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna


    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....

  20. 40 CFR 264.553 - Temporary Units (TU). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary Units (TU). 264.553 Section... Provisions for Cleanup § 264.553 Temporary Units (TU). (a) For temporary tanks and container storage areas... Administrator may designate a unit at the facility, as a temporary unit. A temporary unit must be located within...

  1. Cavity Mode Related Wire Breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and Loss Measurements of Wire Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Jensen, E; Koopman, J; Malo, J F; Roncarolo, F


    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350 MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE_01n type device is utilized.

  2. Cavity mode related wire breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and loss measurements of wire materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, Federico


    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE01n type device is utilized.

  3. Modeling birds on wires. (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B


    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  5. Lessons learnt from experimental temporary octopus fishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence of the fisheries effect of experimental temporary fishing closures for Octopus in the then-emergent Velondriake Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) in south-west Madagascar during 2004–2006. We present an analysis of the O. cyanea catch data for the first two years of temporary closures ...

  6. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  7. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  8. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames...

  9. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne


    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  10. After the sunset: the residual effect of temporary legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Fagan (Frank)


    textabstractThe difference between permanent legislation and temporary legislation is the default rule of termination: permanent legislation governs perpetually, while temporary legislation governs for a limited time. Recent literature on legislative timing rules considers the effect of temporary

  11. Correlated atomic wires on substrates. II. Application to Hubbard wires (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Anas; Jeckelmann, Eric; Hohenadler, Martin


    In the first part of our theoretical study of correlated atomic wires on substrates, we introduced lattice models for a one-dimensional quantum wire on a three-dimensional substrate and their approximation by quasi-one-dimensional effective ladder models [Abdelwahab et al., preceding paper, Phys. Rev. B 96, 035445 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.035445]. In this second part, we apply this approach to the case of a correlated wire with a Hubbard-type electron-electron repulsion deposited on an insulating substrate. The ground-state and spectral properties are investigated numerically using the density-matrix renormalization group method and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. As a function of the model parameters, we observe various phases with quasi-one-dimensional low-energy excitations localized in the wire, namely, paramagnetic Mott insulators, Luttinger liquids, and spin-1 /2 Heisenberg chains. The validity of the effective ladder models is assessed for selected parameters by studying the dependence of results on the number of legs and comparing to the full three-dimensional model. We find that narrow ladder models accurately reproduce the quasi-one-dimensional excitations of the full three-dimensional model but predict only qualitatively whether excitations are localized around the wire or delocalized in the three-dimensional substrate.

  12. Wire chambers revisited. (United States)

    Ott, R J


    Detectors used for radioisotope imaging have, historically, been based on scintillating crystal/photomultiplier combinations in various forms. From the rectilinear scanner through to modern gamma cameras and positron cameras, the basic technology has remained much the same. Efforts to overcome the limitations of this form of technology have foundered on the inability to reproduce the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and sensitive area at acceptable cost. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. As gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of "gas only" photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera. The MWPC camera produces quantitative

  13. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed (United States)

    Hooper, Frederick M


    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  14. Ocular dangers of fencing wire. (United States)

    McAllum, P; Barnes, R; Dickson, J


    To invesitgate the incidence and severity of penetrating eye injuries caused by fencing wire in the Waikato region. We reviewed the case notes for all penetrating eye injuries treated at Waikato Hospital during the past six years. Parameters recorded were patient age and sex, mechanism of injury, initial visual acuity, characteristics of injury, surgery performed and final visual outcome. The incidence of penetrating eye injuries in the Waikato region was 3.8 per 100,000 per year, based on an estimated catchment population of 350,000. We found fencing wire to be the third most common cause of penetrating eye injury, accounting for 8.8% of injuries, behind motor vehicle accidents and hammering which accounted for 26.3% and 20.0% of injuries, respectively. The fencing wire injuries involved men exclusively, with an average age of 41.7 years. Fencing wire injuries had worse presenting visual acuity than other injuries, involved the posterior segment of the eye more frequently and were more likely to develop bacterial endophthalmitis. They also underwent more surgical procedures and were more commonly associated with a poor visual outcome. Fencing wire is an important cause of visual loss in the Waikato region. We hope to raise awareness of its potential ocular dangers and to promote the use of appropriate eye protection.

  15. Weyl fermions in cylindrical wires (United States)

    Erementchouk, Mikhail; Mazumder, Pinaki


    The key feature of Weyl semimetals (WSMs) is the presence of topologically protected Dirac cones in a three-dimensional material. We consider the effect of restricting geometry on the spectrum of excitations in WSMs using as a model a cylindrical WSM wire. For the full manifold of hard boundary conditions, we derive the general form of the dispersion equation relating the energy of the excitations and their momentum along the wire. We show that only the special class of boundary conditions, corresponding to decoupled helicities or, equivalently, to pinned directions of the electron spin on the surface, support massless excitations. For a general boundary condition, these excitations acquire mass inversely proportional to the radius of the wire. This demonstrates that boundary phenomena may play a crucial role in formation of excitations in WSM based structures.

  16. Temporary closure of the tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service


    Owing to major maintenance work, the tunnel linking the various parts of the CERN site will be closed from Monday 4 July to Sunday 24 July 2005 The Host State authorities have given authorisation for persons employed by CERN or the Institutes to travel and for goods belonging to these entities to be transported between the various parts of the site via Gate E (Charles de Gaulle) while this work is being carried out, subject to strict compliance with the Rules for the Use of the Tunnel (see Gate E will thus be open between 7.00 a.m. and 7.00 p.m. from Monday to Friday during the period concerned. The rules governing the use of Gate E to enter the Meyrin site between 7.30 a.m. and 9.00 a.m. or to leave the site between 5.00 p.m. and 6.30 p.m. (see will remain unaffected by this temporary authorisation. Relations with the Host States Service and TS-FM Group

  17. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)


    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  18. Temporary Authorizations at Permitted Waste Management Facilities (United States)

    This rule under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) provides EPA with the authority to grant a permittee temporary authorization, without prior public notice and comment, to conduct activities necessary to respond promptly to changing conditions.

  19. Hemothorax as a complication of subclavian vein cannulation with haemodialysis catheter - case report. (United States)

    Iwańczuk, Waldemar; Guźniczak, Piotr; Kasperczak, Jarosław


    We present the case of a 39 year-old male patient admitted to ICU with symptoms of acute metabolic acidosis. He was investigated for the presence of methanol and glycol. Conservative treatment was initially started, followed by haemodialysis. During insertion of a temporary haemodialysis catheter in a location of Haapaniemi and Slatis, the patient was conscious but restless; therefore sedation was required to continue the procedure. After three hours of haemodialysis, the patient's general condition suddenly deteriorated. Hypovolemic shock and acute respiratory distress led to hypothesis of right haemothorax, which was rapidly confirmed by angio-CT examination. Trachea was intubated, drainage of right pleura was performed and aggressive fluid treatment begun. The patient was admitted to the operating theatre, and thoracotomy with reconstruction of damaged right venous angle was carried out. After the operation, the patient was transferred to ICU. He was mechanically ventilated and remained haemodynamically unstable. Although fluids and blood-made concentrates were transfused and catecholamines continuously administered, his clinical condition deteriorated and finally the patient died. We found two independent causes of this fatality: hypovolemic shock and acute extrinsic metabolic acidosis. However, this paper focuses on the problem of the iatrogenic complication, which was haemothorax. In the literature there are described examples of such cases. Authors emphasise the most traumatic moment of cannulation as being insertion of the guidewire and dilator to perform a tunnel for the catheter. Puncture by needle and localisation of the central vein results in fewer complications. Furthermore, we strongly recommend monitoring patients after central veins cannulation. All sudden deteriorations in clinical condition should be followed by meticulous diagnosis for the presence of this life-threatening complication.

  20. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads. (United States)

    Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D; Corn, Paul Stephen; Lambert, Brad A


    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration.

  1. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shan, Jianqiang; Wang, Henan; Liu, Wei; Song, Linxing; Chen, Xuanxiang; Jiang, Yang


    .... The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1) the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2...

  2. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)


    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  3. Signal shapes in a TPC wire chamber (United States)

    Rossegger, S.; Riegler, W.


    We study signal shapes in Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and the influence of the electron distribution around the wire on the ion tail characteristics. Simulations of the ion tail for two different geometries, different voltages and therefore gas gains were performed. These simulations are compared to measurements carried out with the ALICE TPC wire chambers for a Ne/CO 2/N 2 gas mixture, which allows to extract the avalanche spread around the anode wires of the MWPC.

  4. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding


    Schröder, Stephan


    This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bo...

  5. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.


    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  6. Electron transport in stretched monoatomic gold wires. (United States)

    Grigoriev, A; Skorodumova, N V; Simak, S I; Wendin, G; Johansson, B; Ahuja, R


    The conductance of monoatomic gold wires containing 3-7 gold atoms has been obtained from ab initio calculations. The transmission is found to vary significantly depending on the wire stretching and the number of incorporated atoms. Such oscillations are determined by the electronic structure of the one-dimensional (1D) part of the wire between the contacts. Our results indicate that the conductivity of 1D wires can be suppressed without breaking the contact.

  7. Detection of a buried wire with two resistively loaded wire antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.


    The use of two identical straight thin-wire antennas for the detection of a buried wire is analyzed with the aid of numerical calculations. The buried wire is located below an interface between two homogeneous half-spaces. The detection setup, which is formed by a transmitting and a receiving wire,

  8. One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques : A historical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Bas B. G. M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

    A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initiallly used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly

  9. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless. (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal


    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  10. Electrochemistry of surface wired cytochrome c and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pyrazine unit in the mixed self-assembly promotes the electron transfer in the redox reaction of surface wired Cyt-c. Cyt-c wired on the mixed self-assembly has been used for the amperometric sensing of superoxide. The enzymatically generated superoxide has been successfully detected using the Cyt-c wired electrode.

  11. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  12. Customised 2G HTS wire for applications (United States)

    Samoilenkov, S.; Molodyk, A.; Lee, S.; Petrykin, V.; Kalitka, V.; Martynova, I.; Makarevich, A.; Markelov, A.; Moyzykh, M.; Blednov, A.


    Reproducibility of superconducting properties and suitability for specific applications by means of customised finish are two important attributes required from commercial 2G HTS wire. This paper reviews the consistent performance of SuperOx production 2G HTS wire and describes two novel customisation options: surround polyimide varnish insulation and composite bulk materials assembled with 2G HTS wires soldered together.

  13. Blunt traumatic aortic injury of right aortic arch in a patient with an aberrant left subclavian artery. (United States)

    Yeo, Daryl Li-Tian; Haider, Sajjad; Zhen, Claire Alexandra Chew


    Right-sided aortic arch (RAA) is a rare congenital developmental variant present in about 0.1 percent of the population. This anatomical anomaly is commonly associated with congenital heart disease and complications from compression of mediastinal structures. However, it is unknown if patients are at a higher risk of blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI). We report a case of a 20-year-old man admitted to the hospital after being hit by an automobile. Computed tomographic scan revealed an RAA with an aberrant left subclavian artery originating from a Kommerell's diverticulum. A pseudo-aneurysm was also seen along the aortic arch. A diagnosis of blunt traumatic aortic injury was made. The patient was successfully treated with a 26mm Vascutek hybrid stentgraft using the frozen elephant trunk technique. A literature review of the pathophysiology of BTAI was performed to investigate if patients with right-sided aortic arch are at a higher risk of suffering from BTAI. Results from the review suggest that although theoretically there may be a higher risk of BTAI in RAA patients, the rarity of this condition has prevented large studies to be conducted. Previously reported cases of BTAI in RAA have highlighted the possibility that the aortic isthmus may be anatomically weak and therefore prone to injury. We have explored this possibility by reviewing current literature of the embryological origins of the aortic arch and descending aorta.

  14. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan


    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  15. Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches (United States)

    Chittenden; Lebedev; Ruiz-Camacho; Beg; Bland; Jennings; Bell; Haines; Pikuz; Shelkovenko; Hammer


    Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches is modeled using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. Modified Thomas-Fermi equations of state and dense plasma transport coefficients allow the phase transitions from solid to plasma to be approximated. Results indicate the persistence of a two-component structure with a cold, dense core embedded within a much hotter, low density, m=0 unstable corona. Extensive benchmark testing against data from a number of single-wire experiments is presented. Artificial laser schlieren and x-ray back-lighting images generated from the code data are compared directly to experimental results. The results were found to be insensitive to inaccuracies in the equations of state and transport coefficients. Simulations of individual wires in a wire array show different behavior to that observed experimentally due to the absence of three-dimensional effects. Simulations with similar conditions to wires in an array show a general trend in the plasma structure at start of implosion from discrete wires with large m=0 perturbation amplitudes to partially merged wires with smaller perturbation amplitudes as the number of wires is increased. Results for a wire number scan with aluminum wire arrays on the SATURN generator suggest that the observed sharp transition to high x-ray power at around 40 wires corresponds to a sharp decrease in m=0 perturbation amplitude and hence a sharp decrease in the seed perturbation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  16. The potential risk of left subclavian artery injury from excessively long thoracic pedicle screws placed in the proximal thoracic regions of Lenke type 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients and normal teenagers: an anatomical study. (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Qian, Bang-Ping; Qiu, Yong; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ze-Zhang


    The altered anatomic positions of important structures adjacent to the vertebrae in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients have been comprehensively investigated by previous radiographic studies. However, no study has evaluated the altered position of left subclavian artery (SA) in these patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the altered position of left subclavian artery in AIS patients with a double thoracic curve pattern. Nineteen Lenke type 2 AIS patients and thirteen normal teenagers were included in this study. Axial computed tomography images at T2 and T3 levels were obtained in all these subjects to evaluate the subclavian artery-vertebral angle (SAVA, defined as 0° when the artery was located directly lateral to the left and 180° when directly lateral to the right) and subclavian artery-vertebral distance (SAVD, the shortest distance between the artery and vertebral body). The percentage of left subclavian arteries at potential risk of injury from excessively long pedicle screws was calculated. The SAVA was significantly larger in AIS patients than that in normal teenagers at both T2 and T3 levels (P teenagers at both T2 and T3 levels (P teenagers. The left SA is located much closer to the vertebrae in the proximal thoracic curve of Lenke type 2 AIS patients when compared with normal teenagers. The spine surgeons should be aware of such altered position of left SA and choose appropriate pedicle length to avoid anterior cortical penetration in Lenke type 2 AIS patients.

  17. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  18. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R


    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  19. Genetic Optimization of Wire Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida


    Full Text Available The presented submission describes how genetic algorithms can be applied to the optimization and design of wire antennas. The proposed optimization method is easily programmable and well understandable on one hand, but relatively slowly converging and depending on the parameters of the genetic algorithms on the other hand. The disadvantages of the method are deeply discussed and their elimination is discussed in the paper.

  20. Need for adaptation: transformation of temporary houses. (United States)

    Wagemann, Elizabeth


    Building permanent accommodation after a disaster takes time for reasons including the removal of debris, the lack of available land, and the procurement of resources. In the period in-between, affected communities find shelter in different ways. Temporary houses or transitional shelters are used when families cannot return to their pre-disaster homes and no other alternative can be provided. In practice, families stay in a standard interim solution for months or even years while trying to return to their routines. Consequently, they adapt their houses to meet their midterm needs. This study analysed temporary houses in Chile and Peru to illustrate how families modify them with or without external support. The paper underlines that guidance must be given on how to alter them safely and on how to incorporate the temporary solution into the permanent structure, because families adapt their houses whether or not they are so designed. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  1. Closing a temporary ileostomy within two weeks. (United States)

    Hindenburg, Tommy; Rosenberg, Jacob


    Temporary ileostomy is frequently constructed to relieve a rectal anastomosis and avoid peritonitis if the anastomosis is leaking. Ostomy is a burden for both the patient and society and early closure is therefore desirable to counteract increased morbidity. Several prospective studies and a single randomized controlled trial have shown that closure in less than two weeks was associated with lower or equal morbidity compared with later closure. Thus, current data support early closure of temporary ileostomy performed to cover rectal anastomosis in routine clinical practice.

  2. Nurses' perceptions of temporary nursing service agencies. (United States)

    Sorrentino, E A; Simunek, L A


    Temporary staffing agencies have indeed carved out a role for themselves, and our free enterprise system lends itself to the perpetuation of the entrepreneurial spirit in all: nurses, agencies, and hospitals alike. It is wiser to learn to work with current structure realizing that supply and demand plays an important role in the survival and success of agencies. Although there are problems associated with temporary nursing staffing, they are surmountable. Orientation programs, performance monitoring, ensuring accountability of both nurse and agency are but a few that can enhance utilization and quality of service.

  3. Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type (United States)


    Introduction The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to a central venous catheter varies considerably in ICUs depending on the population included. The aim of this study was to determine subclavian central venous catheter (SCVC)-related DVT risk factors in severely traumatized patients with regard to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Methods Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC for their usual care were prospectively included in an observational study. Depending on the month of inclusion, patients received one of the two available products in the emergency unit: either an aromatic polyurethane SCVC or an aliphatic polyurethane SCVC. Patients were screened weekly by ultrasound for SCVC-related DVT. Potential risk factors were collected, including history-related, trauma-related and SCVC-related characteristics. Results A total of 186 patients were included with a median Injury Severity Sore of 30 and a high rate of severe brain injuries (21% of high intracranial pressure). Incidence of SCVC-related DVT was 37% (95% confidence interval: 26 to 40) in patients or 20/1,000 catheter-days. SCVC-related DVT occurred within 8 days in 65% of cases. There was no significant difference in DVT rates between the aromatic polyurethane and aliphatic polyurethane SCVC groups (38% vs. 36%). SCVC-related DVT independent risk factors were age >30 years, intracranial hypertension, massive transfusion (>10 packed red blood cell units), SCVC tip position in the internal jugular or in the innominate vein, and ipsilateral jugular catheter. Conclusion SCVC-related DVT concerned one-third of these severely traumatized patients and was mostly clinically silent. Incidence did not depend on the type of polyurethane but was related to age >30 years, intracranial hypertension or misplacement of the SCVC. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine screening in these patients in whom thromboprophylaxis may be hazardous. PMID:23718723

  4. A minimally invasive technique for closing an iatrogenic subclavian artery cannulation using the Angio-Seal closure device: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkup Peter L


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In the two cases described here, the subclavian artery was inadvertently cannulated during unsuccessful access to the internal jugular vein. The puncture was successfully closed using a closure device based on a collagen plug (Angio-Seal, St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA. This technique is relatively simple and inexpensive. It can provide clinicians, such as intensive care physicians and anesthesiologists, with a safe and straightforward alternative to major surgery and can be a life-saving procedure. Case presentation In the first case, an anesthetist attempted ultrasound-guided access to the right internal jugular vein during the preoperative preparation of a 66-year-old Caucasian man. A 7-French (Fr triple-lumen catheter was inadvertently placed into his arterial system. In the second case, an emergency physician inadvertently placed a 7-Fr catheter into the subclavian artery of a 77-year-old Caucasian woman whilst attempting access to her right internal jugular vein. Both arterial punctures were successfully closed by means of a percutaneous closure device (Angio-Seal. No complications were observed. Conclusions Inadvertent subclavian arterial puncture can be successfully managed with no adverse clinical sequelae by using a percutaneous vascular closure device. This minimally invasive technique may be an option for patients with non-compressible arterial punctures. This report demonstrates two practical points that may help clinicians in decision-making during daily practice. First, it provides a practical solution to a well-known vascular complication. Second, it emphasizes a role for proper vascular ultrasound training for the non-radiologist.

  5. Ultrasound guided implantation of chest port systems via the lateral subclavian vein; Die sonographisch gezielte Implantation von Portkathetersystemen ueber die laterale Vena subclavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehringer, M.; Hilgers, J.; Krueger, K.; Strohe, D.; Bangard, C.; Neumann, L.; Lackner, K. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Warm, M. [Gynaekologie, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Reiser, M. [Medizinische Klinik I, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Toex, U. [Medizinische Klinik IV, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)


    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the success and complication rates of chest port implantation via the lateral subclavian vein. Materials and methods: Between January 2003 and June 2004, the lateral subclavian vein in 271 patients (186 women, 85 men, mean age 53.2 years) was punctured guided by ultrasound. This access was used to insert a port system, and the catheter tip was placed at the cavoatrial junction. The port reservoir was implanted in a subcutaneous infraclavicular pocket and fixed to the fascia of the pectoralis muscle. Indications for port implantation were chemotherapy (n=239), total parenteral nutrition (n=2) and intravenous medication (n=30). The patient follow-up was mainly performed either by the oncology division of the department of gynecology or by the department of internal medicine. Results: A chest port catheter system was successfully implanted in all patients. The catheter remained in place for a mean duration of 269.4 days (SD 192.3 days). No complications occurred during implantation. In the post-interventional period, 6 catheter dysfunctions were found (thrombotic 0.09 per 1000 catheter days; mechanic 0.05 per 1000 catheter days). While one local infection occurred in the early post-interventional period, 3 local and 15 systemic infections were independent of the port catheter placement (0.39 per 1000 catheter days). The rate of port catheter explantations due to dysfunction or infection was 0.07 per 1000 catheter days. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided puncture of the lateral subclavian vein is a safe procedure for the insertion of central venous port catheter systems and had a very low complication rate in our study. For further evaluation of our port placement technique, prospective studies compared to placement through the internal jugular vein are necessary. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of hemodynamics in an in vitro system simulating left ventricular support through the right subclavian artery using 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Jung, Bernd; Müller, Christoph; Buchenberg, Waltraud; Ith, Michael; Reineke, David; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Benk, Christoph


    Left ventricular assist devices are an important treatment option for patients with heart failure alter the hemodynamics in the heart and great vessels. Because in vivo magnetic resonance studies of patients with ventricular assist devices are not possible, in vitro models represent an important tool to investigate flow alterations caused by these systems. By using an in vitro magnetic resonance-compatible model that mimics physiologic conditions as close as possible, this work investigated the flow characteristics using 4-dimensional flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging of a left ventricular assist device with outflow via the right subclavian artery as commonly used in cardiothoracic surgery in the recent past. An in vitro model was developed consisting of an aorta with its supra-aortic branches connected to a left ventricular assist device simulating the pulsatile flow of the native failing heart. A second left ventricular assist device supplied the aorta with continuous flow via the right subclavian artery. Four-dimensional flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging was performed for different flow rates of the left ventricular assist device simulating the native heart and the left ventricular assist device providing the continuous flow. Flow characteristics were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated in the entire vessel system. Flow characteristics inside the aorta and its upper branching vessels revealed that the right subclavian artery and the right carotid artery were solely supported by the continuous-flow left ventricular assist device for all flow rates. The flow rates in the brain-supplying arteries are only marginally affected by different operating conditions. The qualitative analysis revealed only minor effects on the flow characteristics, such as weakly pronounced vortex flow caused by the retrograde flow via the brachiocephalic artery. The results indicate that, despite the massive alterations in natural hemodynamics due to the

  7. Technical strategy in a patient with symptomatic thoracic aneurysm near the origin of the left subclavian artery and left internal thoracic artery coronary graft. (United States)

    Babic, Srdjan D; Radak, Djordje J; Sotirovic, Vuk A; Unic-Stojanovic, Dragana R; Babic, Dusan S; Popov, Petar Z; Sagic, Dragan Z


    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a safe and reliable technique utilized in the treatment for aortic aneurysms. However, in up to 40% of patients, devices are typically placed over the left subclavian artery (LSA) origin. In this report, we present a case of a successful TEVAR procedure following the transposition of the LSA with protective carotico-axillary/carotid bypass in a patient with a patent left internal thoracic artery (LITA)-left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery bypass graft and right internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kraftmakher


    Full Text Available Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is suggested a concept of magnetic response based on antiparallel resonant currents excited by magnetic field of surface polaritons in many spatial LC-circuits created from cut-wire pairs of a grating and section of longitudinal cut-wire. Three separately observed resonant effects connected with grating, LC-circuits and with longitudinal cut-wire have been identified applying measurements in waveguides, cutoff waveguides and free space. To tune and mark resonance split cut-wires are loaded with varactor diodes.

  9. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary


    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  10. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary variances. 205.290 Section 205.290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic...

  11. Temporary Tattoos and Henna/Mehndi (United States)

    ... For example, we can issue Import Alerts and Warning Letters. An Import Alert allows FDA to detain products that violate or ... Awareness of Safety: FDA Webinar, May 13, 2014 Warning Letter Issued to Black Henna Ink, Inc. Import Alert #53-14: Intensified Coverage of Temporary Tattoos Containing ...

  12. Closing a temporary ileostomy within two weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindenburg, Tommy; Rosenberg, J.


    Temporary ileostomy is frequently constructed to relieve a rectal anastomosis and avoid peritonitis if the anastomosis is leaking. Ostomy is a burden for both the patient and society and early closure is therefore desirable to counteract increased morbidity. Several prospective studies and a sing...

  13. Temporary tattoos: a novel OSCE assessment tool. (United States)

    Gormley, Gerry; Menary, Allison; Layard, Brooke; Hart, Nigel; McCourt, Collette


    There are many issues regarding the use of real patients in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). In dermatology OSCE stations, standardised patients (SPs) with clinical photographs are often used. Temporary transfer tattoos can potentially simulate skin lesions when applied to an SP. This study aims to appraise the use of temporary malignant melanoma tattoos within an OSCE framework. Within an 11-station OSCE, a temporary malignant melanoma tattoo was developed and applied to SPs in a 'skin lesion' OSCE station. A questionnaire captured the opinions of the candidate, SP and examiners, and the degree of perceived realism of each station was determined. Standard post hoc OSCE analysis determined the psychometric reliability of the stations. The response rates were 95.9 per cent of candidates and 100 per cent of the examiners and SPs. The 'skin lesion' station achieved the highest realism score compared with other stations: 89.0 per cent of candidates felt that the skin lesion appeared realistic; only 28 per cent of candidates had ever seen a melanoma before in training. The psychometric performance of the melanoma station was comparable with, and in many instances better than, other OSCE stations. Transfer tattoo technology facilitates a realistic dermatology OSCE station encounter. Temporary tattoos, alongside trained SPs, provide an authentic, standardised and reliable experience, allowing the assessment of integrated dermatology clinical skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Closing a temporary ileostomy within two weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindenburg, Tommy; Rosenberg, J.


    Temporary ileostomy is frequently constructed to relieve a rectal anastomosis and avoid peritonitis if the anastomosis is leaking. Ostomy is a burden for both the patient and society and early closure is therefore desirable to counteract increased morbidity. Several prospective studies and a single...

  15. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary tolerances. 180.31 Section 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... period designed to allow the orderly marketing of the raw agricultural commodities produced while testing...

  16. Temporary Chinese Migration to Madagascar: Local Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article fills a knowledge-gap in the literature on China in Africa by exploring local perceptions of temporary Chinese migrants in Madagascar, the growth of small-scale Chinese-owned import and retail businesses in the capital, and their impacts on Malagasy producers, utilizing the country's blanket and paper industries ...

  17. Temporary Chinese Migration to Madagascar: Local Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, as public debate over their impact in Madagascar intensifies, the temporary Chinese migrant ... economic and political engagement of the continent. Following the .... all focus on either the earlier waves of migration or on the relations between the resident Chinese community and the new migrants. Notable ...

  18. 47 CFR 74.537 - Temporary authorizations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.537 Section 74.537 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO.... However, in the case of events of widespread interest and importance which cannot be transmitted...

  19. 47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.633 Section 74.633 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... wide-spread interest and importance which cannot be transmitted successfully on these frequencies...

  20. 47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.833 Section 74.833 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... interest and importance which cannot be transmitted successfully on these frequencies, frequencies assigned...

  1. 47 CFR 74.433 - Temporary authorizations. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.433 Section 74.433 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... of events of wide-spread interest and importance which cannot be transmitted successfully on these...

  2. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire. (United States)

    Goodway, M


    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  3. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T


    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  4. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations. (United States)


    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  5. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian


    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  6. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail:; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)


    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vedeneev


    Full Text Available Analysis of the world practice and comparison with the competitors data shows, that for keeping up of RUP “BMZ'' competitiveness it is necessary to carry out works in directions of perfection of the steel wire cord production technology, development of steel wire cord, development of the breaker constructions with the high infiltration of rubber of wire with superstandard diameter and etc.

  8. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion


    K. Ruwali; A. Yamanaka; Y. Teramoto; K. Nakanishi; K. Hosoyama


    An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experim...

  9. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  10. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  11. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd


    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  12. Loss of Guide Wire: A Lesson Learnt Review of Literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complications associated with the CVCs are infection, failure to place the catheter, arterial puncture, improper catheter position, pneumothorax, hematoma, hemothorax, asystolic cardiac arrest of unknown etiology, and inferior vena cava (IVC) trauma.[1] Infection is the most common complication in subclavian vein route;.

  13. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans


    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  14. 30 CFR 47.44 - Temporary, portable containers. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary, portable containers. 47.44 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.44 Temporary, portable containers. (a) The operator does not have to label a temporary, portable container if he or she...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  16. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.


    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko


    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  18. Finite element analysis on the wire breaking rule of 1×7IWS steel wire rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Du


    Full Text Available Taking the wire rope of 1×7+IWS structure as the research object, the influences of the number of broken wires on the stress distribution under the same axial load were simulated and analysed, and it also explored the rule of wire breaking of steel wire ropes. Based on the SolidWorks software, the three-dimensional model of the wire rope was established. Importing the model into the ABAQUS, the finite element model of the steel wire rope was established. Firstly 5000 N axial tension was placed on the rope, the stress distribution was simulated and analysed, and the steel wire with the largest stress distribution was found out. Then one steel wire was truncated with the load unchanged, and the finite element simulation was carried out again, and repeated the steps several times. The results show that, with the increase of the number of broken wires, the Von-Mises stress of the wire rope increases sharply, and the stress distribution is concentrated on the rest of the unbroken wires, which brings great challenges to the safety of the wire rope.

  19. Guidance and examination by ultrasound versus landmark and radiographic method for placement of subclavian central venous catheters: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Perbet, Sébastien; Pereira, Bruno; Grimaldi, Florian; Dualé, Christian; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel


    Central venous catheters play an important role in patient care. Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian central venous (SCV) cannulation may reduce the incidence of complications and the time between skin penetration and the aspiration of venous blood into the syringe. Ultrasonic diagnosis of catheter misplacement and pneumothorax related to central venous catheterization is rapid and accurate. It is unclear, however, whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination can reduce procedure times and complication rates when compared with landmark guidance and radiographic examination for SCV catheterization. The Subclavian Central Venous Catheters Guidance and Examination by UltraSound (SUBGEUS) study is an investigator-initiated single center, randomized, controlled two-arm trial. Three hundred patients undergoing SCV catheter placement will be randomized to ultrasound real-time guidance and examination or landmark guidance and radiographic examination. The primary outcome is the time between the beginning of the procedure and control of the catheter. Secondary outcomes include the times required for the six components of the total procedure, the occurrence of complications (pneumothorax, hemothorax, or misplacement), failure of the technique and occurrence of central venous catheter infections. The SUBGEUS trial is the first randomized controlled study to investigate whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination for SCV catheter placement reduces all procedure times and the rate of complications. Identifier: NCT01888094.

  20. The effect of lung deflation on the position of the pleura during subclavian vein cannulation in infants receiving mechanical ventilation: an ultrasound study. (United States)

    Jang, Y-E; Lee, J-H; Park, Y-H; Byon, H-J; Kim, H-S; Kim, C-S; Kim, J-T


    We evaluated the effect of lung deflation on the relative position of the pleura compared with a reference line during supra- and infraclavicular approaches to the right subclavian vein. The reference line was drawn relative to the predicted pathway of the needle. The distances between the pleura and the reference line for supra- and infraclavicular approaches were measured during inspiration and expiration in 41 infants. Measurements were repeated with the application of 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and in the Trendelenburg position. Lung deflation during the supraclavicular approach significantly decreased the volume of lung crossing the reference line by a median (IQR [range]) of 1.0 (0.6 to 1.3 [0.0 to 4.8]) mm, p pleura from the reference line regardless of PEEP or patient position. We conclude that lung deflation moves the lung apex caudally and can reduce the potential risk of pneumothorax during a supraclavicular approach to the right subclavian vein in infants. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. The Epidemiology of Subclavian Stenosis and its Association with Markers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (United States)

    Aboyans, Victor; Kamineni, Aruna; Allison, Matthew A.; McDermott, Mary McGrae; Crouse, John R.; Ni, Hanyu; Szklo, Moyses; Criqui, Michael H.


    Background Recent studies indicate that subclavian stenosis (SS), diagnosed by a large systolic blood pressure difference (SBPD) between the right and left brachial arteries, is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and outcomes. We sought to describe the epidemiology of SS and determine its association with markers of subclinical CVD in the baseline cohort of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods We defined SS by an absolute SBPD ≥15 mmHg. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) was defined by an ankle-brachial index ≤0.90. The coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and the common-carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) were measured by computed tomography and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. Odds ratios for the associations of SS with risk factors and subclinical disease were estimated using logistic regression. Results Of 6,743 subjects studied, 307 participants (4.6%) had SS, with a higher prevalence in women (5.1%) than men (3.9%), and in African-Americans (7.4%) and non-Hispanic whites (5.1%) than Hispanic (1.9%) or Chinese (1.0%) participants (p100 vs. score=0; OR=1.43; 1.03-2.01). Conclusions The subclavian stenosis is positively associated with other markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:20138280

  2. Topological changes of the human autonomic cardiac nervous system in individuals with a retroesophageal right subclavian artery: two case reports and a brief review. (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi


    The topological changes of the human autonomic cardiac nervous system in two cadavers with a retroesophageal right subclavian artery (Rersa) were compared with the normal autonomic cardiac nervous system. The following new results were obtained in addition to the conventional deficient finding of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve. (1) Right superior cardiac nerves arising from the superior cervical ganglion were consistently observed in both cadavers, in addition to the right thoracic cardiac nerves along the Rersa. (2) A segmental accompanying tendency of the right cardiac nerves was recognized: the cardiac nerves arising from the sympathetic trunk cranial to the middle cervical ganglia ran along with the right common carotid artery, whereas the cardiac nerves arising from the sympathetic trunk caudal to the vertebral ganglion ran along the Rersa. (3) The right thoracic cardiac nerves, which have never been observed to accompany the normal right subclavian artery, ran along the proximal part of the Rersa. According to previous reports of individuals with the Rersa, a thick right thoracic cardiac nerve is commonly observed instead of a right superior cardiac nerve. However, all the cardiac nerves were recognized in both the individuals described in the present report. Therefore, we strongly disagree with the previous idea that the origin of the right cardiac nerves from the sympathetic trunk and ganglia is shifted caudally in individuals with the Rersa. The topological changes of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in two cases of Rersa also reflected spatial changes of great arteries.

  3. 77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood... (United States)


    ...: 14X1125] Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood... harvesting and/or tree cutting on public land within the Topaz Ranch Estates (TRE) and Preacher fires burn... and a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood collecting on areas burned by the TRE and Preacher...

  4. The Eulerian buckling test for orthodontic wires. (United States)

    De Santis, R; Dolci, F; Laino, A; Martina, R; Ambrosio, L; Nicolais, L


    Orthodontic treatment is mainly dependent on the loads developed by metal wires. The load developed by a buckled orthodontic wire is of great concern for molar distalization and cannot be simply derived from mechanical properties measured through classical tests (i.e. tensile, torsion, and bending). A novel testing method, based on the Eulerian approach of a simple supported beam, has been developed in order to measure the load due to buckling of orthodontic wires. Elastic titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA; SDS Ormco) and superelastic Nitinol (3M Unitek) and copper nickel-titanium (NiTi; SDS Ormco) wires, each having a rectangular cross section of 0.016 x 0.022 square inches (0.41 x 0.56 mm(2)), were used. The wires were activated and deactivated by loading and unloading. In order to analyse thermo-mechanical properties in buckling, mechanical tests were assisted by calorimetric measurements through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Statistical analysis to determine differences between the samples was undertaken using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test, and one-way ANOVA to assess differences between the tested wires under similar conditions and different materials. The results suggest that the load due to buckling depends on material composition, wire length, the amount of activation, temperature, and deformation rate. The results can be considered as the lower bound for the loads experienced by teeth as far as a buckled wire is concerned. At a temperature higher than the austenite finish transition temperature, superelastic wires were strongly dependent on temperature and deformation rate. The effect due to an increase of deformation rate was similar to that of a decrease of temperature. Load variations due to temperature of a superelastic wire with a length of 20 mm were estimated to be approximately 4 g/degrees C. The high performance of an applied superelastic wire may be related to the high dynamics of the load in relation to

  5. Wire grid and wire scanner design for the CERN Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F; Cheymol, B; Dutriat, C; Duraffourg, M; Focker, G J; Raich, U; Vuitton, C


    As part of the CERN LHC injector chain upgrade, LINAC4 [1] will accelerate H- ions from 45 KeV to 160 MeV. A number of wire grids and wire scanners will be used to characterize the beam transverse profile. This paper covers all monitor design aspects intended to cope with the required specifications. In particular, the overall measurement robustness, accuracy and sensitivity must be satisfied for different commissioning and operational scenarios. The physics mechanisms generating the wire signals and the wire resistance to beam induced thermal loads have been considered in order to determine the most appropriate monitor design in terms of wire material and dimensions.

  6. Steer-by-wire innovations and demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Zuurbier, J.; Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Willemsen, D.M.C.


    Arguments for 'by-wire' systems include production costs, packaging and traffic safety. Innovations concern both product and development process e.g. combined virtual engineering and Hardware-in-the-loop testing. Three Steer-by-wire systems are discussed: a steering system simulator used as a

  7. Add-On Shielding for Unshielded Wire (United States)

    Koenig, J. C.; Billitti, J. W.; Tallon, J. M.


    Fabrication sequence used to produce compact shields slipped into place from free ends of wires already soldered into connectors at other ends. Single shields are formed into harnesses by connecting grounding jumpers. Technique is especially useful for small diameter wire attached to microminiature connectors.

  8. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia


    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  9. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong


    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  10. Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar


    , the uplink traffic to the user, remains identical to the one performed in a wired system. In the broadcast phase, the decoding of the downlink traffic can also be guaranteed to remain identical. Hence, our solution claims an emulation of a wired backhaul with wireless network coding with same performance. We...

  11. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U


    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  12. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China (United States)


    ... and whether shipped as a kit or packaged separately. Wire decking is produced from carbon or alloy..., zinc or nickel coated), coated (e.g., with paint, epoxy, or plastic), or uncoated (``raw''). The wire... before June 28, 2010, but such final comments must not contain new factual information and must otherwise...

  13. Wire scanners in low energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Elmfors, P; Huhtinen, M; Lindroos, M; Olsfors, J; Raich, U


    Fast wire scanners are today considered as part of standard instrumentation in high energy synchrotrons. The extension of their use to synchrotrons working at lower energies, where Coulomb scattering can be important and the transverse beam size is large, introduces new complications considering beam heating of the wire, composition of the secondary particle shower and geometrical consideration in the detection set-up. A major problem in treating these effects is that the creation of secondaries in a thin carbon wire by a energetic primary beam is difficult to describe in an analytical way. We are here presenting new results from a full Monte Carlo simulation of this process yielding information on heat deposited in the wire, particle type and energy spectrum of secondaries and angular dependence as a function of primary beam energy. The results are used to derive limits for the use of wire scanners in low energy accelerators.

  14. Fracture resistance of various temporary crown materials. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Asude; Baydaş, Seyfettin


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of various provisional crown materials using an in vitro model test system. In the present study polycarbonate crowns, prefabricated by the manufacturer (3M Polycarbonate Crown), and the temporary crowns, fabricated in the dental laboratory environment, were fabricated using bis-acryl composite (Protemp II), autopolymerizing PMMA resin (BISICO Temp S), and heat-polymerized PMMA resin (Major C&B-V Dentine). All temporary crowns were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at room temperature prior to testing. The crowns were seated on metal dies, fabricated from Cr-Co alloy (AZ Dental, Konstanz, Germany), and then tested using the indenter of a Hounsfield testing machine (Hounsfield Tensometer, Hounsfield Test Equipment, Raydon, England). The tip of the indenter was located at a position one-third of the way down the inciso-palatine surface at 135 masculine. The data were statistically analyzed for differences using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test (P polycarbonate crowns were significantly different from the BISICO Temp S, Protemp II, and Major C&B-V Dentine (P polycarbonate crowns may be preferable to the other types of temporary crowns used in this study.

  15. Wire pad chamber for LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Botchine, B; Lazarev, V A; Sagidova, N; Vorobev, A P; Vorobyov, A; Vorobyov, Alexei


    2000-003 Wire pad chambers (WPC) have been proposed for the outer Region 4 of the LHCb Muon System. These are double gap MWPCs with small wire spacing allowing to obtain 99% detection efficiency in a 20 ns time window. The chambers have a rectangular shape with the vertical dimension from 20 cm in Station 1 to 30 cm in Station 5. The horizontal dimensions will be different with the maximal size of 3 meters in Station 5. The wires are in the vertical direction. The short wire length allows to use small wire spacing needed for high time resolution. Also, this helps to obtain the uniform gas gain over the whole chamber area. The WPC has one row of the wire pads formed by grouping wires in separate readout channels. Four WPC prototypes have been built at PNPI and tested in the PS beam at CERN. Here we report on the results from these tests. Also, the results of simulation of the WPC performance are presented.

  16. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott


    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  17. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion (United States)

    Ruwali, K.; Yamanaka, A.; Teramoto, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Hosoyama, K.


    An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experimental setup and the test results are reported in this paper.

  18. Lasing from a single quantum wire


    Hayamizu, Yuhei; Yoshita, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinichi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.


    A laser with an active volume consisting of only a single quantum wire in the 1-dimensional (1-D) ground state is demonstrated. The single wire is formed quantum-mechanically at the T-intersection of a 14 nm Al_{0.07}Ga_{0.93}As quantum well and a 6 nm GaAs quantum well, and is embedded in a 1-D single-mode optical waveguide. We observe single-mode lasing from the quantum wire ground state by optical pumping. The laser operates from 5 to 60 K, and has a low threshold pumping power of 5 mW at ...

  19. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ruwali


    Full Text Available An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experimental setup and the test results are reported in this paper.

  20. Empirical correlation methods for temporary anions. (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Thomas; Weber, Rebecca J


    A temporary anion is a short-lived radical anion that decays through electron autodetachment into a neutral molecule and a free electron. The energies of these metastable species are often predicted using empirical correlation methods because ab initio predictions are computationally very expensive. Empirical correlation methods can be justified in the framework of Weisskopf-Fano-Feshbach theory but tend to work well only within closely related families of molecules or within a restricted energy range. The reason for this behavior can be understood using an alternative theoretical justification in the framework of the Hazi-Taylor stabilization method, which suggests that the empirical parameters do not so much correct for the coupling of the computed state to the continuum but for electron correlation effects and that therefore empirical correlation methods can be improved by using more accurate electronic structure methods to compute the energy of the confined electron. This idea is tested by choosing a heterogeneous reference set of temporary states and comparing empirical correlation schemes based on Hartree-Fock orbital energies, Kohn-Sham orbital energies, and attachment energies computed with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method. The results show that using more reliable energies for the confined electron indeed enhances the predictive power of empirical correlation schemes and that useful correlations can be established beyond closely related families of molecules. Certain types of σ* states are still problematic, and the reasons for this behavior are analyzed. On the other hand, preliminary results suggest that the new scheme can even be useful for predicting energies of bound anions at a fraction of the computational cost of reliable ab initio calculations. It is then used to make predictions for bound and temporary states of the furantrione and croconic acid radical anions.

  1. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery-Esophageal Fistula: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Millar


    Full Text Available An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA is a common aortic arch abnormality. A case of a 57-year-old man presenting with melena and hypotension secondary to an ARSA-esophageal fistula is reported. The current report is unique because it is the first reported case of ARSA-esophageal fistula associated with prior esophagectomy and gastric pull-up. A MedLine search was performed for ARSA-esophageal fistula cases, which were then compared with the present case. Because this patient had no vascular conduits, nasogastric or endotracheal tubes, the fistula likely occurred secondary to the previous surgery. This case is unusual because the patient survived the original hemorrhage associated with the ARSA-esophageal fistula.

  2. PHACE association with intracranial, oropharyngeal hemangiomas, and an atypical patent ductus arteriosus arising from the tortuous left subclavian artery in a premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Hyun Kim


    Full Text Available PHACE association is a rare neurocutaneous condition in which facial hemangiomas associate with a spectrum of posterior fossa malformations, arterial cerebrovascular anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, and eye anomalies. We reported a case of PHACE association in a premature infant showing facial, intracranial, and oropharyngeal hemangiomas with evidence of the Dandy-Walker variant and complicated cardiovascular anomalies, including a right-sided aortic arch and an atypical patent ductus arteriosus arising from a tortuous left subclavian artery. To our knowledge, intracranial hemangiomas are rare in PHACE association, and a concomitant oropharyngeal hemangioma has not been previously reported in the PHACE association literature. In infants presenting with large, plaque-like facial hemangiomas, it is important to conduct active cardiovascular and neurological evaluations. Special attention should be given to the laryngoscopic examination to search for additional hemangiomas in the airway.

  3. Chemically etched modulation in wire radius for wire array Z-pinch perturbation studies (United States)

    Jones, B.; Deeney, C.; McKenney, J. L.; Garrity, J. E.; Lobley, D. K.; Martin, K. L.; Griego, A. E.; Ramacciotti, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bott, S. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Palmer, J. B. A.; Rapley, J.; Hall, G.


    A technique for manufacturing wires with imposed modulation in radius with axial wavelengths as short as 1 mm is presented. Extruded aluminum 5056 with 15 μm diameter was masked and chemically etched to reduce the radius by ˜20% in selected regions. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the modulation in radius is a step function with a ˜10 μm wide conical transition between thick and thin segments, with some pitting in etched regions. Techniques for mounting and aligning these wires in arrays for fast z-pinch experiments will be discussed. Axially mass-modulated wire arrays of this type will allow the study of seeded Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in z pinches, corona formation, wire initiation with varying current density in the wire core, and correlation of perturbations between adjacent wires. This tool will support magnetohydrodynamics code validation in complex three-dimensional geometries, and perhaps x-ray pulse shaping.

  4. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  5. Criteria for diagnosis of temporary gluten intolerance. (United States)

    McNeish, A S; Rolles, C J; Arthur, L J


    Strict criteria for the diagnosis of temporary gluten intolerance are formulated in the light of the case of an 8-week-old infant with severe diarrhoea and failure to thrive, who recovered on an elimination diet that was gluten-free. 8 weeks later an oral challenge with 2.5 g twice daily of powdered gluten for one day produced diarrhoea, weight loss, and impaired xylose absorption. Gluten was successfully reintroduced into the diet 9 months later without incident. Jejunal histology remains normal after 26 months of a daily diet that contains 5 to 10 g gluten.

  6. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna


    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  7. Comparing Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stent Placement for Treatment of Subclavian Arterial Occlusive Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ahmed T., E-mail:; Mohammed, Khaled, E-mail: [Mayo Clinic, Evidence-Based Practice Research Program (United States); Chehab, Monzer, E-mail: [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Molecular Imaging (United States); Brinjikji, Waleed, E-mail: [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Hassan Murad, M., E-mail: [Mayo Clinic, Evidence-Based Practice Research Program (United States); Cloft, Harry, E-mail:; Bjarnason, Haraldur, E-mail: [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)


    Background and PurposeSubclavian artery occlusive disease (SAOD) is often associated with cerebrovascular symptoms such as subclavian steal syndrome and stroke. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement for the treatment of SAOD.Materials and MethodsWe searched Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus through October 16, 2014. From each study, we abstracted baseline patient characteristics, study design variables, and outcome data including rates of technical success, primary patency (≤2 and >2 years follow-up), symptom resolution, and complications. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model.ResultsA total of 35 non-comparative studies with 1726 patients were included. Technical success rate was significantly higher in the stent group than the PTA group (92.8 vs 86.8 %, p = 0.007). Long-term primary patency rates (76.9 vs 79.6 %, p = 0.729) and symptom resolution rates (82.2 vs 73.0 %, p = 0.327) were not statistically different. There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of stroke or death.ConclusionStent placement for treatment of SAOD may be associated with higher rates of technical success but similar rates of symptom resolution and long-term outcomes. The confidence in the available estimates is low. Further comparative studies are needed to guide patients and clinicians in shared decision making.

  8. Doppler-guided cannulation of internal jugular vein, subclavian vein and innominate (brachiocephalic) vein--a case-control comparison in patients with reduced and normal intracranial compliance. (United States)

    Schummer, Wolfram; Schummer, Claudia; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Gerstenberg, Hendrik


    A case-control comparison of Doppler guidance on the success rate of central venous cannulation in patients with normal or reduced intracranial compliance. A single operator performed central venous access procedures with continuous wave Doppler guidance. It was used on patients on a ventilator. The position of patients with reduced intracranial compliance (RIC) was not changed for the procedure. Patients with normal intracranial compliance (NIC) were put in the Trendelenburg position. We prospectively evaluated 249 Doppler-guided central venous access procedures performed over a 12-month period at our 10-bed neuro-intensive care unit at a university hospital. The group with RIC included 26 males and 35 females (n=61) aged 16-79 years. In this group 155 Doppler-guided cannulation procedures (62%) were performed. The group with NIC (n=52) comprised 29 males and 23 females aged 34-76 years; 94 Doppler-guided cannulation procedures (38%) were carried out. The veins cannulated in RIC and NIC, respectively, were: right innominate vein: 24/18, left innominate vein 26/12, right subclavian vein 12/7, left subclavian vein 25/14, and right internal jugular vein 33/18 and left internal jugular vein 35/24. The absence of one left internal jugular vein was identified in the NIC group. The success rate of first needle pass in patients with RIC was 92% and in patients with NIC 89%. This study showed that Doppler guidance allows the cannulation of central veins in patients with RIC placed in head-up position. Cannulation can be ensured and first-pass needle placement maximised.

  9. Echocolor Doppler morpho-functional study of the jugulo-subclavian confluence in chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis patients. (United States)

    Mandolesi, Sandro; d'Alessandro, Aldo; Desogus, Antonello Ignazio; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Zito, Annapaola; Stammegna, Immacolata; Niglio, Tarcisio; Orsini, Augusto; Mandolesi, Dimitri; d'Alessandro, Alessandro; Revelli, Luca


    The aim of this work is to measure the mean diameter of the confluence jugulo- subclavian, the impact of different types of jugular confluences and the correlation between the types of confluences and the Valsalva maneuver (jugular reflux) in subjects with Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) and Multiple Sclerosis. We investigated by Echo-Color-Doppler (ECD) 103 subjects (67 F 36M) of mean age 45 ± 12 years (a minimum of 22 to a maximum of 79 years, with a median of 44 and a modal value 42 years), mean EDSS of 4.7 and average disease duration of 12 years. The 103 right jugular veins investigated had an average diameter of 8.4 ± 2.4 mm (minimum 4.0, maximum 14.9 mm; median 7.9; modal value 7.6 mm). Three form types were found: 56 cylindrical, 29 conical and 18 funnel. Valsalva maneuver was positive in 30 patients. The 103 left jugular investigated had an average diameter of 8.9 ± 2.4 mm (minimum 2.8, maximum 14.4 mm; median of 8.8; modal value 8.7 mm). The form types were found: 42 cylindrical, 45 conical and 16 funnel. Valsalva maneuver was positive in 30 patients. The mean diameter of the jugular veins was 8.7 mm. Internal jugular veins with cylindrical morphology have a diameter smaller than other forms; this difference is statistically significant. The different morphology of the jugular vein confluence does not increase the possibility of a reflux because the positive Valsalva maneuvers are not statistically significant when compared to the various types. CCSVI, EchoColorDoppler Map, Jugulo-Subclavian Confluence Diameter.

  10. Local hypertrichosis: A rare complication of a temporary henna tattoo. (United States)

    Akpolat, Nebahat Demet; Aras, Arzu


    Temporary henna tattoos have become increasingly widespread among children and young people, especially in holiday spots in recent years. Although reactions to henna tattoo are becoming progressively more common, only few cases of a henna pseudo-tattoo resulting in temporary hypertrichosis have been reported so far. Here, we have reported a 5-year-old girl who developed allergic contact dermatitis and localized hypertrichosis on her right arm after application of temporary henna tattoo during summer holiday.

  11. Molecular wires, switches and memories (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  12. Magnetoimpedance simulations in wires and tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz, J L; Kurlyandskaya, G V; Garcia-Arribas, A


    Numerical computations have been used to study the magnetoimpedance (MI) effect in magnetic wires and microtubes. Two kinds of wires have been investigated. In the first case, a typical amorphous wire with a core-shell structure is simulated, considering the different magnetization curve of each layer, and in the second case, a non-magnetic wire with a thin deposited layer of magnetic material is studied. The results of the simulations agree in both cases with the experimental behavior usually found for these samples. They also allow us to explain such features as MI saturation and the influence of the resistivities of the conductive and magnetic layers in microtubes, that can improve MI-based devices.

  13. Beam Profiling through Wire Chambing Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, W


    This note describes the calibration of the Delay Wire Chambers (DWCs) used during test runs of CALICE’s Tungsten Digital Hadron Calorimeter (W-DHCAL) prototype in CERN’s SPS beam line (10 – 300 GeV).

  14. Wire core reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion (United States)

    Harty, Richard B.; Brengle, Robert G.


    Studies have been performed of a compact high-performance nuclear rocket reactor that incorporates a tungsten alloy wire fuel element. This reactor, termed the wire core reactor, can deliver a specific impulse of 1,000 s using an expander cycle and a nozzle expansion ratio of 500 to 1. The core is constructed of layers of 0.8-mm-dia fueled tungsten wires wound over alternate layers of spacer wires, which forms a rugged annular lattice. Hydrogen flow in the core is annular, flowing from inside to outside. In addition to the concepts compact size and good heat transfer, the core has excellent power-flow matching features and can resist vibration and thermal stresses during star-up and shutdown.

  15. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526 (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  16. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joshua, E-mail:; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chu, Michael [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Pegan, Jonathan D. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Khine, Michelle, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)


    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  17. Temporary epicardial cardiac resynchronisation versus conventional right ventricular pacing after cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Stuart J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure patients with stable angina, acute coronary syndromes and valvular heart disease may benefit from revascularisation and/or valve surgery. However, the mortality rate is increased- 5-30%. Biventricular pacing using temporary epicardial wires after surgery is a potential mechanism to improve cardiac function and clinical endpoints. Method/design A multi-centred, prospective, randomised, single-blinded, intervention-control trial of temporary biventricular pacing versus standard pacing. Patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease or both, an ejection fraction ≤ 35% and a conventional indication for cardiac surgery will be recruited from 2 cardiac centres. Baseline investigations will include: an electrocardiogram to confirm sinus rhythm and measure QRS duration; echocardiogram to evaluate left ventricular function and markers of mechanical dyssynchrony; dobutamine echocardiogram for viability and blood tests for renal function and biomarkers of myocardial injury- troponin T and brain naturetic peptide. Blood tests will be repeated at 18, 48 and 72 hours. The principal exclusions will be subjects with permanent atrial arrhythmias, permanent pacemakers, infective endocarditis or end-stage renal disease. After surgery, temporary pacing wires will be attached to the postero-lateral wall of the left ventricle, the right atrium and right ventricle and connected to a triple chamber temporary pacemaker. Subjects will be randomised to receive either temporary biventricular pacing or standard pacing (atrial inhibited pacing or atrial-synchronous right ventricular pacing for 48 hours. The primary endpoint will be the duration of level 3 care. In brief, this is the requirement for invasive ventilation, multi-organ support or more than one inotrope/vasoconstrictor. Haemodynamic studies will be performed at baseline, 6, 18 and 24 hours after surgery using a pulmonary arterial catheter. Measurements will be

  18. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is that...

  20. Cobalt chromium sublaminar wires for spinal deformity surgery. (United States)

    Cluck, Michael W; Skaggs, David L


    Biomechanical analysis and retrospective chart review. To determine the mechanical properties of cobalt chromium alloy wires and review the clinical application of the wires as sublaminar implants to correct spinal deformity. Sublaminar wires are commonly used as anchors in spinal deformity surgery. In stainless steel instrumentation systems, single strand wires (Luque wires) may be retightened over time to take advantage of stress relaxation while correcting spinal deformity. Because of the mechanical properties of titanium, solid titanium wires are not used as sublaminar wires. Cobalt chromium alloy is a titanium compatible alloy that can be twisted in a similar fashion to stainless steel sublaminar wires. Comparative tensile tests were performed using cobalt chromium alloy wires and Luque stainless steel wires. In addition, 22 consecutive posterior spinal fusions for idiopathic scoliosis were performed using cobalt chromium alloy wires as sublaminar implants. Yield and ultimate tensile loads for the cobalt chromium alloy wires are on average 66% (P cobalt chromium alloy wires were used as sublaminar implants. Mean preoperative lumbar curve was 52 degrees +/- 14 degrees , which corrected to 17 degrees +/- 8 degrees (68% correction, P cobalt chromium alloy wire over steel wire include greater tensile strength and titanium compatibility. Cobalt chromium alloy solid wires may be used as sublaminar implants with titanium spinal instrumentation with excellent clinical results.

  1. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John


    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  2. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He


    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  3. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  4. Subwavelength wire array metamaterial microwave cavities (United States)

    Al-Rubaiee, M.; Alchalaby, A.; Al-Janabi, H.


    Wire array metamaterial cavities and waveguides can be achieved by changing the resonance frequency of one or more unit cell surrounding by unit cells don't support the resonance for certain frequency and hence obtain signal confinement only on the defect wires. Changing the resonance frequency of one or more unit cell was done in this work by changing the length of the unit cell. We validate our approach in experiment and simulation with electromagnetic waves in the microwave range.

  5. Electronic Properties of Quantum Wire Networks


    Kuzmenko, Igor


    Quantum wire networks (``quantum crossbars'', QCB) represent a 2D grid formed by superimposed crossing arrays of parallel conducting quantum wires, molecular chains or metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes. QCB coupled only by capacitive interaction in the crosses have similar low-energy, long-wave properties characterized as a crossed sliding Luttinger liquid (CSLL) phase. In this Thesis we develop a theory of interacting Bose excitations (plasmons) in QCB. We analyze spectrum of boson field...

  6. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A


    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  7. Charge Transport Along Phenylenevinylene Molecular Wires


    Siebbeles, Laurens; Prins, Paulette; Grozema, Ferdinand


    Abstract A model to calculate the mobility of charges along molecular wires is presented. The model is based on the tight-binding approximation and combines a quantum mechanical description of the charge with a classical description of the structural degrees of freedom. It is demonstrated that the average mobility of charge carriers along molecular wires can be obtained by time-propagation of states which are initially localised. The model is used to calculate the mobility of charg...

  8. Wiring System Diagnostic Techniques for Legacy Aircraft (United States)


    Reunions des specialistes des techniques de estion du cycle de vie pour vehicules aeriens vieillissants ] To order the complete compilation report, use...Ageing Mechanisms and Control. Specialists’ Meeting on Life Management Techniques for Ageing Air Vehicles [Les mecanismes vieillissants et le identified. Additionally, wiring failures tend to be intermittent in nature and can take considerable time to isolate. Wire modifications and

  9. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan


    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  10. Induced Voltage in an Open Wire (United States)

    Morawetz, K.; Gilbert, M.; Trupp, A.


    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law has been considered and solved concerning the question which voltage will be induced in an open wire with a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. In contrast to closed wires where the voltage is determined by the time variance of the magnetic field and the enclosed area, in an open wire we have to integrate the electric field along the wire. It is found that the longitudinal electric field with respect to the wave vector contributes with 1/3 and the transverse field with 2/3 to the induced voltage. In order to find the electric fields the sources of the magnetic fields are necessary to know. The representation of a spatially homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or symmetry line which depend on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to this symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire placed with different angles in the magnetic field. We present exactly solvable models of the Maxwell equations for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line, respectively. The results are applicable to open circuit problems like corrosion and for astrophysical applications.

  11. The technology of testing the safety of steel wire ropes (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Hu, Caiwen


    To estimate the security of steel wire rope, the broken wire condition, the capability of the rope to bear weight and the state of stress balance of each wire in the steel wire rope were investigated. The wavelet translation method was applied to analyze the signals of magnetic field leakage from the steel wire rope. The result of the time-frequency analysis of the signals can be used to make certain of he position and the amount of the broken wire. Using the static surveillance method as a basis, a dynamic surveillance method was designed to detect the stress balance of the steel wire rope. This technology makes it possible to check the stress condition of each wire on line. It can be concluded that a wavelet translation analysis and the dynamic surveillance technique are effective methods to detect on line and real-time the broken wire and the stress balance of multistrand wire ropes.

  12. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos...

  13. Use of a tip-edge stage-1 wire to enhance vertical control during straight wire treatment: two case reports. (United States)

    Taylor, Helen


    Vertical control is one of the problems occasionally encountered in Straight wire treatment. Two cases, one with deep overbite and one with anterior open-bite, demonstrate the use of a Tip-Edge stage-1 wire to enhance vertical control in conjunction with Straight wire brackets and superelastic main arch wires.

  14. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.


    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  15. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.


    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  16. Forecasting of Corrosion Properties of Steel Wires for Production of Guide Wires for Cardiological Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Przondziono, J; Walke, W; Hadasik, E; Młynarski, R


    ... of guide wires used in invasive cardiology. The results of static tensile test enabled us to determine the course of flow curve of wires made of X10CrNi 18-8 steel as well as mathematical form of flow stress function...

  17. Modeling and simulation of the fluid flow in wire electrochemical machining with rotating tool (wire ECM) (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.


    Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.

  18. 8 CFR 245a.2 - Application for temporary residence. (United States)


    ... (No. 76-C-4268 (N.D. ILL. March 22, 1977)); that is, an alien from an independent country of the... States was due merely to a brief temporary trip abroad due to emergent or extenuating circumstances... employment and travel abroad for temporary resident status applicants under section 245A(a) of the Act may...

  19. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers. (United States)


    ...) Temporary registration numbers may not be used to fly aircraft into the United States for the purpose of... for as many temporary registration numbers as are necessary for his business. The application must be... used on a flight outside the United States for delivery purposes, the holder shall record the...

  20. 23 CFR 1235.5 - Temporary removable windshield placards. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary removable windshield placards. 1235.5 Section 1235.5 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.5 Temporary removable windshield placards. (a)...

  1. Temporary Employment Contracts in Academia: A Real Option View (United States)

    Brady, Malcolm


    This paper examines the strategic use of temporary employment contracts in dealing with supply uncertainty in the form of employee ability that is slow to reveal itself, for example in academia where there exist significant time lags in demonstration of research ability. A temporary contract is modeled as a real option, specifically as a…

  2. 25 CFR 700.175 - Temporary emergency moves. (United States)


    ... move not been made. (iv) The Commission will pay all costs in connection with the move to temporary... temporary move, based upon the criteria set forth by the Commission. (2) The estimated duration of the... Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES...

  3. 22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses. (United States)


    ... articles, unless exempted from this requirement pursuant to § 123.4. This requirement applies to: (1) Temporary imports of unclassified defense articles that are to be returned directly to the country from... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A license (DSP-61) issued by the Directorate of...

  4. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample Temporary...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.154 - Temporary heating devices. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary heating devices. 1926.154 Section 1926.154 Labor... Temporary heating devices. (a) Ventilation. (1) Fresh air shall be supplied in sufficient quantities to... heating devices shall be installed to provide clearance to combustible material not less than the amount...

  6. Temporary anchorage devices – Mini-implants (United States)

    Singh, Kamlesh; Kumar, Deepak; Jaiswal, Raj Kumar; Bansal, Amol


    Orthodontists are accustomed to using teeth and auxiliary appliances, both intraoral and extraoral, to control anchorage. These methods are limited in that it is often difficult to achieve results commensurate with our idealistic goals. Recently, a number of case reports have appeared in the orthodontic literature documenting the possibility of overcoming anchorage limitations via the use of temporary anchorage devices—biocompatible devices fixed to bone for the purpose of moving teeth, with the devices being subsequently removed after treatment. Although skeletal anchorage is here to stay in orthodontics, there are still many unanswered questions. This article describes the development of skeletal anchorage and provides an overview of the use of implants for orthodontic anchorage. PMID:22442547

  7. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of 4-Fluoroisobutyryl Fentanyl into Schedule I. Temporary scheduling order. (United States)


    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl.

  8. The risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection with femoral venous catheters as compared to subclavian and internal jugular venous catheters: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Marik, Paul E; Flemmer, Mark; Harrison, Wendy


    Catheter-related bloodstream infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Current guidelines recommend that femoral venous access should be avoided to reduce this complication (1A recommendation). However, the risk of catheter-related bloodstream infections from femoral as compared to subclavian and internal jugular venous catheterization has not been systematically reviewed. A systematic review of the literature to determine the risk of catheter-related bloodstream infections related to nontunneled central venous catheters inserted at the femoral site as compared to subclavian and internal jugular placement. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, and an Internet search (Google). Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies that reported the frequency of catheter-related bloodstream infections (infections per 1,000 catheter days) in patients with nontunneled central venous catheters placed in the femoral site as compared to subclavian or internal jugular placement. Data were abstracted on study design, study size, study setting, patient population, number of catheters at each insertion site, number of catheter-related bloodstream infections, and the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis. Studies were subgrouped according to study design (cohort and randomized controlled trials). Meta-analytic techniques were used to summarize the data. Two randomized controlled trials (1006 catheters) and 8 cohort (16,370 catheters) studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Three thousand two hundred thirty catheters were placed in the subclavian vein, 10,958 in the internal jugular and 3,188 in the femoral vein for a total of 113,652 catheter days. The average catheter-related bloodstream infections density was 2.5 per 1,000 catheter days (range 0.6-7.2). There was no significant difference in the risk of catheter-related bloodstream

  9. K-wire position in tension-band wiring technique affects stability of wires and long-term outcome in surgical treatment of olecranon fractures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, S.C. van der; Kampen, A. van; Jaarsma, R.L.


    BACKGROUND: Tension-band wiring (TBW) has been accepted as the treatment of choice for displaced olecranon fractures. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of K-wire position on instability of the K-wires in relation to local complications and radiological and clinical long-term outcome.

  10. Modeling and experimentation of a positioning system of SMA wires (United States)

    Lei, KinFong; Yam, Yeung


    This work reports two modeling and control attempts performed on a positioning system comprising of linking SMA wires and an overlooking video system for on-line measurements. The first attempt takes the model by Ikuta and identifies experimentally the parameters of the SMA wire. The identified single wire model is then extended to a system of two SMA wires joining together at their tips, based upon which open loop position control of the linkage is then conducted. The approach, however, becomes too complicated when more SMA wires are involved. The second attempt utilizes a neuro-fuzzy based approach for positioning control of a linkage point joining together four SMA wires. The second approach involves four ANFIS neuro-networks with hybrid learning algorithm trained to model the currents to the SMA wires as functions of present and target positions of the linkage point. Experimentation for both the two-wires and four-wires system yield quite satisfactory performance.

  11. Percutaneous tension band wiring for patellar fractures. (United States)

    Rathi, Akhilesh; Swamy, M K S; Prasantha, I; Consul, Ashu; Bansal, Abhishek; Bahl, Vibhu


    To evaluate outcome of percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella. 16 men and 7 women aged 27 to 65 (mean, 40) years underwent percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella with a displacement of >3 mm. Pain, operating time, mobility, functional score, and complications were evaluated. 20 patients underwent successful percutaneous tension band wiring. The remaining 3 patients in whom closed reduction failed underwent open reduction and tension band wiring. The mean operating time was 46 (range, 28-62) minutes. The mean follow-up period was 20 (range, 15-30) months. At the latest follow-up, all patients had regained full extension. The objective score was excellent in 20 patients and good in 3, whereas the subjective score was excellent in 17, good in 5, and fair in one. All patients had radiological union at week 8. One patient had patellofemoral arthritis (secondary to a postoperative articular step). Two patients developed superficial infections, which resolved after antibiotic therapy. Mean thigh muscle wasting was 0.7 (range, 0.4-1) cm. Three patients encountered hardware problems (impingement/irritation of the skin over the knee) necessitating implant removal. Percutaneous tension band wiring is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry


    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  13. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  14. The PS Booster Fast Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Priestnall, K; Raich, U


    The very tight emittance budget for LHC type beams makes precise emittance measurements in the injector complex a necessity. The PS machine uses 2 fast wire scanners per transverse plane for emittance measurement of the circulating beams. In order to ease comparison the same type of wire scanners have been newly installed in the upstream machine, the PS Booster, where each of the 4 rings is equipped with 2 wire scanners measuring the horizontal and vertical profiles. Those wire scanners use new and more modern control and readout electronics featuring dedicated intelligent motor movement controllers, which relieves the very stringent real time constraints due to the very high speed of 20m/s. In order to be able to measure primary beams at the very low injection energy of the Booster (50MeV) secondary emission currents from the wire can be measured as well as secondary particle flows at higher primary particle energies during and after acceleration. The solution adopted for the control of the devices is descri...

  15. Forgotten Kirschner Wire Causing Severe Hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar


    Full Text Available Kirschner wire (K-wire is commonly used in the treatment of hip fracture and its migration into pelvis leading to bladder injury is a very rare complication. Nonremoval of these devices either because of lack of followup or because of prolonged requirement due to disease process is associated with this complication. We report a case of a patient who presented with acute onset severe hematuria with clot retention secondary to perforation of bladder by a migrated K-wire placed earlier, for the treatment of hip fracture. Initial imaging showed its presence in the soft tissues of the pelvis away from the major vascular structures. Patient was taken for emergency laparotomy and wire was removed after cystotomy. Postoperative period was uneventful and patient was discharged in satisfactory condition. K-wires are commonly used in the management of fracture bones and their migration has been reported in the literature although such migration in the intrapelvic region involving bladder is very rare. Early diagnosis and prompt removal of such foreign bodies are required to avert potentially fatal involvement of major structures.

  16. Dynamics of Anderson localization in disordered wires (United States)

    Khalaf, E.; Ostrovsky, P. M.


    We consider the dynamics of an electron in an infinite disordered metallic wire. We derive exact expressions for the probability of diffusive return to the starting point in a given time. The result is valid for wires with or without time-reversal symmetry and allows for the possibility of topologically protected conducting channels. In the absence of protected channels, Anderson localization leads to a nonzero limiting value of the return probability at long times, which is approached as a negative power of time with an exponent depending on the symmetry class. When topologically protected channels are present (in a wire of either unitary or symplectic symmetry), the probability of return decays to zero at long time as a power law whose exponent depends on the number of protected channels. Technically, we describe the electron dynamics by the one-dimensional supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model. We derive an exact identity that relates any local dynamical correlation function in a disordered wire of unitary, orthogonal, or symplectic symmetry to a certain expectation value in the random matrix ensemble of class AIII, CI, or DIII, respectively. The established exact mapping from a one- to a zero-dimensional sigma model is very general and can be used to compute any local observable in a disordered wire.

  17. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven


    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  18. 78 FR 44965 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands for the... (United States)


    ... human body a controlled substance in violation of any state or Federal law, or regulation issued... Desert playa. DATES: The temporary closure and temporary restrictions will be in effect from August 12... approved by the BLM authorized officer. B. Alcohol 1. Possession of an open container of an alcoholic...

  19. Multi-detector row computed tomographic evaluation of a rare type of complete vascular ring: Double aortic arch with atretic left arch distal to the origin of left subclavian artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Ying Ying; Fu, Ching Yun; Wei, Hao Ji; Tsai, I Chen; Chen, Clayton Chi Chang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (China)


    Double aortic arch with an atretic left arch distal to the origin of left subclavian artery was diagnosed with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) in two children with dysphagia. This rare type of complete vascular ring is clinically important because it may be confused with right aortic arch in mirror imaging. Anatomic details of this rare type of complete vascular ring demonstrated on MDCT facilitated appropriate surgical treatment.

  20. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto


    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...... results show that a shorter delay can be achieved using the proposed method. In addition, we also discuss the congestion and reliability issues as they are closely related to routing and temperature....

  1. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira


    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  2. Magnetic wires in MEMS and bio-medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbic, Mladen E-mail:


    Magnetic wires of appropriate design have special features making them useful to micro-electromechanical systems and bio-medical applications. Several applications that exploit the properties of magnetic wires are reviewed including: (a) a magnetic micro-manipulation technique that utilizes integrated micro-coils and magnetic micro-wires for localized positioning of micron-sized magnetic objects, (b) integrated micro-coil/micro-wire system operating as a micro-fluidic micro-motor, (c) mechanical tweezers using magneto-static interaction between two magnetic micro-wires, and (d) ultra-high gradient magnetic separation system based on porous membranes partially filled with magnetic wires.

  3. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A


    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  4. Laser wire emittance measurement line AT CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, H; Blair, G A; Aumeyr, T; Schulte, D; Stulle, F


    A precise measurement of the transverse beam size and beam emittances upstream of the final focus is essential for ensuring the full luminosity at future linear colliders. A scheme for the emittance measurements at the RTML line of the CLIC using laser-wire beam profile monitors is described. A lattice of the measurement line is discussed and results of simulations of statistical errors and of their impact on the accuracy of the emittance reconstruction are given. Laser wire systems suitable for CLIC and their main characteristics are discussed.

  5. Transient response of wire bicone antennas (United States)

    Morgan, J. G.; Lizius, D. W.

    This paper describes the computational analysis of biconical wire antennas without end-caps performed using an extended and improved version of the Thin Wire Time Domain code from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Special attention is given to the computational algorithm used in the direct time domain analysis of the transient behavior of antennas. It is shown that the time domain numerical predictions are consistent with intuitive expectations and with predictions obtained from the Fourier transform of a frequency domain semianalytical model of a sheet bicone antenna.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole


    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...... is made with the results of a simulation that models the heat conduction in the metal head by means of a Biot boundary condition. The influence of the wire velocity, inlet temperature and power-law index will be examined....

  7. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire (United States)

    Demming, Anna


    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  8. Permanent and temporary pacemaker implantation after orthotopic heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacal Fernando


    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To determine the indication for and incidence and evolution of temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. METHODS: A retrospective review of 114 patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation InCor (Heart Institute USP BR between March 1985 and May 1993. We studied the incidence of and indication for temporary pacing, the relationship between pacing and rejection, the need for pemanent pacing and the clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Fourteen of 114 (12%heart transplant recipients required temporary pacing and 4 of 114 (3.5% patients required permanent pacing. The indication for temporary pacing was sinus node dysfunction in 11 patients (78.5% and atrioventricular (AV block in 3 patients (21.4%. The indication for permanent pacemaker implantation was sinus node dysfunction in 3 patients (75% and atrioventricular (AV block in 1 patient (25%. We observed rejection in 3 patients (21.4% who required temporary pacing and in 2 patients (50% who required permanent pacing. The previous use of amiodarone was observed in 10 patients (71.4% with temporary pacing. Seven of the 14 patients (50% died during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Sinus node dysfunction was the principal indication for temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. The need for pacing was related to worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation.

  9. Return to Work After Temporary Disability Pension in Finland. (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija


    When it is possible that the employee's work ability can be restored through treatment or rehabilitation, disability pension in Finland is granted for a fixed period. We examined which factors are associated with return to work (RTW) after such temporary disability pension. The study included all Finnish residents whose temporary disability pension from the earnings-related pension system started in 2008 (N = 10,269). Competing risks regression analysis was applied to examine register-based determinants for RTW after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, other diseases, and injury over a 4-year follow-up period. The overall cumulative incidence of RTW was 25%. RTW was more probable after temporary disability pension due to injury and musculoskeletal diseases and less probable after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders. Younger age and higher education increased RTW but differences between genders, private and public sector employees, and occupational classes were relatively small. The probability of RTW was higher among those who were employed before their temporary disability pension (subhazard ratio in multivariate analysis 2.41 (95% CI 2.13-2.72) and among the 9% who participated in vocational rehabilitation during their pension [SHR 2.10 (95% CI 1.90-2.31)]. With some exceptions, the results were fairly similar for all diagnostic causes of temporary disability pension. Return to work after temporary disability pension was relatively uncommon. Nevertheless, in all diagnostic groups RTW continued for the whole follow-up period. The low educated and those not employed before temporary disability pension need more support in their RTW. The strong association between vocational rehabilitation and RTW suggests that increasing rehabilitation among those with impaired work ability may promote RTW.

  10. Wire grid polarizers for visible wavelengths (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua Hans

    Detailed analysis of wire-grid (WG) polarizers for visible wavelengths is presented. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) is used to model their performance. The optimum choice of metal for the wires is identified, and the effects of different substrate indices of refraction are considered. The polarization properties are considered with changes in the physical parameters, including period, duty cycle, and wire thickness. It is shown that the performance of WG polarizers improves with increasing angle of incidence. The effect of non-square wire profiles is considered, as is the effect of adding additional dielectric layers between the wires and the substrate. The effect of metal oxide layers forming on the wires is also modeled. While most of this work concerns WG polarizers used in transmission, the performance in reflection is also discussed. Several visible-wavelength WG polarizers were fabricated at the Cornell Nanofabrication Facility (CNF) in Ithaca, NY. Electron-beam lithography was used to write the patterns for these devices, and two different methods of pattern transfer were compared. These were the lift-off method and reactive-ion etching (RIE). We found that lift-off could not produce wires thick enough for good polarization properties. RIE could produce much thicker wires with good profiles and was used for all of the experimental work presented here. Two different methods for metal film deposition, evaporation and sputtering were also compared. Films deposited by sputtering were found to have much lower indices of refraction and to not respond to etching as well. Thermally evaporated films performed much better in WG polarizers. Alternative methods for the mass-production of visible-wavelength WG polarizers are also discussed. The performance of the fabricated WG polarizers is compared to theory. When the measured physical parameters are used in RCWA to predict the performance, the measured extinction ratio is found to be much lower than the

  11. Negative differential resistance in a one-dimensional molecular wire ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    voltage characteristics of a one-dimensional molecular wire with odd number of atoms. The wire has been modelled ... Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560 064, India ...

  12. Radiation of relativistic electrons in a periodic wire structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, V.V., E-mail:; Naumenko, G.A.; Bleko, V.V.


    We present in this work the experimental investigation of the interaction of relativistic electron field with periodic wire structures. We used two types of the targets in experiments: flat wire target and sandwich wire target that represent the right triangular prism. The measurements were done in millimeter wavelength region (10–40 mm) on the relativistic electron beam with energy of 6.2 MeV in far-field zone. We showed that bunched electron beam passing near wire metamaterial prism generates coherent Cherenkov radiation. The experiments with flat wire target were carried out in two geometries. In the first geometry the electron beam passed close to the flat wire target surface. In the second case the electron beam passed through the flat wire structure with generation of a coherent backward transition radiation (CBTR). The comparison of the Cherenkov radiation intensity and BTR intensity from the flat wire target and from the flat conductive target (conventional BTR) was made.

  13. Electric and Magnetic Forces between Parallel-Wire Conductors. (United States)

    Morton, N.


    Discusses electric and magnetic forces between parallel-wire conductors and derives, in a simple fashion, order of magnitude estimates of the ratio of the likely electrostatic and electromagnetic forces for a simple parallel-wire balance. (Author/HM)

  14. Temporary tattoo for wireless human pulse measurement (United States)

    Pepłowski, Andrzej; Janczak, Daniel; Krzemińska, Patrycja; Jakubowska, Małgorzata


    Screen-printed sensor for measuring human pulse was designed and first tests using a demonstrator device were conducted. Various materials and sensors' set ups were compared and the results are presented as the starting point for fabrication of fully functional device. As a screen printing substrate, commercially available temporary tattoo paper was used. Using previously developed nanomaterials-based pastes design of a pressure sensor was printed on the paper and attached to the epidermis. Measurements were aimed at determining sensors impedance constant component and its variability due to pressure wave caused by the human pulse. The constant component was ranging from 2kΩ to 6kΩ and the variations of the impedance were ranging from +/-200Ω to +/-2.5kΩ, depending on the materials used and the sensor's configuration. Calculated signal-to-noise ratio was 3.56:1 for the configuration yielding the highest signal level. As the device's net impedance influences the effectiveness of the wireless communication, the results presented allow for proper design of the sensor for future health-monitoring devices.

  15. Sealing of temporary cements in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes Ferraz


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the coronal leakage of three temporary cements in endodontics: Bioplic® (Biodinâmica, Londrina, Brazil, IRM® (Dentsply, Petrópolis, Brazil and Coltosol® (Vigodent, Bonsucesso, Brazil. Methods: Forty human pre-molars were divided into four groups: I (Bioplic® + adhesive system, II (Bioplic®, Biodinâmica, Londrina, Brasil, III (IRM®, Dentsply, Petrópolis, Brasil, and IV (Coltosol®, Vigodent, Bonsucesso, Brasil. The teeth were immersed in 1% Rodamine and kept at 37°C for 24h. They were then thermal cycled for seven days. Temperatures ranged between 5, 37 and 50°C. After longitudinal sectioning the leakage was measured in mm and statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Tukey tests with a level of significance of 5%.Results: In the group in which Bioplic® was used with adhesive, a lower level of leakage was detected (0.37 ± 0.24. There was significant difference (p<0.05 between groups I and III, I and IV, II and III. Conclusion: It was concluded that all the tested material showed coronal leakage and that the use of the (Bioplic® Biodinâmica, Londrina, Brasilplus adhesive system showed the lowest level of leakage.

  16. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia



    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  17. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Document Server


    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  18. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  19. Wire Separation From Automotive Shredder Residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabrizi, L.; De Jong, T.P.R.; Bevilacqua, P.


    The investigation discussed in this article concerned the removal of wires and cables fraction contained in automotive shredder residue (ASR) through a newly invented device, called the nail roll. Series of tests were carried out with three ASR samples of different origin and the influence of the

  20. Commercial and Industrial Wiring. Second Edition. (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. Included in the guide are 15 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications…

  1. Readout system for proportional wire chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Berst, J D; Metzger, G; Meyer, J M; Schultz, G


    The authors describe a MWPC read-out system intended for the hyperon experiments at CERN. Its structure is like the familiar CAMAC branch highway, but driven by a spark chamber readout module placed in CAMAC. The different parts of the equipment, which may read up to 4096 wires, and the test system are described. (5 refs).

  2. SRB Altitude Switch Assembly Wire Harness Failure (United States)

    Blanche, Jim


    This paper presents an assessment of two wire harness failures that had occurred in Solid Rocket Booster Altitude Switch Assemblies S/N 200001 and S/N 20002. A list of modifications to EDU #4 and modification of qualification units 2000001 and 2000002 are also presented.

  3. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to an aberrant right subclavian artery-esophageal fistula: A case report and review of the literature (United States)

    Millar, Adam; Rostom, Alaa; Rasuli, Pasteur; Saloojee, Nav


    An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is a common aortic arch abnormality. A case of a 57-year-old man presenting with melena and hypotension secondary to an ARSA-esophageal fistula is reported. The current report is unique because it is the first reported case of ARSA-esophageal fistula associated with prior esophagectomy and gastric pull-up. A MedLine search was performed for ARSA-esophageal fistula cases, which were then compared with the present case. Because this patient had no vascular conduits, nasogastric or endotracheal tubes, the fistula likely occurred secondary to the previous surgery. This case is unusual because the patient survived the original hemorrhage associated with the ARSA-esophageal fistula. An ARSA-esophageal fistula is a rare, but potentially fatal cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis. This condition should be considered in patients with risk factors combined with hemodynamically significant gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:17571174

  4. Diagnostic Performance of Combined Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Suspected Subclavian Steal Syndrome. (United States)

    Tsao, Teng-Fu; Cheng, Kai-Lun; Shen, Chao-Yu; Wu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Su, Chun-Hung; Chen, Fong-Lin; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Lin, Yung-Chang


    The study sought to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with suspected subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) using both contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiography and phase-contrast (PC) MRI. Fifteen suspected SSSs from 13 patients were evaluated using CE-MR angiography and PC-MRI. Ten patients also received dynamic CE-MR angiography. All MRI examinations were technically successful. By combining CE-MR angiography with PC-MRI, 10 SSSs were diagnosed in 9 patients. The delay enhancement dynamic technique predicted SSS with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 57.1%, 100%, and 72.7%, respectively. Without the dynamic technique, affected delay-enhanced arteries were poorly visualized and could be mistaken for occluded vessels. Retrograde vertebral flow by PC-MRI was used to predict ipsilateral SSS with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%, 60%, and 86.7%, respectively. There were 2 false positives including 1 patient with a proximal total occlusion of the affected vertebral artery and another with brachiocephalic steal syndrome rather than SSS. This suggested that retrograde vertebral flow does not always indicate SSS. CE-MR angiography combined with PC-MRI is efficacious when evaluating SSS in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistent right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery, Kommerell’s diverticulum and bicarotid trunk in a 3-year-old cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Shannon


    Full Text Available Case summary A 3-year-old male, neutered, domestic shorthair cat with a history of chronic regurgitation since being obtained as a kitten was presented for weight loss and regurgitation of all ingested food. The cat was in poor body condition and had a firm swelling in the ventral neck at the time of presentation. Thoracic radiographs showed severe dilation of the entire cervical and cranial intrathoracic esophagus to the level of the heart base. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA showed a persistent right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery and severe dilation of the cervical and intrathoracic esophagus cranial to the heart base. CTA also showed a bicarotid trunk and Kommerell’s diverticulum to be present, which are rare vascular structures in the cat. Esophagoscopy showed esophageal dilation and multiple compact trichobezoars obstructing the esophagus. Removal of the obstructing trichobezoars resulted in resolution of clinical signs, and the cat was able to drink water and eat a canned food slurry without regurgitation. Surgical correction was not pursued. Relevance and novel information Vascular ring anomaly (VRA should be considered in all cats with a history of regurgitation, regardless of their age at the time of presentation. CTA is a valuable diagnostic imaging procedure that allows differentiation of a VRA from other causes of esophageal obstruction and provides information about the VRA that can be used to determine amenability to surgical correction.

  6. A bypass case due to an acute inferior myocardial infarction caused by vascular occlusion of the left subclavian artery and left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altas Y


    Full Text Available Yakup Altas, Ali Veysel Ulugg Department of Cardiology, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, Turkey Abstract: ST segment elevation is the most common electrocardiographic finding in acute myocardial infarction. ST elevation in chest leads generally represents left anterior descending artery occlusion, while elevation in DII and III, and aVF represents right coronary and circumflex artery occlusion. A female patient aged 66 years was admitted to our emergency service with ST elevation in leads DIII and aVF. A diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction was made. The patient’s history included coronary artery bypass graft involving the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta to the right coronary artery. The patient was taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a lesion in the left anterior descending artery was identified. Additionally, the left subclavian artery was totally occluded. Following intervention to the lesion, the patient was discharged on day 4 of admission. Keywords: electrocardiography, myocardial infarction, coronary circulation

  7. Diamagnetism in wire medium metamaterials: Theory and experiment (United States)

    Yagupov, I.; Filonov, D.; Ageyskiy, A.; Kosulnikov, S.; Hasan, M.; Iorsh, I. V.; Belov, P. A.


    A strong diamagnetic response of a wire medium with a finite wire radius is reported. Contrary to the previous works where it was assumed that the wire medium exhibits only an electric response, we show that the nonzero magnetic susceptibility has to be taken into account for a proper effective medium description of the wire medium. Analytical and numerical results are supported by experimental measurements.

  8. A notch-wire composite antenna for polarization diversity reception


    Kuga, Nobuhiro; Arai, H; Goto, N


    This paper presents a notch-wire composite antenna for polarization diversity reception in an indoor base-station system, A three-notched disk antenna and a wire antenna are proposed as component antennas for the horizontal and the vertical polarization, respectively. These component antennas are unified as a single composite diversity antenna by mounting the wire antenna on the notched disk. Antenna characteristics are calculated using the method of moments (MoM) with wire grid models and ex...

  9. The Liminality of Temporary Agency Work: Exploring the Dimensions of Temporary Agency Workers’ Liminal Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo; Mahmood, Mustafa Khalil


    along which liminality can unfold in organizational and work-related contexts. We argue that future studies should explore the various dimensions in other contexts of passages from one relatively stable state to another. In doing so, similarities and differences between various liminal experiences...... on political anthropology we identify the dimensions of ‘types of subjects,’‘time,’ ‘space,’ and ‘scale’ in order to analytically unlock the liminal experience. Exemplifying our concept we present the findings from an own study of temporary agency workers in Denmark. Exploring the workers’ interpretations...

  10. Communication and wiring in the cortical connectome (United States)

    Budd, Julian M. L.; Kisvárday, Zoltán F.


    In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimize communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction) and temporal (routing) costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fiber tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for cortical wiring patterns

  11. 30 CFR 77.705 - Guy wires; grounding. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires; grounding. 77.705 Section 77.705... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.705 Guy wires; grounding. Guy wires from poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall be...

  12. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a circuit...

  13. Thermal Aware Floorplanning Incorporating Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, AndreasThor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto


    Temperature has a negative impact on metal resistance and thus wire delay. In state-of-the-art VLSI circuits, large thermal gradients usually exist due to the uneven distribution of heat sources. The difference in wire temperature can lead to performance mismatch because wires of the same length ...

  14. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission...

  15. Basic Wiring. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…

  16. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael


    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  17. Filler-wire positioner for electron beam welding (United States)

    Beaupre, W. M.; Fueg, L. B.; Phillips, J. A.


    Miniaturized positioner is installed in any electron beam vacuum chamber for use with wire feed applications requiring filler wire. Horizontal and vertical control of the positioner is maintained from a console while chamber is under vacuum. Device permits more positive positioning of welding filler wire.

  18. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India...

  19. Kirschner Wires : insertion techniques and bone related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, B.B.G.M.


    The Kirschner (K-) wire was first introduced in 1909 by Martin Kirschner. This is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. The use of K-wires is often promoted as a simple technique because of its easy placement,

  20. Modeling, simulation and parametric optimization of wire EDM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, quadratic mathematical models have been derived to represent the process behavior of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) operation. Experiments have been conducted with six process parameters: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse frequency, wire speed, wire tension and dielectric flow ...

  1. Experimental investigation of industrial copper deformed by wire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drawing on microstructure and physical properties of industrial copper wires. Copper wires were provided by E.N.I.CA.Biskra (Algeria). We investigated some wires with different strain levels (as received, 1.20, 2.10, and ε = 3.35).

  2. Application of Matteucci Voltage Pulses of Amorphous Wires in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work the effect of torsion on the Matteucci voltage pulses in amorphous wires has been studied. It has been shown that: Amplitude of the pulses decreases to zero at a twist angle that depends on the chemical composition of the wire. From zero torsion, the amplitude of the Matteucci voltage increases when the wires ...

  3. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from China of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30...

  4. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  5. 20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification. (United States)


    ... Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.20 Applications for temporary employment certification..., the employer will be required to conduct another labor market for the portion of time beyond 12 months. ...

  6. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need. (United States)


    ... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United... containing the following: (1) A description of the employer's business history and activities (i.e., primary...

  7. 44 CFR 9.13 - Particular types of temporary housing. (United States)


    ... is the only practicable alternative. The following factors shall be substituted for the factors in... risk to the temporary housing occupant; (iii) Cost effectiveness; (iv) Social and neighborhood patterns...

  8. 7 CFR 160.41 - Issuance of temporary license. (United States)


    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND... processor of the need therefor and the competency of the applicant for such temporary license. Such...

  9. Delayed migration of K-wire into popliteal fossa used for tension band wiring of patellar fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sanjay


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Breakage of K-wires and stainless steel wires which are used for fracture fixation is not uncommon, but migration is rare. We report a case of migration of bro-ken K-wire used for patella tension band wiring to the popliteal fossa. The broken hardware was removed surgically. We would like to suggest that K-wire and wire fixation used for treatment of patellar fractures can migrate into the posterior compartment of the knee and cause clini-cal symptoms. Close clinical and radiological follow-up af-ter internal fixation to identify the presence of hardware breakage or movement and removal of wires once fracture has united can avert such complications. Key words: Patella; Fracture fixation, internal; Bone wires

  10. On grouping individual wire segments into equivalent wires or chains, and introduction of multiple domain basis functions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA


    Full Text Available The paper introduces a method to cover several wire segments with a single basis function, describes related practical algorithms, and gives some results. The process involves three steps: identifying chains of wire segments, splitting the chains...

  11. Forecasting of Corrosion Properties of Steel Wires for Production of Guide Wires for Cardiological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono


    Full Text Available The study presents evaluation of the influence of strain in drawing process and of surface modification on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires made of stainless steel for production of guide wires used in invasive cardiology. The results of static tensile test enabled us to determine the course of flow curve of wires made of X10CrNi 18-8 steel as well as mathematical form of flow stress function. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method. The tests were performed in solution simulating human blood on samples that were electrolytically polished and samples that were polished and then chemically passivated. Exemplary anodic polarisation curves were given. It was proved that with the applied strain, corrosion properties decrease. It was found that chemical passivation improves wire corrosion characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant dependence between corrosion properties (polarisation resistance Rp and strain ε applied in drawing process. Functions that present the change Rp=f(ε were selected. The issue is of importance to guide wire manufacturers because application of the suggested methodology will enable us to forecast corrosion characteristics of wire with the required strength drawn with the applied strain.

  12. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.


    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  13. Drying firewood in a temporary solar kiln: a case study. (United States)

    George R. Sampson; Anthony F. Gasbarro


    A pilot study was undertaken to determine drying rates for small diameter, unsplit paper birch firewood that was dried: (1) in a conventional top-covered pile; (2) in a simple, temporary solar kiln; and (3) in tree length. Drying rates were the same for firewood piles whether they were in the temporary solar kilns or only covered on top to keep rain or snow from...

  14. The savings behavior of temporary and permanent migrants in Germany


    Bauer, Thomas K.; Sinning, Mathias


    This paper examines the relative savings position of migrant households in West Germany, paying particular attention to differences between temporary and permanent migrants. Utilizing household level data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), our findings reveal significant differences in the savings rates between foreign-born and German-born individuals. These differences disappear, however, for temporary migrants, if their remittances are taken into account. Fixed effects estimation...

  15. The impacts of temporary and anticipated tourism spending


    Grant Allan; Patrizio Lecca; Kim Swales


    Part of the local economic impact of a major sporting event comes from the associated temporary tourism expenditures. Typically demand-driven Input-Output (IO) methods are used to quantify the impacts of such expenditures. However, IO modelling has specific weaknesses when measuring temporary tourism impacts; particular problems lie in its treatment of factor supplies and its lack of dynamics. Recent work argues that Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) analysis is more appropriate and this h...

  16. Temporary worsening of kidney function following aortic reconstructive surgery. (United States)

    Ghaheri, Hafez; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hossein; Beigi, Ali Akbar


    Little is known about the incidence of temporary kidney dysfunction following major vascular surgeries. We aimed to assess the frequency of temporary decreased kidney function following aortic surgeries. In a retrospective study, we assessed 108 hospital records of the patients who had undergone elective open abdominal surgery of aortic aneurysm. Preoperative and postoperative (days 1, 2, and 3) data on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were collected and evaluated in relation to the patients' clinical characteristics and outcomes. A decline greater than 10% in GFR on day 1 or 2, and then, an increase of GFR to a level of maximum 10% below the baseline value on the third postoperative day was considered as temporary worsening of kidney function. Postoperative alterations of GFR not greater than 10% in relation to the baseline were considered as improved or unchanged kidney function. Two patients with persistent decrease in GFR were excluded. Temporary worsening of kidney function was seen in 25 patients (23.6%). Short-term mortality rate was 44.0% in this group of patients, while it was 17.3% in those without decreased GFR (P = .006). According to the regression analysis, the only predictor of mortality was temporary worsening of kidney function, with a hazard ratio of 4.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 11.31; P = .008). Nearly 1 out of 4 aortic surgeries results in kidney dysfunction. Albeit temporary in most cases, it seems to be associated with a higher short-term mortality rate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev


    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  18. Carbon wire chamber at sub-atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Charles, G.; Audouin, L.; Bettane, J.; Dupre, R.; Genolini, B.; Hammoudi, N.; Imre, M.; Le Ven, V.; Maroni, A.; Mathon, B.; Nguyen Trung, T.; Rauly, E.


    Present in many experiments, wire and drift chambers have been used in a large variety of shapes and configurations during the last decades. Nevertheless, their readout elements has not evolved much: tungsten, sometimes gold-plated or aluminum, wires. By taking advantage of the developments in the manufacture of conducting carbon fiber, we could obtain interesting improvements for wire detectors. In this article, we present recent tests and simulations using carbon fibers to readout signal in place of traditional tungsten wires. Unlike metallic wires, their low weight guaranties a reduced quantity of material in the active area.

  19. A Laser Based Instrument for MWPC Wire Tension Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Baldini, W; Evangelisti, F; Germani, S; Landi, L; Savrié, M; Graziani, G; Lenti, M; Lenzi, M; Passaleva, G; Carboni, G; De Capua, S; Kachtchouk, A


    A fast and simple method for the measurement of the mechanical tension of wires of Multi Wires Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) is described. The system is based on commercial components and does not require any electrical connection to the wires or electric or magnetic field. It has been developed for the quality control of MWPCs of the Muon Detector of the LHCb experiment in construction at CERN. The system allows a measurement of the wire tension with a precision better than 0.5% within 3-4 seconds per wire

  20. Model of Carbon Wire Heating in Accelerator Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M


    A heat flow equation with beam-induced heating and various cooling processes for a carbon wire passing through a particle beam is solved. Due to equation nonlinearity a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used. Heating of the wire due to the beam-induced electromagnetic field is taken into account. An estimation of the wire sublimation rate is made. The model is tested on SPS, LEP and Tevatron Main Injector data. Results are discussed and conclusions about limits of Wire Scanner operation on LHC beams are drawn.

  1. Laparoscopic extraction of fractured Kirschner wire from the pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaykumar N Thati


    Full Text Available Kirschner wire is a sharp stainless steel guide wire commonly used in fixation of fractured bone segments. There are case reports of migrated K wire from the upper limb into the spine and chest, and from the lower limb in to the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we present a case report of accidental intra-operative fracture of K wire during percutaneous femoral nailing for sub-trochanteric fracture of right femur, which migrated in to the pelvis when the orthopaedician tried to retrieve the broken segment of the K wire. This case highlights the use of laparoscopy as minimally invasive surgical option.

  2. Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials. (United States)

    Lee, Michael R; Eckert, Robert D; Forberich, Karen; Dennler, Gilles; Brabec, Christoph J; Gaudiana, Russell A


    Organic photovoltaics in a flexible wire format has potential advantages that are described in this paper. A wire format requires long-distance transport of current that can be achieved only with conventional metals, thus eliminating the use of transparent oxide semiconductors. A phase-separated, photovoltaic layer, comprising a conducting polymer and a fullerene derivative, is coated onto a thin metal wire. A second wire, coated with a silver film, serving as the counter electrode, is wrapped around the first wire. Both wires are encased in a transparent polymer cladding. Incident light is focused by the cladding onto to the photovoltaic layer even when it is completely shadowed by the counter electrode. Efficiency values of the wires range from 2.79% to 3.27%.

  3. Research on wire rope stress distribution of WR-CVT (United States)

    Zhang, Wu; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Chuanwei; Lu, Zhengxiong; Xu, Xiaobin


    A wire rope continuously variable transmissions (WR-CVT) has been introduced in the paper, in view of its less research, this paper mainly studied the stress distribution of 6×7+IWS bending wire rope. The results shown that the wire stress is layered distribution in each section, the stress at the outer strand center wire and outer strand side wire was the greatest, the stress value of the outer strand side wire and metal block circular notch is second. As the transmission ratio decreases, the wire stress decreases, which is related to the pulley working radius increases. Compared with the section A1, the stress value on the section A2 is smaller, mainly because the section A2 is not in contact with the metal block or the contact pressure is small. This study provides a basis for the study of fatigue and wears failure of WR-CVT components.

  4. Thin Magnetically Soft Wires for Magnetic Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady Zhukov


    Full Text Available Recent advances in technology involving magnetic materials require development of novel advanced magnetic materials with improved magnetic and magneto-transport properties and with reduced dimensionality. Therefore magnetic materials with outstanding magnetic characteristics and reduced dimensionality have recently gained much attention. Among these magnetic materials a family of thin wires with reduced geometrical dimensions (of order of 1–30 μm in diameter have gained importance within the last few years. These thin wires combine excellent soft magnetic properties (with coercivities up to 4 A/m with attractive magneto-transport properties (Giant Magneto-impedance effect, GMI, Giant Magneto-resistance effect, GMR and an unusual re-magnetization process in positive magnetostriction compositions exhibiting quite fast domain wall propagation. In this paper we overview the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of these microwires that make them suitable for microsensor applications.

  5. Superconducting wire turns to electrical power

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, P


    Two years after the discovery that magnesium diboride is a superconductor, engineers and entrepreneurs are keen to transform its properties into profit. The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in the metallic compound magnesium diboride two years ago created quite a stir. Since then, physicists and chemists have come a long way in understanding the curious set of circumstances that lead to such a high critical temperature in this widely available material. At the same time, metallurgists, engineers and entrepreneurs have been focusing on the commercial potential of magnesium diboride as superconducting wire, which was the subject of a one-day meeting in Cambridge, UK, in April. Superconducting wire made from magnesium diboride could make 'second- generation' electrical machines commercially viable. (U.K.)

  6. Polynomial description of inhomogeneous topological superconducting wires (United States)

    Pérez, Marcos; Martínez, Gerardo


    We present the universal features of the topological invariant for p-wave superconducting wires after the inclusion of spatial inhomogeneities. Three classes of distributed potentials are studied, a single-defect, a commensurate and an incommensurate model, using periodic site modulations. An analytic polynomial description is achieved by splitting the topological invariant into two parts; one part depends on the chemical potential and the other does not. For the homogeneous case, an elliptical region is found where the topological invariant oscillates. The zeros of these oscillations occur at points where the fermion parity switches for finite wires. The increase of these oscillations with the inhomogeneity strength leads to new isolated non-topological phases. We characterize these new phases according to each class of spatial distributions. Such phases could also be observed in the XY model, to which our model is dual.

  7. Superconductivity in quantum wires: A symmetry analysis (United States)

    Samokhin, K. V.


    We study properties of quantum wires with spin-orbit coupling and time reversal symmetry breaking, in normal and superconducting states. Electronic band structures are classified according to quasi-one-dimensional magnetic point groups, or magnetic classes. The latter belong to one of three distinct types, depending on the way the time reversal operation appears in the group elements. The superconducting gap functions are constructed using antiunitary operations and have different symmetry properties depending on the type of the magnetic point group. We obtain the spectrum of the Andreev boundary modes near the end of the wire in a model-independent way, using the semiclassical approach with the boundary conditions described by a phenomenological scattering matrix. Explicit expressions for the bulk topological invariants controlling the number of the boundary zero modes are presented in the general multiband case for two types of the magnetic point groups with real order parameters, corresponding to DIII and BDI symmetry classes.

  8. Capacitance Control on the Wire Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldshtein Alexander


    Full Text Available The paper presents technical implementation of the electricalcapacitive method to perform in-process measurement of the capacitance per unit length of a single-core electric wire. The design of the electrocapacitive measuring transducer is proposed. The block diagram of the device CAP-10 developed to implement the proposed method is presented. The appearance of the device CAP-10 is showed, and its operating principle is described. It is shown that the change in water conductivity has a significant impact of the measurement result of the wire capacitance per unit length. The techniques to offset from the impact of water conductivity variation on measurement results are proposed. The technique of the device CAP-10 initial adjustment is proposed. It provides the desired function of the output signal transformation. The technique of the ‘operating’ adjustment to correct measurement results through systematic measurement error elimination is offered.

  9. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  10. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.


    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  11. Temporary jobs and the severity of workplace accidents. (United States)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan C


    From the point of view of workplace safety, it is important to know whether having a temporary job has an effect on the severity of workplace accidents. We present an empirical analysis on the severity of workplace accidents by type of contract. We used microdata collected by the Italian national institute managing the mandatory insurance against work related accidents. We estimated linear models for a measure of the severity of the workplace accident. We controlled for time-invariant fixed effects at worker and firm levels to disentangle the impact of the type of contract from the spurious one induced by unobservables at worker and firm levels. Workers with a temporary contract, if subject to a workplace accident, were more likely to be confronted with severe injuries than permanent workers. When correcting the statistical analysis for injury under-reporting of temporary workers, we found that most of, but not all, the effect is driven by the under-reporting bias. The effect of temporary contracts on the injury severity survived the inclusion of worker and firm fixed effects and the correction for temporary workers' injury under-reporting. This, however, does not exclude the possibility that, within firms, the nature of the work may vary between different categories of workers. For example, temporary workers might be more likely to be assigned dangerous tasks because they might have less bargaining power. The findings will help in designing public policy effective in increasing temporary workers' safety at work and limiting their injury under-reporting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia


    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  13. Waste steel wires modified structural lightweight concrete


    Aghaee, Kamran; Yazdi,Mohammad Ali


    Nowadays, the use of different waste fibers in concrete has started to increase rapidly due to some reasons such as economic savings and positive effects on the environment. In this study, waste steel wires taken from reinforcement and formwork which were previously utilized in construction projects, were employed in structural lightweight concrete (SLWC). The objective was to investigate the possibility of using this type of fiber as reinforcement in the SLWC. Compressive, tensile, flexural ...

  14. Buoyant Helical Twin-Axial Wire Antenna (United States)


    Wire Antenna” by the inventor, David A. Tonn. STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0002] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention is directed to a linear antenna for dual frequencies and a method for...curves and hinders the submarine’s operations when using the antenna. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0006] It is a first object of the present

  15. NA48: Wiring up for Change

    CERN Multimedia


    The NA48 Collaboration is rebuilding its drift chambers ready for the experiment to start up again this coming July. An intricate task involving the soldering of over 24,000 wires! The future of the NA48 experiment is coming right down to the wire, that is, the wires which the Collaboration is installing in the clean room of Hall 887 on the Prévessin site. Six days a week, technicians are working in shifts to rebuild the experiment's drift chambers. The original chambers were damaged when a section of a vacuum tube imploded at the end of 1999. A year ago, CERN gave the green light for this essential part of the spectrometer to be rebuilt, so the NA48 experiment, which studies CP violation (see box), still has a bright future ahead of it. Three years of data-taking ahead The NA48 experiment aims to penetrate the secrets of CP (Charge Parity) violation. Charge and parity are two parameters which distinguish a particle from an antiparticle. In other words, an electron possesses a negative electric ...

  16. Laser welding of NiTi wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gugel, H. [Institute for Materials, Materials Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)], E-mail:; Schuermann, A.; Theisen, W. [Institute for Materials, Materials Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)


    The special properties of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys are currently used in micro-engineering and medical technology. In order to integrate NiTi components into existing parts and modules, they often need to be joined to other materials. For this reason, the present contribution deals with the laser welding of thin pseudoelastic NiTi wires (100 {mu}m) with an Nd:YAG laser. Based on extensive parameter studies, faultless joints were produced. This study deals with the structural changes occurring in the fusion and heat-affected zones, the performance of the joints in static tensile tests and their functional fatigue. It can be shown that NiTi/NiTi joints reach about 75% of the ultimate tensile strength of pure NiTi wires. For welding NiTi to steel, no interlayer was used. The dissimilar NiTi/steel joints provide a bonding strength in the fusion and heat-affected zones higher than the plateau stress level. NiTi/steel joints of thin wires, as a new aspect, enable the possibility to benefit from the pseudoelastic properties of the NiTi component.

  17. Quantification of Aortic Valve Regurgitation by Pulsed Doppler Examination of the Left Subclavian Artery Velocity Contour: A Validation Study with Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (United States)

    Spampinato, Ricardo A; Jahnke, Cosima; Paetsch, Ingo; Hilbert, Sebastian; Busch, Franziska; Schloma, Valerie; Dmitrieva, Yaroslava; Bonamigo Thome, Fernanda; Löbe, Susanne; Strotdrees, Elfriede; Hindricks, Gerhard; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Borger, Michael A


    Reflux of the aortic regurgitation (AR) causes an increased diastolic reverse flow in the aorta and its branching vessels. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of Doppler measurements in the left subclavian artery (LSA) for quantification of AR in a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) validation study. Systolic and diastolic flow profiles of the LSA (subclavicular approach) were evaluated prospectively by use of pulsed wave Doppler in 59 patients (55.5 ± 15 years; 44 men), 47 with a wide spectrum of AR and 12 as control group. Using CMR phase-contrast sequences (performed 1 cm above the aortic valve), the AR was divided into three groups: mild, regurgitant fraction (RF)  40% (n = 20). The LSA Doppler-derived RF was calculated as the ratio between diastolic and systolic velocity-time integrals (VTI). Quality LSA Doppler signal could be obtained in all cases. Patients with CMR severe AR had higher values of LSA Doppler-derived RF (51% ± 9% vs 36% ± 11% vs 16% ± 8%; P Doppler showed a good correlation with CMR, with a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 89%, and diagnostic accuracy for severe AR of 91.5%. Finally, Bland-Altman plots showed agreement in the group with moderate to severe AR (mean bias = -2.2% ± 8%, 95% CI, -17.7 to 13.3; P = .145) but differed in mild AR. Measurements of the RF for quantification of AR using LSA Doppler are comparable to those of CMR, highlighting the potential role of LSA Doppler as an adjunctive technique to assess the severity of AR. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporary henna tattoo is unsafe in atopic children. (United States)

    Corrente, Stefania; Moschese, Viviana; Chianca, Marco; Graziani, Simona; Iannini, Roberta; La Rocca, Maria; Chini, Loredana


    Temporary henna tattoos have become increasingly popular as a safe alternative to permanent tattoos among American and European children and teenagers during the summer holidays. Currently, temporary henna tattoos contain not only henna, but also other additives such as para-phemylenediamine (PPD), which is considered to be the chemical agent that most frequently causes skin reactions associated with the use of commercial black henna. In this report, we describe an 11-year-old boy who applied a temporary black henna tattoo on his right arm during the summer holidays in Greece and developed a severe contact dermatitis at the tattoo site with residual hypopigmentation. He had no previous history of contact dermatitis, however he did suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed a strong reaction to PPD, a substance commonly contained in temporary henna tattoo preparations. Henna tattoos are an increasing problem worldwide since they carry an increased risk of severe skin reactions; therefore we suggest that the use of temporary henna tattoos in children be discouraged.

  19. Left ventricular pacing lead insertion via the coronary sinus cardioplegia cannula: a novel method for temporary biventricular pacing during reoperative cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Wang, Daniel Y; Gerrah, Rabin; Rusanov, Alexander; Yalamanchi, Vinay; Cabreriza, Santos E; Spotnitz, Henry M


    Temporary biventricular pacing to treat low output states after cardiac surgery is an active area of investigation. Reoperative cases are not studied due to adhesions, which preclude left ventricular mobilization to place epicardial pacing wires. In such patients, inserting a temporary left ventricular lead via the coronary sinus cardioplegia cannula may allow for biventricular pacing. We developed a novel technique for intraoperative left ventricular lead placement. Eight domestic pigs underwent median sternotomy and pericardiotomy. Temporary pacing wires were sewn to the right atrium and right ventricle. Complete heart block was induced by ethanol ablation of the atrioventricular node. A 13-French retrograde cardioplegia catheter was introduced via the right atrial free wall into the coronary sinus. A 6-French left ventricular pacing lead was inserted into the cardioplegia catheter and advanced into the coronary sinus during biventricular pacing until left ventricular capture was detected by electrocardiogram and arterial pressure monitoring. Left ventricular capture success rate and electrical performance were recorded during five placement attempts. Left ventricular capture was achieved on 80% of insertion attempts. Left ventricular capture without diaphragmatic pacing was achieved in 7 pigs. Lead tip locations were mostly in lateral and posterior basal coronary vein branches. There were no arrhythmias, bleeding, or perforation associated with lead insertion. Intraoperative biventricular pacing with a left ventricular pacing lead inserted via the coronary sinus cardioplegia cannula is feasible, using standard instrumentation and without requiring cardiac manipulation. This approach merits further study in patients undergoing reoperative cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.


    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  1. Kirschner Wire Fixation for the Treatment of Comminuted Zygomatic Fractures (United States)

    Kang, Dai-Hun; Jung, Dong-Woo; Kim, Yong-Ha; Kim, Tae-Gon; Lee, JunHo


    Background The Kirschner wire (K-wire) technique allows stable fixation of bone fragments without periosteal dissection, which often lead to bone segment scattering and loss. The authors used the K-wire fixation to simplify the treatment of laborious comminuted zygomatic bone fracture and report outcomes following the operation. Methods A single-institution retrospective review was performed for all patients with comminuted zygomatic bone fractures between January 2010 and December 2013. In each patient, the zygoma was reduced and fixed with K-wire, which was drilled from the cheek bone and into the contralateral nasal cavity. For severely displaced fractures, the zygomaticofrontal suture was first fixated with a microplate and the K-wire was used to increase the stability of fixation. Each wire was removed approximately 4 weeks after surgery. Surgical outcomes were evaluated for malar eminence, cheek symmetry, Kwire site scar, and complications (based on a 4-point scale from 0 to 3, where 0 point is 'poor' and 3 points is 'excellent'). Results The review identified 25 patients meeting inclusion criteria (21 men and 4 women). The mean age was 52 years (range, 15-73 years). The mean follow up duration was 6.2 months. The mean operation time was 21 minutes for K-wire alone (n=7) and 52 minutes for K-wire and plate fixation (n=18). Patients who had received K-wire only fixation had severe underlying diseases or accompanying injuries. The mean postoperative evaluation scores were 2.8 for malar contour and 2.7 for K-wire site scars. The mean patient satisfaction was 2.7. There was one case of inflammation due to the K-wire. Conclusion The use of K-wire technique was associated with high patient satisfaction in our review. K-wire fixation technique is useful in patient who require reduction of zygomatic bone fractures in a short operating time. PMID:28913236

  2. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.


    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper

  3. Transforming knowledge across domains in the temporary development spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise

    This paper addresses transformation of knowledge across different knowledge domains and competencies in the Front End of Innovation (FEI) [Koen 2002].We examine the temporary spaces [Clausen, Yoshinaka 2007] that emerge when different knowledge domains are brought into play (implicit or explicit......) in staging innovative concept development. FEI appears as temporary spaces for innovative processes; and studies have pointed out the limited uptake of user knowledge (Elgaard Jensen 2012). This paper will discuss the possibilities and barriers for uptake of user knowledge in FEI in relation...... to the constitutions of these temporary spaces. There seems to be a limited understanding of: how knowledge is transferred and transformed into design objects facilitating a process where knowledge enables innovative thinking across knowledge boundaries. The paper is based on empirical data primarily from case studies...

  4. Temporary sharing prompts unrestrained disclosures that leave lasting negative impressions. (United States)

    Hofstetter, Reto; Rüppell, Roland; John, Leslie K


    With the advent of social media, the impressions people make on others are based increasingly on their digital disclosures. However, digital disclosures can come back to haunt, making it challenging for people to manage the impressions they make. In field and online experiments in which participants take, share, and evaluate self-photographs ("selfies"), we show that, paradoxically, these challenges can be exacerbated by temporary-sharing media-technologies that prevent content from being stored permanently. Relative to permanent sharing, temporary sharing affects both whether and what people reveal. Specifically, temporary sharing increases compliance with the request to take a selfie (study 1) and induces greater disclosure risks (i.e., people exhibit greater disinhibition in their selfies, studies 1 and 2). This increased disclosure is driven by reduced privacy concerns (study 2). However, observers' impressions of sharers are insensitive to permanence (i.e., whether the selfie was shared temporarily versus permanently) and are instead driven by the disinhibition exhibited in the selfie (studies 4-7). As a result, induced by the promise of temporary sharing, sharers of uninhibited selfies come across as having worse judgment than those who share relatively discreet selfies (studies 1, 2, and 4-7)-an attributional pattern that is unanticipated by sharers (study 3), that persists days after the selfie has disappeared (study 5), is robust to personal experience with temporary sharing (studies 6A and 6B), and holds even among friends (studies 7A and 7B). Temporary sharing may bring back forgetting, but not without introducing new (self-presentational) challenges. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations (United States)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane


    Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.

  6. [Temporary hearing threshold shift in policemen after firearm training]. (United States)

    Cassano, F; Montesano, Roberta; Bobbio, Elena; Borraccia, V; Volpe, C; Bavaro, P; Quaranta, N


    The paper involves exposure to noise of the State Police officers connected with the use of firearms. The noise generated by these weapons is of short duration and high intensity. The research was carried out during the sessions of firearm training of State Police officers to assess exposure to noise. The values of the various investigations, both audiometric and phonometric, carried out made it possible to demonstrate a significant exposure and a temporary increase in the threshold, above the frequency of 6000 Hz. Even taking account of the abatement from use of headphones, an exposure was demonstrated that was above the statutory limits, as was confirmed by the temporary hearing threshold shift.

  7. [Development and research of temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display]. (United States)

    Fan, Shounian; Jiang, Chenxi; Cai, Yunchang; Pan, Yangzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Yaxi; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Li, Shiying


    A temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display is introduced in this paper. Double way low-noise electrocardiosignal preamplifier, amplitude limiter, high and low pass filter, 50 Hz notch filter, TTL level generator and stimulating pulse formation circuit are components of the hardware electrocircuit. The demand pacing and the electrocardiosignal display are separately controlled by the software in which the double microcontrollers communications technique is used. In this study, liquid crystal display is firstly used in body surface electrocardiosignal display or intracardial electrophysiologic signal display when the temporary demand pacemaker is installed and put into use. The machine has proven clinically useful and can be of wide appliation.

  8. Demand for temporary agency nurses and nursing shortages. (United States)

    Seo, Sukyong; Spetz, Joanne


    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons for the growth of temporary employment of registered nurses (RNs). Some argue that efficiency incentives to increase flexibility and reduce labor costs are the principal cause, while others point to shortages of RNs as the stronger determinant. Using hospital-level data from California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, we find a significant trend of increasing demand for agency nurses during the years of RN shortage. Demand rose with inpatient days, patient demand fluctuation, and the level of fringe benefits. Competition between hospitals and unionization, however, did not affect hospitals' demand for temporary RNs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Event-related temporary collocations in modern english newspaperdiscourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е В Терехова


    Full Text Available The paper discusses collocations called by the author as «temporary collocations». The temporary collocations (TC under discussion are understood as expressions with one marked component, being peripheral to the mainstream of idioms and phrasal expressions, which enables us to treat the analyzed TC in a narrow slightly idiomatic meaning. Quite a few examples borrowed from the authentic English newspapers and magazines are used to demonstrate the relationship between the event and the emergence of the TC; also the discourse definition is provided with a focus on interdependence between the TC and the discourse.

  10. A Case of Localized Hypertrichosis Due to Temporary Henna Tattoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deren Özcan


    Full Text Available Temporary henna tattoos have become very popular among children and teenagers in recent years. However, the use of additives to shorten the application time and darken the color of commercial henna, such as para-phenylenediamine, has led to an increased risk of complications due to those tattoos. The most commonly seen complications are allergic contact dermatitis, hypertrophic scarring, keloid formation, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation. Herein; a 13-year-old girl who developed localized hypertrichosis after a temporary henna tattoo application was presented.

  11. Temporary emergency pacing-an orphan in district hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Knut; Johansen, Jens Brock; Gadler, Fredrik


    This editorial discusses a report on the 1 year experience with temporary pacing, especially in the emergency setting, in several Norwegian district hospitals. The vast majority of the patients received transvenous temporary pacing, and the majority of leads were placed by noncardiologists....... The procedure times were long and complications were frequent. The organization of emergency pacing is discussed, and we suggest that unless qualified physicians can establish transvenous pacing, the patients who need that should be transferred with transcutaneous pacing as back-up during transport...

  12. Exits from Temporary Jobs in Europe: A Competing Risks Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Addio, Anna Christina; Rosholm, Michael


    We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different specificat......We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different...

  13. Multiple Institutional Logics in Inter-Institutional Temporary Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Söderlund, Jonas

    distinct response strategies the project actors relied upon to deal with the multiplicity of logics: total integration, partial decoupling, avoidance, and surfing. We discuss how these response strategies were used, in what situations, and what effects they had on the organization. The paper contributes......The idea of multiple institutional logics currently draws more and more attention as many organizational actors are forced to operate in ever more complex, temporary and vivid collaborations. We draw on findings from a unique case study of a temporary organization that carried the responsibility...



    Shikha Shukla; Meghana K M; Manjunath C R; SantoshNaik


    Wireless network has become one of the major requirements in today world. People expect wireless network in home, shopping mall, university etc. Nowadays, we cannot imagine the life without network. In this paper focuses on what the different types of networks are. Why wired network is preferred over wireless network. We will further compare the wired network with the wireless network and also present different type of wireless network. This paper provides the basic knowledge about Wired, Wir...



    Raman Bhanot*


    Formerly, wired network has verified its capabilities but in this day and age wireless communication has emerged as a robust and most intellectual communication technique. Both the types have its own merits and demerits based on its network characteristics. Wired and wireless networking has different hardware necessities, ranges, mobility, reliability and benefits.The aim of the paper is to provide a simulated outlook of Wireless and Wired Network covering whole campus. This simulation has be...

  16. Loss Discrimination Algorithm for Wired/Wireless Networks


    Liw J. Seng; Mohd N. Derahman; Azizol Abdullah


    Problem statement: Wireless technology has far growing with an increasing demand of the Wireless networking technologies recent years. The wireless access network and cellular networks are being used to support their need. It is usually connected to a wired backbone network. TCP is used to handle the congestion in wired network. However, it is not well suited for hybrid network consisting of wired and wireless networks. Packet loss occurs in wireless network mostly due to high bit error rate,...

  17. Plasma modes in superconducting wires: Optimized experimental configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarota, B.; Parage, F.; Wooldridge, I.; Delsing, P.; Buisson, O.


    An experimental configuration is analyzed in order to study plasma modes in a superconducting wire deposited onto SrTiO{sub 3}. A dispersion relation has been derived by evaluating the effect of environment surrounding the wire. It corresponds to the one-dimensional dispersion law predicted for an isolated superconducting wire. Preliminary measurements are presented. They show 1D plasma modes in the optimized experimental configuration here studied.

  18. Tungsten quasispherical wire loads with a profiled mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V., E-mail:; Oleinik, G. M.; Rodionov, R. N. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation)


    Wire arrays made from micrometer tungsten wires with linear mass profiled along their height are developed for experiments on the generation of X-ray radiation upon pinch compression with a current of ∼3 MA at a pulse duration of ∼100 ns. Wires are imaged with a scanning electron microscope, and their diameter is determined. It is shown that the arrays have such a profile of height distribution of linear mass that allows for compact spherical compression upon current implosion.

  19. The cardiac migration of a Kirschner wire. A case report.


    Anić, D; Brida, V.; Jelić, I; Orlić, D


    In June of 1995, a 48-year-old woman was admitted to an outlying hospital with a history of stomach pain several weeks in duration. A few years before, she had undergone orthopedic surgery because of bilateral coxarthrosis. Total endoprosthesis had been implanted at both hips. Chest radiography showed a metal foreign body (apparently a Kirschner wire) in the heart, whereas right-hip radiography showed no Kirschner wire. Echocardiography indicated that the wire was in the right ventricle. The ...

  20. Generation and Analysis of Wire Rope Digital Radiographic Images


    Chakhlov, Sergey Vladimirovich; Anpilogov, P.; Batranin, Andrey Viktorovich; Osipov, Sergey Pavlovich; Zhumabekova, Sh.; Yadrenkin, I.


    The paper is dealt with different structures of the digital radiographic system intended for wire rope radiography. The scanning geometry of the wire rope is presented and the main stages of its digital radiographic image generation are identified herein. Correction algorithms are suggested for X-ray beam hardening. A complex internal structure of the wire rope is illustrated by its 25 mm diameter image obtained from X-ray computed tomography. The paper considers the approach to the analysis ...

  1. Filler wire for aluminum alloys and method of welding (United States)

    Bjorkman, Jr., Gerald W. O. (Inventor); Cho, Alex (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn K. (Inventor)


    A weld filler wire chemistry has been developed for fusion welding 2195 aluminum-lithium. The weld filler wire chemistry is an aluminum-copper based alloy containing high additions of titanium and zirconium. The additions of titanium and zirconium reduce the crack susceptibility of aluminum alloy welds while producing good weld mechanical properties. The addition of silver further improves the weld properties of the weld filler wire. The reduced weld crack susceptibility enhances the repair weldability, including when planishing is required.

  2. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Святослав Сергійович Юцкевич


    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  3. Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement. (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian


    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think. © 2017 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sistema prototipo Fly-by-Wire


    García Abián, Jonathan


    Este proyecto está destinado a ofrecer una herramienta a la carrera de aeronáutica para realizar experimentos de navegación y seguimiento de aviones, de la forma más real posible. Con este prototipo lo que se pretende es introducir practicas reales a esta carrera. En este documento se presenta un prototipo para guiado de aviones Radio control (RC). Se ha diseñado la implementación de un sistema FLY by WIRE (FbW) reducido, para incorporarlo en un modelo de RC, capaz de recoge...

  5. Magnetic measurement with coils and wires

    CERN Document Server

    Walckiers, L


    Accelerator magnets steer particle beams according to the field integrated along the trajectory over the magnet length. Purpose-wound coils measure these relevant parameters with high precision and complement efficiently point-like measurements performed with Hall plates or NMR probes. The rotating coil method gives a complete two-dimensional description of the magnetic field in a series of normal and skew multipoles. The more recent single stretched wire is a reference instrument to measure field integrals and to find the magnetic axis.

  6. The contact conductance on a molecular wire (United States)

    Stojkovic, S.; Joachim, C.; Grill, L.; Moresco, F.


    On a metal-molecule-metal nanojunction, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) scans at the precise location of the electronic metal-molecule interaction permit a measurement of the contact conductance G0. The conversion curve between the change in the STM contrast Δ h due to this interaction and G0 is presented for a series of conjugated molecular wires. At chemisorption distances, the two-valued character of the G0(Δ h) function is discussed, indicating experimental ways to evaluate G0 as a function of Δ h for different metal-molecule interaction ranges.

  7. Elastic anisotropy in multifilament Nb$_3$Sn superconducting wires

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Alknes, P; Arnau, G; Bjoerstad, R; Bordini, B


    The elastic anisotropy caused by the texture in the Nb3Sn filaments of PIT and RRP wires has been calculated by averaging the estimates of Voigt and Reuss, using published Nb3Sn single crystal elastic constants and the Nb3Sn grain orientation distribution determined in both wire types by Electron Backscatter Diffraction. At ambient temperature the calculated Nb3Sn E-moduli in axial direction in the PIT and the RRP wire are 130 GPa and 140 GPa, respectively. The calculated E-moduli are compared with tensile test results obtained for the corresponding wires and extracted filament bundles.

  8. Evaluation of the accuracy of a veterinary dynamometric wire tensioner. (United States)

    Gauthier, C M; McGilvray, K; Myrick, S; Duerr, F; Palmer, R


    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of a commonly used veterinary wire tensioner. Wire tension was measured using a load cell after each of five tensioners were used to tension each of six wires to the 66, 84, and 118 mm ring settings in an adjustable custom testing fixture. Each tensioner then experienced simulated aging and testing was repeated. Percentage error was calculated for each ring size, before and after tensioner aging. Measured tension values were compared to manufacturer reported tension values for each ring size using a one-sample two-way t-test; p tension values were significantly lower for 66 mm and 84 mm rings and significantly higher for 118 mm rings, before and after simulated aging. Mean wire tension values did not significantly differ between individual wire tensioners. The tensioners tested achieved significantly different wire tension values than those reported by the manufacturer. This discrepancy could lead to under-tensioning and allowing excessive movement at a fracture site or over-tensioning, leading to wire breakage. We recommend tensioning wires at least to the recommended line on the device for 66 mm and 84 mm rings and at most to the recommended line for 118 mm rings. Further studies are needed to evaluate other veterinary wire tensioners and to develop a calibration method for these devices in practice.

  9. Revisiting the Pencil Wire Twister: An Instrument par excellence. (United States)

    Shrotriya, Raghav; Puri, Vinita; Agrawal, Kapil; Pabari, Mansi


    The need for twisting wires is an integral aspect of maxillofacial surgery. The act of using the commonly available wire twister exposes the operating surgeon as well as the patient to injury by the sharp edges of wire turning around. Pencil wire twister is advantageous in being safer for both the patient as well as the surgeon. In this paper, the authors discuss the feasibility of wider use of this immensely useful instrument. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interchip link system using an optical wiring method. (United States)

    Cho, In-Kui; Ryu, Jin-Hwa; Jeong, Myung-Yung


    A chip-scale optical link system is presented with a transmitter/receiver and optical wire link. The interchip link system consists of a metal optical bench, a printed circuit board module, a driver/receiver integrated circuit, a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser/photodiode array, and an optical wire link composed of plastic optical fibers (POFs). We have developed a downsized POF and an optical wiring method that allows on-site installation with a simple annealing as optical wiring technologies for achieving high-density optical interchip interconnection within such devices. Successful data transfer measurements are presented.

  11. Conductance oscillation and quantization in monoatomic Al wires


    Xu, Ying; Shi, Xingqiang; Zeng, Zhi; Zeng, Zhao Yang; Li, Baowen


    We present first-principles calculations for the transport properties of monoatomic Al wires sandwiched between Al(100) electrodes. The conductance of the monoatomic Al wires oscillates with the number of the constituent atoms as a function of the wire length, either with a period of four-atom for wires with the typical interatomic spacing or a period of six-atom with the interatomic spacing of the bulk fcc aluminum, indicating a dependence of the period of conductance oscillation on the inte...

  12. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit


    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  13. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels


    decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Bobarikin


    Full Text Available The carried out numerical experiments subject to initial and boundary conditions indicate that mathematical model of elastic-plastic characteristics of steel 90 can be used for numerical calculations of wire drawing routes for this grade of steel.

  15. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  16. The Liminality of Temporary Agency Work: Exploring the Dimensions of Danish Temporary Agency Workers’ Liminal Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Winkler


    Full Text Available The concept of liminality refers to the experience to be betwixt-and-between social structures and the associated positions, statuses, and roles. We advance the original use of the concept by introducing the various meanings that the experience of being in a liminal state can take. Drawing on political anthropology we identify the dimensions of ‘types of subjects,’ ‘time,’ ‘space,’ and ‘scale’ in order to analytically unlock the liminal experience. Exemplifying our concept we present the findings from an own study of temporary agency workers in Denmark. Exploring the workers’ interpretations allows us to illustrate to what extent their employment situation constitutes a multi-dimensional liminal experience between established social structures and employment categories. The article emphasizes the complexity of the liminal experience. Theoretically and empirically, we show the many meanings along which liminality can unfold in organizational and work-related contexts. We argue that future studies should explore the various dimensions in other contexts of passages from one relatively stable state to another. In doing so, similarities and differences between various liminal experiences and the role the various dimensions play could be identified.

  17. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resista...

  18. Sample of superconducting wiring from the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable to the weight of a jumbo jet. Coil winding requires great care to prevent movements as the field changes. Friction can create hot spots wh...

  19. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistan...

  20. The HayWired earthquake scenario (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.


    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  1. A motif for infinite metal atom wires. (United States)

    Yin, Xi; Warren, Steven A; Pan, Yung-Tin; Tsao, Kai-Chieh; Gray, Danielle L; Bertke, Jeffery; Yang, Hong


    A new motif for infinite metal atom wires with tunable compositions and properties is developed based on the connection between metal paddlewheel and square planar complex moieties. Two infinite Pd chain compounds, [Pd4(CO)4(OAc)4Pd(acac)2] 1 and [Pd4(CO)4(TFA)4Pd(acac)2] 2, and an infinite Pd-Pt heterometallic chain compound, [Pd4(CO)4(OAc)4Pt(acac)2] 3, are identified by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In these new structures, the paddlewheel moiety is a Pd four-membered ring coordinated by bridging carboxylic ligands and μ2 carbonyl ligands. The planar moiety is either Pd(acac)2 or Pt(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate). These moieties are connected by metallophilic interactions. The results showed that these one-dimensional metal wire compounds have photoluminescent properties that are tunable by changing ligands and metal ions. 3 can also serve as a single source precursor for making Pd4Pt bimetallic nanostructures with precise control of metal composition. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah


    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  3. A New Superconducting Wire for Future Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia


    The CARE/NED project has developed a new superconducting wire that can achieve very high currents (1400 amps) at high magnetic fields (12 teslas). Cross-section of the CARE/NED wire produced by SMI. As we prepare to enter a new phase of particle physics with the LHC, technological development is a continuous process to ensure the demands of future research are met. The next generation of colliders and upgrades of the present ones will require significantly larger magnetic fields for bending and focusing the particle beams. NED (Next European Dipole) is one of the projects taking on this challenge to push technology beyond the present limit (see: More about NED). The magnets in the LHC rely on niobium titanium (NbTi) as the superconducting material, with a maximum magnetic field of 8 to 10T (tesla). In order to exceed this limitation, a different material together with the corresponding technology needs to be developed. NED is assessing the suitability of niobium tin (Nb3Sn), which has the potential to at le...

  4. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.


    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  5. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A


    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  6. 47 CFR 90.159 - Temporary and conditional permits. (United States)


    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.159 Temporary and... minimum of ten business days has passed between submission of the application to the Commission and the... MHz (subpart T), Business Radio (subpart D), 929-930 MHz Paging (subpart P), and Specialized Mobile...

  7. Temporary and long-term consequences of bereavement on happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.A.; de Graaf, P.M.

    In this article, we examine the temporary and long-term consequences of the death of a parent or child on happiness. According to set-point theory external conditions are expected to only have a short-term or limited influence on happiness. This directly contradicts the basic assumption of affective

  8. The terrestrial invertebrate fauna of a temporary stream in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The terrestrial invertebrate fauna of an intermittent stream was examined in the absence of surface flows within the context of the flood pulse concept. ... The concept of the flood pulse should be expanded to include aseasonal and secular variations in flow which in temporary streams create lateral movements that provide ...

  9. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies. (United States)


    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... the proposed construction is of major proportions. Pipeline companies are accordingly urged to conduct...

  10. Genre-related temporary collocations in english discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е В Терехова


    Full Text Available The paper discusses genre-related temporary collocations (TC. It also provides genre definition, analyzes different genre-related TC which are used in TV speeches, diplomatic texts, and English media texts. TC implementing in genre-related texts, preferential reinterpretation criteria which characterize terminology formation, their interpretation, and their translation from English into Russian is considered.

  11. Temporary Jobs and the Severity of Workplace Accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan


    From the point of view of workplace safety, it is important to know whether having a temporary job has an effect on the severity of workplace accidents. We present an empirical analysis on the severity of workplace accidents by type of contract. Method: We used micro data collected by the Italian

  12. Evolution of a Biosynthetic Temporary Skin Substitute: A Preliminary Study. (United States)

    Woodroof, Aubrey; Phipps, Richard; Woeller, Collynn; Rodeheaver, George; Naughton, Gail K; Piney, Emmett; Hickerson, William; Branski, Ludwik; Holmes, James H


    To compare PermeaDerm to first temporary biosynthetic skin substitute (Biobrane, cleared by the Food and Drug Administration in 1979). Different temporary skin substitutes (Biobrane, PermeaDerm, and PermeaDerm derivatives) were tested for physical differences, impact on healing wounds, inflammatory response, and ability to allow adequate growth of dermal fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells without accumulation of excessive scar-forming myofibroblasts. Proliferation of fibroblasts and stem cells on various skin substitutes was measured, and myofibroblast marker accumulation was evaluated by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin. Fibroblast migration was measured by tracking viable cells with MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] dye. In vivo testing shows PermeaDerm works well as a temporary skin substitute, performing better than Biobrane with respect to inflammation and fluid accumulation. Tissue culture techniques revealed that cells on PermeaDerm grow in a more uniform fashion and migrated to a greater extent than cells on Biobrane. Furthermore, cells grown in the presence of PermeaDerm expressed lower levels of the myofibroblast markers α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin than cells grown on Biobrane. PermeaDerm with variable porosity possesses all attributes and properties known to be important for a successful temporary skin substitute and enables the clinician to control porosity from essentially zero to what the wound requires. The ability of the clinician to minimize wound desiccation without fluid accumulation is related to the reduction of punctate scarring.

  13. 17 CFR 232.201 - Temporary hardship exemption. (United States)


    ... no later than one business day after the date on which the filing was to be made. (1) An electronic... submitted to the Commission within six business days of filing the paper format document. The electronic... REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS Hardship Exemptions § 232.201 Temporary...

  14. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway (United States)


    ... lodging accommodations, food and beverage, retail sales, boat rentals, and other services at Crabtree... Doc No: 2011-15060] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-0511-7182; 2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...

  15. Performance of yam microtubers from temporary immersion system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yam clones ´Pacala Duclos´ and ´Belep´ of Dioscorea alata were used to evaluate the performance of microtubers formed in temporary immersion systems (TIS) in field conditions. Previously sprouted microtubers with a fresh weight higher than 3.0 gFW were used while in vitro plants and tuber crowns from conventional ...

  16. Performance of yam microtubers from temporary immersion system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 22, 2011 ... as research tools: a review. Am. J. Potato Res. 78: 47-55. Escalona M (2006) Temporary inmersion beats traditional techniques on all fronts. Prophyta annual. pp. 48-50. Hernandez A, Perez JM, Bosh D, Rivero L, Camacho E (1999) Nueva versión de clasificación de los suelos de Cuba. Instituto de Suelos.

  17. 19 CFR 146.33 - Temporary deposit for manipulation. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary deposit for manipulation. 146.33 Section 146.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... deposit for manipulation. Imported merchandise for which an entry has been made and which has remained in...

  18. Understanding the development of temporary agency work in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.S. Koene (Bas); J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.M. Groenewegen (John)


    textabstractThis article develops an explanatory framework for understanding the growth and development of temporary agency work (TAW) and the related industry. The analysis shows that explanations based on economic logic are helpful in understanding the choice of TAW in general. These explanations,

  19. Distribution, Density and Diversity of Dipterans in a Temporary Pond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of the ecology of Diptera were studied in a temporary pond in Okomu Forest Reserve, southern Nigeria between January 1988 and December 1989. Twenty six morphologically distinct taxa were identified, of which 14 were chironomids. The dominant taxa were Polypedilum (43%), Alluaudomyia (21%), Culex ...

  20. Training "Expendable" Workers: Temporary Foreign Workers in Nursing (United States)

    Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina


    The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…

  1. 41 CFR 101-1.103 - FPMR temporary regulations. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true FPMR temporary regulations. 101-1.103 Section 101-1.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101...

  2. Temporary Anorgasmia Following Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids. (United States)

    Speir, Ethan; Shekhani, Haris; Peters, Gail


    We report a rare case of temporary anorgasmia following uterine artery embolization (UAE) performed for symptomatic uterine fibroids. To our knowledge, this is only the second time that this complication has been reported in the literature. We briefly explore the possible pathophysiologic explanations for this complication and review the effects of UAE compared to hysterectomy on sexual functioning in women.

  3. Difficulty Processing Temporary Syntactic Ambiguities in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Grossman, Murray; Gross, Rachel G.; Moore, Peachie; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey T.; Cook, Philip A.; Ash, Sherry; Siderowf, Andrew


    While grammatical aspects of language are preserved, executive deficits are prominent in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined executive control during sentence processing in LBSD by assessing temporary structural ambiguities. Using an…

  4. 47 CFR 78.33 - Special temporary authority. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special temporary authority. 78.33 Section 78.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE... with § 78.18: Provided, however, That in the case of events of widespread interest and importance that...

  5. 76 FR 68192 - Temporary Certification Program; Notice of Extension (United States)


    ... of Certified EHR Technology for EPs and hospitals that seek to achieve meaningful use and participate... Extension AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Technology (the National Coordinator) to extend the Temporary Certification Program. Authority: Section 3001...

  6. Physical performance deterioration of temporary housing residents after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ishii


    We revealed that standing stability was impaired among elderly temporary housing residents 1.5 years after the disaster. Disaster responders should take into account the health risks associated with living in temporary housing.

  7. Maintaining placement of temporary enteral feeding tubes in adults: a critical appraisal of the evidence. (United States)

    Stepter, Catherine R


    Maintaining placement of temporary enteral feeding tubes requires ongoing bedside nursing assessment. Tube placement verification is essential to detect and minimize adverse effects. A critical appraisal of current evidence and best practice recommendations regarding temporary feeding tubes is provided.

  8. Communities of belonging in the temporariness of the Danish Asylum System: Shalini’s anchoring points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdasco, Andrea


    Refugees often find themselves in a protracted situation of temporariness, as applications for asylum are processed, deportations negotiated and possible extensions of temporary protection status considered within the context of increasingly restrictive governmental policies across Europe. Through...

  9. Diatom-based models for inferring water chemistry and hydrology in temporary depressional wetlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Riato, L


    Full Text Available Information on the response of temporary depressional wetland diatoms to human-induced disturbances is a limited and important component for the development of temporary wetland biological assessments in human-modified landscapes. Establishing a...

  10. 5 CFR 890.1105 - Initial election of temporary continuation of coverage; application time limitations and... (United States)


    ... (ii) The date of the divorce or annulment. (e) If an individual who is eligible for temporary... determines that an eligible individual was unable, for cause beyond his or her control, to elect temporary...

  11. Reducing bias in survival under non-random temporary emigration (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William L.; Langtimm, Catherine Ann


    Despite intensive monitoring, temporary emigration from the sampling area can induce bias severe enough for managers to discard life-history parameter estimates toward the terminus of the times series (terminal bias). Under random temporary emigration unbiased parameters can be estimated with CJS models. However, unmodeled Markovian temporary emigration causes bias in parameter estimates and an unobservable state is required to model this type of emigration. The robust design is most flexible when modeling temporary emigration, and partial solutions to mitigate bias have been identified, nonetheless there are conditions were terminal bias prevails. Long-lived species with high adult survival and highly variable non-random temporary emigration present terminal bias in survival estimates, despite being modeled with the robust design and suggested constraints. Because this bias is due to uncertainty about the fate of individuals that are undetected toward the end of the time series, solutions should involve using additional information on survival status or location of these individuals at that time. Using simulation, we evaluated the performance of models that jointly analyze robust design data and an additional source of ancillary data (predictive covariate on temporary emigration, telemetry, dead recovery, or auxiliary resightings) in reducing terminal bias in survival estimates. The auxiliary resighting and predictive covariate models reduced terminal bias the most. Additional telemetry data was effective at reducing terminal bias only when individuals were tracked for a minimum of two years. High adult survival of long-lived species made the joint model with recovery data ineffective at reducing terminal bias because of small-sample bias. The naïve constraint model (last and penultimate temporary emigration parameters made equal), was the least efficient, though still able to reduce terminal bias when compared to an unconstrained model. Joint analysis of several

  12. Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, S.M.


    Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, and suboptimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Prior to this study, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity had been made by type of capacity-reducing event. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. This study is an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events. The objective of this study was to develop and implement methods for producing national-level estimates of the loss of capacity on the nation's highway facilities due to temporary phenomena as well as estimates of the impacts of such losses. The estimates produced by this study roughly indicate the magnitude of problems that are likely be addressed by the Congress during the next re-authorization of the Surface Transportation Programs. The scope of the study includes all urban and rural freeways and principal arterials in the nation's highway system for 1999. Specifically, this study attempts to quantify the extent of temporary capacity losses due to crashes, breakdowns, work zones, weather, and sub-optimal signal timing. These events can cause impacts such as capacity reduction, delays, trip rescheduling, rerouting, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability. This study focuses on the reduction of capacity and resulting delays caused by the temporary

  13. Carbon nanotube wires with continuous current rating exceeding 20 Amperes (United States)

    Cress, Cory D.; Ganter, Matthew J.; Schauerman, Christopher M.; Soule, Karen; Rossi, Jamie E.; Lawlor, Colleen C.; Puchades, Ivan; Ubnoske, Stephen M.; Bucossi, Andrew R.; Landi, Brian J.


    A process to fabricate carbon nanotube (CNT) wires with diameters greater than 1 cm and continuous current carrying capability exceeding 20 A is demonstrated. Wires larger than 5 mm are formed using a multi-step radial densification process that begins with a densified CNT wire core followed by successive wrapping of additional CNT material to increase the wire size. This process allows for a wide range of wire diameters to be fabricated, with and without potassium tetrabromoaurate (KAuBr4) chemical doping, and the resulting electrical and thermal properties to be characterized. Electrical measurements are performed with on/off current steps to obtain the maximum current before reaching a peak CNT wire temperature of 100 °C and before failure, yielding values of instantaneous currents in excess of 45 A for KAuBr4 doped CNT wires with a diameter of 6 mm achieved prior to failure. The peak temperature of the wires at failure (˜530 °C) is correlated with the primary decomposition peak observed in thermal gravimetric analysis of a wire sample confirming that oxidation is the primary failure mode of CNT wires operated in air. The in operando stability of doped CNT wires is confirmed by monitoring the resistance and temperature, which remain largely unaltered over 40 days and 1 day for wires with 1.5 mm and 11.2 mm diameters, respectively. The 100 °C continuous current rating, or ampacity, is measured for a range of doped CNT wire diameters and corresponding linear mass densities ρL. To describe the results, a new form of the fuse-law, where the critical current is defined as I ∝ρL3 /4, is developed and shows good agreement with the experimental data. Ultimately, CNT wires are shown to be stable electrical conductors, with failure current densities in excess of 50 A in the case of a convectively cooled 11.2 mm doped CNT wire, and amenable for use in applications that have long-term, high-current demands.

  14. [Separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella]. (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jiang, X Y; Huang, X W


    To investigate the clinical efficacy and outcomes of two separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella. From January 2013 to January 2015, 15 consecutive patients (mean age 54.5 years) with inferior pole fractures of the patella were retrospectively included in this study. All the patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire through longitudinal incision, 4.5 d (range: 3.1-5.9 d) after initial injury. A safety check for early knee range of motion was performed before wound closure. The complications including infection, nonunion, loss of fixation and any wire breakage or irritation from implant were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral views of the knee joint obtained during the follow-up were used to assess bony union based on the time when the fracture line disappeared. At the time of the final outpatient follow up, functional evaluation of the knee joint was conducted by Bostman system. The follow-up time was 13.1 months (range: 12-19 months) after surgery on average, immediate motion without immobilization in all the cases was allowed and there was no case of reduction loss of the fracture and wire breakage. There was no case of irritation from the implant. At the final follow-up, the average range of motion (ROM) arc was 126.7° (range: 115°-140°), the average ROM lag versus contralateral healthy leg was 10.3° (range: 0°-35°). The mean Bostman score at the last follow-up was 28.9 (range: 27-30), and graded excellent in most cases. Two separate vertical wiring is an easy and effective method to reduce the displaced inferior pole fracture of patella. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in these patients provides enough strength to protected the early exercise of the knee joint and

  15. Industrial production and temporary development after the Emilian Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Scamporrino


    Full Text Available The earthquake that on the 20th of May hit Emilia has not been one of the most disastrous in modern Italian history, but it has highlighted the problem of preservation of industrial activities during a reconstruction process. In addition, precisely this system, characterized by great vitality and productivity but also by large seismic vulnerability, was the most affected. Through an analysis of the damages suffered by the industrial facilities, not so much as single buildings but precisely as a system, we want to highlight the challenges imposed by the earthquake: on the one hand, the urgent need to provide for delocalizations and temporary structures to avoid a stop in production in the short­term, and on the other, the re­design and anti­seismic re­planning of productive areas. A proposal was put forward to create temporary zones adjacent to the damaged areas, on which temporary structures should be installed. The latter would allow to limit relocations of medium­long range, which are negative for the territory, and at the same time it would allow the flexibility necessary to re­organize the supply chains. However, in Italy, the management of temporary solutions is seen as a practice too much linked to the emergency and too little to the reconstruction process. The first measures put into place by both the State and the Regions, however, do not seem to show a true understanding of the importance of management and regulations of temporary solutions in the medium­ long term.

  16. 76 FR 37147 - Notice of Temporary Closures and Temporary Restrictions on Specific Uses of Public Lands in... (United States)


    ... otherwise introducing into the human body a controlled substance in violation of any State or Federal law... closures and temporary restrictions will be in effect from August 1, 2011 through September 19, 2011 and... craft previously approved by the BLM authorized officer. B. Alcohol 1. Possession of an open container...

  17. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids. (United States)


    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will be...

  18. 29 CFR 4.176 - Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time employees. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time... to temporary and part-time employees. (a) As set forth in § 4.165(a)(2), the Act makes no distinction, with respect to its compensation provisions, between temporary, part-time, and full-time employees...

  19. Temporary work and health and well-being : a two-way street?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, A.F.


    Since the mid-1980s there has been a remarkable growth in the share of temporary workers across the European Union. To date, this employer-initiated trend to become more flexible and cost-effective has resulted in over 25 million European temporary workers. As temporary employment is often not

  20. Temporary Contracts: Effect on Job Satisfaction and Personal Lives of Recent Phd Graduates (United States)

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J. F.; Belder, Rosalie; Sonneveld, Hans; van Bochove, Cornelis A.; van der Weijden, Inge C. M.


    In this study, we assess the effects of temporary employment on job satisfaction and the personal lives of recent PhD graduates. Temporary employment is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sectors, but has been relatively common in academia, especially for early career scientists. Labor market theory shows temporary employment to have a…

  1. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator. (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing


    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  2. 30 CFR 75.516 - Power wires; support. (United States)


    .... All power wires (except trailing cables on mobile equipment, specially designed cables conducting high-voltage power to underground rectifying equipment or transformers, or bare or insulated ground and return... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power wires; support. 75.516 Section 75.516...

  3. Transmission channels through Na and Al atom wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, N.; Brandbyge, Mads; Tsukada, M.


    First-principles calculations of the transmission channels of single-atom-width Na and Al atom wires bridged between metallic jellium electrodes are presented. For the Na wire, a single channel contributes to the conduction with an almost full quantization value, 2e(2)/h. The conductance...

  4. A KBE Application for Automatic Aircraft Wire Harness Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; La Rocca, G.


    Wire harness design is an increasingly complex task. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) and optimization techniques can be used to support designers in handling this complexity. The wire harness design process can be divided in three main parts, namely electrical design, configuration design and

  5. Development of the Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpadden, SB


    Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at different frequency. The mathematical model for the material removal of cylindrical wire EDM process is derived. Experiments were conducted to explore the maximum material removal rate for cylindrical and 2D wire EDM of carbide and brass work-materials. Compared to the 2D wire EDM, higher maximum material removal rates may be achieved in the cylindrical wire EDM. This study also investigates the surface integrity and roundness of parts created by the cylindrical wire EDM process. For carbide parts, an arithmetic average surface roughness and roundness as low as 0.68 and 1.7 {micro}m, respectively, can be achieved. Surfaces of the cylindrical EDM parts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the craters, sub-surface recast layers and heat-affected zones under various process parameters. This study has demonstrated that the cylindrical wire EDM process parameters can be adjusted to achieve either high material removal rate or good surface integrity.

  6. Representations of Education in HBO's "The Wire", Season 4 (United States)

    Trier, James


    "The Wire" is a crime drama that aired for five seasons on the Home Box Office (HBO) cable channel from 2002-2008. The entire series is set in Baltimore, Maryland, and as Kinder (2008) points out, "Each season "The Wire" shifts focus to a different segment of society: the drug wars, the docks, city politics, education, and the media" (p. 52). In…

  7. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Hansen, Niels


    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires...

  8. Electronic transport in Si:P δ-doped wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, J. S.; Drumm, D. W.; Budi, Akin


    Despite the importance of Si:P δ-doped wires for modern nanoelectronics, there are currently no computational models of electron transport in these devices. In this paper we present a nonequilibrium Green’s function model for electronic transport in a δ-doped wire, which is described by a tight...

  9. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rex


    Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing "on-table active finger movement test" at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures.

  10. Phase transitions in coated nickel titanium arch wires: A differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on seventeen commercial varieties of conventional NiTi arch wires. In addition, the enthalpy values of the two groups did not show any statistically significant difference in the forward and backward cycles. It suggested that the shape memory and super-elasticity properties of coated arch wire did not suffer any depreciation at ...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint... cable. Some arrangement, however, shall be made so that no paint shall be applied to the individual...

  12. Multi responses optimization of wire EDM process parameters using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wire EDM was known as for its better efficiency to machining hardest material and give precise and accurate result comparing to other machining process. The intent of this experimental paper is to optimize the machining parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) on En45A Alloy Steel with the ...

  13. Ultrasound-guided wire localization of lesions detected on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Wire localization for planned surgical treatment in the management of breast cancer is underutilized in our environment. The objective of this study is to assess the role of ultrasound-guided wire localization of breast masses detected on screening mammography and its impact on biopsy and breast ...

  14. Notched K-wire for low thermal damage bone drilling. (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yiwen; Tai, Bruce; Holmes, James; Shih, Albert


    The Kirschner wire (K-wire) is a common bone drilling tool in orthopedic surgery to affix fractured bone. Significant heat is produced due to both the cutting and the friction between the K-wire and the bone debris during drilling. Such heat can result in high temperatures, leading to osteonecrosis and other secondary injuries. To reduce thermal injury and other high-temperature associated complications, a new K-wire design with three notches along the three-plane trocar tip fabricated using a thin micro-saw tool is studied. These notches evacuate bone debris and reduce the clogging and heat generation during bone drilling. A set of four K-wires, one without notches and three notched, with depths of 0.5, 0.75, and 1mm, are evaluated. Bone drilling experiments conducted on bovine cortical bone show that notched K-wires could effectively decrease the temperature, thrust force, and torque during bone drilling. K-wires with notches 1mm deep reduced the thrust force and torque by approximately 30%, reduced peak temperatures by 43%, and eliminated blackened burn marks in bone. This study demonstrates that a simple modification of the tip of K-wires can effectively reduce bone temperatures during drilling. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30 and 7217.20.45 of the Harmonized...

  16. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China (United States)


    ... suitable for use in prestressed concrete (both pre-tensioned and post- tensioned) applications. The product... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade... concrete steel wire strand, provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

  17. Tension band wiring fi xation is associated with good functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tension band wiring (TBW) is a widely accepted technique for olecranon fractures. Various investigators have reported a significant rate of complications especially hardware prominence. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and radiological outcome after tension band wiring of olecranon ...

  18. Fabrication of Metal Microtool Applying Wire Electrochemical Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Liu


    Full Text Available Metal microtools with various shapes can be used for micromachining technologies due to their specific characteristics. Wire electrochemical machining (wire ECM shows high potential to produce complex microstructures with repetitive usage of wire electrode and absence of thermal effects. This study presented an investigation of feasibility on fabricating metal microtool with various shapes using microwire ECM process. The experiments were conducted under a condition of ø300 μm tungsten rod as anodic specimen, ø20 μm tungsten wire as cathode, KOH as electrolytic solution, and ultrashort pulsed current as power supply. Effects of pulse-on time, applied voltage, wire feeding rate, and solution concentration on overcut and machining stability were evaluated in order to obtain optimal process parameters. Microtools with various shapes were fabricated thereafter with the optimal condition. The results reveal that the presented approach is capable of producing microtools with complex shapes effectively.

  19. Impact of Self-Heating in Wire Interconnection on Timing (United States)

    Kanamoto, Toshiki; Okumura, Takaaki; Furukawa, Katsuhiro; Takafuji, Hiroshi; Kurokawa, Atsushi; Hachiya, Koutaro; Sakata, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Masakazu; Nakashima, Hidenari; Masuda, Hiroo; Sato, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masanori

    This paper evaluates impact of self-heating in wire interconnection on signal propagation delay in an upcoming 32nm process technology, using practical physical parameters. This paper examines a 64-bit data transmission model as one of the most heating cases. Experimental results show that the maximum wire temperature increase due to the self-heating appears in the case where the ratio of interconnect delay becomes largest compared to the driver delay. However, even in the most significant case which induces the maximum temperature rise of 11.0°C, the corresponding increase in the wire resistance is 1.99% and the resulting delay increase is only 1.15%, as for the assumed 32nm process. A part of the impact reduction of wire self-heating on timing comes from the size-effect of nano-scale wires.

  20. Single Wire Detector Performance Over One Year of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hervas Aguilar, David Alberto


    Abstract When ionizing radiation passes through gas chambers in single wire detectors gas molecules separate into ions and electrons. By applying a strong localized electric field near the single wire an avalanche of electrons is created and it can be collected. The current produced in the wire is then proportional to the energy of the particle detected. Nevertheless, many factors can contribute to detector aging effects which are visible in a loss of gain caused by deposition of contaminants on the collecting wire. This study consists on novel data analysis techniques used to process large amounts of data produced by two simultaneously running single wire detectors. Aging effects are analyzed while environmental fluctuations are corrected for. A series of scripts carry out data filtering, data matching, corrections, and finally trend plotting by using ROOT’s extensive libraries developed at CERN.