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Sample records for subclass copepoda microcrustaceans

  1. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  2. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  3. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

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    Shu Wu

    Full Text Available Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9 within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%; and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2 nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9 of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%; 3 compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%; and 4 V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  4. Diversity and structure of microcrustacean assemblages (Cladocera and Copepoda and limnological variability in perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region, Bahia, Brazil

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    Nadson R. Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands undergo recurrent drought due to the scarcity of water, which disrupts the hydrological connectivity with adjacent aquatic systems. However, some environments retain water for longer periods, allowing greater persistence of the community. The current study evaluated differences in the microcrustacean assemblages and limnological variability between perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The abiotic features (water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity and depth of intermittent pools were affected more than perennial pools due to loss of water volume. This may have contributed to a higher average richness and diversity index in some intermittent pools and differences in the structure of the assemblages. The lowest species richness and diversity were recorded where physical factors, such as a large quantity of suspended solids and variability in the electrical conductivity of the water and pH, make the environment unsuitable for these organisms. These results suggest that community development in intermittent pools is interrupted by the dry season; when the water returns, due to rainfall or rising groundwater, each pond undergoes a different process of colonization. In these circumstances, the biological importance of temporary aquatic environments is clear, since such pools provide shelters and have an important role in the maintenance of the regional diversity of aquatic environments.

  5. Estrutura da assembléia de microcrustáceos (Cladocera e Copepoda em um reservatório do semi-árido Neotropical, Barragem de Pedra, Estado da Bahia, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.538 Structure of microcrustaceans assemblage (Cladocera and Copepoda from reservoir Neotropical semiarid, Pedra Dam, Bahia, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.538

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    Nadson Ressyé Simões

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Na região semi-árida, os reservatórios desempenham importante papel para o desenvolvimento regional, o que resulta no aumento da pressão antrópica no seu entorno, acarretando mudanças na qualidade da água. O conhecimento do zooplâncton fornece informações básicas sobre a estrutura trófica pelágica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a assembléia de microcrustáceos planctônicos (copépodes e cladóceros no reservatório Barragem da Pedra, em dois períodos distintos (chuvoso e seco/2003. As amostragens foram realizadas em quatro pontos do Reservatório Barragem de Pedra, com uma rede de plâncton (malha de 70 µm, por meio de arrastos verticais do fundo para a superfície. Foram encontradas 12 espécies de microcrustáceos. As espécies dominantes foram Notodiaptomus iheringi e Daphnia gessneri. A densidade de indivíduos adultos variou de 4.303 a 7.423 ind. M-3 em janeiro e de 669 a 7.272 ind. M-3 em julho. O índice de diversidade de Shannon variou de 1,90 bit. ind.-1 em julho a 2,71 bit. ind.-1 em janeiro. Maiores densidades de indivíduos, índice de diversidade e equabilidade foram encontrados na estação chuvosa. A estrutura da comunidade de microcrustáceos diferiu entre as estações seca e chuvosa e correlacionou-se significativamente com as variáveis físicas e químicas da água.In the semiarid region, the reservoirs perform important role for the regional development, which results in the increase of the anthropogenic pressure, causing changes in the water quality. The knowledge of the zooplankton structure supplies basic information for the ecology, zoology, limnology and biogeography of these organisms. The objective of this study was to characterize the plankton microcrustaceans assemblage (Copepoda and Cladocera in the Pedra Dam Reservoir (PDR in two distinct periods (rainy and dry/2003. The samplings were carried out in four station of the PDR, using plankton net (70µm of mesh, by vertical hauls from

  6. Microcrustacean diversity in the Gemenc-Béda-Karapancsa Floodplains (Danube-Drava National Park, Hungary: rare and alien species

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    Ágoston-Szabó, E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition of microcrustacean fauna was investigated in different water bodies of Gemenc-Béda-Karapancsa Floodplains with special regard to the distribution of alien and rare taxa. Between 2002 and 2013 101 taxa (57 Cladocera, 27 Copepoda, 17 Ostracoda, were recorded from the water bodies with differing degrees of connectivity to the main river (eu-, para-, plesio- and paleopotamon. 18 species are reported for the first time from the area of Danube-Drava National Park and among them Daphnia ambigua, Pleuroxus denticulatus and Eurytemora velox are allochtonous species in Hungary. E. velox and P. denticulatus have persistent populations in the area, but their contribution to floodplain biodiversity is still not significant. Daphnia ambigua has only local and temporal populations and its presence is confined to the disconnected side of the floodplain. The abundance of thirty species was very low and their distribution pattern in the floodplain is different. The microcrustacean diversity of the plesiopotamal side arms is remarkable, particularly in the Nyéki-Holt-Danube.

  7. The Essence of Subclassing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    The essence of subclassing is the ability to represent classification hierarchies reflecting domain concepts. With the right class mechanism there is no need for a separate type/subtype mechanism, and general classes may have behavior specifications so that subclassing also implies code reuse....... Sometimes the application is so well defined (known) that developers may readily start out with classes that represent domain concepts. Singular objects have been around for some time, so a new kind of language with equal support for both objects and classes would simply ask for tool support for objects...

  8. Diversity of micro-crustaceans in temporary habitats of the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the distribution of micro-crustaceans in seven temporary habitats of the province of Sasalı (Izmir) was conducted between 27 March and 10 April 2011. 15 micro-crustacean species, comprising eight ostracods, four branchiopods and three copepods were identified. All species registered represent new reports for ...

  9. Histopathological changes induced by copepoda parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological changes induced by copepoda parasites infections on the gills of economically important fish mugilidae ( Liza falcipinnis and Mugil cephalus ) from Ganvie area of Lac Nokoue, Republic of Benin.

  10. The developmental stages of Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developmental stages of Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida). H.L. Jerling, T.H. Wooldridge. Abstract. Nauplii and copepodid developmental stages of the estuarine copepod, Pseudodiaptomus hessei, are described and illustrated. Five post-embryonic naupliar and five copepodid stages (excluding adults) ...

  11. Retinal vasculitis revealing immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Rachid Tahiri Joutei; Rousseau, Antoine; de Monchy, Ivan; el Sanharawi, Mohamed; Gendron, Gael; Barreau, Emmanuel; Goujard, Cécile; Labetoulle, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and autoimmune disorders. However, there have been no reports of ocular involvement, either inflammatory or infectious, in association with IgG subclass deficiency. The authors report the first case of retinal vasculitis that led to the diagnosis of IgG subclass deficiency, in a patient with a history of inflammatory bowel disease and recurrent infections of previously unknown origin.

  12. Separability-Oriented Subclass Discriminant Analysis.

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    Wan, Huan; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gongde; Wei, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a classical method for discriminative dimensionality reduction. The original LDA may degrade in its performance for non-Gaussian data, and may be unable to extract sufficient features to satisfactorily explain the data when the number of classes is small. Two prominent extensions to address these problems are subclass discriminant analysis (SDA) and mixture subclass discriminant analysis (MSDA). They divide every class into subclasses and re-define the within-class and between-class scatter matrices on the basis of subclass. In this paper we study the issue of how to obtain subclasses more effectively in order to achieve higher class separation. We observe that there is significant overlap between models of the subclasses, which we hypothesise is undesirable. In order to reduce their overlap we propose an extension of LDA, separability oriented subclass discriminant analysis (SSDA), which employs hierarchical clustering to divide a class into subclasses using a separability oriented criterion, before applying LDA optimisation using re-defined scatter matrices. Extensive experiments have shown that SSDA has better performance than LDA, SDA and MSDA in most cases. Additional experiments have further shown that SSDA can project data into LDA space that has higher class separation than LDA, SDA and MSDA in most cases.

  13. Trophic partitioning among three littoral microcrustaceans: relative importance of periphyton as food resource

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Bec; Gilles Bourdier; Hélène Masclaux

    2012-01-01

    The high species richness of zooplankton communities in macrophytes littoral zones could result from the diversity of potential trophic niches found in such environment. In macrophytes littoral zones, in addition to phytoplankton, neustonic, benthic and epiphytic biofilms can also be potential components of the microcrustacean diet. Here, we investigated the ability of three large cladocerans: Daphnia longispina, Simocephalus vetulus and Eurycercus lamellatus, to develop on periphyton as thei...

  14. COPEPODA: SUMBU KELANGSUNGAN BIOTA AKUATIK DAN KONTRIBUSINYA UNTUK AKUAKULTUR

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    Media Fitri Isma Nugraha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulasan ini mencoba memperkenalkan dan manfaat jasad renik copepoda untuk domain manusia. Perannya sebagai basal kehidupan akuatik dan taksa vertebrata lainnya sering dilupakan, pada ulasan ini pula akan mengenalkan jasanya pada akuakultur. Copepoda digolongkan dalam Phylum Crustacean, yang berukuran sangat kecil sekitar 60-200 μm. Copepoda menghuni hampir setiap lapisan perairan dari permukaan sampai dasar lautan. Jasad renik ini dijadikan sebagai indikator kesuburan perairan, juga sebagai konsumen tingkat pertama yang memberikan gizi berupa EPA dan DHA pada setiap jenis biota perairan. Sejarah manusia pertama kali mengenal copepoda pasca kesuksesan ekspedisi Challenger 1872-1876. Kepedulian kita dalam mengenal spesies ini berarti telah membantu dalam mewujudkan keseimbangan ekosistem. Atas dasar kepedulian dan untuk keseimbangan alam dan lingkungan, maka multi institusional yang bergerak dalam domain akuakultur telah mengoleksi dan mengembangbiakkan satu sub spesies dari copepoda ini di dalam sebuah bak terkontrol, dan dijadikan sebagai sumber pakan alami larva kultivan.

  15. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  16. A new set of primers for COI amplification from freshwater microcrustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Sean; Martínez-Arce, Arely; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    Despite the contribution of DNA barcoding towards understanding the biodiversity and distribution of species, the success of COI amplification has been quite variable when it comes to freshwater zooplankton (Elías-Gutiérrez & Valdez-Moreno 2008; Jeffery et al. 2011). Some genera of microcrustaceans seem to be more difficult to amplify than others. For example, Macrothrix, Scapholeberis, Diaphanosoma and cyclopoids have yielded limited results. Among several possible reasons for the inability to barcode freshwater microcrustaceans is that there does not exist a specific set of primers for COI amplification. To this end, we developed a zooplankton - specific set of primers, which significantly increased average amplification success (20% increase). With these primers, we observed an overall success of over 70% for Sididae and Chydoridae, and more than 80% for Daphniidae, Moinidae, Bosminidae, Macrothricidae, Ilyocryptidae and Diaptomidae. We also demonstrate a simple alteration to a common specimen fixation method that increases the overall recovery of barcodes from freshwater zooplankton. Collectively, we believe our results will greatly aid the recovery of barcodes from these difficult groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. On Certain Subclasses of Analytic Functions Defined by Differential Subordination

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    Hesam Mahzoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study certain subclasses of analytic functions which are defined by differential subordination. Coefficient inequalities, some properties of neighborhoods, distortion and covering theorems, radius of starlikeness, and convexity for these subclasses are given.

  18. IgG subclass deficiencies in children: Facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahn, Volker; von Bernuth, Horst

    2017-09-01

    The chance to analyse the four IgG subclasses arose with the publication of Terry and Fahey(1) . Since then, a lot of new information on the role of subclasses and their deficiency states in humans has been obtained. This review tries to analyse critically our current knowledge of subclass deficiencies in children. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  19. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Hengcrawit, Wiriya; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Luangwedchakam, Voravich

    2011-12-01

    Patients with Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency may suffer from recurrent infections, mainly sino-pulmonary infection. To determine the epidemiology of IgG subclass deficiency in Thai children at a tertiary care hospital and to compare the differences between children who were diagnosed with IgG subclass deficiency by using low level criteria [less than 2 standard deviation (SD) of normal levels for age] and by using low percentage criteria (proportion of each IgG subclasses/total IgG). The study was a descriptive study of 55 children up to 15 years old with recurrent infections diagnosed as having IgG subclass deficiency but no acquired or other primary immune deficiencies except for IgA and/or IgM deficiency. Isolated IgG3 subclass deficiency was the most common IgG subclass deficiency (56.4%). IgG3 subclass deficiency, either isolated or combined with other IgG subclass deficiency, was found in 85.5% of the cases. The common age of onset was between birth and five years of age. The most common presenting symptom was recurrent sinusitis (83.6%). Majority of the cases (89.3%) were diagnosed by low percentage criteria while 12.7% were diagnosed by low level criteria. All cases with low levels of IgG subclass antibodies also had low percentages. There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical manifestations and management methods between the children who were diagnosed by low level and low percentage. IgG3 subclass deficiency was the most common IgG subclass deficiency in Thai children. The most common presenting symptom was recurrent sinusitis. Although the diagnosis could be made in the patients with recurrent upper respiratory infection by using low level criteria, but the diagnosis should be considered when the low percentage criteria are met.

  20. Trophic partitioning among three littoral microcrustaceans: relative importance of periphyton as food resource

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    Alexandre Bec

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The high species richness of zooplankton communities in macrophytes littoral zones could result from the diversity of potential trophic niches found in such environment. In macrophytes littoral zones, in addition to phytoplankton, neustonic, benthic and epiphytic biofilms can also be potential components of the microcrustacean diet. Here, we investigated the ability of three large cladocerans: Daphnia longispina, Simocephalus vetulus and Eurycercus lamellatus, to develop on periphyton as their only food source or as a complement to a phytoplankton resource in scarce supply. D. longispina exhibited a very low growth and reproduction rates on the periphytic resource and as S. vetulus seems unable to scrape on periphyton. In contrast, E. lamellatus could not grow on phytoplankton, and appears to be an obligatory periphyton scraper. This latter finding contrasts with previous studies suggesting that E. lamellatus could be able to scrap periphyton as well as filter-feed on suspended matter. These differences in feeding strategy probably reflect the different trophic niches occupied by these three species in macrophytes littoral zones, and may explain at least in part their ability to coexist in the same environment.

  1. Habitat architecture influencing microcrustaceans composition: a case study on freshwater Cladocera (Crustacea Branchiopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani-Júnior, J R; Elmoor-Loureiro, L M A; Nogueira, M G

    2016-02-01

    Environmental complexity is considered a key factor for diversity enhancement in aquatic ecosystems. Macrophyte stands are a major contributor for this complexity due to their differential architectures. Nevertheless, the influence of distinct aquatic habitat architectures (with different types of macrophytes or without them) on microcrustaceans' taxa composition, usually found in macrophyte colonized water bodies, is underexplored in limnological studies. The main objective of this study was to analyze this influence by comparing the Cladocera composition among four habitat architectures: (1) fluctuant macrophytes, (2) rooted emergent macrophytes, (3) submerged macrophytes and (4) the limnetic zone of oxbow lakes associated to a large subtropical reservoir. Wide compositional variation was observed. Fluctuant macrophytes exhibited the richest Cladocera assemblage, dominated by Chydoridae. Submerged and rooted emergent macrophytes had the most similar assemblages between them. The most distinctive fauna was found in the limnetic zone, dominated by Bosminidae. Probable differences in resource availability in each sampled habitat architecture are considered as the driving factor for the Cladocera composition variation. We concluded that for a complete inventory of a given local fauna, it is imperative to take into account the aquatic habitat architecture, including macrophyte stands, in the data sampling design.

  2. North-south diversity of Scolecithricidae species (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Balachandran, T.

    The effectiveness of north-south hydrographical barriers in restricting the distributions of Scolecithricidae species (Copepoda:Calanoida) in the euphotic zone of the Indian Ocean was studied. Twenty seven species belonging to 7 genera were...

  3. A note on chromosomes of Pontellopsis herdmani and Pontella princeps (Copepoda) from the Laccadive sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.; Goswami, S.C.

    Pontellopsis herdmani and Pontella princeps (Pontellidae, Calanoida, Copepoda) showed a diploid number of 20 and a haploid number of 10 chromosomes during the spermatogonial metaphase and metaphase II stages. The chromosomes were in the size range...

  4. Coefficient estimates for certain subclass of bi-univalent functions

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    Omar, Rashidah; Halim, Suzeini Abdul; Janteng, Aini

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a subclass of bi-univalent functions is introduced using subordination. Estimates on the initial coefficients and the Fekete-Szegö inequality are determined for functions in this subclass. The results would generalize the previous related works of several earlier authors.

  5. Pengujian Dua Pasang Primer Universal Untuk Amplifikasi Gen Cytochrome Oxidase I Copepoda

    OpenAIRE

    Sumampow, Thalita C. P

    2015-01-01

    Copepoda merupakan zooplankton kaya manfaat dengan diversitas yang sangat tinggi dan terdiri dari banyak spesies kriptik. Identifikasi cepat, akurat, dan hemat dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik DNA Barcoding. Kesuksesan teknik tersebut sangat dipengaruhi oleh penggunaan primer yang tepat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji kemampuan dua pasang primer universal, yakni LCO1490-HCO2198 dan FF2d-FR1d, mengamplifikasi gen COI Copepoda. Dalam penelitian ini, pasangan primer LCO1490-...

  6. Chronic glomerulonephritis associated with IgG subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Koichi; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Otsuka, Yasufumi; Nakayama, Makiko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2007-08-01

    We experienced two patients with IgG subclass deficiency who suffered from chronic glomerulonephritis (GN). Patient 1 was a 17-year-old girl with IgG subclass deficiency (combined deficiency of IgG2 and IgG4). Renal biopsy was performed when she was aged 16 years, and she was diagnosed with membranoproliferative GN. Patient 2 was a 16-year-old girl with IgG subclass deficiency (combined deficiency of IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4). Renal biopsy was performed when she was aged 15 years, and she was diagnosed with membranous nephropathy. We examined the glomerular deposition patterns of their IgG subclasses. Furthermore, we compared their clinical and laboratory findings with those of three patients with IgG subclass deficiency without GN. Patients with GN suffered infections more frequently than those without GN. The serum levels of IgG (especially IgG1) and IgM were higher in patients with GN than in those without GN. In patient 1 IgG1 and IgG3 were deposited in a mesangiocapillary pattern, but, in patient 2, only IgG1 was deposited in a capillary pattern. Thus, the different patterns of IgG subclass deficiency between the two patients may be responsible for their different glomerular pathologies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic GN in patients with IgG subclass deficiency.

  7. Determination of trace elements in planktonic microcrustaceans using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF): First results from two Chilean lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woelfl, Stefan; Mercado, Susana; Villalobos, Lorena [Instituto de Zoologia, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Mages, Margarete; Ovari, Mihaly [Department of Inland Water Research Magdeburg, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114, Magdeburg (Germany); Encina, Francisco [Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Montt 056, Temuco (Chile)

    2004-02-01

    First results are described from the application of a recently developed dry method for determination of elements in single specimens of freshwater microcrustaceans, using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). This method is a powerful, non-destructive technique for quantifying the trace element content of minute biological samples with a dry weight of 3-50 {mu}g. Three different freshwater microcrustaceans were sampled, from the natural, uncontaminated Lake Laja and from the artificial Rapel reservoir which is slightly contaminated by drainage water from a copper mine. Single specimens of Daphnia pulex, Bosmina chilensis, and Ceriodaphnia dubia were prepared using a modification of the dry method and measured by TXRF. The results showed that both As, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu content and the bioaccumulation of these metals were usually significantly different between the microcrustaceans from the two lakes. The largest difference was found for Cu which was eight times more concentrated in the two microcrustaceans from Rapel reservoir than it was in D. pulex from Lake Laja. (orig.)

  8. A new species of Quinquelaophonte (Copepoda: Harpacticoida from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Sciberras

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinquelaophonte aestuarii sp. nov. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from Bahía Blanca estuary is the first record of Quinquelaophonte Wells, Hicks & Coull, 1982 in Argentina and its southernmost location in the world. The setal formula (P2: exopod 1.2.3-endopod 1.2.0; P3: exopod 1.2.3-endopod 2.2.1; P4: exopod 1.2.3-endopod 1.2.0 of the last segment of P2-P4, in both the exopod and the endopod, distinguishes this species from all known species in Quinquelaophonte, except for Quinquelaophonte varians Bjornberg, 2010. The new species differs from the latter in the setal formula of the antennule, the mouth parts and maxillipeds, the absence of an inner seta on the second exopod segment of P2, the length of the second exopod segment of P4 and in the shape of baseoendopod setae of P5.

  9. Secondary productivity of main microcrustacean species of two tropical reservoirs in Brazil and its relationship with trophic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia L. Brito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the importance of the zooplankton community in energy transfer between trophic levels, this study had as objective to estimate the secondary productivity rates of the main microcrustacean in two large tropical reservoirs, Três Marias and Furnas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We included Thermocyclops minutus, Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina hagmanni, Ceriodaphnia cornuta and Moina minuta in Três Marias Reservoir, and, in Furnas, these species and also Notodiaptomus henseni, Daphnia ambigua, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii, Diaphanosoma spinulosum, D. fluviatile and Bosmina freyi. With respect to total productivity, higher rates were obtained in the rainy period in both reservoirs (P<0.000, with mean values during the dry and rainy periods of 0.44 and 1.80 mg DW m-3 d-1 for Três Marias Reservoir and 1.50 and 3.10 mg DW m-3 d-1 for Furnas Reservoir, respectively. Thermocyclops minutus was the most important species in terms of density and biomass in Três Marias Reservoir, and M. minuta showed the highest rates of secondary productivity, especially during the rainy period. In Furnas, N. henseni and D. ambigua showed the highest productivity rates in both periods, and C. silvestrii, C. cornuta, D. spinulosum and D. fluviatile were also important during the rainy period. Values of the productivity:biomass ratio were usually lower for the copepods; the cladoceran M. minuta showed the highest values in both reservoirs. The higher microcrustacean secondary productivity rates in Furnas Reservoir are probably the result of greater efficiency in energy transfer between trophic levels, due to the presence of phytoplankton species with better nutritional quality in this environment.

  10. Objective Evaluation of Subclass Characteristics on Breech Face Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Fabiano; Hermsen, Rob; Mattijssen, Erwin; Pieper, Pascal; Champod, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Subclass characteristics can be found on the breech face marks left on spent cartridge cases. Even if they are assumed to be rare and their reported number is small, they can potentially lead to false associations. Subclass characteristics have been studied empirically allowing examiners to recognize them and to understand in which conditions they are produced. Until now, however, their influence on the identification process has not been studied from a probabilistic point of view. In this study, we aim at measuring the effect of these features on the strength of association derived from examinations involving subclass characteristics. The study takes advantage of a 3D automatic comparison system allowing the calculation of likelihood ratios (LRs). The similarities between cartridge case specimens fired by thirteen S&W .40S&W Sigma pistols are quantified, and their respective LRs are computed. The results show that the influence of subclass characteristics on the LRs is limited, even when these features are prevalent among the potential sources considered in a case. We show that the proportion of firearms sharing subclass characteristics should be larger than 40% of the pool of potential firearms for the effect to be significant. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Cletocamptus goenchim sp. nov., a new harpacticoid (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gomez, S.; Ingole, B.; Sawant, M.; Singh, R.

    ; ENP, endopod; P1(P2-P4)EXP(ENP)1(2, 3) denotes the proximal (middle, distal) exopodal (endopodal) segment of P1, P2, P3 or P4. Taxonomic account Family CANTHOCAMPTIDAE Sars, 1906 (incertae sedis) sensu Por, 1986 Genus Cletocamptus Shmankevich... of Environmental Biology 31: 819-826. Por, F. D. 1986. A re-evaluation of the Cletodidae Sars, Lang (Copepoda, Harpacticoida). Syllogeus 58: 420–425. Ranga Reddy, Y., & Y. Radhakrishna. 1979. A new record of Cletocamptus deitersi (Richard, 1895) (Copepoda...

  12. Cladocera and Copepoda (Crustacea Fauna of Çatalan Dam Lake (Adana, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Turan Aladağ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Çatalan Baraj Gölü’nün (Adana Copepoda ve Cladocera (Crustacea faunası. Çatalan baraj gölünün Cladocera ve Copepoda (Crustacea faunası Temmuz 2001 ve Haziran 2002 tarihleri arasında aylık periyotlarla alınan örneklerin incelenmesiyle belirlendi. Örneklerin değerlendirilmesi sonucunda, Çatalan baraj gölünde kladoserlerden 8, kopepodlardan ise 2 olmak üzere toplam 10 tür saptanmıştır

  13. Comparison and Characterization of Immunoglobulin G Subclasses among Primate Species

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Michael H.; Dark, Robyn D.; Chodosh, James; Kennedy, Ronald C.

    1999-01-01

    Little information is available on the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses expressed in the sera of nonhuman primate species. To address this issue, we compared the IgG subclasses found in humans (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) to those of nonhuman primates, such as baboons and macaques. Cross-reactive antihuman IgG subtype-specific reagents were identified and used to analyze purified IgG from sera by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein A-purified human ...

  14. Lipoprotein subclasses in genetic studies: The Berkeley Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Williams, P.T.; Blanche, P.J.; Cavanaugh, A.; Holl, L.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Austin, M.A. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1992-10-01

    Data from the Berkeley Data Set was used to investigate familial correlations of HDL-subclasses. Analysis of the sibling intraclass correlation coefficient by HDL particle diameter showed that sibling HDL levels were significantly correlated for HDL{sub 2b}, HDL{sub 3a} and HDL{sub 3b} subclasses. The percentage of the offsprings` variance explained by their two parents. Our finding that parents and offspring-have the highest correlation for HDL{sub 2b} is consistent with published reports that show higher heritability estimates for HDL{sub 2} compared with HDL{sub 3}{minus} cholesterol.

  15. Cyclopidae des eaux souterraines de Portugal et de l’île de Majorque (Crustacea, Copepoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lescher-Moutoué, Françoise

    1981-01-01

    Eight species of Cyclopidae (Copepoda) are recorded from continental groundwaters of the Iberian peninsula and Mallorca. The six species from Portugal constitute the first records of subterranean Cyclopidae from that country. Thermocyclops oblongatus is new to the Iberian peninsula, and the range of

  16. On the ecological role of Copepoda in the Suez Canal marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the ecological role of Copepoda in the Suez Canal marine ecosystem. Hamed El-Serehy, Sawsan Aboul-Ezz, Amein Samaan, Nasser Saber. Abstract. Species-specific abundance of copepods was determined at monthly intervals at 10 stations in the Suez Canal water between June 1994 and May 1995. Sampling ...

  17. On a Subclass of Harmonic Convex Functions of Complex Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Magesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study a subclass of harmonic convex functions of complex order. Coefficient bounds, extreme points, distortion bounds, convolution conditions, and convex combination are determined for functions in this class. Further, we obtain the closure property of this class under integral operator.

  18. Br anchiopoda and Copepoda (Crustacea in Mongolian Saline Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alonso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thi s paper presents a very complete inventory of the branchiopods and copepods that inhabit the salt lakes (salinity >3‰ of Mongolia. The inventory was based on samples collected from 108 salt lakes over the course of seven limnological expeditions in most of the Mongolian territory between 2005 and 2009. The salinity of the lakes ranged from 3.4 to 76‰ S. A total of 43 taxa were identifi ed: 7 Anostraca, 1 Spinicaudata, 1 Notostraca, 1 Leptodoridae, 1 Ctenopoda, 15 Anomopoda and 17 Copepoda. Thirteen taxa are limited to the Asiatic portion and the rest are known throughout the Palearctic region. One taxon, Phallocryptus sp. has not yet been described in scientifi c literature. The taxonomic position of Artemia sp. in Mongolia has still not been clarifi ed. All of the species are eurysaline and, except for Artemia sp. and Cletocamptus retrogressus , which are the most halophile, they can live in waters with less than 10‰ S. Thirty-three species appear only in mesosaline waters (3–20‰ S, fi ve do not exceed the mesosaline level (50‰ S and fi ve can live in hypersaline waters (>50‰ S.

  19. Identification of pediatric septic shock subclasses based on genome-wide expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco Marie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Septic shock is a heterogeneous syndrome within which probably exist several biological subclasses. Discovery and identification of septic shock subclasses could provide the foundation for the design of more specifically targeted therapies. Herein we tested the hypothesis that pediatric septic shock subclasses can be discovered through genome-wide expression profiling. Methods Genome-wide expression profiling was conducted using whole blood-derived RNA from 98 children with septic shock, followed by a series of bioinformatic approaches targeted at subclass discovery and characterization. Results Three putative subclasses (subclasses A, B, and C were initially identified based on an empiric, discovery-oriented expression filter and unsupervised hierarchical clustering. Statistical comparison of the three putative subclasses (analysis of variance, Bonferonni correction, P Conclusion Genome-wide expression profiling can identify pediatric septic shock subclasses having clinically relevant phenotypes.

  20. Could the canopy structure of bryophytes serve as an indicator of microbial biodiversity? A test for testate amoebae and microcrustaceans from a subtropical cloud forest in Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Mercado, D; Cancel-Morales, N; Chinea, J D; Santos-Flores, C J; De Jesús, I Sastre

    2012-07-01

    The mechanisms that ultimately regulate the diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities in bryophyte ecosystems remain a contentious topic in microbial ecology. Although there is robust consensus that abiotic factors, such as water chemistry of the bryophyte and pH, explain a significant proportion of protist and microcrustacean diversity, there is no systematic assessment of the role of bryophyte habitat complexity on such prominent microbial groups. Water-holding capacity is correlated with bryophyte morphology and canopy structure. Similarly, canopy structure explains biodiversity dynamics of the macrobiota suggesting that canopy structure may also be a potential parameter for understanding microbial diversity. Canopy roughness of the dominant bryophyte species within the Bahoruco Cloud Forest, Cachote, Dominican Republic, concomitant with their associated diversity of testate amoebae and microcrustaceans was estimated to determine whether canopy structure could be added to the list of factors explaining microbial biodiversity in bryophytes. We hypothesized that smooth (with high moisture content) canopies will have higher species richness, density, and biomass of testate amoebae and higher richness and density of microcrustaceans than rough (desiccation-prone) canopies. For testate amoebae, we found 83 morphospecies with relative low abundances. Species richness and density differed among bryophytes with different bryophyte canopy structures and based on non-metric multidimensional scaling, canopy roughness explained 25% of the variation in species composition although not as predicted. Acroporium pungens (low roughness, LR) had the lowest species richness (2 ± 0.61 SD per gram dry weight bryophyte), and density (2.1 ± 0.61 SD individual per gram of dry weight bryophyte); whereas Thuidium urceolatum (high roughness) had the highest richness (24 ± 10.82 SD) and density (94 ± 64.30 SD). The fact that the bryophyte with the highest roughness had the highest

  1. Coefficient Estimates for Certain Subclasses of Biunivalent Functions Defined by Convolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce two new subclasses of the function class Σ of biunivalent functions in the open disc defined by convolution. Estimates on the coefficients a2 and a3 for the two subclasses are obtained. Moreover, we verify Brannan and Clunie’s conjecture a2≤2 for our subclasses.

  2. Combining Unsupervised and Supervised Learning for Discovering Disease Subclasses

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, A; Bosoni, P; Bellazzi, R; Nihtyanova, S; Denton, C

    2016-01-01

    Diseases are often umbrella terms for many subcategories of disease. The identification of these subcategories is vital if we are to develop personalised treatments that are better focussed on individual patients. In this short paper, we explore the use of a combination of unsupervised learning to identify potential subclasses, and supervised learning to build models for better predicting a number of different health outcomes for patients that suffer from systemic sclerosis, a rare chronic co...

  3. Characterization of two neuronal subclasses through constellation pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Memon, Tosifa; Cox, Jeffrey L; Foulkes, Tucker; Rivier, Jean E; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2012-07-31

    Different types of neurons diverge in function because they express their own unique set or constellation of signaling molecules, including receptors and ion channels that work in concert. We describe an approach to identify functionally divergent neurons within a large, heterogeneous neuronal population while simultaneously investigating specific isoforms of signaling molecules expressed in each. In this study we characterized two subclasses of menthol-sensitive neurons from cultures of dissociated mouse dorsal-root ganglia. Although these neurons represent a small fraction of the dorsal-root ganglia neuronal population, we were able to identify them and investigate the cell-specific constellations of ion channels and receptors functionally expressed in each subclass, using a panel of selective pharmacological tools. Differences were found in the functional expression of ATP receptors, TRPA1 channels, voltage-gated calcium-, potassium-, and sodium channels, and responses to physiologically relevant cold temperatures. Furthermore, the cell-specific responses to various stimuli could be altered through pharmacological interventions targeted to the cell-specific constellation of ion channels expressed in each menthol-sensitive subclass. In fact, the normal responses to cold temperature could be reversed in the two neuronal subclasses by the coapplication of the appropriate combination of pharmacological agents. This result suggests that the functionally integrated constellation of signaling molecules in a particular type of cell is a more appropriate target for effective pharmacological intervention than a single signaling molecule. This shift from molecular to cellular targets has important implications for basic research and drug discovery. We refer to this paradigm as "constellation pharmacology."

  4. Nasal polyposis and immunoglobulin-G subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Khai Hoan, N; Karmochkine, M; Laccourreye, O; Bonfils, P

    2014-06-01

    Study of the association between immunoglobulin-G (IgG) subclass deficiency and nasal polyposis. Longitudinal study (5 years) in a prospective cohort of 161 nasal polyposis patients. Analysis of the association between humoral immunodeficiency, rhinologic symptoms, endoscopy score and prescribed doses of local and systemic corticosteroids. The prevalence of IgG subclass deficiency was 13.7% (22/161). One patient was diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). No significant differences were observed between the groups with and without pre-treatment deficiency for symptom severity, endoscopic score or local or systemic corticosteroid regimens at baseline or during the 5 years, following initiation of medical and surgical treatment. Only the Lund-Mackay CT score was significantly higher in the pre-treatment deficiency group. There was no correlation between the presence of humoral deficiency and either symptom evolution after medical and surgical treatment or the dose of corticosteroids needed to control disease. Thus, a link between IgG subclass deficiency and nasal polyposis seems unlikely. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Subclasses of Normal Helly Circular-Arc Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Min Chih; Szwarcfiter, Jayme L

    2011-01-01

    A Helly circular-arc model M = (C,A) is a circle C together with a Helly family \\A of arcs of C. If no arc is contained in any other, then M is a proper Helly circular-arc model, if every arc has the same length, then M is a unit Helly circular-arc model, and if there are no two arcs covering the circle, then M is a normal Helly circular-arc model. A Helly (resp. proper Helly, unit Helly, normal Helly) circular-arc graph is the intersection graph of the arcs of a Helly (resp. proper Helly, unit Helly, normal Helly) circular-arc model. In this article we study these subclasses of Helly circular-arc graphs. We show natural generalizations of several properties of (proper) interval graphs that hold for some of these Helly circular-arc subclasses. Next, we describe characterizations for the subclasses of Helly circular-arc graphs, including forbidden induced subgraphs characterizations. These characterizations lead to efficient algorithms for recognizing graphs within these classes. Finally, we show how do these ...

  6. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride reference ranges of twenty lipoprotein subclasses for healthy Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ai, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ura, Kazuya; Kohzuma, Takuji; Schaefer, Ernst J; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This epidemiological study was done to generate normal ranges for the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum lipoprotein subclasses isolated from healthy adults based on gender and menopausal status. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 20 lipoprotein subclasses as separated by high performance liquid chromatography were measured in serum obtained from 825 fasting healthy subjects (267 men, 558 women). For serum cholesterol, 13.7% was found in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, 55.6% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, and 30.4% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. For serum triglycerides, these values were 52.1%, 27.9%, and 17.4%, respectively. Levels of cholesterol in some VLDL subclasses were inversely correlated with the levels of some HDL subclasses, while for triglycerides, elevated levels in any one subclass were generally strongly associated with elevated levels in all other subclasses. Men had significantly higher large VLDL-cholesterol levels than women (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels, and significantly higher all VLDL, LDL, and HDL-triglyceride levels than premenopausal women (P cholesterol and triglyceride subclass levels, as well as significant correlations between values in the various serum lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phylogenomic analysis of Copepoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) reveals unexpected similarities with earlier proposed morphological phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyun, Seong-Il

    2017-01-19

    Copepods play a critical role in marine ecosystems but have been poorly investigated in phylogenetic studies. Morphological evidence supports the monophyly of copepods, whereas interordinal relationships continue to be debated. In particular, the phylogenetic position of the order Harpacticoida is still ambiguous and inconsistent among studies. Until now, a small number of molecular studies have been done using only a limited number or even partial genes and thus there is so far no consensus at the order-level. This study attempted to resolve phylogenetic relationships among and within four major copepod orders including Harpacticoida and the phylogenetic position of Copepoda among five other crustacean groups (Anostraca, Cladocera, Sessilia, Amphipoda, and Decapoda) using 24 nuclear protein-coding genes. Phylogenomics has confirmed the monophyly of Copepoda and Podoplea. However, this study reveals surprising differences with the majority of the copepod phylogenies and unexpected similarities with postembryonic characters and earlier proposed morphological phylogenies; More precisely, Cyclopoida is more closely related to Siphonostomatoida than to Harpacticoida which is likely the most basally-branching group of Podoplea. Divergence time estimation suggests that the origin of Harpacticoida can be traced back to the Devonian, corresponding well with recently discovered fossil evidence. Copepoda has a close affinity to the clade of Malacostraca and Thecostraca but not to Branchiopoda. This result supports the hypothesis of the newly proposed clades, Communostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida but further challenges the validity of Hexanauplia and Vericrustacea. The first phylogenomic study of Copepoda provides new insights into taxonomic relationships and represents a valuable resource that improves our understanding of copepod evolution and their wide range of ecological adaptations.

  8. Spatial distribution and secondary production of Copepoda in a tropical reservoir: Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ. Santos-Wisniewski

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to describe the spatial distribution of zooplankton copepods, their biomass and instantaneous secondary production, in Barra Bonita, a large eutrophic, polymitic reservoir (22° 29' S and 48° 34' W on the Tietê River, of the Paraná basin. Sampling was carried out during two seasons: dry winter and rainy summer. Species composition, age structure and numerical density of each copepod species population were analyzed at 25 sampling stations. Secondary production was calculated for Copepoda, the dominant group in zooplankton communities, taking Calanoida and Cyclopoida separately. Copepoda represented the largest portion of the total zooplankton biomass, the dominant species being Notodiaptomus iheringi among the Calanoida and Mesocyclops ogunnus and Thermocyclops decipiens among the Cyclopoida. The production of Copepoda was higher during the rainy summer (23.61 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in January 1995 than during the dry winter season (14 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in August 1995, following the general pattern of abundance for the whole zooplankton community. Among the copepods, Cyclopoida production was higher than that of Calanoida, a pattern commonly observed for tropical lakes and reservoirs. Barra Bonita copepods are very productive, but there was a great degree of spatial heterogeneity, related to the physical and chemical conditions, particularly the level of nutrients and also to phytoplankton biomass.

  9. Kernel Subclass Support Vector Description for Face and Human Action Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mygdalis, Vasileios; Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Kernel Subclass Support Vector Data Description classifier. We focus on face recognition and human action recognition applications, where we argue that sub-classes are formed within the training class. We modify the standard SVDD optimization problem, so that it exploits subclass information in its optimization process. We extend the proposed method to work in feature spaces of arbitrary dimensionality. We evaluate the proposed method in publicly available face r...

  10. IgG subclasses determine pathways of anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutier, Héloïse; Gillis, Caitlin M; Iannascoli, Bruno; Godon, Ophélie; England, Patrick; Sibilano, Riccardo; Reber, Laurent L; Galli, Stephen J; Cragg, Mark S; Van Rooijen, Nico; Mancardi, David A; Bruhns, Pierre; Jönsson, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have demonstrated that allergen-specific IgG confers sensitivity to systemic anaphylaxis that relies on IgG Fc receptors (FcγRs). Mouse IgG2a and IgG2b bind activating FcγRI, FcγRIII, and FcγRIV and inhibitory FcγRIIB; mouse IgG1 binds only FcγRIII and FcγRIIB. Although these interactions are of strikingly different affinities, these 3 IgG subclasses have been shown to enable induction of systemic anaphylaxis. We sought to determine which pathways control the induction of IgG1-, IgG2a-, and IgG2b-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis. Mice were sensitized with IgG1, IgG2a, or IgG2b anti-trinitrophenyl mAbs and challenged with trinitrophenyl-BSA intravenously to induce systemic anaphylaxis that was monitored by using rectal temperature. Anaphylaxis was evaluated in mice deficient for FcγRs injected with mediator antagonists or in which basophils, monocytes/macrophages, or neutrophils had been depleted. FcγR expression was evaluated on these cells before and after anaphylaxis. Activating FcγRIII is the receptor primarily responsible for all 3 models of anaphylaxis, and subsequent downregulation of this receptor was observed. These models differentially relied on histamine release and the contribution of mast cells, basophils, macrophages, and neutrophils. Strikingly, basophil contribution and histamine predominance in mice with IgG1- and IgG2b-induced anaphylaxis correlated with the ability of inhibitory FcγRIIB to negatively regulate these models of anaphylaxis. We propose that the differential expression of inhibitory FcγRIIB on myeloid cells and its differential binding of IgG subclasses controls the contributions of mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, and macrophages to IgG subclass-dependent anaphylaxis. Collectively, our results unravel novel complexities in the involvement and regulation of cell populations in IgG-dependent reactions in vivo. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier

  11. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  12. Using constellation pharmacology to define comprehensively a somatosensory neuronal subclass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Memon, Tosifa; Aman, Joseph W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2014-02-11

    Change is intrinsic to nervous systems; change is required for learning and conditioning and occurs with disease progression, normal development, and aging. To better understand mammalian nervous systems and effectively treat nervous-system disorders, it is essential to track changes in relevant individual neurons. A critical challenge is to identify and characterize the specific cell types involved and the molecular-level changes that occur in each. Using an experimental strategy called constellation pharmacology, we demonstrate that we can define a specific somatosensory neuronal subclass, cold thermosensors, across different species and track changes in these neurons as a function of development. Cold thermosensors are uniformly responsive to menthol and innocuous cool temperature (17 °C), indicating that they express TRPM8 channels. A subset of cold thermosensors expressed α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) but not other nAChR subtypes. Differences in temperature threshold of cold thermosensors correlated with functional expression of voltage-gated K channels Kv1.1/1.2: Relatively higher expression of KV1.1/1.2 channels resulted in a higher threshold response to cold temperature. Other signaling components varied during development and between species. In cold thermosensors of neonatal mice and rats, ATP receptors were functionally expressed, but the expression disappeared with development. This developmental change occurred earlier in low-threshold than high-threshold cold thermosensors. Most rat cold thermosensors expressed TRPA1 channels, whereas mouse cold thermosensors did not. The broad implications of this study are that it is now feasible to track changes in receptor and ion-channel expression in individual neuronal subclasses as a function of development, learning, disease, or aging.

  13. IgG subclasses in previously healthy adult patients with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been known for more than 20 years that certain patients with IgG subclass deficiencies may develop recurrent respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia.I...; However, there are few studies of IgG subclass levels in previously healthy adult patients with acute community-acquired pneumonia,~ particularly of patients ...

  14. Feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) using fatty acid trophic markers in seston food in two salt lakes in South Siberia (Khakasia, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolomeev, A.; Sushchik, N.N.; Gulati, R.D.; Makhutova, O.N.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Zotina, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    During two vegetation seasons (2004–2005), we compared feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) populations inhabiting two neighboring salt lakes, Shira and Shunet, Khakasia, Russia, using fatty acid (FA) trophic markers. Sestonic FA composition in two lakes moderately

  15. A new species of Hemicyclops (Crustacea, Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Clausidiidae) associated with hermit crabs in Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1992-01-01

    STOCK, J. H. 1992. A new species of Hemicyclops (Crustacea, Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Clausidiidae) associated with hermit crabs in Curaçao. Stud. Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 71, Amsterdam 1992: 69-78. Hemicyclops geminatus n. sp. is described from the upper infralittoral zone of Curaçao

  16. Over de eerste vondsten van twee Pennella-soorten (Crustacea: Copepoda) en van Conchoderma virgatum (Spengler) (Crustacea: Cirripedia) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwae, P.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    On 30 November 1941 a sunfish Mola mola (L.) was found on the beach near Schoorl (Province of Noord-Holland). The fish was parasitized by a specimen of Pennella filosa (L.) (Crustacea, Copepoda) on which a specimen of Conchoderma virgatum (Crustacea: Cirripedia) had attached itself. This is the

  17. A new species of Notodiaptomus Kiefer (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Matsumura-Tundisi

    Full Text Available Description of a new species of Diaptomidae (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida Notodiaptomus oliveirai is given from the material obtained at a reservoir at Barra Bonita, SP in 1992. The new species is very similar to Notodiaptomus henseni Dahl 1894 although both species can be found in the same locality, constituting two distinct populations. Notodiaptomus oliveirai seems to be endowed with great adaptability to changes in environmental conditions, extending its distribution to all the hydrographic basins in the state of São Paulo.

  18. Continuity effects on rotifers and microcrustaceans caused by the construction of a downstream reservoir in a cascade series (Iguaçu River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Serafim-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated changes in the community of rotifers and microcrustaceans associated with the construction of a large and dendritic reservoir in Iguaçu River (Brazil, as the last reservoir of a sequence of five cascading systems. Differences were clear between pre-filling and post-filling phases for organisms and some of environmental variables. In the pre-filling phase, the community was more homogeneous along the downstream river gradient, and spatial compartmentalization in the new reservoir was common during the post-filling phase. From 140 identified taxa, 10 species occurred exclusively in the pre-filling phase and 32 in the post-filling phase. After completion of the fifth reservoir filling-up, opportunistic, pioneer and fast-developing species quickly dominated, and downstream of the fourth reservoir the pre-filling decreasing gradient of richness, diversity and evenness disappeared. Richness of rotifers and cladocerans, cladocerans diversity, and evenness of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods were generally higher in the post-filling phase. A non-metric multidimensional analysis based on a presence/absence matrix depicted a homogeneous and dense group of species associated to the pre-filling phase and a second, dispersed group related to the post-filling phase. Spearman correlations pointed out significant positive effects of transparency on rotifer species richness in the post-filling phase, and negative effects on the microcrustacean richness in the pre-filling phase. Dam construction caused disruption of the downstream lotic gradient along the series of dams, leading to the development of distinct species in lentic spatial compartments.

  19. Continuity effects on rotifers and microcrustaceans caused by the construction of a downstream reservoir in a cascade series (Iguaçu River, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim-Júnior, M; Lansac-Tôha, F A; Lopes, R M; Perbiche-Neves, G

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated changes in the community of rotifers and microcrustaceans associated with the construction of a large and dendritic reservoir in Iguaçu River (Brazil), as the last reservoir of a sequence of five cascading systems. Differences were clear between pre-filling and post-filling phases for organisms and some of environmental variables. In the pre-filling phase, the community was more homogeneous along the downstream river gradient, and spatial compartmentalization in the new reservoir was common during the post-filling phase. From 140 identified taxa, 10 species occurred exclusively in the pre-filling phase and 32 in the post-filling phase. After completion of the fifth reservoir filling-up, opportunistic, pioneer and fast-developing species quickly dominated, and downstream of the fourth reservoir the pre-filling decreasing gradient of richness, diversity and evenness disappeared. Richness of rotifers and cladocerans, cladocerans diversity, and evenness of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods were generally higher in the post-filling phase. A non-metric multidimensional analysis based on a presence/absence matrix depicted a homogeneous and dense group of species associated to the pre-filling phase and a second, dispersed group related to the post-filling phase. Spearman correlations pointed out significant positive effects of transparency on rotifer species richness in the post-filling phase, and negative effects on the microcrustacean richness in the pre-filling phase. Dam construction caused disruption of the downstream lotic gradient along the series of dams, leading to the development of distinct species in lentic spatial compartments.

  20. Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency and infection risk in 150 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jane A; Crassini, Kyle R; Best, O Giles; Forsyth, Cecily J; Mackinlay, Naomi J; Han, Ping; Stevenson, William; Mulligan, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia is a common complication of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but the significance of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency is unknown. We analyzed the prevalence of immunoglobulins G, A and M, IgG subclass deficiency and infection in 150 patients with CLL. Low IgG, IgA and IgM levels were observed in 27.3%, 30.7% and 56.7% of patients, respectively. IgG subclass deficiency was frequent, with reduced IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 in 28%, 19.3%, 52% and 22.7% of patients, respectively. IgG subclass deficiency (total 64.6%) and hypogammaglobulinemia (27.3%) were more prevalent than clinically significant infection (16%). Recurrent or significant infections were seen in 24 patients (16%), of whom 50% had hypogammaglobulinemia but 100% had at least one IgG subclass deficiency, indicating that half the patients with infection had IgG subclass deficiency but normal total IgG level. Deficiencies of IgG3 and IgG4 were statistically associated with infection risk. Normal immunoglobulin and IgG subclass levels were seen in 26 patients (17%) and none had infections. IgG subclass deficiency is commonly observed in patients with CLL with both normal and reduced total IgG levels, and is associated with infection. Screening patients with CLL for IgG subclass deficiency may be a useful adjunct in stratifying their infection risk.

  1. Subclass mapping: identifying common subtypes in independent disease data sets.

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    Yujin Hoshida

    Full Text Available Whole genome expression profiles are widely used to discover molecular subtypes of diseases. A remaining challenge is to identify the correspondence or commonality of subtypes found in multiple, independent data sets generated on various platforms. While model-based supervised learning is often used to make these connections, the models can be biased to the training data set and thus miss inherent, relevant substructure in the test data. Here we describe an unsupervised subclass mapping method (SubMap, which reveals common subtypes between independent data sets. The subtypes within a data set can be determined by unsupervised clustering or given by predetermined phenotypes before applying SubMap. We define a measure of correspondence for subtypes and evaluate its significance building on our previous work on gene set enrichment analysis. The strength of the SubMap method is that it does not impose the structure of one data set upon another, but rather uses a bi-directional approach to highlight the common substructures in both. We show how this method can reveal the correspondence between several cancer-related data sets. Notably, it identifies common subtypes of breast cancer associated with estrogen receptor status, and a subgroup of lymphoma patients who share similar survival patterns, thus improving the accuracy of a clinical outcome predictor.

  2. Quantification of serum IgG subclasses by use of subclass-specific tryptic peptides and liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Paula M; Barnidge, David R; Snyder, Melissa R; Katzmann, Jerry A; Murray, David L

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of IgG subclasses is a useful tool for investigation of humoral immune deficiency in the presence of total IgG within reference intervals and IgG4-related disease. Nephelometry has been the method of choice for quantification. We describe an LC-MS/MS method that can multiplex all 4 subclasses along with total IgG by use of either IgG subclass-specific peptide stable isotope-labeled internal standards or a surrogate digest standard for quantification and does not rely on antigen/antibody reactions. We combined serum with labeled internal peptide standards and intact purified horse IgG. Samples were denatured, reduced, alkylated, and digested. We analyzed the digested serum by LC-MS/MS for IgG subclasses 1-4 and total IgG. We assayed 112 patient sera by LC-MS/MS and immunonephelometry. The mean of the slopes and R(2) values for IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, and IgG were 1.18 and 0.93, respectively. Interassay imprecision for the LC-MS/MS method was IgG and subclasses and was slightly improved by use of a calibrator peptide from an exogenous horse IgG. Summed total IgG correlated with the measured total IgG within 10%. Reference intervals and analytical measuring range were all similar to our previous validation data for the immunonephelometry assays. Total IgG and IgG subclasses 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be quantified by LC-MS/MS with performance comparable to nephelometry. © 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Human IgG subclass antibodies to the 19 kilodalton carboxy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human IgG subclass antibodies to the 19 kilodalton carboxy terminal fragment of Plasmodium Falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1 19 ) and predominance of the MAD20 allelic type of MSP1 in Uganda.

  4. Discovery of a new subclass of alpha-conotoxins in the venom of Conus australis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lebbe, E.K.M.; Peigneur, S.; Maiti, M.; Mille, B.G.; Prabhadevi; Ravichandran, S.; Lescrinier, E.; Waelkens, E.; DeSouza, L.; Herdewijn, P.; Tytgat, J.

    -conotoxins, acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which dysfunctions play important roles in pathologies such as epilepsy, myasthenic syndromes, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Here we define a new subclass of the alpha...

  5. Clinical significance of serum immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tobias; Höglund, Martin; Cherif, Honar

    2013-07-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and hypogammaglobulinemia who suffer from recurrent infections can be offered prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) substitution. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of pure IgG subclass deficiency (with normal Ig levels), its correlation to risk of infection, and the clinical value of routine measurement of serum IgG subclass levels in patients with CLL. Serum levels of Ig and IgG subclasses were determined in patients with CLL at Uppsala University Hospital. Clinical data were collected through patient records and questionnaires. Hypogammaglobulinemia occurred in 52.3% out of 111 patients. These patients did not have a higher annual risk of infection than patients without hypogammaglobulinemia (79.5% vs 79.1%, p = 0.706 for all infections; 13.4% vs 11.2%, p = 0.394 for severe infection; and 1.7% vs 3.4%, p = 0.083 for sepsis). Pure subclass deficiency was uncommon and occurred in 6 patients (5.4%). The annual overall risk of infection, of severe infection, and of sepsis for these patients did not differ as compared to patients with no hypogammaglobulinemia and no subclass deficiency (70.8% vs 80.7%, p = 0.334; 11.8% vs 11.1%, p = 0.497; and 8.9% vs 2.3%, p = 0.067, respectively). Pure IgG subclass deficiency is rare in patients with CLL. In this heterogeneous cohort of patients, neither hypogammaglobulinemia nor pure IgG subclass deficiency were significant risk factors for infectious complications. Measurement of serum levels of Ig may be justified in patients with recurrent severe infections, but routine analysis of IgG subclass levels in patients with CLL is probably not warranted.

  6. Subclass restriction pattern of antigen-specific antibodies in donors with defective expression of IgG or IgA subclass heavy chain constant region genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerström, L.; Carbonara, A.O.; DeMarchi, M.; LeFranc, G.; Möller, G.; Smith, C.I.E.; Zegers, B.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a method for the measurement of the IgG and IgA subclass distribution of antigen-specific human antibodies. The controls for the specificity of the assay include the use of a number of monoclonal human antibodies and sera from individuals with deletions of particular immunoglobulin

  7. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of periodically monitored Turkish children with IgG subclass deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Neslihan Edeer; Karadeniz, Cem; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil

    2009-03-01

    IgG subclass deficiencies are common immune system disorders during childhood. The aim of this retrospective study was to review clinical findings and laboratory results of patients with IgG subclass deficiencies in order to determine the changes in serum IgG subclass levels during follow-up, the percentage and time span until normalization of the IgG subclass levels to age-corresponding normal levels, the type of infections incurred and the benefits of prophylaxis. Among the 59 pediatric patients reviewed, the most frequent defect was an IgG3 subclass deficiency (77%). Nine percent of the patients had an isolated IgG2 deficiency and 14% had an IgG2+G3 deficiency. The most common clinical presentations were recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, followed by pneumonia, acute gastroenteritis and urinary tract infections. Atopy was present in 15% of the patients. Ninety percent of the patients were given a prophylactic treatment (benzathine penicillin, oral antibiotics, oral bacterial lysate or intravenous immunoglobulin). The frequency of recurrent infections decreased from 13.4 +/- 7.4 per year to 5.7 +/- 3.9 in patients receiving a prophylactic regimen. Serum IgG subclass levels reached normal ranges in 30% of the patients in the IgG3 deficiency group and in 35.7% of the patients in the IgG2+G3 deficiency group. Patients with an isolated IgG2 deficiency did not reach age-related normal levels during the study period. Our study shows that IgG subclass levels may normalize in 30 to 40% of patients at about 6 years of age. We emphasize the need of monitoring IgG levels together with the clinical symptomatology in affected individuals and initiate preventive measures when appropriate.

  8. ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF PLANKTONIC MICROCRUSTACEANS IN A CENTRAL AMAZON FLOODPLAIN LAKE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF THE PLANKTON COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caraballo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the hydrological year from December 2007 to November 2008, monthly samplings in the pelagic, littoral and macrophytes zones were conducted in the Lago Catalão, a floodplain lake receiving a mixture of water from Negro and Solimões Rivers, in front of Manaus city. Taxonomic composition and their relative abundance of the planktonic microcrustaceans community was studied. Natural abundances of carbon (C and nitrogen (N stable isotopes were measured to indicate energy sources. Cladocerans were the most abundant, with a relative abundance of 60%, followed by the calanoid and cyclopoid copepods with relative abundances of 29% and 11%, respectively. Diaphanosoma spp. was the dominant cladoceran group during all the sampling periods. Cladocerans were also represented by Moina spp., Ceriodaphnia spp. and Daphnia gessneri. Three genera of calanoid copepods were found: Notodiaptomus spp, Rhacodiaptomus spp., and Argyrodiaptomus spp. The genus Mesocyclops spp. was identified among the cyclopoid copepods. Zooplankton δ13C values indicated that the aquatic macrophyte zone was distinct, with a mean of -27.31‰, which was more enriched than zooplankton in the pelagic and littoral zones, where they had mean δ13C values of -33.11 and -34.66‰, respectively. Overall, analysis of stable isotopes showed that regardless of the pathways, the initial source of carbon for the zooplankton was phytoplankton, with a minimal participation of heterotrophic bacteria.

  9. IgG subclass and vaccination stimulus determine changes in antigen specific antibody glycosylation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Daniela; Lux, Anja; Schaffert, Anja; Lang, Roland; Altmann, Friedrich; Nimmerjahn, Falk

    2017-08-02

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation can modulate antibody effector functions. Depending on the precise composition of the sugar moiety attached to individual IgG glycovariants either pro- or anti-inflammatory effector pathways can be initiated via differential binding to type I or type II Fc-receptors. However, an in depth understanding of how individual IgG subclasses are glycosylated during the steady state and how their glycosylation pattern changes during vaccination is missing. To monitor IgG subclass glycosylation during the steady state and upon vaccination of mice with different T-cell dependent and independent antigens, tryptic digests of serum, and antigen-specific IgG preparations were analyzed by reversed phase-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We show that there is a remarkable difference with respect to how individual IgG subclasses are glycosylated during the steady state. More importantly, upon T-cell dependent and independent vaccinations, individual antigen-specific IgG subclasses reacted differently with respect to changes in individual glycoforms, suggesting that the IgG subclass itself is a major determinant of restricting or allowing alterations in specific IgG glycovariants. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A case of IgG subclass deficiency with the initial presentation of transient hypogammaimmuno-globulinemia of infancy and a review of IgG subclass deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettagul, R; Visitsunthorn, N; Vichyanond, P

    2003-07-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases are not common in children. The possibility of an immunological defect should be considered in any individual with repeated infections. A definite diagnosis for immodeficiency is sometimes difficult to achieve because of overlapping clinical manifestations. Immunoglobulin subclass deficiency is an immunological deficiency disease with which, one or more IgG subclasses are deficient. T cell immunity is normal. Patients may develop recurrent bacterial and respiratory infections or could remain asymptomatic. The authors report a case of immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency presenting initially as transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. A 2 month-old boy presented to Siriraj Hospital with a history of chronic protracted diarrhea, disseminated scabies and sepsis. On presentation, he had generalized scaly and maculopapular rash with no palpable lymph nodes. CBC revealed WBC 22,100 cells/cm3 with PMN 42 per cent, lymphocytes 38 per cent, Eosinophils 4 per cent, Basophil 2 per cent and platelets 254,000/cm3. The immunoglobulin levels were as follows: IgG 181 mg/dl, IgA IgG became normal at 2 years of age (after 12 months of IVIG). IVIG was stopped and the diagnosis was changed to transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI). Nevertheless, during his 4 month follow-up he developed recurrent sinopulmonary infections (i.e, otitis media and pneumonia). Repeated immunoglobulin profile showed IgG 1,200 mg/dl, IgA 135 mg/dl, IgM 26 mg/dl, IgG subclass were IgG, 1,030 mg/dl (N 280-830), IgG2 30 mg/dl (N 40-2,400), IgG3 22 mg/dl (N 6-130), IgG4 3 mg/dl (N 3-120). A diagnosis of IgG2 subclass deficiency presenting early as transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy was then made. Treatment with monthly IVIG was reinitiated and the patient is currently doing well. The authors present a case of IgG subclass deficiency presenting as transient hypogammaglbulinemia of infancy. Follow-up of the immune profile and clinical manifestation is

  11. The relationship between high density lipoprotein subclass profile and plasma lipids concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HDL particles posses multiple antiatherogenic activities and the identification and differentiation of individual HDL subclasses may be useful in documentation and understanding of metabolic changes of different HDL subclasses. The major plasma lipids exist and are transported in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Hence, alterations in plasma lipids levels can interfere with the composition, content, and distribution of plasma lipoprotein subclasses that affect atherosclerosis risk. The research review major discussed the relationship between plasma lipids levels and HDL subclasses distribution. The general shift toward smaller size of HDL particle size in HTG, HCL and MHL subjects, and the changes were more prominent with the elevation of TG and TC levels which imply that HDL maturation might be abnormal and RCT pathway might be weaken, and these changes were more seriously in MHL subjects. Plasma contents of small sized HDL particles significantly higher, whereas those of large sized HDL particles were significantly lower with elevation of TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios. Increased in the TC/HDL-C ratio alone did not influence the distributions of HDL subclasses significantly when the TG/HDL-C ratio was low (TG/HDL-C ≤ 2.5. Hence, the TG/HDL-C ratio might be more sensitive to reflect the alteration of HDL subclass distribution than the TC/HDL-C ratio. In LDL-C/HDL-C ≤ 2.3 group, the pattern of distribution in HDL subclass was in agreement with the normolipidemic subjects. Moreover, considering the relative ease of measuring TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, as opposed to measuring HDL subclasses, these 3 ratios together may be a good indicator of HDL subclass distribution. The protective effect of increased apoA-I levels against the reduction of HDL2b caused by elevated TG concentration. On one hand, plasma HDL-C and apoA-I appear to play a coordinated role in the assembly of HDL particles and the determination of their

  12. Recurrent meningitis in a child with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon life-threatening condition. Here, the case of a 6-year-old boy is reported who had two episodes of meningitis with an IgG3 subclass deficiency. The boy had aseptic meningitis at the age of 3 years, followed by bacterial meningitis at the age of 4 years. Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are a group of disorders associated with an increased incidence and/or severity of infection. Recurrent infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia are the most frequently observed illnesses in patients with IgG subclass deficiencies, of which an IgG3 subclass deficiency is the most common, especially in adults. Although cases of recurrent viral or bacterial meningitis have been reported, herein a patient is presented with recurrence of aseptic and bacterial meningitis 1 year after the initial episode. Some researchers recommend that all children with episodes of recurrent meningitis should be screened for primary immunoglobulin or complement deficiencies.

  13. [Sinonasal polyposis associated with a deficiency subclass immunoglobulin G: Place of substitution immunoglobulins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoan, Nhung Tran Khai; Karmochkine, M; Laccourreye, O; Bonfils, P

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of the introduction of a substitution by intravenous Immunoglobulins (Ig IV) at patients with immunoglobulins G (IgG) subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis. Prospective study concerning five patients with IgG subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis treated by Ig IV. Rhinologic, otologic and pulmonary symptoms, exacerbations of nasal polyposis, chronic otitis and asthma as well as the number of antibiotics and corticoids treatments were counted during the Ig IV substitution. To study the association between IgIV substitution and the number of exacerbations of nasal polyposis, chronic otitis, asthma and the number of antibiotics and corticoids treatments in patients with IgG subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis. Five patients with a IgG subclass deficiency and nasal polyposis were substituted. The number of antibiotics and corticoids cures increased at one patient and remained stable at four others. The number of sinus, ear and lung infections as well as the global rhinologic score of symptoms and the endoscopic stage of the nasal polyposis remained stable. In the absence of efficiency of the treatment, this one was interrupted at the end of 6 months for patients n° 1 and n° 3, 24 months for patient n° 4 and 42 months for patient n° 5. The current study failed to highlight clinical improvement in patients wih IgG subclasses deficiency and nasal polyposis treated by Ig IV. A previous study had not allowed to find a link between IgG subclasses deficiency and severity of nasal polyposis, what seems to be confirmed by the absence of improvement brought during the substitution of this deficit in the current study.

  14. On some subclasses of the family of Darboux Baire 1 functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertruda Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a subclass of the family of Darboux Baire 1 functions \\(f:\\mathbb{R}\\rightarrow\\mathbb{R}\\ modifying the Darboux property analogously as it was done by Z. Grande in [On a subclass of the family of Darboux functions, Colloq. Math. 17 (2009, 95-104], and replacing approximate continuity with \\(\\mathcal{I}\\-approximate continuity, i.e. continuity with respect to the \\(\\mathcal{I}\\-density topology. We prove that the family of all Darboux quasi-continuous functions from the first Baire class is a strongly porous set in the space \\(\\mathcal{DB}_1\\ of Darboux Baire 1 functions, equipped with the supremum metric.

  15. Biophysical and Functional Characterization of Rhesus Macaque IgG Subclasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Austin W.; Osei-Owusu, Nana Yaw; Crowley, Andrew R.; Chu, Thach H.; Chan, Ying N.; Weiner, Joshua A.; Bharadwaj, Pranay; Hards, Rufus; Adamo, Mark E.; Gerber, Scott A.; Cocklin, Sarah L.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Miles, Adam R.; Eckman, Joshua W.; Belli, Aaron J.; Reimann, Keith A.; Ackerman, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies raised in Indian rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta (MM)] in many preclinical vaccine studies are often evaluated in vitro for titer, antigen-recognition breadth, neutralization potency, and/or effector function, and in vivo for potential associations with protection. However, despite reliance on this key animal model in translation of promising candidate vaccines for evaluation in first in man studies, little is known about the properties of MM immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and how they may compare to human IgG subclasses. Here, we evaluate the binding of MM IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 to human Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) and their ability to elicit the effector functions of human FcγR-bearing cells, and unlike in humans, find a notable absence of subclasses with dramatically silent Fc regions. Biophysical, in vitro, and in vivo characterization revealed MM IgG1 exhibited the greatest effector function activity followed by IgG2 and then IgG3/4. These findings in rhesus are in contrast with the canonical understanding that IgG1 and IgG3 dominate effector function in humans, indicating that subclass-switching profiles observed in rhesus studies may not strictly recapitulate those observed in human vaccine studies. PMID:28018355

  16. Antibody isotypes, including IgG subclasses, in Ecuadorian patients with pulmonary Paragonimiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Guevara E.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An ELISA test was developed to detect Paragonimus-specific antibodies, including IgG subclasses, using P. mexicanus crude water-soluble antigens. The test was standardized to detect antibodies in sera of Ecuadorian patients with pulmonary paragonimiasis and negative controls from the endemic area. The detected mean levels of IgG (0.753, SEM: 0.074 and IgM (0.303, SEM: 0.033 were significantly elevated (P<0.05. Within the IgG subclasses, IgG4 showed the highest detected mean level (0.365, SEM: 0.116 and the other three subclasses showed considerably lower mean levels (IgG1, 0.186 SEM: 0.06; IgG2, 0.046 SEM: 0.01; IgG3, 0.123 SEM: 0.047. The number of P. mexicanus eggs found in sputum of infected individuals showed a positive correlation with the level of antibodies detected for IgM, IgG and its subclasses (P<0.001. The relevance of these findings in Ecuadorian patients suffering from pulmonary paragonimiasis is discussed.

  17. Influence of immunoglobulin G-glycan and subclass variation on antibody effector functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, G.

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies signal to other parts of the immune system by binding of their constant domain (Fc) to receptors, such as Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) or C1q of the complement system in the case of immunoglobulin G (IgG). For these interactions the Fc-structure, influenced by subclasses or

  18. Associations between intensive diabetes therapy and NMR-determined lipoprotein subclass profiles in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Jenkins, Alicia J; Basu, Arpita; Stoner, Julie A; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Klein, Richard L; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    Our objective is to define differences in circulating lipoprotein subclasses between intensive versus conventional management of type 1 diabetes during the randomization phase of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). NMR-determined lipoprotein subclass profiles (NMR-LSPs), which estimate molar subclass concentrations and mean particle diameters, were determined in 1,294 DCCT subjects after a median of 5 years (interquartile range: 4-6 years) of randomization to intensive or conventional diabetes management. In cross-sectional analyses, we compared standard lipids and NMR-LSPs between treatment groups. Standard total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels were similar between randomization groups, while triglyceride levels were lower in the intensively treated group. NMR-LSPs showed that intensive therapy was associated with larger LDL diameter (20.7 vs. 20.6 nm, P = 0.01) and lower levels of small LDL (median: 465 vs. 552 nmol/l, P = 0.007), total IDL/LDL (mean: 1,000 vs. 1,053 nmol/l, P = 0.01), and small HDL (mean: 17.3 vs. 18.6 μmol/l, P intensive diabetes therapy was associated with potentially favorable changes in LDL and HDL subclasses in sera. Further research will determine whether these changes contribute to the beneficial effects of intensive diabetes management on vascular complications.

  19. Fekete-Szegö Inequalities of a Subclass of Multivalent Analytic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj C.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this paper is to study Fekete-Szegö problem for a certain subclass of p - valent analytic functions. Fekete-Szegö inequality of several classes are obtained as special cases from our results. Applications of the result are also obtained on the class defined by convolution.

  20. Separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses on a protein A monolith column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebici, Pelin; Leblebici, M Enis; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Pais, Luís S

    2014-07-01

    Monolithic columns have attracted significant attention for the purification of large biomolecules. In the present study, a step gradient elution method was evaluated for the separation of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) into its subclasses on CIM (convective interaction media) r-protein A (recombinant protein A) monolithic column. hIgG was loaded onto the column and bound protein was eluted with a pH gradient. The subclass content of the eluted fractions was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that separation of IgG3 from the other three subclasses can be successfully achieved with high selectivity (100%) and throughput on monolithic media. It was also revealed that enriched fractions of IgG1 and IgG2 could be obtained from purified hIgG in a 28min long chromatographic run. Three fractions with high IgG1 content (89.1%, 94.3% and 88.8%) were recovered. Furthermore, IgG2 was enriched to 64% successfully. A rapid step gradient elution scheme without any additives in buffers was proven to obtain enriched preparations of the two important subclasses with high throughput. The separation time can be reduced even more by increasing the flow rate without any loss in selectivity, which will be beneficial in industrial scale applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Clinical Utility of Measuring IgG Subclass Immunoglobulins During Immunological Investigation for Suspected Primary Antibody Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Antony R; Skold, Markus; Ramsden, David B; Ocejo-Vinyals, J Gonzalo; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Harding, Stephen

    2017-11-08

    Measurement of IgG subclass concentrations is a standard laboratory test run as part of a panel to investigate the suspicion of antibody deficiency. The assessment is clinically important when total IgG is within the normal age-specific reference range. The measurement is useful for diagnosis of IgG subclass deficiency, to aid the diagnosis of specific antibody deficiency, as a supporting test for the diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency, as well as for risk stratification of patients with low IgA. The measurement of IgG subclasses may also help determine a revaccination strategy for patients and support patient management. In certain circumstances, the measurement of IgG subclasses may be used to monitor a patient's humoral immune system. In this review, we discuss the utility of measuring IgG subclass concentrations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  2. Habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses and risk of colorectal cancer in 2 large prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Zhang, Xuehong; Cassidy, Aedín; Song, Mingyang; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Lin, Jennifer H; Pischon, Tobias; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L; Wu, Kana

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro. In a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Polyp Prevention Trial, a higher intake of one subclass, flavonols, was statistically significantly associated with a reduced risk of recurrent advanced adenoma. Most previous prospective studies on colorectal cancer evaluated only a limited number of flavonoid subclasses and intake ranges, yielding inconsistent results. In this study, we examined whether higher habitual dietary intakes of flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) were associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. Using data from validated food-frequency questionnaires administered every 4 y and an updated flavonoid food composition database, we calculated flavonoid intakes for 42,478 male participants from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and for 76,364 female participants from the Nurses' Health Study. During up to 26 y of follow-up, 2519 colorectal cancer cases (1061 in men, 1458 in women) were documented. Intakes of flavonoid subclasses were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer in either cohort. Pooled multivariable adjusted RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 1.04 (0.91, 1.18) for flavonols, 1.01 (0.89, 1.15) for flavones, 0.96 (0.84, 1.10) for flavanones, 1.07 (0.95, 1.21) for flavan-3-ols, and 0.98 (0.81, 1.19) for anthocyanins (all P values for heterogeneity by sex >0.19). In subsite analyses, flavonoid intake was also not associated with colon or rectal cancer risk. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a higher habitual intake of any flavonoid subclass decreases the risk of colorectal cancer.

  3. IDH mutation and neuroglial developmental features define clinically distinct subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovets, Daniel; Kannan, Kasthuri; Shen, Ronglai; Kastenhuber, Edward R; Islamdoust, Nasrin; Campos, Carl; Pentsova, Elena; Heguy, Adriana; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Chan, Timothy A; Huse, Jason T

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse gliomas represent the most prevalent class of primary brain tumor. Despite significant recent advances in the understanding of glioblastoma [World Health Organization (WHO) IV], its most malignant subtype, lower grade (WHO II and III) glioma variants remain comparatively understudied, especially in light of their notable clinical heterogeneity. Accordingly, we sought to identify and characterize clinically relevant molecular subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas. We conducted multidimensional molecular profiling, including global transcriptional analysis, on 101 lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas collected at our own institution and validated our findings using publically available gene expression and copy number data from large independent patient cohorts. We found that IDH mutational status delineated molecularly and clinically distinct glioma subsets, with IDH mutant (IDH mt) tumors exhibiting TP53 mutations, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)A overexpression, and prolonged survival, and IDH wild-type (IDH wt) tumors exhibiting EGFR amplification, PTEN loss, and unfavorable disease outcome. Furthermore, global expression profiling revealed three robust molecular subclasses within lower grade diffuse astrocytic gliomas, two of which were predominantly IDH mt and one almost entirely IDH wt. IDH mt subclasses were distinguished from each other on the basis of TP53 mutations, DNA copy number abnormalities, and links to distinct stages of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone. This latter finding implicates discrete pools of neuroglial progenitors as cells of origin for the different subclasses of IDH mt tumors. We have elucidated molecularly distinct subclasses of lower grade diffuse astrocytic glioma that dictate clinical behavior and show fundamental associations with both IDH mutational status and neuroglial developmental stage. ©2012 AACR.

  4. The subclass distribution of IgG autoantibodies in cicatricial pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, P; Prost, C; Aucouturier, P; Durepaire, N; Denis, F; Bonnetblanc, J M

    1991-08-01

    To study the subclass distribution of autoantibodies and their complement-fixing capacity in cicatricial pemphigoid (CP) and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) we studied the sera from 23 patients by both indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on 4-microns cryostat sections of normal human skin and immunoblotting of epidermal or dermal extracts. Monoclonal antibodies of strict specificity for human IgG subclasses were used. Sera from 20 patients with BP served as controls. In addition, total IgG subclass levels were determined by indirect competitive ELISA in all sera. Complement binding capacity was studied by IIF using antibodies to C3 after incubation of skin section with autoantibodies and source of fresh complement. CP autoantibodies reacting with the 230-240 kD and/or the 180-kD epidermal bands showed an IgG4/IgG1 subclass restriction, with a predominance of IgG4 in 10 cases, of IgG1 in four. In BP sera, IgG4 and IgG1 autoantibodies were detected with a similar frequency (100% and 83%, respectively). In EBA sera, autoantibodies reacting with the 290 kD and 145 kD dermal bands also showed an IgG1/IgG4 restriction. Concordant results were obtained by IIF. However, the IIF method had a lower sensitivity for the detection of IgG4 CP antibodies and IgG1 EBA antibodies than immunoblotting. Finally, when CP antibodies were analyzed for their complement-binding activity, it was found that sera containing IgG4 autoantibodies alone never fixed complement whereas all complement-fixing CP sera had IgG1 autoantibodies, suggesting that only this subclass of antibodies is capable of fixing complement.

  5. Association between habitual dietary intake and lipoprotein subclass profile in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Rissanen, A; Kangas, A J; Soininen, P; Rose, R J; Ala-Korpela, M; Kaprio, J

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional epidemiology is increasingly shifting its focus from studying single nutrients to the exploration of the whole diet utilizing dietary pattern analysis. We analyzed associations between habitual diet (including macronutrients, dietary patterns, biomarker of fish intake) and lipoprotein particle subclass profile in young adults. Complete dietary data (food-frequency questionnaire) and lipoprotein subclass profile (via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were available for 663 subjects from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (57% women, age: 21-25 y). The serum docosahexaenoic to total fatty acid ratio was used as a biomarker of habitual fish consumption. Factor analysis identified 5 dietary patterns: "Fruit and vegetables", "Meat", "Sweets and desserts", "Junk food" and "Fish". After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake, the "Junk food" pattern was positively related to serum triglycerides (r = 0.12, P = 0.002), a shift in the subclass distribution of VLDL toward larger particles (r = 0.12 for VLDL size, P < 0.001) and LDL toward smaller particles (r = -0.15 for LDL size, P < 0.001). In addition, higher scores on this pattern were positively correlated with concentrations of small, dense HDL (r = 0.16, P < 0.001). Habitual fish intake associated negatively with VLDL particle diameter ("Fish" pattern and biomarker) and positively with HDL particle diameter (biomarker). Our results suggest that in young adults, higher habitual fish consumption is related to favorable subclass distributions of VLDL and HDL, while junk food intake is associated with unfavorable alterations in the distribution of all lipoprotein subclasses independent of adiposity and other lifestyle factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A new species of Acantholochus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae parasitic on Centropomus undecimalis (Osteichthyes: Centropomidae from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Luiz ER

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Acantholochus Cressey, 1984 (Copepoda: Bomolochidae parasitic on the gills of common snook, Centropomus undecimalis, from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from all other species of Acantholochus by the presence of only one inner seta on middle segment of the second and third endopods.

  7. Zooplankton (Cladocera, Copepoda dynamics in the River Danube upstream and downstream of Budapest, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadadi-Fülöp, Cs.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of zooplankton (Cladocera, Copepoda were studied in the River Danube near Budapest, Hungary. The investigated river section was relatively poor in plankton, nauplii dominated. A total of 36 species was recorded of which Acanthocyclops robustus, Thermocyclops crassus, Bosmina longirostris were the most abundant. There was a downstream increase in copepod densities, however, no other remarkable differences could be observed between the profiles upstream and downstream of the capital. Generally, the streamline was characterized by lower densities and lower number of taxa as compared to the river bank; nevertheless, there were differences between the left and the right banks both upstream or downstream as well. Seasonal dynamics was defined by a marked late winter–spring aspect and abundance peaks were found to be characteristic for Danube with high densities in May–June and August–September. Examining the relationship between zooplankton density and the hydrological regime, it can be concluded that zooplankton production in the main channel is of minor importance, rather floodplain areas and adjacent water bodies seem to be important sources of plankton biomass.

  8. The sea louse Lepeophtheirus acutus (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda) as a pathogen of aquarium-held elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, M J L; Janse, M; Benz, G W

    2011-10-01

    Lepeophtheirus acutus Heegaard, 1943 (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda), was collected from or observed on four of six elasmobranch species held at Burgers' Zoo (Arnhem, The Netherlands). Circumstantial evidence suggested that a zebra shark, Stegostoma fasciatum (Hermann), from the wild carried the infection into the facility, where copepods reproduced and colonized additional hosts. Copepods typically attached on and about the eyes, in the mouth and occasionally about the cloaca and on the claspers. Severe ocular lesions were associated with infections on zebra sharks, a grey reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker), whitetip reef sharks, Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell), and giant shovelnose ray, Rhinobatos typus Bennett, while blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard), and blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes), living in infested aquaria showed no sign of infection. Water treatments using trichlorfon were considered primarily responsible for the eradication of copepods from hosts and infested aquaria. This case is the first report of a copepod infection being closely associated with disease and death of an aquarium-held elasmobranch. Given its ability to infect a wide variety of elasmobranchs and promote life-threatening lesions on some hosts, L. acutus should be considered a dangerous pathogen of captive elasmobranchs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-13

    Mar 13, 1987 ... Hawke 1978) and nasal fossae (Yamashita 1980). The parasites are generally less than 1 mm long and can only be found using a dissection microscope at a low magnification of approximately 20 X. For sampling ergasilids, the fish is killed and the gills removed. Individual arches are separated, kept wet in.

  10. Copepoda: Kroyeriidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-10-28

    Oct 28, 1998 ... 1822) from the following localities: Puerto Rico (Caribbean. Sea), Florida (Atlantic Ocean) and Madagascar (Indian. Ocean). This is the first report of K. dispar from the east coast of South Africa. K. dispar can be distinguished from other Kroyeria species by an unusually wide cephalothorax, armature of the ...

  11. Lernanthropidae: Copepoda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-12-03

    Dec 3, 1996 ... ular spines, rostral spines, sternal furca, adhesion pads, buccal stylets and lunules (Kabata 1979), are .... ridges sometimes has small patches of ornamented integu- ment (oi) (Figure 3); (3) in some species an ... round patches of ornamented integument (oi) are present mid- way on the inner surface of the ...

  12. Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-04-13

    Apr 13, 1987 ... algunas especies de copepodos parasitos de peces de. Iitoral mediterraneo. Misc. Zool. 5: 161-171. SCOTT, T. 1901. Notes on some parasites of fishes. Rep. Fish. Board. Scott. 19: 120-153. WILSON, C.B. 1905. North American parasitic copepods belonging to the family Caligidae. Pt.I. The Caliginae. Proc.

  13. Sex bias occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Poly7 molecular subclass is associated with EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Vincent W; Sia, Daniela; Sarver, Aaron L; Tschida, Barbara R; Fan, Danhua; Alsinet, Clara; Solé, Manel; Lee, Wai L; Kuka, Timothy P; Moriarity, Branden S; Villanueva, Augusto; Dupuy, Adam J; Riordan, Jesse D; Bell, Jason B; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Llovet, Josep M; Largaespada, David A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest solid cancers and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death. There is a universal estimated male/female ratio of 2.5, but the reason for this is not well understood. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system was used to elucidate candidate oncogenic drivers of HCC in a forward genetics screening approach. Sex bias occurrence was conserved in our model, with male experimental mice developing liver tumors at reduced latency and higher tumor penetrance. In parallel, we explored sex differences regarding genomic aberrations in 235 HCC patients. Liver cancer candidate genes were identified from both sexes and genotypes. Interestingly, transposon insertions in the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) gene were common in SB-induced liver tumors from male mice (10/10, 100%) but infrequent in female mice (2/9, 22%). Human single-nucleotide polymorphism data confirmed that polysomy of chromosome 7, locus of EGFR, was more frequent in males (26/62, 41%) than females (2/27, 7%) (P = 0.001). Gene expression-based Poly7 subclass patients were predominantly male (9/9) compared with 67% males (55/82) in other HCC subclasses (P = 0.02), and this subclass was accompanied by EGFR overexpression (P < 0.001). Sex bias occurrence of HCC associated with EGFR was confirmed in experimental animals using the SB transposon system in a reverse genetic approach. This study provides evidence for the role of EGFR in sex bias occurrences of liver cancer and as the driver mutational gene in the Poly7 molecular subclass of human HCC. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Associations of Apgar score and size at birth with lipoprotein subclasses in juvenile obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Osama H.; Vekic, Jelena; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Parıpovıc, Dusan; Gojkovıc, Tamara; Janac, Jelena; Spasojevıc-Kalımanovska, Vesna; Peco-Antıc, Amira; Mılosevskı-Lomıc, Gordana; Jelıc-Ivanovıc, Zorana; Stefanovıc, Aleksandra

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: Juvenile obesity is associated with several metabolic abnormalities, one of them being atherogenic dyslipidemia. Suboptimal fetal growth is associated with obesity risk in childhood, but also with increased rate of metabolic diseases in later life. This study investigated associations of neonatal data (Apgar score, birth weight and birth length) with low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) subclasses in a group of obese children, as well as a possible impact of breastfeeding duration on obesity-associated lipoprotein subclasses distributions.Materials and methods: We included 42 obese children, aged 14.2 ± 2.1 years. LDL and HDL subfractions were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis and biochemical parameters were assessed by routine methods.Results: Compared with obese children with Apgar ≥ 9, the group with Apgar < 9 had significantly higher percentages of small, dense LDL particles (P < 0.05), due to reduced LDL I (P < 0.01) and increased LDL III subclasses (P < 0.05). Birth weight was positively associated with the proportions of LDL I particles (P < 0.001), whereas birth height positively correlated with the amount of HDL 2b subclasses (P < 0.05). The group of never or less than 3 months breastfed children had significantly smaller LDL size (P < 0.01) and lower proportion of HDL 2a particles (P < 0.05) than their ≥3 months breastfed peers.Conclusion: The results showed significant associations of neonatal characteristics with LDL and HDL particle distributions in obese children. In addition, our results point toward positive aspects of longer breastfeeding duration on lipoprotein particle distributions in obese children.

  15. Phrase Structure Patterning and Licensing for English and Serbian Speaker-Oriented Adverb Subclasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimković-Telebaković Gordana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to set phrase structure rules for English and Serbian speaker-oriented adverb subclasses. Adverbs are looked at here as specifiers licensed by the semantic feature [ILLOCUTIONARY FORCE]. The results suggest that illocutionary, evaluative and evidential adverbs normally merge within the complementizer layer and the inflectional layer, and that English epistemic adverbs are in most cases preferably integrated into the inflectional layer, whereas Serbian epistemic adverbs tend to occur in the sentence-initial position.

  16. In-depth analysis of subclass-specific conformational preferences of IgG antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xinsheng; Vestergaard, Bente; Thorolfsson, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    with identical variable regions, were thoroughly analysed by the ensemble optimization method. The extended analysis of the optimized ensembles through shape clustering reveals distinct subclass-specific conformational preferences, which provide new insights for understanding the variations in physical....../chemical stability and biological function of therapeutic antibodies. Importantly, the way that specific differences in the linker region correlate with the solution structure of intact antibodies is revealed, thereby visualizing future potential for the rational design of antibodies with designated physicochemical...

  17. Association between ethnicity and obesity with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and subclass distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudberg, Nicholas J; Goedecke, Julia H; Blackhurst, Dee; Frias, Miguel; James, Richard; Opie, Lionel H; Lecour, Sandrine

    2016-05-11

    Obesity and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with cardiovascular risk. Surprisingly, despite a greater prevalence of obesity and lower HDL concentrations than white women, black South African women are relatively protected against ischaemic heart disease. We investigated whether this apparent discrepancy may be related to different HDL function and subclass distribution in black and white, normal-weight and obese South African women (n = 40). HDL functionality was assessed by measuring paraoxonase (PON) activity, platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and quantification of the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule in endothelial cells. PON-1 and PAF-AH expression was determined in isolated HDL and serum using Western blotting. Levels of large, intermediate and small HDL subclasses were measured using the Lipoprint® system. PON activity was lower in white compared to black women (0.49 ± 0.09 U/L vs 0.78 ± 0.10 U/L, p Obese black women had lower PAF-AH activity (9.34 ± 1.15 U/L vs 13.89 ± 1.21 U/L, p obese white women. Compared to normal-weight women, obese women had lower large HDL, greater intermediate and small HDL; an effect that was more pronounced in white women than black women. There were no differences in antioxidant capacity or anti-inflammatory function across groups. Our data show that both obesity and ethnicity are associated with differences in HDL functionality, while obesity was associated with decreases in large HDL subclass distribution. Measuring HDL functionality and subclass may, therefore, be important factors to consider when assessing cardiovascular risk.

  18. A subclass of harmonic univalent functions with positive coefficients associated with fractional calculus operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agarwal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we are defining a subclass of harmonic univalent functions with positive coefficients in unit disc $U$ by using fractional calculus operator. Further we obtain distortion bounds, extreme points and radii of convexity for functions belonging to this class and discuss a class preserving integral operator. Here we also determine that the class studied in this paper is closed under convolution and convex combinations.

  19. Subclasses of Starlike Functions Associated with Fractional q-Calculus Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murugusundaramoorthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Making use of fractional q-calculus operators, we introduce a new subclass ℳq(λ,γ,k of starlike functions and determine the coefficient estimate, extreme points, closure theorem, and distortion bounds for functions in ℳq(λ,γ,k. Furthermore we discuss neighborhood results, subordination theorem, partial sums, and integral means inequalities for functions in ℳq(λ,γ,k.

  20. The effects of exercise on the lipoprotein subclass profile: A meta-analysis of 10 interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzynski, Mark A; Burton, Jeffrey; Rankinen, Tuomo; Blair, Steven N; Church, Timothy S; Després, Jean-Pierre; Hagberg, James M; Landers-Ramos, Rian; Leon, Arthur S; Mikus, Catherine R; Rao, D C; Seip, Richard L; Skinner, James S; Slentz, Cris A; Thompson, Paul D; Wilund, Kenneth R; Kraus, William E; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-12-01

    The goal was to examine lipoprotein subclass responses to regular exercise as measured in 10 exercise interventions derived from six cohorts. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify average particle size, total and subclass concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein particles (VLDL-P, LDL-P, and HDL-P, respectively) before and after an exercise intervention in 1555 adults from six studies, encompassing 10 distinct exercise programs: APOE (N = 106), DREW (N = 385), GERS (N = 79), HERITAGE (N = 715), STRRIDE I (N = 168) and II (N = 102). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the overall estimate of mean change across the unadjusted and adjusted mean change values from each exercise group. Meta-analysis of unadjusted data showed that regular exercise induced significant decreases in the concentration of large VLDL-P, small LDL-P, and medium HDL-P and mean VLDL-P size, with significant increases in the concentration of large LDL-P and large HDL-P and mean LDL-P size. These changes remained significant in meta-analysis with adjustment for age, sex, race, baseline body mass index, and baseline trait value. Despite differences in exercise programs and study populations, regular exercise produced putatively beneficial changes in the lipoprotein subclass profile across 10 exercise interventions. Further research is needed to examine how exercise-induced changes in lipoprotein subclasses may be associated with (concomitant changes in) cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Post-prandial alterations in LDL size and subclasses in patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Trepp, Roman; Berneis, Kaspar; Christ, Emanuel R

    2008-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that lipoproteins generated during the post-prandial phase are highly atherogenic, with modifications in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) size and density. In the present study we assessed post-prandial variations in LDL size and subclasses in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). We studied in 12 hypopituitary patients with GHD and 10 healthy control subjects matched for gender, age and body mass index (BMI) post-prandial variations after a standardized meal consisting of 35% fat, 45% carbohydrate and 20% of protein (Clinutren Mix, Nestlé) and containing calories corresponding to 1/3 of estimated basal metabolic rate. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4h to measure plasma lipids and LDL size and subclasses by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. At baseline patients had similar plasma lipids than controls, with the exception of higher triglycerides (1.2+/-0.8 vs. 0.7+/-0.4mmol/L, p=.0024). Baseline LDL size was similar between the two groups and LDL subclass analysis revealed a small increase in LDL-IIIA (p=.0046). During post-prandial phase no significant differences were found in LDL size and subclasses in patients vs. controls with the sole exception of increased levels of LDL-IVB after 2h (p=.0295) and LDL-IIIB after 4h (p=.0478). It is, therefore, unlikely that a post-prandial variation in levels of small, dense LDL may significantly contribute to the atherogenic potential in hypopituitary patients with GHD.

  2. The effects of exercise on the lipoprotein subclass profile: a meta-analysis of 10 interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzynski, Mark A.; Burton, Jeffrey; Rankinen, Tuomo; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Hagberg, James M.; Landers-Ramos, Rian; Leon, Arthur S.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Rao, D.C.; Seip, Richard L.; Skinner, James S.; Slentz, Cris A.; Thompson, Paul D.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Kraus, William E.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal was to examine lipoprotein subclass responses to regular exercise as measured in 10 exercise interventions derived from six cohorts. Methods Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify average particle size, total and subclass concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein particles (VLDL-P, LDL-P, and HDL-P, respectively) before and after an exercise intervention in 1,555 adults from six studies, encompassing 10 distinct exercise programs: APOE (N=106), DREW (N=385), GERS (N=79), HERITAGE (N=715), STRRIDE I (N=168) and II (N=102). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the overall estimate of mean change across the unadjusted and adjusted mean change values from each exercise group. Results Meta-analysis of unadjusted data showed that regular exercise induced significant decreases in the concentration of large VLDL-P, small LDL-P, and medium HDL-P and mean VLDL-P size, with significant increases in the concentration of large LDL-P and large HDL-P and mean LDL-P size. These changes remained significant in meta-analysis with adjustment for age, sex, race, baseline body mass index, and baseline trait value. Conclusions Despite differences in exercise programs and study populations, regular exercise produced putatively beneficial changes in the lipoprotein subclass profile across 10 exercise interventions. Further research is needed to examine how exercise-induced changes in lipoprotein subclasses may be associated with (concomitant changes in) cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26520888

  3. Detection of herbicide subclasses by an optical multibiosensor based on an array of photosystem II mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Guzzella, Licia; Euzet, Pierre; Rouillon, Regis; Esposito, Dania

    2005-07-15

    Massive use of herbicides in agriculture over the last few decades has become a serious environmental problem. The residual concentration of these compounds frequently exceeds the maximum admissible concentration in drinking water for human consumption and is a real environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystem. Herbicides inhibiting photosynthesis via targeting photosystem II function still represent the basic means of weed control. A multibiosensor was constructed for detecting herbicides using as biosensing elements photosynthetic preparations coupled to an optical fluorescence transduction system (Giardi et al. EU patent EP1134585, 01830148.1-2204); this paper is about its application in the detection of herbicide subclasses in river water. Photosynthetic material was immobilized on a silicio septum inside a series of flow cells, close to diodes so as to activate photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence. The principle of the detection was based on the factthat herbicides selectively modify PSII fluorescence activity. The multibiosensor has the original feature of being able to distinguish the subclasses of the photosynthetic herbicides by using specific immobilized biomediators isolated from mutated organisms. This setup resulted in a reusable, portable multibiosensor for the detection of herbicide subclasses with a half-life of 54 h for spinach thylakoids and limit of detection of 3 x 10(-9) M for herbicides present in river water.

  4. Effects of cardiovascular lifestyle change on lipoprotein subclass profiles defined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decewicz, David J; Neatrour, David M; Burke, Amy; Haberkorn, Mary Jane; Patney, Heather L; Vernalis, Marina N; Ellsworth, Darrell L

    2009-06-29

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering is a primary goal in clinical management of patients with cardiovascular disease, but traditional cholesterol levels may not accurately reflect the true atherogenicity of plasma lipid profiles. The size and concentration of lipoprotein particles, which transport cholesterol and triglycerides, may provide additional information for accurately assessing cardiovascular risk. This study evaluated changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in patients participating in a prospective, nonrandomized lifestyle modification program designed to reverse or stabilize progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) to improve our understanding of lipoprotein management in cardiac patients. The lifestyle intervention was effective in producing significant changes in lipoprotein subclasses that contribute to CAD risk. There was a clear beneficial effect on the total number of LDL particles (-8.3%, p lifestyle change program were not confounded by lipid-lowering medications. In at risk patients motivated to participate, an intensive lifestyle change program can effectively alter traditional CAD risk factors and plasma lipoprotein subclasses and may reduce risk for cardiovascular events. Improvements in lipoprotein subclasses are more evident in men compared to women.

  5. Effects of cardiovascular lifestyle change on lipoprotein subclass profiles defined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patney Heather L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol lowering is a primary goal in clinical management of patients with cardiovascular disease, but traditional cholesterol levels may not accurately reflect the true atherogenicity of plasma lipid profiles. The size and concentration of lipoprotein particles, which transport cholesterol and triglycerides, may provide additional information for accurately assessing cardiovascular risk. This study evaluated changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy in patients participating in a prospective, nonrandomized lifestyle modification program designed to reverse or stabilize progression of coronary artery disease (CAD to improve our understanding of lipoprotein management in cardiac patients. Results The lifestyle intervention was effective in producing significant changes in lipoprotein subclasses that contribute to CAD risk. There was a clear beneficial effect on the total number of LDL particles (-8.3%, p Conclusion In at risk patients motivated to participate, an intensive lifestyle change program can effectively alter traditional CAD risk factors and plasma lipoprotein subclasses and may reduce risk for cardiovascular events. Improvements in lipoprotein subclasses are more evident in men compared to women.

  6. Frequent IgG subclass and mannose binding lectin deficiency in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Sabrina; Loebel, Madlen; Mooslechner, Agnes A; Knops, Michael; Hanitsch, Leif G; Grabowski, Patricia; Wittke, Kirsten; Meisel, Christian; Unterwalder, Nadine; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a severe disease characterized by various symptoms of immune dysfunction. CFS onset is typically with an infection and many patients suffer from frequently recurrent viral or bacterial infections. Immunoglobulin and mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency are frequent causes for increased susceptibility to infections. In this study we retrospectively analysed 300 patients with CFS for immunoglobulin and MBL levels, and B-cell subset frequencies. 25% of the CFS patients had decreased serum levels of at least one antibody class or subclass with IgG3 and IgG4 subclass deficiencies as most common phenotypes. However, we found elevated immunoglobulin levels with an excess of IgM and IgG2 in particular in another 25% of patients. No major alteration in numbers of B cells and B-cell subsets was seen. Deficiency of MBL was found in 15% of the CFS patients in contrast to 6% in a historical control group. In a 2nd cohort of 168 patients similar frequencies of IgG subclass and MBL deficiency were found. Thus, humoral immune defects are frequent in CFS patients and are associated with infections of the respiratory tract. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency is the major phenotype of primary immunodeficiency in a Korean adult cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, Han-Jung; Choi, Gil-Soon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Ye, Young-Min; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Park, Hae-Sim

    2010-06-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) is a rare disorder in adults. Most often, serious forms are detected during infancy or childhood. However, mild forms of PID may not be diagnosed until later in life, and some types of humoral immunodeficiency may occur in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical features of PID in Korean adults. A retrospective study was performed on 55 adult patients who were diagnosed as PID between January 1998 and January 2009 at a single tertiary medical center in Korea. IgG subclass deficiency was the most common phenotype (67%, 37/55), followed by total IgG deficiency (20%, 11/55), IgM deficiency (7%, 4/55), common variable immunodeficiency (2%, 1/55), and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (2%, 1/55). IgG3 and IgG4 were the most affected subclasses. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (76%) were the most frequently observed symptoms, followed by multiple site infection (11%), urinary tract infection, and colitis. Bronchial asthma, rhinitis, and several autoimmune diseases were common associated diseases. IgG and IgG subclass deficiency should be considered in adult patients presenting with recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in those with respiratory allergies or autoimmune diseases.

  8. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecht, Tal; Haim, Yulia; Bashan, Nava; Shapiro, Hagit; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Clément, Karine; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM) are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient. We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,plipid content (r = 0.303,plipid content, particularly in men. Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs.

  9. Anti-food and anti-microbial IgG subclass antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anke; Mandić, Ana D; Bennek, Eveline; Frehn, Lisa; Verdier, Julien; Tebrügge, Irene; Lutz, Holger; Streetz, Konrad; Trautwein, Christian; Sellge, Gernot

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD), is associated with increased microbial-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, whereas alterations of anti-food antibodies are still disputed. The knowledge about IgG subclass antibodies in IBD is limited. In this study we analysed IgG subclass antibodies specific for nutritional and commensal antigens in IBD patients and controls. Serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 specific for wheat and milk extracts, purified ovalbumin, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis lysates and mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analysed by ELISA in patients with CD (n = 56), ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 29), acute gastroenteritis/colitis (n = 12) as well as non-inflammatory controls (n = 62). Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) of all IgG subclasses and anti-B. fragilis IgG1 levels were increased in CD patients compared to UC patients and controls. The discriminant validity of ASCA IgG2 and IgG4 was comparable with that of ASCA pan-IgG and IgA, whereas it was inferior for ASCA IgG1/IgG3 and anti-B. fragilis IgG1. Complicated CD defined by the presence of perianal, stricturing or penetrating disease phenotypes was associated with increased ASCA IgG1/IgG3/IgG4, anti-B. fragilis IgG1 and anti-E. coli IgG1 levels. Anti-food IgG subclass levels were not different between IBD patients and controls and did not correlate with food intolerance. In contrast to anti-microbial Abs, food-specific IgG responses were predominately of the IgG4 isotype and all food-specific IgG subclass levels correlated negatively with age. Our study supports the notion that the adaptive immune recognition of food and commensal antigens are differentially regulated.

  10. Phylogeny of the taxon Paralaophontodes Lang (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Laophontodinae, including species descriptions, chorological remarks, and a key to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Horst George

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed phylogenetic analysis of the taxon Paralaophontodes Lang (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Laophontodinae Lang based on morphological characters is presented. The monophylum Paralaophontodes is supported by 16 unambiguous autapomorphies such as the presence of characteristic dorsal processes on cephalothorax and body somites, a 5-segmented male antennule, the loss of the syncoxal seta on the maxilliped, and the endopodal strengthening of the first swimming leg. The corresponding extensive phylogenetic evaluation includes the description of Paralaophontodes anjae sp. n. from a beach on Chiloé Island (Chile, the re-description of Laophontodes armatus Lang, and the re-establishment of Paralaophontodes robustus (Bŏzić, the displacement of Laophontodes armatus, L. hedgpethi Lang and L. psammophilus Soyer to Paralaophontodes, a discussion on relationships within that taxon, remarks on its geographical distribution, and a key to the species.

  11. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. Methods We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Results Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted. PMID:26960146

  12. Family analysis of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko; Trajkovski, Vladimir; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Hristomanova, Slavica; Djulejic, Eli; Paneva, Meri; Bozhikov, Jadranka

    2009-11-01

    Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001), female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008), as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011). Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister) independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.

  13. Catabolism of human γG-immunoglobulins of different heavy chain subclasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Hans L.; Fishkin, Ben G.; Grey, Howard M.

    1968-01-01

    The rates of catabolism of human γG-immunoglobulins of subclasses γG1, γG2, γG3, and γG4 were studied by determining the rates of elimination from the circulation of pairs of 131I-and 125I-labeled γG-myeloma proteins in 57 patients suffering from cancer other than multiple myeloma. On the average, γG1-, γG2-, and γG4-myeloma proteins were catabolized at a rate similar to that of normal γG-immunoglobulin, whereas γG3-myeloma proteins were catabolized more rapidly than normal γG-immunoglobulin. The average half-lives for the myeloma proteins were 12.3 days for normal γG, 11.6 days for γG1, 12.4 days for γG2, 8.2 days for γG3, and 11.3 days for γG4. However, significant differences in catabolic rates were observed when individual myeloma proteins of a single subclass were compared. These individual variations were present within all four heavy chain subclasses. The extent of differences ranged from 10 to 47%. The catabolic rate of normal γG was in an intermediate range when compared with myeloma proteins of relatively long and short half-lives. The rate of catabolism of an individual myeloma protein did not correlate with its light chain type, Gm factor, carbohydrate content, or electrophoretic mobility. These findings indicate that the structure(s) related to the catabolism of γG-immunoglobulins are complex and differ from one immunoglobulin molecule to another. Images PMID:4175542

  14. Lipid subclasses profiles and oxidative stress in aggressive periodontitis before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibali, L; Rizzo, M; Li Volti, G; D'Aiuto, F; Giglio, R V; Barbagallo, I; Pelekos, G; Donos, N

    2015-12-01

    Associations between dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress and periodontitis have emerged in recent years. However, there is a lack of studies investigating these associations in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the lipid and oxidative stress profiles in patients with AgP, and to relate them to clinical variables and interleukin (IL)-6 genetic variants. Twelve non-smoking Caucasian patients with AgP selected based on their IL6 haplotypes underwent periodontal non-surgical and surgical treatment. Peripheral blood samples taken at baseline and at six different time-points after treatment were processed to determine IL-6 circulating levels, lipid profiles (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] subclasses) and oxidative stress markers (glutathione and total lipid hydroperoxide levels). HDLs were the most prevalent lipoproteins, followed by intermediate-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein and LDL. The LDL subclasses consisted mainly of the less atherogenic large LDL. The lipid profile did not consistently change after treatment up to 3 mo after surgery. Periodontal disease severity was associated with LDL levels and size. The IL6 haplotypes were associated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL subclasses after adjusting for confounders. IL-6 circulating levels were associated with both very-low-density lipoprotein and lipid hydroperoxide levels. Based on these data, we conclude that both periodontal disease severity and IL6 haplotypes may influence lipid profiles in AgP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiaoli; Yu, Lili; You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50-0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58-0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71-1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger's test (p = 0.26). This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted.

  16. Manganese spread in Ursa Minor as a proof of sub-classes of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescutti, G.; Kobayashi, C.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Recently, new sub-classes of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) were discovered, including SNe Iax. The suggested progenitors of SNe Iax are relatively massive, possibly hybrid C+O+Ne white dwarfs, which can cause white dwarf winds at low metallicities. There is another class that can potentially occur at low or zero metallicities; sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions in single and/or double degenerate systems of standard C+O white dwarfs. These explosions have different nucleosynthesis yields compared to the normal, Chandrasekhar mass explosions. Aims: We test these SN Ia channels using their characteristic chemical signatures. Methods: The two sub-classes of SNe Ia are expected to be rarer than normal SNe Ia and do not affect the chemical evolution in the solar neighbourhood; however, because of the shorter delay time and/or weaker metallicity dependence, they could influence the evolution of metal-poor systems. Therefore, we have included both in our stochastic chemical evolution model for the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Minor. Results: The model predicts a butterfly-shape spread in [Mn/Fe] in the interstellar medium at low metallicity and - at the same time - a decrease of [α/Fe] ratios at lower [Fe/H] than in the solar neighbourhood, both of which are consistent with the observed abundances in stars of Ursa Minor. Conclusions: The surprising agreement between our models and available observations provides a strong indication of the origins of these new sub-classes of SNe Ia. This outcome requires confirmation by future abundance measurements of manganese in stars of other satellite galaxies of our Milky Way. It will be vital for this project to measure not the most extreme metal-poor tail, as more commonly happens, but the opposite; the metal-rich end of dwarf spheroidals.

  17. Gender bias occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Poly7 molecular subclass is associated with EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Vincent W.; Sia, Daniela; Sarver, Aaron L.; Tschida, Barbara R.; Fan, Danhua; Alsinet, Clara; Solé, Manel; Lee, Wai L.; Kuka, Timothy P.; Moriarity, Branden S.; Villanueva, Augusto; Dupuy, Adam J.; Riordan, Jesse D.; Bell, Jason B.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Llovet, Josep M.; Largaespada, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest solid cancers and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death. There is a universal HCC male to female estimated ratio of 2.5, but the reason for this is not well understood. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system was used to elucidate candidate oncogenic drivers of HCC in a forward genetics screening approach. Gender bias occurrence was conserved in our model, with male experimental mice developing liver tumors at reduced latency and higher tumor penetrance. In parallel, we explored gender differences regarding genomic aberrations in 235 HCC patients. Liver cancer candidate genes were identified from both genders and genotypes. Interestingly, transposon insertions in the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) gene were common in SB-induced liver tumors from male mice (10/10, 100%) but infrequent in female animals (2/9, 22%). Human SNP data confirmed that polysomy of chromosome 7, locus of EGFR, was more frequent in males (26/62, 41%) than females (2/27, 7%) (P = 0.001). Gene expression based Poly7 subclass patients were predominantly males (9/9) compared with 67% males (55/82) in other HCC subclasses (P = 0.02) and was accompanied by EGFR overexpression (P < 0.001). Gender bias occurrence of HCC associated with EGFR was confirmed in experimental animals using the SB transposon system in a reverse genetic approach. This study provides evidence for the role of EGFR in gender bias occurrences of liver cancer and as the driver mutational gene in the Poly7 molecular subclass of human HCC. PMID:22899566

  18. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chang; Qi, Xie; Qianyong, Zhang; Xiaoli, Peng; Jundong, Zhu; Mantian, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested the chemopreventive effects of flavonoids on carcinogenesis. Yet numbers of epidemiologic studies assessing dietary flavonoids and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. The association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, etc.) and the risk of breast cancer lacks systematic analysis. We aimed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass (except isoflavones) and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published before July 1(st), 2012, using Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED. Summary relative risks (RR) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. All analyses were performed using STATA version 10.0. Twelve studies were included, involving 9 513 cases and 181 906 controls, six of which were prospective cohort studies, and six were case-control studies. We calculated the summary RRs of breast cancer risk for the highest vs lowest categories of each flavonoid subclass respectively. The risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in women with high intake of flavonols (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) and flavones (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91) compared with that in those with low intake of flavonols and flavones. However, no significant association of flavan-3-ols (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02), flavanones (summary RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03), anthocyanins (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08) or total flavonoids (summary RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12) intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, summary RRs of 3 case-control studies stratified by menopausal status suggested flavonols, flavones or flavan-3-ols intake is associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal while not in pre-menopausal women. The present study suggests the intake of flavonols and flavones, but not other flavonoid subclasses or total

  19. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested the chemopreventive effects of flavonoids on carcinogenesis. Yet numbers of epidemiologic studies assessing dietary flavonoids and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. The association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, etc. and the risk of breast cancer lacks systematic analysis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass (except isoflavones and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. DESIGN: We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published before July 1(st, 2012, using Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED. Summary relative risks (RR were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. All analyses were performed using STATA version 10.0. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included, involving 9 513 cases and 181 906 controls, six of which were prospective cohort studies, and six were case-control studies. We calculated the summary RRs of breast cancer risk for the highest vs lowest categories of each flavonoid subclass respectively. The risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in women with high intake of flavonols (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98 and flavones (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91 compared with that in those with low intake of flavonols and flavones. However, no significant association of flavan-3-ols (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02, flavanones (summary RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03, anthocyanins (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08 or total flavonoids (summary RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, summary RRs of 3 case-control studies stratified by menopausal status suggested flavonols, flavones or flavan-3-ols intake is associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal while not in pre-menopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests the intake of flavonols

  20. Acute effects of interleukin-6 infusion on apo-B-containing lipoprotein subclasses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagdade, John; Pedersen, Bente K; Schwenke, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    IL-6 is believed to mediate the elevation in plasma TG and VLDL lipids in patients with sepsis. Previous studies of lipoprotein density fractions do not reveal the extent to which cytokines change the immunochemically distinct TG-rich (LpB:C, LpB:C:E, LpAII:B:C:D:E) and cholesterol-rich (LpB, Lp...... unchanged by IL-6, the distribution of TG-rich subclasses was significantly altered. Compared to baseline values, LpB:E + LpB:C:E increased significantly at 0.5 h (p

  1. Subclass-based Multi-task Learning for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Il eSuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a novel subclass-based multi-task learning method for feature selection in computer-aided Alzheimer's Disease (AD or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI diagnosis. Unlike the previous methods that often assumed a unimodal data distribution, we take into account the underlying multipeak distribution of classes. The rationale for our approach is that it is highly likely for neuroimaging data to have multiple peaks or modes in distribution, e.g., mixture of Gaussians, due to the inter-subject variability. In this regard, we use a clustering method to discover the multipeak distributional characteristics and define subclasses based on the clustering results, in which each cluster covers a peak in the underlying multipeak distribution. Specifically, after performing clustering for each class, we encode the respective subclasses, i.e., clusters, with their unique codes. In encoding, we impose the subclasses of the same original class close to each other and those of different original classes distinct from each other. By setting the codes as new label vectors of our training samples, we formulate a multi-task learning problem in a l21-penalized regression framework, through which we finally select features for classification. In our experimental results on the ADNI dataset, we validated the effectiveness of the proposed method by improving the classification accuracies by 1% (AD/Normal Control: NC, 3.25% (MCI/NC, 5.34% (AD/MCI, and 7.4% (MCI Converter: MCI-C/MCI Non-Converter: MCI-NC compared to the competing single-task learning method. It is remarkable for the performance improvement in MCI-C/MCI-NC classification, which is the most important for early diagnosis and treatment. It is also noteworthy that with the strategy of modality-adaptive weights by means of a multi-kernel support vector machine, we maximally achieved the classification accuracies of 96.18% (AD/NC, 81.45% (MCI/NC, 73.21% (AD/MCI, and 74.04% (MCI

  2. IgA deficiency: clinical correlates with IgG subclass and mannan-binding lectin deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaella, María L; Peredo, Rubén; Disdier, Orville M

    2005-06-01

    To characterize an IgA deficient population in terms of the incidence of IgG subclass and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiencies and the type and severity of infections and other associated disorders. Selective IgA deficiency is probably the commonest of the primary immunodeficiency disorders and although it may lead to an increased risk for respiratory and gastrointestinal infections and associated to various autoimmune diseases, it may also be asymptomatic. Several studies have suggested the need of a concomitant defect in order for manifestation of its symptoms. A total of 27 patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of selective IgA deficiency were evaluated for IgG subclass and MBL deficiencies after a thorough medical history, physical examination and pertinent evaluation for concomitant medical conditions. The overall incidence of IgG subclass deficiency found in the IgA deficient group was 18.5%. MBL deficiency was found to be 3.7%. These frequencies may have been influenced by the age group evaluated and the size of the population studied. Severe infections were more common in patients with combined deficiencies, either IgA and any of the IgG subclasses or IgA and MBL deficiency. Atopy was widely represented in the patients studied. The observed relationship between combined deficiencies Ig A, IgG subclasses and MBL and the increased representation of severe infections needs to be corroborated in a larger sample of patients with an inclusion of pediatric patients.

  3. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  4. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-06-08

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.

  5. IgG Subclasses and Allotypes: From Structure to Effector Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidarsson, Gestur; Dekkers, Gillian; Rispens, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Of the five immunoglobulin isotypes, immunoglobulin G (IgG) is most abundant in human serum. The four subclasses, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, which are highly conserved, differ in their constant region, particularly in their hinges and upper CH2 domains. These regions are involved in binding to both IgG-Fc receptors (FcγR) and C1q. As a result, the different subclasses have different effector functions, both in terms of triggering FcγR-expressing cells, resulting in phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and activating complement. The Fc-regions also contain a binding epitope for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), responsible for the extended half-life, placental transport, and bidirectional transport of IgG to mucosal surfaces. However, FcRn is also expressed in myeloid cells, where it participates in both phagocytosis and antigen presentation together with classical FcγR and complement. How these properties, IgG-polymorphisms and post-translational modification of the antibodies in the form of glycosylation, affect IgG-function will be the focus of the current review. PMID:25368619

  6. Physical activity versus sedentary behavior: associations with lipoprotein particle subclass concentrations in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Aadland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SED may have independent effects on health and disease. This might be due to PA and SED having distinct effects on lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine associations between lipoprotein subclass particle concentrations (-P and accelerometer-measured SED and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA in a sample of healthy adult subjects. METHODS: Lipoprotein subclass particle concentrations were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, whereas SED and MVPA were measured using Agtigraph GT1M and GT3X+ accelerometers. We obtained valid data in 73 subjects (30 men and 43 women, age 40.5 ± 10.6 years; body mass index 24.0 ± 2.8. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine associations (partial correlations with lipoproteins. RESULTS: Positive associations were detected between SED and small VLDL-P, large LDL-P and TG (partial r = 0.24 to 0.25, p .355. On the contrary, MVPA was positively associated with large HDL-P, average HDL size, Apo A1 and HDL-cholesterol (partial r = 0.28 to 0.50, p .607. CONCLUSION: There might be a specific effect of SED versus MVPA on lipoprotein metabolism. However, our results must be interpreted carefully due to possible effect-modification by gender and a low sample size. Thus, our findings should be viewed as preliminary.

  7. Effects of adjuvants on IgG subclasses elicited by virus-like Particles

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    Visciano Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-Like Particles (VLPs represent an efficient strategy to present and deliver conformational antigens to the immune system, inducing both arms of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, their particulate structure surrounded by cell membrane provides an adjuvanted effect to VLP-based immunizations. In the present study, the elicitation of different patterns of IgG subclasses by VLPs, administered in CpG ODN1826 or poly(I:C adjuvants, has been evaluated in an animal model. Results Adjuvanted VLPs elicited a higher titer of total specific IgG compared to VLPs alone. Furthermore, while VLPs alone induced a balanced TH2 pattern, VLPs formulated with either adjuvant elicited a TH1-biased IgG subclasses (IgG2a and IgG3, with poly(I:C more potent than CpG ODN1826. Conclusions The results confirmed that adjuvants efficiently improve antigen immunogenicity and represent a suitable strategy to skew the adaptive immune response toward the differentiation of the desired T helper subset, also using VLPs as antigen.

  8. The Challenge of Immunoglobulin-G Subclass Deficiency and Specific Polysaccharide Antibody Deficiency--a Dutch Pediatric Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatorjé, Ellen J H; de Jong, Everieke; van Hout, Roeland W N M; García Vivas, Yumely; de Vries, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin(Ig)G-subclass deficiency and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD) are among the most frequent causes of recurrent respiratory infections in children. Little is known about their prevalence, clinical presentation and prognosis. No study has been published in a Western-European nor in a mainly non-tertiary cohort until now. Therefore, we performed this observational cohort study in children recruited from secondary and tertiary pediatric practices all over The Netherlands. Dutch pediatricians were monthly asked to report patients with IgG-subclass deficiency and/or SPAD. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected. Separate informed consent was asked from parents and children (≥ 12 years of age) for annual update of the medical status. 49 children with confirmed IgG-subclass deficiency and/or SPAD were included. The majority of children (69%) was reported by four (out of 12) secondary hospitals with a pediatric immunologist in the staff. 45 children had ≥ 1 low IgG-subclass level and 11 had SPAD. IgG2 deficiency was the most prevalent IgG-subclass deficiency (37/49;76%). 10% of these children already showed bronchiectasis. Two-thirds were male (33/49;67%, p = 0.015). From 10 years of age, only boys were left and only boys showed progressive immunodeficiency during follow-up (11/24; 46%). This is the first Western-European mainly non-tertiary cohort of children with IgG-subclass deficiency and/or SPAD. The disease course is not always benign, especially in boys. Most children were reported and managed in secondary hospitals with a pediatric immunologist in the staff. To identify more patients, the awareness of these diseases among general pediatricians should increase.

  9. Dissecting the relationships of IgG subclasses and complements in membranous lupus nephritis and idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Woong; Yi, Kijong; Song, Young Soo; Park, Moon Hyang

    2017-01-01

    Membranous lupus nephritis (MLN) and idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) are kidney diseases with similar morphology, but distinct etiologies, both producing glomeruli with immune deposits. Immunoglobulins and complements, the main components of the deposits, can be detected by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. Previous researches characterized the immune deposits only individually, but not the interactions between them. To study these relationships we analyzed an IF profile of IgG subclasses and complements (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, C3, C1q, and C4) in 53 and 95 cases of biopsy-confirmed MLNs and IMNs, respectively, mainly using information theory and Bayesian networks. We identified significant entropy differences between MLN and IMN for all markers except C3 and IgG1, but mutual information (a measure of mutual dependence) were not significantly different for all the pairs of markers. The entropy differences between MLN and IMN, therefore, were not attributable to the mutual information. These findings suggest that disease type directly and/or indirectly influences the glomerular deposits of most of IgG subclasses and complements, and that the interactions between any pair of the markers were similar between the two diseases. A Markov chain of IgG subclasses was derived from the mutual information about each pair of IgG subclass. Finally we developed an integrated disease model, consistent with the previous findings, describing the glomerular immune deposits of the IgG subclasses and complements based on a Bayesian network using the Markov chain of IgG subclasses as seed. The relationships between the markers were effectively explored by information theory and Bayesian network. Although deposits of IgG subclasses and complements depended on both disease type and the other markers, the interaction between the markers appears conserved, independent from the disease type. The disease model provided an integrated and intuitive representation of the

  10. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4 Subclass Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old Caucasian woman with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Her medical history included immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis. A diagnostic work-up after the meningitis episode...... revealed that she had low levels of the IgG4 subclass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a possible association between autoimmune hepatitis and the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis, describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis...... and deficiency of the IgG4 subclass and finally describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine....

  11. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4 Subclass Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old Caucasian woman with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Her medical history included immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis. A diagnostic work-up after the meningitis episode re...... and deficiency of the IgG4 subclass and finally describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine....... revealed that she had low levels of the IgG4 subclass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a possible association between autoimmune hepatitis and the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis, describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis...

  12. Core Gene Set As the Basis of Multilocus Sequence Analysis of the Subclass Actinobacteridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adékambi, Toïdi; Butler, Ray W.; Hanrahan, Finnian; Delcher, Arthur L.; Drancourt, Michel; Shinnick, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomic sequencing is shedding new light on bacterial identification, taxonomy and phylogeny. An in silico assessment of a core gene set necessary for cellular functioning was made to determine a consensus set of genes that would be useful for the identification, taxonomy and phylogeny of the species belonging to the subclass Actinobacteridae which contained two orders Actinomycetales and Bifidobacteriales. The subclass Actinobacteridae comprised about 85% of the actinobacteria families. The following recommended criteria were used to establish a comprehensive gene set; the gene should (i) be long enough to contain phylogenetically useful information, (ii) not be subject to horizontal gene transfer, (iii) be a single copy (iv) have at least two regions sufficiently conserved that allow the design of amplification and sequencing primers and (v) predict whole-genome relationships. We applied these constraints to 50 different Actinobacteridae genomes and made 1,224 pairwise comparisons of the genome conserved regions and gene fragments obtained by using Sequence VARiability Analysis Program (SVARAP), which allow designing the primers. Following a comparative statistical modeling phase, 3 gene fragments were selected, ychF, rpoB, and secY with R2>0.85. Selected sets of broad range primers were tested from the 3 gene fragments and were demonstrated to be useful for amplification and sequencing of 25 species belonging to 9 genera of Actinobacteridae. The intraspecies similarities were 96.3–100% for ychF, 97.8–100% for rpoB and 96.9–100% for secY among 73 strains belonging to 15 species of the subclass Actinobacteridae compare to 99.4–100% for 16S rRNA. The phylogenetic topology obtained from the combined datasets ychF+rpoB+secY was globally similar to that inferred from the 16S rRNA but with higher confidence. It was concluded that multi-locus sequence analysis using core gene set might represent the first consensus and valid approach for

  13. Diel horizontal distribution of microcrustaceans and predators throughout a year in a shallow neotropical lake Distribuição horizontal de microcrustáceos e predadores ao longo do ano em um lago neotropical

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    MS. Arcifa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to investigate if microcrustaceans undergo diel horizontal migration (DHM in a tropical shallow lake on a yearly basis and analyse the adaptive value regarding predation. Abundance of invertebrate predators, chaoborid larvae and water mites, and microcrustaceans (cladocerans and copepods were evaluated on a monthly basis in three stations located on a transect during the day and at night. Both invertebrate predators were predominantly pelagic. Cladocerans did not undergo significant DHM, distributing indistinctly onshore and offshore or being mostly pelagic. Nauplii, copepodites of two copepod species and adults of Tropocyclops prasinus meridionalis Kiefer were mostly distributed offshore, and did not perform DHM. The limnological features (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity were suitable for the organisms in both zones of the lake. Algal food concentration was a little lower in the littoral than in the limnetic zone during the day, but it seems to be suitable for the organisms. However, as the algae quality was not evaluated, it is not possible to be conclusive concerning its influence. The results indicated that DHM was not performed by the microcrustaceans and is not, therefore, a strategy for decreasing predation by both invertebrates, Chaoborus brasiliensis Theobald and Krendowskia sp., on a yearly basis in this shallow lake.O foco deste estudo é verificar se microcrustáceos apresentam migração horizontal diária (MHD em um lago raso tropical, durante um ano, e o valor adaptativo com relação à predação. A abundância de predadores invertebrados, larvas de caoborídeos e ácaros aquáticos, e de cladóceros e copépodos foi avaliada mensalmente em três estações de coleta localizadas em um transecto, de dia e à noite. Ambos os predadores invertebrados foram predominantemente pelágicos. Os cladóceros não realizaram MHD, distribuindo-se indistintamente nas zonas litorânea e pel

  14. IgG subclass distribution of autoantibodies differs between renal and extra-renal relapses in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, M.; Dijstelbloem, H. M.; Oost, W. W.; Bootsma, H.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; Aten, J.; Limburg, P. C.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Background. IgG subclasses of autoantibodies differ in their potential to induce an inflammatory response as they interact differentially with complement and Fcgamma receptors. Methods. The IgG subclass distribution of anti-nucleohistone and anti-dsDNA antibodies was analysed longitudinally in

  15. Kinetics of dengue virus-specific serum immunoglobulin classes and subclasses correlate with clinical outcome of infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Koraka (Penelope); C. Suharti (Catarina); T.E. Setiati (Tatty); A.T.A. Mairuhu; E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); C.E. Hack (Erik); M. Juffrie; J. Sutaryo; G.M. van der Meer; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe kinetics of dengue virus (DEN)-specific serum immunoglobulin classes (immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgA) and subclasses (IgG1 to IgG4) were studied in patients suffering from dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Serum samples from non-DEN

  16. Rituximab impairs immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG (subclass) responses after influenza vaccination in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, J.; van Assen, S.; Wilting, K. R.; Land, J.; Horst, G.; de Haan, A.; Bijl, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX) treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients severely hampers humoral response after influenza vaccination as determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). It is not known whether HI reflects both immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG (subclass) influenza response, and whether IgM

  17. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the ...

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein subclasses in patients with acute coronary syndrome

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    Ying TAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To assess the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3 in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and to elucidate whether incapacitation of HDL subclasses occurred in ACS patients. Methods  Forty ACS patients hospitalized in Nanfang Hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2012 (ACS group, and 40 subjects simultaneously receiving health examination (control group were enrolled in present study. Plasma lipid and hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels, HDL subclasses inflammatory index (HII, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels in both groups were measured. Results  The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hs-CRP levels were higher in ACS group than in control group (P0.05. Conclusions  The incapacitation of HDL subclasses may occur in ACS patients, with an attenuated antioxidant ability and accentuated proinflammatory function. Mature HDL2 possesses better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant function than HDL3, thus playing a better cardioprotective effect.

  19. The Challenge of Immunoglobulin-G Subclass Deficiency and Specific Polysaccharide Antibody Deficiency--a Dutch Pediatric Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatorjé, Ellen J H; de Jong, Everieke; van Hout, Roeland W N M; García Vivas, Yumely; de Vries, Esther

    PURPOSE: Immunoglobulin(Ig)G-subclass deficiency and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD) are among the most frequent causes of recurrent respiratory infections in children. Little is known about their prevalence, clinical presentation and prognosis. No study has been published in a

  20. The challenge of Immunoglobulin-G Subclass Deficiency and Specific Polysaccharide Antibody Deficiency : A Dutch pediatric cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatorjé, E.J.H.; de Jong, E.; van Hout, R.; García Vivas, Y.; de Vries, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Immunoglobulin(Ig)G-subclass deficiency and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD) are among the most frequent causes of recurrent respiratory infections in children. Little is known about their prevalence, clinical presentation and prognosis. No study has been published in a

  1. Antimitochondrial antibodies of immunoglobulin G3 subclass are associated with a more severe disease course in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Davies, Edward T; Bogdanos, Dimitrios-Petrou; Liaskos, Christos; Mytilinaiou, Maria; Koukoulis, George K; Dalekos, George N; Vergani, Diego

    2007-11-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterised by the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), which are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) using composite rodent tissue substrate. The IgG subclass distribution and clinical significance of IFL-detected AMA in patients with PBC have not been previously studied in detail. We have examined IgG subclass-specific AMA detected by IFL on rodent liver, kidney and stomach tissue substrate using affinity-purified IgG subclass monospecific antisera as revealing reagents in 95 AMA-positive PBC patients from Greece. AMA of any of the IgG1, IgG2 or IgG3 subclasses were present in 89/95 (93.7%) patients. Among those 89, 55 (61.8%) had IgG1, 2, 3 AMA positivity; eight (9%) had IgG1, 2; seven (7.9%) had IgG2, 3; eight (9%) had IgG1, 3; nine (10.1%) had IgG1 subclass and two (2.2%) single IgG3 AMA reactivity. IgG4 AMA was absent. IgG3 titres were higher than IgG2 and IgG1 (P<0.001) and IgG1 higher than IgG2 (P<0.001). IgG3 AMA-positive patients had a histologically more advanced disease (P<0.01) and were more frequently cirrhotic compared with those who were negative (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between AMA IgG3 titre and Mayo risk score (r=0.55, P=0.009, Spearman's correlation). Our findings suggest that AMA are not restricted to a specific IgG subclass. AMA of the IgG3 subclass are associated with a more severe disease course, possibly reflecting the peculiar ability of this isotype to engage mediators of damage.

  2. Sex differences in the associations of visceral adiposity, HOMA-IR, and BMI with lipoprotein subclass analysis in obese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch-Stein, Jacquelyn A; Kelly, Andrea; Gidding, Samuel S; Zemel, Babette S; Magge, Sheela N

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship of lipoprotein particle subclasses to visceral adipose tissue area (VAT-area) in obese children has not been examined previously. Objectives The study aims were to compare the relationships of VAT-area, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index (BMI) with lipids and lipoprotein subclasses in obese adolescents, and to determine if these relationships vary by sex. Methods This cross-sectional study of obese adolescents (BMI≥95th percentile), ages 12-18y, measured VAT-area by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BMI, fasting lipids, lipoprotein subclasses, and HOMA-IR. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of VAT-area, HOMA-IR, and BMI with lipid cardiometabolic risk factors. Sex-stratified analyses further explored these associations. Results Included were 127 adolescents (age=14.4±1.5 years; 53.5% female; 88.2% African-American), mean BMI=34.0±5.1 kg/m2. VAT-area was negatively associated with LDL particle (−P) size (β=−0.28, p=0.0001), HDL-P size (β=−0.33, p<0.0001) and large HDL-P concentration (β=−0.29, p<0.0001), and positively associated with small LDL-P concentration (β=0.23, p=0.0005) and small HDL-P concentration (β=0.25, p=0.05). When VAT-area, HOMA-IR, and BMI associations were compared, VAT-area had the strongest associations with most of the lipoprotein subclasses. After sex-stratification, the associations of VAT-area with HDL cholesterol, LDL-P size, and large LDL-P concentration were significant only for females (all p<0.05). Conclusions In a cohort of largely African-American obese adolescents, VAT-area was associated with a more atherogenic lipoprotein subclass profile. When compared to HOMA-IR and BMI, VAT-area had the strongest associations with most lipoprotein subclasses. The relationships between VAT-area and certain lipoprotein subclasses are significantly different in males versus females. PMID:27578105

  3. Effects of lipid-lowering drugs on high-density lipoprotein subclasses in healthy men-a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner K Berthold

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Investigating the effects of lipid-lowering drugs on HDL subclasses has shown ambiguous results. This study assessed the effects of ezetimibe, simvastatin, and their combination on HDL subclass distribution. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A single-center randomized parallel 3-group open-label study was performed in 72 healthy men free of cardiovascular disease with a baseline LDL-cholesterol of 111±30 mg/dl (2.9±0.8 mmol/l and a baseline HDL-cholesterol of 64±15 mg/dl (1.7±0.4 mmol/l. They were treated with ezetimibe (10 mg/day, n = 24, simvastatin (40 mg/day, n = 24 or their combination (n = 24 for 14 days. Blood was drawn before and after the treatment period. HDL subclasses were determined using polyacrylamide gel-tube electrophoresis. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the influence of treatment and covariates on changes in HDL subclass composition. RESULTS: Baseline HDL subclasses consisted of 33±10% large, 48±6% intermediate and 19±8% small HDL. After adjusting for baseline HDL subclass distribution, body mass index, LDL-C and the ratio triglycerides/HDL-C, there was a significant increase in large HDL by about 3.9 percentage points (P<0.05 and a decrease in intermediate HDL by about 3.5 percentage points (P<0.01 in both simvastatin-containing treatment arms in comparison to ezetimibe. The parameters obtained after additional adjustment for the decrease in LDL-C indicated that about one third to one half of these effects could be explained by the extent of LDL-C-lowering. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy men, treatment with simvastatin leads to favorable effects on HDL subclass composition, which was not be observed with ezetimibe. Part of these differential effects may be due to the stronger LDL-C-lowering effects of simvastatin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00317993.

  4. Temporal variation in HIV-specific IgG subclass Abs during acute infection differentiates spontaneous controllers from chronic progressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanand, Saheli; Das, Jishnu; Chung, Amy W; Schoen, Matthew K; Lane, Sophie; Suscovich, Todd J; Streeck, Hendrik; Smith, Davey; Little, Susan; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Richman, Douglas; Alter, Galit

    2017-12-12

    Given the emerging appreciation for the role of antibody-dependent effector functions and IgG subclass distribution among spontaneous controllers of HIV, we sought to determine whether antibody-associated features diverged in early HIV infection between subjects who ultimately became controllers versus those who became progressors. IgG was purified from plasma from nine acutely infected subjects who subsequently controlled HIV spontaneously (controllers) and ten acutely infected individuals who did not control viremia (progressors). Antibody profiles were compared at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48 post-infection. Levels of clade B gp120-, gp140-and gp41-specific IgG antibody subclasses were measured. Additionally, gp120-specific antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), rapid fluorescent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC), and antibody-dependent cellular viral inhibition (ADCVI) were all assessed. While no single Ab-related measurement was significantly associated with long-term HIV control, combinations of Ab-associated variables were able to accurately differentiate controllers and progressors. In contrast to controllers, progressors showed greater dynamic changes in gp120-specific subclass selection profiles, with increasing levels of Env-specific IgG2 Abs and losses in Env-specific IgG3 Abs. Moreover, progressors, but not controllers, lost ADCVI function over time. Together, these results highlight changes in IgG subclass selection profiles in progressive, but not controlled, HIV infection. This study suggests that the temporal variation and maintenance of Env-specific IgG subclasses during acute HIV infection are predictive of eventual disease control. The maintenance of gp120-specific and gp140-specific IgG3 may contribute to control of disease in spontaneous controllers. Thus, strategies to induce stable IgG3 responses may preserve control of the viral reservoir.

  5. A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae) from the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in Korean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seong Yong; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Doo Nam

    2015-10-01

    A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae), parasitic in the branchial cavities of the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Korea is described. The new species is most closely related to A. tangi Venmathi Maran, Moon & Adday, 2014, but differs from it by the following combination of characters in the adult female: the U-shaped rostrum, the distal margin of the anal somite lacks patches of spinules, the proximal segment of the maxilliped is without seta, and the maxilliped claw is armed with long and small naked setae. This is the tenth species of the genus and a key is provided to distinguish all nominal species.

  6. Sublittoral Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda from the Magellan Straits and the Beagle Channel (Chile. Preliminary results of abundance and generic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Horst George

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of meiofauna were collected with a Multicorer during the Magellan `Victor Hensen´ Campaign of RV `Victor Hensen´ in 1994 at 62 stations along the Magellan Straits and the Beagle Channel. Seventeen samples were analysed in the framework of a larger project. Only 69 species of Harpacticoida are known from Chile so far, all of them inhabiting the littoral zone. The Magellan Campaign of RV `Victor Hensen´ provided the first opportunity to obtain sublittoral samples of meiobenthos of Chilean coasts. In these samples the Copepoda were represented by 4 of its orders: Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Poecilostomatoida and Harpacticoida, the latter exhibiting the highest abundances. Representatives of 19 harpacticoid families (6 of which are new for Chilean waters were identified in the samples. The species found in 15 of these families belong to 28 genera of which 18 are new to the Chilean fauna. With respect to taxa composition and distribution, the following preliminary results can be presented: the number of new families and new genera for the southern tip of South America increased considerably; a relatively high similarity between the Magellan Straits/Beagle Channel and areas of corresponding northern latitudes can be observed; the Magellan Straits and Beagle Channel show considerable differences with respect to taxa composition and diversity of the harpacticoid fauna.

  7. Sublittoral and bathyal Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda of the Magellan region. Composition, distribution and species diversity of selected major taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Horst George

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Two expeditions, undertaken in 1994 and 1996, provided quantitatively sampled material of sublittoral and bathyal meiobenthos from the Paso Ancho of the Straits of Magellan, the Beagle Channel, and the Patagonian continental slope (Chile. To investigate whether these distinct geographic areas might also be characterised by different harpacticoid assemblages, qualitative and quantitative analyses of Copepoda Harpacticoida were carried out. At supraspecific level 25 harpacticoid families were found, as well as several species that could not yet be assigned to any major harpacticoid taxon. Due to the high amount of collected Harpacticoida, detailed investigations at species level had to be restricted to six taxa, namely the Ancorabolidae, Argestidae, Cletodidae, Diosaccinae, Paramesochridae, and Paranannopinae. The corresponding specimens were assigned to 122 species in 52 genera. More than 80% of them are new to science. Qualitative comparisons of both species composition and species distribution allow the three areas to be distinguished in terms of species richness. However, statistical analyses confirm these results only partly. Similarity analyses applying non-metrical multidimensional scaling, as well as diversity analyses using the rarefaction method, suggest that the observed differences in distribution and diversity patterns are due to small-scale, local conditions, which may overlay possible large-scale ones.

  8. A new species of Wellsopsyllus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae) from the deep Southern Ocean and remarks on its biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, Johanna; Kihara, Terue Cristina; Glatzel, Thomas; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2013-03-01

    The new deep-sea copepod species of the family Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) presented here was collected during the scientific ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity cruise II (ANDEEP II) to the Weddell Abyssal Plain and western Weddell Sea and the CROZet natural iron bloom and EXport experiment (CROZEX cruise) to the Crozet Isles in the Indian Ocean. The new species has been allocated to the subgenus Wellsopsyllus within the genus Wellsopsyllus Kunz, 1981, based on the 1-segmented endopods and 3-segmented exopods of swimming legs 2-4. Furthermore, the new species shows a 1-segmented exopod of the antenna. Wellsopsyllus ( W.) antarcticus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by its small body size, the presence of two setae on the distal segment of the endopod of the first swimming leg, by the very small furcal rami, the extremely reduced endopods of second and third swimming legs, the reduced mandibular palp and maxillula, as well as by the size and armature of the fifth and sixth swimming legs in both sexes. Difficulties of the placement of the new species into a suitable genus show an insufficiency in the present family classification. In the future, a revision of the genus Wellsopsyllus is essential. With its presence in the western Weddell Sea and the Indian Ocean, the new species may have a wide distribution range. Furthermore, it is the first abyssal species of the genus Wellsopsyllus sampled outside of the Scotia Sea.

  9. Chronic rhinosinusitis and recurrent nasal polyps in two children with IgG subclass deficiency and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Tunsuriyawong, Prayuth; Vichyanond, Pakit; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Luangwedchakarn, Voravich; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2005-11-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of mucosa of the nose and the paranasal sinuses. Two major forms of CRS can be differentiated; CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). The pathophysiology and etiology of nasal polyps (NPs) are partly understood. IgG subclass deficiency was shown to be associated with an increased susceptibility to infections. However the association between NPs and IgG subclass deficiency has never been reported. To report two cases of recalcitrant CRS and recurrent NPs with IgG subclass deficiency. Two children (6 and 8 year-old boys) were referred to the Pediatric Allergy/Immunology Clinic, Siriraj Hospital due to a prolonged history of CRS and recurrent NPs. Both of them were treated with aggressive medical (topical and systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, leukotriene antagonist, nasal irrigation) as well as surgical therapy, without significant improvement. Immunologic investigation in both patients showed that IgG, IgA, and IgM level were normal. IgG subclasses level in patient No. 1 were IgG1 1,235 (280-1120) mg/dl (79%), IgG2 235 (30-630) mg/dl (23.5%), IgG3 27.3 (40-250) mg/dl (1.74%), and IgG4 92.4 (11-620) mg/dl (5.9%). IgG subclasses level in patient No. 2 were IgG1 1,139 (280-1120) mg/dl (82.5%), IgG2 170 (30-630) mg/dl (12.3%), IgG3 5.6 (40-250) mg/dl (0.4%), IgG4 65.7 (11-620) mg/dl (4.8%). The diagnosis of CRS and recurrent NPs with IgG3 subclass deficiency in the first patient and IgG2/IgG3 subclass deficiency in the second patient were made. Patient No. 1 was given monthly IVIG therapy for the total of 7 courses and medications were gradually tapered. Currently, the patient is doing well after the cessation of IVIG therapy for 3 months. Patient No. 2 denied the IVIG treatment and was lost to follow up. We reported two cases of recalcitrant CRS and recurrent NPs in children. Immunologic work up revealed IgG subclass deficiency. The treatment with monthly IVIG improved

  10. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  11. Classification of a Subclass of Two-Dimensional Lattices via Characteristic Lie Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullin, Ismagil; Poptsova, Mariya

    2017-09-01

    The main goal of the article is testing a new classification algorithm. To this end we apply it to a relevant problem of describing the integrable cases of a subclass of two-dimensional lattices. By imposing the cut-off conditions u_{-1}=c_0 and u_{N+1}=c_1 we reduce the lattice u_{n,xy}=α(u_{n+1},u_n,u_{n-1})u_{n,x}u_{n,y} to a finite system of hyperbolic type PDE. Assuming that for each natural N the obtained system is integrable in the sense of Darboux we look for α. To detect the Darboux integrability of the hyperbolic type system we use an algebraic criterion of Darboux integrability which claims that the characteristic Lie rings of such a system must be of finite dimension. We prove that up to the point transformations only one lattice in the studied class passes the test. The lattice coincides with the earlier found Ferapontov-Shabat-Yamilov equation. The one-dimensional reduction x=y of this lattice passes also the symmetry integrability test.

  12. Synthesis of some members of the hydroxylated phenanthridone subclass of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwa, Albert; Zhang, Hongjun

    2007-03-30

    The total synthesis of several members of the hydroxylated phenanthridone subclass of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid family has been carried out. (+/-)-Lycoricidine and (+/-)-7-deoxypancratistatin were assembled through a one-pot Stille/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade to construct the core skeleton. The initially formed [4+2]-cycloadduct undergoes nitrogen-assisted ring opening followed by a deprotonation/reprotonation of the resulting zwitterion to give a rearranged hexahydroindolinone on further heating at 160 degrees C. The stereochemical outcome of the IMDAF cycloaddition has the side arm of the tethered vinyl group oriented exo with respect to the oxygen bridge. The resulting cycloadduct was used for the stereocontrolled installation of the remaining functionality present in the C-ring of the target molecules. Key features of the synthetic strategy include (1) a lithium hydroxide induced tandem hydrolysis/decarboxylation/elimination sequence to introduce the required pi-bond in the C-ring of (+/-)-lycoricidine, and (2) conversion of the initially formed Diels-Alder adduct into an aldehyde intermediate which then undergoes a stereospecific decarbonylation reaction mediated by Wilkinson's catalyst to set the trans-B-C ring junction of (+/-)-7-deoxypancratistatin.

  13. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  14. Fractal analysis reveals subclasses of neurons and suggests an explanation of their spontaneous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela, Luis H; Coey, Charles A; Griff, Edwin R; Richardson, Michael J

    2016-07-28

    The present work used fractal time series analysis (detrended fluctuation analysis; DFA) to examine the spontaneous activity of single neurons in an anesthetized animal model, specifically, the mitral cells in the rat main olfactory bulb. DFA bolstered previous research in suggesting two subclasses of mitral cells. Although there was no difference in the fractal scaling of the interspike interval series at the shorter timescales, there was a significant difference at longer timescales. Neurons in Group B exhibited fractal, power-law scaled interspike intervals, whereas neurons in Group A exhibited random variation. These results raise questions about the role of these different cells within the olfactory bulb and potential explanations of their dynamics. Specifically, self-organized criticality has been proposed as an explanation of fractal scaling in many natural systems, including neural systems. However, this theory is based on certain assumptions that do not clearly hold in the case of spontaneous neural activity, which likely reflects intrinsic cell dynamics rather than activity driven by external stimulation. Moreover, it is unclear how self-organized criticality might account for the random dynamics observed in Group A, and how these random dynamics might serve some functional role when embedded in the typical activity of the olfactory bulb. These theoretical considerations provide direction for additional experimental work. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4 Subclass Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old Caucasian woman with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Her medical history included immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis. A diagnostic work-up after the meningitis episode revealed that she had low levels of the IgG4 subclass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a possible association between autoimmune hepatitis and the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis, describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and deficiency of the IgG4 subclass and finally describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine.

  16. A new subclass of intrinsic aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases, ANT(3")-II, is horizontally transferred among Acinetobacter spp. by homologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Leclercq, Sébastien Olivier; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Chao; Ai, Guomin; Liu, Shuangjiang

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter spp. have been investigated extensively. Most studies focused on the multiple antibiotic resistance genes located on plasmids or genomic resistance islands. On the other hand, the mechanisms controlling intrinsic resistance are still not well understood. In this study, we identified the novel subclass of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase ANT(3")-II in Acinetobacter spp., which comprised numerous variants distributed among three main clades. All members of this subclass can inactivate streptomycin and spectinomycin. The three ant(3")-II genes, encoding for the three ANT(3")-II clades, are widely distributed in the genus Acinetobacter and always located in the same conserved genomic region. According to their prevalence, these genes are intrinsic in Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii, and Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. We also demonstrated that the ant(3")-II genes are located in a homologous recombination hotspot and were recurrently transferred among Acinetobacter species. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a novel mechanism of natural resistance in Acinetobacter spp., identified a novel subclass of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase and provided new insight into the evolutionary history of intrinsic resistance genes. PMID:28152054

  17. A new subclass of intrinsic aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases, ANT(3")-II, is horizontally transferred among Acinetobacter spp. by homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Leclercq, Sébastien Olivier; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Chao; Yahara, Koji; Ai, Guomin; Liu, Shuangjiang; Feng, Jie

    2017-02-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter spp. have been investigated extensively. Most studies focused on the multiple antibiotic resistance genes located on plasmids or genomic resistance islands. On the other hand, the mechanisms controlling intrinsic resistance are still not well understood. In this study, we identified the novel subclass of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase ANT(3")-II in Acinetobacter spp., which comprised numerous variants distributed among three main clades. All members of this subclass can inactivate streptomycin and spectinomycin. The three ant(3")-II genes, encoding for the three ANT(3")-II clades, are widely distributed in the genus Acinetobacter and always located in the same conserved genomic region. According to their prevalence, these genes are intrinsic in Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii, and Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. We also demonstrated that the ant(3")-II genes are located in a homologous recombination hotspot and were recurrently transferred among Acinetobacter species. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a novel mechanism of natural resistance in Acinetobacter spp., identified a novel subclass of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase and provided new insight into the evolutionary history of intrinsic resistance genes.

  18. [Multicenter study of commercial kits for the determination of human IgG subclasses, using the ELISA technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontet, F; Pressac, M; Musset, L; Tapon-Bretaudière, J; Jehl, C; Cailliez, M; Bienvenu, F

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated two commercially available sandwich type Elisa procedures for the measurement of IgG subclasses in human serum. Assay kits from The Binding Site and the Central Laboratory of the Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service were tested in six laboratories. The performance of spectrophotometers, pipettes and dilutors were assessed at each center. Within-run precision was estimated according to the Valtec method (Société Française de Biologie Clinique). The overall coefficient of variation ranged from 4 to 50% depending on subclass and kit. We also evaluated the IgG2 and IgG4 specificity using four sera containing a monoclonal IgG2 or IgG4 (kappa or lambda type). Using total IgG and immunoelectrophoresis as a comparative technique, IgG2 kappa and IgG4 kappa were both underestimated, IgG2 lambda was overestimated while IgG4 lambda compared favorably. Polyclonal IgG subclasses were frequently overestimated in these sera suggesting cross-reactions with either monoclonal IgG or other polyclonal IgG. Antigen excess was investigated and not encountered with either kit. Our results demonstrate that these procedures are insufficiently accurate or precise for routine clinical use.

  19. Monocyte Recruitment by HLA IgG‐Activated Endothelium: The Relationship Between IgG Subclass and FcγRIIa Polymorphisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela, N. M; Trinh, K. R; Mulder, A; Morrison, S. L; Reed, E. F

    2015-01-01

    ...RIIa polymorphisms, the authors show the ability of different human IgG subclasses to cause endothelial activation and recruitment of monocytes, and evaluate therapeutic potential of IgG with two...

  20. Affinity separation of immunoglobulin G subclasses on dye attached poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Handan; Akgöl, Sinan; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2006-11-15

    Poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate) [poly(HPMA)] gel beads with an average size of 150-200 micro m were prepared by suspension polymerization of hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). The poly(HPMA) gel beads were characterized by swelling studies, surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis. Poly(HPMA) gel beads had a specific surface area of 88.6 m(2)/g. The dye Reactive Green HE 4BD was chemically attached to yield dye-poly(HPMA) gel beads at an average concentration of 44.3 micro mol dye/g bead with a swelling ratio of 75%. These dye attached gel beads were used in the separation of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) through adsorption-elution studies. The non-specific adsorption of IgG on the poly(HPMA) gel beads was 0.5 mg/g. The attachment of Reactive Green HE 4BD significantly increased the adsorption of IgG up to 71 mg/g. The Langmuir adsorption model was found to be applicable in interpretation of data pertaining to the adsorption studies of IgG with Reactive Green HE 4BD attached to the poly(HPMA) gel beads. The adsorption of IgG was found to be optimal at pH 7.0. The adsorption of IgG was observed to decrease by about 76% as the NaCl concentration was increased from 0.001 to 0.1 M. The IgG adsorption capacity of the dye attached poly(HPMA) gel beads was determined for a commercially available IgG solution to be 4.2 mg/g for IgG(1), 64.5 mg/g for IgG(2), 7.1 mg/g for IgG(3) and 10.8 mg/g for IgG(4). The Reactive Green HE 4BD attached poly(HPMA) gel beads have a significant adsorption capacity for IgG(2). The quantity of adsorbed IgG(2) is three times higher than the quantity of the other subclasses, IgG(1), IgG(3) and IgG(4). A similar adsorption behaviour was observed when the albumin free human plasma was used. The quantity of adsorbed IgG(2) is higher than the quantity of the other subclasses, IgG(1), IgG(3) and IgG(4). Adsorption capacities for albumin free human plasma were obtained as 6.4 mg/g for IgG(1), 67.8 mg/g for IgG(2

  1. Differential effects of calcium antagonist subclasses on markers of nephropathy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George L; Weir, Matthew R; Secic, Michelle; Campbell, Brett; Weis-McNulty, Annette

    2004-06-01

    Numerous studies suggest that the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (DCAs) and nondihydropyridine calcium antagonists (NDCAs) have differential antiproteinuric effects. Proteinuria reduction is a correlate of the progression of renal disease. In an earlier systematic review, calcium antagonists were shown as effective antihypertensive drugs, but there was uncertainty about their renal benefits in patients with proteinuria and renal insufficiency. A systematic review was conducted to assess the differential effects of DCAs and NDCAs on proteinuria in hypertensive adults with proteinuria, with or without diabetes, and to determine whether these differential effects translate into altered progression of nephropathy. Studies included in the review had to be randomized clinical trials with at least 6 months of treatment, include a DCA or NDCA treatment arm, have one or more renal end points, and have been initiated after 1986. Summary data were extracted from 28 studies entered into two identical but separate databases, which were compared and evaluated by independent reviewers. The effects of each drug class on blood pressure (N= 1338) and proteinuria (N= 510) were assessed. After adjusting for sample size, study length, and baseline value, there were no statistically significant differences in the ability of either class of calcium antagonist to decrease blood pressure. The mean change in proteinuria was +2% for DCAs and -30% for NDCAs (95% CI, 10% to 54%, P= 0.01). Consistently greater reductions in proteinuria were associated with the use of NDCAs compared with DCAs, despite no significant differences in blood pressure reduction or presence of diabetes. This analysis supports (1) similar efficacy between subclasses of calcium antagonists to lower blood pressure, and (2) greater reductions in proteinuria by NDCAs compared to DCAs in the presence or absence of diabetes. Based on these findings, NDCAs, alone or in combination with an angiotensin-converting enzyme

  2. Rotavirus-specific subclass antibody and cytokine responses in Bangladeshi children with rotavirus diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Tasnim; Zaki, M Hasan; Podder, Goutam; Sultana, Novera; Salam, M Abdus; Rahman, S Moshfiqur; Sefat-e-Khuda; Sack, David A

    2003-02-01

    Rotavirus-specific subclass antibody responses and cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and IL-10, were measured in children 7-24 months of age with rotavirus diarrhoea (n = 29); the responses were compared with children with watery diarrhoea from whom no enteric pathogens were isolated (controls; n = 11). All children had diarrhoea for or = 4-fold rise in antibody titre between the acute and convalescent stages were considered to have a response. The numbers of children with rotavirus-specific IgA and IgA1 responses in stool were similar in the two groups of children. In the plasma, more children with rotavirus diarrhoea had rotavirus-specific IgA, IgA1, IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 responses than did control children (P = 0.049, 0.007, 0.001, 0.002, and 0.012, respectively). IgA2 was not detectable. Among cytokines measured in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultured for 6 and 24 hr, IFN-gamma was the only cytokine that was higher in children with rotavirus diarrhoea compared with controls (P = 0.013). Severity of illness did not correlate with nutritional status or antibody titres, but severity did correlate with TNF-alpha during the acute stage of illness. IFN-gamma correlated positively with IgG1 titres. These findings suggest a role for IFN-gamma in the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection, but this needs confirmation by other studies. The immune responses described are relevant to future vaccine trials, as immune responses in vaccinees should mimic those in natural infection.

  3. Effects of Immunoglobulin Replacement on Asthma Exacerbation in Adult Asthmatics with IgG Subclass Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Hee; Ye, Young Min; Ban, Ga Young; Shin, Yoo Seob; Lee, Hyun Young; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Soo Keol; Cho, You Sook; Jang, Seung Hun; Jung, Ki Suck; Park, Hae Sim

    2017-11-01

    Recurrent respiratory tract infection is a common manifestation of primary immunodeficiency disease, and respiratory viruses or bacteria are important triggers of asthma exacerbations. Asthma often coexists with humoral immunodeficiency in adults, and some asthmatics with immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSCD) suffer from recurrent exacerbations. Although some studies suggest a benefit from Ig replacement, others have failed to support its use. This study aimed to assess the effect of Ig replacement on asthma exacerbation caused by respiratory infection as well as the asthma control status of adult asthmatics with IgGSCD. This is a multi-center, open-label study of adult asthmatics with IgGSCD. All patients received monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for 6 months and were evaluated regarding asthma exacerbation related to infection, asthma control status, quality of life, and lung function before and after IVIG infusion. A total of 30 patients were enrolled, and 24 completed the study. Most of the patients had a moderate degree of asthma severity with partly (52%) or uncontrolled (41%) status at baseline. IVIG significantly reduced the proportion of patients with asthma exacerbations, lowered the number of respiratory infections, and improved asthma control status, compared to the baseline values (P<0.001). The mean asthma-specific quality of life and asthma control test scores were improved significantly (P=0.009 and P=0.053, respectively); however, there were no significant changes in lung function. IVIG reduced the frequency of asthma exacerbations and improved asthma control status in adult asthmatics with IgGSCD, suggesting that IVIG could be an effective treatment option in this population.

  4. Integrative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Common Molecular Subclasses of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Yujin; Nijman, Sebastian M.B.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Chan, Jennifer A.; Brunet, Jean-Philippe; Chiang, Derek Y.; Villanueva, Augusto; Newell, Philippa; Ikeda, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masaji; Watanabe, Goro; Gabriel, Stacey; Friedman, Scott L.; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Llovet, Josep M.; Golub, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, and prior attempts to develop genomics-based classification for HCC have yielded highly divergent results, indicating difficulty to identify unified molecular anatomy. We performed a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles in datasets from 8 independent patient cohorts across the world. In addition, aiming to establish the real world applicability of a classification system, we profiled 118 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from an additional patient cohort. A total of 603 patients were analyzed, representing the major etiologies of HCC (hepatitis B and C) collected from Western and Eastern countries. We observed 3 robust HCC subclasses (termed S1, S2, and S3), each correlated with clinical parameters such as tumor size, extent of cellular differentiation, and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. An analysis of the components of the signatures indicated that S1 reflected aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway, S2 was characterized by proliferation as well as MYC and AKT activation, and S3 was associated with hepatocyte differentiation. Functional studies indicated that the WNT pathway activation signature characteristic of S1 tumors was not simply the result of beta-catenin mutation, but rather was the result of TGF-beta activation, thus representing a new mechanism of WNT pathway activation in HCC. These experiments establish the first consensus classification framework for HCC based on gene-expression profiles, and highlight the power of integrating of multiple datasets to define a robust molecular taxonomy of the disease. PMID:19723656

  5. Increases in serum immunoglobulins to age-related normal levels in children with IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutukculer, Necil; Karaca, Neslihan Edeer; Demircioglu, Ozlem; Aksu, Guzide

    2007-03-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) A and G subclass deficiencies are common immune system disorders which cause morbidity especially between 2 and 6 yr of age. Prognosis of these defects and therapeutic approach is unclear. The aim of the present retrospective study was to review the clinical and laboratory records of 87 children with IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency to determine whether these patients experience changes in serum Ig concentrations during follow-up and to give more clinic and laboratory information to the families about the course of these diseases. Among 87 patients studied, the most frequent defect was partial IgA deficiency combined with IgG3 subclass deficiency (41%). The other groups were as follows; partial IgA deficiency (32%), selective IgA deficiency (8%), partial IgA combined with IgG2-G4 subclass deficiency (6%), and IgG subclass deficiency (13%). The commonest clinical presentations were recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (76%), pneumonia (14%), acute gastroenteritis (3%), urinary tractus infection (3%), sinusitis (2%), and acute otitis media (2%). Atopy was widely represented in the patients studied (24%). The number of patients who were given prophylactic treatment with benzathine penicilline, prophylactic oral antibiotic, or oral bacterial extract to prevent infections was 68 (78%). Frequency of recurrent infections decreased from 7.9 +/- 4.9 per year to 2.5 +/- 2.3 in 68 patients receiving any prophylactic regimen; however, decrease in frequency of infections did not show any significant difference between different prophylactic groups. None of the patients in the selective IgA deficiency group had reached normal serum levels of IgA. At the age of 58.3 +/- 21.4 months, 52% of patients in partial IgA deficiency group and 51% of patients in partial IgA + IgG subclass deficiency group, serum IgA increased to normal ranges. Serum IgG subclass levels increased to normal range for age in 67% of patients in partial IgA + IgG subclass

  6. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T.; Dennison, S. Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Tomaras, Georgia D.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  7. Early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborn infants using IgG subclasses against two Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henryque de Souza e Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of ELISA-based testing of total IgG (IgGt antibodies and its subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 against soluble (STAg and recombinant (rSAG1 and rMIC3 antigens of Toxoplasma gondii for diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis. Sera from 217 newborns initially testing positive for specific IgM in filter paper dried blood spots were tested for specific IgM and IgG by ELFA-VIDAS®. Congenital toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 175 and ruled out in 42 infants. The validity of the ELISA tests was determined using the persistence of IgG antibodies (ELFA-VIDAS® kit at the end of 12 months, which is considered the reference test for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. The frequency of positivity with IgGt against STAg, rSAG1 and rMIC3 was found in 97.2%, 96.3% and 80.2%, respectively, of the newborns with confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. IgG1 reacted with all three antigens, while IgG3 and IgG4 reacted preferentially with rMIC3. Higher mean values of reactivity (sample optical density/cut-off were found for all subclasses when using rMIC3. All of the antigens showed high sensitivity and low specificity in detecting anti-T. gondii IgGt and IgG1 and low sensitivity and high specificity in detecting IgG3 and IgG4. In conclusion, the combined detection of IgG antibody subclasses against recombinant toxoplasmic antigens may be useful for the early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three subclasses of IgT in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nu; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Chen, Dan-Dan; Oriol Sunyer, J; Zhang, Yong-An

    2017-05-01

    As the teleost specific immunoglobulin, IgT plays important roles in systemic and mucosal immunity. In the current study, in rainbow trout, we have cloned the heavy chain (Igτ) genes of a secretory form of IgT2 as well as the membrane and secretory forms of a third IgT subclass, termed IgT3. Conserved cysteine and tryptophan residues that are crucial for the folding of the immunoglobulin domain as well as hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues within CART motif were identified in all IgT subclasses. Through analysis of the rainbow trout genome assembly, Igτ3 gene was found localized upstream of Igτ1 gene, while Igτ2 gene situated on another scaffold. At the transcriptional level, Igτ1 was mainly expressed in both systemic and mucosal lymphoid tissues, while Igτ2 was largely expressed in systemic lymphoid organs. After LPS and poly (I:C) treatment, Igτ1 and Igτ2 genes exhibited different expression profiles. Interestingly the transcriptional level of Igτ3 was negligible, although its protein product could be identified in trout serum. Importantly, a previously reported monoclonal antibody directed against trout IgT1 was able to recognize IgT2 and IgT3. These data demonstrate that there exist three subclasses of IgT in rainbow trout, and that their heavy chain genes display different expression patterns during stimulation. Overall, our data reflect the diversity and complexity of immunoglobulin in trout, thus provide a better understanding of the IgT system in the immune response of teleost fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The different effector function capabilities of the seven equine IgG subclasses have implications for vaccine strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Melanie J.; Wagner, Bettina; Woof, Jenny M.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant versions of the seven equine IgG subclasses were expressed in CHO cells. All assembled into intact immunoglobulins stabilised by disulphide bridges, although, reminiscent of human IgG4, a small proportion of equine IgG4 and IgG7 were held together by non-covalent bonds alone. All seven IgGs were N-glycosylated. In addition IgG3 appeared to be O-glycosylated and could bind the lectin jacalin. Staphylococcal protein A displayed weak binding for the equine IgGs in the order: IgG1 > I...

  10. The isotype and IgG subclass distribution of anti-carbamylated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Myrthe A M; Verheul, Marije K; Burgers, Leonie E; Derksen, Veerle F A M; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; van der Woude, Diane; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M; Trouw, Leendert A

    2017-08-15

    Anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies have recently been reported to occur in around 45% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to have prognostic and diagnostic properties. At present, the breadth and molecular make-up of the anti-CarP antibody response is ill defined. To understand the anti-CarP antibody immune response and potential immune effector mechanisms it can recruit, we determined the anti-CarP antibody isotype and IgG-subclass usage in RA patients. Anti-CarP antibody IgM, IgA, and IgG or IgG subclasses were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 373 unselected RA patients and 196 healthy controls. An additional 114 anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and anti-CarP IgG double-positive patients were selected to study the concomitant presence of both antibody systems. Anti-CarP IgG was present in around 45% of the patients and comprised all anti-CarP IgG subclasses. The presence of anti-CarP IgG1 particularly associates with radiological damage. Anti-CarP IgM was detected in 16% of RA patients, even in anti-CarP IgG-positive individuals, and is indicative of an actively ongoing immune response. Around 45% of the patients were positive for IgA which included ACPA-positive cases but also 24% of the ACPA-negative cases. In ACPA and anti-CarP double-positive patients, the distribution and number of isotypes and IgG subclasses was similar for both autoantibodies at the group level, but substantial variation was observed within individual patient samples. In RA, the anti-CarP antibody response uses a broad spectrum of isotypes and seems to be an actively ongoing immune reaction. Furthermore, the anti-CarP and ACPA autoantibody responses seems to be differentially regulated.

  11. Effects of pregnancy and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission on immunoglobulin G subclass responses to variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Taylor, Diane W

    2005-01-01

    , the levels of VSA(PAM)-specific antibodies either were very low or negative or were very high, whereas the levels of the antibodies specific for non-PAM type VSA were uniformly high. Interestingly, the levels of VSA(PAM)-specific IgG1 increased with increasing gestational age, while the levels...... status, parity, gestational age, and parasite transmission intensity, whereas only the parasite transmission intensity influenced the levels of IgG specific for non-PAM type VSA. For both types of VSA, the responses were dominated by the cytophilic subclass IgG1, followed by IgG3. In pregnant women...

  12. Different IgG-subclass distributions after whole-cell and acellular pertussis infant primary vaccinations in healthy and pertussis infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H; Schure, Rose-Minke; Oztürk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G H; de Greeff, S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-09-16

    The distribution of IgG-subclasses provides insight in the immunological mechanisms of protection against whooping cough. We investigated the effect of Dutch whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines administered in infancy on the IgG-subclass distributions in healthy children aged 12 months, 4 years and 9 years as well as in children who have been infected with Bordetella pertussis. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay was used for the measurement of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 responses against pertussis toxin, filamentous heamagglutinin and pertactin. Although IgG1 was the predominant subclass for all pertussis antigens in both healthy and infected children, elevated IgG4 levels were only present in children who had received repeated number of acellular pertussis vaccinations. IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies did not contribute to the IgG response. No differences in IgG-subclasses between healthy vaccinated or infected children were found. The pertussis vaccine used for priming seems to determine the IgG-subclass composition elicited after a secondary antibody response either induced by pertussis vaccination or infection. The pronounced anti-pertussis IgG4 response might reflect the Th2-skewing of the immune response after aP vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of the Subclass Peniculia (Oligohymenophorea, Ciliophora) inferred from small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strüder-Kypke, M C; Wright, A D; Fokin, S I; Lynn, D H

    2000-01-01

    Peniculine ciliates have been recognized as a distinct higher taxon of ciliates for almost 50 years. However, phylogenetic relationships within the Subclass Peniculia are still unsettled. To contribute to our understanding of their phylogeny and provide evidence for the position of Urocentrum turbo, we sequenced its small subunit (SS) rRNA gene and the SSrRNA genes from Lembadion bullinum, Frontonia sp., Paramecium caudatum, Paramecium multimicronucleatum, Paramecium putrinum, and Paramecium woodruffi. Urocentrum turbo was the only one of these species not to exhibit a shortened Helix E10_1, which we conclude characterizes the "higher" peniculines. Except for U. turbo, the peniculines are strongly supported as a monophyletic clade with Lembadion, Frontonia, and Paramecium species forming separate and strongly supported clades by bootstrap analysis using distance matrix, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. Urocentrum turbo is associated with different lineages, depending upon the analysis used. The Paramecium species form at least four clades with the Paramecium aurelia subgroup being the most derived. We conclude that the Subclass Peniculia should be divided into two orders, the Order Urocentrida and Order Peniculida, with the latter order having two suborders, the Suborder Frontoniina and Peniculina. We place U. turbo with the peniculines because of shared morphological and stomatogenetic features.

  14. Impact of liver fat on the differential partitioning of hepatic triacylglycerol into VLDL subclasses on high and low sugar diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpleby, A Margot; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Fielding, Barbara; Li, Xuefei; Marino, Andrea; Alsini, Najlaa; Isherwood, Cheryl; Jackson, Nicola; Ahmad, Aryati; Stolinski, Michael; Lovegrove, Julie A; Johnsen, Sigurd; Jeewaka R Mendis, A S; Wright, John; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Hovorka, Roman; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S; Griffin, Bruce A

    2017-11-01

    Dietary sugars are linked to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidaemia, but it is unknown if NAFLD itself influences the effects of sugars on plasma lipoproteins. To study this further, men with NAFLD ( n = 11) and low liver fat 'controls' ( n = 14) were fed two iso-energetic diets, high or low in sugars (26% or 6% total energy) for 12 weeks, in a randomised, cross-over design. Fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein kinetics were measured after each diet by stable isotope trace-labelling.There were significant differences in the production and catabolic rates of VLDL subclasses between men with NAFLD and controls, in response to the high and low sugar diets. Men with NAFLD had higher plasma concentrations of VLDL 1 -triacylglycerol (TAG) after the high ( P liver fat accumulation leads to a differential partitioning of hepatic TAG into large and small VLDL subclasses, in response to high and low intakes of sugars. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Can non-cholesterol sterols and lipoprotein subclasses distribution predict different patterns of cholesterol metabolism and statin therapy response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkovic, Tamara; Vladimirov, Sandra; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Djuricic, Ivana; Sobajic, Sladjana; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2017-03-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis disorders may cause dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis progression and coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Evaluation of non-cholesterol sterols (NCSs) as synthesis and absorption markers, and lipoprotein particles quality may indicate the dyslipidemia early development. This study investigates associations of different cholesterol homeostasis patterns with low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in statin-treated and statin-untreated CAD patients, and potential use of aforementioned markers for CAD treatment optimization. The study included 78 CAD patients (47 statin-untreated and 31 statin-treated) and 31 controls (CG). NCSs concentrations were quantified using gas chromatography- flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Lipoprotein subclasses were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis. In patients, cholesterol-synthesis markers were significantly higher comparing to CG. Cholesterol-synthesis markers were inversely associated with LDL size in all groups. For cholesterol homeostasis estimation, each group was divided to good and/or poor synthetizers and/or absorbers according to desmosterol and β-sitosterol median values. In CG, participants with reduced cholesterol absorption, the relative proportion of small, dense LDL was higher in those with increased cholesterol synthesis compared to those with reduced synthesis (pcholesterol absorption had increased proportion of LDL IVB (pcholesterol homeostasis. Desmosterol/β-sitosterol ratio could be used for estimating individual propensity toward dyslipidemia development and direct the future treatment.

  16. The N-Glycosylation of Mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-Fragment Crystallizable Differs Between IgG Subclasses and Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Noortje; Reiding, Karli R; Krištić, Jasminka; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes L; Lauc, Gordan; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable (Fc)-region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is known to have a large influence on the activity of the antibody, an effect reported to be IgG subclass specific. This situation applies both to humans and mice. The mouse is often used as experimental animal model to study the effects of Fc-glycosylation on IgG effector functions, and results are not uncommonly translated back to the human situation. However, while human IgG Fc-glycosylation has been extensively characterized in both health and disease, this is not the case for mice. To characterize the glycosylation profile of murine IgG-Fc and in addition evaluate the systematic glycosylation differences between mouse strains, sexes, and IgG subclasses, we used nanoliquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS(/MS)) to look at the subclass-specific IgG Fc-glycopeptides of male and female mice from the strains BALB/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, and Swiss Webster. The structural analysis revealed the presence of predominantly fucosylated, diantennary glycans, with varying amounts of galactosylation and α2,6-sialylation. In addition, we report glycosylation features not previously reported in an Fc-specific way on murine IgG, including monoantennary, hybrid, and high mannose structures, as well as diantennary structures without a core fucose, with a bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, or with α1,3-galactosylation. Pronounced differences were detected between strains and the IgG subclasses within each strain. Especially the large spread in galactosylation and sialylation levels found between both strains and subclasses may vastly influence IgG effector functions. Mouse strain-based and subclass-specific glycosylation differences should be taken into account when designing and interpreting immunological and glycobiological mouse studies involving IgG effector functions.

  17. The N-Glycosylation of Mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG-Fragment Crystallizable Differs Between IgG Subclasses and Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje de Haan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available N-linked glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable (Fc-region of immunoglobulin G (IgG is known to have a large influence on the activity of the antibody, an effect reported to be IgG subclass specific. This situation applies both to humans and mice. The mouse is often used as experimental animal model to study the effects of Fc-glycosylation on IgG effector functions, and results are not uncommonly translated back to the human situation. However, while human IgG Fc-glycosylation has been extensively characterized in both health and disease, this is not the case for mice. To characterize the glycosylation profile of murine IgG-Fc and in addition evaluate the systematic glycosylation differences between mouse strains, sexes, and IgG subclasses, we used nanoliquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS(/MS to look at the subclass-specific IgG Fc-glycopeptides of male and female mice from the strains BALB/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, and Swiss Webster. The structural analysis revealed the presence of predominantly fucosylated, diantennary glycans, with varying amounts of galactosylation and α2,6-sialylation. In addition, we report glycosylation features not previously reported in an Fc-specific way on murine IgG, including monoantennary, hybrid, and high mannose structures, as well as diantennary structures without a core fucose, with a bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, or with α1,3-galactosylation. Pronounced differences were detected between strains and the IgG subclasses within each strain. Especially the large spread in galactosylation and sialylation levels found between both strains and subclasses may vastly influence IgG effector functions. Mouse strain-based and subclass-specific glycosylation differences should be taken into account when designing and interpreting immunological and glycobiological mouse studies involving IgG effector functions.

  18. Overcoming recurrent spontaneous abortions in women suffering from IgG subclass deficiency: high efficiency of low dose intravenous immunoglobulins treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, G; Dell'Aera, L; Liguori, R

    2015-05-01

    It's well known that iv. immunoglobulins may be useful to overcome habitual abortions, but the mechanisms at the base of a successful outcome and the likelihoods are still unknown. In one hundred and sixty women with habitual abortions and one hundred and sixty healthy mothers, we evaluated blood IgG subclasses; among the patients, sixteen merely showed IgG subclass deficiency, after leaving out any autoimmunity and/or coagulation disorders. All the patients (100%) showed IgG3, twelve (75%) IgG1, eight (50%) IgG4 and six (37,5%) IgG2 deficiency; healthy control people's IgG subclasses fell in normal range in 156 women, but just four women showed IgG2 and IgG4 deficiency with neither immune deficiency's clinical marks nor increased vulnerability to infections. All the patients were treated with whole immunoglobulins iv. infusion (200 mg/kg/monthly) all over the pregnancy. The successful pregnancy rate is very high (>90%): 100% out of women showing IgG1 (12/12), 87,5% of IgG3 (14/16), 75% of IgG4 (6/8) and 66% of IgG2 deficiency (4/6) had successful pregnancies. The Odd's Ratio between IgG subclass deficiency and recurrent abortions is 4,33 with confidence interval of 95%; chi square value is 7.68 (pIgG subclass deficiency without autoimmunity and/or coagulation disorders, likely restoring idiotype-antiidiotype network; showing evidence of IgG subclasses deficiency (mostly IgG1 and IgG3) may help identify patients who can benefit from iv. immunoglobulin treatment.

  19. Immunization of humans with polysaccharide vaccines induces systemic, predominantly polymeric IgA2-subclass antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, A; Lue, C; Moldoveanu, Z; Kiyono, H; McGhee, J R; Mestecky, J

    1990-05-15

    Ig class- and IgA subclass-specific immune responses to protein and polysaccharide Ag were studied in serum, external secretions, and at the single cell level in peripheral blood of systemically immunized adults. Immunization with tetanus toxoid induced predominantly IgG antibody responses in serum and in the PBMC. The IgA antibody response was low, and was mostly of the IgA1 subclass. In contrast, immunization with polysaccharide Ag (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, C, Y, W-135, and Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides) elicited a major IgA response predominantly of the IgA2 isotype. Analysis of the molecular forms of secreted IgA antibodies indicated that polymers were produced early after immunization, irrespective of the nature of the Ag. When compared with serum antibody and to PBMC cell responses, systemic immunization with polysaccharides induced a minor salivary response dominated by IgG and IgM antibodies. In contrast, the presence of antipolysaccharide antibodies in bile, irrespective of their isotype, paralleled the serum response 14 days after the immunization with polysaccharide Ag. These results suggest that biliary Ig were mostly derived from serum. Different patterns of the expression of MHC class II Ag on T cells, B cells, and monocytes during the course of immunization with protein or polysaccharide Ag were observed: whereas protein Ag induced a high frequency of HLA-DP- and HLA-DR-expressing cells early in the course of immunization, polysaccharide vaccines elicited low and protracted increases of HLA-DP+ T cells. Polysaccharide vaccine covalently coupled to a protein carrier induced a higher frequency of antipolysaccharide antibody-secreting cells in peripheral blood and increased the IgG to IgA ratio among polysaccharide-specific antibody-secreting cells.

  20. Predictors of shingles reports at diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency and selective immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency in 212 Alabama adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine predictors of shingles reports in adults with common variable immunodeficiency or immunoglobulin (Ig G subclass deficiency (CVID/IgGSD. We tabulated observations at diagnosis of CVID/IgGSD in 212 white adult index patients (165 women, 47 men who responded to a question about having had shingles. None had been vaccinated for herpes zoster. We analyzed age, sex, and shingles reports; blood levels of CD19+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD56+ mononuclear cells; serum levels of IgG subclasses, IgA, and IgM; and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A and -B haplotypes. Cell counts and immunoglobulin levels were normalized with loge (ln transformation for analyses. Thirty-one patients (14.6% reported shingles; 11 reported recurrent or disseminated shingles. Patients with shingles reports had greater mean age at diagnosis of CVID/IgGSD [54±13 (standard deviation years vs. 47±12 years; P=0.0130] and a greater prevalence of HLA-A*01, B*08 positivity (35.5% vs. 17.7%; P=0.0227. In a 13-factor logistic regression model, there was a positive association of age with shingles reports [P=0.0151; odds ratio (1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.08]. HLA-A*01, B*08 positivity was also positively associated with shingles reports [P=0.0480; odds ratio 2.61 (1.00, 6.81]. During a mean followup interval of 7.5 years after CVID/IgGSD diagnosis, the prevalence of recurrent shingles was almost five-fold greater in patients with previous shingles reports. In conclusion, in white adults at CVID/IgGSD diagnosis, age at diagnosis and positivity for HLA-A*01, B*08 have significant positive associations with reports of previous shingles.

  1. Development of a fluorescent-bead-based multiplex immunoassay to determine immunoglobulin G subclass responses to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voer, Richarda M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Engels, Carla W. A. M.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    A fluorescent-particle-based multiplex flow cytometric immunoassay (MIA) for the detection of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and two IgG subclasses, IgG1 and IgG2, specific for Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A ( MenA) and C (MenC) polysaccharides ( PS) was developed. The assay comprised three

  2. Analysis of gene expression data from non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines reveals distinct sub-classes from those identified at the phenotype level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dalby

    Full Text Available Microarray data from cell lines of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC can be used to look for differences in gene expression between the cell lines derived from different tumour samples, and to investigate if these differences can be used to cluster the cell lines into distinct groups. Dividing the cell lines into classes can help to improve diagnosis and the development of screens for new drug candidates. The micro-array data is first subjected to quality control analysis and then subsequently normalised using three alternate methods to reduce the chances of differences being artefacts resulting from the normalisation process. The final clustering into sub-classes was carried out in a conservative manner such that sub-classes were consistent across all three normalisation methods. If there is structure in the cell line population it was expected that this would agree with histological classifications, but this was not found to be the case. To check the biological consistency of the sub-classes the set of most strongly differentially expressed genes was be identified for each pair of clusters to check if the genes that most strongly define sub-classes have biological functions consistent with NSCLC.

  3. Biochemical Characterization of CPS-1, a Subclass B3 Metallo-β-Lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium Soil Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    CPS-1 is a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium isolated from soil, showing 68 % amino acid identity to GOB-1 enzyme. CPS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), purified by chromatography and biochemically characterized. This enzyme exhibits a broad...

  4. The blocking activity of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 is not qualitatively superior to that of other IgG subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Anne M; Bødtger, Uffe; Larsen, Jørgen N

    2004-01-01

    Allergen-specific IgG antibodies induced by specific immunotherapy (SIT) interfere with the allergen-IgE interaction, and act as blocking antibodies in vitro. It has been hypothesised that IgG4, as opposed to other IgG subclasses, is particularly important in this function, which may play a role...

  5. Global Mapping of Traditional Chinese Medicine into Bioactivity Space and Pathways Annotation Improves Mechanistic Understanding and Discovers Relationships between Therapeutic Action (Subclasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zuraidah Mohamad Zobir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM still needs more scientific rationale to be proven for it to be accepted further in the West. We are now in the position to propose computational hypotheses for the mode-of-actions (MOAs of 45 TCM therapeutic action (subclasses from in silico target prediction algorithms, whose target was later annotated with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, and to discover the relationship between them by generating a hierarchical clustering. The results of 10,749 TCM compounds showed 183 enriched targets and 99 enriched pathways from Estimation Score ≤ 0 and ≥ 5% of compounds/targets in a (subclass. The MOA of a (subclass was established from supporting literature. Overall, the most frequent top three enriched targets/pathways were immune-related targets such as tyrosine-protein phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN2 and digestive system such as mineral absorption. We found two major protein families, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR, and protein kinase family contributed to the diversity of the bioactivity space, while digestive system was consistently annotated pathway motif, which agreed with the important treatment principle of TCM, “the foundation of acquired constitution” that includes spleen and stomach. In short, the TCM (subclasses, in many cases share similar targets/pathways despite having different indications.

  6. Common, low-frequency, and rare genetic variants associated with lipoprotein subclasses and triglyceride measures in Finnish men from the METSIM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Davis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and lipoprotein subclasses are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, yet the genetic contributions to variability in subclass traits are not fully understood. We conducted single-variant and gene-based association tests between 15.1M variants from genome-wide and exome array and imputed genotypes and 72 lipid and lipoprotein traits in 8,372 Finns. After accounting for 885 variants at 157 previously identified lipid loci, we identified five novel signals near established loci at HIF3A, ADAMTS3, PLTP, LCAT, and LIPG. Four of the signals were identified with a low-frequency (0.005subclass traits. 30 established lipid-associated loci had a stronger association for a subclass trait than any conventional trait. These novel association signals provide further insight into the molecular basis of dyslipidemia and the etiology of metabolic disorders.

  7. IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency in children with recurrent respiratory infections and its relationship with chronic pulmonary damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, H; Atlihan, F; Genel, F; Targan, S; Gunvar, T

    2005-01-01

    Most patients with IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency are asymptomatic but some may suffer from frequent mainly respiratory infections. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiencies and the rate of chronic pulmonary damage secondary to recurrent pulmonary infections in these children. Serum IgA and IgG subclass levels were measured in 225 children aged 6 months to 6 years with recurrent sinopulmonary infections (44 with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 100 with recurrent pulmonary infections and 81 with recurrent bronchiolitis). In order to determine chronic pulmonary damage due to recurrent infections in patients with recurrent pulmonary infections CT scans of thorax were also obtained. The overall frequency of antibody defects was found to be 19.1%. IgA deficiency was observed in 9.3%, IgG subclass deficiency in 8.4% and IgA + IgG subclass deficiency in 1.4%. The prevalance of IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency was 25% in patients with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 22% in patients with recurrent pulmonary infections and 12.3% in patients with recurrent bronchiolitis (p>0.05). Chronic pulmonary damage in lungs was determined radiologically in 17 of 100 cases with recurrent pulmonary infection. In IgG subclass deficiencies sequel changes, although not statistically significant, were observed five times more frequently than that of IgA deficiencies. CT scans revealed pulmonary sequels in 5 of the 22 (22.7%) patients with recurrent pulmonary infections and immunodeficiency (bronchiectasis in 2 patients with IgG3 deficiency, fibrotic changes in one with IgA deficiency and in one with IgG3 deficiency, bronchiolitis obliterans in one with IgG2 + IgG3 deficiency). On the other hand, pulmonary sequels were observed in 12 patients (15.4%) with normal immunoglobulin levels. Eight of them were bronchiolitis obliterans, 2 of them were atelectasia and 1 of them was bronchiectasia. We therefore suggest

  8. New records of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) from marine fishes in Jaramijó, an area with potential for sea-cage aquaculture in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptali; Caña-Bozada, Víctor; Mera-Loor, Geormery; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J; Ho, Ju-Shey

    2015-02-20

    Farming of finfish in sea cages is gaining popularity worldwide. These systems are a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of parasites or pathogens, such as sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae), known to cause serious diseases and economic losses in finfish aquaculture worldwide. In coastal waters of Jaramijó, Ecuador, there are plans to culture spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana); however, the information about the occurrence of sea lice on fish from this country is scarce. To address this problem, a parasitological survey of economically important fish caught by artisanal fishermen was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014. A total of 608 fish belonging to 66 species were examined. Sea lice were found on 23 fish species. The diversity of these parasites consisted of 22 species of Caligus and 5 species of Lepeophtheirus. Most sea lice species (66%) occurred in a single fish species only, with low infection levels. The most frequently encountered species were Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951, Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 and Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905. Taxonomic remarks are presented for some of the species recorded during this survey. All but two sea lice records are new to Ecuador, considerably expanding the geographical range of some species.

  9. A new species of Pseudomacrochiron Reddiah, 1969 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Macrochironidae) associated with scyphistomae of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) off Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danny; Yasuda, Akira; Yamada, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2012-02-01

    A new species of the Macrochironidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), Pseudomacrochiron aureliae n. sp., is described based on adult specimens extracted from the gastrovacular cavity of the scyphistomae of Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) collected in the Seto Inland Sea and Ise Bay off the coast of Japan. The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters: a caudal ramus with a length to width ratio of 3.1; an accessory flagellum on caudal setae II, III and VI; three apical setae on the maxillule; only setae I and II on the maxillary basis; two short spines on the female maxilliped claw (endopod); an armature of III, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of I, II, 2 on the terminal endopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of II, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 4; and a short free exopodal segment of leg 5 (length to width ratio of 1.4) armed with a long seta and short spine. P. aureliae n. sp. is the first member of the genus reported from off Japan and from the scyphistomae of its scyphozoan host.

  10. Common variable immunodeficiency and IgG subclass deficiency in central Alabama hemochromatosis probands homozygous for HFE C282Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Bertoli, Luigi F; Acton, Ronald T

    2003-01-01

    Eight hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity had frequent, severe, or unusual infections and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) or immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD). Thus, we performed serum Ig isotyping and other characterization of 43 additional unselected probands, 5 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings, and 240 consecutive CVID or IgGSD index patients. C282Y allele frequencies were estimated in 58 CVID or IgGSD index patients without hemochromatosis phenotypes and in 341 controls. HLA-A and -B haplotypes and frequencies were determined in all 51 probands, 186 CVID or IgGSD index patients without hemochromatosis phenotypes, and 751 controls. Thirteen unselected probands (30%) had CVID or IgGSD. Among all 21 hemochromatosis probands with CVID (n = 4) or IgGSD (n = 17), Ig subclass deficiency patterns were IgG(1) (n = 5), IgG(1) and IgG(3) (n = 6), IgG(3) (n = 9), and IgG(1), IgG(3), and IgG(4) (n = 1). IgG(2) or IgA deficiency was not detected; one proband had IgM deficiency. Mean values of total IgG, IgG(1), and IgG(3) were significantly lower in probands with CVID or IgGSD. Mean values of age, transferrin saturation, and ferritin at diagnosis and phlebotomy units required to induce iron depletion were similar in probands with or without CVID or IgGSD; phlebotomy had no apparent effect on IgG levels. C282Y frequencies were similar in CVID or IgGSD index cases without hemochromatosis phenotypes and in controls. There was concordance of Ig and hemochromatosis phenotypes in probands and respective HLA-identical siblings. Eight of 240 CVID or IgGSD index patients had hemochromatosis phenotypes and C282Y homozygosity (3 vs 0.7% and 0.2% controls; P IgG abnormalities characteristic of CVID or IgGSD are common in hemochromatosis probands, and that the prevalence of hemochromatosis is increased in CVID and IgGSD index cases. These observations could be explained by the increased frequencies of HLA-A*03-B*07 in C282Y

  11. A livelock control policy for a flexible manufacturing system modeling with a subclass of generalized Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Hou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Livelocks, like deadlocks, can result in the serious problems in running process of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs as well. Current deadlock control policies based on the approaches of siphon detection and control, cannot cope with livelocks in a system of sequential systems with shared resources (S4R, a typical subclass of Petri nets that can model FMSs. On the basis of the mixed integer programming method, this study proposes a livelock control policy (LCP that can not only solve the new smart siphons (NSSs associated with livelocks or deadlocks in an S4R system directly, but also make the solved NSSs max′-controlled by adding the corresponding control places (CPs. As a result, an original S4R system with livelocks or deadlocks can be turned into the live controlled one in which no NSSs can be found. The related theoretical analysis and several examples are given to demonstrate the proposed LCP. Compared with the existing methods in the literature, the proposed one is more general and powerful.

  12. Probing the specificity of the subclass B3 FEZ-1 metallo-beta-lactamase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Paola Sandra; García-Sáez, Isabel; De Vriendt, Kris; Thamm, Iris; Devreese, Bart; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Dideberg, Otto; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Frère, Jean-Marie; Galleni, Moreno

    2004-08-06

    The subclass B3 FEZ-1 beta-lactamase produced by Fluoribacter (Legionella) gormanii is a Zn(II)-containing enzyme that hydrolyzes the beta-lactam bond in penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. FEZ-1 has been extensively studied using kinetic, computational modeling and x-ray crystallography. In an effort to probe residues potentially involved in substrate binding and zinc binding, five site-directed mutants of FEZ-1 (H121A, Y156A, S221A, N225A, and Y228A) were prepared and characterized using metal analyses and steady state kinetics. The activity of H121A is dependent on zinc ion concentration. The H121A monozinc form is less active than the dizinc form, which exhibits an activity similar to that of the wild type enzyme. Tyr156 is not essential for binding and hydrolysis of the substrate. Substitution of residues Ser221 and Asn225 modifies the substrate profile by selectively decreasing the activity against carbapenems. The Y228A mutant is inhibited by the product formed upon hydrolysis of cephalosporins. A covalent bond between the side chain of Cys200 and the hydrolyzed cephalosporins leads to the formation of an inactive and stable complex.

  13. Effect of Chitosan and Liposome Nanoparticles as Adjuvant Codelivery on the Immunoglobulin G Subclass Distribution in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Agus; Salsabila, Korrie; Restu, Witta Kartika; Harmami, Sri Budi; Safari, Dodi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the immunogenic properties of chitosan and liposome nanoparticles as adjuvant codelivery against a commercial pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in an animal model. The chitosan and liposome nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation and dry methods, respectively. The PCV immunization was performed intradermally in the presence of adjuvants and booster injections which were given without an adjuvant. The Quil-A® was used as a control adjuvant. The ELISA was performed to measure the antibodies against pneumococcal type 14 polysaccharide (Pn14PS). The level of total antibodies against Pn14PS antigen was no different between the mouse groups with or without adjuvant codelivery. Codelivery of the PCV with chitosan nanoparticles as well as the Quil-A adjuvant elicited IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 antibodies. Meanwhile, codelivery of liposome nanoparticles elicited mainly IgG1 antibodies against the Pn14PS. The chitosan and liposome nanoparticles as adjuvant codelivery were successfully synthesized. These nanoparticles have different shapes in particle formation, liposome nanoparticle with their unilamellar shape and chitosan nanoparticles in large shape due to the aggregation of small-size particles. Codelivery of chitosan nanoparticles has more effect on the IgG subclass antibody production than that of liposome nanoparticles in a mouse model.

  14. Are serum levels of immunoglobulin classes and IgG subclasses involved in delayed pulmonary complications induced by sulfur mustard? Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Tooba; Mostafaie, Ali; Yaraee, Roya; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Rezaei, Abbas; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad R; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Soroush, Mohammad R; Naghizadeh, Mohammad M; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2013-11-01

    Respiratory complications are the foremost long term debilitating effects after sulfur mustard toxicity. The underlying immunological mechanisms of sulfur mustard induced lung damage are still poorly understood. The question of the involvement of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in delayed pulmonary complications induced by SM was addressed in this study as a part of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS).In SICS, 372 male participants who were exposed to SM 20 years earlier were compared with 128 unexposed age-matched controls. At the time of study (2007), the clinical evaluations and spirometry was performed for all subjects according to the American Thoracic Society Criteria, and at the same time, the sera were isolated, labeled and aliquots were kept frozen in -80°C. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels including IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) were measured using quantitative Elisa method. It was found that among immunoglobulin classes and IgG subclasses only IgM and IgG4 were significantly decreased in the peripheral blood of exposed cases. IgM level also positively correlated with FEV1 only in the SM exposed group. These results indicated a weak but significant role for IgA in control of the delayed pulmonary complications. There were no strong correlations between other immunoglobulin classes or IgG subclasses with pulmonary disease severity in sulfur mustard intoxicated subjects. The authors proposed that systemic levels of immunoglobulins do not exert essential roles in severity of delayed pulmonary complications following SM toxicity. However, more studies on local and systemic levels of immunoglobulins in more severe groups are suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pattern of pre-existing IgG subclass responses to a panel of asexual stage malaria antigens reported during the lengthy dry season in Daraweesh, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasr, A; Iriemenam, N C; Troye-Blomberg, M

    2011-01-01

    The anti-malarial IgG immune response during the lengthy and dry season in areas of low malaria transmission as in Eastern Sudan is largely unknown. In this study, ELISA was used for the measurement of pre-existing total IgG and IgG subclasses to a panel of malaria antigens, MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27...

  16. Sudan ebolavirus long recovered survivors produce GP-specific Abs that are of the IgG1 subclass and preferentially bind FcγRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radinsky, Olga; Edri, Avishay; Brusilovsky, Michael; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Sobarzo, Ariel; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Lutwama, Julius; Dye, John; Lobel, Leslie; Porgador, Angel

    2017-07-20

    Ebolavirus is a highly lethal pathogen, causing a severe hemorrhagic disease with a high fatality rate. To better understand immune correlates of protection by virus specific IgG, we investigated the evolution of the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs)-activating capabilities of antiviral IgG in serum samples of long recovered survivors. To this end, longitudinal serum samples from survivors of Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) infection, studied over years, were examined for the presence of Ebola-GP specific IgG subclasses, and for their binding to FcγRs. We developed a cell-based reporter system to quantitate pathogen-specific antibody binding to FcγRIIIA, FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB and FcγRI. With this system, we demonstrate that anti-GP-specific stimulation of the FcγRI reporter by survivors' sera was substantially high one year after acute infection, with a slight reduction in activity over a decade post infection. We further demonstrate that GP-specific IgG1 is by far the seroprevalent subclass that retained and even enhanced its presence in the sera, over ten years post infection; the prevalence of other GP-specific IgG subclasses was considerably reduced over time. In accordance, GP-specific FcγRI reporter response and GP-specific total IgG1 subclass correlated in the studied group of Ebola survivors. These observations are important for further informing Ebola vaccine and therapeutic development.

  17. The catabolism of human γG immunoglobulins of different heavy chain subclasses. III. The catabolism of heavy chain disease proteins and of Fc fragments of myeloma proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, H. L.; Fishkin, B. G.

    1972-01-01

    The catabolism of 131I and 125I paired labelled Fc fragments of myeloma proteins and of H chain disease proteins of different heavy chain subclasses was studied in men and monkeys. In contrast to the previously demonstrated catabolic heterogeneity of intact γG immunoglobulins, the Fc fragments and H chain disease proteins of all subclasses tested were catabolized at a similar rate. These data suggest that structures not present on the Fc fragments are responsible for the faster turnover rate of γG3 immunoglobulins and for the differences in half-lives of myeloma proteins within a given subclass. The catabolic features of the H chain disease proteins differed from those of intact γG. Although the whole body half-lives of the two proteins were similar, the fractional turnover rate of the H chain disease proteins was higher than that of γG, on the average 8% of the intravascular pool/day as compared to 4% for γG. One-half to 1% of the intravascular pool of the H chain disease protein and less than 0·1% of the γG was excreted into the urine. An average of 24% of the H chain disease proteins and 44% of the γG equilibrated into the intravascular compartment. PMID:4624553

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the black coral Chrysopathes formosa (Cnidaria:Anthozoa:Antipatharia) supports classification of antipatharians within the subclass Hexacorallia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugler, Mercer R; France, Scott C

    2007-03-01

    Black corals comprise a globally distributed shallow- and deep-water taxon whose phylogenetic position within the Anthozoa has been debated. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the antipatharian Chrysopathes formosa to further evaluate its phylogenetic relationships. The circular mitochondrial genome (18,398 bp) consists of 13 energy pathway protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNAs, but only two transfer RNA genes (trnM and trnW), as well as a group I intron within the nad5 gene that contains the only copies of nad1 and nad3. No novel genes were found in the antipatharian mitochondrial genome. Gene order and genome content are most similar to those of the sea anemone Metridium senile (subclass Hexacorallia), with differences being the relative location of three contiguous genes (cox2-nad4-nad6) and absence (from the antipatharian) of a group I intron within the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple protein-coding genes support classifying the Antipatharia within the subclass Hexacorallia and not the subclass Ceriantipatharia; however, the sister-taxon relationships of black corals within Hexacorallia remain inconclusive.

  19. Co-suppression of synthesis of major x-kafirin sub-class together with y-kafirin-1 and y-kafirin-2 required for substantially improved protein digestibility in transgenic sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-suppressing major kafirin sub-classes is fundamental to improved protein digestibility and nutritional value of sorghum. The improvement is linked to an irregularly invaginated phenotype of protein bodies....

  20. Lipoprotein subclass patterns in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with equally insulin-resistant women without PCOS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, N

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are more insulin resistant and display an atherogenic lipid profile compared with normal women of similar body mass index (BMI). Insulin resistance (IR) at least partially underlies the dyslipidemia of PCOS, but it is unclear whether PCOS status per se confers additional risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a case-control design, we compared plasma lipids and lipoprotein subclasses (using polyacrylamide gel tube electrophoresis) in 70 women with PCOS (National Institutes of Health criteria) and 70 normal women pair matched for age, BMI, and IR (homeostasis model assessment-IR, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and the Avignon Index). Subjects were identified as having a (less atherogenic) type A pattern consisting predominantly of large low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions or a (more atherogenic) non-A pattern consisting predominantly of small-dense LDL subfractions. RESULTS: Total, high-density lipoprotein, or LDL cholesterol, or triacylglycerol did not differ between the groups, but very low-density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05) were greater in women with PCOS, whereas a non-A LDL profile was seen in 12.9% compared with 2.9% of controls (P<0.05, chi2). Multiple regression analysis revealed homeostasis model assessment-IR and waist circumference to be independent predictors of very low-density lipoprotein together explaining 40.2% of the overall variance. Logistic regression revealed PCOS status to be the only independent determinant of a non-A LDL pattern (odds ratio 5.48 (95% confidence interval 1.082-27.77; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with women matched for BMI and IR, women with PCOS have potentially important differences in lipid profile with greater very low-density lipoprotein levels and increased rates of a more atherogenic non-A LDL pattern.

  1. Differential suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells by several subclasses of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Long; Chen, Chun-ye; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Qian-yong; Zhu, Jun-dong; Mi, Man-tian

    2012-09-01

    Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is crucial for vascular endothelial dysfunction, a key step in the initiating of atherosclerosis (AS). The antioxidant activity of flavonoids has been suggested to contribute to AS prevention. However, The association of the structure characteristics to antioxidant capacities in relation to the inhibitory effects on endothelial dysfunction has not been well established. In this study, four subclasses of flavonoids with similar structures, including two anthocyanins (delphinidin and cyanidin), two flavonols (myricetin and quercetin), two flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and two isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) were examined for their inhibitory effects on intracellular ROS-mediated signaling pathway in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell EA.hy926. Cells were pretreated with different flavonoids for 2 h and then exposed to oxLDL of 100 μg/ml for another 24 h. It was found that treatment with different flavonoids alone had no notable effects on cell viability. However, the oxLDL-induced decrease of cell viability, generation of O(2)(·-) and ROS, p38MAPK activation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, NF-κB-modulated transcriptional activity as well as the mRNA expression of genes including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were notably inhibited by the pretreatment of different flavonoids through blunting ROS-triggered signaling pathway, in spite of apparent differences. And the number of hydroxyl groups in total, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyl in B-ring and 3-hydroxyl group in C-ring of flavonoids were important structure characteristics for the inhibitory effects. Thus, anthocyanins and flavonols such as delphinidin and myricetin exert higher ROS scavenging activities and more significant endothelium-protective effects compared to the other compounds. Our results provide evidence for AS prevention and a basis for designing the potent anti-atherosclerotic agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  2. Malaria resistance genes are associated with the levels of IgG subclasses directed against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afridi Sarwat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms have been associated with malaria resistance in humans, whereas cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies are thought to play a critical role in immune protection against asexual blood stages of the parasite. Furthermore, HBB, IL4, TNF, and FCGR2A have been associated with both malaria resistance and IgG levels. This suggests that some malaria resistance genes influence the levels of IgG subclass antibodies. Methods In this study, the effect of HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms on the levels of IgG responses against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage extract was investigated in 220 individuals living in Burkina Faso. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient among IgG subclasses was determined. A family-based approach was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with anti-P. falciparum IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels. Results After applying a multiple test correction, several polymorphisms were associated with IgG subclass or IgG levels. There was an association of i haemoglobin C with IgG levels; ii the FcγRIIa H/R131 with IgG2 and IgG3 levels; iii TNF-863 with IgG3 levels; iv TNF-857 with IgG levels; and, v TNF1304 with IgG3, IgG4, and IgG levels. Conclusion Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that some polymorphisms affect malaria resistance through their effect on the acquired immune response, and pave the way towards further comprehension of genetic control of an individual’s humoral response against malaria.

  3. Stability of monoclonal antibodies at high-concentration: head-to-head comparison of the IgG1 and IgG4 subclass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neergaard, Martin S; Nielsen, Anders D; Parshad, Henrik; Van De Weert, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have so far directly compared the impact of antibody subclass on protein stability. This case study investigates two mAbs (one IgG1 and one IgG4 ) with identical variable region. Investigations of mAbs that recognize similar epitopes are necessary to identify possible differences between the IgG subclasses. Both physical and chemical stability were evaluated by applying a range of methods to measure formation of protein aggregates [size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)-HPLC and UV340 nm], structural integrity (circular dichroism and FTIR), thermodynamic stability (differential scanning calorimetry), colloidal interactions (dynamic light scattering), and fragmentation and deamidation (SEC-HPLC and capillary isoelectric focusing). The impact of pH (4-9) and ionic strength (10 and 150 mM) was investigated using highly-concentrated (150 mg/mL) mAb formulations. Lower conformational stability was identified for the IgG4 resulting in increased levels of soluble aggregates. The IgG1 was chemically less stable as compared with the IgG4 , presumably because of the higher flexibility in the IgG1 hinge region. The thermodynamic stability of individual mAb domains was also addressed in detail. The stability of our mAb molecules is clearly affected by the IgG framework, and this study suggests that subclass switching may alter aggregation propensity and aggregation pathway and thus potentially improve the overall formulation stability while retaining antigen specificity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Micro-organismos da subclasse Coccidia: resistência e implicações para o processamento de materiais de assistência à saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Queiroz de Souza; Lilian Machado Torres; Kazuko Uchikawa Graziano; Ruth Natália Teresa Turrini

    2012-01-01

    Este estudo teórico propõe uma reflexão sobre a resistência intrínseca da subclasse Coccidia, particularmente o gênero Cryptosporidium, considerado como um agente potencialmente patogênico para pacientes imunocomprometidos, e suas repercussões na prática assistencial. Atualmente, as diretrizes internacionais e nacionais aprovam como procedimento seguro a desinfecção química de alto nível de endoscópios digestivos, após sua limpeza. No entanto, estudos evidenciaram que micro-organismos da subc...

  5. The influence of allotypes on the IgG subclass response to chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Pressler, T; Pandey, J P

    1997-01-01

    Sera from 70 adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa were typed for seven GM and two KM allotype determinants. IgG class and all four IgG subclasses of antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase of Ps. aeruginosa (a beta ab) were measured...... in all 70 CF patients in a cross-sectional study. The a beta ab IgG subclass response in sera collected during the first 11 years of chronic infection from 20 CF patients (10 patients with G3M*5 G1M*3/G3M*5 G1M*3 genotype and 10 patients with G3M*21 G1M*1/G3M*21 G1M*1 genotype) was analysed...... in a longitudinal study. Increased levels of IgG2 were associated with the presence of GM 23 allotype. IgG3 a beta ab levels were the lowest for subjects with the GM 1,2,3,17 23 5,21 and GM 1,3,17 21 phenotypes and the highest in subjects with GM 3,23,5 and GM 3,5. No significant differences in IgG1 and IgG4 a beta...

  6. Genetic and biochemical characterization of HMB-1, a novel subclass B1 metallo-β-lactamase found in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennigwerth, Niels; Lange, Felix; Belmar Campos, Cristina; Hentschke, Moritz; Gatermann, Sören G; Kaase, Martin

    2017-04-01

    To characterize a novel subclass B1 metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) found in an MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The isolate P. aeruginosa NRZ-03096 was recovered in 2012 from an anal swab from a patient hospitalized in Northern Germany and showed high MICs of carbapenems. MBL production was analysed by several phenotypic tests. Genetic characterization of the novel bla gene and MLST was performed by WGS. The novel bla gene was expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10 and the enzyme was subjected to biochemical characterization to determine the kinetic parameters K m and k cat . P. aeruginosa NRZ-03096 was resistant to all tested β-lactams and showed an MBL phenotype. Shotgun cloning experiments yielded a clone producing a novel subclass B1 enzyme with only 74.3% identity to the next nearest relative, KHM-1. The novel MBL was named HMB-1 (for Hamburg MBL). Analysis of WGS data showed that the bla HMB-1 gene was chromosomally located as part of a Tn 3 family transposon that was named Tn 6345 . Expression of bla HMB-1 in E. coli TOP10 led to increased resistance to β-lactams. Determination of K m and k cat revealed that HMB-1 had different hydrolytic characteristics compared with KHM-1, with lower hydrolytic rates for cephalosporins and a higher rate for imipenem. The identification of HMB-1 further underlines the ongoing spread and diversification of carbapenemases in Gram-negative human pathogens and especially in P. aeruginosa .

  7. Thyroglobulin autoantibodies switch to immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG3 subclasses and preserve their restricted epitope pattern after 131I treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism: the activity of autoimmune disease influences subclass distribution but not epitope pattern of autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrofa, F; Ricci, D; Montanelli, L; Piaggi, P; Mazzi, B; Bianchi, F; Brozzi, F; Santini, P; Fiore, E; Marinò, M; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-12-01

    The subclass distribution of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) is debated, whereas their epitope pattern is restricted. Radioidine ((131)I) treatment for Graves' disease (GD) induces a rise in TgAb levels, but it is unknown whether it modifies subclass distribution and epitope pattern of TgAb as well. We collected sera from GD patients before (131) I treatment and 3 and 6 months thereafter. We measured total TgAb, TgAb light chains and TgAb subclasses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 25 patients. We characterized the TgAb epitope pattern in 30 patients by inhibiting their binding to (125-) (I) Tg by a pool of four TgAb-Fab (recognizing Tg epitope regions A, B, C and D) and to Tg in ELISA by each TgAb-Fab. Total TgAb immunoglobulin (Ig)G rose significantly (P = 0.024). TgAb κ chains did not change (P = 0.052), whereas TgAb λ chains increased significantly (P = 0.001) and persistently. We observed a significant rise in IgG1 and IgG3 levels after (131)I (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006, respectively), while IgG2 and IgG4 levels did not change. The rise of IgG1 was persistent, that of IgG3 transient. The levels of inhibition of TgAb binding to Tg by the TgAb-Fab pool were comparable. A slight, non-significant reduction of the inhibition by the immune-dominant TgAb-Fab A was observed 3 and 6 months after (131)I. We conclude that (131)I treatment for GD increases the levels of the complement-activating IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses and does not influence significantly the epitope pattern of TgAb. In autoimmune thyroid disease subclass distribution of autoantibodies is dynamic in spite of a stable epitope pattern. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  8. The zooplankton of Santa Catarina continental shelf in southern Brazil with emphasis on Copepoda and Cladocera and their relationship with physical coastal processes El zooplancton de la plataforma continental de Santa Catarina, sur de Brasil con énfasis en Copepoda y Cladocera y sus relaciones con procesos físicos costeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Domingos-Nunes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been carried out to exclusively investigate the zooplankton community of Santa Catarina State continental shelf, despite the economic and ecological importance of the area. This coastal region of southern Brazil presents highly relevant oceanographic processes, such as the strong influence of continental inputs, resurgence in the Cabo de Santa Marta Grande and River Plata plume water to the south. Two sampling cruises were carried out, in December 2005 and May 2006, in order to study temporal hydrological variations, and their influence on the biota of the region. Zooplankton samples for analysis were obtained by oblique hauls with Bongo nets at 33 sampling stations arranged in profiles perpendicular to the coast on each cruise. The predominant groups found in the samples were Copepoda, Cladocera, Salpidae and Chaetognatha, which presented higher densities at the stations closer to the coast. In the case of the December 2005 cruise, the salinity and temperature gradients perpendicular to the coast, promoted by the continental inputs to the north of the area and by the upwelling to the south, determined the limits of distribution of Acartia lilljeborgi and Penilia avirostris. However, the temperature and salinity gradients longitudinal to the coast determined on the May 2006 cruise did not explain the species distribution, indicating that biotic forcing mechanisms may have been active in the ecology of the system during this period.A pesar de la importancia económica y ecológica del área todavía no habían sido realizados estudios exclusivamente destinados a la investigación de la comunidad zooplanctónica de la plataforma continental del Estado de Santa Catarina. Esta región costera del sur de Brasil presenta procesos oceanográficos de alta relevancia, tales como fuerte influencia de aportes continentales, resurgencia en el Cabo de Santa Marta Grande y la pluma de agua del río Plata en el sur. Se efectuaron dos

  9. Quantitative analysis of the IgG and IgG subclass immune responses to chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactamase in serum from patients with cystic fibrosis by western blotting and laser scanning densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T D; Ciofu, O; Pressler, T

    1996-01-01

    lung infection with P aeruginosa was further investigated by correlating the a beta ab IgG subclasses with pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass a beta ab were investigated by western blotting and quantified by laser scanning densitometry......BACKGROUND: Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) are markers of the development of resistance of P aeruginosa to beta-lactam antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection. The role of these antibodies in patients with chronic....... A longitudinal study on 43 consecutive patients with cystic fibrosis who developed chronic lung infection with P aeruginosa was performed. RESULTS: IgG subclass a beta ab appeared in all patients with chronic infection with P aeruginosa. Eleven years after the onset of infection all the patients had IgG1, 79...

  10. Structure determination of an organometallic 1-(diazenylaryl)ethanol: a novel toxin subclass from the web of the spider Nephila clavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Maurício Ribeiro; Mendes, Maria Anita; Tormena, Cláudio Francisco; Souza, Bibiana M; Ribeiro, Susan P; Rittner, Roberto; Palma, Mario S

    2004-06-01

    A novel chemical subclass of toxin, [1-(3-diazenylphenyl)ethanol]iron, was identified among the compounds present in the web of the spider Nephila clavipes. This type of compound is not common among natural products, mainly in spider-venom toxins; it was shown to be a potent paralytic and/or lethal toxin applied by the spider over its web to ensure prey capture only by topical application. The structure was elucidated by means of ESI mass spectrometry, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution (HR) mass spectrometry, and ICP spectrometry. The structure of [1-(3-diazenylphenyl)ethanol]iron and the study of its insecticidal action may be used as a starting point for the development of new drugs for pest control in agriculture.

  11. Correlation between the Amount of Anti-D Antibodies and IgG Subclasses with Severity of Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Velkova

    2015-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The titers of the pregnant women serum those are lower than 32 and those higher than 1000 can well predict HDFN. The titers of anti-D antibodies between 64 and 512 have no exact predictive value. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of anti-D have no predictive value by themselves, and cannot foresee the outcome of HDFN. The research study results suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 should be included in a multi – parameter protocol for evaluation of the HDFN intensity. They can give a real assessment of the expected HDFN intensity in combination with the titer hight and the significance of the antibodies.

  12. IgG antibody subclasses, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-gamma levels in patients with type II lepra reaction on thalidomide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida-Sanchez, S; Favila-Castillo, L; Pedraza-Sanchez, S; Gomez-Melgar, M; Saul, A; Estrada-Parra, S; Estrada-Garcia, I

    1998-05-01

    A group of 9 Mexican lepromatous leprosy patients was studied at the beginning of a type II reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum, ENL) and after 1 or 2 months of thalidomide treatment. ENL patients at the onset of the reaction had slightly higher amounts of anti-Mycobacterium leprae IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, compared to similar lepromatous patients that did not develop ENL. Neither these antibody levels nor IgM and the other IgG subclasses were importantly modified after thalidomide treatment. Serum TNF was significantly higher in the patients that developed ENL compared to those that did not develop the reaction. TNF levels were slightly decreased after 1 month of thalidomide treatment and significantly decreased after 2 months of treatment. Serum IFN-gamma was significantly lower in patients at the onset of ENL and was increased after 1 and 2 months of thalidomide treatment.

  13. A computational approach to the description of individual immune responses. IgE and IgG-subclass allergen-specific antibodies formed during immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Osterballe, O

    1991-01-01

    Detailed evaluation of the IgE and IgG-subclass immune response during immunotherapy can now be performed by crossed radio immunoelectrophoresis (CRIE). Some new concepts are introduced facilitating the handling of the vast amount of data obtained by quantitating the immune response. These concepts...... are "distance" between antibody responses and "immune response width". The 20 patients included in this study were pollen-allergic patients who underwent specific immunotherapy in a 3-year prospective study. It was found that the immune response during immunotherapy was restricted to IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies...... and decreased towards six. For the IgG4 antibodies the number of reactions increased towards 15 antigens and decreased towards four. The increase is generally paralleled by an increase in quantitative immune response as well. For some of the antigens a rise in the IgE antibodies is contrasted by a fall...

  14. Diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of intestine in selective IgG 2 subclass deficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vikas; Lipka, Seth; Rizvon, Kaleem; Singh, Jaspreet; Rashid, Sadat; Mustacchia, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Diffuse Nodular Lymphoid Hyperplasia (DNLH) of the intestine is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain etiology, which is characterized by the presence of multiple nodular lesions. It can present as an asymptomatic disease or manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms like abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, occult bleeding or rarely intestinal obstruction. DNLH has been seen in association with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) where it poses a risk of malignant transformation. We present a case of diffuse lymphoid nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in a patient who was presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea, and was later found to have IgG2 subclass immunodeficieny, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Hashimoto's (autoimmune) thyroiditis. Through this report, we wish to review current literature as well as share our clinical experience in managing this rare entity.

  15. Micro-organismos da subclasse Coccidia: resistência e implicações para o processamento de materiais de assistência à saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Queiroz de Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teórico propõe uma reflexão sobre a resistência intrínseca da subclasse Coccidia, particularmente o gênero Cryptosporidium, considerado como um agente potencialmente patogênico para pacientes imunocomprometidos, e suas repercussões na prática assistencial. Atualmente, as diretrizes internacionais e nacionais aprovam como procedimento seguro a desinfecção química de alto nível de endoscópios digestivos, após sua limpeza. No entanto, estudos evidenciaram que micro-organismos da subclasse Coccidia, especificamente o Cryptosporidium, responsável por infecção entérica, são mais resistentes que as micobactérias e não são inativados pelos desinfetantes químicos de alto nível, exceto pelo Peróxido de Hidrogênio a 6% e 7,5%, formulação ainda não disponível no Brasil. Conclui-se que a legislação deve incluir este agente entre os micro-organismos teste para aprovação de desinfetantes químicos de alto nível e que as autoridades sanitárias devem se esforçar para garantir que os estabelecimentos de assistência à saúde tenham acesso a produtos eficazes contra o Cryptosporidium.

  16. Characteristics of HPV-specific antibody responses induced by infection and vaccination: cross-reactivity, neutralizing activity, avidity and IgG subclasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirte Scherpenisse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In order to assess HPV-specific IgG characteristics, we evaluated multiple aspects of the humoral antibody response that will provide insight in the HPV humoral immune response induced by HPV infection and vaccination. METHODS: Cross-reactivity of HPV-specific antibodies induced by infection or vaccination was assessed with VLP16 or 18 inhibition using a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay (MIA for HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. HPV16/18 specific IgG1-4 subclasses and avidity were determined with the VLP-MIA in sera after HPV infection and after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were determined in a small subset of single-seropositive and multi-seropositive naturally derived antibodies. RESULTS: Naturally derived antibodies from single-positive sera were highly genotype-specific as homologue VLP-inhibition percentages varied between 78-94%. In multi-positive sera, cross-reactive antibodies were observed both within and between α7 and α9 species. After vaccination, cross-reactive antibodies were mainly species-specific. Avidity of vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibodies was 3 times higher than that of antibodies induced by HPV infection (p<0.0001. IgG1 and IgG3 were found to be the predominant subclasses observed after HPV infection and vaccination. In the small subset tested, the number of single-positive sera with neutralizing capacity was higher than of multi-positive sera. CONCLUSION: Naturally derived HPV-specific antibodies from single-positive samples showed different characteristics in terms of cross-reactivity and neutralizing capacity compared with antibodies from multi-positive sera. Post-vaccination, HPV antibody avidity was approximately 3 times higher than antibody avidity induced by HPV infection. Therefore, antibody avidity might be a potential surrogate of protection.

  17. Cytokines, IgG subclasses and costimulation in a mouse model of thyroid autoimmunity induced by injection of fibroblasts co-expressing MHC class II and thyroid autoantigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X-M; Guo, J; Pichurin, P; Tanaka, K; Jaume, J C; Rapoport, B; Mclachlan, S M

    2000-01-01

    AKR/N mice injected with fibroblasts expressing MHC class II (RT4.15HP cells) and the TSH receptor (TSHR) develop antibodies similar to those in Graves' disease. We were unable to analyse the subclass of these antibodies because of unexpectedly high non-specific binding by ELISA or flow cytometry. The non-specific binding reflected generalized immune activation which occurred even when the fibroblasts did not express the TSHR. However, the IgG subclasses were determined for thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies induced using TPO-expressing RT4.14HP cells and found to be IgG2a > IgG1. This Th1 pattern is consistent with spontaneous secretion of interferon-gamma (but not IL-4 or IL-10) by splenocytes from injected mice. The Th1 bias was related to fibroblast injection because conventional immunization of the same mouse strain with purified TPO and adjuvant induced a Th2 response (IgG1 >> IgG2a). Further, untransfected fibroblasts themselves induced powerful, non-specific proliferative responses when used as antigen-presenting cells (APC) in vitro. Flow cytometry revealed that the RT4.15HP fibroblasts (and TSHR- and TPO-transfected derivatives) expressed B7-1. Unexpected constitutive expression of this key molecule may bypass the requirement for up-regulation of other costimulatory molecules involved in T cell stimulation. Our data support the concept that RT4.15HP fibroblasts present the TSHR (or TPO), at least for initiating the immune response. However, the accompanying generalized immune stimulation creates difficulties for analysis of TSHR-specific T and B lymphocytes. On the other hand, extension of the model to TPO, an easier antigen to study, will facilitate analysis of murine T cell responses likely to resemble those in human thyroid autoimmunity. PMID:11091271

  18. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.

  19. Subclass of individual IgA-secreting human lymphocytes. Investigation of in vivo pneumococcal polysaccharide-induced and in vitro mitogen-induced blood B cells by monolayer plaque-forming cell assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T; Sigsgaard, T

    1988-01-01

    The subclass of individual human IgA B cells was investigated by means of monolayer plaque-forming cell assays permitting analysis of all IgA-secreting cells as well as of cells secreting IgA anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody. Center cells were examined by indirect immunofluorescence...

  20. Macrozooplâncton da Zona Econômica Exclusiva do Nordeste do Brasil (segunda expedição oceanográfica - REVIZEE/NE II com ênfase em Copepoda (Crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida Holanda Cavalcanti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se caracterizar a densidade, abundância relativa, freqüência de ocorrência, diversidade específica e associação de espécies do macrozooplâncton oceânico da "Zona Econômica Exclusiva" foi realizado o presente estudo. A região prospectada encontra-se localizada entre os paralelos 7º28'56"S - 34º32'45"W, referente a segunda expedição oceanográfica do Programa REVIZEE/NE, realizada pelo Noc. Antares da DHN/Marinha do Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas com rede de plâncton tipo bongo com malha de 300 e 500µm, no período de 31/01 a 07/02/97 em 21 estações, totalizando 42 amostras. Foram identificados 78 taxa. A densidade total dos organismos (exceto Copepoda variou de 2,31 a 6,06 org.m-3 (estações 55 e 56 e, para os Copepoda de 0,99 a 4,75 org.m-3 (estações 48 e 57. Em termos de freqüência de ocorrência Crustacea e Chaetognatha foram muito freqüentes; Cnidaria e Teleostei (ovos e larvas freqüentes; Mollusca, Annelida e Chordata pouco freqüentes e Protozoa raros. A diversidade específica variou de 0,648 a 4,037 ind.bits-1. A equitabilidade variou de 0,279 a 1,0. Os baixos valores de diversidade e equitabilidade ocorreram devido à dominância de Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849 e Calanopia americana F. Dahl, 1894. A análise cofenética revelou um r The present study was performed with the objective to characterise the density, relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, specific diversity and species associations of the oceanic macrozooplankton of the "Exclusive Economic Zone". The area under investigation is located between 7º28'56"S - 34º32'45"W and 3º21'08"S - 38º40'29"W, sampled during the second oceanographic expedition REVIZEE/NE on board OV Antares of the Brazilian Navy. Twenty-one samples were taken with bongo type plankton net with 300µm mesh size between 0 and 200 m depth. 63 (sixty and three taxa were identified. Total density varied from 2,31 to 6,06 ind.m-3 (station 55 and 56 for the whole

  1. Efecto de los metales sobre microcrustáceos de agua dulce. Avances metodológicos y potencialidad de cladóceros y copépodos como organismos test Effects of metals on freshwater microcrustaceans. Metodological advances and potentiality of cladocerans and copepods as test organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Gutierrez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El incremento de los metales en los cuerpos de agua dulce a causa de las actividades antropogénicas genera importantes alteraciones sobre la biota. Esta revisión analiza los efectos adversos de varios metales de relevancia ecotoxicológica sobre los microcrustáceos zooplanctónicos (cladóceros y copépodos, los avances experimentales en esta línea y las ventajas de cada grupo como organismos test. En general, la necesidad de obtener indicadores más sensibles y representativos que los tradicionales, promovió lineamientos hacia estudios subcrónicos, interspecíficos y multigeneracionales. Por otra parte, la tendencia actual hacia el estudio de mezclas de sustancias y los efectos indirectos permite adquirir una visión más integral del problema. El impacto sobre las poblaciones es muy variable, dependiendo de la naturaleza del metal, las características del medio, el tiempo de exposición, las condiciones de cultivo y aspectos genéticos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los trabajos se centran en pocas especies, dejando vacancias en el conocimiento de las representantes de cada región particular. Si bien algunos atributos de los cladóceros y copépodos como el tamaño, la morfología y el rol ecológico los tornan buenos indicadores, las diferencias en el desarrollo, reproducción y estrategias de perpetuación confieren ventajas a un grupo sobre otro.The increase of metals in fresh water systems due to anthropogenic activities cause important alterations on the biota. The present review analyze the adverse effects of various metals of ecotoxicological relevance on microcrustaceans zooplankton species (cladocerans and copepods, the experimental advances and the advantages of each group as test organisms. In general, the need to obtain more sensitive and representative indicators than the tradicional ones leads to subchronic, interespecific and multigenerational studies. Additionally, the analysis of mixtures as well as their indirect

  2. Length-weight regressions of the microcrustacean species from a tropical floodplain Regressões peso-comprimento das espécies de microcrustáceos em uma planície de inundação tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study presents length-weight regressions adjusted for the most representative microcrustacean species and young stages of copepods from tropical lakes, together with a comparison of these results with estimates from the literature for tropical and temperate regions; METHODS: Samples were taken from six isolated lakes, in summer and winter, using a motorized pump and plankton net. The dry weight of each size class (for cladocerans or developmental stage (for copepods was measured using an electronic microbalance; RESULTS: Adjusted regressions were significant. We observed a trend of under-estimating the weights of smaller species and overestimating those of larger species, when using regressions obtained from temperate regions; CONCLUSION: We must be cautious about using pooled regressions from the literature, preferring models of similar species, or weighing the organisms and building new models.OBJETIVO: Este estudo apresenta as regressões peso-comprimento elaboradas para as espécies mais representativas de microcrustáceos e formas jovens de copépodes em lagos tropicais, bem como a comparação desses resultados com as estimativas da literatura para as regiões tropical e temperada; MÉTODOS: As amostragens foram realizadas em seis lagoas isoladas, no verão e no inverno, usando moto-bomba e rede de plâncton. O peso seco de cada classe de tamanho (para cladóceros e estágio de desenvolvimento (copépodes foi medido em microbalança eletrônica; RESULTADOS: As regressões ajustadas foram significativas. Observamos uma tendência em subestimar o peso das espécies de menor porte e superestimar as espécies de maior porte, quando se utiliza regressões peso-comprimento obtidas para a região de clima temperado; CONCLUSÃO: Devemos ter cautela no uso de regressões peso-comprimento existentes na literatura, preferindo modelos para as mesmas espécies, ou pesar os organismos e construir os próprios modelos.

  3. Relationship of baseline HDL subclasses, small dense LDL and LDL triglyceride to cardiovascular events in the AIM-HIGH clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, John J; Slee, April; Fleg, Jerome L; O'Brien, Kevin D; Marcovina, Santica M

    2016-08-01

    Previous results of the AIM-HIGH trial showed that baseline levels of the conventional lipid parameters were not predictive of future cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. The aims of this secondary analysis were to examine the levels of cholesterol in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses (HDL2-C and HDL3-C), small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL-C), and LDL triglyceride (LDL-TG) at baseline, as well as the relationship between these levels and CV outcomes. Individuals with CV disease and low baseline HDL-C levels were randomized to simvastatin plus placebo or simvastatin plus extended release niacin (ERN), 1500 to 2000 mg/day, with ezetimibe added as needed in both groups to maintain an on-treatment LDL-C in the range of 40-80 mg/dL. The primary composite endpoint was death from coronary disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, or symptom-driven coronary or cerebrovascular revascularization. HDL-C, HDL3-C, sdLDL-C and LDL-TG were measured at baseline by detergent-based homogeneous assays. HDL2-C was computed by the difference between HDL-C and HDL3-C. Analyses were performed on 3094 study participants who were already on statin therapy prior to enrollment in the trial. Independent contributions of lipoprotein fractions to CV events were determined by Cox proportional hazards modeling. Baseline HDL3-C was protective against CV events (HR: 0.84, p = 0.043) while HDL-C, HDL2-C, sdLDL-C and LDL-TG were not event-related (HR: 0.96, p = 0.369; HR: 1.07, p = 0.373; HR: 1.05, p = 0.492; HR: 1.03, p = 0.554, respectively). The results of this secondary analysis of the AIM-HIGH Study indicate that levels of HDL3-C, but not other lipoprotein fractions, are predictive of CV events, suggesting that the HDL3 subclass may be primarily responsible for the inverse association of HDL-C and CV disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between the Amount of Anti-D Antibodies and IgG Subclasses with Severity of Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkova, Emilija

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subclasses to IgG anti-D on the intensity of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN) at 45 fetuses/newborns with symptoms of mild and severe HDFN in Republic of Macedonia. In retrospective and prospective studies, in a period of 10 years, from 2004 to 2014, there have been immunohemathology tests performed on 22 009 samples on serums of pregnant women. At 37.78% of the total number of tested patients, IgG1 and IgG3 was the reason for severe HDFN. At 17.77% of the total number of tested patients, which had only IgG1detected, was the reason for serious intensity of HDFN. The correlation of the titer to anti-D antibodies in the mother's serum and the intensity of HDFN were researched in 48 newborns. The titers between 1:8 and 1:32 resulted in 3 cases of HDFN with symptoms of severe disease and in 4 cases there were no signs of HDFN. At 12 women that had a titre between 1:32 and 1:512, five of the newborns developed severe HDFN, and seven had symptoms of mild and weak intensity form. In 3 cases the titer was higher than 512, and out of them one newborn had weak symptoms of HDFN, one developed severe HDFN and one ended with foetal death. Only in one case the titer reached a value higher than 1000, and it ended with a fetal death. The titers of the pregnant women serum those are lower than 32 and those higher than 1000 can well predict HDFN. The titers of anti-D antibodies between 64 and 512 have no exact predictive value. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of anti-D have no predictive value by themselves, and cannot foresee the outcome of HDFN. The research study results suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 should be included in a multi - parameter protocol for evaluation of the HDFN intensity. They can give a real assessment of the expected HDFN intensity in combination with the titer hight and the significance of the antibodies.

  5. A new genus of Ectinosomatidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from sublittoral sediments in Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil, including an updated key to genera and notes on Noodtiella Wells, 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terue Kihara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Both sexes of a new genus and species of Ectinosomatidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from sublittoral sediments collected on the inner continental shelf in Ubatuba, São Paulo State (Brazil are described in detail. Chaulionyx gen. n. (type species: C. paivacarvalhoi sp. n. differs from all known genera in the presence of a conspicuous bifid spine on the prehensile P1 endopod. It can be differentiated from other genera with a prehensile endopod (Halophytophilus Brian, 1919; Bradyellopsis Brian, 1925; Klieosoma Hicks & Schriever, 1985 by the presence of distinctive subrectangular middorsal pores on the urosomites and the unarmed male sixth legs. The genus Lineosoma Wells, 1965 is recognized as a paraphyletic taxon and relegated to a junior subjective synonym of Noodtiella Wells, 1965. Arenosetella pectinata Chappuis, 1954a is removed from its floating position in Ectinosomoides Nicholls, 1945, transferred to the genus Noodtiella as N. pectinata comb. n. and considered the senior subjective synonym of N. toukae Mitwally & Montagna, 2001. Dichotomous keys are provided for the identification of the 18 valid species of Noodtiella and the 21 valid genera of the family Ectinosomatidae. Halophytophilus aberrans Wells & Rao, 1987 is placed species incertae sedis in the family.

  6. (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) from southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-08-22

    Aug 22, 1988 ... The three segments each bear 7-4-10 setae successively. The terminal segment bears one bifid seta. Second antenna three-segmented. (Figure 2a). Basal segment stout and about twice as long as second segment. Third segment transformed into a stout, sclerotized hook articulating laterally with second.

  7. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1976-12-09

    ? and 200, K-31017, in the Zoologisches. Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg. Further paratypes in the Zoologisches Museum der UniversiHit. Kiel, Federal Republic of Germany. Type-locality: Langvlei, Wilderness ...

  8. Type-IVC Secretion System: A Novel Subclass of Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) Common Existing in Gram-Positive Genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gao, George F.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of pathogens are being found to possess specialized secretion systems which they use in various ways to subvert host defenses. Type IV secretion system (T4SS) is one of versatile secretion systems essential for the virulence and even survival of some bacteria species, and they enable the secretion of protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope. T4SS was once believed to be present only in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we present evidence of a new subclass of T4SS, Type-IVC secretion system and indicate its common existence in the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus. We further identified that VirB1, VirB4, VirB6 and VirD4 are the minimal key components of this system. Using genome comparisons and evolutionary relationship analysis, we proposed that Type-IVC secretion system is movable via transposon factors and mediates the conjugative transfer of DNA, enhances bacterial pathogenicity, and could cause large-scale outbreaks of infections in humans. PMID:23056296

  9. Antibody response to the Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy and infection-prone individuals with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Zoric, M; Ulanova, M; Friman, V; Björkander, J; Oxelius, V A; Lucas, A; Hanson, L A

    2004-09-01

    Searching for a possible explanation for the phenotypic heterogeneity in IgG3 deficiency, we studied the antibody response to a polysaccharide and a protein antigen in IgG3-deficient (IgG3d) adults after vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (Hib CP) conjugated to tetanus toxoid. Distribution of isotypes, idiotypes, clonotypes, and Gm allotypes were compared. All the vaccinated individuals, irrespective of the level of IgG3 and proneness to infections, developed protective levels of anti-Hib CP. Significantly lower prevaccination levels of IgG2 (p infection-prone compared to the healthy IgG3d individuals and/or controls. Seventy percent of the IgG3d patients and none of the controls had the low responding Gm(ga-n/ga-n) genotype, while the majority of the controls had the alternative Gm(bfn/bfn) genotype. The conjugate ACT-HIB vaccine efficiently overcomes the IgG3 subclass deficiency state and the genetic predisposition for lower responsiveness, providing protection against Hib and tetanus infections. The proneness to infection in some IgG3d individuals may relate to their low prevaccination antibody levels.

  10. Immunological studies on bee-keepers: specific IgG and subclass typing IgG against bee venom and bee venom components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, R; Forster, J; Ziupa, J; Karitzky, D

    1980-11-17

    Specific IgE antibodies against bee venom and its components were studied in 23 bee-keepers. The highest IgG serum levels were observed for whole bee venom followed by phospholipase A. The serum levels of specific IgG antibodies against melittin and MCD-peptide were lower, the lowest serum levels being observed for apamin. After a 5 month absence from bee-keeping a fall in the serum levels of IgG antibodies was observed in all the bee-keepers studied. The investigation of the IgG subclass antibodies 1-4 against bee venom and phospholipase A demonstrated the highest serum levels for IgG 4 and IgG 2, the lowest levels were observed for IgG 1. The lowest IgG serum levels were associated with the least effective protection to bee stings. These findings support the concept that specific IgG antibodies prevent the development of allergic symptoms after bee sting.

  11. Multivariate DoE Optimization of Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation Coupled to Quantitative LC-MS/MS for Analysis of Lipoprotein Subclasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this report we demonstrate a practical multivariate design of experiment (DoE approach for asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4 method optimization using separation of lipoprotein subclasses as an example. First, with the aid of commercially available software, we built a full factorial screening design where the theoretical outcomes were calculated by applying established formulas that govern AF4 channel performance for a 5–35 nm particle size range of interest for lipid particles. Second, using the desirable ranges of instrumental parameters established from theoretical optimization, we performed fractional factorial DoE for AF4 separation of pure albumin and ferritin with UV detection to narrow the range of instrumental parameters and allow optimum size resolution while minimizing losses from membrane immobilization. Third, the optimal range of conditions were tested using response surface DoE for sub-fractionation of high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL in human serum, where the recovery of the analytes were monitored by fraction collection and isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS analysis of each individual fraction for cholesterol and apolipoproteins (ApoA-1 and ApoB-100. Our results show that DoE is an effective tool in combining AF4 theoretical knowledge and experimental data in finding the most optimal set of AF4 instrumental parameters for quantitative coupling with LC-MS/MS measurements.

  12. A Monosaccharide Residue Is Sufficient to Maintain Mouse and Human IgG Subclass Activity and Directs IgG Effector Functions to Cellular Fc Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G (IgG glycosylation modulates antibody activity and represents a major source of heterogeneity within antibody preparations. Depending on their glycosylation pattern, individual IgG glycovariants present in recombinant antibody preparations may trigger effects ranging from enhanced pro-inflammatory activity to increased anti-inflammatory activity. In contrast, reduction of IgG glycosylation beyond the central mannose core is generally believed to result in impaired IgG activity. However, this study reveals that a mono- or disaccharide structure consisting of one N-acetylglucosamine with or without a branching fucose residue is sufficient to retain the activity of the most active human and mouse IgG subclasses in vivo and further directs antibody activity to cellular Fcγ receptors. Notably, the activity of minimally glycosylated antibodies is not predicted by in vitro assays based on a monomeric antibody-Fcγ-receptor interaction analysis, whereas in vitro assay systems using immune complexes are more suitable to predict IgG activity in vivo.

  13. Immunoglobulin prophylaxis in 350 adults with IgG subclass deficiency and recurrent respiratory tract infections: a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinder-Nielsen, Ann-Margreth; Granert, Carl; Forsberg, Pia; Friman, Vanda; Vietorisz, Auli; Björkander, Janne

    2007-01-01

    350 adult patients in Sweden were included in a retrospective study covering more than 2000 patient-y, to evaluate the efficacy of immunoglobulin (Ig) prophylaxis. All patients had selective or combined IgG subclass deficiency, without IgA deficiency, and suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The patients had been given Ig prophylaxis for 0.5-21 y (mean 5.5 y). In total, 164/350 of the patients had a concomitant lung disease. Because of the heterogeneity of this retrospective material we evaluated only those patients with 4 or more antibiotic-demanding (i.e. presumably bacterial) episodes of RTI per y treated with an Ig dose of about 100 mg/kg/week (132/350). The frequency of antibiotic treated RTIs prior to and during latest y/s of Ig prophylaxis was compared. No difference in response could be found between patients with and without chronic lung diseases. In 92/132 a > or = 50% reduction of the rate of episodes of antibiotic-demanding RTIs was recorded (p IgG1 57%, IgG2 59%, IgG3 63% and for the combinations 61% (all p<0.001).

  14. Rationale for the development of IMC-3G3, a fully human immunoglobulin G subclass 1 monoclonal antibody targeting the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gaurav D; Loizos, Nick; Youssoufian, Hagop; Schwartz, Jonathan D; Rowinsky, Eric K

    2010-02-15

    A large body of evidence suggests that the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family and associated receptors are potential targets in oncology therapeutic development because of their critical roles in the proliferation and survival of various cancers and in the regulation and growth of the tumor stroma and blood vessels. Several small molecules that nonspecifically target the PDGF signaling axis are in current use or development as anticancer therapies. However, for the majority of these agents, PDGF and its receptors are neither the primary targets nor the principal mediators of anticancer activity. IMC-3G3, a fully human monoclonal antibody of the immunoglobulin G subclass 1, specifically binds to the human PDGF receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) with high affinity and blocks PDGF ligand binding and PDGFRalpha activation. The results of preclinical studies and the frequent expression of PDGFRalpha in many types of cancer and in cancer-associated stroma support a rationale for the clinical development of IMC-3G3. Currently, IMC-3G3 is being evaluated in early clinical development for patients with several types of solid malignancies. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  15. A New Reference Genome Assembly for the Microcrustacean Daphnia pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Ye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparing genomes of closely related genotypes from populations with distinct demographic histories can help reveal the impact of effective population size on genome evolution. For this purpose, we present a high quality genome assembly of Daphnia pulex (PA42, and compare this with the first sequenced genome of this species (TCO, which was derived from an isolate from a population with >90% reduction in nucleotide diversity. PA42 has numerous similarities to TCO at the gene level, with an average amino acid sequence identity of 98.8 and >60% of orthologous proteins identical. Nonetheless, there is a highly elevated number of genes in the TCO genome annotation, with ∼7000 excess genes appearing to be false positives. This view is supported by the high GC content, lack of introns, and short length of these suspicious gene annotations. Consistent with the view that reduced effective population size can facilitate the accumulation of slightly deleterious genomic features, we observe more proliferation of transposable elements (TEs and a higher frequency of gained introns in the TCO genome.

  16. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity: immunoblot analysis of IgE and IgG subclass responses to Culicoides nubeculosus salivary gland extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, W; Wilson, A D; Mellor, P; Doherr, M G; Torsteinsdottir, S; Zurbriggen, A; Jungi, T; Marti, E

    2006-09-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to bites of Culicoides and sometimes Simulium spp. The allergens causing IBH are probably salivary gland proteins from these insects, but they have not yet been identified. The aim of our study was to identify the number and molecular weight of salivary gland extract (SGE) proteins derived from Culicoides nubeculosus which are able to bind IgE antibodies (ab) from the sera of IBH-affected horses. Additionally, we sought to investigate the IgG subclass (IgGa, IgGb and IgGT) reactivity to these proteins. Individual IgE and IgG subclass responses to proteins of C. nubeculosus SGE were evaluated by immunoblot in 42 IBH-affected and 26 healthy horses belonging to different groups (Icelandic horses born in Iceland, Icelandic horses and horses from different breeds born in mainland Europe). Additionally, the specific antibody response was studied before exposure to bites of Culicoides spp. and over a period of 3 years in a cohort of 10 Icelandic horses born in Iceland and imported to Switzerland. Ten IgE-binding protein bands with approximate molecular weights of 75, 66, 52, 48, 47, 32, 22/21, 19, 15, 13/12 kDa were found in the SGE. Five of these bands bound IgE from 50% or more of the horse sera. Thirty-nine of the 42 IBH-affected horses but only 2 of the 26 healthy horses showed IgE-binding to the SGE (p<0.000001). Similarly, more IBH-affected than healthy horses had IgGa ab binding to the Culicoides SGE (19/22 and 9/22, respectively, p<0.01). Sera of IBH-affected horses contained IgE, IgGa and IgGT but not IgGb ab against significantly more protein bands than the sera of the healthy horses. The cohort of 10 Icelandic horses confirmed these results and showed that Culicoides SGE specific IgE correlates with onset of IBH. IBH-affected horses that were born in Iceland had IgGa and IgGT ab (p< or =0.01) as well as IgE ab (p=0.06) against a significantly higher number of

  17. Cytology of the minor-vein phloem in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae suggests a high diversity of phloem-loading modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis R. Batashev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of abundant plasmodesmata at the bundle sheath/phloem interface in Oleaceae (Gamalei, 1974 and Cucurbitaceae (Turgeon et al., 1975 opened the questions whether these plasmodesmata are functional in phloem loading and how widespread is symplasmic loading. Analysis of over 800 dicot species allowed the definition of ‘open’ and ‘closed’ types of the minor vein phloem depending on the abundance of plasmodesmata between companion cells and bundle sheath (Gamalei, 1989; 1990. These types corresponded to potential symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loaders, respectively; however, this definition covered a spectrum of diverse structures of phloem endings. Here, a review of detailed cytological analyses of minor veins in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae is presented, including data on several cell types and their combinations which have not been reported previously. The percentage of Asteridae species with ‘open’ minor vein cytology which also contain sieve-element-companion cell complexes with ‘closed’ cytology, i.e. that show specialization for both symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loading, was determined. Along with recent data confirming the dissimilar functional specialization of structurally different parts of minor vein phloem in the stachyose-translocating species Alonsoa meridionalis (Voitsekhovskaja et al., 2009, these findings suggest that apoplasmic loading is indispensable in a large group of species previously classified as putative symplasmic loaders. Altogether, this study provides formal classifications of companion cells and of minor veins, respectively, in 24 families of the Asteridae based on their structural features, opening the way to a close investigation of the relationship between structure and function in phloem loading.

  18. Structure determination of a tetrahydro-beta-carboline of arthropod origin: a novel alkaloid-toxin subclass from the web of spider Nephila clavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Maurício Ribeiro; Mendes, Maria Anita; Tormena, Cláudio Francisco; Souza, Bibiana M; Cesar, Lílian Mari Marcondes; Rittner, Roberto; Palma, Mario S

    2005-04-01

    The orb-web spiders are polyphagous animals in which the web plays a very important role in the capture of preys; oily droplets usually cover the capture-web of the spider Nephila clavipes and seem to be of great importance for prey capture. The knowledge of the chemical composition of these droplets is necessary to understand the function of this adhesive material in web mechanics and prey capture. A novel subclass of spider toxins, tetrahydro-beta-carboline, was identified among the weaponry of compounds present inside of oily droplets. This type of alkaloid is not common among the natural compounds of spider toxins. Apparently, when the prey arthropods get caught by the spider web, their bodies are covered with many adhesive oily droplets, which disrupt delivering the tetrahydro-beta-carboline to the direct contact with the prey integument. Toxicity assays demonstrated a potent lethal effect of the alkaloid toxin to the spider preys; topical applications of the tetrahydro-beta-carboline at first caused clear signs of neurotoxicity, followed by the death of preys. The structure of the major component, a tetrahydro-beta-carboline, among the alkaloid toxins was elucidated by means of UV spectrophotometry, ESI mass spectrometry, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure of the natural toxin was determined as 1-(2-guanidinoethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxymethyl)-beta-carboline; the investigation of the pharmacological properties and neurotoxic actions of this compound may be used in the future as reference for the development of new drugs to be applied at level of pest control in agriculture.

  19. Impact of antibody subclass and disulfide isoform differences on the biological activity of CD200R and βklotho agonist antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Ognjen; Stevens, Jennitte; Chou, Robert Y-T; Weiszmann, Jennifer V; Sekirov, Laura; Thomson, Christy; Badh, Anita; Grauer, Stephanie; Chan, Brian; Graham, Kevin; Manchulenko, Kathy; Dillon, Thomas M; Li, Yang; Foltz, Ian N

    2017-05-13

    Agonism of cell surface receptors by monoclonal antibodies is dependent not only on its ability to bind the target, but also to deliver a biological signal through receptors to the cell. Immunoglobulin G2 antibodies (IgG2s) are made up of a mixture of distinct isoforms (IgG2-A, -B and A/B), which differ by the disulfide connectivity at the hinge region. When evaluating panels of agonistic antibodies against CD200 receptor (CD200R) or βklotho receptor (βklotho), we noticed striking activity differences of IgG1 or IgG2 antibodies with the same variable domains. For the CD200R antibody, the IgG2 antibody demonstrated higher activity than the IgG1 or IgG4 antibody. More significantly, for βklotho, agonist antibodies with higher biological activity as either IgG2 or IgG1 were identified. In both cases, ion exchange chromatography was able to isolate the bioactivity to the IgG2-B isoform from the IgG2 parental mixture. The subclass-related increase in agonist activity was not correlated with antibody aggregation or binding affinity, but was driven by enhanced avidity for the CD200R antibody. These results add to the growing body of evidence that show that conformational differences in the antibody hinge region can have a dramatic impact on the antibody activity and must be considered when screening and engineering therapeutic antibody candidates. The results also demonstrate that the IgG1 (IgG2-A like) or the IgG2-B form may provide the most active form of agonist antibodies for different antibodies and targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of HPV-specific antibody responses induced by infection and vaccination: cross-reactivity, neutralizing activity, avidity and IgG subclasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Schepp, Rutger M; Mollers, Madelief; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess HPV-specific IgG characteristics, we evaluated multiple aspects of the humoral antibody response that will provide insight in the HPV humoral immune response induced by HPV infection and vaccination. Cross-reactivity of HPV-specific antibodies induced by infection or vaccination was assessed with VLP16 or 18 inhibition using a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay (MIA) for HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. HPV16/18 specific IgG1-4 subclasses and avidity were determined with the VLP-MIA in sera after HPV infection and after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were determined in a small subset of single-seropositive and multi-seropositive naturally derived antibodies. Naturally derived antibodies from single-positive sera were highly genotype-specific as homologue VLP-inhibition percentages varied between 78-94%. In multi-positive sera, cross-reactive antibodies were observed both within and between α7 and α9 species. After vaccination, cross-reactive antibodies were mainly species-specific. Avidity of vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibodies was 3 times higher than that of antibodies induced by HPV infection (pHPV infection and vaccination. In the small subset tested, the number of single-positive sera with neutralizing capacity was higher than of multi-positive sera. Naturally derived HPV-specific antibodies from single-positive samples showed different characteristics in terms of cross-reactivity and neutralizing capacity compared with antibodies from multi-positive sera. Post-vaccination, HPV antibody avidity was approximately 3 times higher than antibody avidity induced by HPV infection. Therefore, antibody avidity might be a potential surrogate of protection.

  1. Pass-by-Subclass Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    as first class packages, i.e., when lookups into these entities are used to obtain types. The combination of these two features---the ability to obtain an immutable reference from a mutable reference, and the ability to perform computations on types---give rise to a surprisingly complex computational...

  2. HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in 240 index patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgG subclass deficiency in central Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton James C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to quantify HLA-A and -B phenotype and haplotype frequencies in Alabama index patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and selective IgG subclass deficiency (IgGSD, and in control subjects. Methods Phenotypes were detected using DNA-based typing (index cases and microlymphocytotoxicity typing (controls. Results A and B phenotypes were determined in 240 index cases (114 CVID, 126 IgGSD and 1,321 controls and haplotypes in 195 index cases and 751 controls. Phenotyping revealed that the "uncorrected" frequencies of A*24, B*14, B*15, B*35, B*40, B*49, and B*50 were significantly greater in index cases, and frequencies of B*35, B*58, B*62 were significantly lower in index cases. After Bonferroni corrections, the frequencies of phenotypes A*24, B*14, and B*40 were significantly greater in index cases, and the frequency of B*62 was significantly lower in index cases. The most common haplotypes in index cases were A*02-B*44 (frequency 0.1385, A*01-B*08 (frequency 0.1308, and A*03-B*07 (frequency 0.1000, and the frequency of each was significantly greater in index cases than in control subjects ("uncorrected" values of p p p = 0.0166. Most phenotype and haplotype frequencies in CVID and IgGSD were similar. 26.7% of index patients were HLA-haploidentical with one or more other index patients. We diagnosed CVID or IgGSD in first-degree or other relatives of 26 of 195 index patients for whom HLA-A and -B haplotypes had been ascertained; A*01-B*08, A*02-B*44, and A*29-B*44 were most frequently associated with CVID or IgGSD in these families. We conservatively estimated the combined population frequency of CVID and IgGSD to be 0.0092 in adults, based on the occurrence of CVID and IgGSD in spouses of the index cases. Conclusions CVID and IgGSD in adults are significantly associated with several HLA haplotypes, many of which are also common in the Alabama Caucasian population. Immunoglobulin phenotype variability

  3. Validation and evaluation of VapA-specific IgG and IgG subclass enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to identify foals with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M G; Oliveira, A F; Loynachan, A; Page, A; Svansson, V; Giguère, S; Horohov, D W

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi (Rhodococcus hoagii/Prescottella equi) is a common cause of foal pneumonia, but its diagnosis remains a challenge for equine veterinarians. While the VapA-specific (virulence-associated protein A) immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has low sensitivity and specificity for detecting pneumonic foals, little is known about VapA-specific IgG subclasses. To evaluate the performance of VapA-specific ELISA for IgG and its subclasses IgGa, IgGb and IgG(T) in the early diagnosis of pneumonia caused by R. equi. Assay validation followed by assessment of diagnostic performance using archived samples from animals of known status. Serum samples from exposed (n = 125) and nonexposed adult horses (n = 10) and from experimentally challenged and naturally infected foals were used for ELISA validation. Post mortem and tissue culture records of the last 24 years from the Institute for Experimental Pathology at the University of Iceland in Keldur, Iceland laboratory were evaluated to confirm the absence of R. equi cases in Iceland. The diagnostic performance of VapA-specific IgG and its subclasses was evaluated using banked serum samples from pneumonic (n = 21) and healthy foals (n = 80). To evaluate each IgG assay, a cut-off value was selected based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and used to calculate sensitivity and specificity. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were calculated for each ELISA. Using sera from Iceland, where R. equi infection has not been reported, the VapA-specific IgG ELISA differentiated exposed from nonexposed horses. When used to identify infected foals, VapA-specific IgG, IgGa and IgGb had no diagnostic value. In contrast, IgG(T) had high sensitivity and specificity. Horses from Iceland are not exposed to VapA(+) R. equi and can serve as negative controls. VapA-specific IgG subclasses, with the exception of IgG(T), are poor predictors of disease. Further

  4. High prevalence of subclass-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins in adult cystic fibrosis sera: possible mode of immunoprotection against symptomatic C. difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaghan TM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanya M Monaghan,1 Ola H Negm,2,3 Brendon MacKenzie,4 Mohamed R Hamed,2,3 Clifford C Shone,5 David P Humphreys,4 K Ravi Acharya,6 Mark H Wilcox7 1Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, 2Breast Surgery Group, Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine, School of Medicine, Queen’s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 3Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 4Antibody Biology, UCB-New Medicines, UCB Celltech, Slough, UK; 5Toxins Group, National Infection Service, Public Health England, Salisbury, UK; 6Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 7Leeds Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Objectives: Despite multiple risk factors and a high rate of colonization for Clostridium difficile, the occurrence of C. difficile infection in patients with cystic fibrosis is rare. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of binding C. difficile toxin-specific immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG and anti-toxin neutralizing antibodies in the sera of adults with cystic fibrosis, symptomatic C. difficile infection (without cystic fibrosis and healthy controls. Methods: Subclass-specific IgA and IgG responses to highly purified whole C. difficile toxins A and B (toxinotype 0, strain VPI 10463, ribotype 087, toxin B from a C. difficile toxin-B-only expressing strain (CCUG 20309 and precursor form of B fragment of binary toxin, pCDTb, were determined by protein microarray. Neutralizing antibodies to C. difficile toxins A and B were evaluated using a Caco-2 cell-based neutralization assay. Results: Serum IgA anti-toxin A and B levels and neutralizing antibodies against toxin A were significantly higher in adult cystic fibrosis patients (n=16 compared with healthy controls (n=17 and

  5. Interaction of the Aspergillus nidulans microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) component ApsB with gamma-tubulin and evidence for a role of a subclass of peroxisomes in the formation of septal MTOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekert, Nadine; Veith, Daniel; Fischer, Reinhard

    2010-05-01

    Peroxisomes are a diverse class of organelles involved in different physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. Although proteins imported into peroxisomes carry a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the C terminus (PTS1) or an alternative one close to the N terminus (PTS2), the protein content of peroxisomes varies drastically. Here we suggest a new class of peroxisomes involved in microtubule (MT) formation. Eukaryotic cells assemble MTs from distinct points in the cell. In the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, septum-associated microtubule-organizing centers (sMTOCs) are very active in addition to the spindle pole bodies (SPBs). Previously, we identified a novel MTOC-associated protein, ApsB (Schizosaccharomyces pombe mto1), whose absence affected MT formation from sMTOCs more than from SPBs, suggesting that the two protein complexes are organized differently. We show here that sMTOCs share at least two further components, gamma-tubulin and GcpC (S. pombe Alp6) with SPBs and found that ApsB interacts with gamma-tubulin. In addition, we discovered that ApsB interacts with the Woronin body protein HexA and is targeted to a subclass of peroxisomes via a PTS2 peroxisomal targeting sequence. The PTS2 motif was necessary for function but could be replaced with a PTS1 motif at the C terminus of ApsB. These results suggest a novel function for a subclass of peroxisomes in cytoskeletal organization.

  6. Viscosity of high concentration protein formulations of monoclonal antibodies of the IgG1 and IgG4 subclass - Prediction of viscosity through protein-protein interaction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Martin S; Kalonia, Devendra S; Parshad, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the relation between protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and solution viscosity at high protein concentration using three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), two of the IgG4 subclass and one of the IgG1 subclass. A range of methods was used to quantify the PPI...... low or high protein concentration determined using DLS. The PPI measurements were correlated with solution viscosity (measured by DLS using polystyrene nanospheres and ultrasonic shear rheology) as a function of pH (4-9) and ionic strength (10, 50 and 150mM). Our measurements showed that the highest...... solution viscosity was observed under conditions with the most negative kD, the highest apparent radius and the lowest net charge. An increase in ionic strength resulted in a change in the nature of the PPI at low pH from repulsive to attractive. In the neutral to alkaline pH region the mAbs behaved...

  7. Data on carotid intima-media thickness and lipoprotein subclasses in type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1DM is associated with increased risk of macrovascular complications. We examined longitudinal associations of serum conventional lipids and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-determined lipoprotein subclasses with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in adults with T1DM (n=455 enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT. Data on serum lipids and lipoproteins were collected at DCCT baseline (1983–89 and were correlated with common and internal carotid IMT determined by ultrasonography during the observational follow-up of the DCCT, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC study, at EDIC ‘Year 1’ (199–1996 and EDIC ‘Year 6’ (1998–2000. This article contains data on the associations of DCCT baseline lipoprotein profiles (NMR-based VLDL & chylomicrons, IDL/LDL and HDL subclasses and ‘conventional’ total, LDL-, HDL-, non-HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides with carotid IMT at EDIC Years 1 and 6, stratified by gender. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of DCCT baseline lipids and lipoprotein profiles with EDIC Year 12 carotid IMT (Basu et al. in press [1].

  8. IgG subclass and heavy chain domains contribute to binding and protection by mAbs to the poly γ-D-glutamic acid capsular antigen of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hovenden

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsules are common targets for antibody-mediated immunity. The capsule of Bacillus anthracis is unusual among capsules because it is composed of a polymer of poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (γdPGA. We previously generated murine IgG3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to γdPGA that were protective in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax. IgG3 antibodies are characteristic of the murine response to polysaccharide antigens. The goal of the present study was to produce subclass switch variants of the γdPGA mAbs (IgG3 → IgG1 → IgG2b → IgG2a and assess the contribution of subclass to antibody affinity and protection. Subclass switch antibodies had identical variable regions but differed in their heavy chains. The results showed that a switch from the protective IgG3 to IgG1, IgG2b or IgG2a was accompanied by i a loss of protective activity ii a change in mAb binding to the capsular matrix, and iii a loss of affinity. These results identify a role for the heavy chain constant region in mAb binding. Hybrid mAbs were constructed in which the CH1, CH2 or CH3 heavy chain constant domains from a non-protective, low binding IgG2b mAb were swapped into the protective IgG3 mAb. The IgG3 mAb that contained the CH1 domain from IgG2b showed no loss of affinity or protection. In contrast, swapping the CH2 or CH3 domains from IgG2b into IgG3 produced a reduction in affinity and a loss of protection. These studies identify a role for the constant region of IgG heavy chains in affinity and protection against an encapsulated bacterial pathogen.

  9. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  10. Prospective estimation of IgG, IgG subclass and IgE antibodies to dietary proteins in infants with cow milk allergy. Levels of antibodies to whole milk protein, BLG and ovalbumin in relation to repeated milk challenge and clinical course of cow milk allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Gjesing, B

    1992-01-01

    Prospectively, serum levels of IgE, specific IgE antibodies (AB) to whole cow milk protein (CMP), bovine se-albumin, bovine immunoglobulin, bovine lactoferrin, bovine lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), IgG and IgG subclass antibodies to ovalbumin (OA) and BLG, and IgG4 RAST to CMP (bovine...

  11. Age-dependent association between IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses to Pf332-C231 antigen and protection from malaria, and induction of protective antibodies by sub-patent malaria infections, in Daraweesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; Nasr, Amre; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2010-01-01

    The certainty of the protective role of acquired immunity in malaria is the major drive for malaria vaccine development. In this study, we measured the levels of total IgG and IgG subclasses to four candidate malaria vaccine antigens; MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27, AMA-1 and Pf332-C231, in plasma obtained...... from a cohort of 136 donors from Daraweesh in Sudan. The cohort was followed for malaria infection for 9 years. After an initial analysis, the immune response to Pf332-C231 antigen was the only one found associated with protection, thus taken for further analysis. The number of previous clinical...... malaria episodes experienced by the donors was used as an index for relative protection. The number of these episodes was found to be negatively correlated with the levels of pre-existing total IgG, IgG2 and IgG3 to Pf332-C231 (correlation coefficient, CC - 0.215, p=0.012; CC - 0.195, p=0.023 and CC - 0...

  12. (Copepoda, Notodelphyidae) from Pyura stolonifera (Echinodermata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Doropygus has long been plagued by morphological and taxonomic confusion. Descriptions are often lound to be inadequate and finer morphological variations result in laborious and unnecessary description of new species. Although the genus is known to be cosmopolitan in its distribution, only four species ...

  13. Copepoda parasites in economically important fish, Mugilidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FUNMILAYO

    1Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Ahmadu Bello Way, Victoria Island, Lagos State, Nigeria. 2Laboratory of Parasitological and Ecology of parasites, Department of .... parts per thousand, but highest in station 2 (Djdje) with. 0.8 and 29.5 parts per thousand salinity levels respect- tively. The highest ...

  14. The developmental stages of Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-06-15

    Jun 15, 1988 ... A. Body in ventral view; B. Antennule; C. Antenna; D. Mandible; E. Maxi11ule. one basipodite segment bearing a strong masticatory process and four setae. Subsequent stages have two basi- podite segments. Two strong spines are present on the first with the addition of one seta in Stages 4 to 6. Stage 3.

  15. On Choniostoma and Heptalobus (Copepoda, Choniostomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, J.H.

    1958-01-01

    In the course of a study of prawns infected by epicarid isopods, I observed some specimens of Spirontocaris lilljeborgi (Dan.) showing deformations of the carapax very similar to those caused by parasitic isopods (fig. 1). In this case, however, the swellings of the carapax were not caused by

  16. Distribution and biogeography of the Paradiaptominae (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are endemic to Africa with the exception of four species, Metadiaptomus asiaticus (Asia and Mongolia), M. gauthieri (Africa and Madagascar), Paradiaptomus greeni (India and Sri Lanka) and Neolovenula alluaudi (Canary Islands, North Africa, Baltic and Mediterranean countries). The North African species ...

  17. Copepoda parasites in economically important fish, Mugilidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FUNMILAYO

    of economically important fish, both from the wild and fish farms, thus making them difficult to market. In this study, copepod parasitic investigation was carried out in gills of 856 fish mugilidae (Mugil cephalus and Liza falcipinnis) in three stations (Ganvie, Djdje and Zogbo) of Lac Nokoue lagoon. In the three stations, three ...

  18. Zur Biologie von Paramphiascella fulvofasciata (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe

    1986-09-01

    The benthic harpacticoid copepod Paramphiascella fulvofasciata Rosenfield & Coull was collected from holdfasts of Laminaria hyperborea from a subtidal area of Helgoland (North Sea). All developmental stages of P. fulvofasciata are raptorial feeders. The feeding of the nauplii is advanced by a marginal setule-crest of the labrum which prevents food-particles from being swept away. The oral appendages of the copepodites circumscribe a frustal space ventral to the mouth which facilitates uptake of food-particles. The nauplii are not able to swim and perform stalking movements with their antennal endopodites. Good swimming ability as well as digging-in-behaviour and negative phototaxis of the copepodites indicate epi- as well as inbenthic mode of life. Several life-cycle characters are described. Precopula lasts ca. one day. The mean egg-number is 27, and mean egg-diameter is 87 × 75 µm. The number of nauplii per egg (double)-sac amounts to 25 30. Developmental time at 19°C is 6 9 days (nauplii) and 20 24 days (copepodites). The whole developmental period lasts 28 days. The maximal lifespan in the laboratory is 193 days. Sex-ratio is almost balanced. Females produce egg-sacs more than 3.5 times during their life period. Seasonal effects on reproductive activity have not been detected in laboratory cultures.

  19. Histopathological changes induced by copepoda parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-01-13

    Jan 13, 2014 ... oceanographic alterations induced by climatic changes and temperature dependent can influence parasitic-host interaction (Abalaka et al., 2010). In conclusion, the resultant hypertrophy of the underlying epithelial reducing the surface area for effective respiration could lead to suffocation, particularly at ...

  20. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    Full Text Available Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971-1980, 1991-2000, 2001-2010, each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records, followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%; the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%. The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species, followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24, the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19, Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17, Japanese waters (17, and the Brazil-Argentina area (16. Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied.

  1. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was

  2. Human IgG subclass antibodies to the 19 kilodalton carboxy terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)) and predominance of the MAD20 allelic type of MSP1 in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apio, B; Nalunkuma, A; Okello, D; Riley, E; Egwang, T G

    2000-04-01

    To determine the natural human humoral immune responses to the 19 kilodalton carboxy terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)), a malaria candidate vaccine antigen and to determine the prevalence of MAD20 and K1 alleles of P. falciparum MSP1. Community based cross-sectional study. Atopi Parish, Apac District, Uganda, 1995. Three hundred and seventy four Ugandans between <1 and 70 years old provided serum samples. IgG subclass antibodies by ELISA; MAD20 and K1 allelic types of MSP1 by PCR. Both the prevalence and the mean concentration of serum IgG1, and to a lesser extent IgG3, antibodies increased with age. IgG2 or IgG4 antibodies were virtually nonexistent. The cross-reactivity between the 4 sequence variants (E-KNG, E-TSR, Q-KNG and Q-TSR) of MSP1(19) was confirmed; however, a minority of sera preferentially recognised the KNG but not the TSR variants. All 33 P. falciparum isolates from different parts of Uganda carried the E-TSR (Mad20) allelic type and 3 isolates were mixed infections with E-TSR (MAD20) and Q-KNG (K1) allelic types, confirming the rarity of the K1 allele in Uganda. There is a robust IgG1 antibody response to the malaria vaccine candidate antigen MSP1(19) which begins at an early age. Future cohort studies are necessary to estblish the impact of these antibodies on clinical immunity to malaria. The MAD20 allelic type of MSP1 id predominant in Ugandan P. falciparum isolates.

  3. Interpolation for a subclass of H∞

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We introduce and characterize two types of interpolating sequences in the unit disc D of the complex plane for the class of all functions being the product of two analytic functions in D , one bounded and another regular up to the boundary of D , concretely in the Lipschitz class, and at least one of them vanishing at some ...

  4. Genetic and metabolic influences on LDL subclasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rotter, J.I.; Lusis, A.J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Genetic and environmental factors influence LDL particle size and density, and expression of an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP) characterized by predominance of small, dense LDL particles. Linkage of ALP the LDL receptor locus has been reported previously. Quantitative sib-pair relative-pair linkage methodologies were used to test for linkage of LDL particle size to candidate loci in 25 large pedigrees with familial coronary artery disease. Linkage to the LDL receptor gene locus was confirmed (p=0.008). Evidence was also obtained for linkage to the genes for apoCIII, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The results suggest multiple genetic determinants of LDL particle size that may involve different metabolic mechanisms giving rise to small, dense LDL and increased atherosclerosis risk.

  5. Interpolation for a subclass of H

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We introduce and characterize two types of interpolating sequences in the unit disc D of the complex ... We write (zn) for any sequence in D having no accumulation points in D. Recall that the pseudo-hyperbolic distance is .... Writing this inequality for G = g, z = zm and zk = zm , we obtain ψ(zm,z. ∗ m) |zm − zm |. |f (zm)|.

  6. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.No presente estudo, uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurológicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorbâncias das reações ELISA (MAE=1,17 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2

  7. Habitat architecture influencing microcrustaceans composition: a case study on freshwater Cladocera (Crustacea Branchiopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Debastiani-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental complexity is considered a key factor for diversity enhancement in aquatic ecosystems. Macrophyte stands are a major contributor for this complexity due to their differential architectures. Nevertheless, the influence of distinct aquatic habitat architectures (with different types of macrophytes or without them on microcrustaceans’ taxa composition, usually found in macrophyte colonized water bodies, is underexplored in limnological studies. The main objective of this study was to analyze this influence by comparing the Cladocera composition among four habitat architectures: (1 fluctuant macrophytes, (2 rooted emergent macrophytes, (3 submerged macrophytes and (4 the limnetic zone of oxbow lakes associated to a large subtropical reservoir. Wide compositional variation was observed. Fluctuant macrophytes exhibited the richest Cladocera assemblage, dominated by Chydoridae. Submerged and rooted emergent macrophytes had the most similar assemblages between them. The most distinctive fauna was found in the limnetic zone, dominated by Bosminidae. Probable differences in resource availability in each sampled habitat architecture are considered as the driving factor for the Cladocera composition variation. We concluded that for a complete inventory of a given local fauna, it is imperative to take into account the aquatic habitat architecture, including macrophyte stands, in the data sampling design.

  8. Propulsion and perception in intermediate Re regimes: aquatic microcrustacean copepod responses to wake structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, J.; Pender Healy, L. A.; Heaphy, M.

    2016-02-01

    Flow sensing by the mechanoreceptive cuticular arrays of sensors on copepods has been shaped by over 400 million years of evolution and plays an important role in predator avoidance, foraging, mating, and rheotaxis. These 3D wakes are produced by animal propulsive activities and contain cues that guide these key survival responses. We have demonstrated that the fluid mechanical and chemical information retained in the hydrodynamic envelope can be interpreted by suitable sensor arrays; copepod sensor arrays are capable of perceiving minute differences in wake structures. Temora longicornis, a coastal marine copepod, and Hesperodiaptomus shoshone, a high-alpine freshwater lake copepod, track laminar trails. High-speed videography coupled with high-magnification Schlieren optics enabled us to visualize the deformation of the trail signal and the propulsive movements of the male copepod. Males followed the trail mimic and our observations show clear differences between the marine and freshwater species. Comparative analyses reveal tracking mechanisms that differ in sensor location with respect to the trail and locomotory kinematics. Copepods perform directed motions that lead them to a stimulus source in the absence of other collimating stimuli. Tracking by the copepod around the trail allows it to have one or numerous sensors inside and outside the trail to facilitate edge detection using spatial sampling. The advantage of this remarkable behavior of following trails fast and accurately is to encounter mates or food patches more frequently, thus contributing to population recruitment and energy transfer up the trophic food web. Precise mate and food finding strategies found for pelagic copepods may be a key adaptation, promoting survival in these open-ocean planktonic populations.

  9. New records of Caligidae (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Balu Alagar Venmathi; Cruz-Lacierda, Erlinda R; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-11

    Parasitic copepods, especially sea lice (Caligidae) are causing economic problems in both aquaculture and to wild fishes around the world, but their study in at least some of the southeastern Asian countries, is still scanty. Here we provide new information on the distribution of 11 known species of parasitic copepods collected from 11 marine fish hosts from Iloilo, central part of the Philippines. Two species of the genus Anuretes Heller, 1865 and nine species of the genus Caligus Müller, 1785 were found to infest these hosts, i.e. Anuretes branchialis Rangnekar, 1953 from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775); A. plectorhynchi Yamaguti, 1936 from P. orbicularis and Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese, 1936); Caligus absens Ho, Lin et Chen, 2000 from Priacanthus macracanthus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1829; C. asymmetricus Kabata, 1965 and C. coryphaenae (Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861) from Auxis thazard (Lacepède, 1800); C. bonito Wilson, 1905 from Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758; C. cordyla Pillai, 1963 from Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758); C. cornutus Heegaard, 1962 from Sphyraena jello Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1829; C. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 from Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède, 1801; C. kanagurta Pillai, 1961 from Decapterus kurroides Bleeker, 1855, D. macarellus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833) and C. hippurus; and C. rotundigenitalis Yü, 1933 from Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766). Attachment sites included the gill filaments and the body surface. Prevalence and mean intensity of caligids are provided in addition to an update on the checklist of caligids of the Philippines. Although reports on caligids in the Philippines are few, the published records indicate that sea lice are widely distributed throughout the archipelago.

  10. Two new species of Leptopsyllus from Korea (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Jinwook; Lee, Wonchoel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Leptopsyllus are described from the subtidal zone of Korea. Both species were assigned to the subgenus Leptopsyllus (Leptopsyllus) T. Scott, 1894, based on following three characters: two-segmented rami of P1, absence of endopod on P2 and P3, and presence of one-segmented endopod of P4. L. (L.) pundius sp. n. is most closely related to L. (L.) punctatus Mielke, 1894, however clearly distinguishable from it based on mandibular exopod with two setae, shape of P6, and caudal seta III ornamented with spinules in the new species. L. (L.) koreanus sp. n. is clearly distinguishable from its congeners by the second segment of P1 endopod armed with one element, male baseoendopod of P5 with one seta, and one segmented endopod of mandibular palp. The world distribution and updated key to the species of the genus Leptopsyllus are provided. PMID:28769625

  11. A new species of Schizopera (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Fuentes-Reinés

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present contribution aims at the description of a new species of the genus Schizopera. Materials and methods. Water samples were collected in littoral areas with mangrove and macrophytes, and in the limnetic zone. Twenty five liters of water were taken. Water samples were filtered with a zooplankton net (45μm and preserved in 70% ethanol. The filtered samples were concentrated to 100 ml and examined in a Bogorov camera. Copepods were separated. Observations and drawings of S. evelynae sp. nov. were made at a magnification of 1000X. Results. Schizopera evelynae sp. nov. seems to be closely related to S. giselae Jiménez -Álvarez 1988 and to S. pratensis Noodt 1958 based on the armature formula of P1-P4, but can be separated from these two species based on the relative length of P1ENP, length/width ratio of P1ENP2, relative length of the outer proximal and distal spines on P4EXP3, shape of the exopod and relative length of the exopodal setae of the female P5, shape and length/width ratio of the male P2ENP2, and male P5 baseoendopodal lobe:exopod length ratio. A key to the species of Schizopera from America is given. Conclusion. A new species of the genus Schizopera is described. The Colombian material shares most characters with S. giselae and S. pratensis.

  12. Desiccation Resistance in Tigriopus californicus(Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powlik, James J.; Lewis, Alan G.

    1996-10-01

    In field populations and controlled laboratory microcosms, the supralittoral copepod Tigriopus californicusdemonstrated the ability to recover populations from evaporated splashpools. The response to either seawater or rainwater introduction occurred mainly within 24 h, regardless of copepod abundance or substrate material (mixed sediment or dried samples of the alga Enteromorpha compressa). As a proportion of available individuals, the response was quite consistent over all life-history stages. However, egg-carrying females andadult males showed the greatest net increase in individual numbers due to their abundance in source (dried) materials. Enteromorpha compressatreatments hydrated with seawater yielded significantly greater re-animation ( Pdried splashpools probably still yields sufficient numbers of effective intra-pool recolonization. Such a response may be more practical for population endurance in ephemeral supralittoral habitats than reliance on environmental influences (waves, precipitation or transport on coincident invertebrates) or the deposition of encysted eggs.

  13. Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Beagle Channel, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez-Morales, E.; Ramírez, F.C.; Derisio, C.

    2008-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods were collected during zooplankton surveys in the Beagle Channel at the southernmost end of South America. These specimens represent two species of Monstrillopsis, one of them undescribed, and one new species of Monstrilla. Monstrillopsis igniterra n. sp. is related to forms of

  14. Two New Species of Clausidiidae (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, Hosung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Clausidiidae, each belonging to the genera Clausidium Kossmann, 1875 and Hippomolgus G. O. Sars, 1917, are described from Korea. Clausidium maximus n. sp. is an associate of a burrowing decapod of the genus Callianassa living on the Korean coast of the Yellow Sea and has, as diagnostic characters, two inner setae on the second endopodal segment of legs 2-4, nine elements on the third exopodal segment of leg 4, an inner seta on the second exopodal segment of male leg 1, and a relatively large body size, exceeding 2.0 mm in the female. Hippomolgus limiticus n. sp. was found in the bottom sediments in the East China Sea. It is similar to H. furcifer G. O. Sars, but distinghuishable from the latter species by having shorter caudal rami, 4-segmented female maxilliped, and inner coxal spine (instead of seta on legs 2 and 3. This is the first record on the genera Clausidium and Hippomolgus in the West Pacific.

  15. A new Bomolochus (Copepoda parasitica) from the California Grunion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, J.H.

    1955-01-01

    The grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (AYRES) (family Atherinidae), a fish with a distribution limited to coastal southern California, U.S.A., and Lower California, Mexico, yielded the recently described copepod Caligus olsoni PEARSE, 1953, and still another parasitic copepod which proved to be an

  16. Distribution of scolecithricidae (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Devi, K.S.

    Ecology and zoogeography of the frequently occurring and widely distributed planktonic copepods collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition, Scolecithrix danae, Scolecithricella bradyi, S. tenuiserrata, S. abyssalis, Scaphocalanus...

  17. Aspects of the pathology of Lamproglena clariae (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epithelial hyperplasia, resulting in fusion of gill lamellae and necrosis of the host tissue in the vicinity of the parasite were revealed through histological examination. No correlation was evident between the infestation intensity and fish haematocrit values. Although results showed that L. clariae causes localized infestation, ...

  18. Molecular effects of diethanolamine exposure on Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Booth, Andy; Vang, Siv-Hege; Frenzel, Max; Sørheim, Kristin Rist; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Størseth, Trond R

    2010-08-15

    Alkanolamines are surface-active chemicals used in a wide range of industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical applications and products. Of particular interest is the use of alkanolamines such as diethanolamine (DEA) in the removal of CO(2) from natural gas and for CO(2) capture following fossil fuel combustion. Despite this widespread use, relatively little is known about the ecotoxicological impacts of these compounds. In an attempt to assess the potential effects of alkanolamines in the marine environment, a key species in the North Atlantic, the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus, was studied for molecular effects following sublethal exposure to DEA. DEA-induced alterations in transcriptome and metabolome profiling were assessed using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) gene library method and high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR), respectively. Effects were observed on transcription of genes reportedly involved in lipid metabolism, antioxidant systems, metal binding, and amino acid and protein catabolism. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of fatty acid derivates, amino acids (threonine, methionine, glutamine, arginine, alanine and leucine) and cholines (choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine). Together, SSH and HR-MAS NMR offer complementary screening tools for the assessment of molecular responses of C. finmarchicus to DEA and can be used in the study of other chemicals and organisms. Concentration-response and time-response relationships between DEA exposure and single gene transcription were investigated using quantitative PCR. Specific relationships were found between DEA exposure and the transcription of genes involved in protein catabolism (ubiquitin-specific protease-7), metal ion homeostasis (ferritin) and defence against oxidative stress (gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione synthase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase). At the lowest alkanolamine concentration used in these experiments, which corresponded to 0.5% of the LC(50) concentration, no transcriptional effects were observed, giving information regarding the lower molecular effect level. Finally, similar transcription patterns were observed for a number of different genes following exposure to DEA, which indicates analogous mechanisms of toxicity and response. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Copepoda associated with West Indian Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1975-01-01

    The present material has been collected at three occasions: during a stay on Curaçao and Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) in 1958/59, and again in 1973/74, and during a visit in 1963 to La Parguera, Puerto Rico. The copepods recorded here as associates of Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia

  20. Spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna Risso 1826 (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selection of a specific site of attachment by a copepod parasite is determined by a set of mostly unknown factors. The spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna on the gill filaments of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias was investigated. The complete set of left gills of 11 hosts was examined and the location, orientation ...

  1. Molecular effects of diethanolamine exposure on Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Bjorn Henrik, E-mail: bjorn.h.hansen@sintef.no [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattorkaia 17B, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Altin, Dag [BioTrix, N-7022 Trondheim (Norway); Booth, Andy; Vang, Siv-Hege; Frenzel, Max; Sorheim, Kristin Rist; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattorkaia 17B, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Storseth, Trond R. [SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Alkanolamines are surface-active chemicals used in a wide range of industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical applications and products. Of particular interest is the use of alkanolamines such as diethanolamine (DEA) in the removal of CO{sub 2} from natural gas and for CO{sub 2} capture following fossil fuel combustion. Despite this widespread use, relatively little is known about the ecotoxicological impacts of these compounds. In an attempt to assess the potential effects of alkanolamines in the marine environment, a key species in the North Atlantic, the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus, was studied for molecular effects following sublethal exposure to DEA. DEA-induced alterations in transcriptome and metabolome profiling were assessed using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) gene library method and high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR), respectively. Effects were observed on transcription of genes reportedly involved in lipid metabolism, antioxidant systems, metal binding, and amino acid and protein catabolism. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of fatty acid derivates, amino acids (threonine, methionine, glutamine, arginine, alanine and leucine) and cholines (choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine). Together, SSH and HR-MAS NMR offer complementary screening tools for the assessment of molecular responses of C. finmarchicus to DEA and can be used in the study of other chemicals and organisms. Concentration-response and time-response relationships between DEA exposure and single gene transcription were investigated using quantitative PCR. Specific relationships were found between DEA exposure and the transcription of genes involved in protein catabolism (ubiquitin-specific protease-7), metal ion homeostasis (ferritin) and defence against oxidative stress ({gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione synthase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase). At the lowest alkanolamine concentration used in these experiments, which corresponded to 0.5% of the LC{sub 50} concentration, no transcriptional effects were observed, giving information regarding the lower molecular effect level. Finally, similar transcription patterns were observed for a number of different genes following exposure to DEA, which indicates analogous mechanisms of toxicity and response.

  2. A checklist of the marine Calanoida (Crustacea, copepoda) of Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on analysis of a total of 725 zooplankton samples collected during series of surveys of the marine ecosystem of the continental shelf along the Nigeria Gulf of Guinea, between 1999 and 2010. The list encompasses a total of 55 species of Calanoida in 14 families and 27 genera. At the genus level, the ...

  3. Aging of TiO2 Nanoparticles Transiently Increases Their Toxicity to the Pelagic Microcrustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Frank; Lüderwald, Simon; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2015-01-01

    During their aquatic life cycle, nanoparticles are subject to environmentally driven surface modifications (e.g. agglomeration or coating) associated with aging. Although the ecotoxicological potential of nanoparticles might be affected by these processes, only limited information about the potential impact of aging is available. In this context, the present study investigated acute (96 h) and chronic (21 d) implications of systematically aged titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2; ~90 nm) on the standard test species Daphnia magna by following the respective test guidelines. The nTiO2 were aged for 0, 1, 3 and 6 d in media with varying ionic strengths (Milli-Q water: approx. 0.00 mmol/L and ASTM: 9.25 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of natural organic matter (NOM). Irrespective of the other parameters, aging in Milli-Q did not change the acute toxicity relative to an unaged control. In contrast, 6 d aged nTiO2 in ASTM without NOM caused a fourfold decreased acute toxicity. Relative to the 0 d aged particles, nTiO2 aged for 1 and 3 d in ASTM with NOM, which is the most environmentally-relevant setup used here, significantly increased acute toxicity (by approximately 30%), while a toxicity reduction (60%) was observed for 6 d aged nTiO2. Comparable patterns were observed during the chronic experiments. A likely explanation for this phenomenon is that the aging of nTiO2 increases the particle size at the start of the experiment or the time of the water exchange from field.

  4. Aging of TiO2 Nanoparticles Transiently Increases Their Toxicity to the Pelagic Microcrustacean Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seitz

    Full Text Available During their aquatic life cycle, nanoparticles are subject to environmentally driven surface modifications (e.g. agglomeration or coating associated with aging. Although the ecotoxicological potential of nanoparticles might be affected by these processes, only limited information about the potential impact of aging is available. In this context, the present study investigated acute (96 h and chronic (21 d implications of systematically aged titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2; ~90 nm on the standard test species Daphnia magna by following the respective test guidelines. The nTiO2 were aged for 0, 1, 3 and 6 d in media with varying ionic strengths (Milli-Q water: approx. 0.00 mmol/L and ASTM: 9.25 mmol/L in the presence or absence of natural organic matter (NOM. Irrespective of the other parameters, aging in Milli-Q did not change the acute toxicity relative to an unaged control. In contrast, 6 d aged nTiO2 in ASTM without NOM caused a fourfold decreased acute toxicity. Relative to the 0 d aged particles, nTiO2 aged for 1 and 3 d in ASTM with NOM, which is the most environmentally-relevant setup used here, significantly increased acute toxicity (by approximately 30%, while a toxicity reduction (60% was observed for 6 d aged nTiO2. Comparable patterns were observed during the chronic experiments. A likely explanation for this phenomenon is that the aging of nTiO2 increases the particle size at the start of the experiment or the time of the water exchange from <100 nm to approximately 500 nm, which is the optimal size range to be taken up by filter feeding D. magna. If subjected to further agglomeration, larger nTiO2 particles, however, cannot be retained by the daphnids' filter apparatus ultimately reducing their ecotoxicological potential. This non-linear pattern of increasing and decreasing nTiO2 related toxicity over the aging duration, highlights the knowledge gap regarding the underlying mechanisms and processes. This understanding seems, however, fundamental to predict the risks of nanoparticles in the field.

  5. Subclassing errors, OOP, and practically checkable rules to prevent them

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Kiselyov

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers an example of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) leading to subtle errors that break separation of interface and implementations. A comprehensive principle that guards against such errors is undecidable. The paper introduces a set of mechanically verifiable rules that prevent these insidious problems. Although the rules seem restrictive, they are powerful and expressive, as we show on several familiar examples. The rules contradict both the spirit and the letter of the OOP...

  6. Sensitivity of some Immunoglobulin G class and subclass antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum antibody responses in onchocerciasis patients. Apparently, IgG antibody class was more sensitive than IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 responses to Onchocerca volvulus adult worms sodium duodecyl sulphate (SDS) extracted crude ...

  7. Subclass of harmonic starlike functions associated with salagean derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Darwish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to establish some results involving coefficient conditions, distortion bounds, extreme points, convolution, and convex combinations for a new class of harmonic univalent functions in the open unit disc \\ associated with the Salagean operator. We also discuss a class preserving integral operator. Relevant connections of the results presented here with various known results are briefly indicated.

  8. Hypertriglyceridemia and unusual lipoprotein subclass distributions associated with late pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, T.M.; Kretchmer, N.; Silliman, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In the human adult population elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decreased HDL and LDL particle sizes. Late pregnancy is a hypertriglyceridemic state where little is known about LDL and HDL subpopulation distribution. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) and lipoprotein subpopulations were examined in 36 pregnant women at 36 wk pregnancy and 6 wk postpartum and correlated with HDL and LDL size. There was a significant decrease in LDL diameter at 36 wk pre, 25 {plus minus} 0.7 nm compared, with 6 wk post, 26.4 {plus minus} 0.8 nm. A total of 97% of the 36 wk pre subjects had small dense LDL which paralleled increases in apoB concentration. Unlike LDL HDL at 36 wks pre showed a significant increase in larger sized particles where HDL{sub 2b} predominated. There was a positive correlation between HDL{sub 2b} mass and apoAl and HDL-C concentrations. Late pregnancy is a metabolic state where the predominance of large, HDL{sub 2b} particles is discordant with the predominance of small LDL and elevated TG. This annual metabolic pattern may in part be due to hormonal changes occurring in late pregnancy.

  9. On a differential subordination of some certain subclass of Univalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    convex functions using Briot-Bouquet differential subordination method. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 181-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jonamp.v10i1.40124 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Lipoprotein particle subclasses, cardiovascular disease and HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Kuller, Lewis H; Tracy, Russell

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association of lipoprotein particles with CVD in a subgroup of HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in the Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (SMART) study. SMART was a trial of intermittent use of ART (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous of ART......-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer. Latest levels of total HDL-p were also significantly inversely associated with CVD; treatment interruption led to decrease of total HDL-p; adjusting for latest HDL-p did not explain the greater risk of CVD that was observed in the DC versus VS group....... CONCLUSIONS: Lipoprotein particles, especially lower levels of small and large HDL-p identify HIV-infected patients at increased risk of CVD independent of other CVD risk factors....

  11. Resolution of ion translocating proteolipid subclasses active in bacterial calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, L.D.; Renthal, R.D.; Boyan, B.D. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Formation of calcium hydroxyapatite occurs on membrane surfaces via interaction of calcium, inorganic phosphate, phospholipids, calcifiable proteolipids, and ion flux to and from the nucleating site. Recently, this laboratory reported that proteolipids from the calcifying bacterium, Bacterionema matruchotti, act as an ionophore when reconstituted into bacteriorhodopsin-proteoliposomes. This ionophoric activity is blocked by (14C)dicyclohexylcarbodiimide ((14C)DCCD). SDS-PAGE shows that (14C)DCCD binds to a single band of Mr 8500. To determine whether proteins other than the (14C)DCCD-binding protein are involved, we examined the function of proteolipid species extracted by solvents of differing polarity. Proteolipids were isolated independently from chloroform:methanol (2:1) and chloroform:methanol:HCl (200:100:1) extracts of the bacteria by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and were electrophoresed on 12.5% acrylamide gels. The chloroform:methanol extract contained a major hand at Mr 10,000 that was not present in gels of proteolipid isolated by acidified solvent. Proteolipids extracted in chloroform:methanol:HCl included a broad band at Mr 8500, which co-migrated with the (14C) DCCD-binding protein. The rate and extent of proton translocation were not altered when either proteolipid extract was added individually to bacteriorhodopsin proteoliposomes. However, when proteolipids isolated from the chloroform:methanol and chloroform:methanol:HCl extracts were combined, the rate and extent of translocation were increased. These data demonstrate that at least two proteolipid proteins are necessary for ionophoric activity, the Mr 10,000 protein isolated by chloroform:methanol 2:1 and the (14C)DCCD-binding protein requiring acidified solvent for extraction.

  12. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid–protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin–protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  13. Phytophilous Fauna of a Small and Artificial Urban Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajina Ivanka Orkić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytophilous community on Myriophyllum spicatum was studied in a small artificial urban lake in the city of Osijek (eastern Croatia, during the spring and summer season in 2010. In the eutrophic conditions, macrophyte stands were well developed and in the formed periphyton representatives of the following invertebrate taxa were found: Hydrozoa, Nematoda, Gastropoda, Cladocera, Copepoda, Insecta larvae - including families Chironomidae and Coleoptera. They displayed differences in temporal abundance patterns. Two separate phases in macrophyte colonization with differences in invertebrate composition and abundance were recorded. Insect larvae, particularly Chironomidae, were most abundant in the first phase, through the spring period, and Hydra oligactis (brown hydra was most abundant in the second phase, i.e. summer period. Concurrently, microcrustacean abundance declined towards the end of the summer. Results of the analyses indicated that water temperature and perihyton biomass were the variables exerting the main influence on the invertebrate assemblage, while interestingly, macrophyte size and biomass were negatively correlated with most of the fauna abundance. On the other hand, brown hydra was negatively correlated with all other invertebrate taxa, except gastropods. Larger surface of submersed macrophytes is the main parameter supporting the increase of invertebrate abundance due to providing protection from predators and growth for periphyton, an important food source for these phytophilous organisms. Macrophyte length was positively correlated with Hydra abundance, while Chironomids were more influenced by periphyton biomass. These organisms can indicate water quality conditions and a potential increase in primary and secondary production.

  14. Diet and trophic ecomorphology of the silverside, Odontesthes bonariensis, of the Salto Caxias reservoir, rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida da Silva Cassemiro

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the diet and trophic ecomorphology of Odontesthes bonariensis, relating these features with species' abundance in the natural environment and in the Salto Caxias reservoir (at Iguaçu river after the reservoir's formation. The samples were carried out before (from March 1997 to February 1998- pre and after (from October 1998 to February 2001 - post 1 and 2 the damming. The stomach contents of 218 individuals were analyzed by occurrence and volumetric methods. O. bonariensis' diet is based on insects, scales, plants and detritus. Microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda were the main items, allowing the characterization of the species as zooplanktivore. The species has a superior position and protractible mouth, with small teeth, creating a serrated pattern, uniformly lined side by side. There are many gill rakers, that are long and close together (typical of filtering fishes; the stomach is ill defined and the intestine is short. There was a gradual increase of O. bonariensis' abundance during the period of field study, mainly after the second year of damming. This fact seems to be closely related with the high abundance and availability of zooplankton in the dammed environment, and also with the ability of the species to exploit this resource.

  15. Comparative toxicity of imidacloprid, of its commercial liquid formulation and of diazinon to a non-target arthropod, the microcrustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Tisler, Tatjana; Drobne, Damjana; Sepcić, Kristina; Fournier, Didier; Trebse, Polonca

    2007-07-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is at the moment the insecticide with the world's fastest growing sales and is considered possible replacement for the widely used organophosphorus pesticide, diazinon, which is subject to phased revocation in many countries. In this study, biochemical, reproductive and survival parameters of the water flea (Daphnia magna) after chronic exposure to IMI, its commercial liquid formulation Confidor SL 200 and diazinon are presented and compared. According to the lowest observed effect concentrations, diazinon is more toxic to the reproduction of D. magna than IMI and Confidor SL 200, which exert similar toxicity. The same was observed for the survival, except that Confidor SL 200 is more toxic than IMI. In polluted aquatic environments, the actual levels of diazinon are potentially chronically hazardous to the reproduction of D. magna (risk quotient >1). According to very few measured environmental levels of IMI, the latter is not expected to be chronically hazardous, unless it is accidentally spilled in a small pond. In such case, the predicted concentrations of IMI would present a potential chronic risk to D. magna, and a potential acute risk to other aquatic invertebrates. In the future, higher environmental levels of IMI are expected due to its increasing use and physico-chemical properties. The literature survey summarized in this work suggests that further ecotoxicological studies with a broader spectrum of aquatic organisms are needed before IMI is classified as safer than currently applied pesticides.

  16. Epibiotic ciliates Scyphidia sp. and diatoms on Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda: Harpacticoida exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microorganisms – epibionts – can adhere to living supports taking advantage for their survival, feeding and movement. Epibiosis occurs particularly in aquatic environments, on both benthic and planktonic organisms, among which copepods and cladocerans represent an important living support. The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus fulvus, living in the splashpools of rocky coasts, was studied to recognize the occurrence of epibionts on the exoskeleton surface using scanning electon microscopy techniques. The first evidence of ciliate Scyphidia sp. on Tigriopus fulvus has been described and the occurrence of algae Cocconeis sp. has been observed as well. Epibionts were found to adhere to antennae, a site linked to the exploitation of water currents carrying food particles to mouthparts and to swimming legs. The reason of the occurrence on swimming legs is less clear and needs further observations. Pertinent results are described and discussed and the influence of epibionts on life cycle and behavior of Tigriopus fulvus is considered.

  17. Epidemiology of Pennella sp. (Crustacea: Copepoda, in exploited Illex coindetii stock in the NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pascual

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal distribution of the mesoparasitic copepod Pennella sp. on the short-finned squid Illex coindetii was studied monthly during 1993 in the southeastern North Atlantic (Galician waters, NW Spain. A total of 600 individuals were analysed separately considering two areas (north and west with different hydrographical characteristics. Six pennellid stages were found: a copepodite, four chalimus stages and the free-living adult male and female. Epidemiology was assessed using the parasite demographic parameters. The results revealed a marked seasonal pattern in the number of parasites in squid samples from the northern area. This seasonal pattern was not detected in squids from the western area. The observed frequency distributions of parasites on the host population were aggregative at each sampling area. Infection values were extraordinarily high when they are compared with published host-parasite records for other representatives of the genus Pennella. Advantages of the parasite aggregation pattern and possible explanations of the seasonality variations in the number of parasites observed in squid samples from the northern area are discussed.

  18. On two new species of the genus Acanthochondria Oakley (Crustacea Copepoda) found in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiino, S.M.

    1964-01-01

    Acanthochondria Oakley is a genus of parasitic copepods, the members of which usually cling to the gills or gill arches of fishes, or to the mucous membrane of their buccal cavity, or to the inner surface of their operculum. Two new species of this genus recently obtained in Japan are described here

  19. @iPseudocyclops lakshmi@@, a new species (Pseudocyclopidae: Calanoidea: Copepoda) from the Laccadives, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haridas, P.; Madhupratap, M.; Ohtsuka, S.

    @iPseudocyclops lakshmi@@, new species, is described from the Kadmat and Agatti atolls of the Laccadives, India, along with its dimorphic males. Characters separating the new species from the rest of its congeners are discussed. This species...

  20. To Swim or Not to Swim: Potential Transmission of Balaenophilus manatorum (Copepoda: Harpacticoida in Marine Turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Domènech

    Full Text Available Species of Balaenophilus are the only harpacticoid copepods that exhibit a widespread, obligate association with vertebrates, i.e., B. unisetus with whales and B. manatorum with marine turtles and manatees. In the western Mediterranean, juveniles of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta are the only available hosts for B. manatorum, which has been found occurring at high prevalence (>80% on them. A key question is how these epibionts are transmitted from host to host. We investigated this issue based on experiments with live specimens of B. manatorum that were cultured with turtle skin. Specimens were obtained from head-started hatchlings of C. caretta from the western Mediterranean. Hatched nauplii crawled only on rough substrates and lacked the ability to swim. Only copepodites IV and V, and adults, were able to perform directional swimming. Legs 2, 3 and 4 played a major role in swimming and were only well-developed in these stages. Nauplii reared in wells with turtle skin readily fed on this item. Late copepodites and adults also fed on turtle skin but did not consume other potential food items such as fish skin, baleen plates or planktonic algae. Evidences suggest that the transmission of B. manatorum should rely on hosts' bodily contacts and/or swimming of late developmental stages between spatially close hosts. The possibility of long-ranged dispersal is unlikely for two reasons. First, all developmental stages seem to depend on turtle skin as a food resource. Second, the average clutch size of ovigerous females was small (< 70 eggs for free-living phases to successfully contact turtles that occur at very low densities (< 0.6 turtles·km-2 in the western Mediterranean. The high prevalence of B. manatorum in loggerhead turtles in this area raises the question whether these turtles have contacts, or tend to closely aggregate, more than is currently believed.

  1. Copepoda associated with West Indian Invertebrates – IV The genera Octopicola, Pseudanthessius and Meomicola (Cyclopoida, Lichomolgidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Humes, Arthur G.; Gooding, Richard U.

    1963-01-01

    Our thanks are due to the following for their identifications of host animals: Dr. W. ADAM, Muséum Royal d’Histoire Naturelle, Brussels (cephalopods from Curaçao); Dr. GILBERT L. VOSS, University of Miami Marine Laboratory, Florida (cephalopods from Barbados); Mrs. R. E. TEAGLE, British Museum

  2. Early life history of Neocalanus plumchrus (Calanoida: Copepoda) in the western subarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Hidefumi A.; Machida, Ryuji J.; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    The life history of copepods during nauplius stages has rarely been studied, because of difficulties in identification. This study describes the development of an identification method that uses integrated microscopic analysis and real-time PCR based method to distinguish and estimate the abundance of pelagic calanoida nauplii, Neocalanus plumchrus, and to determine their phenology and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM) in the Oyashio region. The overall approach of identification included: classify field samples of calanoida nauplii into six developmental stages by microscopic analysis, determining the Cq values from each representative nauplii by real-time PCR using specie specific probe and primer pair for N. plumchrus, calculating the |ΔCq| values from the standard curve, distinguish N. plumchrus nauplii by the criterion of |ΔCq| ⩽ 2, and calculate the abundance of N. plumchrus nauplii using results obtained from microscopic analysis and real-time PCR. Validation of the method showed that our real-time PCR based approach could identify N. plumchrus nauplii in field samples with as low as 9% of underestimation, the effect of which is negligibly low on the investigation. The results showed that early nauplius stages (first and second nauplius stages: N1 and N2, respectively) were observed during the period from October 2009 to May 2010. Spawning females were also observed during the same period, and these results confirm that the spawning period of N. plumchrus is at least 8 months long. N3 was the most dominant stage in October 2009, January, and March 2010, the distribution depth of N3 was between 500 m and 2000 m in October 2009 and their vertical distribution range was extended until April 2010. Late stages (N4-N6) were rarely observed during the period from October 2009 to March 2010, and they occurred abundantly from the surface layer (0-20 m) in April 2010. The dominance of N3 from October to March and the sudden occurrence of later stages in April indicate arrested development of N3 in the mesopelagic layer.

  3. Copepoda of the family Lamippidae from the western Atlantic and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    The Lamippidae form a rather homogeneous family of copepods endoparasitic on octocorals. The great majority of the species (17 out of 24) is described from the Mediterranean Sea. These species are relatively well-known, thanks to the efforts of DE ZULUETA (1908, 1910, 1911) and BOULIGAND (various

  4. Distribution of @iPleuromamma@@ spp (Copepoda-Calanoida) in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Distribution of common marine copepods of genus @iPleuromamma@@ Giesbrecht was studied. Two species, @iP. indica@@ Wolfenden and @iP. gracilis@@ were present in surface and vertical samples (0-500 m). The former was dominant (98.17%) and @i...

  5. Distribution of some Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd-Oltmann Brandorff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.El sur de México y América Central tienen varios cuerpos de agua con diferente morfología, composición química y una interesante fauna de zooplancton procedente de América del Norte o del Sur. Un grupo de 63 muestras, fueron tomadas en 2005 y 2008 para conocer la cantidad de copépodos calanoides en los cuerpos de agua del karst Península de Yucatán, Belice y Guatemala. Se utilizó literatura antigua y reciente para la identificación de los especímenes a nivel de especie y se preparon dibujos con un microscopio y una cámara lúcida. En un total de 32 muestras se obtuvieron seis especies de copépodos calanoides: un pseudodiaptomidos estuarino y cinco diaptomidos de agua dulce. Pseudodiaptomus marshi fue encontrado a diferentes salinidades. Además, se confirmó que los diaptomidos más comunes en la Península de Yucatán fueron: Arctodiaptomus dorsalis y Mastigodiaptomus nesus. El primero se registró también en el lago de Amatitlán. Mastigodiaptomus nesus está ampliamente distribuido al igual que A. dorsalis, pero se encuentra ausente en el área del Lago Petén en Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae fue localizado en dos hábitats poco profundos, éstos especímenes difieren de los tipos de la localidad, por tener un grupo de espinas de gran tamaño en la última parte de la caja toráxica y los segmentos del urosoma de las hembras. Leptodiaptomus siciloides se encontró sólo en el Lago Ayarza, el cual contiene alta salinidad. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis se localizó en las tierras altas de Guatemala en el Lago de Güija y en la zona del Petén en Laguna Sacpuy. Se contribuye con registros de presencia de especies para un mejor conocimiento de la distribución geográfica de algunos copépodos calanoides. De la misma forma, los hallazgos morfológicos en algunas especies son de gran valor taxonómico para la diferenciación de especies.

  6. Caligus sclerotinosus (Copepoda: Caligidae), a serious pest of cultured red seabream Pagrus major (Sparidae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2012-09-10

    Caligid copepods (Crustacea) known as sea lice are pests of cultured fish, causing serious diseases and economic losses in fish aquaculture worldwide. One species, Caligus sclerotinosus Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983 (Caligidae), is considered a serious pest of the highly prized red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel, 1843) (Sparidae) cultured in Japan. Recently, in neighboring Korea, red seabream culture has intensified and almost replaced yellow tail culture. However, until now, there have been no reports on infection of this sea louse from red seabream in Korea. We surveyed 120 (20 fish per month) P. major from a sea ranched Tongyeong Marine Research Center aquaculture facility, Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea for six months in 2011 (June to November). We recorded severe infection by the sea louse C. sclerotinosus on the skin of P. major. Prevalence was 100%, mean intensity 7.06, maximum intensity 49, and minimum intensity 2. Adult females (624), males (219) and few chalimi (5) were observed and identified by their morphology. As an average of all our collections, less than 0.6% of individuals were chalimi. We suggest, therefore, that adults of C. sclerotinosus undergo ontogenetic host switching after their final moult. No infection of C. sclerotinosus was found on wild P. major collected from Tongyeong and Yeosu fish markets on the southern coast of Korea. Severe infection by this sea louse may cause secondary infections of the host. This copepod is already reported from Australia and Japan and hence, this is the first report from Korea. We expect this pest to have an impact on Korean red seabream fisheries equally serious to that being experienced in Japan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Three new species of Bomolochidae (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from Tropical Atlantic Tunnies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.

    1965-01-01

    Dr. J. F. Aldrin, Sous Direction de Pêche, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, during an extensive survey of tropical Atlantic Tunnies, discovered the presence of Cyclopoid Copepods of the family Bomolochidae in the nasal fossae of three species of tunnies, viz., Euthynnus alleteratus (Rafinesque), Auxis

  8. Morphometric differences in two calanoid sibling species, Boeckella gracilipes and B. titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos Escalante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Calanoid copepods are abundant in South American inland waters and include widespread species, such as Boeckella gracilipes (Daday, 1902, which occurs from the Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego Island. This species occurs under various environmental conditions, and is found in oligotrophic lakes in Patagonia (39-54°S and in shallow mountain lakes north of 39°S. The aim of the present study is to conduct a morphometric comparison of male specimens of B. titicacae collected in Titicaca and B. gracilipes collected in Riñihue lakes, with a third population of B. gracilipes collected in shallow ponds in Salar de Surire. Titicaca and Riñihue lakes are stable environments, whereas Salar de Surire is an extreme environment. These ponds present an extreme environment due to high exposure to solar radiation and high salinity levels. The results of the study revealed differences among the three populations. These results agree well with systematic descriptions in the literature on differences between the populations of Titicaca and Riñihue lakes, and population of Salar de Surire differs slightly from the other two populations. It is probable that the differences between the population of Salar de Surire and the other two populations result from the extreme environment in Salar de Surire. High exposure to solar radiation, high salinity and extreme variations in temperature enhance genetic variations that are consequently expressed in morphology.

  9. Copepoda (Siphonostomatoida) associated with Ophiuroidea in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humes, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Three new siphonostomatoid copepods are associated with Ophiuroidea in the tropical western Atlantic. Collocheres vervoorti spec. nov., from Ophiothrix angulata in Jamaica, has an elongate, gently tapered genital double-somite in the female and the second segment of leg 5 has a distal outer notch.

  10. Two new species of Harpacticoid Copepods (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Canthocamptidae) from Montenegro (Balkan Peninsula)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanovic, Tomislav

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper two new species of harpacticoid copepods (family Canthocamptidae) are described from several subterranean localities in Montenegro, Crmnica region. Moraria jana n.sp. is most similar to M. catalana Chappuis & Kiefer, 1952. It is also alike M. brevipes (Sars, 1863). Elaphoidella

  11. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  12. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. LANSAC-TÔHA

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  13. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Maeda-Martínez, Alejandro M.; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width proportion of 3.5–3.8, a innermost terminal seta slightly longer than the outermost terminal seta, intercoxal sclerites of legs 1-4 naked, a strong apical spine of the second endopodal segment of leg 1 and one row of 6-8 small spinules at the insertion of this spine. The finding of this species represents also the first record of the genus in Mexico and the third in North America, where only two other species, Metacyclops gracilis (Lilljeborg, 1853)and Metacyclops cushae Reid, 1991 have been hitherto reported. This is also the first continental record of a species of Metacyclops from an arid environment in the Americas. This species appears to be endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert, thus emphasizing the high endemicity of this area. PMID:23794845

  14. Redescription of Pseudodiaptomus jonesi (Copepoda: Calanoida) with notes on its distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Haridas, P.

    Pseudodiaptomus jonesi Pillai 1970 is redescribed; several previously undescribed features are included and a few errors in the original description corrected. This species is assignable to the Ramosus group and Hickmani-subgroup. The present record...

  15. Mating behaviour of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Copepoda Calanoida) with emphasis on rejection rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, G.; Souissi, S.; Schmitt, F. G.; Hwang, J. S.; Cheng, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Mating behaviour has important consequences at both individual and population levels. Reproductive fitness is of paramount importance to sustain the success of planktonic copepod populations in aquatic environments. The calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei has one of the largest geographical ranges for Indo-Pacific Pseudodiaptomidae. It is also of great importance in fish culture pounds south of Taiwan. However, the mating behavior of this species has never been studied. Mating and predatory behaviour are conceptually the same. In both cases, the encounter and the interactions occur between two individuals with opposite characteristics: predator-prey for predation; male-female for mating. The mating behaviour may be defined as a sequence of encounter, pursuit, capture and copulation. Several observed behaviour suggest that both sexes asses and choose among available mates before the copulation. Pre-copulatory mate choice in copepods may manifest as mate guarding where males attached to CV females until their final moult, complicated pre-copulatory dance and escaping. During our preliminary observations, we notice that P. annandalei females escape by shaking, often violently, the males that have caught them. Consequently for such a species the act of mating may be visualized as a chain of six events (i.e. search, encounter, pursuit, capture, selective dance, copulation).Within this chain, encounter, capture and copulation are conditional events depending on the successful conclusion of their preceding events in the chain. In this study, we examined the different step in the mating behaviour of the scarcely studied sub-tropical copepod, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, collected from the Danshuei estuary (North Taiwan). The individuals were observed using a 3D optical system to obtain simultaneous front and side views. Males, when placed in the water where females had previously swum in, showed significant increase of their swimming velocities. Additionally, their swimming trajectories are more convoluted, indicating that males explore larger volume of fluid to increase the probability to encounter a female. The mate finding behaviour appears to depend not only on chemical signal but also on hydromechanical signals. Some males exhibited shifts of direction when females were passing by. When male intercepted a chemical trail left by a female, they initiate tracking behaviour racing up the trail with increasing speed. Males pursued pheromone trails up to 24 sec old and 10 mm long. Most studies of mating behaviour have focused on detection and sometimes pursuit, but few have addressed the other components of successful mating, namely, capture and copulation. Moreover, mate choice issue has largely been ignored in regards to pelagic copepods. Consequently very few are known about the plasticity of rejection rates as a function of mate encounter rates. The second aim of this experiment is to describe the process used by female to select their mate and to fill the gap in the quantification of mating success. Once caught by a male, P. annandalei's females entered in intensive dance which sometimes lead to shake off the males suggesting a female mate choice. The three-dimensional trajectories described by the couple during this event were characterized by fast loops and intense jumps. Individual's access to mates may be affected by operational sex ratios, causing strong variation in mating success. We finally manipulated adult sex ratios of the brackish copepod P. annandalei, to examine the influence of population sex ratio on mating success of P. annandalei in a final set of experiment concluding the investigation. It should be notice that, to our knowledge, it the first quantification ever done before. The plasticity of rejection rate was therefore investigated as a function of sex-ratio and mate encounter rate. The encounter rate reached maximum value for balanced proportion of male and female and decreased as the sex ratio unbalanced. Higher value of success was nevertheless observed for a pro-male sex-ratio.

  16. A new species of Acartia (Copepoda, Calanoida) from Cochin Harbour, India, and adjacent areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abraham, S.

    During the course of a study of the family Acartiidae of Cochin harbour and its neighbourhood, a species of Acartia different from all other known species of Acartia, was found. Its characteristics, habitat and seasonal distribution form the theme...

  17. Distribution of some Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Gerd-Oltmann Brandorff

    2012-01-01

    Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of...

  18. Distribution of some Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Brandorff,Gerd-Oltmann

    2012-01-01

    Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A tota...

  19. Two new species of the genus Emertonia Wilson, 1932 from Korean waters (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Jinwook; Lee, Wonchoel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Emertonia were found from the west coast of Korea. The first new species, E. koreana sp. n., is closely related to E. acutifurcata. However, the new species is clearly distinguished by the presence of two modified pinnate setae on the P5 baseoendopodal lobe. All body somites of the new species except for the last two urosomites have strongly developed hyaline frills forming quadrilateral lappets. The second new species, E. simplex sp. n., superficially resembles E. mielkei in the structure of antennary exopod (with five setae), and the shape of P5. However, this new species differs from its congener mainly by having a caudal ramus 3.5 times as long as width, and P1 enp-2 with two claw-like setae. In addition, a key to the worldwide species of Emertonia is provided. PMID:29290714

  20. Molecular phylogeny of Oncaeidae (Copepoda using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Di Capua

    Full Text Available Copepods belonging to the Oncaeidae family are commonly and abundantly found in marine zooplankton. In the Mediterranean Sea, forty-seven oncaeid species occur, of which eleven in the Gulf of Naples. In this Gulf, several Oncaea species were morphologically analysed and described at the end of the XIX century by W. Giesbrecht. In the same area, oncaeids are being investigated over seasonal and inter-annual scales at the long-term coastal station LTER-MC. In the present work, we identified six oncaeid species using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI. Phylogenetic analyses based on these two genomic regions validated the sisterhood of the genera Triconia and the Oncaea sensu stricto. ITS1 and ITS2 phylogenies produced incongruent results about the position of Oncaea curta, calling for further investigations on this species. We also characterised the ITS2 region by secondary structure predictions and found that all the sequences analysed presented the distinct eukaryotic hallmarks. A Compensatory Base Change search corroborated the close relationship between O. venusta and O. curta and between O. media and O. venusta already identified by ITS phylogenies. The present results, which stem from the integration of molecular and morphological taxonomy, represent an encouraging step towards an improved knowledge of copepod biodiversity: The two complementary approaches, when applied to long-term copepod monitoring, will also help to better understanding their genetic variations and ecological niches of co-occurring species.

  1. On Collocheres Canu, 1893, and Leptomyzon Sars, 1915, two synonymous genera of Copepoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1966-01-01

    Deux espèces nouvelles du genre Collocheres, C. breei (Méditerranée occidentale, hôte Ophioderma longicauda) et C. uncinatus (Golfe d’Aqaba, hôtes Heterometra savignyi et Oligometra serripinna) ont été décrites. Certains caractères de ces nouvelles espèces, et une étude critique des espèces déjà

  2. Distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda: Metridiidae) along a north-south transect in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Padmavati, G.

    abundant in the upper 200 m. The adults were more at deeper depths. The vertical segregation among co-occurring species was observed in the zooplankton collections taken during day. However, there was considerable overlap at night. Sexual segregation...

  3. Selective feeding of Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda, Calanoida) in temperate estuaries: model and field observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tackx, M.L.M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Gasparini, S.; Irigoien, X.; Billionesa, R.; Daroa, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The copepod Eurytemora affinis generally lives under estuarine conditions, where the suspended particulate matter (SPM) is strongly dominated by non-living particles. This article investigates as to how far E. affinis is capable of feeding selectively on phytoplankton under these extreme

  4. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  5. Bathymetric distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda, Calanoida) species in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    Based on the analysis of 204 zooplankton samples from the stratified depths in the Indian Ocean collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE), the distribution of the genus Pleuromamma indica, P. gracilis, P. piseki, P...

  6. Ecology of Pleuromamma indica Wolfenden (Copepoda - Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswathy, M.; Iyer, H.K.

    Pleuromamma indica was the only species among the 7 species of the genus, recorded in the area, to be present in 2 restricted areas, one near the mouth of the Gulf of Oman in the Arabian Sea and the other in the Bay of Bengal. High productivity...

  7. Pseudocyclops lakshmi, a new species (Pseudocyclopidae: Calanoidea: Copepoda) from the Laccadives, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haridas, P.; Madhupratap, M.; Ohtsuka, S.

    stream_size 13 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Biol_Soc_Wash_1994_107_151.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Biol_Soc_Wash_1994_107_151.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. A new species of Mesocyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae from Southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo SUÁREZ-MORALES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomical status of several neotropical species of Mesocyclops is still uncertain. Furthermore, several new species with a restricted distributional range have been described recently in this region. From littoral zooplankton samples collected in the lowlands of the State of Tabasco, Southeastern Mexico, male and female specimens of a previously unknown species of Mesocyclops were found. This new species is described herein based on both sexes and following the upgraded standards set for the taxonomic study of this genus, including SEM analysis. The new species differs from its congeners by a combination of several characters: the unique shape of the antennular hyaline membrane, the ornamentation of both maxillule and maxilla, the ornamentation of the fourth swimming leg, the shape and structure of the genital receptacle, and the ornamentation of the furcal rami. It is most closely related to other neotropical species such as M. meridianus Kiefer, 1926 and M. pseudomeridianus Defaye & Dussart, 1989. This is the eleventh species of Mesocyclops known from Mexico, and also the third new species described upon Mexican material. Due to the affinity of the Tabasco fauna with the Caribbean and the South American copepod faunas, the new species is expected to have a relatively wide geographical distribution in the neotropical region.

  9. Copepoda associated with West Indian Invertebrates – III The Genus Anthessius (Cyclopoida, Myicolidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Humes, Arthur G.; Gooding, Richard U.

    1963-01-01

    For the identification of certain of the mollusks with which the copepods to be described were associated we wish to thank Dr. RUTH D. TURNER, Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, Harvard College, Cambridge, and Mr. C. J. VAN EEKEN, Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam. We also express our appreciation to Mr. J.

  10. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suarez-Morales

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, P. nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles P. nichollsi Geddes and P. lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread P. speciosum Thompson & Scott and P. purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific.

  11. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  12. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANSAC-TÔHA F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  13. Two (cosoccurring new Karllangia species (Copepoda: Ameiridae) from the Caribbean mast of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Se halló dos especies nuevas de copépodos del género Karllangia coexistiendo en playa Manzanillo,' costa caribeña de Costa Rica Se halló dos especies nuevas de copépodos del género Karllangia coexistiendo en playa Manzanillo,' costa caribeña de Costa Rica

  14. Resting eggs of zooplankton (copepoda and cladocera) from the Kiel Bay and adjacent waters (southwestern Baltic)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nehring, S.; Lenz, J.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Biol_125_77.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Biol_125_77.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Identification of the molecular components of a Tigriopus californicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Katherine T; Christie, Andrew E

    2014-12-01

    Copepods of the genus Tigriopus have been proposed as marine models for investigations of environmental perturbation. One rapidly increasing anthropogenic stressor for intertidal organisms is light pollution. Given the sensitivity of circadian rhythms to exogenous light, the genes/proteins of a Tigriopus circadian pacemaker represent a potential system for investigating the influences of artificial light sources on circadian behavior in an intertidal species. Here, the molecular components of a putative Tigriopus californicus circadian clock were identified using publicly accessible transcriptome data; the recently deduced circadian proteins of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were used as a reference. Transcripts encoding homologs of all commonly recognized ancestral arthropod core clock proteins were identified (i.e. CLOCK, CRYPTOCHROME 2, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS), as were ones encoding proteins likely to modulate the core clock (i.e. CASEIN KINASE II, CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 1, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A, SHAGGY, SUPERNUMERARY LIMBS and VRILLE) or to act as inputs to it (i.e. CRYPTOCHROME 1). PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 was the only circadian-associated protein not identified in Tigriopus; it appears absent in Calanus too. These data represent just the third full set of molecular components for a crustacean circadian pacemaker (Daphnia pulex and C. finmarchicus previously), and only the second obtained from transcribed sequences (C. finmarchicus previously). Given Tigriopus' proposed status as a model for investigating the influences of anthropogenic stressors in the marine environment, these data provide the first suite of gene/protein targets for understanding how light pollution may influence circadian physiology and behavior in an intertidal organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars A Hamre

    Full Text Available Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838 causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt. Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite.

  17. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  18. Differences in behavioral responses of Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda, Calanoida) adults to salinity variations

    OpenAIRE

    Michalec, François Gaël; Souissi, Sami; Dur, Gaël; Mahjoub, Mohamed Sofiene; Schmitt, François G; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Estuarine copepods undergo strong and frequent salinity variations caused by alternating tides. Salinity is known to be a major parameter in the ecology of copepods from brackish waters but its effects on small scale behavior are relatively unclear. In this study we used 2-dimensional laboratory filming techniques to record swimming paths of the three reproductive stages (i.e. male, non-ovigerous female and ovigerous female) of E. affinis from the Seine estuary, under diff...

  19. Ultrastructural Evidence of Lumnescent glad openings in Metridia gerlachei giesbrecht, 1902 (Copepoda: Clanoida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Romano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The luminescence is a feature of several marine planktonic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, cnidaria, ctenophores, crustaceans and pyrosomes, in particular, alot of pelagic crustaces have got luminescent organs (Ghirendelli, 1981, Gruner, 1994 useful for trophic, reproductive or defense purposes. Several calanoid copepods are luminescent and possess variously distribuited epidermal glands. In this paper the occurrence of luminescent gland openings in adults and copepodids of Metridia gerlachei sampled during the Italian Oceanographic Campaign in Antarctica 1987-88 in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea is described by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The openings of cephalothorax luminescent gland has been observed and described with the aim to complete what is known about this subject (Pinero de Verdinelli, 1981, the occurrence of a gland opening, not previously described, has been reported. Considering the extreme characteristics of the environment also that this species seems to prefer to live in low-light waters (Crli et al., 1990, 1992a as the constant light conditions during the Antarctic summer restrict its occurrence in surface waters, luminescent structures could have an adaptive significance both for reproduction and defence.

  20. Morphometric differences in two calanoid sibling species, Boeckella gracilipes and B. titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio de los Ríos Escalante

    2012-01-01

    Calanoid copepods are abundant in South American inland waters and include widespread species, such as Boeckella gracilipes (Daday, 1902), which occurs from the Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego Island. This species occurs under various environmental conditions, and is found in oligotrophic lakes in Patagonia (39-54°S) and in shallow mountain lakes north of 39°S. The aim of the present study is to conduct a morphometric comparison of male specimens of B. titicacae collected in Titicaca and B. graci...

  1. Parabrachiella jarai sp. nov. (Crustacea: Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on Sillago sihama (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Sillaginidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Wojciech; Młynarczyk, Magdalena; Hayward, Craig J

    2010-05-01

    The presently reported study provides a detailed morphological description of the female and the male of a new species of the genus Parabrachiella-Parabrachiella jarai sp. nov. The parasites were sampled from marine fish, silver sillago, Sillago sihama (Perciformes: Sillaginidae), captured in Malaysia in 1994 and Hong Kong in 1995. The new species bears some resemblance to Parabrachiella lata (Song et Chen, 1976) but differs from it in details of second antenna, mandible, and maxilliped. The genus Parabrachiella currently covers 67 species including those recently transferred from Neobrachiella Kabata, 1979. An amended generic diagnosis is proposed for Parabrachiella and Thysanote. Some members of Parabrachiella are herewith transferred to Thysanote and some Thysanote are now placed in Parabrachiella. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A new species of Euchirella (fam. Aetideidae) from the "Dana"-collections (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaupel-Klein, von J.C.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Euchirella paulinae spec. nov. is described and illustrated in extenso ; various structures are outlined in detail for the first time. The external morphology of the new species is discussed with reference to the other species of the genus. Some brief remarks are made about the anatomical

  3. Moulting in the chalimus larva of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Caligidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bron, J. E.; Shinn, A.P.; Sommerville, C.

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructure of moulting in the chalimus phase of the parasitic caligid copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis is described for the first time. The major features of the moult sequence correspond to those of other Crustacea, save for the absence of a distinguishable intermoult as defined by reduced epidermal activity and a cessation of cuticle production. This latter may be explained cither in terms of a continuous moulting process related to the constant food supply available to a parasite or...

  4. Moulting in the chalimus larva of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, J.E.; Shinn, A.P.; Sommerville, C.

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructure of moulting in the chalimus phase of the parasitic caligid copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis is described for the first time. The major features of the moult sequence correspond to those of other Crustacea, save for the absence of a distinguishable intermoult as defined by reduced

  5. On Scambicornus Heegard, 1944, a senior synonym of Preherrmannella Seymour Sewell, 1949 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, J.H.

    1964-01-01

    During the preparation of a report dealing with poecilostomes associated with holothurians, it was found desirable to obtain more information concerning a number of genera formerly described. Through the courtesy of Dr. T.Wolff of the Zoologisk Museum of Copenhagen, I was able to reexamine the

  6. Vertical distribution, feeding and vulnerability to tactile predation in Metridia longa (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the vertical distribution and feeding of the calanoid copepod Metridia longa in the Oslofjord, Norway during winter and spring 2006. Adult females of Metridia longa inhabited the whole 200 m deep-water column. Their distribution was shallower at night than during the day. Enumeration of egested faecal pellets suggested that feeding activity was greater at night than during the day and that more pellets were produced by individuals collected at shallow depths vs. by individuals found deeper. There was no pronounced difference between months in feeding activity. Although the hypothesis is that they prey on Calanus eggs and nauplii, scanning of Metridia faecal pellets by PCR using Calanus-specific primers did not confirm the presence of any Calanus prey DNA. Most pellets had a greenish colour, implying herbivorous feeding. Feeding is related to swimming, and the actively swimming Metridia would presumably be vulnerable to tactile invertebrate predators. However, predation experiments where the carnivorous copepod Pareuchaeta norvegica was offered similar-sized Metridia and Calanus proved that Pareuchaeta consumed the less-active Calanus, but not the Metridia. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Effect of diurnal temperature difference on lipid accumulation and development in Calanus sinicus (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Konglin; Sun, Song

    2017-07-01

    Calanus sinicus, the dominant copepod in the Yellow Sea, develops a large oil sac in late spring to prepare for over-summering in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The lipid accumulation mechanism for the initiation of over-summering is unknown. Here, we cultured C3 copepodites at four constant temperatures (10, 13, 16, and 19°C) and at three temperature regimes that mimicked the temperature variations experienced during diurnal vertical migration (10-13°C, 10-16°C, and 10-19°C) for 18 days to explore the effects of temperature differences on copepod development and lipid accumulation. C. sinicus stored more lipid at low than at high temperatures. A diurnal temperature difference (10-16°C and 10-19°C) promoted greater lipid accumulation (1.9-2.1 times) than a constant temperature of either 16°C or 19°C, by reducing the energy cost at colder temperatures and lengthening copepodite development. Thereafter, the lipid reserve supported gonad development after final molting. Only one male developed in these experiments. This highly female-skewed sex ratio may have been the result of the monotonous microalgae diet fed to the copepodites. This study provides the first evidence that diurnal temperature differences may promote lipid accumulation in C. sinicus, and provides a foundation for future investigations into the mechanisms involved in over-summering in the YSCWM.

  8. Distribution of eurytemora affinis (copepoda: calanoida) in relation to salinity: Field and laboratory observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Vaupel-Klein, J.C.; Weber, Roy E.

    1975-01-01

    The occurrence of the euryhaline copepod Eurytemora affinis in relation to salinity is investigated in the western Wadden Sea which shows salinities increasing from east (where E. affinis-loaden fresh water from the IJsselmeer is sluiced) to west (where Wadden Sea water admixes with saline North...... Sea water). Population densities in excess of those in the IJsselmeer show that E. affinis maintains a complete and reproductive population in the Wadden Sea below about 22.5% S at which its numbers decrease precipitously. The finding that E. affinis extends to higher salinities at low compared...... to high temperature correlates with a longer survival demonstrated by tolerance experiments under the former conditions. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the upper salinity tolerance limit varies in parallel with the salinity to which E. affinis is preaclimated. Accllimation tolerance experiments...

  9. Tychidion guyanense n. gen., n. sp. (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) associated with an annelid off Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humes, A.G.

    1973-01-01

    In his original description of the worm Lamellibrachia barhami, found in a depth of 1125 m in the northeastern Pacific, Webb (1969: 31) mentioned "as yet unidentified copepods which live in quite large numbers in interlamellar pockets in the tentacular crown". Webb regarded the worm host as a

  10. Eight new species of ascidicolous copepods from the eastern coast of Korea (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong

    2011-03-01

    Eight new species of copepods associated with shallow-water ascidians are described from the eastern coast of Korea. They are Ascidicola secundus n. sp. from a Pyura sp., Enteropsis nudus n. sp. from Pyura sacciformis (Drasche), Mycophilus capillatus n. sp. from a compound ascidian, Bonnierilla yangpoensis n. sp. from Phallusia cf. nigra Savigny, Janstockia truncata n. sp. from Chelyosoma siboja Oka, Pholeterides pilosa n. sp. from a compound ascidian, Pachypygus spinosus n. sp. from a solitary ascidian, and Paranotodelphys unguifer n. sp. from Ascidia samea Oka.

  11. Distribution of some Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd-Oltmann Brandorff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.

  12. Asi Nehri (Hatay, Türkiye Cladocera ve Copepoda (Crustacea Faunası.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münir Ziya Lugal Göksu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, Doğu Akdeniz Bölgesinin önemli bir akarsuyu olan Asi Nehri’nin, Hatay (Türkiye sınırları içinde kalan bölümündeki Kopepoda ve Kladosera (Crustacea faunası, 1 yıl süreyle (1996 Eylül - 1997 Ağustos kalitatif yönden incelenmiştir. Örnekler, çalışma alanındaki 5 istasyondan aylık dönemlerde, göz açıklığı 60 µm olan plankton kepçesi ile toplanmış ve %4’lük formaldehit ile korunmuştur. Araştırmada, Kladosera grubuna dahil 15 tür ve Kopepoda grubuna dahil 7 tür olmak üzere, toplam 22 tür tanımlanmıştır. Kladosera grubundan Bosmina longirostris (O.F.Muller, 1785 yılın büyük bölümünde; Kopepoda grubundan Nitocra hibernica (Brady, 1880 12 ay süresince ve Cyclops vicinus Uljanıne, 1975 türü ise 11 ay boyunca gözlenmiştir

  13. First record of the Asian diaptomid Neodiaptomus schmackeri (Poppe & Richard, 1892 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania, as well as a great part of the Balkan area in general, still suffers a lack of environmental studies especially in limnological research. The Dumre plateau, in Central Albania, is characterized by an extraordinary high number of karst lakes in a small geographic area. Despite their environmental peculiarity, very few biological data are to date available for these lakes, none on the zooplankton. For this reason, 15 water bodies located in the central area of the plateau were selected for a preliminary limnological survey carried out in the years 2008-2011. Neodiaptomus schmackeri (Poppe & Richard, 1892, a diaptomid calanoid copepod characterized by a South-Eastern Palearctic - Oriental distribution, and the most widely spread Neodiaptomus species in Asia, was found in 8 lakes of the Dumre area. This finding represents the first record of the species, and of the entire genus Neodiaptomus, for Europe. Several environmental variables were measured to characterize the lakes, and the co-occurring planktonic crustaceans were also identified. Taxonomical drawings and descriptions of the main morphological features of both sexes are herein provided in order to compare the Albanian populations of N. schmackeri with those of the native distribution area of the species. The possible causes which determined the occurrence of this non-indigenous species in several Dumre lakes are discussed.

  14. Seasonal variability of planktonic copepods (Copepoda: Crustacea in a tropical estuarine region in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Oliveira Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caravelas River estuary and adjacent coastal region were studied during the rainy and dry seasons of 2003-2004 to assess the copepod community structure. Abiotic and biotic parameters were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage of copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. Copepod densities showed significant differences between sampling periods, with higher densities in the rainy seasons (Mean: 90,941.80 ind.m-3; S.D.: 26,364.79. The sampling stations located to the north and south, in the coastal region adjacent to the Caravelas River estuary presented the lowest copepod density values. The copepod assemblage was composed mainly of estuarine and estuarine/coastal copepods. The seasonal variations in temperature and salinity influenced the abundance of species during the rainy and dry seasons, with the following dominant species alternating: Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971 in the rainy season of 2003, Parvocalanus crassirostris Dahl, 1894 in the dry season of 2003 and Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht, 1892 in the rainy and dry seasons of 2004. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in copepod assemblages between sampling periods, but not between sampling stations.

  15. Redescription and first records from Brazil of Diacyclops uruguayensis Kiefer (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet W. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacyclops uruguayensis Kiefer, 1935 is redescribed from specimens from Santa Catarina and Ceará, Brazil. These new records represent a significant range extension from southern Uruguay.

  16. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojib, Nazia; Amad, Maan; Thimma, Manjula; Aldanondo, Naroa; Kumaran, Mande; Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid-protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin-protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System: Subclasses for in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology and IVIVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Mudie, Deanna M.; Langguth, Peter; Amidon, Greg E.; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2014-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has found widespread utility in drug discovery, product development and drug product regulatory sciences. The classification scheme captures the two most significant factors influencing oral drug absorption; solubility and intestinal permeability and it has proven to be a very useful and a widely accepted starting point for drug product development and drug product regulation. The mechanistic base of the BCS approach has, no doubt, contributed to its wide spread acceptance and utility. Nevertheless, underneath the simplicity of BCS are many detailed complexities, both in vitro and in vivo which must be evaluated and investigated for any given drug and drug product. In this manuscript we propose a simple extension of the BCS classes to include subspecification of acid (a), base (b) and neutral (c) for classes II and IV. Sub-classification for Classes I and III (high solubility drugs as currently defined) is generally not needed except perhaps in border line solubility cases. It is well known that the , pKa physical property of a drug (API) has a significant impact on the aqueous solubility dissolution of drug from the drug product both in vitro and in vivo for BCS Class II and IV acids and bases, and is the basis, we propose for a sub-classification extension of the original BCS classification. This BCS sub-classification is particularly important for in vivo predictive dissolution methodology development due to the complex and variable in vivo environment in the gastrointestinal tract, with its changing pH, buffer capacity, luminal volume, surfactant luminal conditions, permeability profile along the gastrointestinal tract and variable transit and fasted and fed states. We believe this sub-classification is a step toward developing a more science-based mechanistic in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology. Such a dissolution methodology can be used by development scientists to assess the likelihood of a formulation and dosage form functioning as desired in humans, can be optimized along with parallel human pharmacokinetic studies to set a dissolution methodology for Quality by Design (QbD) and in vitro–in vivo correlations (IVIVC) and ultimately can be used as a basis for a dissolution standard that will ensure continued in vivo product performance. PMID:24486482

  18. National patent applications in biotechnology, subclass C12N, in Brazil from 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Only 11% of the activities of research and development in Brazil are carried out in private institutions. In the biotechnological field, an area of knowledge significantly closer to the basic sciences, there is a higher participation of public sectors, as might be expected. Among the public institutions, the universities were responsible for the highest number of applications in the evaluated time period, 56%. The national participation in the number of biotechnological patent applications in Brazil was 2.6% from 1998 to 2000. Among the countries with the highest number of biotechnological patent applications in Brazil, there is an obvious domination of the United States of America, representing 51.5% of all countries in 1999 and 42.3% of the 1057 C12N patent applications. Applications in the C12N 15 classification with 31.5% were the most frequent in comparison with the other C12N applications. This fact shows the fast increase of the number of applications in genetic engineering and fields of recombinant DNA technology. This result is a possible consequence of the genome race that is occurring at world level.

  19. ABCD2 identifies a subclass of peroxisomes in mouse adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Liu, Jingjing; Lester, Joshua D; Pijut, Sonja S; Graf, Gregory A

    2015-01-02

    ATP-binding cassette transporter D2 (D2) is an ABC half transporter that is thought to promote the transport of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs into peroxisomes. Both D2 and peroxisomes increase during adipogenesis. Although peroxisomes are essential to both catabolic and anabolic lipid metabolism, their function, and that of D2, in adipose tissues remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing organelles, in adipose tissue. Centrifugation of mouse adipose homogenates generated a fraction enriched with D2, but deficient in peroxisome markers including catalase, PEX19, and ABCD3 (D3). Electron microscopic imaging of this fraction confirmed the presence of D2 protein on an organelle with a dense matrix and a diameter of ∼ 200 nm, the typical structure and size of a microperoxisome. D2 and PEX19 antibodies recognized distinct structures in mouse adipose. Immunoisolation of the D2-containing compartment confirmed the scarcity of PEX19 and proteomic profiling revealed the presence of proteins associated with peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. D2 is localized to a distinct class of peroxisomes that lack many peroxisome proteins, and may associate physically with mitochondria and the ER. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethnic differences in lipoprotein subclasses in obese adolescents: importance of liver and intraabdominal fat accretion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    D'Adamo, Ebe

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the deleterious metabolic effects of visceral fat [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] deposition were challenged, and liver fat emerged as having a key independent role in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  1. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a demand and need for healthy solid dietary fats. However, synthetic fats can be tailored to contain specific physiologic properties. Our goal was to design dietary solid test fats that would be both beneficial to the atherogenic lipid profile and stable against lipid peroxidation. Sixteen...

  2. On a new subclass of bi-univalent functions satisfying subordinate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altınkaya Şahsene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we find estimates on the coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in the function class SΣ (λ,φ . The results presented in this paper improve or generalize the recent work of Magesh and Yamini

  3. Transitions between subclasses of bullying and victimization when entering middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J; Jenson, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of depressive symptoms, antisocial attitudes, and perspective-taking empathy on patterns of bullying and victimization during the transition from late elementary (4th grade to 5th grade) to middle school (6th grade) among 1,077 students who participated in the Youth Matters (YM) bullying prevention trial. Latent transition analysis was used to establish classes of bullying, victimization, bully-victimization, and uninvolvement. The intervention had a positive impact on children as they moved from elementary to middle school. More students in the YM group transitioned from the involved statuses to the uninvolved status than students in the control group during the move to middle school. Elementary school bullies with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less likely than other students to move to an uninvolved status in the first year of middle school. Students who held greater antisocial attitudes were more likely to be a member of the bully-victim status than the uninvolved status during the move to middle school. Perspective-taking empathy, however, was not a significant predictor of status change during the transition to middle school. Implications for school-based prevention programs during the move to middle school are noted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Atypical PKC and Notch Inhibition Differentially Modulate Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate from Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Tischfield

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the location of neurogenesis within the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE critically influences the fate determination of cortical interneuron subgroups, with parvalbumin (Pv interneurons originating from subventricular zone divisions and somatostatin (Sst interneurons primarily arising from apical divisions. The aPKC-CBP and Notch signaling pathways regulate the transition from apical to basal progenitor and their differentiation into post-mitotic neurons. We find that aPKC inhibition enhances intermediate neurogenesis from stem cell-derived MGE progenitors, resulting in a markedly increased ratio of Pv- to Sst-expressing interneurons. Conversely, inhibition of Notch signaling enriches for Sst subtypes at the expense of Pv fates. These findings confirm that the mode of neurogenesis influences the fate of MGE-derived interneurons and provide a means of further enrichment for the generation of specific interneuron subgroups from pluripotent stem cells.

  5. DUF1070 as a signature domain of a subclass of arabinogalactan peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Ana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 20% of all protein domains are currently annotated as “domains of unknown function” or DUFs. In a recently identified Centaurium erythraea arabinogalactan peptide, CeAGP3 (AGN92423, a conserved DUF1070 domain was found. Since identifying functions for DUFs is important in systems biology, we have analyzed the distribution and structure of DUF1070 domain (pfam06376 using a set of bioinformatics tools. There are 271 publically available DUF1070 members from 25 diverse families of vascular plants, and most are short sequences (50-100 aa. The N-terminal signal peptide (Nsp was found in almost all complete sequences. In 233 sequences, at least two noncontiguous prolines were found as clustered dipeptides predicted to be hydroxylated and glycosylated with type II arabino-3,6-galactans, thus representing AG-II glycomodules. In addition, 35 sequences contained a region rich in basic residues (basic linker, BL. The N-terminal part of the DUF1070 domain is comprised of (part of AG-II and/or BL, while the highly conserved C-terminus is a region of 26 aa, termed SH26. In 212 sequences, SH26 was a typical glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchor signal peptide (GPIsp, but in 83 cases GPIsp was not predicted due to software constraints. In sequences where both Nsp and GPIsp were predicted, the length of mature peptides could be calculated, and it was 10-16 aa. Our analysis suggests that DUF1070 members are arabinogalactan (AG peptides, of which the majority are GPI-anchored. DUF1070 is the only conserved domain found in classical arabinogalactan proteins and AG peptides. The SH26 region can be used for mining and annotation of AG peptides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ТR31019

  6. Lysine-rich Cyclotides: A New Subclass of Circular Knotted Proteins from Violaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravipati, Anjaneya S; Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Poth, Aaron G; Kaas, Quentin; Wang, Conan K; Colgrave, Michelle L; Craik, David J

    2015-11-20

    Cyclotides are macrocyclic proteins produced by plants for host defense. Although they occur sparsely in other plant families, cyclotides have been detected in every Violaceae plant species so far screened. Many of the Violaceae species examined until now have been from closely related geographical regions or habitats. To test the hypothesis that cyclotides are ubiquitous in this family, two geographically isolated (and critically endangered) species of Australasian Violaceae, namely Melicytus chathamicus and M. latifolius, were examined. Surprisingly, we discovered a suite of cyclotides possessing novel sequence features, including a lysine-rich nature, distinguishing them from "conventional" cyclotides and suggesting that they might have different physiological activities in plants to those reported to date. The newly discovered cyclotides were found to bind to lipid membranes and were cytotoxic against cancer cell lines but had low toxicity against red blood cells, which is advantageous for potential therapeutic applications. This suite of novel Lys-rich cyclotides emphasizes the broad diversity of cyclotides in Violaceae species.

  7. Human IgG subclass antibodies to the 19 kilodalton carboxy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the natural human humoral immune responses to the 19 kilodalton carboxy terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119), a malaria candidate vaccine antigen and to determine the prevalence of MAD20 and K1 alleles of P. falciparum MSP1. Design: Community ...

  8. Phylogeny of subclass Scuticociliatia (Protozoa, Ciliophora) using combined data inferred from genetic, morphological, and morphogenetic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yangang; Lin, Xiaofeng; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Song, Weibo

    2010-07-01

    Gene sequence-based genealogies of scuticociliates are different from those produced by morphological analyses. For this reason, 11 representative scuticociliates and two ambiguously related genera were chosen to test the ability of combined phylogenetic analyses using both gene sequences and morphological/morphogenetic characteristics. Analyses of both the SSrRNA gene sequences and the combined datasets revealed a consistent branching pattern. While the terminal branches and the order level relationships were generally well resolved, the family level relationships remain unresolved. However, two other trees based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences and morphological/morphogenetic characters showed limited information, due to a lack of informative sites in these two datasets. Our data suggest, however, that the combined analysis of morphological/morphogenetic characters and gene sequences did produce some changes to the phylogenetic estimates of this group.

  9. Descriptions of two azooxanthellate Palythoa species (Subclass Hexacorallia, Order Zoantharia from the Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Irei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of zoantharians (Hexacorallia, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae, Palythoa mizigama sp. n. and P. umbrosa sp. n., are described from the Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. Unlike almost all other known Palythoa spp., both species are azooxanthellate and inhabit low-light environments such as floors or sides of caves, crevasses, or hollows of shallow coral reefs. The two species were initially considered to be the same species from their similar habitat environments and highly similar morphological features. However, phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS ribosomal DNA, mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI sequences revealed that these two species have a genetically distant relationship within the genus Palythoa. Morphological characteristics, including polyp size, tentacle number, external/internal coloration, and types and sizes of cnidae were examined in this study. As a result, only tentacle coloration was found to be useful for the morphological distinction between the two species. Palythoa mizigama possesses white tentacles with black horizontal stripes while P. umbrosa possesses white tentacles without any stripe patterns. Considering their distant phylogenetic relationship, it can be assumed that their unique yet similar morphological and ecological characteristics developed independently in each species as an example of parallel evolution.

  10. Imaging-based surrogate markers of transcriptome subclasses and signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taouli, Bachir [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Hoshida, Yujin; Chen, Xintong; Sun, Xiaochen; Kojima, Kensuke; Toffanin, Sara; Hirschfield, Hadassa [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Kakite, Suguru [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago City (Japan); Tan, Poh Seng [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); National University Health System, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medicine Cluster, Singapore (Singapore); Kihira, Shingo [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fiel, M.I. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Wagner, Mathilde [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Llovet, Josep M. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Universitat de Barcelona, HCC Translational Research Laboratory, Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer Group Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    In this preliminary study, we examined whether imaging-based phenotypes are associated with reported predictive gene signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-eight patients (M/F 30/8, mean age 61 years) who underwent pre-operative CT or MR imaging before surgery as well as transcriptome profiling were included in this IRB-approved single-centre retrospective study. Eleven qualitative and four quantitative imaging traits (size, enhancement ratios, wash-out ratio, tumour-to-liver contrast ratios) were assessed by three observers and were correlated with 13 previously reported HCC gene signatures using logistic regression analysis. Thirty-nine HCC tumours (mean size 5.7 ± 3.2 cm) were assessed. Significant positive associations were observed between certain imaging traits and gene signatures of aggressive HCC phenotype (G3-Boyault, Proliferation-Chiang profiles, CK19-Villanueva, S1/S2-Hoshida) with odds ratios ranging from 4.44-12.73 (P <0.045). Infiltrative pattern at imaging was significantly associated with signatures of microvascular invasion and aggressive phenotype. Significant but weak associations were also observed between each enhancement ratio and tumour-to-liver contrast ratios and certain gene expression profiles. This preliminary study demonstrates a correlation between phenotypic imaging traits with gene signatures of aggressive HCC, which warrants further prospective validation to establish imaging-based surrogate markers of molecular phenotypes in HCC. (orig.)

  11. Subclasses of starlike functions associated with a fractional calculus operator involving Caputo's fractional differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangaharan Murugu Sundaramoorthy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new class of functions which are analytic and univalent with negative coefficients defined by using certain fractional operators descibed in the Caputo sense and obtain coefficient estimates, extreme points, the radii of close to convexity, starlikeness and convexity and neighbourhood results for functions in this new class. In  particular, we obtain modified Hadamard product results for the function f(z belongs to the new class in the unit disc.

  12. A subclass of HER1 ligands are prognostic markers for survival in bladder cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Helle-Merete Vissing; Sørensen, B S; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    receptors [EGF receptor I Human EGF Receptor (HER1) and 2 (HER2)] was examined by a newly developed quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. Five ligands and two receptors (HER1 and HER2) were present in median concentrations of (10(-21) mol/microg RNA) 0.39 (AR), 11 (betaCL), 2.4 (EPI), 40 (HB......-EGF), 1.4 (TGF-alpha), 75 (HER1), and 39,000 (HER2). EGF was barely detectable. A significantly higher expression of EPI (P

  13. Effects of cardiovascular lifestyle change on lipoprotein subclass profiles defined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Decewicz, David J; Neatrour, David M; Burke, Amy; Haberkorn, Mary Jane; Patney, Heather L; Vernalis, Marina N; Ellsworth, Darrell L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering is a primary goal in clinical management of patients with cardiovascular disease, but traditional cholesterol levels may not accurately reflect the true atherogenicity of plasma lipid profiles. The size and concentration of lipoprotein particles, which transport cholesterol and triglycerides, may provide additional information for accurately assessing cardiovascular risk. This study evaluated changes in plasma lipoprotein ...

  14. RAS-pathway mutation patterns define epigenetic subclasses in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Daniel B; Witte, Tania; Toth, Reka; Yang, Jing; Wiesenfarth, Manuel; Nöllke, Peter; Fischer, Alexandra; Brocks, David; Gu, Zuguang; Park, Jeongbin; Strahm, Brigitte; Wlodarski, Marcin; Yoshimi, Ayami; Claus, Rainer; Lübbert, Michael; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Hartmann, Mark; Schönung, Maximilian; Kilik, Umut; Langstein, Jens; Wierzbinska, Justyna A; Pabst, Caroline; Garg, Swati; Catalá, Albert; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Hasle, Henrik; Locatelli, Franco; Masetti, Riccardo; Schmugge, Markus; Smith, Owen; Stary, Jan; Ussowicz, Marek; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Assenov, Yassen; Schlesner, Matthias; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Flotho, Christian; Plass, Christoph

    2017-12-19

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive myeloproliferative disorder of early childhood characterized by mutations activating RAS signaling. Established clinical and genetic markers fail to fully recapitulate the clinical and biological heterogeneity of this disease. Here we report DNA methylome analysis and mutation profiling of 167 JMML samples. We identify three JMML subgroups with unique molecular and clinical characteristics. The high methylation group (HM) is characterized by somatic PTPN11 mutations and poor clinical outcome. The low methylation group is enriched for somatic NRAS and CBL mutations, as well as for Noonan patients, and has a good prognosis. The intermediate methylation group (IM) shows enrichment for monosomy 7 and somatic KRAS mutations. Hypermethylation is associated with repressed chromatin, genes regulated by RAS signaling, frequent co-occurrence of RAS pathway mutations and upregulation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B, suggesting a link between activation of the DNA methylation machinery and mutational patterns in JMML.

  15. Ovarian antral follicle subclasses and anti-mullerian hormone during normal reproductive aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, J L; Johannsen, T H

    2013-01-01

    between age and ovarian reserve parameters in a population of healthy women with regular menstrual cycle. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective, population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 366 health care workers aged 21-41 years employed at a University Hospital were...

  16. Cancer DNA microarray analysis considering multi-subclass with graph-based clustering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Takashi; Mutoh, Hironori; Tomita, Yasuyuki; Kato, Ryuji; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    It is well known that various genes related to cell cycle, cell-cell adhesion, and transcriptional regulation cause the onset of cancer. Moreover, environmental factors including age, sex, and lifestyle can also contribute to the onset of cancer. Therefore, it is difficult to ascertain which factors influence the onset. Thus, patients suffering from same disease can be divided into several distinct groups. In the present study, we applied graph-based clustering to several DNA microarray datasets before the classification analysis. Several clusters formed by the graph-based clustering were used for the construction of multi-class classification model with the k-nearest neighbor and for finding genes, which are specific to a certain cluster, by One vs. Others classification. Using this approach, the classification model was constructed for four microarray datasets, leukemia, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer, and the accuracies of classification with k-nearest neighbor were all more than 80%. And in the breast cancer dataset, we succeeded in finding genes that are specific in a cluster consisting of 38 control group samples. These results indicate the importance of sample clustering before classification model construction.

  17. ABCD2 identifies a subclass of peroxisomes in mouse adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoxi, E-mail: xiaoxi.liu@uky.edu; Liu, Jingjing, E-mail: jingjing.liu0@gmail.com; Lester, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.lester@uky.edu; Pijut, Sonja S., E-mail: srhee2@uky.edu; Graf, Gregory A., E-mail: Gregory.Graf@uky.edu

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examined the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing compartment in mouse adipose tissue. • We confirmed the presence of D2 on a subcellular compartment that has typical structure as a microperoxisome. • We demonstrated the scarcity of peroxisome markers on D2-containing compartment. • The D2-containing compartment may be a subpopulation of peroxisome in mouse adipose tissue. • Proteomic data suggests potential association between D2-containing compartment and mitochondria and ER. - Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter D2 (D2) is an ABC half transporter that is thought to promote the transport of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs into peroxisomes. Both D2 and peroxisomes increase during adipogenesis. Although peroxisomes are essential to both catabolic and anabolic lipid metabolism, their function, and that of D2, in adipose tissues remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing organelles, in adipose tissue. Centrifugation of mouse adipose homogenates generated a fraction enriched with D2, but deficient in peroxisome markers including catalase, PEX19, and ABCD3 (D3). Electron microscopic imaging of this fraction confirmed the presence of D2 protein on an organelle with a dense matrix and a diameter of ∼200 nm, the typical structure and size of a microperoxisome. D2 and PEX19 antibodies recognized distinct structures in mouse adipose. Immunoisolation of the D2-containing compartment confirmed the scarcity of PEX19 and proteomic profiling revealed the presence of proteins associated with peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. D2 is localized to a distinct class of peroxisomes that lack many peroxisome proteins, and may associate physically with mitochondria and the ER.

  18. Differential effects of calcium antagonist subclasses on markers of nephropathy progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakris, George L; Weir, Matthew R; Secic, Michelle; Campbell, Brett; Weis-McNulty, Annette

    2004-01-01

    ... studies have shown that higher levels of proteinuria are associated with increased progression of renal and cardiovascular disease and that reductions in proteinuria are associated with a decrease in the rate of renal function deterioration and cardiovascular events. As a result of this relationship, proteinuria is frequently used as a surrogate end po...

  19. Correlation of circulating CD133+ progenitor subclasses with a mild phenotype in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Marchesi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various prognostic serum and cellular markers have been identified for many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and tumor pathologies. Here we assessed whether the levels of certain stem cells may predict the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD.The levels of several subpopulations of circulating stem cells expressing the CD133 antigen were determined by flow cytometry in 70 DMD patients. The correlation between the levels and clinical status was assessed by statistical analysis. The median (+/-SD age of the population was 10.66+/-3.81 (range 3 to 20 years. The levels of CD133+CXCR4+CD34- stem cells were significantly higher in DMD patients compared to healthy controls (mean+/-standard deviation: 17.38+/-1.38 vs. 11.0+/-1.70; P = 0.03 with a tendency towards decreased levels in older patients. Moreover, the levels of this subpopulation of cells correlated with the clinical condition. In a subgroup of 19 DMD patients after 24 months of follow-up, increased levels of CD133+CXCR4+CD34- cells was shown to be associated with a phenotype characterised by slower disease progression. The circulating CD133+CXCR4+CD34- cells in patients from different ages did not exhibit significant differences in their myogenic and endothelial in vitro differentiation capacity.Our results suggest that levels of CD133+CXCR4+CD34- could function as a new prognostic clinical marker for the progression of DMD.

  20. Architectural protein subclasses shape 3-D organization of genomes during lineage commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Cremins, Jennifer E.; Sauria, Michael E. G.; Sanyal, Amartya; Gerasimova, Tatiana I.; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Bell, Joshua S. K.; Ong, Chin-Tong; Hookway, Tracy A.; Guo, Changying; Sun, Yuhua; Bland, Michael J.; Wagstaff, William; Dalton, Stephen; McDevitt, Todd C.; Sen, Ranjan; Dekker, Job; Taylor, James; Corces, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Understanding the topological configurations of chromatin may reveal valuable insights into how the genome and epigenome act in concert to control cell fate during development. Here we generate high-resolution architecture maps across seven genomic loci in embryonic stem cells and neural progenitor cells. We observe a hierarchy of 3-D interactions that undergo marked reorganization at the sub-Mb scale during differentiation. Distinct combinations of CTCF, Mediator, and cohesin show widespread enrichment in looping interactions at different length scales. CTCF/cohesin anchor long-range constitutive interactions that form the topological basis for invariant sub-domains. Conversely, Mediator/cohesin together with pioneer factors bridge shortrange enhancer-promoter interactions within and between larger sub-domains. Knockdown of Smc1 or Med12 in ES cells results in disruption of spatial architecture and down-regulation of genes found in cohesin-mediated interactions. We conclude that cell type-specific chromatin organization occurs at the sub-Mb scale and that architectural proteins shape the genome in hierarchical length scales. PMID:23706625

  1. Serum IGG subclass levels in healthy infants of 13-62 weeks of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, B. J. M.; van der Giessen, M.; Reerink-Brongers, E. E.; Stoop, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The levels of IgGl, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 were determined in serum samples of 160 infants aged 13-62 weeks, and of their mothers. In addition the serum IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgD levels of the infants are presented. The results show that IgM, IgGl, and IgG3 slightly increase during the first year of

  2. The serum igg subclass levels in healthy infants of 13–62 weeks of age

    OpenAIRE

    Zegers, B.J.M.; van der Giessen, M; Reerink-Brongers, E.E.; Stoop, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The levels of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 were determined in serum samples of 160 infants aged 13–62 weeks, and of their mothers. In addition the serum IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgD levels of the infants are presented. The results show that IgM, IgG1, and IgG3 slightly increase during the first year of life, whereas IgG2, IgG4, IgA, and IgD hardly do. This difference in the development of the various immunoglobulin isotypes reflects differences in the terminal maturation of subsets of B-lymphocytes i...

  3. The serum igg subclass levels in healthy infants of 13–62 weeks of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, B.J.M.; Giessen, M. van der; Reerink-Brongers, E.E.; Stoop, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The levels of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 were determined in serum samples of 160 infants aged 13–62 weeks, and of their mothers. In addition the serum IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgD levels of the infants are presented. The results show that IgM, IgG1, and IgG3 slightly increase during the first year of

  4. Growth of chitinolytic dune soil ß-subclass Proteobacteria in response to invading fungal hyphae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    It has frequently been reported that chitinolytic soil bacteria, in particular biocontrol strains, can lyse living fungal hyphae, thereby releasing potential growth substrate. However, the conditions used in such assays (high bacterial density, rich media, fragmented hyphae) make it difficult to

  5. Determination of levels of salivary IgA subclasses in patients with minor recurrent aphthous ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Ramandeep; Kale, Alka; Hallikerimath, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer (RAU) is an inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent, painful oral ulcers. It is of multifactorial etiology. Salivary immunoglobulins have important role in the protection of mucosal surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine salivary immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and IgA2 in acute and remission phases of the disease. Thirty clinically confirmed cases of RAU and 30 age-and sex-matched controls were included in the study. After detailed case history and thorough clinical examination, 2 mL of saliva was collected in both acute and remission phases of the disease. The obtained saliva samples were subjected to quantification of IgA1 and IgA2 levels using RID kit. The mean IgA2 level was significantly higher (Pacute and remission phase of the study group. The mean IgA1 level also showed a significant increase in the acute phase compared to remission as well as controls (Pacute phase for IgA1 and in both phases for IgA2 (Pacute phase is characterized with increase in IgA2 that might reflect increased immune response as a possible result of the microbial stimulation seen in the acute phase in comparison to the remission period. IgA plays an important role in the pathogenesis of RAU and it can be used as a parameter to assess the mucosal immune status.

  6. Structural Basis for Binding Specificity between Subclasses of Modular Polyketide Synthase Docking Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Tonia J.; Geders, Todd W.; Bartley, III, Frank E.; Reynolds, Kevin A.; Smith, Janet L.; Sherman, David H.; (Michigan); (Portland SU)

    2009-04-02

    Bacterial type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) assemble structurally diverse natural products of significant clinical value from simple metabolic building blocks. The synthesis of these compounds occurs in a processive fashion along a large multiprotein complex. Transfer of the acyl intermediate across interpolypeptide junctions is mediated, at least in large part, by N- and C-terminal docking domains. We report here a comprehensive analysis of the binding affinity and selectivity for the complete set of discrete docking domain pairs in the pikromycin and erythromycin PKS systems. Despite disconnection from their parent module, each cognate pair of docking domains retained exquisite binding selectivity. Further insights were obtained by X-ray crystallographic analysis of the PikAIII/PikAIV docking domain interface. This new information revealed a series of key interacting residues that enabled development of a structural model for the recently proposed H2-T2 class of polypeptides involved in PKS intermodular molecular recognition.

  7. Sucessão de invertebrados durante o processo de decomposição de duas plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum = Succession of invertebrates during the decomposition process of two aquatic plants (Eichhornia azurea and Polygonum ferrugineum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Paulo Mormul

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A colonização de invertebrados durante o período de 56 dias de decomposição de duas espécies de plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum foi investigada para determinar o papel de macroinvertebrados no processo de fragmentação da folha. Durante aanálise do material, foi constatado um total de 2096 invertebrados, associados a E.azurea e 6154 invertebrados associados a P. ferrugineum, identificados dentro de 18 táxons, com predominânciade larvas de Diptera da família Chironomidae, seguido por espécimes de Oligochaeta, microcrustáceos como Cladocera e Copepoda. Em ambas as plantas, os macroinvertebrados mostraram um aumento significativo de densidade ao longo do processo de decomposição, o que provavelmente está associado à perda de compostos fenólicos. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies de macrófitas apresentam associações específicas com seus consumidores, ou seja, o processo de sucessão da colonização torna-se diferenciado de acordo com as características fenológicas da planta.The invertebrate colonization was investigated during 56-day decomposition of two macrophytes species (Eichhornia azurea andPolygonum ferrugineum. The aim was to determine the role of macroinvertebrates in the process of leaf fragmentation. During material analysis, 2096 invertebrates were associated with E.azureaand 6154 were associated with P. ferrugineum, identified in 18 taxons, with predominance of Diptera larvae (Chironomidae family specially, followed by Oligochaeta species and microcrustaceans such as Cladocera and Copepoda. In both macrophytes the macroinvertebratesshowed a significant increase of density through the process of decomposition, which is probably associated with the loss of phenolic compounds. Results suggest that macrophytes specimens show specific associations with their consumers, i.e., the succession process of colonization becomes singular according to the phenolic characteristics of the plant.

  8. Sucessão de invertebrados durante o processo de decomposição de duas plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1017 Succession of invertebrates during the decomposition process of two aquatic plants (Eichhornia azurea and Polygonum ferrugineum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Monkolski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A colonização de invertebrados durante o período de 56 dias de decomposição de duas espécies de plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum foi investigada para determinar o papel de macroinvertebrados no processo de fragmentação da folha. Durante a análise do material, foi constatado um total de 2096 invertebrados, associados a E.azurea e 6154 invertebrados associados a P. ferrugineum, identificados dentro de 18 táxons, com predominância de larvas de Diptera da família Chironomidae, seguido por espécimes de Oligochaeta, microcrustáceos como Cladocera e Copepoda. Em ambas as plantas, os macroinvertebrados mostraram um aumento significativo de densidade ao longo do processo de decomposição, o que provavelmente está associado à perda de compostos fenólicos. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies de macrófitas apresentam associações específicas com seus consumidores, ou seja, o processo de sucessão da colonização torna-se diferenciado de acordo com as características fenológicas da planta.The invertebrate colonization was investigated during 56-day decomposition of two macrophytes species (Eichhornia azurea and Polygonum ferrugineum. The aim was to determine the role of macroinvertebrates in the process of leaf fragmentation. During material analysis, 2096 invertebrates were associated with E.azurea and 6154 were associated with P. ferrugineum, identified in 18 taxons, with predominance of Diptera larvae (Chironomidae family specially, followed by Oligochaeta species and microcrustaceans such as Cladocera and Copepoda. In both macrophytes the macroinvertebrates showed a significant increase of density through the process of decomposition, which is probably associated with the loss of phenolic compounds. Results suggest that macrophytes specimens show specific associations with their consumers, i.e., the succession process of colonization becomes singular according to the phenolic characteristics of the

  9. Infestação experimental em girinos de Rana catesbeiana Shaw por copepoditos de Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus (Copepoda, Lernaeidae Experimental, infestation of Rana catesbeiana Shaw tadpoles by copepodids of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus (Copepoda, Lernaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Laterça Martins

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758 copepodids experimental contamination on the Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 ladpoles was analized. Sixty percent (12 of infested tadpoles was found parasitized. High mortality range, lower appetence, equilibrium loss and apathy were observed. The parasites showed the preference for the mouth and cloaca: in 72 hours lhe egg saes had already developed.

  10. A new record and redescription of Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae from north-western Mexico Un registro nuevo y redescripción completa de Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae del noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gómez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Schizopera Sars, 1905 were found during sampling in 2 brackish systems in central and southern Sinaloa (north-western Mexico. The specimens turned out to belong to Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni Lang, 1965 which was originally described from Monterey Bay (the type locality and is known from Cocodrie (Louisiana. Amendments to Lang's (1965 original description and Fiers and Rutledge's (1990 partial redescription are given.Durante una serie de muestreos se hallaron ejemplares del género Schizopera Sars, 1905 en 2 sistemas salobres en el centro y sur de Sinaloa (México. El material recolectado resultó ser Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni Lang, 1965, una especie de copépodo harpacticoide originalmente descrita de material recolectado en la Bahía de Monterey (localidad tipo y hallada también en Cocodrie (Louisiana, EUA. Se proporcionan enmiendas a la descripción original de Lang (1965 y a la redescripción parcial de Fiers y Rutledge (1990.

  11. First record and redescription of Tisbella pulchella (Copepoda: Harpacticoida from the eastern tropical Pacific Primer registro y redescripción de Tisbella pulchella (Copepoda: Harpacticoida del Pacífico tropical este

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Neptalí Morales-Serna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the genus Tisbella Gurney, 1927 were found during a series of sampling campaigns in 2 brackish systems in southern Sinaloa (north-western Mexico. The specimens were identified as Tisbella pulchella (Wilson, 1932, a species of harpacticoid copepod originally described from material collected from the Woods Hole region (USA and found also in the Bermuda Islands. A thorough comparison between the material collected in Mexican coastal systems in the eastern tropical Pacific and previous redescriptions of the type material is presented. It is shown that the only differences between the most accurate and detailed redescription available and the present description is in the number of setae of the arthrite and palp of the maxillule, and in the number of accessory setae of the maxilliped. Some notes on the biogeography of the species are presented and it is concluded that T. pulchella is the most widely distributed species within the genus.Se encontraron ejemplares del género Tisbella Gurney, 1927 durante una serie de muestreos de meiofauna en 2 sistemas costeros del sur de Sinaloa (noroeste de México. Los organismos fueron identificados como Tisbella pulchella (Wilson, 1932, una especie de copépodo harpacticoide originalmente descrita a partir de material recolectado en la región de Woods Hole (EUA y también registrada en las islas Bermuda. Se presenta una comparación de los especímenes recolectados en sistemas costeros mexicanos del Pacífico tropical este y las redescripciones disponibles del material tipo. Se observó que las únicas diferencias observadas entre la redescripción más detallada de la especie y la presente descripción es el número de setas del artrito y palpo de la maxíllula y el número de setas accesorias del maxilípedo. Finalmente se dan algunas notas acerca de su biogeografía y se concluye que T. pulchella es la especie con la distribución más amplia del género.

  12. Morphometric differences in two calanoid sibling species, Boeckella gracilipes and B. titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda Diferencias morfométricas en dos especies hermanas Boeckella gracilipes y Boeckella titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos Escalante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Calanoid copepods are abundant in South American inland waters and include widespread species, such as Boeckella gracilipes (Daday, 1902, which occurs from the Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego Island. This species occurs under various environmental conditions, and is found in oligotrophic lakes in Patagonia (39-54°S and in shallow mountain lakes north of 39°S. The aim of the present study is to conduct a morphometric comparison of male specimens of B. titicacae collected in Titicaca and B. gracilipes collected in Riñihue lakes, with a third population of B. gracilipes collected in shallow ponds in Salar de Surire. Titicaca and Riñihue lakes are stable environments, whereas Salar de Surire is an extreme environment. These ponds present an extreme environment due to high exposure to solar radiation and high salinity levels. The results of the study revealed differences among the three populations. These results agree well with systematic descriptions in the literature on differences between the populations of Titicaca and Riñihue lakes, and population of Salar de Surire differs slightly from the other two populations. It is probable that the differences between the population of Salar de Surire and the other two populations result from the extreme environment in Salar de Surire. High exposure to solar radiation, high salinity and extreme variations in temperature enhance genetic variations that are consequently expressed in morphology.Los copépodos calanoideos son abundantes en aguas continentales sudamericanas e incluyen especies de amplia distribución geográfica como Boeckella gracilipes (Daday, 1902 que se encuentra desde Ecuador hasta la isla de Tierra del Fuego. Esta especie vive bajo varias condiciones ambientales, y se encuentra en lagos oligotróficos en la Patagonia (39-54°S y en lagunas superficiales de montaña al norte de los 39°S. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar un estudio comparativo morfométrico de machos de B. titicacae colectado en el lago Titicaca y B. gracilipes colectado en el lago Riñihue, ambos son ambientes estables, con una tercera población colectada en lagunas superficiales en el Salar de Surire. Estas lagunas tienen condiciones ambientales extremas debido a alta exposición a la radiación solar y altos niveles de salinidad. Los resultados del presente estudio encontraron diferencias entre las tres poblaciones. Estos resultados concordarían con las descripciones sistemáticas en la literatura sobre las diferencias de las poblaciones de los lagos Titicaca y Riñihue, y la población del salar de Surire tuvo leves diferencias respecto a las dos poblaciones anteriores. Es probable que las diferencias entre la población del Salar de Surire y las otras dos se deban a alta exposición a la radiación solar, salinidad y condiciones extremas de temperatura que acelera las diferencias genéticas las que se expresan en diferencias morfológicas.

  13. Morphometric differences in two calanoid sibling species, Boeckella gracilipes and B. titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda) Diferencias morfométricas en dos especies hermanas Boeckella gracilipes y Boeckella titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio de los Ríos Escalante

    2012-01-01

    Calanoid copepods are abundant in South American inland waters and include widespread species, such as Boeckella gracilipes (Daday, 1902), which occurs from the Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego Island. This species occurs under various environmental conditions, and is found in oligotrophic lakes in Patagonia (39-54°S) and in shallow mountain lakes north of 39°S. The aim of the present study is to conduct a morphometric comparison of male specimens of B. titicacae collected in Titicaca and B. graci...

  14. Expanded description of Lamproglena monodi (Copepoda: Lernaeidae, parasitizing native and introduced fishes in Brazil Descrição expandida de Lamproglena monodi (Copepoda: Lernaeidae, parasita de peixes nativos e introduzidos no Brasil

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    Rodney Kozlowiski de Azevedo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An occurrence of the copepod Lamproglena monodi Capart, 1944, parasitizing freshwater fishes in Brazil is presented, along with new morphological data. This crustacean was originally described parasitizing several cichlids in Africa. In the present study, the crustaceans were collected from the body surface and gills of two fish species native to Brazil [Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831 and Cichla ocellaris Bloch and Schneider, 1801] and two introduced species [Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1897]. The Brazilian specimens exhibited some morphometric intraspecies differences in relation to the specimens from Congo-Kinshasa and Egypt.A ocorrência e novos dados morfológicos do copépode Lamproglena monodi Capart, 1944 parasitando peixes dulcícolas no Brasil são apresentados. Este crustáceo foi originalmente descrito parasitando vários ciclídeos da África. No presente trabalho, os crustáceos foram coletados das brânquias e superfície do corpo dos peixes nativos do Brasil [Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831 e Cichla ocellaris Bloch e Schneider, 1801 e duas espécies introduzidas Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1897]. Os espécimes coletados no Brasil apresentaram algumas diferenças morfométricas intraespecíficas em relação aos espécimes do Congo-Kinshasa e Egito.

  15. Phylogeography of Calanus helgolandicus and the Black Sea copepod Calanus euxinus, with notes on Pseudocalanus elongatus (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Ebru; Frost, Bruce W.; Armbrust, Virginia; Kideys, Ahmet E.

    2006-08-01

    Calanus helgolandicus is a widespread epipelagic copepod species whose geographical range extends from the temperate Atlantic Ocean to the northern Mediterranean Sea. Calanus euxinus, recently designated as a distinct species though closely related to C. helgolandicus, occurs in the Black Sea. Very subtle morphological differences distinguish the two species. Pseudocalanus elongatus has a similar geographic range including North Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. In this study, population genetic variation of C. helgolandicus, C. euxinus and P. elongatus was investigated using DNA sequence variation of 540 base pair ( Calanus spp.) and 575 base pair ( P. elongatus) regions of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene. C. helgolandicus was collected from the English Channel, the Adriatic Sea, and C. euxinus was collected from various regions of the Black Sea. P. elongatus was collected from the English Channel and the Black Sea. Intraspecific differentiation in mtCOI was <1% for all species; mtCOI sequence variation between C. helgolandicus and C. euxinus was <0.5%. The absence of substantial genetic differentiation between C. helgolandicus and C. euxinus is particularly striking in comparison to other close species pairs in these genera. Statistically significant haplotype frequency differences were determined for different locations of the Black Sea, English Channel, and Adriatic Sea Calanus populations ( χ2=3.94, P<0.0001). The haplotype diversity was high for all species: C. euxinus ( h=0.92), C. helgolandicus ( h⩽0.80), P. elongatus ( h⩽0.60). No haplotype sharing was reported for different locations of P. elongatus, whereas the presence of haplotype sharing between C. helgolandicus and C. euxinus was remarkable. The size distribution in terms of prosome length measurements was found to be region-specific. The lack of phylogenetic differentiation between the Calanus species pair may suggest ancestral polymorphisms. The morphological and genetic similarities between C. euxinus and C. helgolandicus raise new questions about the status of C. euxinus as a different species.

  16. Complementary description of Ergasilus arthrosis Roberts, 1969 (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a new parasite of cichlid teleosts in southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-García, María Isabel; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    During a parasitological survey of the ichthyofauna of Lake Catemaco, a freshwater system in the Mexican State of Veracruz, the widespread copepod Ergasilus arthrosis Roberts, 1969 was recovered from two cichlid teleosts, Mayaheros urophthalmus (Günther) and Oreochromis sp. This is the first confirmed record of this copepod species outside of the United States and from Mexico; its finding as a parasite of cichlids represents an expansion of the known host range for this copepod. The local prevalence and intensity of infection of E. arthrosis was highest in M. urophthalmus. The infection prevalence of E. arthrosis on M. urophthalmus (60%) was higher than that known for other ergasilids on cichlids. Ergasilus arthrosis can be distinguished from its closest congener E. lizae Krøyer, 1863 by the morphometry of the antennary segments, the ventral ornamentation of the thoracic sclerites and by details of the antennulary setation, but also by its habitat and host preferences. Taxonomic illustrations and morphological details of the specimens examined are also provided together with comments on the variability of this species.

  17. Drought-associated absence of alien invasive anchorworm, Lernaea cyprinacea (Copepoda: Lernaeidae, is related to changes in fish health

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    Rachel L. Welicky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters, 1852 were listed on the IUCN Red List as near-threatened as their populations are at risk due to hybridization. Another factor that potentially contributes to their population decline is that they are regularly infected by the invasive parasitic copepod anchorworm, Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758. Considering anchorworm-infected Mozambique tilapia are common, understanding their condition with respect to infection is difficult as uninfected fish from the same localities have been unavailable for comparison. A severe drought in southern Africa has created hypersaline environments in the Phongolo River floodplain of north-eastern South Africa, such that freshwater parasites cannot survive and uninfected fish are now found. To determine how infection influences host health, infected and uninfected Mozambique tilapia were collected before and during drought conditions, from Nyamiti pan of the Phongolo River floodplain. Anchorworm-infected fish prevalence was recorded, and anchorworms were collected from hosts and identified to the species level using molecular data of the 18S rRNA gene. For each fish, intensity of anchorworm infection, total length, and weights of the gutted body, liver, spleen, and gonads were recorded. Gutted condition factor, hepato-, spleeno-, and gonado-somatic index values per fish, and prevalence of infection per collection were determined. A rapid health assessment was also conducted to determine a health score for each fish. Molecular analyses confirmed the anchorworm studied was L. cyprinacea. Prior to and during drought, prevalence of infection was 100%, and 0%, respectively. Before drought, fish had significantly reduced hepato-, spleeno-, and gonado-somatic index values, and higher health assessment scores, yet significantly higher gutted condition. Anchorworm intensity was indirectly correlated with fish liver and gonad condition. This study demonstrates that host condition and health varies greatly with respect to drought and infection, and provides the necessary data for follow-up studies in post-drought conditions. Keywords: Alien invasive, Cichlidae, Fish parasites, Host condition, Tilapia, 18S ribosomal DNA

  18. A review of the population biology and host-parasite interactions of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, O; Nolan, D T

    2002-01-01

    Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a specific parasite of salmonids that occurs in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. When infestations are heavy fish mortality can occur although the factors that are responsible for causing epizootics, especially in wild salmonid populations are still largely unknown. Over the past 20 years this parasite has caused significant economic losses in farmed salmon production and possibly in wild salmonid populations locally. Understanding the connectivity between populations is crucial to an understanding of the epidemiology of infections and for management of infections in aquaculture. Data from genetics, pesticide resistance, larval dispersal models and spatial and temporal patterns of infestation in wild and farmed hosts suggests a spatially highly structured metapopulation the components of which have different levels of connectivity, probabilities of extinction and influence on the development of local infestations. The population structure is defined mainly by the dispersal dynamics of the planktonic stages and the behaviour of the host. Until recently virtually nothing was known about the relationship between the parasite and the host, or how the host may influence lice at local or population level. Typically, impacts on the host have usually been reported in terms of pathological lesions caused by attachment and feeding of the adult stages, as well as localised mild epithelial responses to juvenile attachment. However many studies report pathology associated with severe infestation. Recent new studies on the host-parasite interactions of L. salmonis have shown that this parasite induces stress-related responses systemically in the host skin and gills and that the stress response and immune systems are modulated. In the second part of this review, these new studies are presented, together with results from other host-parasite model systems where data for caligid sea lice are missing. One of the most revealing methods reported recently is the application of a net confinement stressor to examine modulation of the stress response and immune system of the host fish. This approach has shown that although until now, infective stages of L. salmonis were not thought to affect the host, they do induce systematic effects in the host that result in a stress response and modulated immune system. Host-parasite interactions affecting these stress responses and the immune system may be key factors in facilitating epizootics by reducing the host's ability to reject the parasites, as well as reducing disease resistance under some environmental conditions. The host-parasite interaction therefore needs to be incorporated into any model of population structure and dynamics.

  19. Ectoparasitic sea lice, Caligus minimus (Otto 1821, Copepoda: Caligidae on Brawn wrasse, Labrus merula L. in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

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    Tansel T. Tanrikul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the species of Caligus minimus of the genus Caligus (Siphonosto - matoida: Caligidae, parasitic on marine fish, brawn wrasse (Labrus merula, genus Labridae, of Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea. The sea lice, C. minimus, is identified from the gill and external surfaces of the brawn wrasse (total length, 30 cm; weight, 210 gr., particularly on its head. The entire collection of sea lice consists of 11-12 specimens, all of which are female. Ectoparasitic copepods especially belong to the Caligidae family, the most common crustacean parasites on fish. C. minimus can be found in Atlantic coasts, British waters, the North Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. C. minimus ectoparasite is a host and mainly recorded on Perciformes, such as Dicentrarchus labrax, Pagellus bogaraveo, Umbrina cirrosa, and Mugil cephalus. Recently, in both sides of the Aegean Sea, C. minimus has been identified from cultured marine fish, mainly D. labrax. The intensity of the infection is apparent on adult fish, especially during the winter and early spring. C. minimus is the first record on brawn wrasse caught by gill nets from the Urla coasts in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea in March 2010.

  20. Ectoparasitic sea lice, Caligus minimus (Otto 1821, Copepoda: Caligidae) on Brawn wrasse, Labrus merula L. in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    TANRIKUL, Tansel T.; Fatih Percin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the species of Caligus minimus of the genus Caligus (Siphonosto - matoida: Caligidae), parasitic on marine fish, brawn wrasse (Labrus merula), genus Labridae, of Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea. The sea lice, C. minimus, is identified from the gill and external surfaces of the brawn wrasse (total length, 30 cm; weight, 210 gr.), particularly on its head. The entire collection of sea lice consists of 11-12 specimens, all of which are female. Ectoparasitic copepods especially belong...

  1. A new species of Parategastes Sars, 1904 from the Thale Noi Lake, southern Thailand (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tegastidae

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    Thanida Saetang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parategastes pholpunthini sp. n. is described and illustrated based on material collected in the Thale Noi Lake, Phatthalung province, southern Thailand. This species can be distinguished from its congeners by the number segments of female antennule, the lengths of rami and basis of P1, the shape of middle inner seta of P4 exp-3, shape of P5, and relative lengths of spine at apically of baseoendopod of P5. The differences among Parategastes species are pointed out and they are compared with the new species. An identification key to species of the genus Parategastes are proposed.

  2. A new species of Harpacticella Sars, 1908 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, from a tidal pool on Jeju Island, Korea

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    Seunghan Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Harpacticella Sars, 1908 is described from a tidal pool on Jeju Island, Korea. Harpacticella jejuensis sp. n. is closely related to H. itoi Chang & Kim, 1991, with regard to the structure of P1 exp-1 and enp-1, the length of P1 exp-1 and exp-2, and the setal number of the P5 exopod in males. However, the new species is clearly distinguishable from H. itoi by the combined following characters: six setae on the P5 exopod in females, one naked seta on the inner margin of P1 exp-2, the short endopod of P1 compared to the exopod, and a naked long seta on the proximal inner margin of the P5 exopod of males. The mtCOI partial sequence is provided as a DNA barcode for the new species.

  3. Life histories and seasonal dynamics of common boreal pelagic copepods (Crustacea, Copepoda inhabiting an oligotrophic Fennoscandian lake

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    Svein Birger WÆRVÅGEN

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The annual seasonal abundance and spatial distribution of four widespread pelagic copepods, the Palaeartic calanoid Eudiaptomus gracilis, the cyclopoids Mesocyclops leuckarti and Thermocyclops oithonoides, and the Holartic Cyclops scutifer were investigated in Lake Gjerstadvann, an oligotrophic boreal lake. Important ecological traits such as life cycles, pelagic microhabitats and wintering strategies varied strongly between the investigated copepods, and influenced seasonal succession in the plankton community. Fish predation did not seem to affect copepod abundances, except perhaps the two lage-sized, less abundant species, the Palaeartic calanoid Heterocope saliens and the Holartic cyclopoid Cyclops abyssorum. Life cycles varied from one (C. scutifer to three (M. leuckarti and E. gracilis complete generations per year, primarily related to habitat temperatures. Wintering took place as late instars (C. scutifer, C. abyssorum or cop V and adults (E. gracilis in the plankton, late instars in profundal (T. oithonoides or littoral (M. leuckarti sediment diapause, and embryonic diapause in sediment egg bank (H. saliens. C. scutifer and C. abyssorum exhibited delayed development in the profundal waters during winter, which could be characterised as so-called "active diapause". C. scutifer, T. oithonoides, and C. abyssorum in Lake Gjerstadvann were probably negatively affected by acidified waters. M. leuckarti seemed to be the most acid-tolerant of these species being able to endure pH slightly below 5.0, whereas T. oithonoides was usually absent at such pH levels. The calanoid species H. saliens and E. gracilis were extremely tolerant towards acidic environments. The yearly differences in population abundance as indicated by the fluctuations in the diapausing populations were probably due to environmental variations in water chemistry occurring during the most vulnerable ontogenetic stages, i.e., eggs and nauplii. Even if the pelagic ecosystem in boreal and oligotrophic lakes may appear homogeneous, a whole array of life histories and dormancy patterns has evolved among copepods.

  4. Postembryonic stages of Nucellicola holmanae Lamb et al., 1996 (copepoda, poecilostomatoida), an endoparasite of the dog whelk Nucella lapillus (gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, E. J.; Boxshall, G. A.; Mill, P. J.; Grahame, J.

    1998-06-01

    The external morphology of the first three larval stages of Nucellicola holmanae is described. These stages were cultured from eggs found with the adults in the viscera of dog whelks collected from Robin Hood's Bay, North Yorkshire. The nauplius develops within the whelk. It moults to a metanauplius which is released as a free-swimming stage. The metanauplius moults to a free copepodid stage which exhibits a combination of characters typical of the first, second and third copepodid stages of other poecilostomatoid copepods. The infective copepodid stage which locates and penetrates the host is visible through the integument of this free-swimming copepodid.

  5. Neue marine Cyclopoida Gnathostoma (Crustacea, Copepoda) von Puerto Rico. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 57

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, Hans-Volkmar

    1989-01-01

    In the flat littoral of the coast of Puerto Rico (West Indies) at the reef of Cayo Enrique a few Cyclopoida Gnathostoma were collected in colonies of the corallimorpharian Ricordea florida Duch & Mich., which belong to the subfamilies Pterinopsyllinae and Euryteinae. These are the following species:

  6. A new species of Mastigodiaptomus Light, 1939 from Mexico, with notes of species diversity of the genus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae

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    Martha Angélica Gutiérrez-Aguirre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Mastigodiaptomus Light, 1939, named Mastigodiaptomus cuneatus sp. n. was found in a freshwater system in the City of Mazatlán, in the northern region of Mexico. Morphologically, the females of this new species are distinguishable from those of its congeners by the following combination of features: the right distal corner of the genital double-somite and second urosomite have a wedge-shaped projection, the fourth urosomite has no dorsal projection and its integument is smooth. The males are distinct by the following features: the right caudal ramus has a wedge-shaped structure at the disto-ventral inner corner; the basis of the right fifth leg has one triangular and one rounded projection at the distal and proximal margins, respectively, plus one hyaline membrane on the caudal surface close to the inner margin; the aculeus length is almost the width of the right second exopod (Exp2; and the frontal and caudal surfaces of the right Exp2 are smooth. Furthermore, the analysis of the COI gene of M. cuneatus sp. n. has revealed that M. albuquerquensis (Herrick, 1895 is its nearest congener, with 18.64% of genetic distance. A key for the identification of the known species of the genus is provided.

  7. First record of Hemidiaptomus (Gigantodiaptomus superbus (Schmeil, 1895 in Italy, with notes on distribution and conservation status (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae

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    Federico MARRONE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemidiaptomus (Gigantodiaptomus superbus (Schmeil, 1895 was found in a temporary pool in the Pineta di Classe coastal pine-wood (Ravenna, northern Italy. This is the first official record of a species belonging to the subgenus Gigantodiaptomus of Italian fauna, and it widens the known distribution of this rare diaptomid to the Mediterranean basin. In order to supply data on this rare and poorly known species, original drawings for the Italian population have been provided, and some overlooked morphological features have been highlighted. In light of the growing evidence of the existence of a number of cryptic species in the Diaptomidae family, and considering the variability observed in the ornamentation of the fifth pair of female legs, the ribosomal DNA marker 16S was used to compare the specimens collected in Italy with those from the terra typica of the species. Molecular data confirmed the strict conspecificity of the two populations being studied. The environmental parameters relating to the new Italian site are described and compared with the few data currently available in the literature. A careful review of all the published data dealing with H. (G. superbus has been performed, and the paucity of recent records is stressed, together with the opportunity to support dedicated conservation measures for the protection of this species.

  8. Effects of Temperature and Salinity on the Survival and Egg Production of Gladioferens pectinatus Brady (Copepodas: Calanoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. J.; Burns, C. W.

    2002-10-01

    The calanoid copepod Gladioferens pectinatus Brady occurs in Lake Waihola, New Zealand, a shallow, tidally-influenced lake. This lake experiences daily and seasonal fluctuations in salinity, and seasonal changes in temperature. To determine the potential contributions of salinity and temperature to observed seasonal population fluctuations, we tested the survival and egg production of G. pectinatus at two temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C) and in a range of ' salinities ' (20 to 2700 mg l -1 Cl). Adult survival was highest in 1000 mg l -1 Cl at 10 °C, when 50% still remained alive after 23 d. Increases in salinity and temperature decreased the survival time to less than 10 d. The salinities tolerated were well below the maximum of 2500 mg l -1 Cl recorded in the lake. There was no difference in adult survival between males and females. Eggs were produced in salinities of up to 600 mg l -1 Cl. Only in 20 mg l -1 Cl did an increase in temperature reduce clutch retention time, and increase the rate of egg production. The rate of increase in salinity did not affect copepod survival, but acclimation at an intermediate salinity increased survival at 10 °C. Our results suggest that high temperatures and salinities in summer may lower the fitness of this population of G. pectinatus.

  9. Five new species of lichomolgid copepods associated with ascidians from Korea, with proposal of two new genera (Crustacea, Copepoda, Lichomolgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seong Yong; Kim, Il-Hoi

    2011-09-01

    Five new species of the family Lichomolgidae associated with solitary ascidians are described from the east coast of Korea. Two new genera are proposed: Protomolgus n. gen. to incorpotate Protomolgus duplex n. sp. and P. singularis n. sp., and Dontimolgus n. gen. to incorporate Dontimolgus brevicaudatus n. sp. Protomolgus n. gen. characteristically has a four-segmented female maxilliped and a bipartite mandible. Dontimolgus n. gen. possesses a large, tooth-like process on the first maxillary segment and three spines on the third exopodal segment of leg 3. Other two new species described are Lichomolgus infirmus n. sp. and L. pectinatus n. sp.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of Mesocyclops annulatus (Wierzejski, 1892 (Copepoda: Cyclopidea as a predator of container-breeding mosquitoes in Argentina

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    María V Micieli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory bioassays we tested the predatory capacity of the copepod Mesocyclops annulatus on Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens larvae. A single adult female of M. annulatus caused 51.6% and 52.3% mortality of 50 first instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively, in a 72 h test period. When alternative food was added to the containers, mortality rates declined to 16% and 10.3% for Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively. When 50 first instar larvae of each of the two mosquito species tested were placed together with a single adult female of M. annulatus, mortality rates were 75.5% for Ae. aegypti larvae and 23.5% for Cx. pipiens larvae in a three day test period. Different density of adult females of M. annulatus ranged from 5 to 25 females produced mortality rates of Ae. aegypti first instar larvae from 50% to 100% respectively. When a single adult female of M. annulatus was exposed to an increasing number of first-instar Ae. aegypti larvae ranging from 10 to 100, 100% mortality was recorded from 1 to 25 larvae, then mortality declined to 30% with 100 larvae. The average larvae killed per 24 h period by a single copepod were 29.

  11. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators

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    Luciana Urbano dos Santos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01 of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

  12. Four new representatives of the genus Allocyclops Kiefer, 1932 from semi-consolidated subsoil aquifers in Benin (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae

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    Frank Fiers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several species of cyclopoid copepods were collected from improved and unimproved hang-dug-wells in the Republic of Bénin over the years 2009–2014. Fifty five wells located in seven different districts were sampled: 15 wells in the district of Pobè (Department Plateau and 1 well in Kétou (Department Plateau, 4 wells in Porto-Novo District (Department Ouémé and, 15 wells in Lokossa District (Department Mono,18 wells in Parakou District (Department Borgou, 1 well in Abomey-Calavi District (Department Atlantique and 1 in Zogbodomè District (Department Zou. Among them, 4 new species of the genus Allocyclops Kiefer, 1932 were found and are described herein: Allocyclops spinifer sp. n., A. nudus sp. n., A. pilosus sp. n. and A. sakitii sp. n. They are compared with the three African species previously described. Allocyclops appears to be a sub-Saharan taxon specialized to thrive in the variable environment of subsoil aquifers in laterite deck beds. An identification key to the 7 different African Allocyclops species is provided.

  13. Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi (Guerne and Richard, 1890) in the Canary Islands (Copepoda: Calanoida: Paradiaptominae). Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 19

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi is widespread on Lanzarote, where it occurred at 22 of the 105 stations. On Fuerteventura it was found at only 2 of the 53 stations, both in the extreme northwest part of the island. It was also found in a reservoir on the south side of the small island of Alegranza.

  14. In silico characterization of the insect diapause-associated protein couch potato (CPO) in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Roncalli, Vittoria; Lona, Paola Batta; McCoole, Matthew D; King, Benjamin L; Bucklin, Ann; Hartline, Daniel K; Lenz, Petra H

    2013-03-01

    Couch potato (CPO) is an RNA-binding protein involved in the regulation of nervous system development and adult diapause in insects. Within insects, this protein is highly conserved, yet it has not been identified in another large arthropod group, the Crustacea. Here, functional genomics was used to identify putative CPO homologs in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, a planktonic crustacean that undergoes seasonal diapause. In silico mining of expressed sequence tag (EST) and 454 pyrosequencing data resulted in the identification of two full-length CPO proteins, each 205 amino acids long. The two C. finmarchicus CPOs (Calfi-CPO I and II) are identical in sequence with the exception of three amino acids, and are predicted to possess a single RNA recognition motif (RRM). Sequence comparison of the two Calfi-CPOs with those of insects shows high levels of amino acid conservation, particularly in their RRMs. Using the C. finmarchicus sequences as queries, ESTs encoding partial CPOs were identified from two other crustaceans, the parasitic copepod Lernaeocera branchialis and shrimp Penaeus monodon. Surprisingly, no convincing CPO-encoding transcripts were identified from crustacean species with very large (>100,000) EST datasets (e.g. Litopenaeus vannamei, Daphnia pulex and Lepeophtheirus salmonis), suggesting that CPO transcript/protein may be expressed at very low levels or absent in some crustaceans. RNA-Seq data suggested stage-specific expression of CPO in C. finmarchicus, with few transcripts present in eggs (which represent mixed embryonic stages) and adults, and high levels in nauplii and copepodites; stages exhibiting high CPO expression are consistent with a role for it in neuronal development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Redescription and taxonomic validity of Leptodiaptomus cuauhtemoci (Osorio- Tafall, 1941 (Copepoda, Calanoida, with notes on its known distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo SILVA-BRIANO

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the American freshwater calanoid copepods, Leptodiaptomus includes species whose taxonomical status is still unclear. One of them is L. cuauhtemoci (Osorio-Tafall, for decades considered to be a synonym of L. siciloides (Lilljeborg; another species involved in this problem is L. assiniboiensis (Anderson & Fabris described from Canada, which had been found to be closely related to L. cuauhtemoci. This species remained of uncertain taxonomy because the type material was lost decades ago. In order to disentangle this controversy, type specimens of L. assiniboiensis, topotypic specimens of L. cuauhtemoci from a National Park in central Mexico, and confirmed specimens of L. siciloides from different locations in Mexico and the United States were used to define the status of these species. Leptodiaptomus cuauhtemoci was fully redescribed using SEM. Based on the main characters used to differentiate species of Diaptomidae, L. assiniboiensis (= Diaptomus intermedius Anderson & Fabris turned out to be conspecific and a junior synonym of L. cuauhtemoci, which then becomes the valid name. The latter species shows taxonomically relevant differences with respect to L. siciloides. In the females the main differences is that the lateral spiniform processes on the genital somite are broader-based in L. cuauhtemoci, the genital field is different in both species. In L. cuauhtemoci the fifth leg endopods bear two large, broad, subterminal setae of about the same size, differently built than in L. siciloides. The male L. cuauhtemoci is slenderer, with wings of pediger 5 clearly more developed than those of L. siciloides. The armature of the modified right antennules and the structure of the fifth leg differ in both species. A large coxal spine is present on the right fifth leg of L. siciloides, whereas it is absent in L. cuauhtemoci. These differences were considered to be enough evidence for recognizing L. cuauhtemoci as a separate, valid species. Topotypic specimens of L. cuauhtemoci are designated as neotypes.

  16. Sensitivity of the marine benthic copepod Tisbe biminiensis (copepoda, harpacticoida to potassium dichromate and sediment particle size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. V. Araújo-Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For the future use of the marine benthic copepod Tisbe biminiensis in solid-phase sediment toxicological bioassays, the present study investigated the effect of muddy sediment from the Maracaípe estuary (northeastern Brazil, sediment particle size and the reference toxicant potassium dichromate on the species. Muddy sediment from Maracaípe can be used as control sediment, since it does not interfere in the copepod life-cycle and has metal contamination levels that are unlikely to produce any detrimental biological effects on benthic invertebrates. Neither survival nor fecundity was affected by grain size, suggesting that this species can be used with any kind of sediment from muddy to sandy. The sensitivity of T. biminiensis to K2Cr2O7 in acute tests was similar to that of other organisms. The LC50 (lethal concentration to 50% of the test organisms medium values for T. biminiensis were 7.51, 4.68 and 3.19 mg L-1 for Cr in 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. These results suggest that T. biminiensis is a promising organism for use in solid-phase sediment toxicity assessments.Visando o uso futuro do copépodo marinho bentônico Tisbe biminiensis em bioensaios toxicológicos de sedimentos na fase sólida, o presente estudo investigou o efeito do sedimento lamoso do estuário de Maracaípe (Nordeste do Brasil. Foram considerados a granolometria e o tóxico de referência dicromato de potássio sobre a espécie. O sedimento lamoso de Maracaípe pode ser usado como controle, uma vez que não interfere no ciclo de vida do copépodo e possui níveis de contaminação de metais que não causariam efeitos biológicos em invertebrados bentônicos. Nem a sobrevivência ou fecundidade foi afetada pelo tamanho do grão, sugerindo que esta espécie pode ser usada com qualquer tipo de sedimento, de lama a areia. A sensibilidade de T. biminiensis ao K2Cr2O7 em testes agudos foi similar a de outros organismos. Os valores de CL50 (concentração letal a 50% dos organismos para T. biminiensis foram em média 7,51, 4,68 e 3,19 mg L-1 para o Cr em 48, 72 e 96h, respectivamente. Estes resultados sugerem que T. biminiensis é um organismo promissor para uso em avaliações de toxicidade com a fase sólida do sedimento.

  17. Sensitivity of the marine benthic copepod Tisbe biminiensis (copepoda, harpacticoida) to potassium dichromate and sediment particle size

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane M. V. Araújo-Castro; Souza-Santos, Lília P.; Torreiro,Anny Gabrielle A .G.; Garcia, Karina S.

    2009-01-01

    For the future use of the marine benthic copepod Tisbe biminiensis in solid-phase sediment toxicological bioassays, the present study investigated the effect of muddy sediment from the Maracaípe estuary (northeastern Brazil), sediment particle size and the reference toxicant potassium dichromate on the species. Muddy sediment from Maracaípe can be used as control sediment, since it does not interfere in the copepod life-cycle and has metal contamination levels that are unlikely to produce any...

  18. [The family Pontellidae (Crustacea: Copepoda) in la Ventosa Bay, Oaxaca, México: systematies and basic ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Silva, Carlos; Miranda Arce, María Guadalupe; De Lara-Isassi, Graciela

    2003-01-01

    A study on ecological records of planktonic copepods from The Ventosa Bay, Oaxaca, Mexico is presented. Five species were identified: Labidocera acuta, L. lubbockii, Pontella agassizi, P. tenuiremis and Pontellina plumata. The most abundant species was L. acuta and their copepodite stages conforming the 95.7% of Pontellids, followed by L. lubbockii 4.09%; other species were less than one percent. The reproductive success of L. acuta is probably favored by its resistance to the changes in temperature and salinity, because of it is an eurytherme and euryhaline organism. Total density of this family was between 18 and 472 copepods/100 m3 in 1987 and 1988. Nevertheless in 1992 and 1993 the density was between 490 to 123,030 copepods/100 m3. This copepod density increment could be related local phenomenon (upwelling) at the beginning and end of the year.

  19. Two new species of Hemicyclops (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Clausidiidae) associated with mud shrimps of the genus Callichirus from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kihara, Terue Cristina; Falavigna da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    Two new clausidiid copepods of the genus Hemicyclops (Poecilostomatoida: Clausidiidae) associated with mud shrimps are described from Brazil: Hemicyclops caissarum sp. n. associated with Callichirus major (Say, 1808) from a beach in Santos and Hemicyclops sebastiani sp. n., in burrows of Callichirus

  20. Three new species of benthonic Harpacticoida (Copepoda, Crustacea from São Sebastião Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagea Björnberg

    Full Text Available Three benthonic Harpacticoida (Crustacea new to science were collected in the São Sebastião Channel region (SE Coast of Brazil: Rhizotrix virginiae n.sp. (Rhizotrichidae, Galapalaophonte alvaroi n. sp. (Laophontidae and Laophontisochra terueae n.sp. (Nannopodidae. Though similar to described species from the NW Atlantic benthos, the Caribbean region and the Patagonian continental slope, they differ in details, such as number of leg segments and/or setae, ornaments, etc. and are here described for the first time.

  1. Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda of Mussel Beds and Macroalgae on the Rocky Substrates in the North-Western Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portianko V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of harpacticoid copepods in total abundance, biomass and species diversity of meiobenthos on rocky substrates is described. Th e fauna of harpacticoid copepods consists of 19 species in algal beds, 23 species in mussel beds and 24 species in mixed aggregation of molluscs and macrophytes. In the macrophyte aggregation, the maximal abundance was registered in Cladophora vagabunda - 88 750 ind. × m-2, while minimal was on Laurensia paniculata - 8250 ind. × m-2. According to the frequency of occurrence, the habitat preferred by copepods was Ceramium elegans, but according to their percentage in total meiobenthos among macrophytes it was Ulva intestinalis, 56.6 %. The percentage of copepods in the pure mussel beds was higher comparing to mixed aggregation of molluscs and macrophytes.

  2. First record of the Calanoid Copepod Pseudodiaptomus serricaudatus (Scott, T. 1894), (Copepoda: Calanoida: Pseudodiaptomidae) in the equatorial Indian ocean.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rebello, V.; Narvekar, J.; Gadi, P.; Venenkar, A.; Gauns, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    for his valuable advice. We acknowledge the help from Shweta, Genevieve and Byju for data collection and analysis. EIOPS was funded by the Ministry of Earth Science (MoES), New Delhi. This is NIO contribution No.xxxx. References Achuthankutty, C.T., N...

  3. Distribution and hosts of Stellicola (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) associated with Linckia (Asteroidea) in the Indo-West Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humes, Arthur G.

    1976-01-01

    Five lichomolgid copepods belonging to the genus Stellicola are reported from three species of the sea star genus Linckia in the Moluccas: Stellicola flexilis n. sp. from Linckia guildingi. L. laevigata, and L. multiflora, S. caeruleus (Stebbing, 1900) from L. laevigata, L. guildingi, and L.

  4. New records of the rare glacial relict Eurytemora lacustris (Poppe 1887 (Copepoda; Calanoida in atypical lake habitats of northern Germany

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    Peter KASPRZAK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During monitoring investigations of lakes in Schleswig-Holstein (northern Germany in 2000 and 2008, the calanoid copepod Eurytemora lacustris (POPPE 1887 was found in three lakes of the Ratzeburger Lake complex: the Kleine Küchensee, the Große Küchensee and the Große Ratzeburger See. The species has a broad geographic distribution but has become rare and endangered by eutrophication and global change. The lakes are mesotrophic (Gr. Ratzeburger See and eutrophic (Kl. Küchensee, Gr. Küchensee with cool (1 mg O2 L-1. Food and physical conditions seem to be favourable enough to permit survival and reproduction of the species at least in spring. It remains unclear, however, whether the populations in the studied lakes are autochthonous. Eurytemora lacustris possibly invaded the lakes or was transported via a canal from the Schaalsee upstream, where a viable population exists.

  5. Genome- and transcriptome-assisted development of nuclear insertion/deletion markers for Calanus species (Copepoda: Calanoida) identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolina, I.; Kollias, S.; Poortvliet, M.

    2014-01-01

    Copepods of the genus Calanus are key zooplankton species in temperate to arctic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, species identification remains challenging. Furthermore, the recent report of hybrids among Calanus species highlights the need for diagnostic nuclear markers t...

  6. Seasonal occurrence and habitat of two pennellids (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) infecting marine ranched black scraper and Korean rockfish in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, S Y; Choi, H J; Myoung, J G

    2014-06-01

    The seasonal occurrence and habitat of two parasitic copepods, Peniculus minuticaudae (Shiino, 1956) and Peniculus truncatus (Shiino, 1956) (Siphonostomatoida, Pennellidae) infecting the fins of black scraper Thamnaconus modestus and Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegelii, respectively were investigated. The fishes were collected from Tongyeong marine living resources research and conservation center, southern coast of Korea as five per month for two years from July 2011 to June 2013. In total, 391 copepods of P. minuticaudae were collected in two years, in contrast to P. truncatus. Prevalence was 85%, mean intensity was 3.25, and maximum intensity was 33. Season wise, the infestation was observed as the highest in autumn (September-November) season, and the lowest in winter (December- February). It was infested only on fins of black scrapers. Abundance of P. minuticaudae was found on the pectoral fin (43.5%), followed by anal (22.5%), second dorsal (20.5%) and caudal fins (13.5%). Statistically significant interactions were observed between season, infestation and infected regions (PKorea from the fins of wild threadsail filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer from Busan, Jeju, Tongyeong and Yeosu fish markets. It can be a new record on its host and localities. A total of 51 P. truncatus were collected with the prevalence of 37.5%, mean intensity of 0.37 and maximum intensity of 6. Season wise, infestation was observed as the highest in summer (June-August), and the lowest in winter. Attachment site was the dorsal fin and not found from any other fins of rockfish. Statistically significant interaction was observed between season and infestation (P<0.05). This is the first report on the ecology of these two pennellids.

  7. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Luciana Urbano dos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01 of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

  8. De novo assembly of a transcriptome for Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda--the dominant zooplankter of the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra H Lenz

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of global warming on the food web of the North Atlantic will require difficult-to-obtain physiological data on a key copepod crustacean, Calanus finmarchicus. The de novo transcriptome presented here represents a new resource for acquiring such data. It was produced from multiplexed gene libraries using RNA collected from six developmental stages: embryo, early nauplius (NI-II, late nauplius (NV-VI, early copepodite (CI-II, late copepodite (CV and adult (CVI female. Over 400,000,000 paired-end reads (100 base-pairs long were sequenced on an Illumina instrument, and assembled into 206,041 contigs using Trinity software. Coverage was estimated to be at least 65%. A reference transcriptome comprising 96,090 unique components ("comps" was annotated using Blast2GO. 40% of the comps had significant blast hits. 11% of the comps were successfully annotated with gene ontology (GO terms. Expression of many comps was found to be near zero in one or more developmental stages suggesting that 35 to 48% of the transcriptome is "silent" at any given life stage. Transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis pathways, critical for the C. finmarchicus life cycle, were identified and their expression pattern during development was examined. Relative expression of three transcripts suggests wax ester biosynthesis in late copepodites, but triacylglyceride biosynthesis in adult females. Two of these transcripts may be involved in the preparatory phase of diapause. A key environmental challenge for C. finmarchicus is the seasonal exposure to the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense with high concentrations of saxitoxins, neurotoxins that block voltage-gated sodium channels. Multiple contigs encoding putative voltage-gated sodium channels were identified. They appeared to be the result of both alternate splicing and gene duplication. This is the first report of multiple NaV1 genes in a protostome. These data provide new insights into the transcriptome and physiology of this environmentally important zooplankter.

  9. Observations on feeding behaviour and survival rates in the estuarine calanoid copepods Acartia spinicauda and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srivastava, Y.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Experiments were conducted on the calanoid copepods, Acartia spinicauda (Acartiidae) and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Diaptomidae) in order to determine food preference and survival rates respectively. Adults of A. spinicauda were fed monocultures...

  10. A new species of Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida from a high altitude saline lake in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suarez Morales

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During the analysis of littoral samples collected from a high-altitude saline crater lake in Central Mexico, several female and male specimens of harpacticoid copepods were recovered and taxonomically examined. They were found to represent an undescribed species of the canthocamptid genus Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875. The new species, C. gomezi n. sp. is described herein based on specimens of both sexes. It resembles C. stimpsoni Gómez, Fleeger, Rocha-Olivares and Foltz, 2004 from Louisiana but also C. trichotus Kiefer, 1929. The new species differs from C. stimpsoni and from other congeners by details of the maxillular armature, the setation of the endopodal segments of legs 2 and 3, and the armature of the third exopodal segment of legs 3 and 4. Also, the dorsal (VII and the outer (IV caudal setae are both relatively shorter than in C. stimpsoni. This is the second species of the genus known to be distributed in Mexico. The occurrence of the new species in a high-altitude saline lake, the isolation of the type locality, and its absence from adjacent freshwater lakes suggest that this species is endemic to this site.

  11. Infestation of Lernaea cyprinacea (Copepoda: Lernaeidae in two invasive fish species in Romania, Lepomis gibbosus and Pseudorasbora parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrescu-Bedivan M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed comparatively the host-parasite associations between two fish host species invasive in Europe (Lepomis gibbosus and Pseudorasbora parva and one known generalist parasite species, the copepod Lernaea cyprinacea. We used a fragment of the hypervariable region D1-D2 of the 28S rRNA to confirm that the copepod specimens collected on both host species in our study are indeed conspecific. The prevalence of infection was significantly different between the two host species in all three aquatic ecosystems. Two populations of L. gibbosus exhibited a positive correlation coefficient between the standard body length and infection intensity, while a negative correlation coefficient was observed in one population of P. parva. This is one of the few studies providing parasitological parameters of infections of Lernaea cypriancea in Lepomis gibbosus and Pseudorasbora parva.

  12. A new species of Monstrillopsis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Monstrilloida from the lower Northwest Passage of the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Delaforge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of monstrilloid copepod, Monstrillopsis planifrons sp. n., is described from an adult female that was collected beneath snow-covered sea ice during the 2014 Ice Covered Ecosystem – CAMbridge bay Process Study (ICE-CAMPS in Dease Strait of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Currently, up to six species of this order are known to occur in polar latitudes. The new species described herein shares similarities with Monstrillopsis dubia (Scott, 1904 but differs in its body proportions and cephalothorax ornamentation; the cephalothorax is covered by minute scattered papillae on dorsal and ventral surfaces; this species has a reduced fifth leg endopod, fifth leg exopod armed with three setae, antennule with fused segments 3–4, and the genital double-somite bears unique posterolateral processes. This is the second species of this genus recorded in the Arctic, after Monstrillopsis ferrarii (Suárez-Morales & Ivanenko, 2004, described from the White Sea, and is the first record of Monstrillopsis in Canadian waters. With the addition of this new species and the recognition of Monstrillopsis bernardensis comb. nov. as a member of this genus, the number of nominal species is now 15. Overall, this genus has a tendency to be distributed in temperate and cold waters, while only three species have been found in tropical and subtropical latitudes.

  13. A new Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several groups of copepods that are teleost parasites, the siphonostomatoid family Caligidae is by far the most widespread and diverse. With more than 108 nominal species, the caligid genus Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann is one of the most speciose. There are no reports of this genus in Costa Rican waters. A new species of Lepeophtheirus is herein described based on female specimens collected from plankton samples in waters off Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The new species, L. alvaroi sp. nov., has some affinities with other congeners bearing a relatively short abdomen, a wider than long genital complex and a 3-segmented exopod of leg 4. it differs from most of these species by the presence of an unbranched maxillular process and by the relative lengths of the terminal claws of leg 4, with two equally long elements. it is most closely related to two other Eastern Pacific species: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 and L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. it differs from these species by the proportions and shape of the genital complex, the shape of the sternal furca, the relative length of the maxillar segments, the absence of a pectiniform process on the distal maxillar segment, the length of leg 4 and the armature of leg 5. The new species represents the first Lepeophtheirus described from Costa Rican waters of the Pacific. The low diversity of this genus in this tropi- cal region is explained by its tendency to prefer hosts from temperate latitudes. Until further evidence is found, the host of this Lepeophtheirus species remains unknown.Entre los varios grupos de copépodos que son parásitos de teleósteos, la familia sifonostomatoide Caligidae incluye los más dispersos y diversos. Con más de 108 especies nominales, el género de calígidos Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann es uno de los más diversos. No existen registros previos de este género en aguas de Costa Rica. Se describe una nueva especie de copépodo calígido del género Lepeophtheirus con base en especímenes femeninos recolectados a partir de muestras de plancton en aguas de Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, una isla oceánica del Pacífico Tropical Oriental. La nueva especie, L. alvaroi sp. nov., tiene algunas afinidades con congéneres que poseen un abdomen relativamente corto, un complejo genital más ancho que largo y un exópodo de la pata 4 con 3 segmentos. Esta especie difiere de la mayoría de estas especies por la presencia de un proceso maxilular no ramificado y por el tamaño relativo de las garras terminales de la pata 4, con dos elementos igualmente largos. Está más cercanamente relacionada con otras dos especies del Pacífico Oriental: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 y L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. Difiere de estas especies por las proporciones y forma del complejo genital, la forma de la furca esternal, la longitud relativa de los segmentos maxilares, la ausencia de un proceso pectiniforme en el segmento maxilar distal, la longitud de la pata 4 y la armadura de la pata 5. La nueva especie representa el primer Lepeophtheirus descrito en aguas del Pacífico de Costa Rica. La baja diversidad del género en esta región tropical se explica por su tendencia a preferir hospederos de latitudes templadas. Hasta encontrar más evidencia, el hospedero de esta especie de Lepeophtheirus permanece desconocida.

  14. Discovery of a new subclass of alpha-conotoxins in the venom of Conus australis

    OpenAIRE

    Lebbe, E.K.M.; Peigneur, S.; M. MAITI; Mille, B.G.; Devi, P.; Ravichandran, S.; Lescrinier, E; Waelkens, E; D'Souza, L.; Herdewijn, P; Tytgat, J.

    2014-01-01

    Cone snails (Conus sp.) are poisonous animals that can be found in all oceans where they developed a venomous strategy to prey or to defend. The venom of these species contains an undeniable source of unique and potent pharmacologically active compounds. Their peptide compounds, called conotoxins, are not only interesting for the development of new pharmaceutical ligands, but they are also useful for studying their broad spectrum of targets. One conotoxin family in particular, the a-conotoxin...

  15. Nonencapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis Infection Impairs Follicular Helper T Cell Differentiation with Subclass-Selective Decreases in Antibody Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kazunobu; Wu, Zhiliang; Srinontong, Piyarat; Ikeda, Takahide; Nagano, Isao; Morita, Hirokuyi; Maekawa, Yoichi

    2016-12-01

    Infectious microorganisms often modify host immunity to escape from immune elimination. Trichinella is a unique nematode of the helminth family, whose members parasitize the muscle cells inside the host without robust eliminative reactions. There are several species of Trichinella; some develop in muscle cells that become encapsulated (e.g., Trichinella spiralis) and others in cells that do not encapsulate (e.g., Trichinella pseudospiralis). It has already been established that Trichinella infection affects host immune responses in several experimental immune diseases in animal models; however, most of those studies were done using T. spiralis infection. As host immune responses to T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections have been reported to be different, it is necessary to clarify how T. pseudospiralis infection influences the host immune responses. In this study, we investigated the influence on host humoral immunity in T. pseudospiralis-infected mice. We demonstrated that T. pseudospiralis infection decreased antigen-specific IgG2a and IgG2b antibody (Ab) production in mice immunized with a model antigen. This selective decrease in gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-dependent Ab production was not due to a decrease in IFN-γ production, and we instead found impaired follicular helper T (Tfh) cell differentiation. The affinity maturation of antigen-specific Ab tended to be delayed but was not significant in T. pseudospiralis-infected mice. We also observed that CD11b(+) spleen cells in T. pseudospiralis-infected mice expressed CD206 and PD-L2, the phenotype of which was M2 macrophages with weak production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), possibly resulting in impaired Tfh differentiation. Taken together, our results indicate that nonencapsulated Trichinella infection induces selective dampening in humoral immunity with the suppression of Tfh differentiation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Common carp have two subclasses of bonyfish specific antibody IgZ showing differential expression in response to infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryo, S.; Wijdeven, R.H.M.; Tyagi, A.; Hermsen, G.J.; Kono, T.; Karunasagar, I.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Sakai, H.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Savan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chains identified in bony fish are broadly classified into three classes namely IgM, IgD and IgZ. The most recently described isotype is IgZ, a teleosts-fish specific isotype that shows variations in gene structure across teleosts. In this study we have identified two IgZ

  17. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Boardman

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+. However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-. MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition.MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]. Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH.Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN- and chromosomally instable (CIN+ by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6 had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13 which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066 and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004. Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040; and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949.MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  18. Nutritional status predicts primary subclasses of T cells and the lymphocyte proliferation response in healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molls, Roshni R; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Mastro, Andrea M; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Handte, Gordon C

    2005-11-01

    Aging is often associated with a dysregulation in immune function, particularly in T-cell responses, even in the healthy elderly. Adequate nutrition is important for optimal immune function. The literature on the relation of nutritional status with immune function in the elderly offers mixed findings. Because several nutrients can influence immune response, and there are interactions among nutrients, examining the association of various nutrients measured simultaneously with tests of immune function is important. We examined the association of protein, iron, zinc, vitamin B-12, and folic acid with tests of acquired immunity in healthy older women (76.7 +/- 7.0 y; n = 130). Discriminant analysis was used to identify the predictive subset of nutrients that could correctly classify subjects into the lowest or highest quartiles (75th percentile) on various immune function tests (T cells and subsets and lymphocyte proliferation in response to culture with mitogens). Protein and iron status variables were identified in the predictive subset for all immune tests; in addition, zinc emerged in the predictive model for T cells and their subsets as well as for the proliferation response to concanavalin A. The probability of correctly classifying women into the lowest or highest quartiles of immune tests by the predictive subset of nutrition variables was high, i.e., 62.8-83.5% for T cells and their subsets, and 79.3-89.7% for the proliferation response to mitogens. In conclusion, protein, iron, and zinc were significant predictors of immune function in older women. Adequate status of these nutrients may help maintain immunity in older adults.

  19. A firoma hindering the neck bending mechanism in a tortoise (class Reptilia, subclass Anapsida, order Testudines (Chelonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mostafa Shokry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year old tortoise was examined for the presence of a hard swelling, hindering the necessary neck bending mechanism. Surgical removal was the solution to regain the mechanism normality.

  20. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Lipoprotein Subclasses and the APOE Genotype Influence Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzàlez, Marta; Ribalta, Josep; Vives, Glòria; Iftimie, Simona; Ferré, Raimón; Plana, Núria; Guardiola, Montse; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Masana, Lluís; Castro, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have accelerated atherosclerosis. Since the conventional lipid profile (total plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol) is not consistently altered in SLE, we hypothesized that investigation of

  2. Evidence of a common regulation of IgE and IgG-subclass antibodies in humans during immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Osterballe, O

    1992-01-01

    Based on a 3-year prospective study of 20 pollen-allergic patients, where a detailed analysis of the IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 immune response was performed, we propose that a common regulatory mechanism exists between the IgE and IgG1 synthesis and between IgE and IgG4 synthesis during immunotherapy....... It was found that the IgE immune response to a number of antigens was quantitatively diminished during the period of immunotherapy when IgG1 was present early (week 12), and for other antigens there was a rise in IgE without an early IgG1 antibody response. Additionally, it was found that for some antigens...... a rise in IgE antibodies was contrasted by a fall in the IgG4 antibody response and for other antigens the opposite was true, indicating a regulatory mechanism between the IgE and the IgG4 synthesis. A statistical analysis showed that these findings were statistically significant at the 0.01% level...

  3. Listeners Exploit Syntactic Structure On-Line to Restrict Their Lexical Search to a Subclass of Verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusini, Perrine; Brun, Mélanie; Brunet, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that listeners actively build expectations about up-coming words, rather than simply waiting for information to accumulate. The online construction of a syntactic structure is one of the cues that listeners may use to construct strong expectations about the possible words they will be exposed to. For example, speakers of verb-final languages use pre-verbal arguments to predict on-line the kind of arguments that are likely to occur next (e.g., Kamide, 2008, for a review). Although in SVO languages information about a verb's arguments typically follows the verb, some languages use pre-verbal object pronouns, potentially allowing listeners to build on-line expectations about the nature of the upcoming verb. For instance, if a pre-verbal direct object pronoun is heard, then the following verb has to be able to enter a transitive structure, thus excluding intransitive verbs. To test this, we used French, in which object pronouns have to appear pre-verbally, to investigate whether listeners use this cue to predict the occurrence of a transitive verb. In a word detection task, we measured the number of false alarms to sentences that contained a transitive verb whose first syllable was homophonous to the target monosyllabic verb (e.g., target "dort" /dɔʁ/ to sleep and false alarm verb "dorlote" /dɔʁlɔt/ to cuddle). The crucial comparison involved two sentence types, one without a pre-verbal object clitic, for which an intransitive verb was temporarily a plausible option (e.g., "Il dorlote" / He cuddles) and the other with a pre-verbal object clitic, that made the appearance of an intransitive verb impossible ("Il le dorlote" / He cuddles it). Results showed a lower rate of false alarms for sentences with a pre-verbal object pronoun (3%) compared to locally ambiguous sentences (about 20%). Participants rapidly incorporate information about a verb's argument structure to constrain lexical access to verbs that match the expected subcategorization frame.

  4. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lisa A; Johnson, Ruth A; Viker, Kimberly B; Hafner, Kari A; Jenkins, Robert B; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Smyrk, Thomas C; Litzelman, Kristin; Seo, Songwon; Gangnon, Ronald E; Engelman, Corinne D; Rider, David N; Vanderboom, Russell J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Petersen, Gloria M; Skinner, Halcyon G

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN) and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS) and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+). However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-). MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher) or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]). Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN-) and chromosomally instable (CIN+) by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6) had fewer copy number changes (cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  5. An Asset Pricing Approach to Testing General Term Structure Models including Heath-Jarrow-Morton Specifications and Affine Subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; van der Wel, Michel

    We develop a new empirical approach to term structure analysis that allows testing for time-varying risk premia and for the absence of arbitrage opportunities based on the drift restriction within the Heath, Jarrow and Morton (1992) framework. As in the equity case, a zero intercept condition is ...

  6. Ampliación del ámbito de Macrochiron sargassi G. O. Sars (Copepoda: Lichomolgidae) en el Atlántico Noroccldental

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Reid, Janet W

    2016-01-01

    Orden Poecilostomatoida incluye fundamentalmente copépodos asociados con diversos vertebrados e invertebrados marinos. y también formas típicamente plactonicas como Oncaea y Sapphirina. Macrochiron sargassi G. O. Sars, 1916, que es la especie que aquí se refiere, pertenece a la Familia Lichomolgidae, y fue originalmente descrita por Sars (1916) a partir de material. recolectado por el Príncipe Alberto de Monaco en el Mar de los Sargazos. Orden Poecilostomatoida incluye fundamentalmente cop...

  7. Host specificity of Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere) (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the marlin sucker Remora osteochir (Cuvier) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ju-shey; Collete, Bruce B; Madinabeitia, Ione

    2006-10-01

    Three species of remoras--Remora brachyptera (Lowe), Remora osteochir (Cuvier), and Remora remora (Linnaeus)--were collected from 4 species of billfishes--Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw), Makaira nigricans Lacepéde, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, and Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins and de Sylva--on board a Japanese long-liner Shoyo Maru during her cruise in 2002 across the Atlantic. However, only the marlin sucker (R. osteochir) was found to carry a parasitic copepod, Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere, 1936). Although 12 species of parasitic copepods have been reported from billfishes around the world ocean, none of them is L. crassus. Thus, L. crassus is considered a parasite specific to the marlin sucker.

  8. Preface: Recent Developments in Taxonomy and Biodiversity of Symbiotic Copepoda (Crustacea)-A Volume in Celebration of the Career of Prof. Il-Hoi Kim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Rony

    2016-10-11

    Symbiosis is one of the most successful modes of life displayed by aquatic organisms, as measured by the number of times it evolved and how many symbiotic species are presently in existence. Among the Crustacea copepods utilize an extraordinary range of hosts, occurring on virtually every phylum of marine macroinvertebrates and, jointly with the monogeneans, are the most speciose group of metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes (Rhode 2005). Several species have a major impact on global finfish and shellfish aquaculture, causing significant effects on farm production, economic viability and sustainability (Shinn et al. 2015). Parasitism by copepods on other metazoans has evolved independently numerous times in the evolutionary history of animal life on Earth and has led to an exceptional diversity in morphologies, physiologies, life-strategies and habitat preferences of its members. Reflecting the diversity of hosts, copepods show an amazing variety of adaptations which secure infection of and survival on the hosts. Since the first descriptions of parasitic copepods occurring on fish by Linnaeus (1758) and the first report of a copepod utilizing an invertebrate host by Say (1818) (Clausidium caudatum (Say, 1818)) the number of described symbiotic copepods has seen a steady increase over a 200-yr period, culminating in a total of 5,306 valid species recognized today. About 38% of all described copepod species utilize either vertebrate (2,450 spp.) or invertebrate hosts (2,856 spp.), however, many host groups have not been thoroughly examined, and for this reason even approximate estimates of true species numbers are futile. Plotting the proposal of new species by decade (Fig. 1) shows a sharp rise since 1950 with 67% of the species having been described in the preceding 65 years. This period of exceptionally rapid progress can be attributed to a number of highly prolific investigators such as Arthur Humes, Il-Hoi Kim, Ju-shey Ho and Jan Stock who, single-handedly or in collaboration with other authors, described 698, 356, 290 and 246 species, respectively. Historically, the number of described copepod species parasitizing fish typically outnumbered those known to be associated with invertebrates. Only during the mid-1970s the species curves of both categories converged and during the last 30 years the discovery of new species associated with invertebrate hosts appears to progress more rapidly. Despite a significant drop in the number of specialists working on symbiotic copepods the steady addition of new taxa shows that the dynamism of their taxonomy is clearly set to continue.

  9. The Life Cycle of the Parasitic Crustacean, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti, 1954 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae, on Marine-Cultured Fish, Lates calcarifer, from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Qamarina Abdul Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic crustaceans of Lernanthropus latis were isolated from the host, the seabass, Lates calcarifer, obtained from a cage culture in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. The adult females with egg were kept alive in vials containing 20 mL of filtered seawater and incubated at 30°C. The eggs were monitored every hour and the hatching periods were recorded. Three developmental stages were observed, namely, nauplii I, nauplii II, and infective copepodid. The infective copepodids were then transferred into a tank containing 60 litres of seawater with 150 fingerlings for infection purpose. One fish was sacrificed every 24 hr to inspect the next developmental stage. As a result, six more stages were obtained within 298 hrs starting from the infection day. The stages were known as fixed copepodid I, fixed copepodid II, fixed copepodid III, fixed copepodid IV, preadult, and adult. Parasitic L. latis takes a 483 hr period to complete a life cycle.

  10. Familia Pontellidae (Crustacea: Copepoda en la Bahía La Ventosa, Oaxaca, México: Sistemática y ecología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Álvarez Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la sistemática y notas ecológicas de los copépodos pláncticos de la Bahía de La Ventosa, Oaxaca, México. Se identificaron cinco especies: Labidocera acuta, L. lubbockii, Pontella agassizi, P. tenuiremis y Pontellina plumata. La especie más abundante fue L. acuta y sus estados copepodito que conformaron el 95.7% del total de Pontellidos, seguidos por L. lubbockii 4.09%, otras especies constituyeron menos del 1%. El éxito reproductivo de L. acuta se vea favorecido por su resistencia a los cambios en temperatura y salinidad que la consignan como euriterma y euriahalina. Considerando la densidad total de esta familia se observó que durante 1987 y 1988 la densidad de estos copépodos osciló entre 18 y 472 copépodos/100 m 3 , pero entre 1992 y 1993 la densidad se incrementó de 490 a 123 030 copépodos/100 m³ . El aumento interanual en la densidad numérica de copépodos parece estar relacionado con fenómenos de escala local (surgencias presentes a principios y finales del añoA study on ecological records of planktonic copepods from The Ventosa Bay, Oaxaca, Mexico is presented. Five species were identified: Labidocera acuta, L. lubbockii, Pontella agassizi, P. tenuiremis and Pontellina plumata. The most abundant species was L. acuta and their copepodite stages conforming the 95.7% of Pontellids, followed by L. lubbockii 4.09%; other species were less than one percent. The reproductive success of L. acuta is probably favored by its resistance to the changes in temperature and salinity, because of it is an eurytherme and euryhaline organism. Total density of this family was between 18 and 472 copepods/100 m³ in 1987 and 1988. Nevertheless in 1992 and 1993 the density was between 490 to 123 030 copepods/100 m³ . This copepod density increment could be related local phenomenon (upwelling at the beginning and end of the year

  11. Effects of cold selective breeding on the body length, fatty acid content, and productivity of the tropical copepod Apocyclops royi (Cyclopoida, Copepoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yen-Ju; Souissi, Anissa; Sadovskaya, Irina

    2017-01-01

    strain) temperature for 10 months, corresponding to ~40 and 15 generations, respectively. After temperature acclimation, multigenerational observations were made to investigate the effects of cold selection on the copepods. Differences in female and nauplius lengths, nauplius production, and fatty acid...... and omega 6 and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents were higher in the selective strain than in the control strain; however, the fatty acid content gradually decreased in subsequent generations. This paper reports the effects of temperature acclimation on the morphological and physiological traits...

  12. Exotic "Gill Lice" Species (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae: Salmincola SPP.) Infect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Rash, Jacob M; Besler, Doug A; Roberts, Jackson R; Warren, Micah B; Arias, Cova R; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    Salmincola californiensis infected 25 of 31 (prevalence 0.8; intensity 2-35 [mean 6.6 ± standard deviation 7.7; n = 25]) rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from a private trout farm connected to the Watauga River, North Carolina. Salmincola edwardsii infected all of 9 (1.0; 2-43 [9.3 ± 13.0; 9]) brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, from Big Norton Prong, a tributary of the Little Tennessee River, North Carolina. Both lernaeopodids are well-known salmonid pathogens, but neither is native to, nor has been previously taxonomically confirmed from, the southeastern United States. Herein, we (1) use light and scanning electron microscopy to identify and provide supplemental morphological observations of these lernaeopodids, (2) furnish complementary molecular sequence data from the 28S rDNA (28S), and (3) document the pathological effects of gill infections. We identified and differentiated these lernaeopodids by the second antenna (exopod tip with large [S. californiensis] vs. slender [S. edwardsii] spines; endopod terminal segment with subequal ventral processes shorter than [S. californiensis] vs. longer than or equal to [S. edwardsii] dorsal hook), maxilliped palp (length typically ≤1/3 [S. californiensis] vs. 1/3-1/2 [S. edwardsii] subchela length exclusive of claw), and bulla (sub-circular and concave on manubrium's side [S. californiensis] vs. non-stellate [S. edwardsii]). Analysis of the 28S rDNA sequences confirmed our taxonomic assignments as demonstrated by 100% sequence similarity among the sympatric, morphologically-conspecific isolates. Histopathology revealed focal gill epithelial hyperplasia, obstruction of interlamellar water channels, lamellar fusion, and crypting of gill filaments. High intensity infections by either lernaeopodid are surveillance-worthy because they are potentially pathogenic to trout in the southeastern United States.

  13. Effect of water quality parameters on the distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda-Calanoida) species in the Indian Ocean: A statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, V.K.; Saraswathy, M.; Nair, M.

    The region between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S latitude was known to be congenial for distribution of Pleuromamma species. Diel and ontogenetic migrations were observed for Pleuromamma xiphias. Multivariate analyses such as factor analysis...

  14. A new anchialine Stephos Scott from the Yucatan Peninsula with notes on the biogeography and diversity of the genus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Stephidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of the anchialine crustacean fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula (YP, Mexico, have revealed the occurrence of calanoid copepods. The genus Stephos Scott, 1892, belonging to the family Stephidae is among the most frequent and widely distributed groups in anchialine caves but has not been hitherto recorded from the YP. Recent collections from an anchialine cave in an island off the northern coast of the YP yielded many specimens of a new species of Stephos. The new taxon, S. fernandoi sp. n., is described here based on male and female specimens. The new species is clearly distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: male left fifth leg with three terminal lamellae plus subdistal process, right leg with distal row of peg-like elements; female fifth leg with single long, acute apical process; genital double-somite with two rows each of 4 long spinules adjacent to operculum; legs 2-4 with articulated setae. The diversity of the genus shows regional differences; the Australia-Western Pacific region is the most diverse (eleven species, followed by the Mediterranean (seven species and the Northeastern Atlantic (six species; only four species are known from the Northwestern Tropical Atlantic (NWTA. The morphology of the female fifth leg was examined to explore possible biogeographic trends in the genus; patterns suggest multiple colonization events in the highly diverse regions and a relatively recent radiation in the NWTA, characterized by anchialine forms. The introduction of stephid copepods in the region may be a relatively recent event derived from colonization of benthopelagic ancestral forms and subsequent invasion onto cave habitats. The new species appears to be linked to the strictly anchialine Miostephos.

  15. A new anchialine Stephos Scott from the Yucatan Peninsula with notes on the biogeography and diversity of the genus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Stephidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha A; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián; Iliffe, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    Surveys of the anchialine crustacean fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), Mexico, have revealed the occurrence of calanoid copepods. The genus Stephos Scott, 1892, belonging to the family Stephidae is among the most frequent and widely distributed groups in anchialine caves but has not been hitherto recorded from the YP. Recent collections from an anchialine cave in an island off the northern coast of the YP yielded many specimens of a new species of Stephos. The new taxon, S. fernandoisp. n., is described here based on male and female specimens. The new species is clearly distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: male left fifth leg with three terminal lamellae plus subdistal process, right leg with distal row of peg-like elements; female fifth leg with single long, acute apical process; genital double-somite with two rows each of 4 long spinules adjacent to operculum; legs 2-4 with articulated setae. The diversity of the genus shows regional differences; the Australia-Western Pacific region is the most diverse (eleven species), followed by the Mediterranean (seven species) and the Northeastern Atlantic (six species); only four species are known from the Northwestern Tropical Atlantic (NWTA). The morphology of the female fifth leg was examined to explore possible biogeographic trends in the genus; patterns suggest multiple colonization events in the highly diverse regions and a relatively recent radiation in the NWTA, characterized by anchialine forms. The introduction of stephid copepods in the region may be a relatively recent event derived from colonization of benthopelagic ancestral forms and subsequent invasion onto cave habitats. The new species appears to be linked to the strictly anchialine Miostephos.

  16. Transcriptome survey of the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Farlora, Rodolfo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi. Massive transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed during the infectious copepodid larval stage, during the attached chalimus larval stage, and also in female and male adults. Thirty genes were selected for describing the pathways, and these were annotated for proteins or enzymes involved in lipid digestion, absorption, and transport; fatty acid degradation; the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; and steroid and ecdysteroid syntheses. Differential expression of these genes was analyzed by ontogenic stage and discussed considering each stage's feeding habits and energetic needs. Copepodids showed a low expression of fatty acid digestion genes, reflected by a non-feeding behavior, and the upregulation of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis, which was consistent with a pathway for cholesterol synthesis during ecdysis. The chalimus stage showed an upregulation of genes related to fatty acid digestion, absorption, and transport, as well as to fatty acid degradation and the synthesis of ketone bodies, therefore suggesting that lipids ingested from the mucus and skin of the host fish are metabolized as important sources of energy. Adult females also showed a pattern of high lipid metabolism for energy supply and mobilization in relation to reproduction and vitellogenesis. Adult females and males revealed different lipid metabolism patterns that reflected different energetic needs. This study reports for the first time the probable lipid metabolic pathways involved in the energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis of C. rogercresseyi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of damage caused by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea on larvae of the Dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schaper

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease, whose main biological vector is Aedes aegypti. This mosquito colonizes tropical areas where the disease is endemic. The most obvious action against dengue is attacking its vector. Biological control appears to be an alternative approach, using natural enemies of the mosquitoes, such as predatory copepods. Thus, the morphological study of the damage caused by copepods is important to understand its predatory capacity. Twenty-five A. aegypti larvae were exposed to the copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides and the damage caused by the copepods was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The larvae showed damage mainly at the anal segment, the siphon and the abdomen; only three attacks to the head were observed. The size of the siphon might be of importance in determining whether or not a copepod will attack a mosquito larva. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 843-846. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.El dengue es una enfermedad viral transmitida por mosquitos, cuyo principal vector es Aedes aegypti. Este mosquito coloniza muchas áreas tropicales donde la enfermedad es endémica. La acción más obvia contra el dengue es el ataque a su vector. El control biológico parece una buena alternativa, empleando enemigos naturales de los mosquitos, como los copépodos. Por lo tanto, es importante el estudio morfológico del daño causado por los copépodos para comprender su capacidad depredadora. Veinticinco larvas de A. aegypti fueron expuestas a la actividad depredadora del copépodo Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. Mediante microscopia electrónica de rastreo se evaluó el daño causado por los copépodos. Éstos atacaron principalmente el segmento anal, el sifón y el abdomen de las larvas; sólo vimos tres ataques a la cabeza. El tamaño del sifón podría ser de importancia para predecir si los copépodos pudiesen atacar larvas de determinado mosquito.

  18. The Life Cycle of the Parasitic Crustacean, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti, 1954 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae), on Marine-Cultured Fish, Lates calcarifer, from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Qamarina Abdul Khalid; Faizah Shaharoum-Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic crustaceans of Lernanthropus latis were isolated from the host, the seabass, Lates calcarifer, obtained from a cage culture in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. The adult females with egg were kept alive in vials containing 20 mL of filtered seawater and incubated at 30°C. The eggs were monitored every hour and the hatching periods were recorded. Three developmental stages were observed, namely, nauplii I, nauplii II, and infective copepodid. The infective copepodids were then transferred ...

  19. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  20. A new species of the rare endoparasitic copepod Entobius (Copepoda: Entobiidae) from Mexico with a key to the species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Carrera-Parra, Luis F

    2012-09-01

    Abstract: In a study of the benthic polychaete fauna of the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, several specimens of the terebellid polychaete Scionides reticulata (Ehlers) were found to host endoparasitic copepods that represent an undescribed species of the rare cyclopoid genus Entobius Dogiel, 1948. The new species, E. scionides sp. n., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a genital region without constrictions, three-segmented antennules, a reduced antenna with a blunt terminal process, reduced ornamentation of endopods of legs 1-4 and its relatively small size (2.3-2.7 mm). It is the smallest species of the genus. Comments on immature females are also provided, but males of this species remain unknown. It has a high prevalence (53%) in populations of the terebellid S. reticulata in the southern Gulf of Mexico, but it is absent from the Caribbean. This is the first occurrence of this copepod genus in the Americas. The finding of the new species of Entobius in S. reticulata confirms the strict specificity of most members of the genus and expands the host range of this copepod genus. A key for the identification of the species of Entobius is provided.

  1. A new species of Asterocheres (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) with a redescription of A. complexus Stock, 1960 and A. sarsi Bandera & Conradi, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Eugenia; Conradi, Mercedes

    2014-07-07

    The present paper reviews the material of three species of Asterocheres Boeck 1859 deposited in four different Zoological European museums as part of the ongoing taxonomical revision of this genus. Asterocheres sarsi Bandera & Conradi 2009, the species described by Sars in 1915 as Ascomyzon latum (Brady 1880) and lately recognized as a distinct species by Bandera and Conradi in 2009 is fully described in this paper from material collected by Sars in Norway in 1915 and deposited in The Natural History Museum of the University of Oslo. Asterocheres complexus Stock, 1960 which has been sometimes confused with A. sarsi is redescribed from material collected by Stock in France in 1959 and deposited in the Zoological Museum of the University of Amsterdam. Furthermore, a new species, previously misidentified as A. suberitis Gieisbrecht 1897, from the Norman`s collection of The Natural History Museum of London, is described as A. eugenioi, new species. These three species, A. complexus, A. eugenioi, and A. sarsi share the general appearance of body thanks to the pointed posterolateral angle of the epimeral area of somite bearing leg 3, sometimes slightly produced into backwardly directed processes, and somite bearing leg 4 largely concealed under somite bearing leg 3.

  2. Harpacticoida (Crustacea: Copepoda associated with cold-water coral substrates in the Porcupine Seabight (NE Atlantic: species composition, diversity and reflections on the origin of the fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Gheerardyn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The harpacticoid copepod fauna associated with the coral degradation zone of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758 reefs was investigated for the first time in the Porcupine Seabight (NE Atlantic. The species list of the coral degradation zone includes 157 species, 62 genera and 19 families, and the most species-rich families were Ectinosomatidae (36 species, Ameiridae (29 species and Argestidae (17 species. At least 80% of the species were considered new to science. Most of the 23 known species have been reported from NE Atlantic coastlines and from higher latitudes in northern Subpolar and Polar Seas. At the family level, the harpacticoid fauna in the Porcupine Seabight did not seem to differ markedly from other deep-sea areas, with essentially the same abundant families. However, the presence of typically epifaunal taxa indicates that the hard substrates of the coral degradation zone provide an exceptional habitat. Further, harpacticoid composition and diversity of sediment and coral fragments were compared with similar substrates in a tropical reef lagoon (Zanzibar, Tanzania. Both regions harboured different fauna and the difference between coral and sediment was more obvious in the tropical lagoon. Species richness and evenness of the two microhabitats in the tropical lagoon were lower than in the deep sea.

  3. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 42. Harpacticoid copepods from the West Indian Islands: Canuellidae and Longipediidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiers, Frank

    1984-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series dealing with the systematics of harpacticoid copepods collected during the West Indian Expeditions of the University of Amsterdam. In the present paper a new species, Scottolana antillensis n. sp., is described. Furthermore, Ellucana secunda Coull, 1971, is

  4. Prediction of the protein components of a putative Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian signaling system using a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Nesbit, Katherine T; Lenz, Petra H

    2013-09-01

    Diel vertical migration and seasonal diapause are critical life history events for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. While much is known about these behaviors phenomenologically, little is known about their molecular underpinnings. Recent studies in insects suggest that some circadian genes/proteins also contribute to the establishment of seasonal diapause. Thus, it is possible that in Calanus these distinct timing regimes share some genetic components. To begin to address this possibility, we used the well-established Drosophila melanogaster circadian system as a reference for mining clock transcripts from a 200,000+ sequence Calanus transcriptome; the proteins encoded by the identified transcripts were also deduced and characterized. Sequences encoding homologs of the Drosophila core clock proteins CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS were identified, as was one encoding CRYPTOCHROME 2, a core clock protein in ancestral insect systems, but absent in Drosophila. Calanus transcripts encoding proteins known to modulate the Drosophila core clock were also identified and characterized, e.g. CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, SHAGGY and VRILLE. Alignment and structural analyses of the deduced Calanus proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Interestingly, reverse BLAST analyses of these sequences against all arthropod proteins typically revealed non-Drosophila isoforms to be most similar to the Calanus queries. This, in combination with the presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 (a clock input pathway protein) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 in Calanus, suggests that the organization of the copepod circadian system is an ancestral one, more similar to that of insects like Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Decline of Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda, Calanoida) in two water bodies located in the Senegal River hydrosystem (West Africa): Hypotheses and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Vera, Juana Mireya; Kâ, Samba; Cuoc, Corinne; Bouvy, Marc; Pagano, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Pseudodiaptomus hessei is a key species in many water bodies in the Senegal River hydrosystem but it became rare or completely disappeared from two ecosystems (Lake Guiers and Dakar Bango Reservoir; Senegal, West Africa) after major hydrological changes caused by human action, mainly impoundments on the river in 1985, and the opening of a new estuary mouth in 2003. Kâ et al. [Kâ, S., Pagano, M., Ba, N., Bouvy, M., Leboulanger, C., Arfi, R., Thiaw, O.T., Ndour, E.H.M., Corbin, D., Defaye, D., Cuoc, C., Kouassi, E., 2006. Zooplankton distribution related to environmental factors and phytoplankton in a shallow tropical lake (Lake Guiers, Senegal, West Africa). International Review of Hydrobiology 91(5), 389-405] put forward several hypotheses to explain the reasons for this decline: salinity and chemical changes in the water, predation by a cyclopid predator Mesocyclops ogunnus and/or the inhibiting effects of cyanobacteria and/or diatoms (allelopathy). This study assessed these hypotheses by studying the distribution of P. hessei in 13 stations (including the Dakar Bango reservoir and Lake Guiers) in relation to physical, chemical and biological (phyto- and zooplanktons) factors at each station. We produced a distribution pattern for this species in the Senegal River hydrosystem. Rank correlations and principal component analysis showed that P. hessei was not correlated with conductivity but was positively correlated with pH and alkalinity, suggesting chemical effects. The clear association with two filamentous cyanobacteria ( Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Anabaena sp.) did not appear to support the hypothesis of cyanobacteria inhibition but blooming conditions were never encountered during the study. Negative correlation with diatoms (especially with Fragilaria sp.) suggested that aldehyde producing diatoms had a negative effect. Negative correlations with cyclopids such as Mesocyclops supported the hypothesis of cyclopid predation to explain the decline of P. hessei. This study proposes several lines of research for future studies to test these hypotheses.

  6. Colobomatus kimi sp. nov. (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the dwarf goatfish Upeneus parvus Poey, 1852 (Perciformes: Mullidae) in the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Pereira, Aldenice N; Luque, José Luis

    2016-10-11

    A new species of copepod, Colobomatus kimi sp. nov., belonging to the cyclopoid family Philichthyidae Vogt, 1877, is proposed based on female specimens collected from the pores of the cephalic sensory system of the dwarf goatfish, Upeneus parvus Poey from the southeastern Brazilian coastal zone. The new species can be distinguished from its closest congeners by the unique combination of characters displayed by the female, including the forked caudal rami, the position of the midventral cephalic process shorter in relation to the lateral cephalic processes, and the presence of paired genital processes. The new species is the first member of Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 found to parasitize mullids of the genus Upeneus.

  7. Two new species of Nitocrella (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida from groundwaters of northwestern Australia expand the geographic range of the genus in a global hotspot of subterranean biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Tang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, the Ameiridae is the most diverse harpacticoid family in groundwater, with 35 species hitherto reported. In this study, we describe two new species belonging to the “vasconica”-group of the ameirid genus Nitocrella based on specimens collected from groundwaters near mine sites in the Pilbara and Great Sandy Desert regions of northwestern Australia. Nitocrella knotti sp. n. can be distinguished from related taxa by having two setae on the antennal exopod, four armature elements on the distal endopodal segment of leg 2, four armature elements on the distal endopodal segment of leg 3, three armature elements on the distal endopodal segment of leg 4, and three setae on the basoendopodal lobe of leg 5. Nitocrella karanovici sp. n. differs from its congeners by having a short outer spine and long inner seta on the distal endopodal segment of leg 2, three armature elements on the distal endopodal segment of leg 3, and four setae on the basoendopodal lobe of leg 5 in the female. This study is of biogeographic interest in providing the first documentation of the genus Nitocrella from the Pilbara and Great Sandy Desert regions. Both new species of Nitocrella are recorded from restricted localities and appear to be short-range endemics, thus making them potentially vulnerable to environmental changes and threatening processes such as mining. The distribution range of N. karanovici sp. n. coincides with the centre of diversity of the Ethel Gorge aquifer stygobiont community, a globally significant hotspot which is listed as endangered.

  8. The discovery of male Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on tub gurnard, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus) from the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkale, Ibrahim; Ozak, Argun Akif; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2015-09-17

    Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901, a common but poorly known species of parasitic copepod, is redescribed from newly collected specimens of both sexes. The new material was collected from the body surface of tub gurnards, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus), caught in eastern Mediterranean waters off the Turkish coast. Inadequately described female structures from earlier descriptions are redescribed and illustrated in detail and the male of C. brevicaudatus is described for the first time. The new material of C. brevicaudatus is compared with material collected by A. Scott and stored in the collections of the Natural History Museum, London. In addition, a voucher specimen of Caligus uranoscopi Vaissière, 1955, stored in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris is re-examined. Caligus uranoscopi is recognised as a junior subjective synonym of C. brevicaudatus since it does not differ in any substantive characters.

  9. Familia Pontellidae (Crustacea: Copepoda) en la Bahía La Ventosa, Oaxaca, México: Sistemática y ecología

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Álvarez Silva; María Guadalupe Miranda Arce; Graciela De Lara-Isassi

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio sobre la sistemática y notas ecológicas de los copépodos pláncticos de la Bahía de La Ventosa, Oaxaca, México. Se identificaron cinco especies: Labidocera acuta, L. lubbockii, Pontella agassizi, P. tenuiremis y Pontellina plumata. La especie más abundante fue L. acuta y sus estados copepodito que conformaron el 95.7% del total de Pontellidos, seguidos por L. lubbockii 4.09%, otras especies constituyeron menos del 1%. El éxito reproductivo de L. acuta se vea favorecido p...

  10. Familia Pontellidae (Crustacea: Copepoda) en la Bahía La Ventosa, Oaxaca, México: Sistemática y ecología

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Silva, Carlos; Miranda Arce, María Guadalupe; De Lara-Isassi, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio sobre la sistemática y notas ecológicas de los copépodos pláncticos de la Bahía de La Ventosa, Oaxaca, México. Se identificaron cinco especies: Labidocera acuta, L. lubbockii, Pontella agassizi, P. tenuiremis y Pontellina plumata. La especie más abundante fue L. acuta y sus estados copepodito que conformaron el 95.7% del total de Pontellidos, seguidos por L. lubbockii 4.09%, otras especies constituyeron menos del 1%. El éxito reproductivo de L. acuta se vea favorecido p...

  11. Potential zooplankton preys (Copepoda and Appendicularia for Engraulis anchoita in relation to early larval and spawning distributions in the Patagonian frontal system (SW Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela L. Spinelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spatial distribution of the abundance, biomass and size of zooplankton (nauplii, calanoids, cyclopoids and appendicularians in relation to the distribution of first-feeding larvae and eggs of Engraulis anchoita across the frontal system of Peninsula Valdés. Twelve samples of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton were taken with small Bongo (67 μm and Pairovet (200 μm nets during the spring of 2004 along two transects. The total abundance of zooplankton and the chlorophyll a concentration were higher in homogeneous waters, while total biomasses were higher in stratified waters. Temperature was negatively correlated with biological variables and was the main factor affecting the zooplankton distribution. In both transects, abundance peaks of first-feeding larvae were detected at coastal stations along with the smallest fraction of zooplankton ( < 500 μm, while the largest fraction was dominant at the external stations, coinciding with the highest egg abundance. The physical structure of this front generates different levels of food availability for first-feeding larvae. Calanoids (southern transect and cyclopoids (northern transect are predominant followed by nauplii and appendicularians. The biomass of zooplankton preys contributes to the carbon transfer to the upper trophic levels and is probably important for the survival and growth of anchovy larvae in this frontal system.

  12. New species of Pseudodiaptomus (Copepoda: Calanoida) from the salt pans of the Gulf of Kutch, India and a comment on its speciation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Haridas, P.

    A new species of calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus pankajus (family Pseudodiaptomidae) is described from the north-west coast of India. This species inhabits high saline waters of salt pans. It appears to have evolved allopatrically during...

  13. Response of abyssal Copepoda Harpacticoida (Crustacea) and other meiobenthos to an artificial disturbance and its bearing on future mining for polymetallic nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Ahmed; Schriever, Gerd

    Long-term effects of an anthropogenic physical disturbance on the Harpacticoida taxocene at a deep-sea site were investigated during the course of the disturbance and recolonization (DISCOL) experiment in a manganese nodule area in the southeastern Pacific. Nineteen harpacticoid copepod families were found, contributing 9-12% to the metazoan meiofauna of the experimental area (Nematoda 72-80%). Twelve families occurred in sufficient numbers to be considered representatively sampled. Dominant are the Ameiridae (17%) followed by Ectinosomatidae, Argestidae, Tisbidae, Neobradyidae, Diosaccidae, Paranannopidae, Paramesochridae, Canthocamptidae, Cletodidae, Thalestridae and Huntemanniidae. These families are mainly distributed at random. Basic data on developmental stage composition and sex ratio of total Harpacticoida as well as vertical distribution of harpacticoid families in the sediment column are provided. Within the overall aim of the experiment, which was to assess the ecological risks of future deep-sea manganese nodule mining, we conducted multivariate community analyses based on the familial composition of the Harpacticoida assemblages immediately before and after experimental impact as well as seven years later. We were not able to detect a community response at the family level immediately after impact. An identification of the Tisbidae to species, however, revealed initial disturbance effects. After seven years we found significant differences in the assemblage composition of the directly disturbed portions of the experimental area and the secondarily disturbed areas in between, which to some extent had received blanketing from sediment plumes created during the experimental disturbance. Best discriminating families for long-term effects are the Ameiridae, Argestidae and Thalestridae. Their potential value as indicator taxa for monitoring disturbances in the deep sea is discussed, including some considerations on a cost-effective design of such monitoring programs that would include the meiofaunal Harpacticoida.

  14. Redescriptions of two species of Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Caligidae parasitic on teleost marine fishes from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Luque

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Lepeophtheirus Nordmann, 1832 parasitic on the ariid fish Netuma barba Lacépède, 1803, and the bothiid fish Paralichthys sp. from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, are redescribed and illustrated: L. bagri Dana, 1852, and L. monacanthus Heller, 1865. New junior synonyms for these species are proposed: L. marginatus syn.n., L. christianensis syn.n. and L. platensis syn.n. of L. bagri and L. unispinosus syn.n. of L. monacanthus.

  15. Ergasilus turkayi n. sp. (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Ergasilidae: a gill parasite of Serrasalmus hollandi Jégu, 2003 (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae from the Paragua River, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa M. Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract A new parasitic copepod species, Ergasilus turkayi n. sp., found on the gills of the Holland’s piranha, Serrasalmus hollandi Jégu, 2003, in the Paragua River, Bolivia, is described based on 10 adult females. The new species presents a triangular-shaped cephalothorax, spinules on interpodal plates and aesthetascs on antennule - two aesthetascs on the sixth, and one aesthetasc plus two setae on the fifth segment. Additionally, the second abdominal somite of E. turkayi n. sp. bears an anal pseudoperculum, a dorsal and elongate projection which is usually absent or vestigial in poecilostome families within the Cyclopoida but that was never reported in species of Ergasilidae.

  16. On the lower bound of monitor solutions of maximally permissive supervisors for a subclass α-S3PR of flexible manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Daniel Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a novel and computationally efficient method - based on a vector covering approach - to design optimal control places and an iteration approach that computes the reachability graph to obtain a maximally permissive liveness enforcing supervisor for FMS (flexible manufacturing systems) have been reported. However, it is unclear as to the relationship between the structure of the net and the minimal number of monitors required. This paper develops a theory to show that the minimal number of monitors required cannot be less than that of basic siphons in α-S3PR (systems of simple sequential processes with resources). This confirms that two of the three controlled systems by Chen et al. are of a minimal monitor configuration since they belong to α-S3PR and their number in each example equals that of basic siphons.

  17. Characterization of new medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases adds resolution to duplications of the class I/III and the sub-class I genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Ella; Hedlund, Joel; Hjelmqvist, Lars; Jonsson, Andreas; Shafqat, Jawed; Norin, Annika; Keung, Wing-Ming; Persson, Bengt; Jörnvall, Hans

    2011-05-30

    Four additional variants of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases have been purified and functionally characterized, and their primary structures have been determined. The results allow conclusions about the structural and evolutionary relationships within the large family of MDR alcohol dehydrogenases from characterizations of the pigeon (Columba livia) and dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) major liver alcohol dehydrogenases. The pigeon enzyme turns out to be of class I type and the dogfish enzyme of class III type. This result gives a third type of evidence, based on purifications and enzyme characterization in lower vertebrates, that the classical liver alcohol dehydrogenase originated by a gene duplication early in the evolution of vertebrates. It is discernable as the major liver form at about the level in-between cartilaginous and osseous fish. The results also show early divergence within the avian orders. Structures were determined by Edman degradations, making it appropriate to acknowledge the methodological contributions of Pehr Edman during the 65 years since his thesis at Karolinska Institutet, where also the present analyses were performed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. IgG subclass antibodies to human and bacterial HSP60 are not associated with disease activity and progression over time in axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Hjelholt, Astrid Johannesson; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2013-01-01

    of three reactive arthritis-related bacteria; human HSP60; and the microorganisms Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were determined by ELISA. Serum samples collected from 2004 to 2006 and in 2010 and 2011 from 39 axial SpA patients were analyzed and compared with samples from 39 healthy controls...... in the same serum sample, IgG1 and IgG3, respectively, indicating that there was no cross-reaction. CONCLUSIONS: A significant association was observed between axial SpA and the presence of IgG1/IgG3 antibodies to human HSP60 and of IgG1 to S. enterica Enteritidis and C. trachomatis. Generation of antibodies......INTRODUCTION: Spondyloarthritis (SpA), an interrelated group of rheumatic diseases, has been suggested to be triggered by bacterial infections prior to the development of an autoimmune response that causes inflammation of the spinal and peripheral joints. Because human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60...

  19. Evaluation of IgG4 subclass antibody detection by peptide-based ELISA for the diagnosis of human paragonimiasis heterotrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Morakote, Nimit; Kong, Yoon; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    A synthetic peptide was prepared based on the antigenic region of Paragonimus westermani pre-procathepsin L, and its applicability for immunodiagnosis for human paragonimiasis (due to Paragonimus heterotremus) was tested using an ELISA to detect IgG4 antibodies in the sera of patients. Sera from other helminthiases, tuberculosis, and healthy volunteers were used as the references. This peptide-based assay system gave sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 94.6%, 96.2%, 100%, and 88.9%, respectively. Cross reactivity was frequently seen against the sera of fascioliasis (75%) and hookworm infections (50%). Since differential diagnosis between paragonimiasis and fascioliasis can be easily done by clinical presentation and fascioliasis serology, this cross reaction is not a serious problem. Sera from patients with other parasitoses (0-25%) rarely responded to this synthetic antigen. This synthetic peptide antigen seems to be useful for development of a standardized diagnostic system for paragonimiasis.

  20. Anion exchange chromatographic distribution of human monoclonal immunoglobulin G is determined by heavy chain subclass and level of sialic acid expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anion exchange chromatography is widely accepted method for purification of immunoglobulins. In this work, we used human monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG with structure and solubility of normal human IgG as a model for studying chromatographic behavior of particular molecular forms of IgG. Human sera with monoclonal IgG were fractionated on strong anion exchanger, Q Sepharose Fast Flow. With 20 mM Tris pH 7.5 as a start buffer, 42% of human monoclonal IgG passed through column, and 58% of them remained adsorbed. Bound monoclonal IgG were eluted from the exchanger by linear increasing of concentration of NaCl from 0 to 0.5 M. Chromatographic distribution of human monoclonal IgG correlated with their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gels, and it was dependent on γ heavy chain isotype. Light chain type, as well as serum concentration of monoclonal IgG did not influence their chromatographic behavior. The level of heavy chain sialic acid expression, but not of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine, significantly determined chromatographic distribution of serum monoclonal IgG. Additionally to the information on the chromatographic behavior of human monoclonal IgG, we believe that presented data could provide useful information about the possible use of Q Sepharose Fast Flow matrix for the isolation of specific molecular forms of human IgG.

  1. Comparison of two commercial vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from endemic areas: IgG, and subclasses, parasitism, and parasite transmission by xenodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Consuelo Barreto; Junior, Jairo Torres Magalhães; de Jesus, Clauceane; Souza, Bárbara Maria Paraná da Silva; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Tavares Veras, Patricia Sampaio; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2014-03-05

    The incidence of zoonotic canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would decrease if dogs were effectively vaccinated; however, additional data on the efficacy of canine vaccines are required for their approved preventative use. To prospectively evaluate vaccination outcomes using two products commercially available in Brazil, with respect to adverse reactions (reactogenicity), humoral response, disease signs, parasitism, and parasite infectiousness in naturally exposed pet dogs in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). From 2010 to 2012, healthy dogs were vaccinated with Leishmune(®) (50 animals) or Leish-Tec(®) (50 animals). Each dog was examined to identify clinical signs during peri- and post-vaccination procedures every 2 months for 11 months to identify the presence of parasites or parasite DNA in splenic samples using culturing or PCR, respectively. Levels of anti-Leishmania IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 were quantified in sera by ELISA and infectiousness was assessed by xenodiagnosis. Adverse effects occurred in 2.2% (1/45) and 13.0% (6/46) of the animals in the Leishmune(®) and Leish-Tec(®) groups, respectively. IgG levels peaked on the 21st day following the first dose of Leishmune(®) and on the 21st day after the second dose of Leish-Tec(®). The final seropositivity rate for IgG was 32.5% (13/40) and 30.9% (13/42) in the Leishmune(®) and Leish-Tec(®) groups, respectively. The Leishmune(®) group presented higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2 compared to the Leish-Tec(®) group (p<0.001), and ELISA reactivity in both vaccinated groups was significantly lower (p<0.001) than in infected positive control dogs. Parasitism was observed in 12.2% (5/41) of the Leishmune(®) group, and 7.9% (3/38) of the Leish-Tec(®) group, with xenodiagnostic transmission rates of Leishmania to Lutzomyia longipalpis of 5.1% (2/39), and 5.4% (2/37), respectively. No significant differences were observed in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) or Leish-Tec(®), with respect to LVC clinical aspects, parasitism, IgG seropositivity, or dog infectiousness. The Leishmune(®)-vaccinated animals presented higher levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2. The animals vaccinated with Leish-Tec(®) exhibited adverse reactions with greater frequency and severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stand-Alone EAL Domain Proteins Form a Distinct Subclass of EAL Proteins Involved in Regulation of Cell Motility and Biofilm Formation in Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouali, Youssef; Kim, Hyunhee; Ahmad, Irfan; Brauner, Annelie; Liu, Ying; Skurnik, Mikael; Galperin, Michael Y; Römling, Ute

    2017-09-15

    The second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is almost ubiquitous among bacteria as are the c-di-GMP turnover proteins, which mediate the transition between motility and sessility. EAL domain proteins have been characterized as c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases. While most EAL domain proteins contain additional, usually N-terminal, domains, there is a distinct family of proteins with stand-alone EAL domains, exemplified by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium proteins STM3611 (YhjH/PdeH), a c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase, and the enzymatically inactive STM1344 (YdiV/CdgR) and STM1697, which regulate bacterial motility through interaction with the flagellar master regulator, FlhDC. We have analyzed the phylogenetic distribution of EAL-only proteins and their potential functions. Genes encoding EAL-only proteins were found in various bacterial phyla, although most of them were seen in proteobacteria, particularly enterobacteria. Based on the conservation of the active site residues, nearly all stand-alone EAL domains encoded by genomes from phyla other than proteobacteria appear to represent functional phosphodiesterases. Within enterobacteria, EAL-only proteins were found to cluster either with YhjH or with one of the subfamilies of YdiV-related proteins. EAL-only proteins from Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Yersinia enterocolitica were tested for their ability to regulate swimming and swarming motility and formation of the red, dry, and rough (rdar) biofilm morphotype. In these tests, YhjH-related proteins S4210, KPN_01159, KPN_03274, and YE4063 displayed properties typical of enzymatically active phosphodiesterases, whereas S1641 and YE1324 behaved like members of the YdiV/STM1697 subfamily, with Yersinia enterocolitica protein YE1324 shown to downregulate motility in its native host. Of two closely related EAL-only proteins, YE2225 is an active phosphodiesterase, while YE1324 appears to interact with FlhD. These results suggest that in FlhDC-harboring beta- and gammaproteobacteria, some EAL-only proteins evolved to become catalytically inactive and regulate motility and biofilm formation by interacting with FlhDC.IMPORTANCE The EAL domain superfamily consists mainly of proteins with cyclic dimeric GMP-specific phosphodiesterase activity, but individual domains have been classified in three classes according to their functions and conserved amino acid signatures. Proteins that consist solely of stand-alone EAL domains cannot rely on other domains to form catalytically active dimers, and most of them fall into one of two distinct classes: catalytically active phosphodiesterases with well-conserved residues of the active site and the dimerization loop, and catalytically inactive YdiV/CdgR-like proteins that regulate bacterial motility by binding to the flagellar master regulator, FlhDC, and are found primarily in enterobacteria. The presence of apparently inactive EAL-only proteins in the bacteria that do not express FlhD suggests the existence of additional EAL interaction partners. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Characterization of human high-density lipoprotein subclasses LP A-I and LP A-I/A-II and binding to HepG2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P.C. Kilsdonk (Liesbeth); T. van Gent (Teus); A. van Tol (Arie)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Plasma HDL can be classified according to their apolipoprotein content into at least two types of lipoprotein particles: lipoproteins containing both apo A-I and apo A-II (LP A-I/A-II) and lipoproteins with apo A-I but without apo A-II (LP A-I). LP A-I and LP A-I/A-II

  4. Polymorphism in COMT is associated with IgG3 subclass level and susceptibility to infection in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbel, Madlen; Mooslechner, Agnes Anna; Bauer, Sandra; Günther, Sabrina; Letsch, Anne; Hanitsch, Leif G; Grabowski, Patricia; Meisel, Christian; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2015-08-14

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is considered as a neuroimmunological disease but the etiology and pathophysiology is poorly understood. Patients suffer from sustained exhaustion, cognitive impairment and an increased sensitivity to pain and sensory stimuli. A subset of patients has frequent respiratory tract infections (RRTI). Dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system and an association with genetic variations in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and glucocorticoid receptor genes influencing sympathetic and glucocorticoid metabolism were reported in CFS. Here, we analyzed the prevalence of SNPs of COMT and glucocorticoid receptor-associated genes in CFS patients and correlated them to immunoglobulin levels and susceptibility to RRTI. We analyzed blood cells of 74 CFS patients and 76 healthy controls for polymorphisms in COMT, FKBP5 and CRHR1 by allelic discrimination PCR. Serum immunoglobulins were determined by immunoturbidimetric technique, cortisol levels by ECLIA. Contrary to previous reports, we found no difference between CFS patients and healthy controls in the prevalence of SNPs for COMT, FKBP5 and CRHR1. In patients with the Met/Met variant of COMT rs4680 we observed enhanced cortisol levels providing evidence for its functional relevance. Both enhanced IgE and diminished IgG3 levels and an increased susceptibility to RRTI were observed in CFS patients with the Met/Met variant. Such an association was not observed in 68 non-CFS patients with RRTI. Our results indicate a relationship of COMT polymorphism rs4680 with immune dysregulation in CFS providing a potential link for the association between stress and infection susceptibility in CFS.

  5. Vulvar and vaginal melanoma: A unique subclass of mucosal melanoma based on a comprehensive molecular analysis of 51 cases compared with 2253 cases of nongynecologic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, June Y; Baptiste, Caitlin; Hombalegowda, Radhika Bangalore; Tergas, Ana I; Feldman, Rebecca; Jones, Nathaniel L; Chatterjee-Paer, Sudeshna; Bus-Kwolfski, Ama; Wright, Jason D; Burke, William M

    2017-04-15

    Optimal treatments for vulvar and vaginal melanomas (VVMs) have not been identified. Herein, the authors compare molecular profiles between VVM and nongynecologic melanoma (NGM) subtypes with the objective of identifying novel, targetable biomarkers. In total, 2304 samples of malignant melanoma that were submitted to Caris Life Sciences between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to assess copy numbers and protein expression of selected genes. Sequenced variants were analyzed using a proprietary cancer panel. In total, 51 VVMs (14 vaginal and 37 vulvar melanomas) were compared with 2253 malignant NGMs, including 2127 cutaneous, 105 mucosal, and 21 acral melanomas. In VVMs, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) was the most frequently mutated gene (26%) compared with 8.3% of mucosal NGMs (P = .008). In BRAF-mutated tumors, fewer VVMs (50%), compared with NGMs (82.1%), had a variant within the valine codon 600 (V600) domain. The KIT mutation rate was highest in VVMs (22%) compared with 3% in cutaneous (P melanoma subtypes. NRAS mutations were rare in VVMs compared with cutaneous (25.9%; P = .009) and acral (40.6%; P = .002) melanoma subtypes. PD-L1 (56%) and PD-1 (75%) were frequently expressed in VVM, whereas PI3KCA pathway mutations and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor expression were rare. Compared with VVMs that had KIT mutations, wild-type KIT VVMs were more likely to express molecular markers suggestive of platinum resistance (ERCC1), alkylating sensitivity (MGMT), and anthracycline sensitivity (TOP2A). The unique molecular features of VVM render this disease a distinct subtype of melanoma. Gene-based molecular therapy and immunotherapies may be promising and should be evaluated in clinical trials. Cancer 2017;123:1333-1344. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  6. In vitro functional test of two subclasses of an anti-RhD antibody produced by transient expression in COS cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Leif Kofoed; Norderhaug, Lars; Sandlie, Inger

    2006-01-01

    For over 35 years hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to RhD has been effectively prevented by anti-RhD antibodies obtained from alloimmunized women or deliberately immunized men. However, due to the reduced number of immunized women and for ethical reasons it is foreseen that o...... with regard to specificity and ability to mediate a respiratory burst. The recombinant anti-RhD antibodies were specific for the RhD antigen and were able to mediate a respiratory burst. Thus these antibodies might be of use as future rhesus prophylaxis....

  7. Consequences of energy conservation violation: late time solutions of Λ(T)CDM subclass of f(R,T) gravity using dynamical system approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Hamid [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, Amir Hadi [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Kahnooj Branch, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Very recently, Josset and Perez (Phys. Rev. Lett. 118:021102, 2017) have shown that a violation of the energy-momentum tensor (EMT) could result in an accelerated expansion state via the appearance of an effective cosmological constant, in the context of unimodular gravity. Inspired by this outcome, in this paper we investigate cosmological consequences of a violation of the EMT conservation in a particular class of f(R,T) gravity when only the pressure-less fluid is present. In this respect, we focus on the late time solutions of models of the type f(R,T) = R + βΛ(-T). As the first task, we study the solutions when the conservation of EMT is respected, and then we proceed with those in which violation occurs. We have found, provided that the EMT conservation is violated, that there generally exist two accelerated expansion solutions of which the stability properties depend on the underlying model. More exactly, we obtain a dark energy solution for which the effective equation of state depends on the model parameters and a de Sitter solution. We present a method to parametrize the Λ(-T) function, which is useful in a dynamical system approach and has been employed in the model. Also, we discuss the cosmological solutions for models with Λ(-T) = 8πG(-T){sup α} in the presence of ultra-relativistic matter. (orig.)

  8. Two Subclasses of Differentially Expressed TPS1 Genes and Biochemically Active TPS1 Proteins May Contribute to Sugar Signalling in Kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Voogd

    Full Text Available Trehalose metabolism and its intermediate trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P are implicated in sensing and signalling sucrose availability. Four class I TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (TPS1 genes were identified in kiwifruit, three of which have both the TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP domain, while the fourth gene gives rise to a truncated transcript. The transcript with highest sequence homology to Arabidopsis TPS1, designated TPS1.1a was the most highly abundant TPS1 transcript in all examined kiwifruit tissues. An additional exon giving rise to a small N-terminal extension was found for two of the TPS1 transcripts, designated TPS1.2a and TPS1.2b. Homology in sequence and gene structure with TPS1 genes from Solanaceae suggests they belong to a separate, asterid-specific class I TPS subclade. Expression of full-length and potential splice variants of these two kiwifruit TPS1.2 transcripts was sufficient to substitute for the lack of functional TPS1 in the yeast tps1Δ tps2Δ mutant, but only weak complementation was detected in the yeast tps1Δ mutant, and no or very weak complementation was obtained with the TPS1.1a construct. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing kiwifruit TPS1.2 under the control of 35S promoter exhibited growth and morphological defects. We investigated the responses of plants to elevated kiwifruit TPS1 activity at the transcriptional level, using transient expression of TPS1.2a in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, followed by RNA-seq. Differentially expressed genes were identified as candidates for future functional analyses.

  9. Erythromycin resistance caused by erm(A) subclass erm(TR) in a Danish invasive pneumococcal isolate: Are erm(A) pneumococcal isolates overlooked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, L.; Ekelund, K.; Hansen, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    Erm(A) is rarely reported as erythromycin resistance determinant in pneumococci. One invasive erm(A) isolate was initially tested intermediate erythromycin resistant using E-test. However, upon re-testing it was resistant, thus close to the breakpoint value. This may be a reason why erm(A) only r...

  10. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian

    2010-01-01

    then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. METHODS: Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P...

  11. Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidaea gill parasite of the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidae um parasito de guelras do tubarão, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. from the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, 1950, from Rio Grande do Sul, State, Brazil, is described on the basis of 14 adult females. The new species is superficially similar to Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Olivier, 2000, but differs from it in the following characters. The maxillipeds of the new species are large and project well beyond the lateral margins of the cephalothorax. Those of K. deetsi are much smaller. The third endopodal segments of K. deetsi are twice as long as the second endopodal segments and are provided with prominent marginal denticles. The second and third endopodal segments of the new species are rounded, of similar length and lack teeth.Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. proveniente de guelras de G. vitaminicus de Buen, 1950 do Rio Grande do Sul, é descrita baseada em 14 fêmeas adultas. A nova espécie aproxima-se de Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Oliver, 2000, mas a nova espécie se distingue por apresentar os maxilípedes grandes e estendendo-se bem além das margens do cefalotorax. Os terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos de K. deetsi são duas vezes mais cumpridos que os segundos e têm dentículos marginais proeminentes. Os segundos e terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos da nova espécie são arredondados, de tamanhos parecidos e carecem de dentículos.

  12. Microcrustáceos y Vibrio cholerae O1 viable no cultivable (VNC: resultados en la Cuenca del Río Salí, Tucumán, Argentina Microcrustaceans and viable but nonculturable (VNC Vibrio cholerae O1: results in the Salí River basin, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Locascio de Mitrovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae reside habitualmente en aguas marinas y continentales. Según las condiciones ambientales y los recursos le sean “favorables” o “desfavorables”, se generan estados viables cultivables (VC o viables no cultivables (VNC respectivamente y, bajo esta última forma sobrevive. Para abordar la problemática del cólera en la Cuenca del Río Salí (Tucumán, Argentina, se realizaron muestreos durante los años 2003-2005 donde se consideraron aspectos fisicos, químicos, biológicos y sanitarios. Para evaluar los probables reservorios del patógeno, se analizó el zooplancton del Río Salí (Canal Norte y Banda Río Salí y Río Lules. La mayor representatividad taxonómica la registraron los copépodos, especialmente Eucyclops neumani (Pesta, 1927, junto a Acanthocyclops robustus (Sars, 1863, Metacyclops sp., Paracyclops chiltoni y Notodiaptomus incompositus (Brian, 1925, además de algunos rotíferos y cladóceros como (Lecane sp., y (Brachionus sp., Moina sp. y Leydigia sp.. La frecuencia de ocurrencia fue baja y no superó el 25%. El Canal Norte fue ambiente más propicio por la riqueza específica, abundancia y constancia de la comunidad. Las variables fisicas y químicas asociadas al zooplancton coincidirían con los valores que por nuestros registros y los antecedentes, se conocen para el desarrollo del patógeno. En el período estival hubo coincidencia entre la presencia de la forma VNC de V. cholerae O1 (inmunofluorescencia con anticuerpos anti O1 y el desarrollo del zooplancton. Se observaron formas VNC sobre apéndices o estructuras de copépodos ciclopoideos y cladóceros quidóridos, reflejando probablemente afinidad con sustratos quitinosos.Vibrio cholerae habitually lives in marine and continental waters. According to "favourable" or "unfavourable" resources and environmental conditions, viable (VC or viable non-culturable (VNC states will be generated, surviving only the latter form. To address the problem of cholera in the Salí River Basin (Tucumán Argentina, samples were taken during the years 2003 to 2005, taking into consideration physic -chemical, biological and sanitary aspects. To infer about the probable reservoirs of the pathogen, we examined the zooplankton of the Salí River (“Canal Norte” and “Banda Río Salí” and Lules River. The highest taxonomic representation was recorded for copepods, especially Eucyclops neumani (Pesta, 1927, along with Acanthocyclops robustus (Sars, 1863, Metacyclops sp., Paracyclops chiltoni and Notodiaptomus incompositus (Brian, 1925, plus some rotifers and cladocerans such as Lecane sp. and Brachionus sp., Moina sp. and Leydigia sp. The occurrence frequency was low, not exceeding 25%. Canal Norte stood out as the best environment for the species richness, abundance and constancy of the community. The physicochemical variables associated with the zooplankton would coincide with the values that, for our records and previous reports, are known for the development of the pathogen. In summer periods there was coincidence between the presence of the VNC form of V. cholerae O1 (immunofluorescence with antibodies anti O1 and the development of zooplankton. VNC forms on ciclopoid copepods and chidorids cladocerans appendages or structures were observed, probably showing an affinity with chitin substrates.

  13. Phytoplankton-zooplankton inter-relationships in tropical waters - Grazing and gut pigment dynamics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goes, J.I.; Caeiro, S.; Gomes, H.

    An examination of the feeding mechanisms in two taxonomically dissimilar classes of tropical planktonic harbivores Evadne tergestina (Cladocera) and Acrocalanus spp. (Copepoda) revealed a distinct rhythmicity of food intake. Brief bouths...

  14. Zooplankton composition and diversity in western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Nair, V.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Madhupratap, M.

    higher standing stock. Copepoda formed the dominant group followed by Decapoda and Chaetognatha. Species composition of various groups and their distribution is discussed. A general inverse relationship between biomass and species diversity was the trend...

  15. Zooplankton biomass & composition in the Western Bay of Bengal during late SW monsoon; 15 August 1978 to 07 September 1978 (NODC Accession 0000941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Copepoda formed the predominant group except in the southern region where a swarm of pelagic tunicates reduced their contribution to only 19% of the total...

  16. Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    ,402), Histone H3 (328)] and 41 larval characters in seven facetotectans, five ascothoracidans, three acrothoracicans, 25 rhizocephalans and 39 thoracicans (ingroup) and 12 Malacostraca and 10 Copepoda (outgroup). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed the Facetotecta, Ascothoracida...

  17. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  18. New record and redescription of Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) from the Red Sea, with notes on the taxonomic status of C. parathompsoni Gaudy, 1969 and a key to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Salama, Adnan J; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M

    2016-01-01

    During a plankton sampling programme around Al-Wajh area, Saudi Arabian coast of the northern Red Sea, a copepod Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Calanoida: Pontellidae) was reported for the first time in the Red Sea. Both sexes are fully redescribed and compared to previous descriptions as well as the closely related species, Calanopia parathompsoni. The zoogeographical distribution of the species confirms that it is of Indo-Pacific origin. A dichotomous key for the identification of males and females of the species of Calanopia is included.

  19. On the ecology of Cletocamptus gomezi Suárez-Morales, Barrera-Moreno & Ciros-Pérez 2013 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida micro-endemic to Lake Alchichica, Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alcocer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cletocamptus gomezi Suárez-Morales, Barrera-Moreno & Ciros-Pérez (2013 is a recently described new species of meiobenthic Harpacticoida copepod, micro-endemic to Lake Alchichica, Puebla, Central Mexico. Cletocamptus gomezi lives in saline water (K25 =12.6 mS cm-1 dominated by sodium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions and markedly alkaline (pH 9.0±0.1. Cletocamptus gomezi occurs in a depth range of surface to 10 m with preference to shallow (<3 m, well oxygenated (above saturation and warm (>20ºC waters; fine sandy sediments (2.3 ϕ, rich in organic matter (8.4% and carbonate concentrations (29%, and abundant aquatic vegetation coverage. In the littoral zone the average density and biomass of Cletocamptus gomezi reaches 4106±10,962 ind m-2 and 3.66±9.75 mg C m-2. Below 3 m, along the lake’s slope, the density reduces dramatically down to 265±593 ind m-2 and 0.23±0.51 mg C m-2 at 10 m. Cletocamptus gomezi is absent below 10 m down to 62 m, the maximum depth of the lake. Spatially, except L3 (whose density and biomass values are the lowest that differs (P<0.05 from L4 (whose density and biomass values are the highest, the littoral sampling stations are statistically similar in density and biomass (P>0.5. Temporally, there are no statistical differences (P>0.5 in density or biomass. The fact of finding Cletocamptus gomezi far away from the coast line (>100 km and at high altitude (2335 m asl is uncommon since most reports of Cletocamptus are from coastal brackish waters, and consequently, at sea level. Migrating waterbirds, as dispersal agents could be the explanation of Cletocamptus gomezi successfully inhabiting Lake Alchichica. Cletocamptus gomezi shares the same habitat with dense populations of tubificid oligochaetes, amphipods, leeches, chironomids, and nematodes. The disappearance of Cletocamptus gomezi habitat by the lake’s -natural and mostly anthropogenic- desiccation process, seriously threatens the survival of this and the other numerous micro-endemic species of Lake Alchichica.

  20. Shallow-water and not deep-sea as most plausible origin for cave-dwelling Paramisophria species (Copepoda: Calanoida: Arietellidae), with description of three new species from Mediterranean bathyal hyperbenthos and littoral caves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaume, Damià; Cartes, Joan E.; Boxshall, Geoffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Japan (Tanaka, 1967; Ohtsuka, 1985; Ohtsuka & Mitsuzumi, 1990; Ohtsuka et al., 1991), Australia (McKinnon & Kimmerer, 1985), and New Zealand (Othman & Greenwood, 1992). Records of species far from their ordinary ranges, such as those of Paramisophria cluthae T. Scott, 1897 from the Mediterranean