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Sample records for subchronic dietary exposure

  1. Haematogical changes induced by subchronic glyphosate exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the haematological changes induced by subchronic glyphosate exposure in Wistar rats and the ameliorative effect of zinc. Sixty adult male and female Wistar rats were used for the study. Twelve of them were used for the LD50 which was evaluated to be 3750 mg kg-1 with clinical ...

  2. Oral subchronic exposure to silver nanoparticles in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Garcia; Daisy Lafuente; Jordi Blanco; Domenec J. Sanchez; Juan J. Sirvent; Jose L. Domingo; Mercedes Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Oral subchronic exposure to silver nanoparticles in rats DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.04.010 Because of their extremely small size, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show unique physical and chemical properties, with specific biological effects, which make them particularly attractive for being used in a number of consumer applications. However, these properties also influence the potential toxicity of AgNPs. In this study, we assessed the potential toxic effects of an in vivo oral sub-chronic ex...

  3. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Metribuzin on Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Plhalova; Stanislava Stepanova; Eva Praskova; Lucie Chromcova; Lenka Zelnickova; Lenka Divisova; Misa Skoric; Vladimira Pistekova; Iveta Bedanova; Zdenka Svobodova

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of metribuzin in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. The effects of subchronic exposure to metribuzin on fish growth and the development of histopathological changes in selected organs (gill, kidney, liver) and on activity of some biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD) in Danio rerio were investigated during a 28-day toxicity test. Juvenile growth tests were performed on D. rerio according to OECD method number 215. Fish at an initi...

  4. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Debora van der Merwe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis extract (GRE was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE/kg body weight (bw/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study. Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p < 0.05 compared to the control after 90 days, but no effect on body and organ weight parameters was observed. GRE significantly (p < 0.05 reduced serum total cholesterol and iron levels, whilst significantly (p < 0.05 increasing alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity after 90 days. Endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, i.e., catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, was not adversely affected. Glutathione reductase activity significantly (p < 0.05 increased after 28 days, while glutathione (GSH content was decreased after 90 days, suggesting an altered glutathione redox cycle. Quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis showed altered expression of certain antioxidant defense and oxidative stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  5. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Metribuzin on Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Plhalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of metribuzin in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. The effects of subchronic exposure to metribuzin on fish growth and the development of histopathological changes in selected organs (gill, kidney, liver and on activity of some biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD in Danio rerio were investigated during a 28-day toxicity test. Juvenile growth tests were performed on D. rerio according to OECD method number 215. Fish at an initial age of 30 days were exposed to a range of metribuzin concentrations (1.5, 5, 16, 33, and 53 mg L−1. Exposure to metribuzin at 53 mg L−1 was associated with increased mortality. Negative effects with regard to total body weight, length, and the inhibition of specific growth rate were induced at concentrations of 33 and 53 mg L−1. Histopathological examination revealed pathological lesions in the liver in pesticide-exposed fish only at the highest concentration of 53 mg L−1 of metribuzin. Based on the results of growth rate, biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD, and histopathological examination, the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC value was 33 mg L−1 and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC value was 16 mg L−1.

  6. The effects of subchronic exposure to metribuzin on Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plhalova, Lucie; Stepanova, Stanislava; Praskova, Eva; Chromcova, Lucie; Zelnickova, Lenka; Divisova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Pistekova, Vladimira; Bedanova, Iveta; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of metribuzin in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. The effects of subchronic exposure to metribuzin on fish growth and the development of histopathological changes in selected organs (gill, kidney, liver) and on activity of some biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD) in Danio rerio were investigated during a 28-day toxicity test. Juvenile growth tests were performed on D. rerio according to OECD method number 215. Fish at an initial age of 30 days were exposed to a range of metribuzin concentrations (1.5, 5, 16, 33, and 53 mg L⁻¹). Exposure to metribuzin at 53 mg L⁻¹ was associated with increased mortality. Negative effects with regard to total body weight, length, and the inhibition of specific growth rate were induced at concentrations of 33 and 53 mg L⁻¹. Histopathological examination revealed pathological lesions in the liver in pesticide-exposed fish only at the highest concentration of 53 mg L⁻¹ of metribuzin. Based on the results of growth rate, biochemical markers (CYP450, EROD), and histopathological examination, the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) value was 33 mg L⁻¹ and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) value was 16 mg L⁻¹.

  7. SUBCHRONIC INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) is associated with significant increases in asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. To support biological potency assessment and dosimetry model development, a subchronic nose-only inhalation exposure study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted...

  8. Sub-chronic exposure to second hand smoke induces airspace leukocyte infiltration and decreases lung elastance

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    John M. Hartney

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to second hand tobacco smoke is associated with the development and/or exacerbation of several different pulmonary diseases in humans. To better understand the possible effects of second hand smoke exposure in humans, we sub-chronically (4 weeks exposed mice to a mixture of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke at concentrations similar to second hand smoke exposure in humans. The inflammatory response to smoke exposures was assessed at the end of this time by enumeration of pulmonary leukocyte infiltration together with measurements of lung elastance and pathology. This response was measured in both healthy wild type (C57BL/6 mice as well as mouse mutants deficient in the expression of Arhgef1 (Arhgef1–/– that display constitutive pulmonary inflammation and decreased lung elastance reminiscent of emphysema. The results from this study show that sub-chronic second hand smoke exposure leads to significantly increased numbers of airspace leukocytes in both healthy and mutant animals. While sub-chronic cigarette smoke exposure is not sufficient to induce changes in lung architecture as measured by mean linear intercept, both groups exhibit a significant decrease in lung elastance. Together these data demonstrate that even sub-chronic exposure to second hand smoke is sufficient to induce pulmonary inflammation and decrease lung elastance in both healthy and diseased animals and in the absence of tissue destruction.

  9. Association between subchronic and chronic lead exposure and levels of antioxidants and chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Pawlas, Natalia; Birkner, Ewa; Hudziec, Edyta; Chwalińska, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the influence of lead on the non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses and the levels of chemokines in workers subchronically and chronically exposed to lead. The study population was divided into three groups. The first group consisted of male workers subchronically exposed to lead for 40 ± 3.2 days, while the second group included male workers chronically exposed to lead. The third group was a control group. The levels of uric acid and bilirubin were significantly higher after a subchronic exposure to lead compared to the baseline by 22 and 35 %, respectively. Similarly, the values of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) increased by 15, 50, and 33 %, respectively. At the same time, the levels of thiol groups and albumin decreased by 5 and 8 %, respectively. Additionally, the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) were significantly higher after a subchronic exposure to lead compared to the baseline by 34 and 20 %, respectively. Moreover, IL-8 level was significantly higher by 40 % in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead than in the control group, while the level of interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) was significantly lower by 28 %. Similar to chronic lead exposure, subchronic exposure to lead is associated with elevated blood levels of uric acid and bilirubin in humans. This probably results in increased TAC value despite thiol depletion. However, the compensatory activation of non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses seems to be insufficient to protect against lead-induced oxidative stress, which may be additively enhanced by the pro-inflammatory action of chemokines, especially IL-8.

  10. Safety assessment of dietary bamboo charcoal powder: a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenchao, Jia; Yuting, Zhong; Jiuming, Yan; Yedan, Lu; Yang, Song; Jinyao, Chen; Lishi, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable carbon has been used as food additive in EU (E153) and China for many years; however, no experimental data have been available on its dietary safety. This study was designed to evaluate the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of bamboo charcoal powder (BCP). In the study of subchronic oral toxicity, BCP was administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg BW for 90 days to SD rats. Additional satellite groups from the control group and high dose group were observed for a 28-day recovery period. At the end of the treatment and recovery periods, animals were sacrificed, and their organs were weighed and blood samples were collected. The toxicological endpoints observed included clinical signs, food consumption, body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters, macroscopic and microscopic examinations. The results showed no significant differences between the BCP treated groups and control group. The genotoxicity of BCP was assessed with the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and a combination of comet assay and mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus protocol. The results did not reveal any genotoxicity of BCP. Based on our study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for BCP is 11.24 g/kg BW/day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of subchronic metribuzin exposure on common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modra, Helena; Haluzova, Ivana; Blahova, Jana; Havelkova, Marcela; Kruzikova, Kamila; Mikula, Premysl; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2008-10-01

    Effects of metribuzin on biochemical and haematological indices, induction of specific biomarkers and impacts on biometric parameters of Cyprinus carpio were investigated for subchronic conditions. Juvenile fish were exposed to 0.175 mg.L-1 or 1.75 mg.L-1 metribuzin for 28 days. Haematological indices were assessed using unified methods of haematological examination in fish. Biochemical indices were determined by biochemical analyzer, hepatic vitellogenin content was estimated by direct sandwich ELISA. Cytochrome P450 concentration and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were measured in liver spectrophotometrically and spectrofluorimetrically, respectively. Increased haematocrit and RBC count were found in fish exposed to 1.75 mg.L-1 metribuzin compared to control fish (pmetribuzin. Sublethal metribuzin pollution may have adverse impacts on haematological parameters in common carp.

  12. Systemic Metabolic Derangement, Pulmonary Effects, and Insulin Insufficiency Following Subchronic Ozone Exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set includes individual animal data collected for various biological endpoints that are included in the manuscript.Miller DB, Snow SJ, Henriquez A, Schladweiler MC, Ledbetter AD, Richards JE, Andrews DL, Kodavanti UP. Systemic metabolic derangement, pulmonary effects, and insulin insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016 Jun 28;306:47-57. The primary author Desinia Miller, an UNC-EPA co-opp Student has since completed her PhD and is no longer in EPA database.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Miller, D., S. Snow, A. Henriquez, M. Schladweiler, A. Ledbetter, J. Richards, D. Andrews, and U. Kodavanti. Systemic Metabolic Derangement, Pulmonary Effects, and Insulin Insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY. Academic Press Incorporated, Orlando, FL, USA, 306: 47-57, (2016).

  13. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Bali, Yassine; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH) exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF), the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs). Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes.

  14. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Ait Bali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks and chronic (12 weeks exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF, the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs. Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and serotonin (5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN, the basolateral amygdala (BLA and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes.

  15. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Bali, Yassine; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH) exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF), the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs). Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes. PMID:28848410

  16. Developmental sub-chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reduces anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, Holly; Pelkowski, Sean D; Colwill, Ruth M; Créton, Robbert

    2012-07-01

    Neurobehavioral disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are typically influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Although several genetic risk factors have been identified in recent years, little is known about the environmental factors that either cause neurobehavioral disorders or contribute to their progression in genetically predisposed individuals. One environmental factor that has raised concerns is chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in agriculture and is found ubiquitously in the environment. In the present study, we examined the effects of sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure on anxiety-related behavior during development using zebrafish larvae. We found that sub-chronic exposure to 0.01 or 0.1 μM chlorpyrifos during development induces specific behavioral defects in 7-day-old zebrafish larvae. The larvae displayed decreases in swim speed and thigmotaxis, yet no changes in avoidance behavior were seen. Exposure to 0.001 μM chlorpyrifos did not affect swimming, thigmotaxis, or avoidance behavior and exposure to 1 μM chlorpyrifos induced behavioral defects, but also induced defects in larval morphology. Since thigmotaxis, a preference for the edge, is an anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae, we propose that sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure interferes with the development of anxiety-related behaviors. The results of this study provide a good starting point for examination of the molecular, cellular, developmental, and neural mechanisms that are affected by environmentally relevant concentrations of organophosphate pesticides. A more detailed understanding of these mechanisms is important for the development of predictive models and refined health policies to prevent toxicant-induced neurobehavioral disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Subchronic exposure to ellagic acid impairs cytotoxic T-cell function and suppresses humoral immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C T; Peden-Adams, M M; EuDaly, J; Keil, D E

    2003-08-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) is present in a variety of foods such as grapes, strawberries, raspberries, and nuts. It is a dietary plant phenol that has been shown to inhibit oxidative stress and chemical carcinogenesis. Although several studies have examined the protective mechanisms of dietary EA including the induction of detoxifying enzymes, regulation of cell cycle, chelation of nickel, and prevention of DNA methylation, none have addressed the role of EA in immunological surveillance. This study investigates the status of immune function in B6C3F1 mice exposed continuously to EA in drinking water at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Although this range of exposure is above the estimated human daily intake (approximately 940 microg/day for 70 kg person or 13.4 microg/kg/day), these levels would not be unreasonable if EA were used as a dietary supplement or as a chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports have demonstrated the anticarcinogenic effects of EA at levels 10- to 250-fold greater than those applied in this study. Immunological parameters assessed included natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity, IgM antibody plaque forming cell (PFC) response, thymus, spleen, kidney, and liver mass, and total cellularity for the thymus and spleen. Subchronic exposure to EA for 28 days in drinking water caused significant suppression of specific IgM antibody responses in the 2.0 mg/kg EA treatment group and suppressed cytotoxic T-cell function in the 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg EA treatment groups. All other immunological parameters were within normal ranges. Kidney and liver mass were not altered after treatment with EA. The results from this study indicate that EA suppressed both IgM antibody responses and CTLs. These observations suggest important implications on human health should EA be prescribed as a chemotherapeutic agent or a preventative dietary supplement for cancer.

  18. Sub-chronic exposure to paraoxon neither induces nor exacerbates diabetes mellitus in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, Syed M; Petroianu, Georg; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Kalász, Huba; Oz, Murat; Saeed, Tariq; Adem, Abdu; Adeghate, Ernest

    2013-10-01

    There is an increasing belief that organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) impair glucose homeostasis and cause hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. The present study was undertaken to investigate the putative diabetogenic effect of sub-lethal and sub-chronic exposure to paraoxon (POX), an extremely hazardous OPC used in pesticides. The effect of paraoxon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was also examined. Each rat was injected with 100 nmol of POX 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Blood glucose levels and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity were measured weekly. Biochemical analysis and morphological studies were performed at the end of the experiment. The results revealed that POX neither induces nor exacerbates diabetes mellitus in experimental rats. Liver and kidney/body weight ratios revealed statistically insignificant differences when compared with controls. Biochemical analysis of urine samples showed a small but not significant increase in protein level in all groups. Urine bilirubin was significantly higher in the diabetes + POX group when compared with the control group. The number of blood cells in urine was significantly higher in the POX-treated group compared with the control group. Hyperglycemia was noted in the diabetes and diabetes + POX groups, but neither in the saline control nor in POX-treated normal rats. Electron microscopy of POX-treated pancreas did not show any morphological changes in beta cells. These results suggest that POX does not cause diabetes mellitus at sub-lethal sub-chronic exposure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Subchronic Arsenic Exposure Through Drinking Water Alters Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Status in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghe, Prashantkumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kandasamy, Kannan; Choudhury, Soumen; Gupta, Priyanka; Harikumar, Sankarankutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic is a groundwater pollutant and can cause various cardiovascular disorders in the exposed population. The aim of the present study was to assess whether subchronic arsenic exposure through drinking water can induce vascular dysfunction associated with alteration in plasma electrolytes and lipid profile. Rats were exposed to arsenic as 25, 50, and 100 ppm of sodium arsenite through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. On the 91st day, rats were sacrificed and blood was collected. Lipid profile and the levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride) were assessed in plasma. Arsenic reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio, but increased the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and electrolytes. The results suggest that the arsenic-mediated dyslipidemia and electrolyte retention could be important mechanisms in the arsenic-induced vascular disorder.

  20. Sub-chronic lead exposure produces β1-adrenoceptor downregulation decreasing arterial pressure reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Cindy Medici; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Fioresi, Mirian

    2017-07-01

    Lead is considered a causative factor for hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure on blood pressure reactivity and cardiac β 1 -adrenoceptor activity and to evaluate whether the effects found in vitro are similar to those found in vivo. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control rats (Ct) and rats administered drinking water containing 100ppm lead (Pb) for 30days. Blood pressure in the Pb rats increased starting from the first week of treatment until the end of the study [systolic blood pressure, Ct: 122±4 vs. Pb: 143±3mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, Ct: 63±4 vs. Pb: 84±4mmHg]. The heart rate was also increased (Ct: 299±11 vs. Pb: 365±11bpm), but the pressure reactivity to phenylephrine was decreased. Losartan and hexamethonium exhibited a greater reduction in blood pressure of Pb rats than in the Ct rats. Isoproterenol increased the left ventricular systolic and end-diastolic pressure, and heart rate only in Ct rats, suggesting that lead induced β 1 -adrenoceptor downregulation. Indomethacin reduced the blood pressure and heart rate in the Pb rats, suggesting the involvement of cyclooxygenase-derived products (which are associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability) in this process. These findings offer further evidence that the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure in vitro can be reproduced in vivo-even at low concentrations-thus triggering mechanisms for the development of hypertension. Therefore, lead should be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subchronic exposure to diisocyanates increases guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle responses to acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W; Potthast, J; Marczynski, B; Mensing, T; Baur, X

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the threshold concentrations of isocyanates (IC) for induction of lung disorders, constrictive responses of tracheal smooth muscles to acetylcholine (ACH) in guinea pigs with and without diisocyanate [toluene diisocyanate (TDI), hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)] exposure were investigated. An IC-induced increase in smooth muscle responsiveness was studied by measuring cumulative ACH dose responses (10(-10) to 10(-4) M ACH). Basal ACH dose-response curves, measured twice in intervals of 1 h using tracheal preparations of 11 guinea pigs previously not exposed to IC, were reproducible. Subchronic in vivo exposures to TDI, HDI, and MDI atmospheres of 10 and 20 parts per billion (ppb) on 5 consecutive days led to significantly (p < 0.05) increased ACH responsiveness of tracheal smooth muscle, whereas concentrations of 2.5 and 5 ppb were not effective. Exposure to HDI atmospheres of 10 ppb for 1, 2, 4, or 8 weeks resulted in a time-dependent increase in ACH responses (p < 0.05) of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle. Increased tracheal muscle responses to ACH were transient since tracheal preparations from animals exposed to 10 and 20 ppb MDI for 4 weeks and with an exposure-free interval of 8 weeks before preparation did not show enlarged ACH responses, which were present in preparations at the end of the exposure period (p < 0.05). Exposure to low IC concentrations as present in workplaces cause increased ACH responsiveness of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle. The increased responsiveness of the airways seems to be largely reversible, since normal responses were found after 8 weeks of IC avoidance. Reversibility of IC-induced airway hyperresponsiveness is of great occupational and preventive medical importance. Workers with acquired airway hyperresponsiveness might escape lung damage if the changes are detected in an early stage before alterations in lung function are in a chronic stage.

  2. Sub-chronic lung inflammation after airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barfod Kenneth K

    2010-09-01

    exposures to commercial Bt based biopesticides can induce sub-chronic lung inflammation in mice, which may be the first step in the development of chronic lung diseases. Inhalation of Bt aerosols does not induce airway irritation, which could explain why workers may be less inclined to use a filter mask during the application process, and are thereby less protected from exposure to Bt spores.

  3. Consequences of subchronic exposure to ethanolic extract from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle var. areira L. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Cristina; Domínguez, Sergio; Codón, Stella; Minetti, Alejandra; Ferrero, Adriana

    2010-10-28

    Several extracts of Schinus molle var. areira L. plant proved to be useful for the treatment of different pathologies and for the control of insect pest. Due to these potential uses, it is necessary to study their safety. In this work, we evaluated the effects of subchronic exposure to ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle var. areira in mice. The plant extract was added to the diet at 1 g/kg body weight/day for 90 days. At the end of the exposure, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, several biochemical and histopathological studies were realized. The exposure to extract from leaves produced an increase in the number of rearings in the open field and of urine pools in the functional observational battery. On the other hand, the exposure to extract from fruits produced an increase in the neutrophil count and a decrease in the lymphocyte count and in the total cholesterol levels. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that subchronic exposure to ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle var. areira should be potentially useful in the treatment of lipid pathologies and safe to use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Murine pulmonary responses after sub-chronic exposure to aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamcakova-Dodd Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers (AO nanowhiskers have been used in manufacturing processes as catalyst supports, flame retardants, adsorbents, or in ceramic, metal and plastic composite materials. They are classified as high aspect ratio nanomaterials. Our aim was to assess in vivo toxicity of inhaled AO nanowhisker aerosols. Methods Primary dimensions of AO nanowhiskers specified by manufacturer were 2–4 nm x 2800 nm. The aluminum content found in this nanomaterial was 30% [mixed phase material containing Al(OH3 and AlOOH]. Male mice (C57Bl/6 J were exposed to AO nanowhiskers for 4 hrs/day, 5 days/wk for 2 or 4 wks in a dynamic whole body exposure chamber. The whiskers were aerosolized with an acoustical dry aerosol generator that included a grounded metal elutriator and a venturi aspirator to enhance deagglomeration. Average concentration of aerosol in the chamber was 3.3 ± 0.6 mg/m3 and the mobility diameter was 150 ± 1.6 nm. Both groups of mice (2 or 4 wks exposure were necropsied immediately after the last exposure. Aluminum content in the lung, heart, liver, and spleen was determined. Pulmonary toxicity assessment was performed by evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid (enumeration of total and differential cells, total protein, activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and cytokines, blood (total and differential cell counts, lung histopathology and pulmonary mechanics. Results Following exposure, mean Al content of lungs was 0.25, 8.10 and 15.37 μg/g lung (dry wt respectively for sham, 2 wk and 4 wk exposure groups. The number of total cells and macrophages in BAL fluid was 2-times higher in animals exposed for 2 wks and 6-times higher in mice exposed for 4 wks, compared to shams (p p  Conclusions Sub-chronic inhalation exposures to aluminum-oxide based nanowhiskers induced increased lung macrophages, but no inflammatory or toxic responses were observed.

  5. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  6. Oxidative DNA damage and its repair in rat spleen following subchronic exposure to aniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huaxian; Wang, Jianling; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.; Boor, Paul J.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aniline exposure elicits splenotoxic response, especially the tumorigenic response, are not well-understood. Splenotoxicity of aniline is associated with iron overload and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids (oxidative stress). 8-Hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions resulting from ROS, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a specific DNA glycosylase/lyase enzyme, plays a key role in the removal of 8-OHdG adducts. This study focused on examining DNA damage (8-OHdG) and repair (OGG1) in the spleen in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. To achieve that, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water for 30 days), while controls received drinking water only. Aniline treatment led to a significant increase in splenic oxidative DNA damage, manifested as a 2.8-fold increase in 8-OHdG levels. DNA repair activity, measured as OGG1 base excision repair (BER) activity, increased by ~1.3 fold in the nuclear protein extracts (NE) and ~1.2 fold in the mitochondrial protein extracts (ME) of spleens from aniline-treated rats as compared to the controls. Real-time PCR analysis for OGG1 mRNA expression in the spleen revealed a 2-fold increase in expression in aniline-treated rats than the controls. Likewise, OGG1 protein expression in the NEs of spleens from aniline-treated rats was ~1.5 fold higher, whereas in the MEs it was ~1.3 fold higher than the controls. Aniline treatment also led to stronger immunostaining for both 8-OHdG and OGG1 in the spleens, confined to the red pulp areas. It is thus evident from our studies that aniline-induced oxidative stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage. The BER pathway was also activated, but not enough to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG). Accumulation of mutagenic oxidative DNA lesions

  7. Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Shannon; Surace, Michael J; McDonald, Jacob; Block, Michelle L

    2011-08-24

    Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology. Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 and 0 μg PM/m³) by inhalation over 6 months. DE exposure resulted in elevated levels of TNFα at high concentrations in all regions tested, with the exception of the cerebellum. The midbrain region was the most sensitive, where exposures as low as 100 μg PM/m³ significantly increased brain TNFα levels. However, this sensitivity to DE was not conferred to all markers of neuroinflammation, as the midbrain showed no increase in IL-6 expression at any concentration tested, an increase in IL-1β at only high concentrations, and a decrease in MIP-1α expression, supporting that compensatory mechanisms may occur with subchronic exposure. Aβ42 levels were the highest in the frontal lobe of mice exposed to 992 μg PM/m³ and tau [pS199] levels were elevated at the higher DE concentrations (992 and 311 μg PM/m³) in both the temporal lobe and frontal lobe, indicating that proteins linked to preclinical Alzheimer's disease were affected. α Synuclein levels were elevated in the midbrain in response to the 992 μg PM/m³ exposure, supporting that air pollution may be associated with early Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Together, the data support that the midbrain may be more sensitive to the neuroinflammatory effects of subchronic air pollution exposure. However, the DE-induced elevation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases was limited to only the higher exposures, suggesting that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation may precede preclinical markers of neurodegenerative disease in the midbrain.

  8. Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Jacob

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. Objective We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology. Methods Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 and 0 μg PM/m3 by inhalation over 6 months. Results DE exposure resulted in elevated levels of TNFα at high concentrations in all regions tested, with the exception of the cerebellum. The midbrain region was the most sensitive, where exposures as low as 100 μg PM/m3 significantly increased brain TNFα levels. However, this sensitivity to DE was not conferred to all markers of neuroinflammation, as the midbrain showed no increase in IL-6 expression at any concentration tested, an increase in IL-1β at only high concentrations, and a decrease in MIP-1α expression, supporting that compensatory mechanisms may occur with subchronic exposure. Aβ42 levels were the highest in the frontal lobe of mice exposed to 992 μg PM/m3 and tau [pS199] levels were elevated at the higher DE concentrations (992 and 311 μg PM/m3 in both the temporal lobe and frontal lobe, indicating that proteins linked to preclinical Alzheimer's disease were affected. α Synuclein levels were elevated in the midbrain in response to the 992 μg PM/m3 exposure, supporting that air pollution may be associated with early Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Conclusions Together, the data support that the midbrain may be more sensitive to the neuroinflammatory effects of subchronic air pollution exposure. However, the DE-induced elevation of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases was limited to only the higher exposures, suggesting that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation may

  9. Subchronic toxicity and cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats after exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes by intratracheal instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Lili; Ge, Cuicui; Tseng, Michael T; Bai, Ru; Qu, Ying; Beer, Christiane; Autrup, Herman; Chen, Chunying

    2015-03-16

    The tremendous demand of the market for carbon nanotubes has led to their massive production that presents an increasing risk through occupational exposure. Lung deposition of carbon nanotubes is known to cause acute localized pulmonary adverse effects. However, systemic cardiovascular damages associated with acute pulmonary lesion have not been thoroughly addressed. Four kinds of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different lengths and/or iron contents were used to explore the potential subchronic toxicological effects in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and normotensive control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats after intratracheal instillation. MWCNTs penetrated the lung blood-gas barrier and accumulated in the liver, kidneys, and spleen but not in the heart and aorta of SH rats. The pulmonary toxicity and cardiovascular effects were assessed at 7 and 30 days postexposure. Compared to the WKY rats, transient influences on blood pressure and up to 30 days persistent decrease in the heart rate of SH rats were found by electrocardiogram monitoring. The subchronic toxicity, especially the sustained inflammation of the pulmonary and cardiovascular system, was revealed at days 7 and 30 in both SH and WKY rat models. Histopathological results showed obvious morphological lesions in abdominal arteries of SH rats 30 days after exposure. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to the long-term toxic effects of MWCNTs, and particularly, occupationally exposed workers with preexisting cardiovascular diseases should be monitored more thoroughly.

  10. Impact of acute and subchronic inhalation exposure to PbO nanoparticles on mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebedová, J.; Nováková, Z.; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Buchtová, Marcela; Dumková, J.; Dočekal, Bohumil; Bláhová, L.; Mikuška, Pavel; Míšek, Ivan; Hampl, A.; Hilscherová, K.

    (2018), s. 1-17 ISSN 1743-5390 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : nanoparticles * oxidative stress * subchronic * tissue damage Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality (UZFG-Y) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.428, year: 2016

  11. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm,

  12. Cadmium accumulation and elimination in tissues of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus after sub-chronic cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Jee, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2004-01-01

    Cd accumulation and elimination in tissue of olive flounder. - Experiments were carried out to investigate the accumulation and elimination of cadmium (Cd) in tissues (gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle) of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100 {mu}g l{sup -1}) of Cd. Cd exposure resulted in an increased Cd accumulation in tissues of flounder with exposure periods and concentration, and Cd accumulation in gill and liver increased linearly with the exposure time. At 20 days of Cd exposure, the order of Cd accumulation in organs was gill > intestine > liver > kidney > muscle and after 30 days of exposure, those were intestine > gill > liver > kidney > muscle. An inverse relationship was observed between the accumulation factor (AF) and the exposure level, but AF showed an increase with exposure time. During the depuration periods, Cd concentration in the gill, intestine and liver decreased immediately following the end of the exposure periods. No significant difference was found Cd in concentration in the kidney and muscle during depuration periods. The order of Cd elimination rate in organs were decreased intestine > liver > gill during depuration periods.

  13. Downregulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor function in rats after subchronic exposure to diazinon

    OpenAIRE

    Saša R. Ivanović; Dimitrijević, Blagoje; Ćupić, Vitomir; Jezdimirović, Milanka; Borozan, Sunčica; Savić, Mila; Savić, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate insecticide which exerts its effect through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). In this work, we studied the development of tolerance to subchronic p.o. administration of DZN in rats, under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. A group of 20 rats (2 groups, n = 10) was administered p.o. the 1/10 of established LD50 DZN (namely 55.87 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. On the 14th and 28th day of study with isolated diaphragm and ileum, we examined the...

  14. Sub-chronic exposure to noise affects locomotor activity and produces anxiogenic and depressive like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Fizza; Haider, Saida; Batool, Zehra; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2012-01-01

    Noise is defined as a displeasing and unwanted sound. It is one of the most encountered stressor to which mankind is exposed. Frustration, poor reading, impaired hearing and difficulty in problem solving activities are the common consequences of noise stress. It has been reported to produce atrophy of dendrites and alterations in neurotransmitter levels. Long term exposure to inescapable noise stress induces exhaustion, defeat, annoyance followed by decreased muscle movement, social contacts and mood changes. The present study was aimed to investigate the detrimental effects of noise exposure on behavior of rats and its association with altered neurochemistry. Changes in neurotransmitter levels in different brain regions including hippocampus have been reported following noise exposure and these changes in neurotransmitters levels have also been associated with altered behavior. In the present study, locomotor activity in rats was assessed by open field test (OFT) while anxiety and depressive behavior was monitored by elevated plus maze (EPM) and tail suspension (TST) tests. The results showed that 15 days sub-chronic exposure to noise stress induced anxiety and depression like behavior in male rats. These behavioral deficits observed in the present study suggest that an altered brain serotonergic and dopaminergic activity may be involved in the various psychological disorders following exposure to noise stress.

  15. Intestinal lymphangiectasis and lipidosis in rats following subchronic exposure to indole-3-carbinol via oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael C; Crabbs, Torrie A; Wyde, Michael E; Painter, J Todd; Hill, Georgette D; Malarkey, David E; Lieuallen, Warren G; Nyska, Abraham

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the toxicity and carcinogenic potential of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), the National Toxicology Program has conducted 13-week subchronic studies in Fisher 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice, and chronic 2-year bioassays in Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice. While the chronic study results are not yet available, subchronic study results and short-term special evaluations of interim sacrifices in the 2-year rat bioassay are presented. F344 rats were orally gavaged ≤300 mg I3C/kg body weight 5 days a week for 13 weeks. Rats treated with ≥150 mg/kg demonstrated a dose-related dilation of lymphatics (lymphangiectasis) of the duodenum, jejunum, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Material within dilated lacteals stained positively for Oil Red O and Sudan Black, consistent with lipid. Electron microscopic evaluation confirmed extracellular lipid accumulation within the villar lamina propria, lacteals, and within villar macrophages. Analyses of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes demonstrated dose-dependent I3C induction of CYP1A1 and 1A2. B6C3F1 mice orally gavaged ≤250 mg I3C/kg body weight did not demonstrate histopathological changes; however, hepatic CYP induction was similar to that in rats. The histopathologic changes of intestinal lymphangiectasis and lipidosis in this study share similarities with intestinal lymphangiectasia as observed in humans and dogs. However, the resultant clinical spectrum of protein-losing enteropathy was not present.

  16. Pulmonary toxicity and global gene expression changes in response to sub-chronic inhalation exposure to crystalline silica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbright, Christina; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Roberts, Jenny R; Young, Shih-Houng; Richardson, Diana; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean; Gu, Ja Kook; Kashon, Michael; Joseph, Pius

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to crystalline silica results in serious adverse health effects, most notably, silicosis. An understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying silica-induced pulmonary toxicity is critical for the intervention and/or prevention of its adverse health effects. Rats were exposed by inhalation to crystalline silica at a concentration of 15 mg/m3, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3, 6 or 12 weeks. Pulmonary toxicity and global gene expression profiles were determined in lungs at the end of each exposure period. Crystalline silica was visible in lungs of rats especially in the 12-week group. Pulmonary toxicity, as evidenced by an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and albumin content and accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), was seen in animals depending upon silica exposure duration. The most severe histological changes, noted in the 12-week exposure group, consisted of chronic active inflammation, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, and fibrosis. Microarray analysis of lung gene expression profiles detected significant differential expression of 38, 77, and 99 genes in rats exposed to silica for 3-, 6-, or 12-weeks, respectively, compared to time-matched controls. Among the significantly differentially expressed genes (SDEG), 32 genes were common in all exposure groups. Bioinformatics analysis of the SDEG identified enrichment of functions, networks and canonical pathways related to inflammation, cancer, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling in response to silica exposure. Collectively, these results provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying pulmonary toxicity following sub-chronic inhalation exposure to crystalline silica in rats.

  17. Dietary Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molly L. Kile; E. Andres Houseman; Carrie V. Breton; Thomas Smith; Quazi Quamruzzaman; Mahmuder Rahman; Golam Mahiuddin; David C. Christiani

    2007-01-01

    Background: Millions of people in Bangladesh are at risk of chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking contaminated groundwater, but little is known about diet as an additional source of As exposure. Methods...

  18. Oxidative stress parameters in early developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after subchronic exposure to terbuthylazine and metribuzin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostovsky, Martin; Blahova, Jana; Plhalova, Lucie; Stepanova, Stanislava; Praskova, Eva; Marsalek, Petr; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    This work assessed the subchronic effects of the triazine compounds terbuthylazine and metribuzin on embryo-larval stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using biotransformation enzyme and selected oxidative stress parameters. Early developmental stages of fish, from embryo to larvae, were exposed to terbuthylazine at concentrations of 0.9, 160, 520, and 820 μg/L, and metribuzin at concentrations of 0.9, 4, 14, and 32 mg/L for 30 days and compared to the non-treated control group. For assessment of free radical defence the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured; the lipid peroxidation (TBARS) level was determined as a marker of free radical damage. Terbuthylazine had no significant effect (p>0.05) at any tested concentrations on GST activity. Terbuthylazine caused an increase (p0.05) effect of terbuthylazine exposure on TBARS level. In metribuzin treated groups, the activity of GST was increased (pmetribuzin induced oxidative stress in embryo-larval stages of common carp. Increased activities of biotransformation enzymes or antioxidant defence enzymes were markers of free radical attack. There was low lipid peroxidation in early developed fish after triazine exposure.

  19. Altered resistance to Trichinella spiralis infection following subchronic exposure of adult mice to chemicals of environmental concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of subchronic chemical exposure on expulsion of adult Trichinella spiralis from the small intestine of mice and encystment of newborn larvae in the host's musculature were investigated. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol, benzo(a)pyrene, tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, cyclophosphamide, phorbol myristate acetate, and dimethylvinylchloride prior to infection of mice with 200 infective larvae resulted in larger worm burdens in treated animals than in controls 14 days after infection. Worm expulsion was not affected by exposure to tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, orthophenylphenol, and indomethacin. Increased burdens of muscle-phase larvae were found in animals that maintained significant numbers of adult worms in the gut at 14 days, except in mice administered diethylstilbestrol and dimethylvinylchloride. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol and cyclophosphamide resulted in decreased inflammatory reactions in the tissues of the small intestine and development of bone marrow eosinophilia in infected mice. Marrow eosinophilia was likewise decreased in mice given tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate before infection. Additional studies with diethylstilbestrol administered either before, at the time of, or after infection showed inhibition of worm expulsion. Drug exposure during a primary infection inhibited the expulsion of a second T. spiralis infection, but did not affect worm elimination when given during a second infection. Treatment with diethylstilbestrol after artificial sensitization of mice with Trichinella antigens decreased delayed hypersensitivity responses to the sensitizing antigen. Immune functions, assessed by lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens and antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, generally correlated with altered host resistance to T. spiralis infection.

  20. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid changes electrophysiological properties and expression pattern of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in insect neurosecretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzidane, Yassine; Goven, Delphine; Abd-Ella, Aly Ahmed; Deshayes, Caroline; Lapied, Bruno; Raymond, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging. We used cockroach neurosecretory cells identified as dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive (α-bgt-insensitive) nAChR subtypes, nAChR1 and nAChR2, which differ in their sensitivity to imidacloprid. Although nAChR1 is sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 is insensitive to this insecticide. In this study, we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid differentially changes physiological and molecular properties of nAChR1 and nAChR2. Our findings reported that this treatment decreased the sensitivity of nAChR1 to imidacloprid, reduced current density flowing through this nAChR subtype but did not affect its subunit composition (α3, α8 and β1). Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid also affected nAChR2 functions. However, these effects were different from those reported on nAChR1. We observed changes in nAChR2 conformational state, which could be related to modification of the subunit composition (α1, α2 and β1). Finally, the subchronic exposure affecting both nAChR1 and nAChR2 seemed to be linked to the elevation of the steady-state resting intracellular calcium level. In conclusion, under subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid, cockroaches are capable of triggering adaptive mechanisms by reducing the participation of imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and by optimizing functional properties of nAChR2, which is

  2. Subchronic exposure to acrylamide affects colon mucin secretion in juvenile wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koledin Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (AA is an important industrial chemical worldwide. AA also forms naturally in many high-carbohydrate foods (bread, French fries, coffee, etc. when they are heated. Since AA is ubiquitous in the human diet, and more than one-third of the calories we take in each day come from foods with detectable levels of acrylamide, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of subchronic AA treatment on colon goblet cell mucin secretion. Male Wistar rats were gavaged with AA for 5 days a week for 21 days. The animals were divided into three groups that were gavaged with different AA concentrations (0, 25, 50 mg/kg/day. Colon samples were processed for histochemical (PAS-AB, HID-AB and immunohistochemical (anti-rat MUC2 antibody staining to visualize mucins in the goblet cells. AA treatment showed an alteration in mucin production and secretion in that the amount of all investigated mucin types dropped. More prominent changes were detected in the upper crypt part where a decreased number of goblet cell was observed. AA treatment elicited a significant reduction in neutral mucins, while acidic mucins showed linearly decreasing trend with respect to AA doses. Also, a linear reduction of MUC2 mucins was noticed. Sulfomucins were absent in the colon lower crypt in all experimental groups, while in the upper crypt both sulfo- and sialomucins were significantly decreased. The results of our study point to changes in the synthesis, differentiation and distribution of mucins after AA treatment, which can have adverse effect on colorectal health. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46001

  3. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Slaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P<0.05 effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline (P<0.05 in triacylglycerols (TAG in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected.

  4. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L) where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. PMID:24795897

  5. Dualistic immunomodulation of sub-chronic microcystin-LR exposure on the innate-immune defense system in male zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang; Hou, Jie; Guo, Honghui; Qiu, Yuming; Li, Li; Li, Dapeng; Tang, Rong

    2017-09-01

    Microcystins (MCs), produced by toxic cyanobacterial blooms that appeared world wildly in eutrophication waters, have often caused fish illness and even massive death cases. Among at least 90 structural variants, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most common and toxic variant. In order to better understand innate immune responses in fish disrupted by environmental concentrations of MC-LR, male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 μg/L MC-LR for 30 d, and the changes in splenic pathology and immunological gene expression as well as serum immune parameters were studied. In the low concentration groups (0.3, 1 and 3 μg/L), zebrafish displayed splenic inflammatory changes including the formation of melano-macrophage centers and the increase of macrophage pseudopodia, remarkable elevation of serum C3 levels, and significantly upregulated expression of innate immune-related genes (c3b, lyz, il1β, tnfα and ifnγ). In contrast, high concentrations of MC-LR (10 and 30 μg/L) resulted in the degeneration of splenic lymphocytes and macrophages, and down-regulation of immune-related genes as well as significant decreases in the level of serum C3. Furthermore, significant increases in the activity of serum ACP and ALP suggested that high concentrations of MC-LR increased permeability of macrophage plasma membrane or cellular necrosis, and subsequently decreased innate immune function. Our findings illustrated that sub-chronic exposure of MC-LR has dualistic influences on fish innate immune system with inflammatory activation at low exposure concentrations but turned to immune inhibition with the increases of exposure concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Subchronic toxicity of Nile tilapia with different exposure routes to Microcystis aeruginosa: Histopathology, liver functions, and oxidative stress biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. R. Abdel-Latif

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (Microcystis aeruginosa contains microcystins [MCs] have been reported to induce clinicopathological alterations as well as different oxidative stress in aquatic biota. Aim: Three-week subchronic exposure experiment was carried out on Nile tilapia, to determine their effects on fish behavior, tissues, liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation. Materials and Methods: Fish were exposed to four main treatments; orally fed diet plus toxic cells of M. aeruginosa (containing 3500 μg/g MC-LR, immersion in 500 μg MC-LR/L, intraperitoneal injection of M. aeruginosa MC-LR with a dose of 0.1 ml of extracted toxin at a dose of 200 μg/kg bwt, and the fourth one served as a control group, then the fish were sacrificed at the end of 3rd week of exposure. Results: The results revealed no recorded mortality with obvious behavioral changes and an enlarged liver with the congested gall bladder. Histopathology demonstrated fragmentation, hyalinization, and necrosis of the subcutaneous musculature marked fatty degeneration, and vacuolation of hepatopancreatic cells with adhesion of the secondary gill lamellae associated with severe leukocytic infiltration. Furthermore, liver functions enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidase, and catalase enzymes were significantly increased in all treatments starting from the 2nd week as compared to the control levels. Conclusion: In this context, the study addresses the possible toxicological impacts of toxic M. aeruginosa contain MC-LR to Nile tilapia, and the results investigated that MC-LR is toxic to Nile tilapia in different routes of exposure as well as different doses.

  7. Subchronic Exposure to Arsenic Represses the TH/TRβ1-CaMK IV Signaling Pathway in Mouse Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that arsenic (As impaired learning and memory by down-regulating calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV in mouse cerebellum. It has been documented that the thyroid hormone receptor (TR/retinoid X receptor (RXR heterodimer and thyroid hormone (TH may be involved in the regulation of CaMK IV. To investigate whether As affects the TR/RXR heterodimer and TH, we determined As concentration in serum and cerebellum, 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxin (T4 levels in serum, and expression of CaMK IV, TR and RXR in cerebellum of mice exposed to As. Cognition function was examined by the step-down passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM tests. Morphology of the cerebellum was observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining under light microscope. Our results showed that the concentrations of As in the serum and cerebellum of mice both increased with increasing As-exposure level. A significant positive correlation was found between the two processes. Adeficit in learning and memory was found in the exposed mice. Abnormal morphologic changes of Purkinje cells were observed in cerebellum of the exposed mice. Moreover, the cerebellar expressions of CaMK IV protein and the TRβ gene, and TRβ1 protein were significantly lower in As-exposed mice than those in controls. Subchronic exposure to As appears to increase its level in serum and cerebella of mice, impairing learning and memory and down-regulating expression of TRβ1 as well as down-stream CaMK IV. It is also suggested that the increased As may be responsible for down-regulation of TRβ1 and CaMK IV in cerebellum and that the down-regulated TRβ1 may be involved in As-induced impairment of learning and memory via inhibiting CaMK IV and its down-stream pathway.

  8. Subchronic Exposure to Arsenic Represses the TH/TRβ1-CaMK IV Signaling Pathway in Mouse Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai; Li, Shuangyue; Guo, Yanjie; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yi; Guo, Jinqiu; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Cong; Shang, Lixin; Piao, Fengyuan

    2016-01-26

    We previously reported that arsenic (As) impaired learning and memory by down-regulating calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV) in mouse cerebellum. It has been documented that the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer and thyroid hormone (TH) may be involved in the regulation of CaMK IV. To investigate whether As affects the TR/RXR heterodimer and TH, we determined As concentration in serum and cerebellum, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) levels in serum, and expression of CaMK IV, TR and RXR in cerebellum of mice exposed to As. Cognition function was examined by the step-down passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Morphology of the cerebellum was observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining under light microscope. Our results showed that the concentrations of As in the serum and cerebellum of mice both increased with increasing As-exposure level. A significant positive correlation was found between the two processes. Adeficit in learning and memory was found in the exposed mice. Abnormal morphologic changes of Purkinje cells were observed in cerebellum of the exposed mice. Moreover, the cerebellar expressions of CaMK IV protein and the TRβ gene, and TRβ1 protein were significantly lower in As-exposed mice than those in controls. Subchronic exposure to As appears to increase its level in serum and cerebella of mice, impairing learning and memory and down-regulating expression of TRβ1 as well as down-stream CaMK IV. It is also suggested that the increased As may be responsible for down-regulation of TRβ1 and CaMK IV in cerebellum and that the down-regulated TRβ1 may be involved in As-induced impairment of learning and memory via inhibiting CaMK IV and its down-stream pathway.

  9. Dietary safety of a dual-enzyme preparation for animal feed: Acute and subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, G P; Gaffney, M A; Curran, C M; Moran, C A

    2017-08-01

    Animal feed is routinely supplemented with exogenous enzymes to improve nutrient utilization, such as proteases to enhance protein hydrolysis in vivo and xylanases to alleviate feed related anti-nutritional factors. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the potential oral toxicity and genotoxicity of a dual-enzyme preparation, Vegpro® concentrate (VPr-C). Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley Crl CD rats and CHS Swiss ICO:OFI (IOPS Caw) mice. Thirteen week preliminary and final subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in male and female rats. Genotoxicity was evaluated through a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test), an in-vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and a mammalian micronucleus test. The LD50 was >2000 mg/kg of BW in mice and rats. In the 13-week oral toxicity study, the No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) was 1000 mg/kg BW per day for females and 300 mg/kg BW per day for males. VPr-C showed no mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium, did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes, and did not increase the frequency or proportion of micronucleated immature erythrocytes in mice. There was no evidence of acute or subchronic toxicity or genotoxicity associated with the test article at these test dosages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Murine pulmonary responses after sub-chronic exposure to aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Stebounova, Larissa V; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Kim, Jong Sung; Grassian, Vicki H; Thorne, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    ... days/wk for 2 or 4 wks in a dynamic whole body exposure chamber. The whiskers were aerosolized with an acoustical dry aerosol generator that included a grounded metal elutriator and a venturi aspirator to enhance deagglomeration...

  11. The immunotoxicological pattern of subchronic and chronic benzene exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaulov, Alexander V; Mikhaylova, Irina V; Smolyagin, Alexander I; Boev, Viktor M; Kalogeraki, Alexandra; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Engin, Ayse Basak

    2017-06-05

    Exposure to benzene and its inevitable metabolites can result in deleterious effects on human health, including lymphocytopenia, hematotoxicity and cancer. However, the duration of exposure might alter the effects including immune consequences. The aim of this study was to determine whether benzene could modulate lymphocyte proliferation induced by the T cell mitogen concanavalin A, in rats, at different exposure durations. 386 Wistar rats were assigned into control and treatment groups which were subdivided into groups for 45, 90 and 135days for 0,6mL/kg of drinking water mixed benzene treatment. The percentage of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ spleen lymphocytes was defined using the flow cytometer. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-gamma, in supernatants of splenocyte cultures stimulated with Concanavalin A, were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The decrease in the total lymphocyte and T cell counts were associated with increased benzene exposure duration. Th2-type cytokine, IL-4 significantly increased, whereas IL-6, CD4+T cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio and CD3+ T cells decreased. Despite the positive correlation between benzene toxicity and indicated increased immune responses, 45-day exposure to benzene appeared to be the most sensitive time point for evaluating benzene cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term effects of subchronic low-level hydrogen sulfide exposure on oil field workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the short-term effects of low-level hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure on oil field workers. Observational study included 34 patients who work at an oil field. All patients were males with age range of 22-60 years (mean 37 years). The data were collected by systematic questionnaire about symptoms. The inclusion criteria of patients were symptoms related to inhalation of H2S gas in the oil field. The complaints should be frequent and relapsed after each gas exposure and disappeared when there was no gas exposure. Exclusion criteria were the symptoms which experienced with or without H2S exposure. The presence of H2S gas was confirmed by valid gas detector devices. The most frequent presenting symptom was nasal bleeding. It was revealed in 18 patients (52.9%). This followed by pharyngeal bleeding, gum bleeding, and bloody saliva (mouth bleeding) which were encountered in five cases for each complaint (14.7%). Other less frequent presenting symptoms were tongue bleeding, bloody sputum, headache, abdominal colic, pharyngeal soreness, fatigue, and sleepiness. Nasal mucosa was the most vulnerable part to H2S effect. Inhalation of H2S produced upper respiratory tract epithelial damage that led to bleeding from nose, pharynx, gum, tongue, trachea, and bronchi. There were no complaints of asthmatic attack upon exposure to low level of H2S. Sunlight had a significant role in reduction of ambient air H2S level.

  13. Pathological modifications following sub-chronic exposure of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchet, Isabelle; Djediat, Chakib; Huet, Hélène; Dao, Simone Puiseux; Edery, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are toxic monocyclic heptapeptides produced by many cyanobacteria. MCs, especially MC-LR, cause toxic effects in animals and are a recognized potent cause of environmental stress and health hazard in aquatic ecosystems when heavy blooms of cyanobacteria appear. Consequently, one of the major problems is the chronic exposure of fish to cyanotoxins in their natural environment. The present experiment involving chronic exposure confirmed initial findings on acute exposure to MC contamination: exacerbated physiological stress and tissue damage in several tissues of exposed medaka fish. The gonads were affected specifically. In female gonads the modifications included reduction of the vitellus storage, lysis of the gonadosomatic tissue and disruption of the relationships between the follicular cells and the oocytes. In the males, spermatogenesis appeared to be disrupted. This is the first report showing that a cyanotoxin can affect reproductive function, and so can impact on fish reproduction and thus fish stocks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Systemic Metabolic Derangement, Pulmonary Effects, and Insulin Insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute ozone exposure induces a classical stress response with elevated circulating stress hormones along with changes in glucose, protein and lipid metabolism in rats, with similar alterations in ozone-exposed humans. These stress-mediated changes over time have been linked to in...

  15. Long-Term Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Sarin, Alone and With Stress or Other Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abou-Donia, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    ...) and stress on the development of chronic and neurologic deficits. An important finding from our studies is that brain AChE and plasma BChE inhibition might be used as a biomarker for exposure, not for sarin-induced neurologic deficits...

  16. Histological changes in lung tissues related with sub-chronic exposure to ambient urban levels of PM2.5 in Córdoba, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera Busso, Iván; Vera, Anahí; Mateos, Ana Carolina; Amarillo, Ana Carolina; Carreras, Hebe

    2017-10-01

    Concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the most important environmental parameters to estimate health impacts attributable to air pollution. Despite the fact there are many studies regarding PM2.5 effects on human health, most of them were performed under conditions that do not simulate the natural particles interaction with the organism. In the present paper, we studied the effects of mammals' sub-chronic exposure to PM2.5 on the lower respiratory tract, addressing realistic exposure conditions to normal urban air. Thus, we exposed Wistar rats under controlled settings to the same normal urban air, with and without particles. Next, we analyzed chemical composition of PM2.5 and lungs samples, performed a histologic examination and run the comet assay to assess genotoxic effects. We found a strong agreement between lung tissues and PM2.5 elemental composition suggesting that metals found in lungs came from the particles inhaled. Histological analysis showed a mild to moderate infiltration, with a reduction of alveoli lumen and increment of alveolar macrophages and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) (+) cells in treated animals. We also observed an increase in the number of nuclei with comets, mostly comets type 3, with a high DNA fragmentation as well. These results provide strong evidence that sub-chronic exposure to low particle levels, even below the 24 h WHO standard, can cause injuries in lungs tissues and DNA damage, as well.

  17. Hemato-immunologic impact of subchronic exposure to melamine and/or formaldehyde in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Mohamed, Wafaa A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential hematotoxic and immunotoxic effects of melamine (MA) in the absence and presence of formaldehyde (FA) in mice. Forty adult Swiss mice were equally allocated into four groups and daily treated with water, MA (50 mg/kg), FA (25 mg/kg), and MA + FA respectively via feeding needle for 60 consecutive days. Hematological status was evaluated using erythrogram and leukogram profiling. Innate immune functions were assessed by measuring white blood cells lysozyme and phagocytic activities. Serum immunoglobulin levels were evaluated as indicators of humoral immunity. In addition, histologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of splenic tissues were performed. The results indicated that either MA or FA treatment resulted in significant decreases in RBCs, Hb, MCHC, total WBC, lymphocyte, and basophile levels as well as in WBCs phagocytosis and lysozyme activity. In contrast, MCV, PCV%, and reticulocyte levels were significantly increased in these hosts. The total IgM level was significantly reduced in the MA-only-exposed mice but markedly increased in the FA-only-treated ones. A significant decrease in serum IgG levels was detected following either MA or FA treatment. The combined exposure to MA and FA, compared to levels of either toxicant alone, was revealed to evoke a significant improvement in Hb, PCV%, MCV, MCHC, neutrophil, eosinophil, total IgM level, and lysozyme activity; however these values did not reach that of the controls. Furthermore, compared to control mice, both MA-only- and FA-only-treated mice showed a strong distribution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in their spleens, while a moderate presence of the former cells was obvious at their co-exposure. Taken together, these findings revealed that exposure to MA or FA resulted in significant alterations in hemato-immune parameters at variable degrees while a co-exposure resulted in the mitigation of most effects of either toxicant alone.

  18. The effect of subchronic metribuzin exposure to signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana 1852).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutnik, Dalibor; Stara, Alzbeta; Zuskova, Eliska; Kouba, Antonin; Velisek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine herbicide metribuzin on signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana by determining oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and antioxidant indices (total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase) in hepatopancreas, muscle, and gill as well as assessing their histopathology. Crayfish were exposed to metribuzin concentrations of 0.52 μg x l(-1) (realistic environmental concentration) and 3.06 mg x l(-1) (10% 96hLC50) for 10 and 30 days followed by a 30-day depuration period without exposure to metribuzin. In the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were observed differences in all examined tissues compared to the control group. Differences from control were observed in glutathione reductase activity in hepatopancreas after 10 days for both exposure concentrations and after 30 days at 3.06 mg x l(-1). Histological examination revealed extensive focal autolytic disintegration of tubular epithelium in hepatopancreas of crayfish exposed to metribuzin for 30 days. Chronic exposure of metribuzin resulted in oxidative damage to cell lipids, in changes of antioxidant activity in crayfish tissue, and pathological changes in hepatopancreas. The results suggest that selected oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes, and pathologies of hepatopancreas may have potential as biomarkers for monitoring residual triazine herbicides in the aquatic environment.

  19. Prepubertal subchronic exposure to soy milk and glyphosate leads to endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Jessica; Moras, Patricia Bonamigo; Koeppe, Carina; Dallegrave, Eliane; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Rossato-Grando, Luciana Grazziotin

    2017-02-01

    Lactose intolerance is characterized by low or inexistent levels of lactase, and the main treatment consists of dietary changes, especially replacing dairy milk by soy milk. Soy contains phytoestrogens, substances with known estrogenic activity, besides, glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in soy crops, being frequently a residue in soy beans, bringing to a concern regarding the consumption of soy-based products, especially for children in breastfeeding period with lactose intolerance. This study evaluated the pubertal toxicity of a soy milk rich feeding (supplemented or not with glyphosate, doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg) during prepubertal period in male rats. Endocrine disruption was observed through decrease in testosterone levels, decrease in Sertoli cell number and increase in the percentage of degenerated Sertoli and Leydig cells in animals receiving soy milk supplemented with glyphosate (both doses) and in animals treated only with soy milk. Animals treated with soy milk with glyphosate (both doses) showed decrease spermatids number and increase of epididymal tail mass compared to control, and decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules compared to soy milk control group. Animals receiving soy milk supplemented with 100 mg/kg glyphosate showed decrease in round spermatids and increase in abnormal sperm morphology, compared to control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sub-chronic lung inflammation after airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth K; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Hammer, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess possible health effects of airway exposures to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticides in mice. Endpoints were lung inflammation evaluated by presence of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), clearance of bacteria from the lung...... lumen and histological alterations of the lungs. Hazard identifications of the biopesticides were carried out using intratracheal (i.t.) instillation, followed by an inhalation study. The two commercial biopesticides used were based on the Bt. subspecies kurstaki and israelensis, respectively. Groups...

  1. Association of inflammatory response and oxidative injury in the pathogenesis of liver steatosis and insulin resistance following subchronic exposure to malathion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasram, Mohamed Montassar; Dhouib, Ines Bini; Bouzid, Kahna; Lamine, Aicha Jrad; Annabi, Alya; Belhadjhmida, Nadia; Ahmed, Malika Ben; Fazaa, Saloua El; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Gharbi, Najoua

    2014-09-01

    Insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes are the most important complications following exposure to organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides. Regarding the importance of liver on metabolic pathways regulation, in particular blood glucose homeostasis, we focused on liver inflammation and oxidative damages in a subchronic model of toxicity by malathion. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight 200-250g were used for the study. Malathion (200mg/kg b.w./day) was administered to rats by oral intubation for 28 days. Glycemic and insulin resistance indices, markers of liver injury, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed. Malathion-treated rats showed increased glycemia, insulinemia and glycated hemoglobin level, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices, plasma activities of hepatocellular enzymes, lipid peroxidation index, CD3(+)/CD4(+) and CD3(+)/CD4(+) and pro-inflammatory cytokines when decreased antioxidant status in liver was noted. Most of our study indicates that malathion promotes insulin resistance, inflammation and Hepatosteatosis in subchronic model of exposure. On the basis of biochemical and molecular findings, it is concluded that insulin resistance induced by malathion occurs through oxidative stress and related pro-inflammatory markers in a way to result in a reduced function of insulin in liver cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of subchronic exposure to the rubber vulcanization fumes on guinea pig lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzyński, K; Domańska, A; Czerczak, S; Krysiak, B

    1990-01-01

    The influence of 28 days' inhalatory exposure to rubber vulcanization fumes at a concentration of 100 mg/m3 on guinea pigs' lung morphology was investigated. Focal infiltrations of pulmonary parenchyma with lymphocytes, neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes and macrophages were observed. Lymphatic tissue concentrations having the typical appearance of solitary lymphatic nodules were also seen. The use of the double sequential Alcian blue/safranin O staining method for the identification of the mast cells [MCs] revealed that only Alcian-blue-positive MCs were observed, regardless of the region of the lungs examined, both in control and exposed guinea pigs. No safranin-0-positive MCs were seen. However, the MCs number increased from 1934 +/- 91 cells/mm3 tissue in controls to a statistically significant (p less than 0.05) 2486 +/- 89 cells/mm3 tissue in exposed guinea pig lungs. It was accompanied by histamine content increase from 1.50 +/- 0.06 micrograms/g wet tissue weight and 2.45 +/- 0.18 micrograms/g wet tissue weight, respectively. The distribution of the lung MCs varied, showing a statistically significant (p less than 0.05) increase in their number in the intraalveolar septa: from 957 +/- 53 to 1369 +/- 74 cells/mm3 tissue and in the peribronchial and peribronchiolar spaces: from 204 +/- 36 to 359 +/- 42 cells/mm3 tissue.

  3. [Effect of subchronic realgar exposure on Glu and Gln in infant rat brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bei; Huo, Tao-Guang; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Li, Wei-Kai; Yang, Hui-Lei; Jiang, Hong; Sun, Gui-Fan

    2012-11-01

    To study the effect of realgar on Glu and Gln on rat brain tissues. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups randomly:control group,low dosage group, moderate dosage group and high dosage group. The treatment groups were treated with realgar by gastric perfusion at a dosage of 0.3 g/kg, 0.9 g/kg, 2.7 g/kg and the control group ones were orally given the same volume of 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na) for 6 weeks. The contents of inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in brain tissues were measured by hydride generation-atomic absorption (HG-AAS) method. The contents of amino acid neurotransmitters in brain tissues of rats were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with precolumn derivatization. The levels of MMA and DMA in brain increased as the dosage of realgar increased, while the second methylation index declined. Compared with control group,the levels of Glu was significantly decreased in realgar treated group (P Realgar exposure can cause accumulation of MMA and DMA,declination of second methylation index and the reduction of Glu and Gln in brain tissue.

  4. Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cereal grains are the basis of weaning gruel in Kenya yet they run a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. Children could be at a higher risk of dietary mycotoxin exposure than the rest of the population.. This paper presents information on the association between nutritional state of children and dietary exposure to aflatoxins ...

  5. Comparative toxicity and biodistribution assessments in rats following subchronic oral exposure to copper nanoparticles and microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Je-Hein; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2016-10-28

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) have great potential in electronics and biomedical fields because of their efficient thermodynamic and anti-microbial properties. However, their potential toxic effects and kinetic data following repeated exposure are still unclear. We evaluated the physicochemical properties of Cu NPs (25 nm) and copper microparticles (Cu MPs, 14-25 μm). Comparative in vivo toxicity of Cu NPs and Cu MPs was evaluated by conducting a 28-day repeated oral dose study at equivalent dose levels of 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day (vehicle, 1 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose). We determined Cu levels in the blood, tissues, urine, and feces by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The solubility of Cu NPs and Cu MPs was 84.5 and 17.2 %, respectively, in an acidic milieu; however, they scarcely dissolved in vehicle or intestinal milieus. The specific surface area of Cu NPs and Cu MPs was determined to be 14.7 and 0.16 m(2)/g, respectively. Cu NPs exhibited a dose-dependent increase of Cu content in the blood and tested organs, with particularly high levels of Cu in the liver, kidney, and spleen. Only for liver and kidney increased Cu levels were found in Cu MPs-treated rats. Cu NPs caused a dose-related increase in Cu levels in urine, whereas Cu MPs did not affect the urine Cu levels. Extremely high levels of Cu were detected in the feces of Cu MPs-treated rats, whereas much lower levels were detected in the feces of Cu NPs-treated rats. A comparative in vivo toxicity study showed that Cu NPs caused damages to red blood cells, thymus, spleen, liver, and kidney at ≥200 mg/kg/days, but Cu MPs did not cause any adverse effects even at the highest dose. Overall, the in vivo repeated dose toxicity study of Cu NPs and Cu MPs demonstrated that large surface area and high solubility in physiological milieus could directly influence the toxicological responses and biodistribution of Cu particles when administered orally. Under these experimental

  6. Subchronic inhalation exposure to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol impairs the mouse olfactory bulb via injury and subsequent repair of the nasal olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Mio; Ito, Yuki; Sawada, Masato; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Himiko; Sakamoto, Tatsuo; Sawamoto, Kazunobu; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2016-08-01

    The olfactory system can be a toxicological target of volatile organic compounds present in indoor air. Recently, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) emitted from adhesives and carpeting materials has been postulated to cause "sick building syndrome." Patients' symptoms are associated with an increased sense of smell. This investigation aimed to characterize the histopathological changes of the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the nasal cavity and the olfactory bulb (OB) in the brain, due to subchronic exposure to 2E1H. Male ICR mice were exposed to 0, 20, 60, or 150 ppm 2E1H for 8 h every day for 1 week, or 5 days per week for 1 or 3 months. After a 1-week exposure, the OE showed inflammation and degeneration, with a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the staining of olfactory receptor neurons and in the numbers of globose basal cells at ≥20 ppm. Regeneration occurred at 1 month along with an increase in the basal cells, but lymphocytic infiltration, expanded Bowman's glands, and a decrease in the olfactory receptor neurons were observed at 3 months. Intriguingly, the OB at 3 months showed a reduction in the diameters of the glomeruli and in the number of olfactory nerves and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, but an increased number of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1-positive microglia in glomeruli. Accordingly, 2E1H inhalation induced degeneration of the OE with the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 ppm. The altered number of functional cell components in the OB suggests that effects on olfactory sensation persist after subchronic exposure to 2E1H.

  7. Effects of subchronic exposure via drinking water to a mixture of eight water-contaminating metals: a biochemical and histopathological study in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, S H; Sarkar, S N; Patil, R D; Tripathi, H C

    2007-11-01

    In the current study, we examined whether subchronic exposure via drinking water to low doses of a mixture of metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, manganese, iron, and nickel), found as contaminants in various water sources of India, and to concentrations equivalent to WHO maximum permissible limits (MPL) in drinking water for individual metals, can alter systemic physiology of male rats. Data on water contamination with metals in India were collected from the literature and metals were selected on the basis of their frequency of occurrence and contamination level above MPL. Male Wistar rats were exposed to the mixture at 0, 1, 10, and 100 times the mode concentrations (the most frequently occurring concentration) of the individual metals via drinking water for 90 days. One more group of rats was exposed to the mixture at a concentration equivalent to the MPL (WHO) in drinking water for individual metals. Toxic potential of the mixture was evaluated by assessing general toxicological end points, serum chemistry and histopathology of vital organs. The mixture decreased body weight and water consumption and increased weights of brain, liver, and kidneys with 10x and 100x doses. After 30 days of exposure, no appreciable changes were found in any blood clinical markers. After 60 days, only the 100x dose, while after 90 days both 10x and 100x doses increased activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine and decreased total protein and albumin levels, but alanine aminotransferase activity and glucose level were not affected. At 10x and 100x exposure levels, qualitatively similar, but dose-dependent vascular, degenerative, and necrotic changes were observed in brain, liver, and kidney. The results indicate that subchronic exposure to the metal mixture affected general health of male rats by altering the functional and structural integrity of kidney, liver, and brain at 10 and 100 times the mode

  8. [Development and verification of Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Li, Jing-xin; Sun, Jin-fang; Xue, Jianping; Chen, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong; Yu, Xiao-jin; Wang, Can-nan; Yuan, Bao-jun; Ma, Yong-jian; Tian, Zi-hua

    2010-03-01

    To develop the dietary exposure evaluation model software accredited of Chinese intellectual property rights and to verify the rationality and accuracy of the results from the probabilistic model in Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model software according to international standards. The software of SAS was used to build various evaluation model based on the data from Chinese dietary survey and the chemical compound in food surveillance and to design an operation interface. The results from probabilistic dietary exposure model for children 2 - 7 years old were compared with that from duplicate portion study of 2-7 years children dietary exposure in Jinhu, Jiangsu province in order to analyze the rationality of model. The results from probabilistic model of dietary exposure were compared with the results from @Risk software to verify the correction of the probabilistic model by using the same data of randomly selected 10 000 study subjects from national dietary survey. While, the mean drift was used as an internal index to illustrate the accuracy of the computation. Chinese dietary exposure evaluation software was developed successfully. On the rationality, the results from probabilistic model were lower than that from the point estimation (e.g., cucumber: the result of point estimation of acephate was 4.78 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of probabilistic model which was 0.39 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). Meanwhile the results from probabilistic model were higher than the results of duplicate portion study (on the P95, the result of probabilistic model of Pb exposure in children was 11.08 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 5.75 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). On accuracy, the results from @Risk and the probabilistic model were highly consistent (on the P95, the result of probabilistic assessment of acephate diet exposure was 4.27 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 4.24 microg x kg(-1

  9. Blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) extract ameliorates ovarian damage induced by subchronic cadmium exposure in mice: Potential δ-ALA-D involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirry, Aryele Pinto; Soares, Melina Bucco; Vargas, Laura Musacchio; Spiazzi, Cristiano Chiapinotto; Dos Santos Brum, Daniela; Noremberg, Simone; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Santos, Francielli Weber

    2017-01-01

    Females are born with a finite number of oocyte-containing follicles and ovary damage results in reduced fertility. Cadmium accumulates in the reproductive system, damaging it, and the cigarette smoke is a potential exposure route. Natural therapies are relevant to health benefits and disease prevention. This study verified the effect of cadmium exposure on the ovaries of mice and the blueberry extract as a potential therapy. Blueberry therapy was effective in restoring reactive species levels and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity, and partially improved the viability of cadmium-disrupted follicles. This therapy was not able to restore the 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Extract HPLC evaluation indicated the presence of quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercetin, and ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid was the major substance and its concentration was 620.24 µg/mL. Thus, cadmium accumulates in the ovaries of mice after subchronic exposure, inducing cellular damage, and the blueberry extract possesses antioxidant properties that could protect, at least in part, the ovarian tissue from cadmium toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 188-196, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Differential deposition of manganese in the rat brain following subchronic exposure to manganese: a T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Yoram; Zhang, Na; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Avison, Malcolm J; Gore, John C; Aschner, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Manganism is a central nervous system disorder caused by toxic exposure to manganese. Manganism has been related to occupational exposures, liver diseases, prolonged parenteral nutrition, and abuse of illicit drugs. Initially manifested by a reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome (locura manganica), the main symptoms and signs of manganism are emotional lability, compulsive behavior and visual hallucinations. Locura manganica is followed by an irreversible extrapyramidal syndrome, the onset of which occurs years after chronic exposure. To characterize the regional distribution of Mn in the rat brain after subchronic exposure to Mn. This animal model holds special clinical relevance, reflecting the earlier clinical stages of manganism before chronic exposure to Mn exerts its irreversible effects. Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with MnCl2 weekly, for a total of 14 weeks - approximately 1/10 of the lifetime of the rat. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to detect the distribution of Mn deposition in brain tissues, as evidenced by areas of T1-weighted hyperintense signals. A consistent region-specific pattern of T1-weighted hyperintensities was observed in the brains of Mn-treated rats. Cortical hyperintensities were prominent in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. Hyperintensities were also observed in the olfactory bulbs, pituitary gland, optic nerves and chiasma, pons, midbrain tegmentum, habenula, lentiform and caudate nuclei, thalamus, chorioid plexus and cerebellar hemispheres. Prominent Mn depositions, evidenced by T1-weighted hyperintensities in the hippocampus after subacute exposure to Mn, are compatible with the clinical picture of manganism during its early stages, and may explain its pathophysiology.

  11. Recovery by N-acetylcysteine from subchronic exposure to Imidacloprid-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis tissues injury in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Alya; Dhouib, Ines Bini; Lamine, Aicha Jrad; El Golli, Nargès; Gharbi, Najoua; El Fazâa, Saloua; Lasram, Mohamed Montassar

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid is the most important example of the neonicotinoid insecticides known to target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in insects, and potentially in mammals. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has been shown to possess curative effects in experimental and clinical investigations. The present study was designed to evaluate the recovery effect of NAC against Imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress and cholinergic transmission alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of male rats following subchronic exposure. About 40 mg/kg of Imidacloprid was administered daily by intragastric intubation and 28 days later, the rats were sacrificed and HPA axis tissues were removed for different analyses. Imidacloprid increased adrenal relative weight and cholesterol level indicating an adaptive stage of the general alarm reaction to stress. Moreover, Imidacloprid caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, the antioxidants catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase showed various alterations following administration and significant depleted thiols content was only recorded in hypothalamic tissue. Furthermore, the hypothalamic and pituitary acetylcholinesterase activity and calcium level were significantly increased highlighting the alteration of cholinergic activity. The present findings revealed that HPA axis is a sensitive target to Imidacloprid (IMI). Interestingly, the use of NAC for only 7 days post-exposure to IMI showed a partial therapeutic effect against Imidacloprid toxicity.

  12. Effect of subchronic in vivo exposure to nitrogen dioxide on lung tissue inflammation, airway microvascular leakage, and in vitro bronchial muscle responsiveness in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitano, P; Rado, V; Di Stefano, A; Papi, A; Boniotti, A; Zancuoghi, G; Boschetto, P; Romano, M; Salmona, M; Ciaccia, A; Fabbri, L M; Mapp, C E

    1996-06-01

    In a previous study on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rats exposed in vivo for seven days to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), it has been shown that there is an influx of macrophages into the airways. The present study investigated the effect of seven day exposure to 10 ppm NO2, on: (a) lung tissue inflammation and morphology; (b) airway microvascular leakage; (c) in vitro contractile response of main bronchi. Lung tissue was studied by light microscopy, after fixing the lungs by inflation with 4% formalin at a pressure of 20 cm H2O. Microvascular leakage was measured by extravasation of Evans blue dye in the larynx, trachea, main bronchi, and intrapulmonary airways. Smooth muscle responsiveness was evaluated by concentration-responses curves to acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-3) M), serotonin (10(-9)-10(-4) M), and voltage-response curves (12-28 V) to electrical field stimulation. Histology showed an increased total inflammation at the level of respiratory bronchioles and alveoli. No influx of inflammatory cells was found in the main bronchi. A loss of cilia in the epithelium of small airways and ectasia of alveolar capillaries was also found. By contrast, no alterations to microvascular permeability or modification of bronchial smooth muscle responsiveness was found. Subchronic exposure to 10 ppm NO2 causes airway inflammation and structural damage, but does not cause any persistent alteration to microvascular permeability or bronchial smooth muscle responsiveness in rats.

  13. Exposure to sub-chronic unpredictable stress accounts for antidepressant-like effects in hamsters treated with BDNF and CNQX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Mele, Maria; Fazzari, Gilda; Avolio, Ennio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidences indicate that cerebral neurotrophic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor plus signaling pathways of the glutamatergic neuroreceptor system (L-Glu) are determinant modulators of depression-like states. In the present study, the type of interaction(s) exerted by the AMPAergic antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalin-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on depression-like behaviors in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were investigated. Sub-chronic administration of BDNF in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of stressed hamsters was responsible for very evident (phamsters treated with BDNF. Similarly, this treatment caused moderate increases of the major stress protein (Hsp70) in DG and Or-Py. Conversely, while CNQX induced similar TrkB expression levels, it instead accounted for a moderate reduction of Hsp70 mRNAs in the same brain areas. Overall these results support crucial roles played by BDNF and AMPAergic neurosignaling mechanisms during distinct adaptive responses of depression- and anxiety-like states in hamsters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sub-chronic exposure to fipronil induced oxidative stress, biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidney of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fipronil (FPN is a broad-spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide and has been used in agriculture and public health since the mid-1990s. The present study was designed to investigate the adverse effects of sub-chronic exposure to the FPN on the liver and kidney of male rats at three concentrations 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L in drinking water for 45 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferases (AST, alanine aminotransferases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity and levels of uric acid, creatinine and total protein were significantly increased in FPN-treated rats. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione reduced (GSH were significantly decreased, while lipid peroxidation (LPO was significantly increased in treating rats in a concentration dependent manner. FPN caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidney of male rats. From our results, it can be concluded that FPN induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, liver, and kidney injury in rats. These pathophysiological changes in liver and kidney tissues could be due to the toxic effect of FPN that associated with a generation of free radicals.

  15. Effects of subchronic exposure to waterborne cadmium on H-P-I axis hormones and related genes in rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Li; Huang, Jing; Pu, De-Yong; Wang, De-Shou; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2017-11-01

    The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis is critical in the stress response and other activities of fish. To further investigate cadmium (Cd) toxicity on the H-P-I axis and to identify its potential regulatory genes in fish, the adult female rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to subchronic (5weeks) levels of waterborne Cd in the present study. This kind of treatment caused dose-dependent decline in fish growth, with significance in the high dose group (100μg/L). Correspondingly, low dose (5-50μg/L) waterborne Cd disrupted the endocrine system of H-P-I axis just at the secretion level, while high dose Cd disrupted both the secretion and synthesis of cortisol and its downstream signals in rare minnows, revealed by the significantly upregulation and positive correlation of corticosteroidogenic genes including MC2R, StAR, CYP11A1, and CYP11B1 in the kidney (including the interrenal tissue) (PPP-I axis in fish. The expression of FKBP5 in the intestine was positively and significantly correlated with that of Hsp90AA (PP<0.05), which indicated that Hsp90AA and Hsp90AB were more likely to serve as cofactors of GR and FKBP5 in response to Cd exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low level and sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury induces hypertension in rats: nitric oxide depletion and oxidative damage as possible mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotto, Denise; Barcelos, Gustavo R.M.; Barbosa, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Castro, Michele M. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Solange C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Increased risk of hypertension after methylmercury (MeHg) exposure has been suggested. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well explored. In this paper, we have analyzed whether sub-chronic exposure to MeHg increases systolic blood pressure even at very low levels. In addition, we analyzed if the methylmercury-induced hypertension is associated with a decreased plasmatic nitric oxide levels and with a dysregulation of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of MDA and glutathione. For this study, Wistar rats were treated with methylmercury chloride (100 {mu}g/kg per day) or vehicle. Total treatment time was 100 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and circulating NOx levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in plasma, whereas glutathione levels were determined in erythrocytes. Our results show that long-term treatment at a low level of MeHg affected systolic blood pressure, increasing and reducing the levels of plasmatic MDA and NOx, respectively. However, the activity of SOD did not decrease in the MeHg exposed group when compared to the control. We found a negative correlation between plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and systolic blood pressure (r=-0.67; P=0.001), and a positive correlation between MDA and systolic blood pressure (r=0.61; P=0.03), thus suggesting increased inhibition of NO formation with the increase of hypertension. In conclusion, long-term exposure to a low dose of MeHg increases the systolic pressure and is associated, at least in part, with increased production of ROS as judged by increased production of malondialdehyde and depressed NO availability. (orig.)

  17. Effect of Chronic Dietary Copper Exposure on Haematology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    significant reduction in haematocrit, red blood cell, white blood cell and increased lymphocyte (p<0.05) and became anaemic with severe skin discoloration, .... digital camera (Kodak V530 zoom digital).Tissue copper was also determined by .... effects of dietary copper exposure on osmotic balance affected and influenced.

  18. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  19. Chronic dietary aflatoxins exposure in Kenya and emerging public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic dietary aflatoxins exposure in Kenya and emerging public health concerns of impaired growth and immune suppression in children. ... Aflatoxins have been detected mainly in the staple foods such as cereals and legumes commodities, which form the main gruel ingredients used to compose weaning foods in most ...

  20. Dietary exposure to lead of adults in Shenzhen city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liubo; Wang, Zhou; Peng, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Jiang, Jie; Pathiraja, Nimal; Xiao, Ying; Jiao, Rui; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, can be found in the environment and food. The present study is the first to estimate the lead dietary exposure of Shenzhen adults (≥ 20 years old) in various age-gender subgroups, and to assess the associated health risk. Food samples that represented the Shenzhen people's dietary pattern were collected and prepared for analysis. Lead was determined in 13 food groups using 276 individual cooked samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the local food consumption data of Shenzhen adults. The mean and 95th percentile lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 0.59-0.73 and 0.75-0.94 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. In all food groups, the highest lead exposure was from 'Eggs and their products' (42.4-51.6% of the total exposure); preserved eggs being the main contributor. The other major contributors to lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 'Fish and seafood, and their products' (14.3-16.7% of the total exposure) and 'Vegetables and their products' (15.5-16.2% of the total exposure). The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for the risk assessment of lead, and the results showed that the risk was considered to be low in all age-gender groups for Shenzhen adults. However, having considered a number of toxic effects of lead, it is suggested that more efforts should be made to reduce the lead levels in foodstuff for Shenzhen adults.

  1. Aluminum Exposure at Human Dietary Levels for 60 Days Reaches a Threshold Sufficient to Promote Memory Impairment in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Caroline S; Alterman, Caroline D C; Peçanha, Franck M; Vassallo, Dalton V; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Miguel, Marta; Wiggers, Giulia A

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a significant environmental contaminant. While a good deal of research has been conducted on the acute neurotoxic effects of Al, little is known about the effects of longer-term exposure at human dietary Al levels. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 60-day Al exposure at low doses for comparison with a model of exposure known to produce neurotoxicity in rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two major groups: (1) low aluminum levels, and (2) a high aluminum level. Group 1 rats were treated orally by drinking water for 60 days as follows: (a) control-received ultrapure drinking water; (b) aluminum at 1.5 mg/kg b.w., and (c) aluminum at 8.3 mg/kg b.w. Group 2 rats were treated through oral gavages for 42 days as follows: (a) control-received ultrapure water; (b) aluminum at 100 mg/kg b.w. We analyzed cognitive parameters, biomarkers of oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Al treatment even at low doses promoted recognition memory impairment seen in object recognition memory testing. Moreover, Al increased hippocampal reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, reduced antioxidant capacity, and decreased AChE activity. Our data demonstrate that 60-day subchronic exposure to low doses of Al from feed and added to the water, which reflect human dietary Al intake, reaches a threshold sufficient to promote memory impairment and neurotoxicity. The elevation of oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction highlight pathways of toxic actions for this metal.

  2. Inhalation toxicology of diesel fuel obscurant aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Final report, Phase 3, subchronic exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, S.; Dalbey, W.; Schmoyer, R.; Griesemer, R.

    1984-12-01

    Inhalation exposures were performed twice per week, for 13 weeks, to determine whether there was any potential toxicity to rats of comparatively low concentrations of a condensation aerosol from diesel fuel. Changes in breathing frequency and the response of animals to a loud sharp sound (startle response) were measured in selected animals prior to the start of the exposures, at various time points during the thirteen week exposure period, and at monthly intervals during the recovery period. Assays were performed on selected animals at the end of the exposure period, and again after the two month recovery period. Endpoints included pulmonary function tests, numbers of alveolar free cells, clinical chemistry, hematology, organ weights and histopathology. No mortalities were recorded during the exposure or recovery periods. Slight toxicity occurred at these low aerosol concentrations with the loss in body weight of all treated animals during the exposure period. During the exposure period there were also some slight changes in startle reflex, however, these were apparently acute effects, and there appeared to be no permanent CNS involvement as measured by this endpoint. Immediately post-exposure, the numbers of lavaged alveolar macrophages were slightly elevated in all aerosol exposed animals. Pulmonary function tests, pulmonary gas exchange and dynamic lung tests were all apparently unaffected by these low diesel fuel aerosol exposures. Changes in tissue weights in aerosol exposed animals were minor and the few histopathological lesions were randomly scattered amongst all groups included in this study and were more attributable to the age of the animals than any specific treatment group. No significant cumulative toxicity may be attributed to these diesel fuel aerosol exposures. 14 references, 1 figure, 42 tables.

  3. Effects of subchronic benzo(a)pyrene exposure on neurotransmitter receptor gene expression in the rat hippocampus related with spatial learning and memory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chongying; Cheng, Shuqun; Xia, Yinyin; Peng, Bin; Tang, Qian; Tu, Baijie

    2011-11-18

    Exposure of laboratory rats to Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental contaminant with its high lipophilicify which is widely dispersed in the environment and can easily cross the blood brain barrier presenting in the central nervous system, is associated with impaired learning and memory. The purpose of the research was to examine whether subchronic exposure to BaP affects spatial learning and memory, and how it alters normal gene expression in hippocampus, as well as selection of candidate genes involving neurotransmitter receptor attributed to learning and memory. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate behavioral differences between BaP-treated and vehicle-treated groups. To gain a better insight into the mechanism of BaP-induced neurotoxicity on learning and memory, we used whole genome oligo microarrays as well as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to assess the global impact of gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 6.25mg/kg of BaP or vehicle for 14 weeks. The results from the Morris water maze (MWM) test showed that rats treated with BaP exhibited significantly higher mean latencies as compared to vehicle controls. BaP exposure significantly decreased the number of crossing the platform and the time spent in the target area. After the hippocampus was collected from each rat, total RNA was isolated. Microarray and PCR revealed that exposure to BaP affected mRNA expression of neurotransmitter receptors. The web tool DAVID was used to analyze the significantly enriched gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways in the differentially expressed genes. Analysis showed that the most significantly affected gene ontology category was behavior. Furthermore, the fourth highest significantly affected gene ontology category was learning and memory. KEGG molecular pathway analysis showed that "neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction" was affected by BaP with highest statistical significance, and 9 candidate neurotransmitter receptor

  4. Changes in regional brain GFAP levels and behavioral functioning following subchronic lead acetate exposure in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, K.J. van den; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; Kulig, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Adult male WAG/Rij/MBL rats were dosed with lead acetate at 0, 4.0, 8.0 or 12.5 mg/kg, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Animals were assessed prior to exposure, at the end of the 4-week exposure period and after a 2-week recovery period using a functional observational battery (FOB) and motor activity

  5. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...

  6. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2016-01-01

    due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach.This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological......Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease...... makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric.We applied an exposure...

  7. Toxicity assessment due to sub-chronic exposure to individual and mixtures of four toxic heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Chen, Yao [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wu, Xueshan; Zhao, Ting [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Zhen [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Li, Qian [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Xiangyang, E-mail: wuxy@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Yang, Liuqing, E-mail: yangliuqing@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Low dose single and mixtures of toxic metals had adverse effect on mice. • Metal mixtures exhibited higher toxicities compared to individual metals. • Mixtures of low dose Pb + Hg + Cd induced neuronal degeneration in brain of mice. • Exposure to Pb + Hg + As + Cd showed renal tubular necrosis in kidney. - Abstract: Humans are exposed to a cocktail of heavy metal toxicants in the environment. Though heavy metals are deleterious, there is a paucity of information on toxicity of low dose mixtures. In this study, lead (Pb) (0.01 mg/L), mercury (Hg) (0.001 mg/L), cadmium (Cd) (0.005 mg/L) and arsenic (As) (0.01 mg/L) were administered individually and as mixtures to 10 groups of 40 three-week old mice (20 males and 20 females), for 120 days. The study established that low dose exposures induced toxicity to the brain, liver, and kidney of mice. Metal mixtures showed higher toxicities compared to individual metals, as exposure to low dose Pb + Hg + Cd reduced brain weight and induced structural lesions, such as neuronal degeneration in 30-days. Pb + Hg + Cd and Pb + Hg + As + Cd exposure induced hepatocellular injury to mice evidenced by decreased antioxidant activities with marginal increases in MDA. These were accentuated by increases in ALT, AST and ALP. Interactions in metal mixtures were basically synergistic in nature and exposure to Pb + Hg + As + Cd induced renal tubular necrosis in kidneys of mice. This study underlines the importance of elucidating the toxicity of low dose metal mixtures so as to protect public health.

  8. Effects of sub-chronic Cd exposure on levels of copper, selenium, zinc, iron and other essential metals in rat renal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Prozialeck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cd (Cd is a nephrotoxic environmental pollutant that causes generalized proximal tubule dysfunction. Even though the specific mechanisms by which Cd damages the kidney have yet to be fully elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that some of these nephrotoxic effects may result from the ability of Cd to alter the levels and function of metals such as Cu, Se, Zn and Fe within the kidney. In order to further explore this issue, we examined the effects of subchronic Cd exposure on tissue levels of a panel of metals (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Se and Zn in the rat renal cortex. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with CdCl2 (0.6 mg Cd/kg body weight in isotonic saline by subcutaneous injection, 5 days per week for 6, 9 or 12 weeks. At each time point, 24 h urine samples were collected and assayed for levels of protein, creatinine, β2 microglobulin and cystatin C. Samples of renal cortex were removed and assayed for levels of the metals of interest by inductively-coupled mass spectrometry at Michigan State University. Results showed that at 9 and 12 weeks, Cd caused significant increases in urine volume and urinary protein with no change in creatinine excretion. Increases in the excretion of the urinary biomarkers β2 microglobulin and cystatin C were evident after 6 weeks of Cd exposure. Results of the metal analyses showed that Cd caused significant increases in tissue levels of Cu and Se at all of the time points examined. Tissue levels of Zn were transiently elevated at 6 weeks but declined to control levels at 9 and 12 weeks. Cd caused a significant decrease in levels of Fe at 9 and 12 weeks. Cd had no effects on any of the other metals. Tissue levels of Cd were 530 ± 52, 863 ± 23, 837 ± 23 ppm dry weight at 6, 9 and 12 weeks, respectively. These results indicate that the early stages of Cd nephrotoxicity are associated with alterations in renal tissue levels of Cu, Se, Zn and Fe. The fact that the changes in levels of the

  9. [Exposure risk assessment of plasticizer in dietary food in Xiamen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qunying; Yang, Yue; Su, Yanhua; Lyu, Chanwen; Wang, Sumei; Yu, Huan; Qin, Mengting; Li, Yanni; Zhao, Benhua

    2014-07-01

    To understand the dietary consumption of residents in Xiamen and the content of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in food, and to assess the plasticizer exposure risk of diet in Xiamen. The survey was conducted by stratified cluster random sampling method in Xiamen from September to October in 2010. According to the Xiamen administrative division, six neighborhood communities were selected as sampling units, then 25 families were randomly chosen from each sampling units.From the above 150 families, the permanent residents over the age of six were permitted to our study. The survey included 495 residents totally. These participants' information, such as basic personal information, physical activity levels, meal frequency and the average consumption of 33 kinds of food in 13 categories were collected using questionnaires. Thirteen categories included cereal and tubers, beans, vegetables, fungi and algae, fruits, dairy products, meat, seafood, eggs, snacks, beverages, cooking oil and spices. The height and weight of residents were measured and the average daily dietary intake was calculated. Thirty-three kinds of food in 13 categories were collected in supermarkets in Xiamen. According to the annual sales ranking, the top three-five brands of each kinds of food were selected and numbered, then two or three brands were chosen by random number table method from them; three completely individual packed samples in the same batch of each brand were detected; 243 samples were included in our study.100-500 g solid samples or 100-500 ml liquid samples were collected. The content of diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in food were detected by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, which expressed by median (minimum-maximum). The exposure dose, contribution rate and risk index of PAEs were calculated by point estimation method. According to the average daily dietary intake of residents in Xiamen, the top three ones in 13 categories

  10. Assessment of dietary exposure of nitrate and nitrite in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, C; Heraud, F; Volatier, J-L; Leblanc, J-C

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary exposure of nitrate and nitrite in France. A total of 13, 657 concentration levels of nitrate and nitrite measured in food, representing 138 and 109 food items, respectively, and coming from French monitoring programmes between 2000 and 2006, were used. Depending on the non-detected and non-quantified analysis treatment, lower and upper concentration mean estimates were calculated for each food item. These were combined with consumption data derived from 1474 adults and 1018 children from the French national individual consumption survey (INCA1), conducted in 1999 and based on a 7-day food record diary. A total of 18% of spinaches, 6% of salads, 10% of cheeses, 8% of meat products and 6% of industrial meat products exceeded the European nitrate maximum level or maximum residual level. A total of 0.4% of industrial meat products and 0.2% of meat products exceeded their European nitrite maximum level or maximum residual level. Nitrate dietary exposure averaged 40% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) for adults and 51 - 54% of the ADI for children with the major contributors being, for adults and children, respectively, vegetables (24 and 27% of ADI), potatoes (5 and 11% of ADI), and water (5 and 5% of ADI). The individual nitrate dietary intake of 1.4% (confidence interval (CI(95th)) [0.8; 2.0]) to 1.5% (CI(95th) [0.9; 2.1]) of adults and 7.9% (CI(95th) [6.2; 9.6]) to 8.4% (CI(95th) [6.7; 10.1]) of children were higher than the ADI. Nitrite dietary exposure averaged 33-67% of the ADI (0.06 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) for adults and 67-133% of the ADI for children, with contributions of additive food vectors at 33% of ADI for adults and 50-67% of ADI for children. The individual nitrite dietary intake of 0.7% (CI(95th) [0.3; 1.1]) to 16.4% (CI(95th) [14.5; 18.3]) of adults and 10.5% (CI(95th) [8.6; 12.4]) to 66.2% (CI(95th) [63.3; 69.1]) of children were higher than the ADI.

  11. Alteration of carbohydrates metabolism and midgut glucose absorption in Gromphadorhina portentosa after subchronic exposure to imidacloprid and fenitrothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczyn, Tomasz; Dolezych, Bogdan; Klosok, Marcin; Augustyniak, Maria; Stygar, Dominika; Buldak, Rafal J; Kukla, Michal; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Karcz-Socha, Iwona; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that following exposure to insecticides, changes take place in the metabolism of carbohydrates and absorption in the midgut of insects. The Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) was chosen for the experiment as a model organism, due to it being easy to breed and its relatively large alimentary tract, which was important when preparing the microperfusion midgut bioassay. In each group of cockroaches treated with imidacloprid and fenitrothion, absorption of glucose, expressed as the area under the curve (AUC), was elevated compared to the control group. Glucose in the hemolymph of the examined insects was present in a vestigial amount, often below the threshold of determination, so the determinable carbohydrate indices were: hemolymph trehalose concentration and fat body glycogen content. The level of trehalose found in the hemolymph of insects when exposed to fenitrothion, and irrespective of the level of concentration mixed into food, were significantly lower when comparing to the control samples. Imidacloprid acted analogically with one exception at the concentration of 10 mg·kg(-1) dry food where trehalose concentration did not differ from the control values. Coupling with fat body glycogen concentration was less visible and appeared only at the concentrations of 5 and 10 mg imidacloprid·kg(-1) dry food. As described in this study changes in the sugar distribution and midgut glucose absorption indicate that insects cover the increased energy needs induced by insecticides; also at the gastrointestinal tract level. The result indicates that the midgut glucose absorption parameters could be considered as a non-specific biomarker of insecticide toxicity.

  12. Investigation of the effects of subchronic low dose oral exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) on estrogen receptor expression in the juvenile and adult female rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Delclos, K Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-07-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the long-term impacts of early life exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) on brain organization. Because BPA has been reported to affect estrogen signaling, and steroid hormones play a critical role in brain sexual differentiation, there is also concern that BPA exposure could alter neural sex differences. Here, we examine the impact of subchronic exposure from gestation to adulthood to oral doses of BPA below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day on estrogen receptor (ESR) expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions of prepubertal and adult female rats. The dams were gavaged daily with vehicle (0.3% carboxymethylcellulose), 2.5, 25, 260, or 2700 μg BPA/kg bw/day, or 0.5 or 5.0 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg bw/day from gestational day 6 until labor began. Offspring were then gavaged directly from the day after birth until the day before scheduled sacrifice on postnatal days 21 or 90. Using in situ hybridization, one or more BPA doses produced significant decreases in Esr1 expression in the juvenile female rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus and significant decreases in Esr2 expression in the adult female rat AVPV and medial preoptic area (MPOA), relative to vehicle controls. BPA did not simply reproduce EE effects, indicating that BPA is not acting solely as an estrogen mimic. The possible consequences of long-term changes in hypothalamic ESR expression resulting from subchronic low dose BPA exposure on neuroendocrine effects are discussed and being addressed in ongoing, related work. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Toxicological Sciences 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Sub-chronic exposure to the insecticide dimethoate induces a proinflammatory status and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to bacterial lypopolysaccharide in the hippocampus and striatum of male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astiz, Mariana, E-mail: marianaastiz@gmail.com; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda, E-mail: ydiz@cajal.csic.es; Garcia-Segura, Luis M., E-mail: lmgs@cajal.csic.es

    2013-10-15

    Dimethoate is an organophosphorus insecticide extensively used in horticulture. Previous studies have shown that the administration of dimethoate to male rats, at a very low dose and during a sub-chronic period, increases the oxidation of lipids and proteins, reduces the levels of antioxidants and impairs mitochondrial function in various brain regions. In this study, we have assessed in C57Bl/6 adult male mice, whether sub-chronic (5 weeks) intoxication with a low dose of dimethoate (1.4 mg/kg) affects the expression of inflammatory molecules and the reactivity of microglia in the hippocampus and striatum under basal conditions and after an immune challenge caused by the systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide. Dimethoate increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL) 6 in the hippocampus, and increased the proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype in dentate gyrus and striatum. Lipopolysaccharide caused a significant increase in the mRNA levels of IL1β, TNFα, IL6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, and a significant increase in the proportion of microglia with reactive phenotype in the hippocampus and the striatum. Some of the effects of lipopolysaccharide (proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype and IL6 mRNA levels) were amplified in the animals treated with dimethoate, but only in the striatum. These findings indicate that a sub-chronic period of administration of a low dose of dimethoate, comparable to the levels of the pesticide present as residues in food, causes a proinflammatory status in the brain and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to the lipopolysaccharide challenge with regional specificity. - Highlights: • The dose of pesticide used was comparable to the levels of residues found in food. • Dimethoate administration increased cytokine expression and microglia reactivity. • Hippocampus and striatum were differentially affected by the treatment.

  14. The lung inflammation and skeletal muscle wasting induced by subchronic cigarette smoke exposure are not altered by a high-fat diet in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Hansen

    Full Text Available Obesity and cigarette smoking independently constitute major preventable causes of morbidity and mortality and obesity is known to worsen lung inflammation in asthma. Paradoxically, higher body mass index (BMI is associated with reduced mortality in smoking induced COPD whereas low BMI increases mortality risk. To date, no study has investigated the effect of a dietary-induced obesity and cigarette smoke exposure on the lung inflammation and loss of skeletal muscle mass in mice. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to 4 cigarettes/day, 6 days/week for 7 weeks, or sham handled. Mice consumed either standard laboratory chow (3.5 kcal/g, 12% fat or a high fat diet (HFD, 4.3 kcal/g, 32% fat. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 7 weeks had significantly more inflammatory cells in the BALF (P<0.05 and the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was significantly increased (P<0.05; HFD had no effect on these parameters. Sham- and smoke-exposed mice consuming the HFD were significantly heavier than chow fed animals (12 and 13%, respectively; P<0.05. Conversely, chow and HFD fed mice exposed to cigarette smoke weighed 16 and 15% less, respectively, compared to sham animals (P<0.05. The skeletal muscles (soleus, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius of cigarette smoke-exposed mice weighed significantly less than sham-exposed mice (P<0.05 and the HFD had no protective effect. For the first time we report that cigarette smoke exposure significantly decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 mRNA expression in the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior and IGF-1 protein in the gastrocnemius (P<0.05. We have also shown that cigarette smoke exposure reduced circulating IGF-1 levels. IL-6 mRNA expression was significantly elevated in all three skeletal muscles of chow fed smoke-exposed mice (P<0.05. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a down-regulation in local IGF-1 may be responsible for the loss of skeletal muscle mass following cigarette

  15. Effect on tissue vitamin A levels in the rat following subchronic exposure to four individual PCB congeners (IUPAC 77, 118, 126, and 153).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, H; Manzoor, E; Trossvik, C; Ahlborg, U G; Chu, I; Villenueve, D

    1994-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect on tissue vitamin A levels in rats exposed to 3,3',4,4'-tetraCB (CB-77), 2,3',4,4',5-pentaCB (CB-118), 3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB (CB-126), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB (CB-153). The obtained results show that hepatic vitamin A levels are reduced both in male and female rats following dietary exposure to individual PCB congeners for 13 weeks. However, there are pronounced potency differences between congeners. Compared to TCDD, the hepatic vitamin A reducing potencies of CB-126, CB-77 and CB-153, are 0.05, 0.0001 and 0.00001, respectively, in male rats. Compared to male rats, female rats are equally sensitive to hepatic vitamin A reduction both by TCDD and dioxinlike CBs. Effects on renal and pulmonary vitamin A levels vary between CBs and between sexes.

  16. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  17. A Chain Modeling Approach To Estimate the Impact of Soil Cadmium Pollution on Human Dietary Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franz, Eelco; Romkens, Paul; van Raamsdonk, Leo; van der Fels-Klerx, Ine

    2008-01-01

    .... The extent of accumulation depends strongly on soil type and the degree of pollution. The objective of the present study was to develop a predictive model to estimate human dietary cadmium exposure from soil characteristics...

  18. A dietary-wide association study (DWAS of environmental metal exposure in US children and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Davis

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to toxic metals occurs through diet but few studies have comprehensively examined dietary sources of exposure in US populations.Our goal was to perform a novel dietary-wide association study (DWAS to identify specific dietary sources of lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic exposure in US children and adults.We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the US Department of Agriculture's Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Database to examine associations between 49 different foods and environmental metal exposure. Using blood and urinary biomarkers for lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, we compared sources of dietary exposure among children to that of adults.Diet accounted for more of the variation in mercury and arsenic than lead and cadmium. For instance we estimate 4.5% of the variation of mercury among children and 10.5% among adults is explained by diet. We identified a previously unrecognized association between rice consumption and mercury in a US study population--adjusted for other dietary sources such as seafood, an increase of 10 g/day of rice consumption was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 3.6, 5.2 increase in blood mercury concentration. Associations between diet and metal exposure were similar among children and adults, and we recapitulated other known dietary sources of exposure.Utilizing this combination of data sources, this approach has the potential to identify and monitor dietary sources of metal exposure in the US population.

  19. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  20. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg, fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg, shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg. The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake. But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  1. Clenbuterol Residues in Plasma and Urine Samples of Food-Producing Pigs During and After Subchronic Exposure to a Growth-Promoting Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomira Gojmerac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the suitability of plasma and urine as matrices for clenbuterol residue determination during and after its subchronic administration at a growth-promoting dose to male pigs, using previously validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA as a screening method and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS as a confirmation method. A high correlation coefficient between these analytical methods was obtained for both urine (R=0.9800 and plasma (R=0.9970 concentrations. Study results show the plasma and urine concentration to vary greatly during oral treatment with clenbuterol for 28 days. The peak urine concentration ((88.54±50.54 ng/mL recorded on day 21 was 40-fold peak plasma concentration ((2.25±1.54 ng/mL. After withdrawal period, the peak urine clenbuterol concentration ((42.93±10.52 ng/mL recorded on day 0 was 24-fold plasma concentration ((1.79±0.97 ng/mL. The maximum allowed concentration of 0.5 ng/g in the liver as a regulated matrix for control of clenbuterol abuse was achieved in plasma on day 3 ((0.52±0.26 ng/mL and in urine on day 7 of treatment withdrawal ((0.45±0.11 ng/mL. Study results indicate that urine and plasma may be suitable matrices for the control of clenbuterol abuse during fattening of food-producing pigs but have a limited value because of the rapidly decreasing concentration upon treatment withdrawal, in plasma in particular.

  2. Dietary exposure to aluminium of urban residents from cities in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Wang, Jing; Li, Min; Liang, Xuxia; Dai, Guangwei; Hu, Zhikun; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qiong; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-01-01

    A dietary survey was conducted over three consecutive days by using 24-hour dietary recall in the Pearl River Delta of South China to investigate the dietary consumption status. A total of 1702 food samples, 22 food groups, were collected, and aluminium concentrations of foods were determined by using ICP-MS. Weekly dietary exposure to aluminium of the average urban residents of South China was estimated to be 1.5 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 76% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Wheat-made products (53.5%) contributed most to the dietary exposure, followed by vegetables (12.2%). The high-level consumers' weekly exposure to aluminium was 11.1 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 407% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. The results indicated that the general urban residents in South China might be safe from aluminium exposure, but the high-level consumers might be at some risk of aluminium exposure. The foods contributing to aluminium exposure were processed food with aluminium-containing food additives. It is necessary to take effective measures to control the overuse of aluminium-containing food additives.

  3. Human dietary exposure to uranium in catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellés, Montserrat; Linares, Victoria; Perelló, Gemma; Domingo, José L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the daily dietary intake of uranium (U) by the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Uranium concentrations were measured in foods widely consumed by the population living in that autonomous community. Food samples were randomly acquired in 12 representative cities of Catalonia. The dietary intake of U was estimated for various age-gender groups: children, adolescents, adults, and seniors. Fish and seafood was the food group showing the highest U concentrations (0.090 μg/g of fresh weight (fw)), followed by dairy products (0.044 μg/g fw). In contrast, the lowest U levels were found in oils and fats (0.003 μg/g fw), while in tubers and milk, U was not detected in any sample. The estimated dietary intake of U for a standard male adult of 70 kg body weight living in Catalonia was 15.48 μg/day. According to the age/gender of the population, the highest dietary intake of U corresponded to children (20.32 μg/day), while senior females was the subgroup with the lowest U intake (10.04 μg/day). Based on the tolerable daily intake established for U, the current dietary intake of this metal by the general population of Catalonia should not mean health risks for any of the different age/gender groups of consumers.

  4. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to aluminium in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Zhao-Ping; Yang, Da-Jin; Liang, Jiang; Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Xu, Hai-Bin; Li, Feng-Qin; Li, Ning

    2016-10-01

    In order to address the issue of excessive intake of aluminium (Al) from Al-containing food additives in the Chinese diet, this study conducted a dietary exposure assessment of Al in the general population based on the national surveillance data of Al content in foods and national food consumption data. It was found that the mean dietary exposure of the whole Chinese population to Al from Al-containing food additives was 1.795 mg kg‒1 bw week‒1, not exceeding the PTWI, while high dietary exposures (e.g., 97.5th percentile) to Al were 7.660 and 2.103-2.903 mg kg‒1 bw week‒1 for children, respectively, both exceeding the PTWI. It was found that the dietary exposure to Al for 32.5% of the total Chinese population and 42.6% of children aged 4-6 years exceeded the PTWI. Wheat flour and wheat-based products are the main source of dietary A l exposure (85% of the total intake); and puffed foods are the major source of Al intake for children. These findings suggested that consumption of Al-containing food additives could be a health concern for consumers with high food consumption (97.5th percentile) and children under the age of 14 years.

  5. Estimated long-term dietary exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury in young Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D W; Woo, H D; Joo, J; Park, K S; Oh, S Y; Kwon, H J; Park, J D; Hong, Y S; Sohn, S J; Yoon, H J; Hwang, M S; Kim, J

    2014-12-01

    Controlling for day-to-day variation is a key issue in estimating long-term dietary exposure to heavy metals using 24-hour recall (24HR) data from a relatively small number of days. This study was conducted to estimate long-term dietary exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury among Korean children using the Iowa State University (ISU) method and to assess the contributions of different food groups to heavy metal intake. We analyzed 2 days of 24HR data from 457 children between 0 and 6 years of age in 2010. Using bootstrapped concentration data for 118 representative foods, 93.5% of total intake was included in the exposure estimates in this study. Using the 2-day exposure data, we estimated long-term exposure by controlling for within-individual variation using the ISU method. The long-term dietary exposure estimates (mean±standard deviation) for lead, cadmium, and mercury were 0.47±0.14, 0.38±0.20, and 0.22±0.08 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. For lead and cadmium, the percentages of children whose exposure was greater than the reference value were 35 and 42%, respectively. Fruits were an important source of lead exposure, and cereal and fish and shellfish made the greatest contributions to the total cadmium and mercury exposure. Our findings also suggest that the long-term exposure to lead and cadmium was somewhat greater than the reference values, whereas mercury exposure was well below than the reference value in this population. Further studies may be necessary to evaluate the food items contributing to heavy metal exposure, and continuous monitoring is needed to ensure the safety of food intake and dietary patterns among vulnerable groups in Korea.

  6. Male Reproduction and Pesticides. Work related and dietary exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Solveig B.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Juhler, René K.

    We found no difference in semen quality and male fecundity between traditional and organic farmers. Pesticide use by Danish farmers did not influence the different semen parameters Ø a spraying season. The dietary pesticide intake in the study group did not entail a risk of measurable reduced sem...

  7. Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact of environmental changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piscator, M

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium exposure, metabolism, and effects are described especially in relation to dietary intakes. Data on dietary intakes in several countries have been complied from studies using the duplicate diet method or fecal analysis. These two methods seem to give more accurate data than estimates based on cadmium concentrations in food classes and food consumption (composite method). The present data on absorption and retention of ingested cadmium indicate that normally less than 5% is ingested, bu...

  8. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: IMMUNOLOGY, CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION AND MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are poorly understood, due primarily to insufficient human exposure data and inconsistent animal models. To develop a rodent model of long-term exposure to VOCs, a sub-chronic inhalation study with mult...

  9. Impact of dietary exposure to food contaminants on the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Bech, Sára

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a community with increased exposure levels. A total of 79 clinically verified idiopathic PD cases and 154 controls matched by sex and a...... in adult life was significantly associated with PD, thus suggesting a positive association between previous exposure to marine food contaminants and development of PD.......This study aimed to investigate the association of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a community with increased exposure levels. A total of 79 clinically verified idiopathic PD cases and 154 controls matched by sex and age...... logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) in regard to relevant exposure variables. Increased ORs for dietary intakes of whale meat and blubber during adult life were statistically significant. The ORs for occupational exposure to solvents...

  10. Low concentration toxic metal mixture interactions: Effects on essential and non-essential metals in brain, liver, and kidneys of mice on sub-chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wu, Xueshan; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2015-08-01

    The deleterious effects of long term exposure to individual toxic metals in low doses are well documented. There is however, a paucity of information on interaction of low dose toxic metal mixtures with toxic and essential metals. This study reports on interactions between low dose mixtures of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) and toxic and essential metals. For 120d, six groups of forty mice each were exposed to metal mixtures, however, the control group was given distilled water. Exposure to Pb+Cd increased brain Pb by 479% in 30d, whiles Pb+Hg+As+Cd reduced liver Hg by 46.5%, but increased kidney As by 130% in 30d. Brain Cu, increased by 221% on Pb+Hg+As+Cd exposure, however, liver Ca reduced by 36.1% on Pb+Hg exposure in 60-d. Interactions within metal mixtures were largely synergistic. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that low dose metal exposures influenced greatly levels of Hg (in brain and liver) and As (brain). The influence exerted on essential metals was highest in liver (PC1) followed by kidney (PC2) and brain (PC3). Exposure to low dose metal mixtures affected homeostasis of toxic and essential metals in tissues of mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scientific report on human and animal dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    chronic dietary exposure was highest in ‘Toddlers’ and ‘Other children’ with maximum UB estimates of 0.47 and 0.46 μg/kg bw per day, respectively. The 95th percentile exposure was highest in ‘Toddlers’ with a maximum UB estimate of 0.86 μg/kg bw per day. UB estimations were on average fourfold higher than...

  12. Altered Expression of Genes in Signaling Pathways Regulating Proliferation of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Mice with Subchronic Benzene Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongli; Zhang, Juan; Xiong, Mengzhen; Wei, Haiyan; Tan, Kehong; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2015-08-07

    Leukemias and hematopoietic disorders induced by benzene may arise from the toxicity of benzene to hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells (HS/PCs). Since there is a latency period between initial benzene exposure and the development of leukemia, subsequent impact of benzene on HS/PCs are crucial for a deeper understanding of the carcinogenicity and hematotoxicity in post-exposure stage. This study aims to explore the effects of benzene on HS/PCs and gene-expression in Wnt, Notch and Hh signaling pathways in post-exposure stage. The C3H/He mice were injected subcutaneously with benzene (0, 150, 300 mg/kg/day) for three months and were monitored for another 10 months post-exposure. The body weights were monitored, the relative organ weights, blood parameters and bone marrow smears were examined. Frequency of lineage(-) sca-1(+) c-kit(+) (LSK) cells, capability of colony forming and expression of genes in Wnt, Notch and Hedghog (Hh) signaling pathways were also analyzed. The colony formation of the progenitor cells for BFU-E, CFU-GEMM and CFU-GM was significantly decreased with increasing benzene exposure relative to controls, while no significant difference was observed in colonies for CFU-G and CFU-M. The mRNA level of cyclin D1 was increased and Notch 1 and p53 were decreased in LSK cells in mice exposed to benzene but with no statistical significance. These results suggest that subsequent toxic effects of benzene on LSK cells and gene expression in Wnt, Notch and Hh signaling pathways persist in post-exposure stage and may play roles in benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

  13. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2016. Dietary exposure assessment to pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Chronic and acute dietary exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) was estimated in the European population via the consumption of plant-derived foods. This resulted in highest estimates of mean chronic dietary exposure of 34.5–48.4 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day in ‘Toddlers’ (LB–UB) and 154......–214 ng/kg bw per day in the highly exposed population (LB–UB, also in ‘Toddlers’). Following a rather conservative scenario, the highest estimates of acute mean exposure and 95th percentile exposure were calculated for ‘Toddlers’, with mean exposure up to 311 ng/kg bw per day and 95th percentile exposure...... consumers. Ad hoc exposure scenarios for food supplements via consumption of pollen-based supplements showed chronic exposure to PAs that ranged between 0.7 and 12 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), while acute exposure was between 2.8 and 44 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), in both cases...

  14. Effects of subchronic exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in mice. III. Acute and chronic effects of CAPs on heart rate, heart-rate fluctuation, and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Nadziejko, Christine; Chen, Lung Chi

    2005-04-01

    Normal mice (C57) and mice prone to develop atherosclerosis (ApoE-/-) were implanted with electrocardiograph (EKG), core body temperature, and motion transmitters were exposed daily for 6 h to Tuxedo, NY, concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) for 5 day/wk during the spring and summer of 2003. The series of 5-min EKG monitoring and body-temperature measurements were obtained for each animal in the CAPs and filtered air sham exposure groups. Our hypothesis was that chronic exposure could cause cumulative health effects. We used our recently developed nonparametric method to estimate the daily time periods that mean heart rates (HR), body temperature, and physical activity differed significantly between the CAPs and sham exposed group. CAPs exposure most affected heart rate between 1:30 a.m. and 4:30 a.m. With the response variables being the average heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity, we adopted a two-stage modeling approach to obtain the estimates of chronic and acute effects on the changes of these three response variables. In the first stage, a time-varying model estimated daily crude effects. In the second stage, the true means of the estimated crude effects were modeled with a polynominal function of time for chronic effects, a linear term of daily CAPs exposure concentrations for acute effects, and a random component for unknown noise. A Bayesian framework combined these two stages. There were significant decreasing patterns of HR, body temperature, and physical activity for the ApoE-/- mice over the 5 mo of CAPs exposure, with smaller and nonsignificant changes for the C57 mice. The chronic effect changes of the three response variables for ApoE-/- mice were maximal in the last few weeks. There was also a significant relationship between CAPs exposure concentration and short-term changes of heart rate in ApoE-/- mice during exposure. Response variables were also defined for examining fluctuations of 5-min heart rates within long (i.e., 3-6 h

  15. 76 FR 72404 - Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) regarding the data development efforts of the Non-Dietary Exposure Task Force (NDETF). This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-2) was issued by the Agency on... the data development efforts of the NDETF. The formation of the NDETF was initially announced in PR...

  16. A Chain Modeling Approach To Estimate the Impact of Soil Cadmium Pollution on Human Dietary Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium in soil poses a risk for human health, due to its accumulation in food and feed crops. The extent of accumulation depends strongly on soil type and the degree of pollution. The objective of the present study was to develop a predictive model to estimate human dietary cadmium exposure from

  17. Effects of dietary lead exposure and graded levels of ascorbic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary lead acetate (LA) exposure on growth performance and haematological characteristics of broiler chickens and possible ameliorative effect of ascorb ic acid (AA) were investigated. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six treatment groups of 20 birds with two ...

  18. Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Robert M; Imungi, Jasper K; Muiru, William M; Lamuka, Peter O; Njage, Patrick M Kamau

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis has repeatedly affected Kenyans, particularly in the eastern region, due to consumption of contaminated maize. However, save for the cases of acute toxicity, the levels of sub-lethal exposure have not been adequately assessed. It is believed that this type of exposure does exist even during the seasons when acute toxicity does not occur. This study, therefore, was designed to assess the exposure of households to aflatoxins through consumption of maize and maize products. Twenty samples each of maize kernels, muthokoi and maize meal were randomly sampled from households in Kibwezi District of Makueni County in Eastern Kenya and analysed for aflatoxin contamination. The samples were quantitatively analysed for aflatoxin contamination using HPLC. The uncertainty and variability in dietary exposure was quantitatively modelled in Ms Excel using Monte Carlo simulation in @Risk software. Aflatoxins were found in 45% of maize kernels at between 18 and 480 μg kg⁻¹, 20% of muthokoi at between 12 and 123 μg kg⁻¹, and 35% of maize meal at between 6 and 30 μg kg⁻¹. The mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize kernels was 292 ± 1567 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹, while the mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize meal and muthokoi were 59 ± 62 and 27 ± 154 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹ respectively. The results showed that the amount and frequency of consumption of the three foods is the more important contributing factor than the mean aflatoxin concentration levels, to the risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins.

  19. Dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products of residents in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junfei; Peng, Shaojie; Tian, Mingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Bo; Wu, Min; He, Gengsheng

    2015-01-01

    A dietary survey of 3431 residents was conducted by a 24-h dietary recall method in Shanghai, China, quarterly from September 2013 to September 2014. A total of 400 food samples were tested for aluminium concentration, including wheat flour and puffed products from 2011 to 2013. Probabilistic analysis was used to estimate the dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat and puffed products. The means of dietary aluminium exposure for children (2-6 years old), juveniles (7-17 years old), adults (18-65 years old) and seniors (over 65 years old) were 1.88, 0.94, 0.44 and 0.42 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) respectively, with a population average of 0.51 mg kg(-1) bw week(-1). The proportions of those who had aluminium exposure from wheat and puffed products lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were 77%, 90%, 97%, and 97% respectively from children to seniors. We estimated that the proportions of people at risk would decrease by 13%, 6%, 2% and 2% respectively under the new China National Standards - GB 2760-2014 National Food Safety for Standards for using food additives. The results indicated that aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the general population in Shanghai; however, children were at a higher risk of excess aluminium exposure. Significant improvements in reducing the dietary exposure to aluminium are expected in the population, especially for children after the implementation of GB 2760-2014.

  20. Safety assessment of heated diacylglycerol oil: subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Osamu; Tamaki, Yasushi; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Chengelis, Christopher P

    2008-08-01

    Diacylglycerol oil is an edible oil with similar taste and usability characteristics as conventional edible oil rich in triacylglycerol oil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate potential adverse effects of heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oil in rats following subchronic administration. The heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oils were prepared separately following deep frying potato slices at 180 degrees C for 8h per day for three days. Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing different ratios (concentrations) of heated to unheated diacylglycerol oil. The ratio of heated to unheated diacylglycerol was as follows: 0%/5.5% (control-1; Group 1), 1.0%/4.5% (Group 2), 2.75%/2.75% (Group 3), and 5.5%/0% (Group 4). Two additional groups received the feed containing 5.5% of unheated or 5.5% of heated triacylglycerol oil. Compared to the unheated oils, feeding of heated diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil did not reveal any toxicologically significant changes in clinical observation, body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, ophthalmic examinations, functional observational battery and motor activity, clinical pathology evaluations and organ weights. Similarly, terminal necropsy did not reveal treatment-related gross or histopathology findings. Based on the results of this subchronic study, the no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) of heated diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil were 5.5%, the highest levels tested. The mean dietary exposure levels at the highest dose for the heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oil for male and female rats ranged from 3,178 to 4,120 mg/kg/day.

  1. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention is associated with healthier patterns of dietary exposures in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Emily E; Paul, Ian M; Birch, Leann L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether a responsive parenting (RP) intervention affects infant dietary patterns. Primiparous mother-newborn dyads (n = 291) were randomized to the Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) RP intervention or control. Curricula were delivered at nurse home visits at ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks. RP group feeding guidance advised responsive feeding, delayed introduction of solids, repeated exposure to novel foods, and age-appropriate portion sizes. Latent class analysis identified patterns of dietary exposure at 9 months. Class membership at 9 months was used to predict BMI percentile at 2 years. Five dietary patterns were identified: "Breastfed, Fruits and Vegetables," "Breastfed, Low Variety," "Formula, Fruits and Vegetables," "Formula, Low Variety," and "Formula, High Energy Density." Over 60% of infants had patterns low in fruits and vegetables or high in energy-dense foods. RP group infants were less likely than control to be in the "Formula, Low Variety" class (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.23-0.71) or "Formula, High Energy Density" class (OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.61) relative to the "Formula, Fruits and Vegetables" class. Dietary pattern at 9 months was significantly associated with BMI percentile at 2 years. While a majority of infants consumed diets low in fruits and vegetables, the INSIGHT RP intervention was associated with healthier dietary patterns. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Data collected on maternal dietary exposures in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjúrdur Fródi; Mikkelsen, Tina Broby; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2007-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the diet consumed in, or shortly before, pregnancy can potentially lead to maldevelopment and diseases in the offspring, which may become apparent at any time from the embryonic stage until old age. For example, maternal diet may affect the chance of twinning (and....... At present, the Danish National Birth Cohort is likely to be the largest epidemiological database containing extensive information on maternal dietary exposures. By October 2002, 100 000 women had been recruited in early pregnancy, for long-term follow-up of themselves and their offspring. The present paper...... details the information available in the database on early nutritional exposures with emphasis on maternal dietary intake. We also present distributions of selected nutritional exposures. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  4. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food co...... coded and in level of detail provided about the consumed foods. The work done and the problems encountered in this project can be of interest for future projects in which food consumption data will be collected on a pan-European level and used for common exposure assessments....

  5. Hazard ratio estimation for biomarker-calibrated dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Pamela A; Prentice, Ross L

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty concerning the measurement error properties of self-reported diet has important implications for the reliability of nutritional epidemiology reports. Biomarkers based on the urinary recovery of expended nutrients can provide an objective measure of short-term nutrient consumption for certain nutrients and, when applied to a subset of a study cohort, can be used to calibrate corresponding self-report nutrient consumption assessments. A nonstandard measurement error model that makes provision for systematic error and subject-specific error, along with the usual independent random error, is needed for the self-report data. Three estimation procedures for hazard ratio (Cox model) parameters are extended for application to this more complex measurement error structure. These procedures are risk set regression calibration, conditional score, and nonparametric corrected score. An estimator for the cumulative baseline hazard function is also provided. The performance of each method is assessed in a simulation study. The methods are then applied to an example from the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Reducing Prenatal Phthalate Exposure Through Maternal Dietary Changes: Results from a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2015-09-01

    Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for 3 days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F = 0.21; adjusted p value = 0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t = -1.07, adjusted p value = 0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level.

  7. Evaluation of an oral subchronic exposure of deoxynivalenol on the composition of human gut microbiota in a model of human microbiota-associated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J; Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès; Houée, Paméla; Rolland, Jean-Guy; Laurentie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins present in cereal crops worldwide. Due to its toxic properties, high stability and prevalence, the presence of DON in the food chain represents a health risk for both humans and animals. The gastrointestinal microbiota represents potentially the first target for these food contaminants. Thus, the effects of mycotoxins on the human gut microbiota is clearly an issue that needs to be addressed in further detail. Using a human microbiota-associated rat model, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a chronic exposure of DON on the composition of human gut microbiota. Four groups of 5 germ free male rats each, housed in 4 sterile isolators, were inoculated with a different fresh human fecal flora. Rats were then fed daily by gavage with a solution of DON at 100 µg/kg bw for 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at day 0 before the beginning of the treatment; days 7, 16, 21, and 27 during the treatment; and 10 days after the end of the treatment at day 37. DON effect was assessed by real-time PCR quantification of dominant and subdominant bacterial groups in feces. Despite a different intestinal microbiota in each isolator, similar trends were generally observed. During oral DON exposure, a significant increase of 0.5 log10 was observed for the Bacteroides/Prevotella group during the first 3 weeks of administration. Concentration levels for Escherichia coli decreased at day 27. This significant decrease (0.9 log10 CFU/g) remained stable until the end of the experiment. We have demonstrated an impact of oral DON exposure on the human gut microbiota composition. These findings can serve as a template for risk assessment studies of food contaminants on the human gut microbiota.

  8. Dietary exposure to flavouring substances: from screening methods to detailed assessments using food consumption data collected with EPIC-Soft software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.; Geelen, A.; Donne, Le C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Sette, S.; Raffo, A.; Siebelink, E.; Ocke, M.C.; Veer, van 't P.; Leclercq, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare different methods of assessing dietary exposure to flavourings in the context of a stepwise approach. The dietary exposure to four flavourings - raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, coumarin, and caffeine - was determined. When dietary exposure exceeded the safety

  9. [Dietary exposure assessment of some important Fusarium toxins in cereal-based products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shao, Bing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yu, Hongxia; Li, Fengqin

    2010-11-01

    To elucidate the dietary exposure of Chinese populations to deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN). Ten Fusarium toxins including DON, NIV, ZEN in domestic wheat flour and corn-based products harvested and collected in 2009 were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Dietary intake assessments of human exposure to DON, NIV and ZEN were carried out in combination of national food consumption data with toxin concentration data by deterministic estimate method. (1) There are 2.5% adults and 10% children with the dietary exposure to DON exceeding the tolerable daily intake (TDI) on the basis of the average food consumption. At the 75th percentile food consumption level, the dietary exposure of populations to DON was higher than its TDI, 1.72 and 2.02 times (adults) as well as 1.19 and 1.09 times higher than TDI (children), respectively, based on the higher DON exposure (adults : P90 for wheat flour and P97. 5 for corn-based products, children: P50 for wheat flour and P75 for corn-based products). At the average toxin concentration, children with the high consumption level (90th, 97. 5th and 99th percentile) of either wheat flour or corn-based products, the dietary exposure to DON exceed the TDI, 1.81 to 3.17 times (wheat flour) and 1.47 - 3.97 times (corn-based products) higher than TDI, respectively. The dietary exposure of adults to ZEN exceed the TDI, based on the average food consumption data and higher ZEN level (P99), the 75th consumption data combined with P97. 5th toxin concentration, as well as 90th percentile of both food consumption data and ZEN concentration, respectively. There are 1%, 2.5%, 25%, 25% and 50% populations of children exposed ZEN higher than TDI, respectively at the 50th, 75th, 90th, 97. 5th and 99th percentile of food consumption data. (2) The level of concern (LOC) of DON in wheat flour calculated with high consumption data (90th, 97. 5th and 99th percentile) for all populations as well as DON and ZEN in corn-based products calculated

  10. Metabolic impacts of high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Madani; Fjære, Even; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked to metabolic diseases. Yet, the effects of high exposure to dietary POPs remain unclear. We therefore investigated whether elevated exposure to POPs provided by whale meat supplementation could contribute to insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice...... significant body burden of POPs. This indicates complex interactions between organic pollutants and nutrition in the development of metabolic disorders....... were fed control (C) or very high-fat diet (VHF) containing low or high levels of POPs (VHF+POPs) for eight weeks. To elevate the dietary concentrations of POPs, casein was replaced by whale meat containing high levels of pollutants. Feeding VHF+POPs induced high POP accumulation in the adipose tissue...

  11. Chronic exposure to dietary selenomethionine increases gonadal steroidogenesis in female rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; Higley, Eric; Hursky, Olesya [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C8 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). Detrimental effects have been associated with exposure to elevated dietary selenium. Previous studies have demonstrated effects of Se on the endocrine system, in particular effects on cortisol and thyroid hormones. However, no information is available regarding effects of Se on sex steroid hormones. In the present study, effects of dietary exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (4.54 mg/kg wet weight (ww)) of Se-Met for 126 days on concentrations of sex steroid hormones in blood plasma of female rainbow trout were determined. Furthermore, the molecular basis for effects of Se-Met on plasma sex steroid hormone concentrations was investigated. Concentrations of androstenedione (A), estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) were 39.5-, 3.8-, and 12.7-fold greater in plasma of treated females than the untreated controls, respectively. Testosterone (T) was detected only in plasma of treated females. The greater E2 concentration stimulated greater transcript abundance of vitellogenin (vtg) and zona-radiata protein (zrp). Female rainbow trout exposed to Se-Met had greater transcript abundance of key steroidogenic proteins and enzymes, including peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-hsd). Exposure to Se-Met did not affect transcript abundance of luteinizing hormone (lh) or follicle stimulating hormone (fsh). Similarly, there was no change in transcript abundance of luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) or follicle stimulating hormone receptor (fshr). Long-term exposure to dietary Se-Met has the potential to stimulate vitellogenesis in female rainbow trout by directly stimulating ovarian tissue steroidogenesis. This is the first study to report effects of Se on sex steroid hormone production in fish.

  12. Dietary exposure to aluminium in the popular Chinese fried bread youtiao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Shimin; Hua, Hongying; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiheng

    2017-06-01

    Youtiao is a typical, traditional and widely consumed fried food in China. Fermentation of youtiao involves the use of aluminium potassium sulphate (alum). There are health concerns related to the levels of aluminium in food; therefore, we aimed to determine the aluminium concentrations of youtiao from various locations, and to estimate the dietary exposure by different age groups in southern and northern China. The aluminium content of youtiao samples varied considerably (range = 4.46-852.69 mg kg-1). Both the mean and median aluminium contents of youtiao exceeded 100 mg kg-1, which is the China National Standard (GB) 2760-2014 National Food Safety for Standards for food additives. However, the median and 97.5th percentile of weekly dietary exposure to aluminium from youtiao, estimated using Monte Carlo simulation, did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) set by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) for children, adolescents, adults and seniors. The weekly dietary exposure to aluminium would exceed the PTWI if children, adolescents, adults and seniors consumed 134.47, 260.98, 327.10 or 320.41 g of youtiao per week, respectively.

  13. Histopathologic alterations associated with global gene expression due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure in juvenile zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Liu

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to investigate the effects and possible developmental disease implication of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on global gene expression anchored to histopathologic analysis in juvenile zebrafish by functional genomic, histopathologic and analytic chemistry methods. Specifically, juvenile zebrafish were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb, and fish were sampled following 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42 d after initiation of the exposure. TCDD accumulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner and 100 ppb TCDD caused TCDD accumulation in female (15.49 ppb and male (18.04 ppb fish at 28 d post exposure. Dietary TCDD caused multiple lesions in liver, kidney, intestine and ovary of zebrafish and functional dysregulation such as depletion of glycogen in liver, retrobulbar edema, degeneration of nasal neurosensory epithelium, underdevelopment of intestine, and diminution in the fraction of ovarian follicles containing vitellogenic oocytes. Importantly, lesions in nasal epithelium and evidence of endocrine disruption based on alternatively spliced vasa transcripts are two novel and significant results of this study. Microarray gene expression analysis comparing vehicle control to dietary TCDD revealed dysregulated genes involved in pathways associated with cardiac necrosis/cell death, cardiac fibrosis, renal necrosis/cell death and liver necrosis/cell death. These baseline toxicological effects provide evidence for the potential mechanisms of developmental dysfunctions induced by TCDD and vasa as a biomarker for ovarian developmental disruption.

  14. Mercury hair concentrations and dietary exposure among Inuit preschool children in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenjing; Egeland, Grace M; Sobol, Isaac; Chan, Hing Man

    2011-01-01

    There is concern that the traditional diet is a source of mercury exposure among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. Mercury exposure in utero and in early childhood presents a risk to neurodevelopment. The objectives of the present study were to assess the dietary mercury exposure from traditional food among Inuit children 3 to 5 years of age in Nunavut, and evaluate the association between estimated dietary mercury intake and body burden. A cross-sectional Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey was conducted in 2007 and 2008 which included assessment of dietary habits and children's hair mercury (Hg) levels. Further, an Inuit Adult Health Survey was conducted in the same years which included assessment of dietary habits and whole blood mercury concentrations. Traditional food samples were collected during this study and previously from the Canadian Arctic. Daily mercury intake from traditional food was calculated. Body mercury burden was determined using the hair mercury concentration. The geometric mean of children's hair Hg was 0.66 μg/g and varied by region. Nearly 25% of children had hair Hg concentrations equal to or higher than 2 μg/g (WHO reference level). There was a significant correlation between mercury levels in children's hair and that of the adults in the same household. For children, beluga muktuk, narwhal muktuk, ringed seal liver, fish, caribou meat and ringed seal meat were the major dietary sources of mercury. These food items together accounted for over 95% of total daily dietary mercury intake. A positive linear regression relationship between children's hair mercury levels and estimated dietary mercury intake was observed. Estimated intake in Baffin decreased by 30% compared to 20 years ago. Some traditional food items were significant sources of mercury to Inuit children in Nunavut. Although a reduction in the consumption of these diet items may be a way to reduce mercury intake, the nutritional, social and cultural benefits of traditional food and

  15. Assessing infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants via dietary intake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and pose a risk of causing adverse human health effects. Typically, exposure assessments undertaken by modeling existing intake data underestimate the concentrations of these chemicals in infants. This study aimed to determine concentrations of POPs in infant foods, assess exposure via dietary intake and compare this to historical exposure. Fruit purees, meat and vegetables, dairy desserts, cereals and jelly foods (n = 33) purchased in 2013 in Brisbane, Australia were analyzed. For OCPs and PCBs, concentrations ranged up to 95 pg/g fw and for PBDEs up to 32 pg/g fw with most analytes below the limit of detection. Daily intake is dependent on type and quantity of foods consumed. Consumption of a 140 g meal would result in intake ranging from 0 to 4.2 ng/day, 4.4 ng/day and 13.3 ng/day, for OCPs, PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. PBDEs were detected in 3/33 samples, OCPs in 9/33 samples and PCBs in 13/33 samples. Results from this study indicate exposure for infants via dietary (in contrast to dust and breast milk) intake in Australia contribute only a minor component to total exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships between children's exposure to ethnic produce and their dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Zhao, Yanling

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined relationships between children's ethnic produce exposure and healthy dietary practices among Latino, Hmong and non-Hispanic white children. One hundred Latino, 100 Hmong, and 92 non-Hispanic white parents of children ages 5-8 years old in northern California completed a cross-sectional survey. Children's exposure to ethnic produce from Hmong and Latino cultures, overall fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food and ethnic restaurant use were measured. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare variables across different ethnic groups. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between variables. Children's overall ethnic produce exposure, as well as exposure to produce from other cultures, was significantly correlated with overall fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a marginal (p = 0.053) negative association between ethnic produce exposure and fast food restaurant use among Latino children. These findings suggest that promoting ethnic produce is an effective strategy for enhancing healthy dietary practices among children.

  17. Assessment of the dietary habits and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, T; Montuori, P; Mainardi, P; Russo, I; Fasano, E; Triassi, M; Amodio-Cocchieri, R

    2010-07-01

    Thirty Italian children, 7-9 year aged, living in Naples were investigated on their dietary habits and on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure by a food diary-questionnaire and one week duplicate diet sample analyses. Daily total food consumption mean value was 632 +/- 215 g day(-1), median value 613 g day(-1). The daily energy intake and the diet composition meanly agreed with the official guidelines for the Italian children. Sixteen PAHs were simultaneously detected and, according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approach, benzo[a]pyrene; benzo[a]pyrene + chrysene (PAH2); PAH2 + benz[a]anthracene + benzo[b]fluoranthene (PAH4); PAH4 + benzo[k]fluoranthene + benzo[ghi]perylene + dibenz[a, h]anthracene + indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (PAH8) were considered in evaluating the children's dietary exposure to PAHs. The benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) median concentrations in foods varied from 0.06 to 0.33 microg kg(-1). Only three samples of cooked foods (one fish and two meat samples) exceeded legal limits fixed by the European Union for BaP. Daily median intakes of benzo[a]pyrene, PAH2, PAH4, and PAH8 were 153; 318; 990; 1776 ng day(-1); their median exposure values were 5; 10; 28; 54 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1). The Margins of Exposure (MOEs) in median consumers agreed with the EFSA safety values except for PAH8.

  18. Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, J-C; Tard, A; Volatier, J-L; Verger, P

    2005-07-01

    This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in the French diet (as consumed), 456 composite samples were prepared from 2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, children and vegetarians. The results showed that contaminant levels observed in the foods examined 'as consumed' complied fully with current European legislation. However, particular attention needs to be paid to the exposure of specific population groups, such as children and vegans/macrobiotics, who could be exposed to certain mycotoxins in quantities that exceed the tolerable or weekly daily intake levels. This observation is particularly relevant with respect to ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For these mycotoxins, cereals and cereal products were the main contributors to high exposure.

  19. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population.

  20. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro for genetically modified rice that expresses pharmaceutical protein (human serum albumin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yao; Qi, Xiaozhe; Liu, Yifei; Guo, Mingzhang; Chen, Siyuan; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2014-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops that express pharmaceutical proteins have become an important focus of recent genetic engineering research. Food safety assessment is necessary for the commercial development of these crops. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro were designed to evaluate the food safety of the rice variety expressing human serum albumin (HSA). Animals were fed rodent diets containing 12.5%, 25.0% and 50.0% GM or non-GM rice for 90 days. The composition analysis of the GM rice demonstrated several significant differences. However, most of the differences remained within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study, a range of indexes including clinical observation, feed efficiency, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were examined. Random changes unrelated to the GM rice exposure, within the range of historical control values and not associated with any signs of illness were observed. The results of heat stability and in vitro digestion of HSA indicated no evidence of potential allergenicity of the protein. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that the GM rice appears to be safe as a dietary ingredient when it is used at up to 50% in the diet on a subchronic basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Congo red dye affects survival and reproduction in the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia. Effects of direct and dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-12-01

    Nearly 7 00000 tons of dyes are produced annually throughout the world. Azo dyes are widely used in the textile and paper industries due to their low cost and ease of application. Their extensive use results in large volumes of wastewater being discharged into aquatic ecosystems. Large volume discharges constitute a health risk since many of these dyes, such as Congo Red, are elaborated with benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound. Information regarding dye toxicity in aquatic ecosystems is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Congo Red on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia. We determined the 48 h median lethal concentration (LC50) and evaluated the effects of sublethal concentrations in subchronic exposures by using as food either fresh algae or algae previously exposed to the dye. LC50 was 13.58 mg L(-1). In subchronic assays, survival was reduced to 80 and 55 %, and fertility to 40 and 70 %, as compared to the control, in C. dubia fed with intoxicated cells or with the mix of intoxicated + fresh algae, respectively, so the quantity and type of food had a significant effect. We determined that Congo Red is highly toxic to C. dubia since it inhibits survival and fertility in concentrations exceeding 3 mg L(-1). Our results show that this dye produces negative effects at very low concentrations. Furthermore, our findings warn of the risk associated with discharging dyes into aquatic environments. Lastly, the results emphasize the need to regulate the discharge of effluents containing azo dyes.

  2. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites excretion in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Yayoi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

    2017-06-03

    Inorganic arsenic (InAs) is a ubiquitous metalloid that has been shown to exert multiple adverse health outcomes. Urinary InAs and its metabolite concentration has been used as a biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in some epidemiological studies, however, quantitative relationship between daily InAs exposure and urinary InAs metabolites concentration has not been well characterized. We collected a set of 24-h duplicated diet and spot urine sample of the next morning of diet sampling from 20 male and 19 female subjects in Japan from August 2011 to October 2012. Concentrations of As species in duplicated diet and urine samples were determined by using liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometry with a hydride generation system. Sum of the concentrations of urinary InAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA) was used as a measure of InAs exposure. Daily dietary InAs exposure was estimated to be 0.087 µg kg-1 day-1 (Geometric mean, GM), and GM of urinary InAs+MMA concentrations was 3.5 ng mL-1. Analysis of covariance did not find gender-difference in regression coefficients as significant (P > 0.05). Regression equation Log 10 [urinary InAs+MMA concentration] = 0.570× Log 10 [dietary InAs exposure level per body weight] + 1.15 was obtained for whole data set. This equation would be valuable in converting urinary InAs concentration to daily InAs exposure, which will be important information in risk assessment.

  3. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Fenske, Richard A; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Joel D

    2015-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce ("conventional consumers"), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p organic produce (p organic produce was associated with lower DAPs.

  4. Toxicokinetics of tilapia following high exposure to waterborne and dietary copper and implications for coping mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeng-Wei; Ju, Yun-Ru; Huang, Ying-Hsuan; Deng, Yue-Sun; Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Chin-Ching; Liao, Chung-Min

    2013-06-01

    One of the major challenges in assessing the potential metal stress to aquatic organisms is explicitly predicting the internal dose in target organs. We aimed to understand the main sources of copper (Cu) accumulation in target organs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to investigate how the fish alter the process of Cu uptake, depuration, and accumulation (toxicokinetics (TK)) under prolonged conditions. We measured the temporal Cu profiles in selected organs after single and combined exposure to waterborne and dietary Cu for 14 days. Quantitative relations between different sources and levels of Cu, duration of treatment, and organ-specific Cu concentrations were established using TK modeling approaches. We show that water was the main source of Cu in the gills (>94 %), liver (>89 %), and alimentary canal (>86 %); the major source of Cu in the muscle (>51 %) was food. Cu uptake and depuration in tilapia organs were mediated under prolonged exposure conditions. In general, the uptake rate, depuration rate, and net bioaccumulation ability in all selected organs decreased with increasing waterborne Cu levels and duration of exposure. Muscle played a key role in accounting for the rapid Cu accumulation in the first period after exposure. Conversely, the liver acted as a terminal Cu storage site when exposure was extended. The TK processes of Cu in tilapia were highly changed under higher exposure conditions. The commonly used bioaccumulation model might lead to overestimations of the internal metal concentration with the basic assumption of constant TK processes.

  5. Probabilistic dietary exposure to ethyl carbamate from fermented foods and alcoholic beverages in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B; Ryu, D; Kim, C-I; Lee, J-Y; Choi, A; Koh, E

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of ethyl carbamate was investigated in fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the Korean total diet study. The concentrations of ethyl carbamate ranged from not detected to 166.5 μg kg-1. Dietary exposure to ethyl carbamate was estimated by the probabilistic method. Estimated intakes of ethyl carbamate from foods and alcoholic beverages were 4.12 ng kg-1 body weight (bw) per day for average consumers and 12.37 ng kg-1 bw/day for 95th percentile high consumers. The major foods contributing to ethyl carbamate exposure were soy sauce (63%), followed by maesilju (plum liqueur, 30%), whisky (5%), and bokbunjaju (black raspberry wine, 2%). On the basis of the benchmark dose lower confidence limit 10% (BMDL10) of 0.3 mg kg-1 bw/day, margins of exposure were 128,000 for mean exposure and 40,000 for 95th percentile exposure. This indicates that the exposure of the Korean general population for ethyl carbamate is of low concern. However, careful vigilance should be continued for high consumers of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.

  6. Dietary exposure assessment of infants to bisphenol A from the use of polycarbonate baby milk bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onn Wong, Kwok; Woon Leo, Lay; Leng Seah, Huay

    2005-03-01

    The residual bisphenol A (BPA) levels in 28 different brands of polycarbonate (PC) baby milk bottles available in the Singapore market were measured. With a detection limit of 3 mg/kg, BPA residues were detected in 19 out of the 28 PC baby milk bottles at levels between 4.01 and 141 mg/kg, with a mean of 28.1 +/- 31.4 mg/kg and a median of 17.2 mg/kg. The potential migration of BPA from each of the 28 PC milk bottles was also measured using food-simulating solvents and time conditions recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA), but using temperatures more severe than actual use. The highest upper-bound mean BPA migration levels of 0.64 +/- 0.48 microg/in2 in 10% ethanol at 70 degrees C and 0.43 +/- 1.25 microg/in2 in corn oil at 100 degrees C were observed after incubating cut portions of the milk bottles for 240 h. With this migration data and using US FDA's procedure for estimation of dietary exposure, the worst-case dietary exposure assessment for the intake of BPA by infants between birth and three months of age was below the oral Reference Dose of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This study showed that the dietary exposure to BPA from actual uses of PC milk bottles is unlikely to pose a health risk in infants.

  7. Estimating Pesticide Exposure from Dietary Intake and Organic Food Choices: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. Objectives We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Methods Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce (“conventional consumers”), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Results Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p organic produce (p organic produce was associated with lower DAPs. Citation Curl CL, Beresford SA, Fenske RA, Fitzpatrick AL, Lu C, Nettleton JA, Kaufman JD. 2015. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Environ Health Perspect 123:475–483; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408197 PMID:25650532

  8. Metal accumulation from dietary exposure in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer, Gretchen K; Jarvis, Tayler A; Harper, Benjamin T; Butler, Brittany; Rice, Lawrence; Ryan, Siobhan; McLoughlin, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Metal contamination is a common problem in aquatic environments and may result in metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in aquatic biota. Recent studies have reported the significance of dietary metal accumulation in aquatic food chains, particularly in species of lower trophic levels. This research investigated the accumulation and effects of dietary metals in a macroinvertebrate. The seaweed species Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha prolifera were concurrently exposed to five metals (copper, nickel, lead, cadmium, and zinc) and then individually fed to the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis for a period of 2 weeks. Body mass, test length, total length, and coelomic fluid ion concentration and osmolality were measured. The sea urchins were also dissected and their organs (esophagus, stomach, intestine, gonads, and rectum) digested and analyzed for metals. The results demonstrated that metal accumulation and distribution varied between seaweed species and among metals. In general, there were greater concentrations of metals within the sea urchins fed E. prolifera compared with those fed U. lactuca. All of the metals accumulated within at least one organ of S. droebachiensis, with Cu being most significant. These results indicate that E. prolifera may accumulate metals in a more bioavailable form than within U. lactuca, which could impact the grazer. In this study, no significant differences in body length, growth, or coelomic fluid ion concentration and osmolality were detected between the control and metal-exposed sea urchins after the 2-week testing period. This research presents new data concerning metal accumulation in a marine herbivore after dietary metal exposure.

  9. Dietary exposure to short-chain chlorinated paraffins has increased in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kouji H; Takasuga, Takumi; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Wang, Peiyu; Matsukami, Hidenori; Koizumi, Akio

    2011-08-15

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in biota and are under review by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. SCCP levels were measured semiquantitatively in pooled 24 h food composite samples from Chinese (n = 10), Korean (n = 10), and Japanese (n = 40) adults in the 1990 s and 2007-2009. In Japan, SCCPs were detected in 14 of 20 pooled samples in the 1990 s and 13 of 20 pooled samples in 2009. Between these two time points, the geometric mean (GM) of the dietary intake of total SCCPs per body weight was comparable in Japan (54 ng kg-bw(-1) day(-1) in the 1990 s and 54 ng kg-bw(-1) day(-1) in the 2000s). In Beijing, SCCP levels were elevated by 2 orders of magnitude from 1993 to 2009 (GM: 620 ng kg-bw(-1) day(-1) in 2009). The 95th percentile estimate of the dietary intake was 1200 ng kg-bw(-1) day(-1) (>1% of tolerable daily intake). In Seoul, no samples in 1994 contained detectable SCCP levels and only one sample in 2007 showed trace levels of SCCPs. Preliminary evidence on the significant increase in SCCP exposure in Beijing in 2009 warrants urgent investigations to refine dietary intake estimates by targeting food types and source identification.

  10. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  11. Adolescent dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in relation to benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Caroline E; Tamimi, Rulla M; Berkey, Catherine S; Colditz, Graham A; Giovannucci, Edward; Malspeis, Susan; Willett, Walter C; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D may reduce cell proliferation and tumor growth in breast tissue, and exposure may be most important during adolescence when breast tissue is developing. In the Nurses' Health Study II, higher recalled adolescent vitamin D intake was associated with a lower risk of benign breast disease (BBD). Our study aimed to assess adolescent vitamin D exposure in relation to BBD in young women. Vitamin D was assessed in 6,593 adolescent girls (9-15 years of age at baseline) in the prospective Growing Up Today Study cohort using the mean energy-adjusted intakes from food frequency questionnaires in 1996, 1997, and 1998. In 1999, 5,286 girls reported skin color, sunscreen use, tanning bed use, and number of sunburns in the past year, and we used state of residence to assess low versus high ultraviolet index. Biopsy-confirmed BBD was reported on questionnaires in 2005, 2007, and 2010 (n = 122). Dietary vitamin D, tanning behaviors, and other sun exposure variables were not significantly associated with BBD in logistic regression models adjusted for age, family history of breast cancer or BBD, age at menarche, nulliparity, alcohol intake, body mass index, and physical activity. The relative risk for the top (>467 IU/day) versus bottom (intake was 0.76 (95 % CI 0.47, 1.23). Sun exposure was not significantly associated with BBD in this prospective cohort. However, a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and BBD was observed that merits further study.

  12. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposures to lead in young children were calculated by combining food consumption data of 11 European countries categorised using harmonised broad food categories with occurrence data on lead from different Member States (pan-European approach). The results of the assessment...... in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... the national exposure calculations. For both assessments cereals contributed most to the exposure. The lower dietary exposure in the national study was due to the use of lower lead concentrations and a more optimal linkage of food consumption and concentration data. When a pan-European approach, using...

  13. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. METHODS: A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively...... thereafter to the women. A dietary questionnaire was filled in. Follow-up three months later included a dietary questionnaire and a repeat hair-mercury analysis. RESULTS: In the follow-up group, 22% of the women had hair-mercury concentrations above a safe limit of 0.58 µg/g at enrolment, decreasing to 8...... recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly...

  14. Dietary exposure to continuous small doses of α-cypermethrin in the presence or absence of dietary curcumin does not induce oxidative stress in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surat Hongsibsong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Cypermethrin is a widely used insecticide and, at high doses, induces oxidative stress in mammals. Curcumin is an antioxidant phytochemical commonly used for food coloring and flavoring. We aimed to investigate the effects of continuous dietary exposure to low doses of α-cypermethrin, as is the case in exposed humans, on oxidative stress and its potential prevention by dietary curcumin. Four groups of ten male Wistar rats were ad libitum-fed a control diet or identical diets fortified with α-cypermethrin (350 mg/kg diet, curcumin (1000 mg/kg diet, or α-cypermethrin and curcumin (350 and 1000 mg/kg diet, respectively for 7 weeks. α-Cypermethrin accumulated in adipose tissues and was detectable in kidney, liver, and brains. Dietary α-cypermethrin did not alter concentrations of malondialdehyde, ascorbic and uric acid, retinol, liver damage markers, or the activities of CAT and SOD, but reduced vitamin E in blood. α-Cypermethrin did not affect malondialdehyde or reduced glutathione concentrations in any of the tissues, but significantly increased glutathione disulfide in kidney and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In conclusion, dietary exposure to small doses of α-cypermethrin did not induce oxidative stress in rats and may be less toxic than exposure to comparable quantities administered as single high doses by gastric intubation.

  15. Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact of environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1985-11-01

    Cadmium exposure, metabolism, and effects are described especially in relation to dietary intakes. Data on dietary intakes in several countries have been complied from studies using the duplicate diet method or fecal analysis. These two methods seem to give more accurate data than estimates based on cadmium concentrations in food classes and food consumption (composite method). The present data on absorption and retention of ingested cadmium indicate that normally less than 5% is ingested, but absorption may increase in women who have iron deficiency. Earlier estimates of the critical concentration in renal cortex being about 200 mg/kg wet weight still seem to be valid. New information is available on present renal levels and their distribution in the general population. The present margin of safety with regard to risk for renal effects is small. To predict future health risks from increases in dietary cadmium due to environmental changes such as acid deposition, it is necessary that the models used are based on correct assumptions. Of interest are the distributions of dietary intake, gastrointestinal absorption, and renal cadmium concentrations. These distributions are normal or lognormal, and since standard deviations are used when estimating risks, it is of paramount importance that the standard deviations are estimated as accurately as possible. At present it is not possible to quantify the effects attributed to acid rain only; account must be also be taken of cadmium added to, e.g., soil by use of sewage sludge and other fertilizers. In addition to risks to human health, cadmium also poses a threat to horses, which generally have renal cadmium concentrations several times higher than adult humans. It is recommended that horses should be monitored in areas when acid deposition is high. Such monitoring might provide valuable information about impact of acid rain.

  16. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to phytosterol oxidation products from baked food in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinzhou; Wang, Mengmeng; Huang, Weisu; Yang, Guoliang; Lou, Tiantian; Lai, Shiyun; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei

    2018-02-01

    Phytosterols are nutritional phytochemicals that may undergo oxidation and be transformed into phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), thus inducing pathological and toxic effects. This work investigated four main phytosterols and 28 POPs in 104 kinds of commercial baked food by using GC-MS. The dietary exposure and hazard index values (HI) associated with POPs from baked food consumption in China were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. Concentrations of the total phytosterols were between 3.39 and 209.80 μg/g. The total concentrations of POPs, including 5α,6α/5β,6β-epoxysterols, 7-ketosterol, 7α/7β-hydroxysterols, 6-hydroxysterols, and triols, ranged from 0.37 to 27.81 μg/g. The median dietary exposure of POP contents in baked food for four age groups in China were 10.91 (children), 6.20 (adolescents), 3.63 (adults), and 3.40 (seniors) mg/(kg×day). Risk assessment of median HI with respect to POPs indicated no risk (HI China, while a risk (1 China. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis showed that the most significant variables for each age group in China were POP concentration, body weight, and ingestion rate.

  17. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  18. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  19. Dietary Exposure and Natural Occurrence of Total Aflatoxins in Basmati Rice of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Nighat; Tahira, Iffat; Kausar, Mumtaz; Hassan, Syed Mujahid; Hanif, Nafeesa Qudsia

    2017-02-01

    This study presents the assessment of total aflatoxins (TAFs) in basmati rice (brown, 1,081; white, 1,170) collected from different areas of Punjab, Pakistan, during 2010 to 2015. Due to the carcinogenicity of TAFs, daily dietary exposure is also evaluated based on rice consumption survey data. Methodology was standardized by matrix spike recoveries at four fortification levels (0.1, 0.5, 2.5, and 12.5 ng/g) for TAFs (aflatoxins B1 [AFB1], B2 [AFB2], G1 [AFG1], and G2 [AFG2]). The present study reveals that 1,750 samples (77.74%) were tainted with AFB1, whereas TAFs were detected in 370 samples (16.43%). Of positive samples, 854 brown rice samples (79%) were positive for AFB1, and 154 samples (14.24%) were contaminated with TAFs. For white rice, 896 samples (76.58%) were contaminated with AFB1, whereas 205 samples (18.46%) were found positive for TAFs. Study findings were used to construct a frequency distribution, and AFB1 levels were also compared against permissible levels of TAFs (10 ng/g) as legislated by the European Commission. Results further revealed that daily dietary exposure of TAFs ranged from 0.51 to 10.22 ng/kg of body weight per day, which exceeds the permissible limit of 1 ng/kg of body weight per day as defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  20. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites in child and adult populations in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtiaga, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Azpiri, Mikel; Alonso, Ana; Dorronsoro, Miren

    2013-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additive in food. The aim of this study was to assess dietary sulphite intake in adults aged 35-65 years and in children aged 4-18 years living in the Basque Country, northern Spain. We determined sulphite concentrations in 909 samples covering 16 food types. The maximum permitted levels were exceeded in 17% of samples. Making recommended assumptions for non-quantifiable results, estimates of mean lower and upper bounds were calculated for sulphite concentrations in each food type. These sulphite data were combined with consumption data derived from 8417 adults from the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Gipuzkoa, recruited in 1992-1995 using a diet history method, and 1055 children from the Basque Country Nutrition Children Survey, conducted in 2004-2005 using two 24-h recall questionnaires to assess diet. The results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The mean dietary exposure to sulphites was 0.08 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, only 11% of the ADI in the overall group of children (4-18 years old), but the acceptable intake was exceeded by 4% of 4-6 year olds. For the adults (35-65 years old), the mean dietary exposure was 0.31 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, 45% of the ADI, but the acceptable intake was exceeded in 14.6% of cases. The major contributing foods were minced meat and other meat products for children and wine for adults.

  1. Dietary BMAA exposure in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cluster from southern France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Masseret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary exposure to the cyanotoxin BMAA is suspected to be the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Western Pacific Islands. In Europe and North America, this toxin has been identified in the marine environment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clusters but, to date, only few dietary exposures have been described. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at identifying cluster(s of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Hérault district, a coastal district from Southern France, and to search, in the identified area(s, for the existence of a potential dietary source of BMAA. METHODS: A spatio-temporal cluster analysis was performed in the district, considering all incident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases identified from 1994 to 2009 by our expert center. We investigated the cluster area with serial collections of oysters and mussels that were subsequently analyzed blind for BMAA concentrations. RESULTS: We found one significant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cluster (p = 0.0024, surrounding the Thau lagoon, the most important area of shellfish production and consumption along the French Mediterranean coast. BMAA was identified in mussels (1.8 µg/g to 6.0 µg/g and oysters (0.6 µg/g to 1.6 µg/g. The highest concentrations of BMAA were measured during summer when the highest picocyanobacteria abundances were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: While it is not possible to ascertain a direct link between shellfish consumption and the existence of this ALS cluster, these results add new data to the potential association of BMAA with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, one of the most severe neurodegenerative disorder.

  2. Dietary vitamin D exposure prevents obesity-induced increase in endometrial cancer in Pten+/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Cline, Mark; Maxwell, Larry G; Berrigan, David; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Warri, Anni; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2010-10-01

    The possibility that dietary vitamin D(3) (VD(3)) exposure inhibits endometrial carcinogenesis in an animal model and modifies the enhanced risk of endometrial carcinoma associated with obesity was investigated. At 4 weeks of age, Pten(+/-) and wild-type mice were each divided into four treatment groups and fed AIN93G control diet, or AIN93G-based diet containing either 25,000 international units of VD(3) per kilogram of diet, 58% fat to induce obesity (high fat), or high fat and 25,000 international units of VD(3) per kilogram of diet. Mice were kept on these diets until they were sacrificed at week 28. Although VD(3) did not affect endometrial cancer risk, it inhibited obesity-induced increase in endometrial lesions. Specifically, high-fat diet increased focal glandular hyperplasia with atypia and malignant lesions from 58% in the control diet-fed Pten(+/-) mice to 78% in obese mice. Dietary VD(3) decreased the incidence of endometrial pathology in obese Pten(+/-) mice to 25% (P endometrial expression of 25-hydroxylase, 1α-hydroxylase, and vitamin D receptor in the wild-type and Pten(+/-) mice. Estrogen receptor-α mRNA levels were higher (P obesity-induced increase in osteopontin (P obese Pten(+/-) mice. Our data confirm the known association between obesity and endometrial cancer risk. Dietary exposure to VD(3) inhibited the carcinogenic effect of obesity on the endometrium. This protective effect was linked to a reduction in the expression of osteopontin and increase in E-cadherin. ©2010 AACR.

  3. Dietary BMAA Exposure in an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cluster from Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseret, Estelle; Banack, Sandra; Boumédiène, Farid; Abadie, Eric; Brient, Luc; Pernet, Fabrice; Juntas-Morales, Raoul; Pageot, Nicolas; Metcalf, James; Cox, Paul; Camu, William

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary exposure to the cyanotoxin BMAA is suspected to be the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Western Pacific Islands. In Europe and North America, this toxin has been identified in the marine environment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clusters but, to date, only few dietary exposures have been described. Objectives We aimed at identifying cluster(s) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Hérault district, a coastal district from Southern France, and to search, in the identified area(s), for the existence of a potential dietary source of BMAA. Methods A spatio-temporal cluster analysis was performed in the district, considering all incident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases identified from 1994 to 2009 by our expert center. We investigated the cluster area with serial collections of oysters and mussels that were subsequently analyzed blind for BMAA concentrations. Results We found one significant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cluster (p = 0.0024), surrounding the Thau lagoon, the most important area of shellfish production and consumption along the French Mediterranean coast. BMAA was identified in mussels (1.8 µg/g to 6.0 µg/g) and oysters (0.6 µg/g to 1.6 µg/g). The highest concentrations of BMAA were measured during summer when the highest picocyanobacteria abundances were recorded. Conclusions While it is not possible to ascertain a direct link between shellfish consumption and the existence of this ALS cluster, these results add new data to the potential association of BMAA with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, one of the most severe neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:24349504

  4. Dietary BMAA exposure in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cluster from southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseret, Estelle; Banack, Sandra; Boumédiène, Farid; Abadie, Eric; Brient, Luc; Pernet, Fabrice; Juntas-Morales, Raoul; Pageot, Nicolas; Metcalf, James; Cox, Paul; Camu, William

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to the cyanotoxin BMAA is suspected to be the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Western Pacific Islands. In Europe and North America, this toxin has been identified in the marine environment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clusters but, to date, only few dietary exposures have been described. We aimed at identifying cluster(s) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Hérault district, a coastal district from Southern France, and to search, in the identified area(s), for the existence of a potential dietary source of BMAA. A spatio-temporal cluster analysis was performed in the district, considering all incident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases identified from 1994 to 2009 by our expert center. We investigated the cluster area with serial collections of oysters and mussels that were subsequently analyzed blind for BMAA concentrations. We found one significant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cluster (p = 0.0024), surrounding the Thau lagoon, the most important area of shellfish production and consumption along the French Mediterranean coast. BMAA was identified in mussels (1.8 µg/g to 6.0 µg/g) and oysters (0.6 µg/g to 1.6 µg/g). The highest concentrations of BMAA were measured during summer when the highest picocyanobacteria abundances were recorded. While it is not possible to ascertain a direct link between shellfish consumption and the existence of this ALS cluster, these results add new data to the potential association of BMAA with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, one of the most severe neurodegenerative disorder.

  5. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys

    OpenAIRE

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgeni...

  6. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) following dietary exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amlund, Heidi [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: heidi.amlund@nifes.no; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Berntssen, Marc H.G. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2007-08-01

    Methylmercury is known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the marine food chain. Fish from high levels of the marine food chain may contain relatively high concentrations of mercury, and most (>70%) of the mercury found in muscle is methylmercury. In aquaculture, marine protein (mainly fishmeal) is the dominant source of methylmercury, and this raises some concern with regards to fish welfare and consumer safety. A dietary exposure study, including a depuration period, was carried out in order to study the accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), and to estimate the transfer of methylmercury from feed to fish. Fish were sampled throughout a three month exposure period and a three month depuration period. Muscle samples were fractionated into a protein and a lipid fraction by lipid extraction using methanol and chloroform. Mercury and methylmercury were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS), respectively. A continuous accumulation of methylmercury, after a lag period of 10 days, was observed in muscle tissue during the three months exposure to methylmercury (0.95+/-0.03{mu}g Hg/g feed, n=6). After three months, the final concentration in muscle was 0.38+/-0.04{mu}g Hg/gww (n=6), where methylmercury constituted 90-95% of the mercury present. The elimination of methylmercury from muscle was slow and incomplete (within the three months of depuration) with an estimated elimination half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of 377 days. The transfer of methylmercury from feed to Atlantic cod, described by the estimated absorption efficiency, was 38%. In muscle more than 99% of the mercury was found in the protein fraction. These results suggest that Atlantic cod readily takes up dietary methylmercury, which is efficiently accumulated into muscle, where it is incorporated into larger peptides or proteins. Comparable results were found for

  8. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  9. Aluminum exposure for 60days at an equivalent human dietary level promotes peripheral dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Vera, Gema; Ocio, José Antonio Uranga; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Miguel, Marta; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2017-08-25

    Aluminum (Al) is a neurotoxic associated with a number of chronic human diseases. We investigated the effects of Al exposure at doses similar to human dietary levels and at a high level exposure to Al on the peripheral nervous system. Wistar male rats were divided into two major groups and received orally: 1) First group - Low level - rats were subdivided and treated for 60days: a) Control - received ultrapure water; b) AlCl3 - received Al at 8.3mg/kg body weight (bw) for 60days; and 2) Second group - High level - rats were subdivided and treated for 42days: C) Control - received ultrapure water through oral gavage; d) AlCl3 - received Al at 100mg/kg bw for 42days. Von Frey hair test, plantar test, the presence of catalepsy and the spontaneous motor activity were investigated. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity, immunohistochemistry to investigate the nerve inflammation and, the specific presence of Al in the sciatic nerve fibers were investigated. Al exposure at a representative human dietary level promotes the development of mechanical allodynia, catalepsy, increased inflammation in the sciatic nerve, systemic oxidative stress and, is able to be retained in the sciatic nerve. The effects of low-dose Al were similar to those found in rats exposed to Al at a dose much higher (100mg/kg). Our findings suggest that Al may be considered toxic for the peripheral nervous system, thus inducing peripheral dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between dietary factors and bisphenol a exposure: the second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012-2014)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jin-Soo Park; Seyoung Kim; Minkyu Park; Yeji Kim; Hyeeun Lee; Hyunrim Choi; Sinye Lim

    2017-01-01

    Even though a nationwide biomonitoring of BPA exposure was conducted on the Korean general population, there is still not enough number of studies exploring the relation between BPA exposure level and dietary factors...

  11. Antioxidant defenses in polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and responsiveness toward dietary crude oil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieweg, Ireen; Benedetti, Maura; Lanzoni, Ilaria; Regoli, Francesco; Nahrgang, Jasmine

    2017-09-01

    Increasing anthropogenic activities in the Arctic pose the risk for accidental oil spills but our knowledge of ecotoxicological effects is still limited for Arctic organisms. This study aimed to provide insights in baseline levels of antioxidants in polar cod (Boreogadus saida) from different Arctic locations and investigate the susceptibility of this species to oxidative stress during a 32 day dietary crude oil exposure. Baseline levels of individual antioxidants and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) varied among different Arctic fjords. Upon crude oil exposure, dose- and time-dependent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biotransformation was evident through hepatic ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity, glutathione S-transferase mRNA expression and biliary PAH metabolites. Changes in the activity of individual antioxidants and TOSC was, however, slight and transient upon exposure. In conclusion, biotransformation was clearly induced by the sub-lethal levels of crude oil in polar cod, while the antioxidant defense responded with high variability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Levels of estragole in fennel teas marketed in Austria and assessment of dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihats, Daniela; Pilsbacher, Leopold; Gabernig, Robert; Routil, Martin; Gutternigg, Martin; Laenger, Reinhard

    2017-08-01

    Levels of estragole in fennel teas (n = 42) on the Austrian market and the associated dietary exposure were assessed in this study. The estimated daily exposure from consumption of fennel teas ranged from 0.25 to 5.04 μg kg -1 d -1 , 0.32 to 6.42 μg kg -1 d -1 , and 0.15 to 2.93 μg kg -1 d -1 for children, women, and men, respectively. Daily estragole exposures for infants were 0.008-20.78 μg kg -1 d -1 . Despite MOE values are above 10,000 for nearly half of the fennel teas analyzed, there are still MOEs below this value indicating a potential risk for human health and a priority for risk management. However, fennel teas are generally consumed only for short periods of gastrointestinal disorders. Estimated daily intakes may, therefore, be conservative and tend to overestimate the potential risk for human health.

  13. Dietary PCDD/PCDF exposure estimates for the U.S. population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P.; S. Kathleen Egan; Troxell, T.; P. Michael Bolger [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are a group of environmental contaminants whose primary route of human exposure occurs via the consumption of fatty foods of animal origin. Since the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has tested specific foods with the goal of describing and reducing DLC exposure. In 1999, FDA's dioxin monitoring program began analyzing foods collected under its Total Diet Study (TDS). Conducted annually since 1961, the TDS is FDA's ongoing market basket survey designed to monitor the U.S. food supply for levels of toxic chemical contaminants (pesticide residues, industrial chemicals and toxic elements) and nutritional elements. This paper reports on dietary exposure estimates for DLCs, specifically polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), calculated from results of PCDD/PCDF analyses of TDS samples from 2001 and 2002 and food consumption data collected in USDA's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII).

  14. High-level dietary cadmium exposure is associated with global DNA hypermethylation in the gastropod hepatopancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos V Nica

    Full Text Available 5-methylcytosine (5mC is a key epigenetic mark which influences gene expression and phenotype. In vertebrates, this epigenetic mark is sensitive to Cd exposure, but there is no information linking such an event with changes in global 5mC levels in terrestrial gastropods despite their importance as excellentecotoxicological bioindicators of metal contamination. Therefore, we first evaluated total 5mC content in DNA of the hepatopancreas of adult Cantareus aspersus with the aim to determine whether this epigenetic mark is responsive to Cd exposure. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions and involved a continuous exposure, multiple dose- and time-point (14, 28, and 56 days study design. Hepatopancreas cadmium levels were measured using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and the percentage of 5-mC in samples using an ELISA-based colorimetric assay. Snail death rates were also assessed. Our results, for the first time, reveal the presence of 5mC in C. aspersus and provide evidence for Cd-induced changes in global 5mC levels in DNA of gastropods and mollusks. Although less sensitive than tissue accumulation, DNA methylation levels responded in a dose- and time-dependent manner to dietary cadmium, with exposure dose having a much stronger effect than exposure duration. An obvious trend of increasing 5mC levels was observed starting at 28 days of exposure to the second highest dose and this trend persisted at the two highest treatments for close to one month, when the experiment was terminated after 56 days. Moreover, a strong association was identified between Cd concentrations in the hepatopancreas and DNA methylation levels in this organ. These data indicate an overall trend towards DNA hypermethylation with elevated Cd exposure. No consistent lethal effect was observed, irrespective of time point and Cd-dosage. Overall, our findings suggest that the total 5mC content in DNA of the hepatopancreas of land snails is responsive to

  15. Dietary antioxidants and the biochemical response to oxidant inhalation. II. Influence of dietary selenium on the biochemical effects of ozone exposure in mouse lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, N.M.; Hacker, A.D.; Kuehn, K.; Mustafa, M.G.; Schrauzer, G.N.

    1983-12-01

    The influence of dietary selenium (Se) on the pulmonary biochemical response to ozone (O/sub 3/) exposure was examined. For 11 weeks, weanling female strain A/St mice were fed a test diet containing Se either at 0 ppm (-Se) or 1 ppm (+Se). Each diet contained 55 ppm vitamin E (vit E). Mice from each dietary group were exposed to 0.8 +/- 0.05 ppm (1568 +/- 98 micrograms/m3) O/sub 3/ continuously for 5 days. After O/sub 3/ exposure, they were killed along with a matched number of unexposed controls, and their lungs were analyzed for various biochemical parameters. The Se contents of lung tissue and whole blood were determined, and the levels were seven- to eightfold higher in +Se mice than in -Se mice, reflecting the Se intake of the animals. In unexposed control mice, Se deficiency caused a decline in glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity relative to +Se group. After O/sub 3/ exposure, the GP activity in the -Se group was associated with a lack of stimulation of glutathione reductase (GR) activity and the pentose phosphate cycle (PPC) as assessed by measuring glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) activities. In contrast, the +Se group after O/sub 3/ exposure exhibited increases in all four enzyme activities. Other parameters, e.g., lung weight, total lung protein, DNA and nonprotein sulfhydryl contents, and O/sub 2/ consumption, were not affected by dietary Se in the presence or absence of O/sub 3/ exposure. The data indicate that dietary Se alters the GP activity, which in turn influences the GR and PPC activities in the lung evidently through a reduced demand for NADPH. The level of vit E in the lung was found to be twofold higher in the -Se group than in the +Se group, suggesting a compensatory relationship between Se and vit E in the lung. With O3 exposure, both Se and vit E contents further increased in the lungs of each dietary group.

  16. Leeches as indicators of dietary mercury exposure in non-piscivorous waterfowl in central Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, D K; Mallory, M L; Mierle, G; Scheuhammer, A M; Wong, A H

    1997-01-01

    We collected and analysed 113 leeches (Hirudinea) from 17 small lakes in the acid-stressed Muskoka region of central Ontario, Canada to examine the relationship between lake chemistry and mercury (Hg) concentrations in leeches, and thus determine whether leeches and other benthic invertebrates posed a dietary risk of Hg exposure for non-piscivorous waterfowl. Hg concentrations in leeches were generally low and only a few-fold above the detection limit (0.78 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww)). Mean Hg concentration in the bloodsucker Macrobdella decora was 6.94 +/- 0.78 SE ng g(-1) ww (n=49) and was 5.98 +/- 0.46 ng g(-1) ww (n=64) in the scavenger Percymoorensis marmoratis. Leech Hg concentrations were correlated with calcium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in the water, respectively. These data suggest that leeches are not suitable monitors of Hg (usually as methylmercury) biomagnification in central Ontario lakes, and do not pose a dietary risk to non-piscivorous waterfowl.

  17. Design, development and validation of software for modelling dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, C; Naddy, B; Rohan, D; Sexton, J

    2003-10-01

    The Monte Carlo computational system for stochastic modelling of dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients is presented. This system was developed through a European Commission-funded research project. It is accessible as a Web-based application service. The system allows and supports very significant complexity in the data sets used as the model input, but provides a simple, general purpose, linear kernel for model evaluation. Specific features of the system include the ability to enter (arbitrarily) complex mathematical or probabilistic expressions at each and every input data field, automatic bootstrapping on subjects and on subject food intake diaries, and custom kernels to apply brand information such as market share and loyalty to the calculation of food and chemical intake.

  18. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly thereafter to the women. A dietary questionnaire was filled in. Follow-up three months later included a dietary questionnaire and a repeat hair-mercury analysis. In the follow-up group, 22% of the women had hair-mercury concentrations above a safe limit of 0.58 µg/g at enrolment, decreasing to 8% three months later. Average hair-mercury concentrations decreased by 21%. However, the total seafood intake remained at the same level after three months. Increased exposure to methylmercury among pregnant women is an important public health concern in Denmark. The observed lowering of hair-mercury concentrations associated with dietary advice corresponds to a substantial public health benefit that probably makes such an intervention highly profitable.

  19. Infant dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2013-09-01

    The dietary exposure of infants to polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) is an issue of great social impact. We investigated for the first time the dietary intake of these compounds in infants living in Greece. We included in our study two age groups: 0-6 months, when infants are fed exclusively by human milk and/or formula milk, and 6 to 12 months, when solid food is introduced to nutrition. We took into consideration analytical results for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs concentrations in the most popular infant formulae in the Greek market, previous data for mother milk concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from Greece, and finally analytical data for fat-containing food products from the Greek market. In the first study group, it was found than in infants exclusively fed by breast milk, the calculated sum of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (60.3-80.4 TEQ pg/kg body weight) was significantly higher than that of infants that consume a combination of human milk and formula (31.2-41.6 TEQ pg/kg body weight). In the second study group, separate daily intake estimations were performed for babies receiving human milk (estimated total daily intake 19.76-24.95 TEQ pg/kg body weight) and formula milk (estimated total daily intake 1.60-2.24 TEQ pg/kg body weight). The risks of this exposure should not be overestimated because nursing is restricted to a limited period of human life and besides, the potential consumption of higher levels of dioxin-like compounds is fully compensated by the significant benefits of breast-feeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants and metals among Inuit and Chukchi in Russian Arctic Chukotka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs and metals among Eskimo (Inuit and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction. Study design. A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001–2003; assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures. Methods. Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons, chemical analyses (POPs and metals of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples, substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly intakes of traditional food. Results. POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal, fats (whale and seal, liver (most animals and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal. Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. Conclusions. Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination

  1. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Svensson, K.; Moussavian, S.; Voet, van der H.; Petersen, A.; Ruprich, J.; Debegnach, F.; Boer, de W.J.; Donkersgoed, van G.; Brera, C.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Busk, L.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised at

  2. Can current dietary exposure models handle aggregated intake from different foods? A simulation study for the case of two foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, W.; Boer, de W.J.; Voet, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary exposure models provide estimates of long-term intake distributions using short-term food consumption survey data, by statistically modeling the aggregated intakes from different foods consumed on the same day for each participant of the survey. Food consumption behaviour in a

  3. Can current dietary exposure models handle aggregated intake from different foods? A simulation study for the case of two foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072675705; de Boer, W.J.; van der Voet, H.

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary exposure models provide estimates of long-term intake distributions using short-term food consumption survey data, by statistically modeling the aggregated intakes from different foods consumed on the same day for each participant of the survey. Food consumption behaviour in a

  4. Dietary predictors of young children’s exposures to chlorpyrifos, permethrin, and 2,4-D using urinary biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few data exist on the association between dietary habits and urinary biomarker concentrations of pesticides in children. The objective was to examined the association between the weekly intake frequency of 65 food items and urinary biomarkers of exposure to chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-tr...

  5. Risk assessment of chronic dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.M.; Sprong, R.C.; Wester, P.W.; Boevre, de M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a risk assessment of dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside (DON-3G) in the Dutch population was conducted. Data on DON-3G levels in food products available in the Netherlands are scarce. Therefore, data on co-occurring levels of DON-3G and

  6. A novel approach reveals that zinc oxide nanoparticles are bioavailable and toxic after dietary exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, M.-N.; Dybowska, A.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2011-01-01

    If engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, some are likely to end up associated with the food of animals due to aggregation and sorption processes. However, few studies have considered dietary exposure of nanomaterials. Here we show that zinc (Zn) from isotopically modified 67ZnO particles is efficiently assimilated by freshwater snails when ingested with food. The 67Zn from nano-sized 67ZnO appears as bioavailable as 67Zn internalized by diatoms. Apparent agglomeration of the zinc oxide (ZnO) particles did not reduce bioavailability, nor preclude toxicity. In the diet, ZnO nanoparticles damage digestion: snails ate less, defecated less and inefficiently processed the ingested food when exposed to high concentrations of ZnO. It was not clear whether the toxicity was due to the high Zn dose achieved with nanoparticles or to the ZnO nanoparticles themselves. Further study of exposure from nanoparticles in food would greatly benefit assessment of ecological and human health risks. ?? 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  7. Dietary mercury exposure to endangered California Clapper Rails in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Ricca, Mark A.; Overton, Cory T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Merritt, Angela M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) are an endangered waterbird that forage in tidal-marsh habitats that pose risks from mercury exposure. We analyzed total mercury (Hg) in six macro-invertebrate and one fish species representing Clapper Rail diets from four tidal-marshes in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations among individual taxa ranged from lowest at Colma Creek (mean range: 0.09–0.2 μg/g dw) to highest at Cogswell (0.2–0.7), Laumeister (0.2–0.9) and Arrowhead Marshes (0.3–1.9). These spatial patterns for Hg matched patterns reported previously in Clapper Rail blood from the same four marshes. Over 25% of eastern mudsnails (Ilyanassa obsolete) and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) exceeded dietary Hg concentrations (ww) often associated with avian reproductive impairment. Our results indicate that Hg concentrations vary considerably among tidal-marshes and diet taxa, and Hg concentrations of prey may provide an appropriate proxy for relative exposure risk for Clapper Rails.

  8. Bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong

    2013-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure under laboratory conditions were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. The wheat bran fed to Tenebrio molitor larvae was spiked with racemic myclobutanil at two dose levels of 20 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg (dry weight). The results showed that there was a significant trend of enantioselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-myclobutanil in 20 mg/kg dose exposure, but it was not obviously observed in the 2 mg/kg dose group. A kinetic model considering enantiomerization between the two enantiomers based on first-order reactions was built and the rate constants were estimated to discuss the kinetic reason for the different concentrations of individual enantiomers in the larvae. The approximations implied an inversion between the two enantiomers with a relatively higher rate of the inversion from (-)-myclobutanil to (+)-myclobutanil. Meanwhile, analysis of data of excretion samples suggested the active excretion is probably an important pathway for the insect to eliminate myclobutanil rapidly with nonenantioselectivity as a passive transport process, which was consistent with the low accumulation efficiency of myclobutanil measured by BAF (bioaccumulation factor). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Norwegian foods and beverages and estimated dietary exposure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit K; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; Voorspoels, Stefan; Carlsen, Monica H; Løken, Elin B; Brantsæter, Anne L; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2014-12-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous in our environment. These chemicals have been characterized as endocrine disruptors that can cause functional impairment of development and reproduction. Processed and packaged foods are among the major sources of human exposure to these chemicals. No previous report showing the levels of these chemicals in food items purchased in Norway is available. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of ten different phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages purchased on the Norwegian market and estimate the daily dietary exposure in the Norwegian adult population. Commonly consumed foods and beverages in Norway were purchased in a grocery store and analysed using gas- and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Daily dietary exposures to these chemicals in the Norwegian adult population were estimated using the latest National dietary survey, Norkost 3 (2010-2011). This study showed that phthalates and BPA are found in all foods and beverages that are common to consume in Norway. The detection frequency of phthalates in the food items varied from 11% for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) to 84% for di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), one of the substitutes for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). BPA was found in 54% of the food items analysed. Among the different phthalates, the highest concentrations were found for DEHP and DiNP in the food items. Estimated dietary exposures were also equally high and dominated by DEHP and DiNP (400-500 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day), followed by di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP) (30-40 ng/kg bw/day). Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP) and DCHP had the lowest concentrations and the exposures were around 10-20 ng/kg bw/day. Estimated dietary exposure to BPA was 5 ng/kg bw/day. In general, levels of phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages from the Norwegian market

  10. Markers of systemic exposures to products of intestinal bacteria in a dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Faith I; Kato, Ikuko; Ren, Jianwei; Wachowiak, Phillip L; Ruffin, Mack T; Turgeon, D Kim; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E; Djuric, Zora

    2016-03-01

    Systemic exposures to intestinal bacteria may play a role in the etiology of the chronic, low-grade inflammation that is associated with western diets. Production of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is one biomarker of increased exposures to intestinal bacteria. This study evaluated whether changes in diet quality could affect serum LBP. This was a randomized, controlled trial of Mediterranean and Healthy Eating diets over 6 months in 120 healthy subjects at increased risk of colon cancer. Blood samples obtained before and after intervention were analyzed for LBP, branched-chain fatty acids characteristic of intestinal bacteria, micronutrients and cytokines. Data were analyzed for changes in LBP over time and for predictors of LBP. Serum concentrations of branched-chain bacterial fatty acids declined significantly in both diet groups. However, there was no significant change in mean serum LBP concentrations with either diet intervention. In serum, LBP was positively associated with CRP and negatively associated with carotenoids both before and after intervention. After intervention, LBP was predicted positively by both CRP and bacterial fatty acid concentrations in serum, and negatively by serum carotenoids and the ω3/ω6 fatty acid ratio. This model accounted for 30 % of the inter-individual variation in serum LBP after intervention. These results indicate that dietary intervention over 6 months was insufficient to alter serum LBP. The relationships with inflammation-related markers, however, indicate that anti-inflammatory strategies other than changes in diet quality, such as weight loss or improved fitness, may have more potential for reducing systemic markers of LPS exposures in well-nourished populations.

  11. Scopolamine in racing horses: trace identifications associated with dietary or environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Kimberly; Dirikolu, Levent; Hughes, Charlie G; Tobin, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Scopolamine (L-hyoscine) identifications, often in small-number clusters, have been reported worldwide in performance horses over the last 30 years. Scopolamine is an Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) class 3, penalty class B, substance with potential to affect performance. As such, scopolamine identification(s) in race or performance horses can result in significant penalties for the connections of the horse(s). Reviewed here is the worldwide distribution of scopolamine containing plants (primarily Datura spp.), with estimates of their potential toxicity to horses through dietary and/or environmental exposure. Also reviewed are the basic pharmacology of scopolamine and its precursor, urinary concentrations following feedstuff exposure, and the probable pharmacological/forensic significance of such findings. Based on an overview of the world literature on scopolamine, the expected characteristics of inadvertent environmental exposure are also presented with a view to making clear the potential of scopolamine identifications, with or without atropine, as a direct and expected outcome of both the worldwide distribution of scopolamine-containing plants and the sensitivity of modern equine drug testing. It is of particular interest that only 2/30 reported post-event equine identifications of scopolamine have been associated with atropine, suggesting that failure to identify atropine is not a biomarker of pharmaceutical administration of scopolamine. Available quantitative information associated with scopolamine identifications is consistent with the 75 ng/mL regulatory threshold for scopolamine currently used in Louisiana racing in the USA and the 30 ng/mL reporting threshold in effect in European racing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative stress and immunologic responses following a dietary exposure to PAHs in Mya arenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier-Clerc Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this research was to investigate oxidative stress and immune responses following a dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH exposure in a marine bioindicator organism, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria. Immune parameters in hemolymph (haemocyte number, efficiency of phagocytosis and haemocyte activity and assessment of oxidative stress using catalase (CAT activity and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA performed on the digestive gland were estimated as biomarkers in clams fed in mesocosm with PAH contaminated phytoplankton. MDA levels and CAT activities were also measured in situ in organisms sampled in a control site (Metis Beach, Québec, Canada as well as organisms sampled in a site receiving domestic effluents (Pointe-au-Père, Québec, Canada, to assess effects of abiotic variables related to seasonal variations and mixed contamination on the selected parameters. Results Results on immune parameters suggest that the PAHs may interfere with the maturation and/or differentiation processes of haemocytes. MDA results showed that lipid peroxidation did not occur following the exposure. The levels of CAT activity corresponded to weak antioxidant activity (no significant differences. Recovery was noted for all the immune endpoints at the end of the experiment. Conclusion Results suggest that immune parameters are early biomarkers that can efficiently detect a physiological change during a short term exposure to low concentrations of PAHs. The in situ survey (in the natural environment suggested that clams from the Pointe-au-Père site did not show any oxidative stress as well as the clams contaminated in mesocosm, probably due to the low concentrations of PAHs used for this study. MDA levels increased however in organisms from Metis Beach, a response probably related to domestic effluents or parasitism.

  13. Oxidative stress and immunologic responses following a dietary exposure to PAHs in Mya arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichaud, Nicolas; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Fournier, Michel; Gauthier-Clerc, Sophie; Rioux, Pascal; Pelletier, Emilien

    2008-12-02

    The aim of this research was to investigate oxidative stress and immune responses following a dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in a marine bioindicator organism, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria. Immune parameters in hemolymph (haemocyte number, efficiency of phagocytosis and haemocyte activity) and assessment of oxidative stress using catalase (CAT) activity and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) performed on the digestive gland were estimated as biomarkers in clams fed in mesocosm with PAH contaminated phytoplankton. MDA levels and CAT activities were also measured in situ in organisms sampled in a control site (Metis Beach, Québec, Canada) as well as organisms sampled in a site receiving domestic effluents (Pointe-au-Père, Québec, Canada), to assess effects of abiotic variables related to seasonal variations and mixed contamination on the selected parameters. Results on immune parameters suggest that the PAHs may interfere with the maturation and/or differentiation processes of haemocytes. MDA results showed that lipid peroxidation did not occur following the exposure. The levels of CAT activity corresponded to weak antioxidant activity (no significant differences). Recovery was noted for all the immune endpoints at the end of the experiment. Results suggest that immune parameters are early biomarkers that can efficiently detect a physiological change during a short term exposure to low concentrations of PAHs. The in situ survey (in the natural environment) suggested that clams from the Pointe-au-Père site did not show any oxidative stress as well as the clams contaminated in mesocosm, probably due to the low concentrations of PAHs used for this study. MDA levels increased however in organisms from Metis Beach, a response probably related to domestic effluents or parasitism.

  14. Evidence that prenatal programming of hypertension by dietary protein deprivation is mediated by fetal glucocorticoid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sabeen; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Twombley, Katherine; Baum, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal programming by maternal dietary protein deprivation and prenatal dexamethasone result in a reduction in nephron number and hypertension when the offspring are studied as adults. To determine whether prenatal dietary protein deprivation results in a reduction in nephron number and hypertension in offspring by exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, we administered metyrapone to rats fed either a 6% or 20% protein diet to inhibit glucocorticoid production and compared the offspring to rats that were the product of mothers fed either a 6% or 20% protein diet during the last half of pregnancy. Male offspring from the 6% group had elevated systolic blood pressure (149 ± 2 vs. 130 ± 5 mm Hg, P < 0.05) and a reduction in glomeruli compared to the 20% group (22,111 ± 627 vs. 29,666 ± 654 glomeruli/kidney, P < 0.001). Maternal metyrapone administration did not affect the blood pressure in the 20% group but ameliorated the increase in blood pressure in the 6% male group to values comparable to the 20% control group (138 ± 6 vs. 130 ± 5 mm Hg). Male offspring of the 6% group that received metyrapone had an increase in the number of glomeruli compared to the vehicle-treated 6% group (26,780 ± 377 vs. 22,111 ± 627 glomeruli/kidney, P < 0.001), but less glomeruli compared to the 20% protein control group (26,780 ± 377 vs. 29,666 ± 654 glomeruli/kidney, P = 0.01). The reduction in nephron number and hypertension induced by maternal protein deprivation in male offspring is ameliorated by inhibition of glucocorticoid production.

  15. Toxicity and immune system effects of dietary deltamethrin exposure in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Jennifer M W; Smits, Judit E G; Forsyth, Douglas J; Wickstrom, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    from dietary exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of deltamethrin. In light of these findings, it is unlikely that exposure to environmental concentrations of deltamethrin has produced immunosuppression and contributed to the emergence of iridovirus outbreaks in tiger salamander populations.

  16. Quantifying children's aggregate (dietary and residential) exposure and dose to permethrin: application and evaluation of EPA's probabilistic SHEDS-Multimedia model

    OpenAIRE

    Zartarian, Valerie; XUE, JIANPING; Glen, Graham; Smith, Luther; Tulve, Nicolle; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Reliable, evaluated human exposure and dose models are important for understanding the health risks from chemicals. A case study focusing on permethrin was conducted because of this insecticide's widespread use and potential health effects. SHEDS-Multimedia was applied to estimate US population permethrin exposures for 3- to 5-year-old children from residential, dietary, and combined exposure routes, using available dietary consumption data, food residue data, residential concentrations, and ...

  17. Gene expression and pathologic alterations in juvenile rainbow trout due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qing [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Lapham Hall, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E Greenfield Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States); Rise, Matthew L. [Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1 Marine Lab Road, St. John' s, NL, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Spitsbergen, Jan M. [Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, 220 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Hori, Tiago S. [Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1 Marine Lab Road, St. John' s, NL, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Mieritz, Mark; Geis, Steven [Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 465 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McGraw, Joseph E. [School of Pharmacy, Concordia University Wisconsin, 12800 North Lake Shore Drive, Mequon, WI 53097 (United States); Goetz, Giles [School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, 1122 Northeast Boat Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Larson, Jeremy; Hutz, Reinhold J. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Lapham Hall, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Carvan, Michael J., E-mail: carvanmj@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Lapham Hall, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 E Greenfield Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •First report of the effects of dietary TCDD in juvenile trout smaller than 20 g. •TCDD uptake was estimated using published models and confirmed by GC. •First report of dietary TCDD-induced lesions in nasal epithelium in any species. •Several useful biomarkers are identified from microarray-based transcriptomics analysis. -- Abstract: The goal of this project was to use functional genomic methods to identify molecular biomarkers as indicators of the impact of TCDD exposure in rainbow trout. Specifically, we investigated the effects of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on whole juvenile rainbow trout global gene expression associated with histopathological analysis. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb (ng TCDD/g food), and fish were sampled from each group at 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after initiation of feeding. 100 ppb TCDD caused 100% mortality at 39 days. Fish fed with 100 ppb TCDD food had TCDD accumulation of 47.37 ppb (ng TCDD/g fish) in whole fish at 28 days. Histological analysis from TCDD-treated trout sampled from 28 and 42 days revealed that obvious lesions were found in skin, oropharynx, liver, gas bladder, intestine, pancreas, nose and kidney. In addition, TCDD caused anemia in peripheral blood, decreases in abdominal fat, increases of remodeling of fin rays, edema in pericardium and retrobulbar hemorrhage in the 100 ppb TCDD-treated rainbow trout compared to the control group at 28 days. Dose- and time-dependent global gene expression analyses were performed using the cGRASP 16,000 (16K) cDNA microarray. TCDD-responsive whole body transcripts identified in the microarray experiments have putative functions involved in various biological processes including growth, cell proliferation, metabolic process, and immune system processes. Nine microarray-identified genes were selected for QPCR validation. CYP1A3 and CYP1A1 were common up-regulated genes and HBB1 was a common down

  18. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  19. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs): congener specific analysis, occurrence in food, and dietary exposure in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alwyn; Mortimer, David; Gem, Martin; Smith, Frankie; Rose, Martin; Panton, Sean; Carr, Melanie

    2010-05-01

    Information on the occurrence of toxicologically significant polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in food, or on human exposure, is sparse. In this work, PCN congeners (PCNs 52, 53, 66/67, 68, 69, 71/72, 73, 74, and 75) were selected for analysis, based on the available literature on current occurrence and toxicology, and limited by the commercial availability of reference standards. The analytical methodology used cold solvent extraction of prehydrolyzed samples fortified with internal standards ((13)C(10) labeled PCNs), activated carbon and basic alumina purification, and measurement by HRGC-HRMS. The investigation showed PCN occurrence in all studied foods: meat, milk, fish, dairy and meat products, eggs, poultry, vegetables, fruits, etc. The most frequently detected congeners were PCN 52, PCNs 66/67, and PCN 73. The highest concentrations were observed in fish (maximum value of 37 ng/kg w.w. for the sum of the measured congeners). The dioxin-like toxicity (PCN TEQ) associated with these concentrations is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported for chlorinated dioxins or PCBs in food and, on the basis of dietary intakes estimated using very conservative assumptions regarding concentrations of these contaminants in the UK, the levels of PCNs alone in food do not suggest any toxicological concerns.

  20. Resistance of developing honeybee larvae during chronic exposure to dietary nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, H; Archer, C R; du Rand, E E; Pirk, C W W; Nicolson, S W

    2014-10-01

    The effects of pesticides on honeybee larvae are less understood than for adult bees, even though larvae are chronically exposed to pesticide residues that accumulate in comb and food stores in the hive. We investigated how exposure to a plant alkaloid, nicotine, affects survival, growth and body composition of honeybee larvae. Larvae of Apis mellifera scutellata were reared in vitro and fed throughout development on standard diets with nicotine included at concentrations from 0 to 1000μg/100g diet. Overall mortality across all nicotine treatments was low, averaging 9.8% at the prepupal stage and 18.1% at the white-eyed pupal stage, but survival was significantly reduced by nicotine. The mass of prepupae and white-eyed pupae was not affected by nicotine. In terms of body composition, nicotine affected water content but did not influence either protein or lipid stores of white-eyed pupae. We attribute the absence of consistent negative effects of dietary nicotine to detoxification mechanisms in developing honeybees, which enable them to resist both natural and synthetic xenobiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary exposure assessment of ß-lactam antibiotic residues in milk on Croatian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bažulić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary screening report of the occurrence of β-lactam antibiotic residues in milk on Croatian market. The intensive animal production sometimes leads to the unavoidable presence of residues of veterinary drugs in food. However, it is possible to reduce the presence of residues in foods of animal origin by using the principles of good veterinary and good manufacturing practices, continuous control of food and using risk assessment approach. Method used for determination of these antibiotics were validated according to the guidelines laid down by European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The estimated dietary exposure based on the data on average consumption of milk and the estimated concentration of amoxicillin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, cephapirin, cefazolin, cefoperazone and ceftiofur does not exceed relevant toxicological reference value (acceptable daily intake. These indicate that milk on Croatian market contain very low levels of β-lactam antibiotic residues and toxsicological risk with regard to consuming of milk could not be considered as a public health problem.

  2. Toxicological effects of short-term dietary acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Taylor, Marnie; Patry, Dominique; Chomyshyn, Emily; Caldwell, Don; Cooke, Gerard; Mehta, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that acrylamide, a known rodent and probable human carcinogen, does not increase the risk of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colon precancerous lesions when administered through the diet. Here, we present toxicological data from non-AOM-injected rats. Briefly, male F344 rats were randomized into four dietary groups and received experimental diets based on AIN-93G formulation and containing acrylamide at 0 (control), 5, 10 or 50mg/kg diet (wt/wt) ad libitum for 10 weeks, after which they were killed and their blood collected for hematological and biochemical markers. Acrylamide at the higher doses (10 and 50mg/kg diet) significantly lowered (pacrylamide (50mg/kg diet) group compared to control, with a concomitant decrease in hemoglobin level, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. These results provide additional hazard characterization data and strengthen the notion that at high doses, acrylamide may involve systemic toxicity potentiating tumorigenesis in experimental animals. Further studies are required to understand the health effects of food-borne acrylamide, especially at the lower exposures typified by human diets. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  4. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) extract subchronic 90-day safety study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, N.S.; Stohs, S.J.; Magar, C.C.; Kale, A.; Sowmya, B.

    2017-01-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p-Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect...

  5. Safety assessment of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds: Subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayasteltar, Liju; Nair, Gopakumar Gopinathan; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadasan; I.M., Krishnakumar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the various reports on the toxicity of clove oil and its major component eugenol, systematic evaluations on the safety of polyphenolic extracts of clove buds have not been reported. Considering the health beneficial pharmacological effects and recent use of clove polyphenols as dietary supplements, the present study investigated the safety of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds (Clovinol), as assessed by oral acute (5 g/kg b.wt. for 14 days) and subchronic (0.25, 0.5 and...

  6. Acute and Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity of n-Octane in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Choi, Byung-Gil; Kim, Hyeon Yeong; Baek, Min-Won; Ryu, Hyun Youl; Kim, Yong Soon; Choi, Young Kuk; Yu, Il Je; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated the toxic effects of the inhalation of subchronic and acute levels of n-octane. The rats were exposed to n-octane of 0, 2.34, 11.68 and 23.36 mg/L (n = 5 rats/group/gender) in an acute inhalation test (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) TG 403), or to 0, 0.93, 2.62 and 7.48 mg/L (n = 10 rats/group/gender) for a subchronic inhalation test (OECE TG 413), to establish a national chemical management system consistent with the Globally Harmonized Classification System (GHS). Acutely-exposed rats became lethargic but recovered following discontinuation of inhalation. Other clinical symptoms such as change of body weight and autopsy finds were absent. The LC50 for the acute inhalation toxicity of n-octane was determined to exceed 23.36 mg/L and the GHS category was 'not grouping'. Subchronically-treated rats displayed no significant clinical and histopathological differences from untreated controls; also, target organs were affected hematologically, biochemically and pathologically. Therefore, the no observable adverse effect level was indicated as exceeding 7.48 mg/L and the GHS category was 'not grouping' for the specific target organ toxicity upon repeated exposure. However, n-octane exposure should be controlled to be below the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists recommendation (300 ppm) to prevent inhalation-related adverse health effects of workers.

  7. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borga, Katrine [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)]. E-mail: katrine.borga@npolar.no; Wolkers, Hans [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Skaare, Janneche U. [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Hop, Haakon [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2005-04-01

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source ({delta}{sup 13}C) or trophic position ({delta}{sup 15}N), but by a combination of dietary parameters ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, R{sub PCB-153}) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest R{sub PCB-153} values of persistent congeners). Based on high R{sub PCB-153} values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to {sigma}PCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6{beta}-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant

  8. Lack of nephrotoxicity and renal cell proliferation following subchronic dermal application of a hydroquinone cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, R M; English, J C; Totman, L C; Moyer, C; O'Donoghue, J L

    1998-07-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is used in over-the-counter formulations of skin-lightening creams sold in the United States and European Union. HQ was introduced into these formulations to provide a safe and effective alternative to mercury and other less effective ingredients. Recent studies involving subchronic oral exposure of male F344 rats to HQ have shown nephrotoxicity and renal tubule cell proliferation (English et al., 1994), while chronic exposures of male F344 rats were reported to cause renal cell adenomas (NTP, 1989). Previous subchronic dermal toxicity studies (CTFA, 1986; NTP, 1989) with HQ failed to detect nephrotoxicity; however, these studies were not specifically designed to assess renal structure and function. More sensitive endpoints were used in the present subchronic study to address concerns over potential toxicity from repeated dermal exposure to HQ. Male and female F344 rats were given topical applications with 0, 2.0, 3.5, or 5.0% HQ in an oil-in-water emulsion cream for 13 wk (5 days/wk). Body weights, feed consumption and water consumption were monitored, and animals were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and dermal irritation. Blood taken at termination was analysed for haematological and clinical chemistry effects. Erythema, which abated when exposure stopped, was the only dermatological effect seen at the HQ-cream application sites. Cell proliferation in the kidneys was evaluated after 3, 6 and 13 wk of treatment using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling, but no changes indicative of sustained cell proliferation were seen. The renal histopathological lesions noted after oral exposure to HQ were not present after dermal exposure. Thus, topical exposure to HQ does not result in the renal toxicity observed in previous studies with F344 rats given HQ orally.

  9. Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetic and phenotypic changes result from a continuous pre and post natal dietary exposure to phytoestrogens in an experimental population of mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos M; Sabat, Pablo; Valdovinos, Fernanda S; Valladares, Luis E; Clark, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    ... for evolutionary change in the offspring. The effect of a continuous pre- and post-natal exposure to high levels of dietary isoflavones was evaluated on sexual maturity, morphometric parameters and DNA methylation status in mice...

  11. Silver bioaccumulation dynamics in a freshwater invertebrate after aqueous and dietary exposures to nanosized and ionic Ag

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Croteau, Marie-Noe; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    We compared silver (Ag) bioavailability and toxicity to a freshwater gastropod after exposure to ionic silver (Ag+) and to Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) capped with citrate or with humic acid. Silver form, exposure route, and capping agent influence Ag bioaccumulation dynamics in Lymnaea stagnalis. Snails efficiently accumulated Ag from all forms after either aqueous or dietary exposure. For both exposure routes, uptake rates were faster for Ag+ than for Ag NPs. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from Ag NPs mixed with diatoms (assimilation efficiency (AE) ranged from 49 to 58%) and from diatoms pre-exposed to Ag+ (AE of 73%). In the diet, Ag NPs damaged digestion. Snails ate less and inefficiently processed the ingested food, which adversely impacted their growth. Loss rates of Ag were faster after waterborne exposure to Ag NPs than after exposure to dissolved Ag+. Once Ag was taken up from diet, whether from Ag+ or Ag NPs, Ag was lost extremely slowly. Large Ag body concentrations are thus expected in L. stagnalis after dietborne exposures, especially to citrate-capped Ag NPs. Ingestion of Ag associated with particulate materials appears as the most important vector of uptake. Nanosilver exposure from food might trigger important environmental risks.

  12. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to methylmercury in fish in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycock, B J; Benford, D J

    2007-03-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals in food is generally based upon the results of toxicological studies in laboratory animals, allowing for uncertainties relating to interspecies differences, human variability, and gaps in the database. Use of quantitative human data is preferable if available, as in the example of methylmercury. Methylmercury is a neurotoxic environmental contaminant, for which fish is the main source of dietary exposure. Human data from poisoning incidents and epidemiological studies have been used by expert committees to derive a guideline intake level for methylmercury, based on the susceptibility of the most sensitive lifestage, the developing fetus. In the UK, an expert group of nutritionists and toxicologists was formed to review the benefits and risks associated with fish consumption. A formal risk-benefit analysis was not possible because the nutritional data were not sufficiently quantitative. The Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT), therefore, modified the risk assessment approach to derive different guideline intake levels for different subgroups of the population. The COT opinion was used to provide targeted advice on how much fish can be consumed without undue risk from the contaminants. Consumption by adults of one weekly portion (140 g) of shark, swordfish or marlin, would lead to an exceedance of the guideline intake for methylmercury of 40-90%, set to protect the developing fetus, without considering intake from the rest of the diet. Pregnant women and women who may become pregnant within 1 year were, therefore, advised to avoid consumption of these species. Intakes in other adults would be within a higher guideline intake, set to protect groups of the population other than the developing fetus. However, consumption by children of one weekly portion of these species could lead to an exceedance of this guideline intake by up to 60%, without considering intake from the rest of the diet

  13. Occurrence of parabens in foodstuffs from China and its implications for human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Chen, Lingxin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-07-01

    Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and are used as antimicrobial preservatives in a range of consumer products, including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Despite their widespread use, prior to this study, paraben concentrations in foodstuffs from China and human dietary exposure to these chemicals have been unknown. In this study, concentrations of six parabens were determined in 13 categories of food samples (n=282), including cereals and cereal products, meat, fish and seafood, eggs, dairy products, bean products, fruits, vegetables, cookies, beverages, cooking oils, condiments, and others, collected from nine cities in China. Almost all (detection rate: 99%) food samples contained at least one of the parabens analyzed, and the total concentrations (ΣParabens; sum of six parabens) ranged from below limit of quantification (LOQ) to 2530ng/g fresh weight, with an overall mean value of 39.3ng/g. Methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), and propyl paraben (PrP) were the major paraben analogs found in foodstuffs, and these compounds accounted for 59%, 24%, and 10%, respectively, of ΣParaben concentrations. Although the mean concentrations of ΣParabens varied among different categories of food items (from 0.839ng/g in beverages to 100ng/g in vegetables), the concentrations were not statistically significant among the 13 food categories, including canned foodstuffs. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of parabens was based on the measured concentrations in foods and the corresponding daily food ingestion rates. The mean and 95th percentile values for EDI were 1010 and 3040ng/kg body weight (bw)/day for adult men and 1060 and 3170ng/kg bw/day for adult women, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in Wheat-Based Products and Their Dietary Exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Shao, Bing; Yang, Dajin; Li, Fengqin; Zhu, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    A total of 181 wheat flour and 142 wheat-based foods including dried noodle, steamed bread and bread collected in China were analyzed for alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TEN) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. TeA was the predominant toxin found in 99.4% wheat flour samples at levels ranging from 1.76 μg/kg to 520 μg/kg. TEN was another Alternaria toxin frequently detected in wheat flour samples (97.2%) at levels between 2.72 μg/kg and 129 μg/kg. AOH and AME were detected in 11 (6.1%) samples at levels ranging from 16.0 μg/kg to 98.7 μg/kg (AOH) and in 165 (91.2%) samples with a range between 0.320 μg/kg and 61.8 μg/kg (AME). AOH was quantified at higher levels than AME with the ratio of AOH/AME ranging from 1.0 to 3.7. Significant linear regressions of correlation in toxin concentrations were observed between AOH and AME, AME and TeA, TEN and TeA, AOH+AME and TeA. At an average and 95th percentile, dietary exposure to AOH and AME in the Chinese general population and different age subgroups exceeded the relevant threshold value of toxicological concern (TTC), with the highest exposure found in children which deserves human health concern. TEN and TeA seem unlikely to be health concerns for the Chinese via wheat-based products but attention should be paid to synergistic or additive effects of TeA with AOH, AME, TEN and a further assessment will be performed once more data on toxicity-guided fractionation of the four toxins are available. It is necessary to conduct a systemic surveillance of Alternaria toxins in raw and processed foods in order to provide the scientific basis for making regulations on these toxins in China.

  15. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in Wheat-Based Products and Their Dietary Exposure in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Shao, Bing; Yang, Dajin; Li, Fengqin; Zhu, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    A total of 181 wheat flour and 142 wheat-based foods including dried noodle, steamed bread and bread collected in China were analyzed for alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TEN) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. TeA was the predominant toxin found in 99.4% wheat flour samples at levels ranging from 1.76 μg/kg to 520 μg/kg. TEN was another Alternaria toxin frequently detected in wheat flour samples (97.2%) at levels between 2.72 μg/kg and 129 μg/kg. AOH and AME were detected in 11 (6.1%) samples at levels ranging from 16.0 μg/kg to 98.7 μg/kg (AOH) and in 165 (91.2%) samples with a range between 0.320 μg/kg and 61.8 μg/kg (AME). AOH was quantified at higher levels than AME with the ratio of AOH/AME ranging from 1.0 to 3.7. Significant linear regressions of correlation in toxin concentrations were observed between AOH and AME, AME and TeA, TEN and TeA, AOH+AME and TeA. At an average and 95th percentile, dietary exposure to AOH and AME in the Chinese general population and different age subgroups exceeded the relevant threshold value of toxicological concern (TTC), with the highest exposure found in children which deserves human health concern. TEN and TeA seem unlikely to be health concerns for the Chinese via wheat-based products but attention should be paid to synergistic or additive effects of TeA with AOH, AME, TEN and a further assessment will be performed once more data on toxicity-guided fractionation of the four toxins are available. It is necessary to conduct a systemic surveillance of Alternaria toxins in raw and processed foods in order to provide the scientific basis for making regulations on these toxins in China. PMID:26121047

  16. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in Wheat-Based Products and Their Dietary Exposure in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available A total of 181 wheat flour and 142 wheat-based foods including dried noodle, steamed bread and bread collected in China were analyzed for alternariol (AOH, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, tentoxin (TEN and tenuazonic acid (TeA by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. TeA was the predominant toxin found in 99.4% wheat flour samples at levels ranging from 1.76 μg/kg to 520 μg/kg. TEN was another Alternaria toxin frequently detected in wheat flour samples (97.2% at levels between 2.72 μg/kg and 129 μg/kg. AOH and AME were detected in 11 (6.1% samples at levels ranging from 16.0 μg/kg to 98.7 μg/kg (AOH and in 165 (91.2% samples with a range between 0.320 μg/kg and 61.8 μg/kg (AME. AOH was quantified at higher levels than AME with the ratio of AOH/AME ranging from 1.0 to 3.7. Significant linear regressions of correlation in toxin concentrations were observed between AOH and AME, AME and TeA, TEN and TeA, AOH+AME and TeA. At an average and 95th percentile, dietary exposure to AOH and AME in the Chinese general population and different age subgroups exceeded the relevant threshold value of toxicological concern (TTC, with the highest exposure found in children which deserves human health concern. TEN and TeA seem unlikely to be health concerns for the Chinese via wheat-based products but attention should be paid to synergistic or additive effects of TeA with AOH, AME, TEN and a further assessment will be performed once more data on toxicity-guided fractionation of the four toxins are available. It is necessary to conduct a systemic surveillance of Alternaria toxins in raw and processed foods in order to provide the scientific basis for making regulations on these toxins in China.

  17. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Gerardo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A Control diet (no YCW plus anticoccidial vaccine; B Control diet plus coccidiostat; C YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.

  18. Dietary Vitamin D Exposure Prevents Obesity-induced Increase in Endometrial Cancer in Pten+/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Cline, Mark; Maxwell, Larry G.; Berrigan, David; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Warri, Anni; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that dietary VD3 exposure inhibits endometrial carcinogenesis in an animal model, and modifies the enhanced risk of endometrial carcinoma associated with obesity was investigated. When 4 weeks of age, Pten+/− and wildtype mice were each divided into four treatment groups and fed AIN93G control diet, or AIN93G based diet containing either 25K IU of VD3/kg diet, 58% fat to induce obesity (high fat), or high fat and 25K IU of VD3/kg diet. Mice were kept on these diets until they were sacrificed at week 28. Although VD3 did not affect endometrial cancer risk, it inhibited obesity-induced increase in endometrial lesions. Specifically, high fat diet increased focal glandular hyperplasia with atypia and malignant lesions from 58% in the control diet fed Pten+/− mice to 78% in obese mice. Dietary VD3 decreased the incidence of endometrial pathology in obese Pten+/− mice to 25% (pendometrial expression of 25-hydroxylase (25-OHase), 1α-OHase and vitamin D receptor in the wildtype and Pten+/− mice. Estrogen receptor (ER) -α mRNA levels were higher (pobesity induced increase in osteopontin (pobese in Pten+/− mice. Our data confirm the known association between obesity and endometrial cancer risk. Dietary exposure to VD3 inhibited the carcinogenic effect of obesity on the endometrium; this protective effect was linked to a reduction in the expression of osteopontin and increase in E-cadherin. PMID:20858763

  19. Subchronic Toxicity Study of Standardized Methanolic Extract of Mitragyna Speciosa Korth in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ulul Ilmie Ahmad Nazri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth, or better known as ketum, has long been used by traditional folk around Southeast Asia to prevent fatigue from working under hot tropical weather and as a replacement of opium, which can then cause addiction. To date, no findings have been reported of the toxic effect of ketum subchronically (28 days. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of subchronic effect of standardised methanolic extract of ketum (SMEMS in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered with 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of SMEMS for 28 days. Body weights were recorded daily. They were terminated at day 28 to obtain data for haematology, biochemistry, and histopathology of the brain, liver, kidney, lung, heart, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord. The SMEMS affected body weight compared to control group. Biochemistry findings showed that liver and kidney were affected with the abnormal values in AST, creatinine, globulin, glucose, total protein, and urea. However, SMEMS produced toxic effect more to liver, kidney, and lung than other organs as observed histopathologically. The results suggested subchronic exposure of ketum is toxic to the physiology of the animals.

  20. Quantifying children's aggregate (dietary and residential) exposure and dose to permethrin: application and evaluation of EPA's probabilistic SHEDS-Multimedia model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartarian, Valerie; Xue, Jianping; Glen, Graham; Smith, Luther; Tulve, Nicolle; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Reliable, evaluated human exposure and dose models are important for understanding the health risks from chemicals. A case study focusing on permethrin was conducted because of this insecticide's widespread use and potential health effects. SHEDS-Multimedia was applied to estimate US population permethrin exposures for 3- to 5-year-old children from residential, dietary, and combined exposure routes, using available dietary consumption data, food residue data, residential concentrations, and exposure factors. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify key factors, pathways, and research needs. Model evaluation was conducted using duplicate diet data and biomonitoring data from multiple field studies, and comparison to other models. Key exposure variables were consumption of spinach, lettuce, and cabbage; surface-to-skin transfer efficiency; hand mouthing frequency; fraction of hand mouthed; saliva removal efficiency; fraction of house treated; and usage frequency. For children in households using residential permethrin, the non-dietary exposure route was most important, and when all households were included, dietary exposure dominated. SHEDS-Multimedia model estimates compared well to real-world measurements data; this exposure assessment tool can enhance human health risk assessments and inform children's health research. The case study provides insights into children's aggregate exposures to permethrin and lays the foundation for a future cumulative pyrethroid pesticides risk assessment. PMID:22434114

  1. Quantifying children's aggregate (dietary and residential) exposure and dose to permethrin: application and evaluation of EPA's probabilistic SHEDS-Multimedia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartarian, Valerie; Xue, Jianping; Glen, Graham; Smith, Luther; Tulve, Nicolle; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Reliable, evaluated human exposure and dose models are important for understanding the health risks from chemicals. A case study focusing on permethrin was conducted because of this insecticide's widespread use and potential health effects. SHEDS-Multimedia was applied to estimate US population permethrin exposures for 3- to 5-year-old children from residential, dietary, and combined exposure routes, using available dietary consumption data, food residue data, residential concentrations, and exposure factors. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify key factors, pathways, and research needs. Model evaluation was conducted using duplicate diet data and biomonitoring data from multiple field studies, and comparison to other models. Key exposure variables were consumption of spinach, lettuce, and cabbage; surface-to-skin transfer efficiency; hand mouthing frequency; fraction of hand mouthed; saliva removal efficiency; fraction of house treated; and usage frequency. For children in households using residential permethrin, the non-dietary exposure route was most important, and when all households were included, dietary exposure dominated. SHEDS-Multimedia model estimates compared well to real-world measurements data; this exposure assessment tool can enhance human health risk assessments and inform children's health research. The case study provides insights into children's aggregate exposures to permethrin and lays the foundation for a future cumulative pyrethroid pesticides risk assessment.

  2. Including non-dietary sources into an exposure assessment of the European Food Safety Authority: The challenge of multi-sector chemicals such as Bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Goetz, N; Pirow, R; Hart, A; Bradley, E; Poças, F; Arcella, D; Lillegard, I T L; Simoneau, C; van Engelen, J; Husoy, T; Theobald, A; Leclercq, C

    2017-04-01

    In the most recent risk assessment for Bisphenol A for the first time a multi-route aggregate exposure assessment was conducted by the European Food Safety Authority. This assessment includes exposure via dietary sources, and also contributions of the most important non-dietary sources. Both average and high aggregate exposure were calculated by source-to-dose modeling (forward calculation) for different age groups and compared with estimates based on urinary biomonitoring data (backward calculation). The aggregate exposure estimates obtained by forward and backward modeling are in the same order of magnitude, with forward modeling yielding higher estimates associated with larger uncertainty. Yet, only forward modeling can indicate the relative contribution of different sources. Dietary exposure, especially via canned food, appears to be the most important exposure source and, based on the central aggregate exposure estimates, contributes around 90% to internal exposure to total (conjugated plus unconjugated) BPA. Dermal exposure via thermal paper and to a lesser extent via cosmetic products may contribute around 10% for some age groups. The uncertainty around these estimates is considerable, but since after dermal absorption a first-pass metabolism of BPA by conjugation is lacking, dermal sources may be of equal or even higher toxicological relevance than dietary sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to adipose tissue expansion. As different nutrients modulate adipose tissue development, we investigated the influence of dietary composition on POP accumulation, obesity development and related disorders. Lifespan was determined...

  4. exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinony Jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided

  5. Potential subchronic food safety of the stacked trait transgenic maize GH5112E-117C in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shiwen; Zou, Shiying; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Mei, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    The food safety of stacked trait genetically modified (GM) maize GH5112E-117C containing insect-resistance gene Cry1Ah and glyphosate-resistant gene G2-aroA was evaluated in comparison to non-GM Hi-II maize fed to Sprague-Dawley rats during a 90-day subchronic feeding study. Three different dietary concentrations (12.5, 25 and 50 %, w/w) of the GM maize were used or its corresponding non-GM maize. No biologically significant differences in the animals' clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were found between the stacked trait GM maize groups, and the non-GM maize groups. The results of the 90-day subchronic feeding study demonstrated that the stacked trait GM maize GH5112E-117C is as safe as the conventional non-GM maize Hi-II.

  6. Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Helle; Jensen, Bodil H; Petersen, Annette; Holm, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the dietary intake of essential and toxic elements in fast-developing Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam is limited. Iron and Zn deficiency in Asia is a well-known problem and is partly due to rice constituting a major part of the diet. Dietary habits are changing and there is a need to build more knowledge so authorities can give dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the total dietary intake of essential and potentially toxic elements and to assess the nutritional quality and food safety risks of the average Hanoi diet. Twenty-two foods or food groups were identified and 14 samples of each food group were collected from markets and/or supermarkets in the period 2007-2009. Water spinach, water dropwort, watercress, water mimosa and pond fish are typically produced in wastewater-fed systems. Therefore, these samples were collected both at markets and from wastewater-fed production systems. The results showed little or no risk of toxic elements from the Hanoi diet in general. Further, element contributions from wastewater-fed products were low and does not seem to constitute a problem with respect to potentially toxic elements. A comparison of the average Hanoi dietary intake of essential elements to required intakes shows that the Hanoi diet is sufficient in most elements. However, the diet may be insufficient in Ca, Cr, Fe, K and possibly Zn for which dietary diversification of biofortification might provide solutions.

  7. Contribution of street food on dietary acrylamide exposure by youth aged nineteen to thirty in Perugia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serena Altissimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide dietary intakes from selected street foods in youth population are estimated. The intake evaluation was carried out by combining levels of acrylamide in food, analytically determined by high performance liquid chromatography, with individual consumption data recorded using a questionnaire applied to a group of 200 students aged 19 to 30. The mean value of acrylamide exposure was recorded to be 0.452 μg/kg bw/day, while the average intakes at 50th and 95th percentile were 0.350 μg/kg bw/day and 1.539 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The street food categories that contributed the most to acrylamide intake are pizza and French fries. The margins of exposure, based on benchmark dose limits defined for neoplastic effects and peripheral neuropathy, are within the range of values that indicate a concern for public health as defined by European Authority for Food Safety (EFSA, confirming the needed effort to reduce acrylamide dietary exposure.

  8. Contribution of street food on dietary acrylamide exposure by youth aged nineteen to thirty in Perugia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altissimi, Maria Serena; Roila, Rossana; Branciari, Raffaella; Miraglia, Dino; Ranucci, David; Framboas, Marisa; Haouet, Naceur

    2017-08-16

    Acrylamide dietary intakes from selected street foods in youth population are estimated. The intake evaluation was carried out by combining levels of acrylamide in food, analytically determined by high performance liquid chromatography, with individual consumption data recorded using a questionnaire applied to a group of 200 students aged 19 to 30. The mean value of acrylamide exposure was recorded to be 0.452 µg/kg bw/day, while the average intakes at 50(th) and 95(th) percentile were 0.350 µg/kg bw/day and 1.539 µg/kg bw/day, respectively. The street food categories that contributed the most to acrylamide intake are pizza and French fries. The margins of exposure, based on benchmark dose limits defined for neoplastic effects and peripheral neuropathy, are within the range of values that indicate a concern for public health as defined by European Authority for Food Safety (EFSA), confirming the needed effort to reduce acrylamide dietary exposure.

  9. Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is associated with language delay in 3year old Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, I H; Haugen, M; Schjølberg, S; Vejrup, K; Knutsen, H K; Brantsæter, A L; Meltzer, H M; Alexander, J; Magnus, P; Kvalem, H E

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to dioxins and PCBs is potentially harmful to the developing fetus and may increase the risk of delayed or impaired neurodevelopment. Several studies have reported negative associations between prenatal exposure to these compounds and aspects of cognition related to language in early childhood. The aim was to examine the association between maternal low level dietary exposure to dioxins and PCB during pregnancy and language development in 3year old children in a large group of mother-child pairs participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). This study includes 44,092 children of women who were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009. Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndlPCBs). Children's language skills at age 3 were assessed by parental report including a Dale and Bishop grammar rating and questions about communication skills from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Logistic regression models adjusted for confounders were used to examine the association between maternal dietary exposure to dl-compounds or PCB-153 and language development in children. The maternal dietary exposure to dl-compounds and PCB-153 was generally low, and 98% of women had intakes of dl-compounds ≤14pg TEQ/kg bw/week, which is the tolerable weekly intake set by EU's Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). High maternal exposure (>14pg TEQ/kg bw/week of dl-compounds (median 2.6pg/kg bw/day, range 2-16) or >97.5-percentile intake of PCB-153 (median 11ng/kg bw/day, range 5-28) was associated with higher odds of incomplete grammar (in boys and girls, adjusted ORs 1.1 to 1

  10. Dietary exposure to flavouring substances: from screening methods to detailed assessments using food consumption data collected with EPIC-Soft software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, S P; Geelen, A; Le Donne, C; De Vries, J H M; Sette, S; Raffo, A; Siebelink, E; Ocke, M C; van't Veer, P; Leclercq, C

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to compare different methods of assessing dietary exposure to flavourings in the context of a stepwise approach. The dietary exposure to four flavourings--raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, coumarin, and caffeine--was determined. When dietary exposure exceeded the safety limits, the need for more detailed assessment using less aggregated data was judged necessary. First, screening methods--maximized survey-derived daily intake (MSDI), single-portion exposure technique (SPET), and modified theoretical added maximum daily intake (mTAMDI)--were applied. Next, individual food consumption data were used for creating models with different levels of detail to identify the foods: a model based on food groups and models based on food items. These were collected from 121 Dutch adults using a standardized 2 x 24-h dietary recall (EPIC-Soft) in the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) study. Three food item models were developed: without improvements of the flavouring descriptor built in the software; with improvements; and with use of non-specified flavour descriptors. Based on the results of at least one of the three screening methods, refined assessment was necessary for raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, and caffeine. When applying the food group model, the need for refinement was indicated for the four flavourings. When applying the food item models, only glycyrrhizinic acid and caffeine presented dietary exposure above the safety limits. In the raspberry ketone case, dietary exposure increased when improvements in food description were considered. The use of non-specified flavour descriptors hardly changed the results. The collection of detailed food consumption data at the individual level is useful in the dietary exposure assessment of these flavourings.

  11. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-09-10

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011-2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01-0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4-6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for "average consumer" was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for "high consumers" in the group 4-6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18-59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day ("high consumers", middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18-59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18-59 years old compared to the other population groups.

  12. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ostry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples were collected in 2011–2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01–0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4–6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for “average consumer” was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0 and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification. Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for “high consumers” in the group 4–6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound. For men aged 18–59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day (“high consumers”, middle bound. Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18–59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18–59 years old compared to the other population groups.

  13. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  14. Cumulative dietary exposure to a selected group of pesticides of the triazole group in different European countries according to the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Christodoulou, Despo

    2015-01-01

    The practicality was examined of performing a cumulative dietary exposure assessment according to the requirements of the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling. For this the acute and chronic cumulative exposure to triazole pesticides was estimated using national food consumption and monitorin...

  15. Chronic dietary mercury exposure causes oxidative stress, brain lesions, and altered behaviour in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntssen, Marc H.G.; Aatland, Aase; Handy, Richard D

    2003-10-08

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr were fed for 4 months on fish meal based diets supplemented with mercuric chloride (0, 10, or 100 mg Hg kg{sup -1} DW) or methylmercury chloride (0, 5, or 10 mg Hg kg{sup -1} DW) to assess the effects of inorganic (Hg) and organic dietary mercury on brain lipid peroxidation and neurotoxicity. Lipid peroxidative products, endogenous anti oxidant enzymes, brain histopathology, and overall behaviour were measured. Methylmercury accumulated significantly in the brain of fish fed 5 or 10 mg kg{sup -1} by the end of the experiment, and inorganic mercury accumulated significantly in the brain only at 100 mg kg{sup -1} exposure levels. No mortality or growth reduction was observed in any of the exposure groups. Fish fed 5 mg kg{sup -1} methylmercury had a significant increase (2-fold) in the antioxidant enzyme super oxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain. At dietary levels of 10 mg kg{sup -1} methylmercury, a significant increase (7-fold) was observed in lipid peroxidative products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and a subsequently decrease (1.5-fold) in anti oxidant enzyme activity (SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px). Fish fed 10 mg kg{sup -1} methylmercury also had pathological damage (vacoulation and necrosis), significantly reduced neural enzyme activity (5-fold reduced monoamine oxidase, MAO, activity), and reduced overall post-feeding activity behaviour. Pathological injury started in the brain stem and became more widespread in other areas of the brain at higher exposure levels. Fish fed 100 mg Hg kg{sup -1} inorganic mercury had significant reduced neural MAO activity and pathological changes (astrocyte proliferation) in the brain, however, neural SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activity, lipid peroxidative products (TBARS), and post feeding behaviour did not differ from controls. Compared with other organs, the brain is particular susceptible for dietary methylmercury induced lipid peroxidative stress at relative low

  16. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    , and the use of the FAO/WHO Codex Classification system of Foods and Animal Feeds to harmonise the classification. We demonstrate that this approach works well for pesticides and glycoalkaloids, and is an essential step forward in the harmonisation of risk assessment procedures within Europe when addressing......In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...... chemicals analysed in RACs by all national food control systems....

  17. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115∼125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin from maize and groundnut in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egal, S; Hounsa, A; Gong, Y Y; Turner, P C; Wild, C P; Hall, A J; Hell, K; Cardwell, K F

    2005-10-15

    Aflatoxins are a family of fungal toxins that are carcinogenic to man and cause immunosuppression, cancer and growth reduction in animals. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 480 children (age 9 months to 5 years) across 4 agro-ecological zones (SS, NGS, SGS and CS) in Benin and Togo to identify the effect of aflatoxin exposure on child growth and assess the pattern of exposure. Prior reports on this study [Gong, Y.Y.,Cardwell, K., Hounsa, A., Egal, S., Turner, Hall, A.J., Wild, C.P., 2002. Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Benin and Togo: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 325, 20-21, Gong, Y.Y., Egal, S., Hounsa, A., Turner, P.C., Hall, A.J., Cardwell, K., Wild, C.P., 2003. Determinants of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa: the critical role of weaning and weaning foods. International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 556-562] showed that aflatoxin exposure among these children is widespread (99%) and that growth faltering is associated with high blood aflatoxin-albumin adducts (AF-alb adducts), a measure of recent past exposure. The present report demonstrates that consumption of maize is an important source of aflatoxin exposure for the survey population. Higher AF-alb adducts were correlated with higher A. flavus (CFU) infestation of maize (p=0.006), higher aflatoxin contamination (ppb) of maize (phigher consumption frequencies of maize (p=0.053). The likelihood of aflatoxin exposure from maize was particularly high in agro-ecological zones where the frequency of maize consumption (SGS and CS), the presence of aflatoxin in maize (SGS) or the presence of A. flavus on maize (NGS and SGS) was relatively high. Socio-economic background did not affect the presence of A. flavus and aflatoxin in maize, but better maternal education was associated with lower frequencies of maize consumption among children from the northernmost agro-ecological zone (SS) (p=0.001). The impact of

  19. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    to national food consumption surveys. In this way it is possible to exchange or merge concentration data between countries in situations of data scarcity. This electronic platform in connection with probabilistic software can be seen as a prototype of a data warehouse, including a harmonised approach......Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food consumption data...

  20. Acute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled toluene in male Long Evans rats: oxidative stress markers in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research interested in oxidative stress markers following exposure to VOCsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Kodavanti , P., J. Royland , D.A. Moore-Smith, J. Beas, J. Richards , T. Beasley , P. Evansky , and P.J. Bushnell. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male Long-Evans Rats: Oxidative Stress Markers in Brain. NEUROTOXICOLOGY. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS, 51: 10-19, (2015).

  1. Biomarkers of Dietary Exposure Are Associated with Lower Risk of Breast Fibroadenomas in Chinese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.C.; Lampe, J.W.; Ray, R.M.; Brown, R.; Wu, C.Y.; Li, W.J.; Chen, C.; King, I.B.; Gao, D.L.; Hu, Y.W.; Shannon, J.; Wahala, K.; Thomas, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast condition among women and account for up to 50% of all breast biopsies being performed. Although considered a benign condition, fibroadenomas utilize substantial resources for management and treatment to rule out potential malignancies. Dietary factors

  2. Dietary exposure of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to total and methyl mercury in Zhalong Wetland, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinming; Ye, Yajie; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-06-01

    To determine the dietary exposure of the migratory red-crowned crane to mercury (Hg), this study analyzed the concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) in its prey, i.e., reeds and three aquatic animal families (Perccottus glenni Dybowski, Cybister japonicus Sharp, and Viviparidae) in northeastern China. Results indicated that the Hg concentration in Zhalong Wetland was elevated through the food chain, and the prey of the red-crowned crane contained measurable levels of T-Hg and MeHg. In prey tissues, MeHg was the main form of the Hg element and accounted for 61% of total Hg concentration in Viviparidae, 58% in C. japonicus Sharp, and 85% in P. glenni Dybowski. The highest T-Hg and MeHg concentrations ranged from 1.66 to 3.89 ppm and from 1.12 to 2.67 ppm, respectively, and they were detected in the feathers of the red-crowned cranes. The lowest T-Hg concentration was determined in the excretions of wild red-crowned cranes at 0.21 ppm; furthermore, the content of MeHg was below the detection limit. In Zhalong Wetland, the level of dietary exposure of the population of red-crowned cranes to Hg is below the threshold of Hg toxicity. Moreover, eggshells are suitable indicators of Hg risk levels to the red-crowned crane.

  3. Between a rock and a hard place: methods for setting dietary allowances and exposure limits for essential minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, S S

    1998-02-01

    For each essential trace element, there are two ranges of intake associated with adverse health effects: intakes that are too low and can lead to nutritional deficits and intakes that are too high and can lead to toxicity. Between these two ranges, there is a range of safe and adequate intakes that is compatible with good health; the challenge is to define that range quantitatively. The exposure limit for toxicity traditionally has been determined by dividing a "no-observed-adverse-effect level," often from studies in experimental animals, by a series of uncertainty factors. Dietary allowances to meet nutritional requirements, on the other hand, have been based primarily on data in humans. Uncertainty, variability and limitations in the data base tend to increase estimates of nutritional requirements and decrease estimated toxic exposure limits, driving the values closer together. Chromium (III) and zinc are contrasting cases. Other factors, such as bioavailability, selection of the critical effect and interactions also can play important roles. Close coordination between the nutrition and toxicology communities, as envisioned in the NRC Food and Nutrition Board initiative on Dietary Reference Intakes, is essential in establishing acceptable ranges of intake for trace elements.

  4. Cumulative dietary exposure to a selected group of pesticides of the triazole group in different European countries according to the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Christodoulou, Despo; Crépet, Amélie; D'Addezio, Laura; Desvignes, Virginie; Ericsson, Bengt-Göran; Galimberti, Francesco; Ioannou-Kakouri, Eleni; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Rehurkova, Irena; Rety, Josselin; Ruprich, Jiri; Sand, Salomon; Stephenson, Claire; Strömberg, Anita; Turrini, Aida; van der Voet, Hilko; Ziegler, Popi; Hamey, Paul; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    The practicality was examined of performing a cumulative dietary exposure assessment according to the requirements of the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling. For this the acute and chronic cumulative exposure to triazole pesticides was estimated using national food consumption and monitoring data of eight European countries. Both the acute and chronic cumulative dietary exposures were calculated according to two model runs (optimistic and pessimistic) as recommended in the EFSA guidance. The exposures obtained with these model runs differed substantially for all countries, with the highest exposures obtained with the pessimistic model run. In this model run, animal commodities including cattle milk and different meat types, entered in the exposure calculations at the level of the maximum residue limit (MRL), contributed most to the exposure. We conclude that application of the optimistic model run on a routine basis for cumulative assessments is feasible. The pessimistic model run is laborious and the exposure results could be too far from reality. More experience with this approach is needed to stimulate the discussion of the feasibility of all the requirements, especially the inclusion of MRLs of animal commodities which seem to result in unrealistic conclusions regarding their contribution to the dietary exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Exposure of Fathead Minnows to the Explosives TNT and RDX and to the Pesticide DDT using Contaminated Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Lotufo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Explosive compounds have been released into the environment during manufacturing, handling, and usage procedures. These compounds have been found to persist in the environment and potentially promote detrimental biological effects. The lack of research on bioaccumulation and bioconcentration and especially dietary transfer on aquatic life has resulted in challenges in assessing ecological risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential trophic transfer of the explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX using a realistic freshwater prey/predator model and using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, a highly bioaccumulative compound, to establish relative dietary uptake potential. The oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to 14C-labeled TNT, RDX or DDT for 5 hours in water, frozen in meal-size packages and subsequently fed to individual juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas. Fish were sampled for body residue determination on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 following an 8-hour gut purging period. Extensive metabolism of the parent compound in worms occurred for TNT but not for RDX and DDT. Fish body residue remained relatively unchanged over time for TNT and RDX, but did not approach steady-state concentration for DDT during the exposure period. The bioaccumulation factor (concentration in fish relative to concentration in worms was 0.018, 0.010, and 0.422 g/g for TNT, RDX and DDT, respectively, confirming the expected relatively low bioaccumulative potential for TNT and RDX through the dietary route. The experimental design was deemed successful in determining the potential for trophic transfer of organic contaminants via a realistic predator/prey exposure scenario.

  6. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Subchronic and developmental toxicity studies in rats with Ac-Di-Sol croscarmellose sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christine; Weiner, Myra L; Kotkoskie, Lois A; Borzelleca, Joseph; Butt, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the subchronic and developmental toxicity of Ac-Di-Sol (croscarmellose sodium). In the subchronic study, groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) received 0 (control), 10000, or 50000 ppm Ac-Di-Sol in the diet for 90 consecutive days (equivalent to 757 and 893 mg/kg/day for males and females fed 10000 ppm, respectively, and to 3922 and 4721 mg/kg/day for males and females fed 50000 ppm, respectively). No mortality, clinical signs of toxicity, or adverse toxicological effects on hematology or serum chemistry parameters, feed consumption, or ophthalmologic examinations were noted in any treatment group. Body weight gain was depressed in high-dose males during the final 3 weeks. The only treatment-related histological lesion noted was moderate renal mineralization at the corticomedullary junction in one high-dose female. This lesion was not considered a specific effect of Ac-Di-Sol, but rather a secondary effect resulting from a potential increase in urinary pH and renal excretion of sodium due to the high intake of sodium associated with Ac-Di-Sol. In the developmental toxicity study, groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (25/group) received 0 (control), 10000, or 50000 ppm Ac-Di-Sol in the diet on gestational days 6 to 15. No evidence of maternal, fetal, or embryo toxicity was noted. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Ac-Di-Sol in both studies exceeds 50000 ppm in the diet, which represents doses of 3922 and 4712 mg/kg/day, for males and females, respectively. The results of these studies demonstrate the low subchronic oral toxicity and developmental toxicity of Ac-Di-Sol, and support the safe use of Ac-Di-Sol in oral applications such as pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and sweetener tablets.

  8. [Quantitative risk assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dietary exposure from edible fats and oils in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengsi; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Lishi; Yan, Weixing

    2016-02-01

    To assess the quantitative risk of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dietary exposure from edible fats and oils in China. One hundred samples of edible fats and oils were collected from the supermarkets and the farmers markets in 11 provinces of China from December in 2013 to May in 2014. Then they were tested for EU15+1 PAHs (16 PAHs were controlled in priority by European Food Safety Authority) by two test methods which were QuECHERS-GC-MS-MS and GPC-HPLC-FLD. Data of PAHs concentration and edible fats and oils consumption which were from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 were combined to evaluate carcinogenic risk of PAHs in edible fats and oils by the method of margin of exposure (MOE). In this process, we divided the population into 6 groups, namely male adults (older than 18 years old), female adults (older than 18), male youths (13-17), female youths (13-17), school-agers (6-12) and preschoolers (2-5), and thought carcinogenicity as the critical toxicity end point of PAHs. Two quantitative risk assessment methods, i.e. point assessment and probability assessment, were used to evaluate the dietary exposure and MOEs. EU15+1 PAHs in one of 100 samples were not detected, other samples were polluted in different degrees; the detection rates were 3%-98% and the average contents were 0.26-3.26 μg/kg. The results of PAHs dietary exposure from both of point assessment and probability assessment were the same. The average exposures of PAH8 were as the following: male adults were 10.03 and (9.34 ± 12.61) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)(The former was from point assessment and the latter from probability assessment, the same below), female adults were 9.95 and (9.60 ± 15.04) ng · kg(-1)·d (-1), male youths were 11.09 and (10.84 ± 16.54) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1), female youths were 10.06 and (9.58 ± 12.87) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1),school-agers were 15.29 and (15.62 ± 25.54) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1), preschoolers were 19.27 and (19.22 ± 28.91) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1). MOEs

  9. Acute and subchronic toxicity of pyraclostrobin in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Lusheng; Du, Zhongkun; Wang, Jinhua

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the toxic effects of pyraclostrobin on DNA damage and antioxidant enzymatic activities in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver. Based on the 96-h median lethal concentration (96 h LC50, 0.056 mg/L) of this chemical, fish were exposed to three doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.02 mg/L) and sampled on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the initiation of a subchronic toxicity test. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage were determined. The amount of pyraclostrobin residue in the water was also measured. The concentrations in the three treatment groups varied no more than 5% during the exposure periods, indicating that pyraclostrobin is relatively stable during this time in an aquatic environment. ROS and MDA levels significantly changed in a dose dependent manner during the experiment. Enzymatic activities were inhibited to a certain extent. DNA damage was significantly enhanced. These results collectively indicate that pyraclostrobin induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sub-chronic inhalation of high concentrations of manganese sulfate induces lower airway pathology in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Brian A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotoxicity and pulmonary dysfunction are well-recognized problems associated with prolonged human exposure to high concentrations of airborne manganese. Surprisingly, histological characterization of pulmonary responses induced by manganese remains incomplete. The primary objective of this study was to characterize histologic changes in the monkey respiratory tract following manganese inhalation. Methods Subchronic (6 hr/day, 5 days/week inhalation exposure of young male rhesus monkeys to manganese sulfate was performed. One cohort of monkeys (n = 4–6 animals/exposure concentration was exposed to air or manganese sulfate at 0.06, 0.3, or 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days. Another eight monkeys were exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days and held for 45 or 90 days before evaluation. A second cohort (n = 4 monkeys per time point was exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 and evaluated after 15 or 33 exposure days. Evaluations included measurement of lung manganese concentrations and evaluation of respiratory histologic changes. Tissue manganese concentrations were compared for the exposure and control groups by tests for homogeneity of variance, analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison. Histopathological findings were evaluated using a Pearson's Chi-Square test. Results Animals exposed to manganese sulfate at ≥0.3 mg Mn/m3 for 65 days had increased lung manganese concentrations. Exposure to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for ≥15 exposure days resulted in increased lung manganese concentrations, mild subacute bronchiolitis, alveolar duct inflammation, and proliferation of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Bronchiolitis and alveolar duct inflammatory changes were absent 45 days post-exposure, suggesting that these lesions are reversible upon cessation of subchronic high-dose manganese exposure. Conclusion High-dose subchronic manganese sulfate inhalation is

  11. Exposure to acrolein by inhalation causes platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithu, Srinivas D; Srivastava, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Riggs, Daniel W; Conklin, Daniel J; Haberzettl, Petra; O'Toole, Timothy E; Bhatnagar, Aruni; D'Souza, Stanley E

    2010-10-15

    Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected acute (5ppm for 6h) or sub-chronic (1ppm, 6h/day for 4days) acrolein inhalation exposures. The acute exposure to acrolein did not cause pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, dyslipidemia or induce liver damage or muscle injury. Platelet GSH levels in acrolein-exposed mice were comparable to controls, but acrolein-exposure increased the abundance of protein-acrolein adducts in platelets. Platelets isolated from mice, exposed to both acute and sub-chronic acrolein levels, showed increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Exposure to acrolein also led to an increase in the indices of platelet activation such as the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in the blood, plasma PF4 levels, and increased platelet-fibrinogen binding. The bleeding time was decreased in acrolein exposed mice. Plasma levels of PF4 were also increased in mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar to inhalation exposure, acrolein feeding to mice also increased platelet activation and established a pro-thrombotic state in mice. Together, our data suggest that acrolein is an important contributing factor to the pro-thrombotic risk in human exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke or automobile exhaust, or through dietary consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human semen quality in relation to dietary pesticide exposure and organic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler, R. K.; Larsen, S. B.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1999-01-01

    %), medium (M, 1-49%), or a high (H, 50-100%) proportion of the fruit and vegetables consumed. Farmers having a high relative intake of organically grown fruit and vegetables also had a high relative consumption of organically produced meat, milk, and bread, and differences were observed comparing the actual......The objective of the study was to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that farmers having a high intake of organic grown commodities have a high semen quality due to their expected lower level of dietary pesticides intake. Food frequency data and semen were collected from 256 farmers (171...... a lower percentage of dead spermatozoa were found in the groups with a high dietary intake of the specific pesticide. In contrast, for all pesticides evaluated only minor differences were found between the groups when considering spermatozoa concentration, morphology, and motility. In conclusion...

  13. Dietary exposure to essential and potentially toxic elements for the population of Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, H.; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    and there is a need to build more knowledge so that authorities can give dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to determine the total dietary intake of essential and potentially toxic elements and to assess the nutritional quality and food safety risks of the average Hanoi diet. 22 foods or food groups...... were identified and 14 samples of each food group were collected from markets and/or supermarkets in the period 2007-2009. Water spinach, water dropwort, watercress, water mimosa and pond fish are typically produced in wastewater-fed systems. Therefore, these samples were collected both at markets...... and from wastewater-fed production systems. The results showed little or no risk of toxic elements from the Hanoi diet in general. Further, element contributions from wastewater-fed products were low and does not seem to constitute a problem with respect to potentially toxic elements. A comparison...

  14. Probabilistic estimation of dietary exposure of the general Japanese population to dioxins in fish, using region-specific fish monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongbin; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Sakurai, Takeo; Matsuzaki, Kanae; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2008-05-01

    Many studies show that dietary consumption of fish is the greatest contributor to dioxin exposure of humans in Japan. To establish a link between ocean contamination and human exposure to dioxins in fish, we proposed a method of estimating exposure by integrating region-specific measured concentrations of dioxins in fish samples and information on the production and import-export volumes of fish. The advantage over "total diet studies" (TDS) was that the proposed method could analyze the impact of the geographical variability of ocean contamination on human exposure to dioxins in fish; this may help us to apply more effective measures against dioxin exposure. Probabilistic distributions (probability density functions (PDFs)) were assigned to express the variability in the results of monitoring dioxin concentrations in fish from coastal areas divided according to prefecture, and from offshore and distant waters and imported sources. The Monte Carlo technique was applied for probabilistic estimation of dietary exposure of the general Japanese population to dioxins in fish. The mean and 5th to 95th percentile range of dietary exposure were estimated, respectively, as 67.12 and 22.65-184.35 pg toxic equivalent per day. Sensitivity analysis showed that some specific coastal areas with higher dioxin levels in fish and some with larger production volumes of fish impacted more than others to total exposure and may thus attract priority in the implementation of dioxin abatement measures.

  15. Assessing and reporting uncertainties in dietary exposure analysis - Part II: Application of the uncertainty template to a practical example of exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David; Bánáti, Diána; Kennedy, Marc; König, Jürgen; O'Mahony, Cian; Kettler, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    A previous publication described methods for assessing and reporting uncertainty in dietary exposure assessments. This follow-up publication uses a case study to develop proposals for representing and communicating uncertainty to risk managers. The food ingredient aspartame is used as the case study in a simple deterministic model (the EFSA FAIM template) and with more sophisticated probabilistic exposure assessment software (FACET). Parameter and model uncertainties are identified for each modelling approach and tabulated. The relative importance of each source of uncertainty is then evaluated using a semi-quantitative scale and the results expressed using two different forms of graphical summary. The value of this approach in expressing uncertainties in a manner that is relevant to the exposure assessment and useful to risk managers is then discussed. It was observed that the majority of uncertainties are often associated with data sources rather than the model itself. However, differences in modelling methods can have the greatest impact on uncertainties overall, particularly when the underlying data are the same. It was concluded that improved methods for communicating uncertainties for risk management is the research area where the greatest amount of effort is suggested to be placed in future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Human health risks derived from dietary exposure to toxic metals in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M; Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Castell, Victòria; Centrich, Francesc; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2014-12-01

    The present study was aimed at estimating the current (2012) dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) by the population of Catalonia, Spain. The temporal trends with respect to previous surveys, performed in 2000, 2005, and 2008, were also determined. For that purpose, metal concentrations were analyzed in a number of widely consumed foodstuffs. A speciation study was also conducted by experimentally determining the levels of inorganic As (InAs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the same food items. Furthermore, the dietary intake of those metals and species was calculated both deterministically and probabilistically by considering two food consumption surveys: ENCAT and ENIDE, representative of the Catalan and Spanish populations, respectively. An important temporal decrease of the dietary intake was noted for most elements, irrespective of the age-gender population group. Considering data for a male adult, the current dietary intake of As, InAs, Cd, Hg, MeHg, and Pb was estimated in 216, 2.6, 8.7, 10, 7.3, and 8.4 μg/day, respectively, being these values lower than the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) or benchmark dose lower confidence limits (BMDLs). Moreover, new calculations by means of ENIDE survey indicated similar results to those previously obtained by ENCAT, with the exception of MeHg, whose intake exceeded the maximum recommended values for some part of the population. Although our data are similar to those frequently found in other European countries, the important intake of MeHg, which is linked to the high consumption of fish and shellfish, deserves further investigation.

  17. Dietary mercury exposure causes decreased escape takeoff flight performance and increased molt rate in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenna R; Cristol, Daniel; Swaddle, John P

    2014-10-01

    Mercury is a widespread and persistent environmental contaminant that occurs in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Recently, songbirds that forage from primarily terrestrial sources have shown evidence of bioaccumulation of mercury, but little research has assessed the effects of mercury on their health and fitness. There are many indications that mercury negatively affects neurological functioning, bioenergetics, and behavior through a variety of mechanisms and in a wide array of avian taxa. Effective flight is crucial to avian fitness and feather molt is an energetically expensive life history trait. Therefore, we investigated whether mercury exposure influenced flight performance and molt in a common songbird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Specifically, we dosed the diet of captive starlings with methylmercury cysteine at 0.0, 0.75, or 1.5 μg/g wet weight and recorded changes in flight performance after 1 year of dietary mercury exposure. We also recorded the annual molt of wing feathers. We found that individuals dosed with mercury exhibited decreased escape takeoff flight performance compared with controls and blood mercury was also correlated with an increased rate of molt, which can reduce flight performance and thermoregulatory ability. This study reveals two novel endpoints, flight performance and molt, that may be affected by dietary mercury exposure. These findings suggest a potential impact on wild songbirds exposed to mercury levels comparable to the high dosage levels in the present study. Any decrease in flight efficiency could reduce fitness due to a direct impact on survival during predation events or by decreased efficiency in other critical activities (such as foraging or migration) that require efficient flight.

  18. Bioavailability evaluation, uptake of heavy metals and potential health risks via dietary exposure in urban-industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Balal; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Munir, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba; Niu, Zhiyuan

    2016-11-01

    A verity of human activities i.e. urbanization and industrialization have been resulted serious environmental contaminations by heavy metals in all over the world. The settlement of populations in urban and nearby industrial areas for economic development has significant share in their exposure to these metallic contaminants. Depending on the nature and type of the pollutants, targeted urban-industrial environments can have harmful and chronic health risk impacts on exposed local inhabitants and may require detoxification, healing and remedial therapy. Consequently, environmental monitoring as well as human health risk assessments of urban environments under industrial influence are key dominant features. We believe this work will provide new insights into the studies of metals exposure and associated health risks in emerging industrials cities of developing countries. Present study aimed to study the bioavailability of metals, quantify the changeability in soil and vegetable metal concentrations and estimation of human health risks via dietary exposure, focusing on urban-industrial environment. Soil and vegetable samples were collected in six random sites within the urban, periurban and industrial areas and analyzed for metal concentrations. In addition, risk assessment model proposed by US-EPA was employed to estimate the potential health risk of heavy metals via dietary intake. Results indicated that the heavy metal concentrations were noteworthy in periurban and urban-industrial areas. However, contamination levels varied with the type of vegetable, and the point source pollution such as traffic, urban wastes and industrial effluent. According to the estimated THQ and HI values for non-carcinogenic risk, little or no negative impact of heavy metals was observed on local inhabitants. However, the concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni were nearly closed to the permissible limits described by US-EPA in urban-industrial areas. Conclusively, some efficient remedial

  19. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation. We sought to determine whether ZnO NPs induce pulmonary toxicity in mice following sub-acute or sub-chronic inhalation exposure to realistic exposure doses. Methods Mice (C57Bl/6) were exposed to well-characterized ZnO NPs (3.5 mg/m3, 4 hr/day) for 2 (sub-acute) or 13 (sub-chronic) weeks and necropsied immediately (0 wk) or 3 weeks (3 wks) post exposure. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as measurements of pulmonary mechanics. Generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed in the lungs. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and Zn content. Zn concentration in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and BAL fluid was measured. Results An elevated concentration of Zn2+ was detected in BAL fluid immediately after exposures, but returned to baseline levels 3 wks post exposure. Dissolution studies showed that ZnO NPs readily dissolved in artificial lysosomal fluid (pH 4.5), but formed aggregates and precipitates in artificial interstitial fluid (pH 7.4). Sub-acute exposure to ZnO NPs caused an increase of macrophages in BAL fluid and a moderate increase in IL-12(p40) and MIP-1α, but no other inflammatory or toxic responses were observed. Following both sub-acute and sub-chronic exposures, pulmonary mechanics were no different than sham-exposed animals. Conclusions Our ZnO NP inhalation studies showed minimal pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity or lung histopathologic changes. An elevated concentration of Zn in the lung and BAL fluid indicates dissolution of ZnO NPs in the respiratory system after inhalation. Exposure concentration, exposure mode and time post

  20. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Mul, Anika de; Bjellaas, Thomas; Becher, Georg; Klaveren, Jacob Van; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-08-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to acrylamide. Acrylamide excreted as mercapturic acid metabolites in 24-h urine was used as an evaluation tool. Food consumption was assessed by an FFQ and by a 4-day weighed food diary (FD). Acrylamide intake was also estimated by a probabilistic approach based on 2 days from the FD. Primarily, acrylamide concentrations reported from analyses of Norwegian foods were used. The dietary exposure to acrylamide estimated as mug/kg bw/day (median and 95 percentile) was 0.48 (0.92) by the FFQ, 0.41 (0.82) by the FD and 0.42 (0.70) by the probabilistic approach. The amount of acrylamide excreted as urinary metabolites (median and 95 percentile) was 0.16 microg/kg bw/24-h (0.50) in non-smokers, corresponding to a dietary exposure of approximately 0.30 microg/kg bw/day (0.91). Linear regression of acrylamide excreted as urinary metabolites identified crisp bread and potato crisps as significant independent predictors, along with cooking oil and onion/garlic. Dietary exposure to acrylamide calculated by FFQ, FD and probabilistic modelling were comparable. The comparison of FFQ acrylamide estimates with levels of urinary acrylamide metabolites showed that the MoBa FFQ was able to identify participants with high dietary acrylamide exposure. Our findings facilitate future studies on acrylamide exposure and health outcomes in the MoBa study.

  1. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the equivalency of gavage, dietary, and drinking water exposure to manganese in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Melanie L; Bartnikas, Thomas B; Johnson, Laura C; Herrera, Carolina; Pettiglio, Michael A; Keene, Athena M; Taylor, Michael D; Dorman, David C

    2015-06-01

    Concerns exist as to whether individuals may be at greater risk for neurotoxicity following increased manganese (Mn) oral intake. The goals of this study were to determine the equivalence of 3 methods of oral exposure and the rate (mg Mn/kg/day) of exposure. Adult male rats were allocated to control diet (10 ppm), high manganese diet (200 ppm), manganese-supplemented drinking water, and manganese gavage treatment groups. Animals in the drinking water and gavage groups were given the 10 ppm manganese diet and supplemented with manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) in drinking water or once-daily gavage to provide a daily manganese intake equivalent to that seen in the high-manganese diet group. No statistically significant difference in body weight gain or terminal body weights was seen. Rats were anesthetized following 7 and 61 exposure days, and samples of bile and blood were collected. Rats were then euthanized and striatum, olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, cerebellum, liver, spleen, and femur samples were collected for chemical analysis. Hematocrit was unaffected by manganese exposure. Liver and bile manganese concentrations were elevated in all treatment groups on day 61 (relative to controls). Increased cerebellum manganese concentrations were seen in animals from the high-manganese diet group (day 61, relative to controls). Increased (relative to all treatment groups) femur, striatum, cerebellum, frontal cortex, and olfactory bulb manganese concentrations were also seen following gavage suggesting that dose rate is an important factor in the pharmacokinetics of oral manganese. These data will be used to refine physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, extending their utility for manganese risk assessment by including multiple dietary exposures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Toxicity and trophic transfer of P25 TiO2 NPs from Dunaliella salina to Artemia salina: Effect of dietary and waterborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Thiagarajan, Vignesh; Nemade, Prateek; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    The recent increase in nanoparticle (P25 TiO2 NPs) usage has led to concerns regarding their potential implications on environment and human health. The food chain is the central pathway for nanoparticle transfer from lower to high trophic level organisms. The current study relies on the investigation of toxicity and trophic transfer potential of TiO2 NPs from marine algae Dunaliella salina to marine crustacean Artemia salina. Toxicity was measured in two different modes of exposure such as waterborne (exposure of TiO2 NPs to Artemia) and dietary exposure (NP-accumulated algal cells are used to feed the Artemia). The toxicity and accumulation of TiO2 NPs in marine algae D. salina were also studied. Artemia was found to be more sensitive to TiO2 NPs (48h LC50 of 4.21mgL-1) as compared to marine algae, D. salina (48h LC50 of 11.35mgL-1). The toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of TiO2 NPs were observed to be more in waterborne exposure as compared to dietary exposure. Waterborne exposure seemed to cause higher ROS production and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity as compared to dietary exposure of TiO2 NPs in Artemia. There were no observed biomagnification (BMF) and trophic transfer from algae to Artemia through dietary exposure. Histopathological studies confirmed the morphological and internal damages in Artemia. This study reiterates the possible effects of the different modes of exposure on trophic transfer potential of TiO2 NPs and eventually the consequences on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in rice and maize staple cereals in Northern Vietnam and dietary exposure in different ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Tuyen, Le Dahn; Do, Tran Thanh

    2016-01-01

    risk factors for AF’s and FB contamination. Based on daily food consumption data, the estimated average exposure dose of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) from rice was 21.7 ng/kg bw/day for adults and 33.7 ng/kg bw/day for children. For FB, the rice based average exposure amounted to 536 ng/kg bw/day for adults......Mycotoxins in food are increasingly a food safety hazard concern in particular in developing countries. This study was performed to determine the occurrence and determinants of aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in rice and maize and to assess health risks through dietary intake exposure among...... ethnic minority groups in northern Vietnam. A total of 111 rice and 102 maize samples, were tested for occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins, i.e. aflatoxins (AF’s) and fuminisin B (FB). Results showed that 107 (96.4%) rice and 84 (82.4%) maize samples were contaminated by fungi. Aspergillus flavus...

  4. Dietary exposure to trace elements and radionuclides: the methodology of the Italian total diet study 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena D'Amato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the methodology of the Italian Total Diet Study 2012-2014 aimed at assessing the dietary exposure of the general Italian population to selected non-essential trace elements (Al, inorganic As, Cd, Pb, methyl-Hg, inorganic Hg, U and radionuclides (40K, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr. The establishment of the TDS food list, the design of the sampling plan, and details about the collection of food samples, their standardized culinary treatment, pooling into analytical samples and subsequent sample treatment are described. Analytical techniques and quality assurance are discussed, with emphasis on the need for speciation data and for minimizing the percentage of left-censored data so as to reduce uncertainties in exposure assessment. Finally the methodology for estimating the exposure of the general population and of population subgroups according to age (children, teenagers, adults, and the elderly and gender, both at the national level and for each of the four main geographical areas of Italy, is presented.

  5. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoxia; Wu, Linxia; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Bai, Yizhen; Chen, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2) of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d) for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year) respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year). In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade. PMID:26501322

  6. Dietary Intervention to Mitigate the Health Effects of PM Exposure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. This presentation will highlight previously published, ongoing and planned studies conducted at the Human Studies Facility that have examined the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in modul...

  7. Investigation of neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects of some plant growth regulators at subacute and subchronic applications on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ismail; Celik, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of subacute and subchronic treatment of some plant growth regulators (PGRs), such as abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), on neurological and immunological biomarkers in various tissues of rats. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylcholinesterase (BChE) were selected as biomarkers for neurotoxic biomarkers. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured as indicators for immunotoxic investigation purpose. Wistar albino rats were orally administered with 25 and 50 ppm of PGRs ad libitum for 25-50 days continuously with drinking water. The treatment of PGRs caused different effects on the activities of enzymes. Results showed that the administrations of ABA and GA3 increased AChE and BChE activities in some tissues of rats treated with both the dosages and periods of ABA and GA3. With regard to the immunotoxic effects, ADA activity fluctuated, while MPO activity increased after subacute and subchronic exposure of treated rat tissues to both dosages when compared with the controls. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of PGRs at subacute and subchronic exposure increased AChE, BChE, and MPO activities, while fluctuating the ADA activity in various tissues of rats. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for toxicity of PGRs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Modelling Dietary Exposure to Chemical Components in Heat-Processed Meats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    Several chemical compounds that potentially increase the risk of developing cancer in humans are formed during heat processing of meat. Estimating the overall health impact of these compounds in the population requires accurate estimation of the exposure to the chemicals, as well as the probability.......g. the Poisson-Lognormal approach, are promising tools to address this obstacle. The exposure estimates can then be applied to dose-response models to quantify the cancer risk....

  9. Dietary and Environmental Exposure to Cadmium and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    34a"study"of"women"enrolled"in"the"Swedish" Mammography " Cohort"observed"an"increased"risk"in"breast"cancer"associated"with"dietary"Cd"intake" (Julin"et...34not"move.""In" contrast ,"we"did"not"observe"any"associations"between"ER+"breast"cancer"risk"and" outdoor"Cd"concentrations"within"the"entire"CTS

  10. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue...... data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007–2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000–2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies...

  11. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  12. Dietary exposures for the safety assessment of seven emulsifiers commonly added to foods in the United States and implications for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Romina; Kolanos, Renata; DiNovi, Michael J; Mattia, Antonia; Kaneko, Kotaro J

    2017-06-01

    Dietary exposure assessment using food-consumption data and ingredient-use level is essential for assessing the safety of food ingredients. Dietary exposure estimates are compared with safe intake levels, such as the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI is estimated by applying a safety factor to an experimentally determined no-observed-adverse-effect level of a test substance. Two food ingredients classified as emulsifiers, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80), received attention recently due to their putative adverse effects on gut microbiota. Because no published dietary exposure estimates for commonly used emulsifiers exist for the US population, the current investigation focused on the estimation of dietary exposure to seven emulsifiers: CMC, P80, lecithin, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), stearoyl lactylates, sucrose esters, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate. Using maximum-use levels obtained from publicly available sources, dietary exposures to these emulsifiers were estimated for the US population (aged 2 years and older) for two time periods (1999-2002 and 2003-10) using 1- and 2-day food-consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 10-14-day food-consumption data from NPD Group, Inc.'s National Eating Trends - Nutrient Intake Database. Our analyses indicated that among the emulsifiers assessed, lecithin and MDGs have the highest mean exposures at about 60 and about 80 mg kg-1 bw day-1, respectively, whereas the exposure to CMC is half to one-third that of lecithin or MDGs; and the exposure to P80 is approximately half that of CMC. The review of available safety information such as ADIs established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), in light of our updated dietary exposure estimates for these seven emulsifiers, did not raise safety concerns at the current specified levels of use. Additionally, by examining two time periods (1999-2002, 2003-10), it was concluded that there

  13. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    1998-07-17

    We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors.

  14. The use of a sweetener substitution method to predict dietary exposures for the intense sweetener rebaudioside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, A G

    2008-07-01

    There are more published dietary exposure data for intense sweeteners than for any other group of food additives. Data are available for countries with different patterns of sweetener approvals and also for population groups with high potential intakes, such as children and diabetic subjects. These data provide a secure basis for predicting the potential intakes of a novel intense sweetener by adjustment of the reported intakes of different sweeteners in mg/kg body weight by their relative sweetness intensities. This approach allows the possibility that a novel sweetener attains the same pattern and extent of use as the existing sweeteners. The intakes by high consumers of other sweeteners allows for possible brand loyalty to the novel sweetener. Using this method, the estimated dietary exposures for rebaudioside A in average and high consumers are predicted to be 1.3 and 3.4mg/kg body weight per day for the general population, 2.1 and 5.0mg/kg body weight per day for children and 3.4 and 4.5mg/kg body weight per day for children with diabetes. The temporary ADI defined by the JECFA for steviol glycosides [JECFA, 2005. Steviol glycosides. In: 63rd Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, WHO Technical Report Series 928, pp. 34-39] was set at 0-2mg/kg body weight (expressed as steviol equivalents); after correction for the difference in molecular weights, these estimated intakes of rebaudioside A are equivalent to daily steviol intakes of less than 2mg/kg. In consequence, this analysis shows that the intakes of rebaudioside A would not exceed the JECFA temporary ADI set for steviol glycosides.

  15. Co-occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits in Iran: Dietary exposure risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Ali; Zohrevand, Tahereh; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the contamination levels of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 88 collected samples from Iran's market including dried mulberry, date, fig, and apricot were evaluated. The margin of exposure (MOE) was estimated to assess the risk of dietary intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and OTA. The incidence of AFB1 in dried mulberry, date, fig and apricot samples was 45.5, 40.9, 59.1, and 81.8%, respectively. Although the mean total AFs content in contaminated samples of date (2.61 μg/kg), fig (3.43 μg/kg) and apricot (2.91 μg/kg) was lower than the maximum limit set in the European Union (EU) (4 μg/kg), dried mulberry samples showed a higher contamination level (4.12 μg/kg). The co-occurrence of OTA and AFs were noted in 4 (18.9%), 2 (9.1%), 4 (18.2%), and 10 (45.5%) in the dried mulberry, date, fig and apricot samples, respectively. Based on the calculated MOE, the dietary exposure to AFs through the consumption of dried fruit in Iran poses a potential risk to consumer health. OTA was detected in 45.45%, 22.72%, 45.45%, and 50% of mulberry, date, fig and apricot samples, respectively. However, OTA levels in all types of dried fruit were below recommended level in EU regulation (10 μg/kg) and MOE >10000, representing no toxicological concerns for consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the subacute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled EDS hydrotreated naphtha in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Hinz, J P

    1987-07-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted to assess the subacute and subchronic toxicity of EDS hydrotreated naphtha (HN). In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various concentrations of HN vapor (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/m3) 6 hr/day for 5 consecutive days. Following 2 recovery days, the animals were exposed for 4 additional days and then sacrificed on the 12th study day. In the subchronic toxicity study, a similar protocol was utilized; however, the animals were exposed 5 days/week for 13 weeks. Following a 2-week recovery period, the animals were sacrificed. Parameters examined in both studies included survival, growth, clinical observations, urinalysis, blood chemistry at necropsy, and microscopic examination of selected tissues. There was some evidence of systemic effects associated with repeated inhalation exposure to HN, although these effects were mild and were primarily confined to the high-exposure groups. The major systemic effect appeared to be renal toxicity in male rats as evidenced by increased urinary excretion of renal epithelial cells, creatinine, glucose, and protein and decreased urine osmolality. However, the absence of consistent pathologic changes in the kidneys of these animals suggested that the lesions were either slight or reversible during the 2-week recovery period.

  17. Dietary exposure of three passerine species to PCDD/DFs from the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River floodplains, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Giesy, John P; Coefield, Sarah J; Seston, Rita M; Haswell, Melissa M; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Bradley, Patrick W; Moore, Jeremy N; Roark, Shaun A; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    Dietary exposure of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) near Midland, Michigan (USA) was evaluated based on site-specific data, including concentrations of residues in bolus samples and individual invertebrate orders and dietary compositions by study species. Site-specific dietary compositions for the three species were similar to those reported in the literature, but differed in their relative proportions of some dietary items. Oligocheata (non-depurated) and Brachycera (Diptera) contained the greatest average concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs of the major site-specific dietary items collected via food web-based sampling. Average ingestion values of ΣPCDD/DFs from site-specific bolus-based and food web-based dietary concentrations for nestlings at study areas (SAs) were 6- to 20-fold and 2- to 9-fold greater than at proximally located reference areas (RAs), respectively. Average ingestion values of total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO - Avian)) from site-specific bolus-based and food web-based dietary concentrations for nestlings at SAs were 31- to 121-fold and 9- to 64-fold greater than at proximally located RAs, respectively. Estimates of ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ(WHO - Avian) tissue concentrations based on nestling dietary exposures were greater than those measured. Plausible explanations include nestling metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and assimilation rates of less than the 70% assumed to occur over the nestling growth period. Profiles of the relative concentrations of individual PCDD/DF congeners in samples of invertebrates and bolus at SAs on the Tittabawassee River downstream of the source of contamination were dominated by 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (22% to 44%) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (18% to 50%).

  18. Dietary nucleotide and nucleoside exposure in infancy and atopic dermatitis, recurrent wheeze, and allergic sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Marijke J C; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Theunisz, Esther H E; Ewalds, Doreen; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique; Arts, Ilja C W

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that early life exposure to nucleotides and nucleosides lowers the risk of recurrent wheeze, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization among n = 429 children. Concentrations in breast milk were established by high-performance liquid chromatography; concentrations in formula milks were obtained from manufacturers. Questionnaires and home visits were used to assess outcomes. Adjusted odds ratios in the highest tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile of exposure ranged from 1.11 to 1.99 in predominantly formula-fed children, and from 0.40 to 0.53 in predominantly breast-fed children, but were not significant. Thus, we found no evidence for association between nucleotide and nucleoside exposure and the development of atopic outcomes in children up to 2 years.

  19. An in situ assessment of selenium bioaccumulation from water-, sediment-, and dietary-exposure pathways using caged Chironomus dilutus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Eric D; Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Gallego-Gallegos, Mercedes; Tse, Justin J; Phibbs, James; Janz, David M; Pickering, Ingrid J; Liber, Karsten

    2013-12-01

    An in situ caging study was conducted downstream of a metal mine in northern Canada to determine the significance of surface water versus sediment exposure on selenium (Se) bioaccumulation in the benthic invertebrate Chironomus dilutus. Laboratory-reared C. dilutus larvae were exposed to either site-specific whole-sediment and surface water or surface water only for 10 d at sites with differing sediment and Se characteristics. Results showed elevated whole-body Se concentrations in C. dilutus larvae when exposed to sediment and water, compared with larvae exposed to Se in the surface water only at concentrations ranging from <1 µg Se/L to 12 µg Se/L. In response to these findings, a second in situ experiment was conducted to investigate the importance of dietary Se (biofilm and detritus) versus whole-sediment-exposure pathways. Larvae exposed to sediment detritus had the highest Se concentrations after 10 d of exposure (15.6 ± 1.9 µg/g dry wt) compared with larvae exposed to whole-sediment (12.9 ± 1.7 µg/g dry wt) or biofilm (9.9 ± 1.6 µg/g dry wt). Detritus and biofilm appear to be enriched sources of organic Se, which are more bioaccumulative than inorganic Se. Midge larvae from the reference treatment contained elevated concentrations of diselenides (i.e., selenocystine), while larvae from the biofilm treatment had the highest concentrations of selenomethionine-like compounds, which may be a biomarker of elevated Se exposures derived from anthropogenic sources. Whenever possible, Se concentrations in the organic fraction of sediment should be measured separately from whole-sediment Se and used for more accurate ecological risk assessments of potential Se impacts on aquatic ecosystems. © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Dietary acrylamide exposure was associated with increased cancer mortality in Chinese elderly men and women: a 11-year prospective study of Mr. and Ms. OS Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Tse, Lap Ah; Ho, Suzanne C; Wu, Suyang; Chen, Bailing; Chan, Dicken; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan

    2017-11-01

    Our study aims to investigate the association between dietary acrylamide exposure and cancer mortality among Chinese elderly. A prospective cohort of 4000 elderly men and women aged 65 years and above (Mr. and Ms. OS Hong Kong study) was recruited from local communities from 2001 to 2003. Dietary exposure to acrylamide was evaluated at baseline based on a validated food frequency questionnaire and an acrylamide database from the 1st Hong Kong Total Diet Study. Data on mortality statistics through March 2014 were obtained from the Death Registry of the Department of Health of Hong Kong with a median follow-up of 11.1 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between the acrylamide exposure and cancer mortality. Sex hormones were assessed in men. During a median follow-up of 11.1 years (39,271 person-years), we ascertained 330 cancer deaths. Vegetables (43.7%) and cereals (28.9%) products were the major contributors to dietary acrylamide. Compared with the lowest quartile of acrylamide intake (17.1 µg/day) were 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.8; P trend acrylamide exposure and sex, obesity and overall lifestyle pattern scores. The longitudinal data provided evidence that dietary acrylamide, in amounts that Chinese elderly are typically exposed to, was associated with increased cancer mortality. Circulating free estradiol may mediate the association in men.

  1. Effects of chronic dietary exposure of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the serum protein profile of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zusková, Eliška; Niksirat, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    information related to their toxicological endpoints. Proteomics was applied to evaluate the sub-lethal effects of dietary exposure to ZnO NPs on serum proteome profile of juvenile common carp, (Cyprinus carpio). Therefore, ZnO NPs solution (500mgkg-1 of feed) was added to a commercial carp feed for six weeks...

  2. Proteomic analysis of matrix of dental biofilm formed under dietary carbohydrate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, G P; Cury, J A; Dombroski, T C D; Pauletti, B A; Paes Leme, A F

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether protein changes in extracellular matrix of dental biofilm are a unique property of sucrose, this in situ study was conducted using as active control glucose and fructose, the sucrose monosaccharide constituents. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by LC-MS/MS after trypsin digestion. Absence or lower abundance of calcium-binding proteins and higher abundance of prolactin-induced proteins were found in biofilm formed in the presence of sucrose or its monosaccharide constituents compared with water, the negative control group. The data suggest that besides sucrose, other dietary carbohydrates may also provoke a change in the protein profile of extracellular matrix of dental biofilm formed. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Quantitative analysis of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in foods: implication for dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Tao, Lin; McLean, John; Lu, Chensheng

    2014-07-02

    This study quantitatively measured neonicotinoids in various foods that are common to human consumption. All fruit and vegetable samples (except nectarine and tomato) and 90% of honey samples were detected positive for at least one neonicotinoid; 72% of fruits, 45% of vegetables, and 50% of honey samples contained at least two different neonicotinoids in one sample, with imidacloprid having the highest detection rate among all samples. All pollen samples from New Zealand contained multiple neonicotinoids, and five of seven pollens from Massachusetts detected positive for imidacloprid. These results show the prevalence of low-level neonicotinoid residues in fruits, vegetables, and honey that are readily available in the market for human consumption and in the environment where honeybees forage. In light of new reports of toxicological effects in mammals, the results strengthen the importance of assessing dietary neonicotinoid intakes and the potential human health effects.

  4. Effects of dietary chromium exposure to rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii are ameliorated by ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2017-05-01

    Juvenile rockfish Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 10.8±1.4cm, and mean weight 31.7±3.6g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr 6+ ) at 0, 120 and 240mg/L and ascorbic acids (AsA) at 100, 200 and 400mg/L. Significant accumulation occurred in specific tissues and hematological parameters were altered: red blood cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin increased; plasma components were altered including calcium, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, glutamic oxalate transaminase, and glutamic pyruvate transaminase. However, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were unchanged. Ascorbic acids reduced both chromium uptake into tissues and altered hematological parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. [Current dietary exposure to mercury during pregnancy and childhood, and public health recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ibarlucea, Jesús; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of mercury during vulnerable periods (such as pregnancy and childhood) may have serious consequences for cognitive development, as observed after acute poisoning episodes in Japan and Irak. The main source of mercury exposure in the general population is consumption of certain types of fish. There is growing concern about the possible neurotoxic effects of mercury, especially in younger children in populations where fish intake is moderate to high. The scientific evidence to date is inconclusive. In Spain, the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) project has provided information on levels of prenatal exposure to mercury among 1800 newborns from Valencia, Sabadell, Asturias and Guipúzcoa. In general, levels were high, being above the World Health Organization's recommended dose in 24% of children and above the recommended levels of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 64%. However, the results did not indicate a significant association between prenatal mercury exposure and delayed cognitive development during the second year of life. Various agencies have developed recommendations on fish consumption for pregnant women and children, due to the presence of mercury. These recommendations should be strengthened, since there is general consensus among all regional and national public administrations that fish is an essential source of nutrients for development in the early stages of life. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary exposure of Brazilian consumers to dithiocarbamate pesticides : a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldas, E.D.; Tressou, J.; Boon, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic estimation of the exposure of the Brazilian population to the dithiocarbamate pesticides was performed using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program (MCRA 3.5). Residue data, as CS(2), for 3821 samples were obtained from the Brazilian national monitoring program on pesticide residues

  7. Interventions targeting child undernutrition in developing countries may be undermined by dietary exposure to aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sinead; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Child undernutrition, a form of malnutrition, is a major public health burden in developing countries. Supplementation interventions targeting the major micronutrient deficiencies have only reduced the burden of child undernutrition to a certain extent, indicating that there are other underlying determinants that need to be addressed. Aflatoxin exposure, which is also highly prevalent in developing countries, may be considered an aggravating factor for child undernutrition. Increasing evidence suggests that aflatoxin exposure can occur in any stage of life, including in utero through a trans-placental pathway and in early childhood (through contaminated weaning food and family food). Early life exposure to aflatoxin is associated with adverse effects on low birth weight, stunting, immune suppression, and the liver function damage. The mechanisms underlying impaired growth and aflatoxin exposure are still unclear but intestinal function damage, reduced immune function, and alteration in the insulin-like growth factor axis caused by the liver damage are the suggested hypotheses. Given the fact that both aflatoxin and child undernutrition are common in sub-Saharan Africa, effective interventions aimed at reducing undernutrition cannot be satisfactorily achieved until the interactive relationship between aflatoxin and child undernutrition is clearly understood, and an aflatoxin mitigation strategy takes effect in those vulnerable mothers and children.

  8. Dietary nucleotide and nucleoside exposure in infancy and atopic dermatitis, recurrent wheeze, and allergic sensitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.C.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Theunisz, E.H.; Ewalds, D.; Thijs, C.; Mommers, M.; Arts, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that early life exposure to nucleotides and nucleosides lowers the risk of recurrent wheeze, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization among n = 429 children. Concentrations in breast milk were established by high-performance liquid chromatography; concentrations in formula milks

  9. The Potential Application of European Market Research Data in Dietary Exposure Modelling of Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David Robin; Bruyninckx, Chris

    2017-11-03

    Consumer exposure assessments for food additives are incomplete without information about the proportions of foods in each authorised category that contain the additive. Such information has been difficult to obtain but the Mintel Global New Products Database (GNPD) provides information about product launches across Europe over the past 20 years. These data can be searched to identify products with specific additives listed on product labels and the numbers compared with total product launches for food and drink categories in the same database to determine the frequency of occurrence. There are uncertainties associated with the data but these can be managed by adopting a cautious and conservative approach. GNPD data can be mapped with authorised food categories and with food descriptions used in the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Surveys Database for exposure modelling. The data, when presented as percent occurrence, could be incorporated into the EFSA ANS Panel's 'brand-loyal / non-brand loyal exposure model in a quantitative way. Case studies of preservative, antioxidant, colour and sweetener additives showed that the impact of including occurrence data is greatest in the non-brand loyal scenario. Recommendations for future research include identifying occurrence data for alcoholic beverages, linking regulatory food codes, FoodEx and GNPD product descriptions, developing the use of occurrence data for carry-over foods and improving understanding of brand loyalty in consumer exposure models.

  10. Framework to determine the effectiveness of dietary exposure mitigation to chemical contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Edwards, S.; Kennedy, M.; O'Hagan, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Scholz, G.; Steinberg, P.; Tennant, D.; Chiodini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the food safety, risk managers may implement measures to reduce human exposure to contaminants via food consumption. The evaluation of the effect of a measure is often an overlooked step in risk analysis process. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for

  11. High-Throughput Dietary Exposure Predictions for Chemical Migrants from Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Environmental Protection Agency researchers have developed a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation High -Throughput (SHEDS-HT) model for use in prioritization of chemicals under the ExpoCast program. In this research, new methods were implemented in SHEDS-HT...

  12. DIETARY EXPOSURE FROM PESTICIDE APPLICATION ON FARMS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of total human exposure measurements performed on six farms in Iowa and North Carolina during the Agricultural Health Pilot Study, a household duplicate diet, several locally grown foods, an applicator meal, a child duplicate diet, and drinking water samples were collecte...

  13. THERMOREGULATION IN THE RAT DURING CHRONIC, DIETARY EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS, AN ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration of chlorpyrifos (CHP) at a dose of 25 to 80 mg/kg (p.o.) To rats results in hypothermia followed by a fever lasting for several days. To understand if chronic, low level exposure to CHP affects thermoregulation in a comparable manner to acute administration, male L...

  14. Dietary exposure to acrylamide from cafeteria foods in Jeddah schools and associated risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tawila, Mahmoud M; Al-Ansari, Ahmed M; Alrasheedi, Amani A; Neamatallah, Abdulateef A

    2017-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a carcinogenic and genotoxic food contaminant produced at high temperatures in foods that are rich in carbohydrates. Foods sold in schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, are among such carbohydrate-rich foods produced at high cooking temperatures. It is crucial to determine the importance of AA exposure with respect to cafeteria foods and assess the associated risks. The highest mean AA level was measured in chocolate pies (439 µg kg-1 ), followed by custard pies (435 µg kg-1 ) and cheese pies (432 µg kg-1 ). The average and 95th percentile values of AA exposure were 0.51 and 1.17 [µg kg-1 body weight (BW) school day-1 ]. The average exposure significantly decreased with an increase in age, from 0.65 (µg kg-1 BW school day-1 ) in primary school students to 0.37 in secondary school students. Cheese and chocolate pies are the main contributors in AA intake. The contributions of cheese and chocolate pies to the average exposure among primary, middle and secondary school students were 23.1%, 24.7% and 29.4% and 16.9%, 12.1% and 11.9%, respectively. Other products with significant contributions included cheese sandwiches (10.8%, 8.9% and 12.7%), plain cookies (7.7%, 5.6% and 6.7%) and custard pies (7.7%, 4.8% and 8.9%). Other cafeteria products contributed to AA exposure at much lower percentages. The calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the average [356 and 614 for both benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg-1 BW day-1 ] and 95th percentile AA exposure values (154 and 265 for both BMDL 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg-1 BW day-1 ) suggest that there is a health concern with respect to school-aged students. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Assessment of dietary exposure to PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in infant formulae available on the EU market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandelova, M; Piccinelli, R; Kasham, S; Henkelmann, B; Leclercq, C; Schramm, K-W

    2010-11-01

    In infant period, human milk and infant formulae are the major sources of exposure to dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Since in many parts of Europe the mothers are increasingly reluctant to breastfeed their babies, the main objective of the present study is to assess the level of exposure of non-breast-fed infants during their early development. Consequently, the concentration levels of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB were determined in industrial infant formulae including "starting" (aged 0-4months) and "follow-on" (after 4months) products of milk formula, soy formula and hypoallergenic infant formula, available on the EU market. Furthermore, dietary exposure to dioxin of exclusively formula-fed infants was assessed at each month from 0 to 9months. The results suggest that dietary exposure to dioxins via formulae is higher when consuming "starting" than "follow-on" infant formulae on a body-weight basis. Estimated dietary exposure after 4months of age was always below the lowest range of the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 1pg WHO-TEQkg(-1)bwd(-1) and Provisional Tolerable Monthly Intake (PTMI) of 70pg WHO-TEQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1). The highest estimated cumulative dietary exposure to PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB was obtained considering infants of 0-1months fed with the "starting" hypoallergenic infant formula (2.8pg WHO-TEQkg(-1)bwd(-1) and 84pg WHO-TQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1)). However, these elevated levels are much lower than those observed in some studies in breast-fed infants. The study can be used for further risk assessments in regard to infant exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acrylamide in commercial potato crisps from Spanish market: Trends from 2004 to 2014 and assessment of the dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-07-01

    This research updates the acrylamide content of commercial potato crisps marketed in Spain with the aim to evaluate its trend since 2004. Two different batches of 40 potato crisps brands from 18 producers were analysed. Acrylamide content ranged from 108 to 2180 µg/kg, with an average value of 630 µg/kg and a median of 556 µg/kg. Data revealed a continuous decreased trend from 2004 to 2014. In 2014, potato crisps showed an average acrylamide content 14.6% lower than the previous report in 2009 and 57.6% lower than the first report in 2004. These data confirm the overall effectiveness in the mitigation strategies implemented by the Spanish industrial sector, although variations up to 80% were observed between a number of brands. However, 17.5% of the samples registered values higher than the indicative value recommended by European Commission for potato crisps. The dietary exposure of the Spanish population to this contaminant through potato crisps intake was estimated to be 0.035 µg/kg body weight/day. Although exposure has decreased over the last ten years, it is necessary to continue efforts to reduce acrylamide content in potato crisps since there is still margin for it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a marine food web of Chinese Bohai Sea and their human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanwei; Liu, Jiyan; Yu, Miao; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-11-03

    Hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been identified ubiquitous in wildlife and environment. However, understanding on their trophic accumulation and human exposure was hitherto limited. In this study, the occurrences and trophic behaviors were demonstrated for OH- and MeO-PBDEs using the biota samples collected from Dalian, a coastal city near Chinese Bohai Sea. ∑OH-PBDEs exhibited a wider concentration range (food web. Conversely, trophic dilution was determined for ortho-substituted OH-tetraBDEs and OH-pentaBDEs, revealing that trophic dilution was prevalent for naturally produced OH-PBDEs. The dietary intake evaluation of OH-PBDEs (0.4 ng/kg/d) and MeO-PBDEs (0.8 ng/kg/d) via seafood consumption showed that coastal residents were in higher exposure risks to OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs via the massive seafood consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L{sup −1} Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L{sup −1} Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of

  19. Effects of maternal dietary exposure to cadmium during pregnancy on mammary cancer risk among female offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring. Methods: From gestation day 10 to day 19, pregnant rat dams were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93G diet containing 39% energy from fat (baseline diet, or the baseline diet containing moderate (75 μg/kg of feed or high (150 μg/kg cadmium levels. Some dams were injected with 10 μg 17β-estradiol (E2 daily between gestation days 10 and 19. Results: Rats exposed to a moderate cadmium dose in utero were heavier and exhibited accelerated puberty onset. Both moderate and high cadmium dose led to increased circulating testosterone levels and reduced the expression of androgen receptor in the mammary gland. The moderate cadmium dose mimicked the effects of in utero E2 exposure on mammary gland morphology and increased both the number of terminal end buds and pre-malignant hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HANs, but in contrast to the E2, it did not increase 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Conclusions: The effects of in utero cadmium exposure were dependent on the dose given to pregnant dams: Moderate, but not high, cadmium dose mimicked some of the effects seen in the in utero E2 exposed rats, such as increased HANs in the mammary gland.

  20. Effect of different dietary fumonisin B1 exposure on the toxin content of porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Kovács

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The time and dose-dependent effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 exposure on the tissue toxin concentrations was examined in 36 weaned pigs. Treated animals were fed an experimental diet supplemented with Fusarium verticillioides culture, leading to FB1 daily intake values of 50 mg/animal (n=10 in a 22 day treatment (T50, 100 mg/animal (n=7 for 5 days (T100s, short exposure and 100 mg/animal (n=7 for 10 days (T100l, long exposure, respectively. For each experimental group, 4 control (C animals were used. At the end of trial, the FB1 content of lung, liver, bile, kidney, brain, spleen, pancreas, heart, muscle and fat samples was determined by LC-MS. Pulmonary oedema developed in all piglets as a result of the toxin dose applied. Highest FB1 concentrations were found in the liver, kidney, lung and spleen, in all treatments. The muscle and adipose tissues (i.e. the meat did not contain considerable amounts of fumonisin B1. In the organs of the animals fed 100 mg FB1 per day, significantly higher FB1 levels were measured. An exponential function was descriptive for the measured FB1 data of some organs. The FB1 content was found to be dependent on the average daily intake, except in case of the liver.

  1. Role of household exposure, dietary habits and glutathione S-Transferases M1, T1 polymorphisms in susceptibility to lung cancer among women in Mizoram India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukan, Rup Kumar; Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti; Borah, Prasanta Kumar; Zomawia, Eric; Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the effect of household exposure, dietary habits, smoking and Glutathione S-Transferases M1, T1 polymorphisms on lung cancer among women in Mizoram, India. We selected 230 newly diagnosed primary lung cases and 460 controls from women in Mizoram. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR). Exposure of cooking oil fumes (phabits. We confirmed the important role of exposure of cooking oil emission and wood smoke, intake of smoked meat, smoked fish and soda (an alkali preparation used as food additives in Mizoram) and tobacco consumption for increase risk of lung cancer among Women in Mizoram.

  2. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abnous, Khalil, E-mail: Abnouskh@mums.ac.r [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Hossein, E-mail: Hosseinzadehh@mums.ac.ir [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein, a member of reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including β-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

  3. Acute and subchronic toxicity of metal complex azo acid dye and anionic surfactant oil on fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amwele, Hilma Rantilla; Papirom, Pittaya; Chukanhom, Kanit; Beamish, Fredrick Henry William; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-01-01

    The acute toxicity study of metal complex dark green azo acid dye, anionic surfactant oil and their mixture determined the 96 hr LC50, and fish behaviours. Subchronic toxicity determined haematology parameters and concentrations of copper and chromium in blood. The 96 hr LC50 was determined by probit analysis and subchronic toxicity was conducted in 90 days. No mortalities were observed in control and anionic surfactant oil treatments. The 96 hr LC50 value of mixture was 26.7 mg I(-1) (95% CL = 20.7 - 46.8) and that of metal complex dark green azo acid dye was not met as the percentage of dead was below 50% of tested organisms. In a treatment of anionic surfactant oil and that of mixture observed behaviours were respiration response, uncoordinated movement, loss of equilibrium, erratic posture and loss of responsiveness. Subchronic toxicity indicated fluctuations in number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes in all chemical treatments. Erythrocyte morphology such as anisocytosis, erythrocytes hypertrophy, karyolysis, cytoplasm vacuolation, ghost cell were observed in fish blood in all chemical treatments. An inverse relation was observed between total copper and chromium concentration in blood. However, the toxicity effect was chemical dose dependent and length of exposure.

  4. Assessment of potential toxicological aspects of dietary exposure to silicon-rich spirulina in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidé, Joris; Romain, Cindy; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Bonafos, Béatrice; Cristol, Jean Paul; Fouret, Gilles; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Gaillet, Sylvie

    2015-06-01

    Silicon has beneficial effects especially on bones and skin and is important in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Furthermore, in spontaneously hypertensive rats, it reduces hypertension and increases antihypertensive and antiatherogenic gene expressions in the aorta. Thus, incorporating silicon into spirulina could be a way to produce a bioavailable food supplement. The potential toxic effects of silicon-rich spirulina (SES) through haematological and biochemical parameters and inflammatory and oxidative status were evaluated in rats' blood and liver tissue. The study consisted in a 90-day experiment on female and male rats supplemented with three doses (28.5, 57 and 285 mg/kg BW/day) of SES. No mortality, abnormal clinical signs, behavioural changes or macroscopic findings were observed whatever the groups. Haematological parameters were not modified in SES treated-groups. No marked change was recorded in biochemical parameters The liver endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, catalase) activities were not modified whatever the gender and the dose, just as markers of oxidative stress (O2°(-), TBARS, thiols) and inflammation such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation of silicon-rich spirulina on rats has no harmful side nor toxic effects and could be beneficial especially in the case of suspicion or installation of pathologies due to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum alkylresorcinols as biomarkers of dietary gluten exposure in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, R S; Murray, J A; Marietta, E V; Van Dyke, C T; Ross, A B

    2017-03-01

    Therapy for coeliac disease (CD) mainly relies on following a gluten-free diet (GFD); however, a serum marker for gluten intake has yet to be established. To evaluate the utility of alkylresorcinol concentrations for detecting gluten intake in studies of human and mouse. Alkylresorcinol concentrations were compared among treated patients with coeliac disease (n = 34), untreated coeliac disease patients (n = 36) and controls (n = 33). Furthermore, seven additional coeliac disease patients whose serum samples were available at diagnosis and after GFD were evaluated. In mice studies, alkylresorcinol concentrations were compared in the serum of five mice fed a regular chow and 10 mice fed lifelong with a gluten-free chow. In addition, the effect of adding gluten on changes of alkylresorcinol concentrations was also evaluated. Total alkylresorcinol concentrations were significantly lower in treated with coeliac disease [median (IQR), 3 (2-8) nmol/L], compared to untreated patients [median (IQR), 32 (11-74) nmol/L; P gluten-free chow was 1.8 (1.6-2.3) nmol/L, which was further significantly increased to 16 (11-22) nmol/L after 8 days of feeding with the gluten-free chow that had gluten added to it. (P = 0.008). Serum alkylresorcinol concentrations could be a useful marker for dietary gluten in coeliac disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dietary exposure to a low dose of pesticides alone or as a mixture: the biological metabolic fingerprint and impact on hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demur, C; Métais, B; Canlet, C; Tremblay-Franco, M; Gautier, R; Blas-Y-Estrada, F; Sommer, C; Gamet-Payrastre, L

    2013-06-07

    Consumers are exposed to a mixture of pesticides through their food intake. These compounds are considered risk factors for human health, and the impact of dietary exposure to low doses of pesticide mixtures remains poorly understood. For this study we developed a mouse model to mimic consumer exposure in order to compare the effect of pesticides both alone or combined at doses corresponding to their Acceptable Daily Intake value. Female mice were exposed to pesticides throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning pups were fed the same pesticide-enriched diet their mothers had received for an additional 11 weeks. A metabonomic approach using (1)H NMR-based analysis of plasma showed that exposure to each pesticide produced a specific metabolic fingerprint in adult offspring. Discriminant metabolites between groups were glucose or lactate, choline, glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine. Interestingly, metabolite differences were observed as early as weaned animals that had not yet been directly exposed themselves. Studies of the hematopoietic system revealed that dietary exposure to one particular pesticide, endosulfan, produced a significant decrease in red blood cell and hemoglobin levels, consistent with hemolytic anemia. Moreover, cell signaling profiles of bone marrow progenitors were also clearly affected. Expression of cell signaling proteins such as P35, CDC27, FAK, P38 MAP kinase, calcineurin and caspase as well as proteins involved in the stability or structure of the cytoskeleton (vinculin, MAP2) was changed upon dietary exposure to pesticides. Finally, we found that dietary exposure to a mixture of pesticides had effects that differed and were often lesser or equal to that of the most efficient pesticide (endosulfan), suggesting that the effect of pesticide mixtures cannot always be predicted from the combined effects of their constituent compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary exposure to the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 may compromise osmoregulation by altering central vasopressin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, C.G. [Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States); Gillard, E.; Curras-Collazo, M. [Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Despite the importance of systemic osmoregulation, the potential deleterious effects of persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on body fluid regulation has not been thoroughly investigated. In an effort to ameliorate this deficit, the current study explores the toxic effects of PCBs on osmoregulation, and in particular, on the activity of the magnocellular neuroendocrine cell (MNC) system of the hypothalamus. MNCs of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) release oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (VP) from terminals in the neurohypophysis in response to dehydration. The latter is released to effect water conservation in response to dehydration via its action upon the kidney and through extra-renal actions. MNCs also secrete VP from their cell bodies and dendrites locally i.e., into the extracellular space of the SON. Although it has been shown that both intranuclear and systemic release rise in response to dehydration the physiological significance of intranuclear release has not been fully elucidated. We chose to use voluntary ingestion as the route of PCB exposure since it is more reflective of natural exposure compared to ip injection. One unexpected observation that resulted from pilot studies using ip injection of PCBs was the deleterious effects of the vehicle (corn oil) resulting in pooling of lipid within the abdominal cavity, mottling of the liver, fatty liver and general discoloration of all abdominal viscera at time of sacrifice. Therefore, all work described in this series of experiments have employed voluntary ingestion of the toxin. Work described in this paper suggests that PCBs in concentrations reflecting realistic lifetime exposure levels may negatively impact homeostatic mechanisms responsible for body water balance by altering somatodendritic (intranuclear) VP secretion in response to dehydration in vivo. The downstream consequences of such influence is currently under investigation, and preliminary evidence suggests that the

  8. Effects of dietary lead exposure on vitamin levels in great tit nestlings - An experimental manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra; Espín, Silvia; Rainio, Miia; Ruuskanen, Suvi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to metal pollution negatively affects animal physiology, including nutrient metabolism, but in the wild an effect can seldom be attributed to a single metal. Moreover, little is known about how the metabolism of vitamins, essential micronutrients for developing juveniles, is affected by toxic metals. Therefore we experimentally investigated the effects of lead (Pb), a widespread toxic metal, on four fat-soluble vitamins A (total and retinol), D3, E (total and α-tocopherol) and K and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and unidentified) in great tit (Parus major) nestlings. In addition to a control group where no Pb was provided, two Pb-dosed groups were compared to a metal exposed group in the vicinity of a Ni-Cu smelter. We examined whether Pb treatment affects vitamin homeostasis and how the response of Pb-treated birds relates to that of a population under industrial exposure of Pb and other metals. For this purpose, vitamin and carotenoid levels were quantified with UPLC-MS from plasma of 7 days-old nestlings. All metal exposed groups showed increased vitamin A and retinol levels. However, vitamin levels were not directly associated with fecal Pb levels, with the exception of retinol, which was positively correlated with fecal Pb. Alpha-tocopherol, lutein and zeaxanthin levels were positively associated with body mass and wing growth rate. To conclude, Pb exposure increased plasma vitamin A and retinol levels while the levels of other vitamins and carotenoids rather reflected secondary pollution effects via differences in habitat and diet quality at the smelter site. Our findings suggest Pb exposed nestlings may allocate the vitamins needed for growth and development to fight the physiological stress thus compromising their fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K. [Managlore Univ. (India). Dept. of Studies in Physics

    1995-12-31

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author).

  10. Proceedings of the workshop on food-consumption surveys in developing countries: general approaches to estimation of dietary exposure to contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Jean

    2004-12-01

    The initial steps in estimating dietary exposure to contaminants include gathering the necessary expertise, clarifying the intent and purpose of the work, selecting a dietary exposure model, and gathering available pertinent information. Expertise is generally needed in chemistry, agriculture, toxicology, statistics, nutritional epidemiology, and computer software development. The goal might be to determine the average exposure of a population to contaminants, to identify demographic groups within a population that are especially vulnerable to a contaminant, to evaluate the regulation of agricultural and food-manufacturing practices, or to determine compliance with standards for local and/or imported foods. Examples of dietary exposure models include the core food model, directed core food model, large database model, raw agricultural commodity (RAC) model, regional diet model, duplicate diet model, and total diet composite model. Each model has advantages and disadvantages and different costs and resource requirements. Consideration of the sources and flow of selected contaminants though the food supply may help identify the best exposure model to use. Pertinent information that may already be available includes analytical data on contaminants in foods or commodities, government regulations pertaining to the levels of contaminants in foods, food-consumption data, data on the average body weights of age-gender groups (to express exposure on a body weight basis), and biochemical measures of contaminants or their residues/metabolites. Collecting available information helps to clearly define what critical information is missing so that the planned research can be most effective. Careful documentation of decisions and assumptions allows for recalculating exposure estimates with the same model using different decisions and assumptions; documentation also allows others to understand what was done and how to use the resulting intake estimates properly. Clearly identifying

  11. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: dietary exposure, tissue concentrations, and macroscopic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Green, D.E.; Sanderson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    A feeding study with mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was conducted during March-July, 1988 in Laurel, Maryland, to identify diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in birds. One-year-old male mallards in groups of 21 were fed diets containing 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 parts per million (ppm) selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, for 16 weeks. All ducks receiving 80 ppm died. Ducks receiving 40 or 80 ppm selenium consumed less feed than ducks in the other treatment groups. Body weights of ducks receiving 40 or 80 ppm selenium declined during the study. The post-breeding molt was delayed in ducks receiving 40 ppm; most ducks receiving 80 ppm selenium died prior to the onset of molt. At necropsy, numerous abnormalities were observed in ducks that died but only a small number of abnormalities were observed in ducks surviving to the end of the study in the 40 ppm group. Weights of the heart, spleen, and pancreas were mostly lower and weights of the kidney were higher for ducks dying during the study than for euthanized ducks. Liver weights were unaffected. Selenium accumulated in soft tissues approximately in proportion to dietary concentrations. Selenium concentrations in tissues of all ducks that died were different from those of surviving ducks in the 0, 10, and 20 ppm groups, but were not different from those of surviving ducks in the 40 ppm group. Proposed diagnostic criteria for fatal chronic selenosis were derived from body weight, macroscopic abnormalities, organ weights, and concentrations of selenium in the liver. Proposed diagnostic criteria for non-fatal chronic selenosis were derived from body weight, plumage condition, macroscopic abnormalities, concentrations of selenium in the liver, reproductive failure, and alterations of blood and tissue chemistries. Lead or dioxin poisoning have diagnostic criteria most similar to selenium toxicosis.

  12. Dietary exposure of Brazilian consumers to dithiocarbamate pesticides--a probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E D; Tressou, J; Boon, P E

    2006-09-01

    A probabilistic estimation of the exposure of the Brazilian population to the dithiocarbamate pesticides was performed using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program (MCRA 3.5). Residue data, as CS2, for 3821 samples were obtained from the Brazilian national monitoring program on pesticide residues and from the monitoring program conducted in the Distrito Federal on rice, beans and nine fruits and vegetables. Food consumption data were obtained from a Brazilian household budget survey conducted between 2002 and 2003. Processing factors for washing, peeling or cooking were applied to the residues found in the crops. Daily intakes at the highest percentiles for the general population reached a maximum of 2.0 microg CS2/kg body weight per day (upper band of the 95% confidence interval at P99.99). Tomato, rice, apple and lettuce were the commodities which contributed most to the intake. Based on the registered uses and the toxicological profile of dithiocarbamates, the risk from exposure was evaluated assuming that all residues came from the use of ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBDC) or that a fraction of it came from the use of propineb. For this last scenario, a cumulative risk assessment was conducted. In the first scenario, the highest intake reached up to 11.9% EBDC ADI for the general population and up to 31.1% ADI for children. When 30% of the residues were considered as coming from propineb use, the values were 15.2% and 39.7% ADI, respectively.

  13. Quantitative risk assessment on the dietary exposure of Finnish children and adults to nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi M; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite intake from the consumption of cured meat and tap water was estimated for Finnish children of 1, 3 and 6 years as well as Finnish adults of 25-74 years. Nitrite content in the foods was measured by capillary electrophoresis, and was then used together with individual food consumption data from the FINDIET 2007 and DIPP studies in a stochastic exposure assessment by a Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) program. Nitrite intake from additive sources and tap water was assessed, and more than every 10th child between the ages 3 and 6 years was estimated to have a nitrite intake exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of nitrite. The high exposure levels were caused by frequent consumption of large portions of sausages, up to 350 g day(-1) or 750 g in 3 days, among the children. Median nitrite intake from cured meat was 0.016, 0.040, 0.033 and 0.005 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children of 1, 3 and 6 years and adults, respectively. Bayesian estimation was employed to determine safe consumption levels of sausages and cold cuts for children, and these results gave rise to new national food consumption advice.

  14. Effects of dietary PCB exposure on reproduction in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the impact of environmental contaminants on reproduction have typically focused on effects on fertility and subsequent reproductive failure. Contaminants may also impact reproductive output or other aspects of life history through effects on resource acquisition or allocation. We fed successfully breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (2:1 Aroclor 1242:1254) at levels of 0 (n = 10), 10 (n = 12), and 25 (n = 10) ppm (mg polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]/kg food). After 4 months on the diets, female mice were bred with male mice maintained on control food. There was no effect of PCB exposure on litter size at birth or weaning, although fewer female mice on the 25-ppm diet gave birth. There was no effect of PCB dose on maternal metabolic rate at peak lactation or on total food (dry matter) intake during lactation. Female mice on the 10-ppm diet, however, consumed more food per pup during lactation and weaned larger pups, although these differences disappeared after 4 weeks of age. We conclude that although moderate-term exposure to PCBs did decrease the number of litters produced for high-dose female mice, it did not change litter size, pup growth rate, or energetic measures for those female mice that did successfully reproduce.

  15. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  16. Dietary exposure assessment for arsenic and mercury following submarine tailings placement in Ratatotok Sub-district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Keith; Soebandrio, Amin

    2017-08-01

    The Mesel gold mine in the Ratatotok Sub-district operated between 1996 and 2004 with tailings disposal via an engineered submarine tailings placement (STP) into Buyat Bay. This operation raised concerns of increased levels of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) associated disease in the local communities from consumption of seafood contaminated with anthropogenic As and Hg. This report uses the dietary exposure to As and Hg, from local fishermen and market-purchased Codex "as consumed" and environmental fish results from the pre-mining baseline (1990-1995), the mine operational (1996-2004) and post-closure monitoring (2007-2016) to examine the potential health effects. The Ratatotok Sub-district consumers total As average daily intake from fish was between 152 and 317 μg/day (adults) and 58 and 105 μg/day (infants). The average daily intake of inorganic arsenic (Asi) from the dietary staples fish and rice and drinking water consumption was 77 μg/day (adults) and 35 μg/day (infants) at Buyat Pantai and 39 μg/day (adults) and 19 μg/day (infants) at Ratatotok township. Fish consumption contributed 8.2% (adults) and 6.5% (infants) to total daily Asi intake. Average Hg intake from fish consumption, exceeded the FAO WHO PTWI for methylmercury (MeHg) for all age and gender groups at Buyat Pantai 4.6 μg/kg bw/wk (adults) and 7.3 μg/kg bw/wk (infants) and for the infants at Buyat village and Ratatotok township (2.5 and 2.8 μg/kg bw/wk respectively). The Manado City consumers had average intakes below the MeHg PTWI. The Hg exceedances resulted from the high fish consumption in coastal communities and not elevated levels of Hg in fish. Hg exposure levels from the pre-mining baseline, Mesel STP operation and post-closure monitoring, confirmed that exceedances were unrelated to the tailings deposited into Buyat Bay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. [Acute and subchronic monensin toxicity for lambs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, B; Stoianov, K; Dzhurov, A; Dilov, P

    1980-01-01

    The acute and subchronic toxicity of monenzine (preparation Elancoban -- 100 of Elanco Co., USA) to male lambs for fattening aged 3-4 months and weighing 16-28.5 kg was studied. It was established that the single per oral dose of 5 mg/kg weight of the natrium monoenzine salt causes a temporary lack of appetitie but no changes in the behavior and the general state of the animals. The use of a 10 and 30 mg/kg weight dose of the preparation led to death of the lambs on the 72nd-120th hour. The toxicity was clinically manifested by anurexia, arumination, ataxia, paresis, and paralysis of the limbs, tachicardia, taxipnea, hypothermia and showed down and weakened rumen movements. Erosive rumitis and abomasis, catharrhalhemorrhagis duodenitis, hemorrhages on the epicardis, hyperremia and parenchymal organ oedema, 3-4 times increased gall-bladder with numerous nodes having a sunken center on its walls were observed pathologo-anatomically, while microscopically blood vessel disturbances (hyperremia, hemorrhages and oedema) of the lungs, heart, spleen, endocrinal glands (thyroid, adrenal and hypophysis), the brain, and the leptomeninges, liver distrophy, distrophic nephrosis and necrotic holecystitis were obvious. Following a long term (30 days) application to the fodder in 10 and 50 g/t doses, monenzine-natrium does not have a negative effect on the behaviour, general condition, clinical and biochemical blood composition and the structural build up of the inner organs, but in the first 5-10 days of the treatment it causes loss of appetite. Additional specific investigations are needed to elucidate the effect of the preparation on body gain.

  18. Intravenous injection of unfunctionalized carbon-based nanomaterials confirms the minimal toxicity observed in aqueous and dietary exposures in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David; Sutton, Paul A; Handy, Richard D; Henry, Theodore B

    2018-01-01

    Numerous ecotoxicology studies of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) have been conducted in fishes; however, different approaches have been used to make CNM dispersions and dose tanks for aqueous exposures, and to prepare food containing CNMs for dietary studies. This diversity of experimental methods has led to conflicting results and difficulties in comparing studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate intravenous injection of unfunctionalized CNMs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as a means of delivering a known internal dose, on tissue biochemistry and histopathological lesions; then, subsequently, to compare the results with our previous work on aqueous and dietary exposures of rainbow trout to CNMs. Rainbow trout were injected in the caudal vein with corn oil dispersions of 200 μg (approximately 1 μg g-1) of either the fullerene C60, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), or amorphous carbon black. After 96 h, injected fish were euthanized and tissue samples collected for biochemistry and histology. Histological examination of the kidney of fish injected intravenously indicated the presence of black material consistent with the injected carbon treatments. However, there were no additional lesions associated with CNM exposure compared to controls. There were also no significant changes in haematology, or ionoregulatory disturbance in blood plasma among the intravenously injected fish. Significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS) was detected only in kidney and spleen of fish injected with SWCNTs, but not the other carbon treatments. The elevated TBARS following injection contrasted with CNMs delivered via aqueous or dietary routes in our previous studies, suggesting that the latter exposure routes may not lead to absorption and toxicity in the internal tissues. Comparison of the effects of injected CNMs with aqueous and dietary CNMs exposures indicates that these materials are of

  19. Alteration of pituitary hormone-immunoreactive cell populations in rat offspring after maternal dietary exposure to endocrine-active chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutomi, Naoya; Shibutani, Makoto; Takagi, Hironori; Uneyama, Chikako; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Hirose, Masao

    2004-04-01

    We previously performed dose-response studies of genistein, diisononyl phthalate, 4-nonylphenol, methoxychlor (MXC), and bisphenol A to examine the impact of maternal dietary exposure from gestational day 15 to postnatal day 10 on the development of rat reproductive system in later life. Among the chemicals MXC alone showed typical estrogenic effects only at the maternally toxic 1200 ppm. The present study was performed to examine the sensitivity of immunohistochemical analysis of pituitary cells of offspring similarly exposed to each chemical for detection of endocrine-disrupting effects. For this purpose, ratios of pituitary cells expressing luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL), were measured at 3 and 11 weeks of age. Ethinylestradiol (EE) at 0.5 ppm was used as a reference chemical. At week 3, decrease in the relative proportions of LH, FSH, and PRL cells in males and LH cells in females was evident with MXC at 1200 ppm. At week 11, increase was found for PRL cells from 240 ppm MXC, and FSH cells at 1200 ppm in females. On the other hand, EE increased the PRL cell percentage in females at week 3 but no effects were apparent at week 11. The other chemicals were without influence at either time point. The results suggest that the assessment of the pituitary cell populations might be a more sensitive approach to detect perinatal endocrine-disrupting effects than other methods. The difference in the pituitary effect between MXC and EE is discussed.

  20. Estimated dietary exposure of Canadians to perchlorate through the consumption of fruits and vegetables available in Ottawa markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongwen; Forsyth, Don; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Pelletier, Luc; Bronson, Roni; Gaertner, Dean

    2009-10-14

    There has been increasing concern over the contamination of drinking water and food with perchlorate. Studies have reported perchlorate in a variety of foods, including lettuce, milk, fruits, and juices. In this study, 150 food samples were analyzed by ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of perchlorate in imported and domestic fruits and vegetables available from retail outlets in Ottawa, Canada. Perchlorate was found in most of the tested food types with concentrations appearing to vary by commodity and country of origin. Levels ranged from nondetectable to 536 microg/kg, with Guatemalan cantaloupes (156 +/- 232 microg/kg), United States spinach (133 +/- 24.9 microg/kg), Chilean green grapes (45.5 +/- 13.3 microg/kg), and United States Romaine lettuce (29.1 +/- 10.5 microg/kg) having the highest concentrations. Dietary exposure to perchlorate from analyzed fruits and vegetables was estimated to be approximately 36.6 and 41.1 ng/kg bw/day for toddlers (1-4 yrs) and children (5-11yrs), respectively.

  1. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern.

  2. Sub-chronic toxicological studies of transition metal complexes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sharif Hasan

    2017-01-18

    Jan 18, 2017 ... Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate sub-chronic toxicity in animal model. Methods: A detailed study was done on the physical, hematological, biochemical and hormonal parame- ters of both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after 28 days administration of naproxen and its metal.

  3. Sub-chronic toxicological studies of transition metal complexes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate sub-chronic toxicity in animal model. Methods: A detailed study was done on the physical, hematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters of both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after 28 days administration of naproxen and its metal complexes.

  4. Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the toxicological profile of the ethanol extract of Oncoba spinosa (EEOS) after acute and sub-chronic administration to rodents. Methods: In the acute toxicity study, a single administration of the extract at doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively, was given to the mice. Mice were observed for ...

  5. Preliminary assessment of U.K. human dietary and inhalation exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrad, Stuart; Wijesekera, Ramanee; Hunter, Stuart; Halliwell, Chris; Baker, Robert

    2004-04-15

    This study reports concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154 in outdoor air [median sigmaPBDE (sum of BDEs 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) = 18 pg m(-3)] in air from a range of office and home indoor microenvironments (median sigmaPBDE = 762 pg m(-3)) and vegan and omnivorous duplicate diet samples (median sigmaPBDE = 154 and 181 pg g(-1) dryweightforvegan and omnivorous diets, respectively). Median daily human exposure to sigmaPBDE via inhalation is 6.9 ng/person and 90.5 ng/person via diet but the relative significance of these pathways may vary considerably between individuals. Median concentrations in indoor air were higher in workplace (sigmaPBDE = 1082 pg m(-3)) than in domestic (sigmaPBDE = 128 pg m(-3)) microenvironments, and substantial differences in concentrations in air from different rooms in the same office building were found. When data from the only mechanically ventilated room was excluded, a significant positive correlation (p comestibles.

  6. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyekhoetin Matthew Omoruyi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98, while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%, were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future.

  7. Dietary exposure of Nigerians to mutagens and estrogen-like chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Ahamioje, Derek; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-08-15

    Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future.

  8. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Ahamioje, Derek; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future. PMID:25153465

  9. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae—a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The content of total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 16 dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae purchased on the Danish market. The dietary supplements originated from various regions, including Asia, Europe and USA. The contents of total and inorganic arsenic...... was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively, were in the range of 0.58 to 5.0 mgkg−1 and 0.03 to 3.2 mg kg−1, respectively, with a ratio between inorganic arsenic and total arsenic ranging between 5 and 100 %. Consumption of the recommended...... dose of the individual dietary supplement would lead to an exposure to inorganic arsenic within the range of 0.07 to 13 μg day−1. Such exposure from dietary supplements would in worst case constitute 62.4 % of the range of benchmark dose lower confidence limit values (BMDL01 at 0.3 to 8 μg kg bw−1 kg−1...

  10. Total Diet Study: For a Closer-to-real Estimate of Dietary Exposure to Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Kwon, Sungok; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendment on the Food Sanitation Act in Korea mandated the Minister of Food & Drug Safety to secure the scientific basis for management and reevaluation of standards and specifications of foods. Especially because the current food safety control is limited within the scope of ‘Farm to Market’ covering from production to retail in Korea, safety control at the plane of true ‘Farm to Fork’ scope is urgently needed and should include ‘total diet’ of population instead of individual food items. Therefore, ‘Total Diet Study (TDS)’ which provides ‘closer-to-real’ estimates of exposure to hazardous materials through analysis on table-ready (cooked) samples of foods would be the solution to more comprehensive food safety management, as suggested by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Although the protection of diets from hazards must be considered as one of the most essential public health functions of any country, we may need to revisit the value of foods which has been too much underrated by the meaningless amount of some hazardous materials in Korea. Considering the primary value of foods lies on sustaining life, growth, development, and health promotion of human being, food safety control should be handled not only by the presence or absence of hazardous materials but also by maximizing the value of foods via balancing with the preservation of beneficial components in foods embracing total diet. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview on TDS by describing procedures involved except chemical analysis which is beyond our scope. Also, details on the ongoing TDS in Korea are provided as an example. Although TDS itself might not be of keen interest for most readers, it is the main user of the safety reference values resulted from toxicological research in the public health perspective. PMID:26483882

  11. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  12. Dietary exposure to short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in meat and meat products from 20 provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Yongning; Wang, Runhua; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Cui, Lili; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui

    2018-02-01

    Food intake is one of the main pathways of human exposure to chlorinated paraffins (CPs). This study assessed the dietary exposure for the general Chinese population to short-chain chlorinated paraffin (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) through meat and meat products. Twenty samples of meat and meat products from 20 Chinese provinces were collected in 2011. As the sampling sites covered about two-thirds of the Chinese population, the meat samples were considered to be representative of the true characteristics of CPs contamination in Chinese meat products. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs in the meat samples were measured using the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. Forty-eight SCCP and MCCP homolog groups were detected in the meat samples. The mean SCCP and MCCP concentrations in all meat samples were 129 ± 4.1 ng g -1 wet weight and 5.7 ± 0.59 ng g -1 wet weight, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs varied in samples from different provinces. The geographical distribution of CP concentrations was similar to the distribution of CPs manufacturing plants in China. The most abundant groups of SCCPs in all samples were C 10-11 Cl 6-7 , and the most abundant groups of MCCPs in most samples were C 14 Cl 7-8 . The possible sources of SCCPs and MCCPs in meat and meat products might be CP-42 and CP-52. The 50th percentile estimated daily intakes of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption for a "standard" Chinese adult male were 0.13 and 0.0047 μg kg -1 bw d -1 , respectively, both much lower than the tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) for SCCPs and MCCPs. This preliminary risk assessment has indicated that the indirect exposure of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption does not pose significant risk to human health in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Derivation of an inhalation reference concentration based upon olfactory neuronal loss in male rats following subchronic acetaldehyde inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, David C; Struve, Melanie F; Wong, Brian A; Gross, Elizabeth A; Parkinson, Carl; Willson, Gabrielle A; Tan, Yu-Mei; Campbell, Jerry L; Teeguarden, Justin G; Clewell, Harvey J; Andersen, Melvin E

    2008-02-01

    Acetaldehyde inhalation induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic responses in the rodent nasal cavity. This experiment further characterizes the dose-response relationship for nasal pathology, nasal epithelial cell proliferation, and DNA-protein cross-link formation in F-344 rats exposed subchronically to acetaldehyde. Animals underwent whole-body exposure to 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1500 ppm acetaldehyde for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for up to 65 exposure days. Respiratory tract histopathology was evaluated after 4, 9, 14, 30, and 65 exposure days. Acetaldehyde exposure was not associated with reduced body weight gain or other evidence of systemic toxicity. Histologic evaluation of the nasal cavity showed an increased incidence of olfactory neuronal loss (ONL) following acute to subchronic exposure to > or = 150 ppm acetaldehyde and increased olfactory epithelial cell proliferation following exposure to 1500 ppm acetaldehyde. The severity of the ONL demonstrated dose- and temporal-dependent behaviors, with minimal effects noted at 150-500 ppm acetaldehyde and moderately severe lesions seen in the highest exposure group, with increased lesion severity and extent as the exposure duration increased. Acetaldehyde exposure was also associated with inflammation, hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium. These responses were seen in animals exposed to > or = 500 ppm acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde exposure was not associated with increased DNA-protein cross-link formation in the respiratory or olfactory epithelium. A model of acetaldehyde pharmacokinetics in the nose was used to derive an inhalation reference concentration (RfC) of 0.4 ppm, based on the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 50 ppm for the nasal pathology seen in this study.

  14. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L. extract subchronic 90-day safety study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Deshmukh

    Full Text Available Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L. extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p-Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect to any of the observed parameters of clinical signs, functional observations of sensory reactivity, grip strength and motor activity, ophthalmology, body weights, hematology, food consumption, urinalysis, organ weights, as well as gross and microscopic pathology at termination at any of the doses in either sex. Treatment at 1000 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract resulted in non-adverse effects including fully reversible signs of repetitive head burrowing in the bedding material and piloerection for short periods of time in both sexes immediately after administration, which gradually disappeared by treatment day-81. A slight and reversible elevation of BUN and urea levels in male rats, and slight to mild increase in the relative but not absolute heart weights of male and female rats was observed. Based on these results, the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL for this bitter orange extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine was 300 mg/kg, while the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL was 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate a high degree of safety for this bitter orange extract. Keywords: Citrus aurantium, Bitter orange, p-Synephrine, Subchronic toxicity, No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL, No-observed-effect-level (NOEL

  15. Subchronic, Low-Level Intraperitoneal Injections of Manganese (IV) Oxide and Manganese (II) Chloride Affect Rat Brain Neurochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian S.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ladefoged, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic and can induce manganism, a Parkinson-like disease categorized as being a serious central nervous system irreversible neurodegenerative disease. An increased risk of developing symptoms of Parkinson disease has been linked to work-related exposure, for example......Cl2)/kg bw/day for 7 d/wk for 8 or 12 weeks. This dosing regimen adds relevant new knowledge about Mn neurotoxicity as a consequence of low-dose subchronic Mn dosing. Manganese concentrations increased in the striatum, the rest of the brain, and in plasma, and regional brain neurotransmitter...

  16. Discovery of Food Exposure Markers in Urine and Evaluation of Dietary Compliance by Untargeted LC-MS Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj-Britt Schmidt

    Assessment of dietary intake in humans is central in nutrition research and it is a prerequisite to investigate associations between diet and health. The existing methods to estimate dietary intake are largely based on self-reporting. It is well-known that these methods are very uncertain. Biomar...

  17. Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) dietary exposure to PCDD/DF in the Tittabawassee River floodplain in Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coefield, Sarah J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Nadeau, Michael W; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Moore, Jeremy N; Kay, Denise P; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2010-10-01

    Soils and sediments in the floodplain of the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA contain elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). As a long-lived, resident top predator, the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; GHO) has the potential to be exposed to bioaccumulative compounds such as PCDD/DF. Site-specific components of the GHO diet were collected along 115 km of the Tittabawassee, Pine, Chippewa, and Saginaw Rivers during 2005 and 2006. The site-specific GHO biomass-based diet was dominated by cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Incidental soil ingestion and cottontail rabbits were the primary contributors of PCDD/DF to the GHO diet. The great horned owl daily dietary exposure estimates were greater in the study area (SA) (3.3 to 5.0 ng 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQ(WHO-avian))/kg body wt/d) than the reference area (RA) (0.07 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg body wt/d). Hazard quotients (HQs) based on central tendency estimates of the average daily dose and no-observable-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the screech owl and uncertainty factors were <1.0 for both the RA and the SA. Hazard quotients based on upper end estimates of the average daily dose and NOAEL were <1.0 in the RA and up to 3.4 in the SA. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2350-2362. © 2010 SETAC.

  18. Occupational and dietary exposures of humans to cyanide poisoning from large-scale cassava processing and ingestion of cassava foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, P N; Okorowkwo, C O; Maduagwu, E N

    2002-07-01

    The biochemical and toxicological effects of occupational and dietary exposure of humans to cyanide poisoning from large-scale cassava processing and ingestion of cassava foods were investigated using spectrophotometric and enzymatic methods. Analysis of urinary and serum thiocyanate (cyanide metabolite) from workers in cassava processing industries, who were 'frequent' [those who eat cassava food(s) at least once a day] and 'infrequent' [those who eat cassava food(s) only occasionally] consumers of cassava-based diets, was carried out with the aid of questionnaries. The mean urinary thiocyanate level of the cassava processors (mean+/-S.D.; 153.50+/-25.21 micromo1/l) was 2.2 and 2.6 times higher than that of frequent (70.1+/-21.8 micromo1/l) and infrequent (mean+/-S.D.; 59.30+/-17.0 micromo1/l) cassava consumers, respectively. The mean serum thiocyanate levels rose to 126.73+/-12.4 micromo1/l for the former and 68.4+/-18.3 and 54.7+/-13.2 micromo1/l, respectively, for the latter. An increase in plasma activity by 10% above normal of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was observed in 40% of the cassava processors, whereas it was within normal range in all consumers. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALK.PHOS) were within the normal value in all cases studied. The blood glucose level of 50% of the cassava processors was 100 mg/ml or above while that of the consumers was in the range of 68-85 mg/100 ml. The total protein, serum albumin and creatinine levels were in the range for normal values for the processors and consumers. The health implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Wyatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12, where ASGM has increased 4–6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231 to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15–49 years, n = 46 over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual’s oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provisional level (1.2 µg/g that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8–10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana and grains (quinoa was significantly associated with 29–75% reductions in hair mercury

  20. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of subchronic use of pioglitazone in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Said Said Elshama; Ayman El-Meghawry El-Kenawy; Hosam-Eldin Hussein Osman

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Pioglitazone (Actos) is one of the most controversial recent oral antidiabetic drugs. It was originally authorized in the European Union in 2000, and approved as an oral monotherapy for overweight second type of diabetic patients in 2002. It belongs to the thiazolidinedione group which some of its members have been withdrawn from the market due to the hepatotoxicity or cardiotoxicity effects. This study investigates sub-chronic use of pioglitazone induced toxicity in mice by the...

  2. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on organ mass and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The authors evaluated effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult and offspring organ mass and pathology. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). Absolute thyroid and adrenal gland masses were increased in adult females and 31-week-old juveniles, respectively, and absolute liver and heart masses were decreased in six-week-old kits exposed to dietary PCBs. Dietary concentrations of 0.72 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater induced mandibular and maxillary squamous epithelial proliferation in adult animals. The dietary concentration of ΣPCBs predicted to result in 20% incidence of the jaw lesion (EC20) was 2.3 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (15 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed), and the hepatic concentration was 2.8 µg ΣPCBs/g liver (89 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver). The EC20 values were greater than the dietary and hepatic concentrations predicted to result in a 20% increase in kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age (0.34 µg ΣPCBs/g feed or 2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed and 0.80 µg ΣPCBs/g liver or 13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver). However, the EC20 values reflect exposure of adults to PCBs for approximately six months, and the LC20 values reflect exposure of offspring from conception onward. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Dietary exposure of Canadians to perfluorinated carboxylates and perfluorooctane sulfonate via consumption of meat, fish, fast foods, and food items prepared in their packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Pepper, Karen; Seymour, Carol; Moisey, John; Bronson, Roni; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Robert W

    2007-04-18

    Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds is a worldwide phenomenon; however, routes of human exposure to these compounds have not been well-characterized. Fifty-four solid food composite samples collected as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study (TDS) were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) using a methanol extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Foods analyzed included fish and seafood, meat, poultry, frozen entrées, fast food, and microwave popcorn collected from 1992 to 2004 and prepared as for consumption. Nine composites contained detectable levels of perfluorinated compounds-four meat-containing, three fish and shellfish, one fast food, and one microwave popcorn. PFOS and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were detected the most frequently; concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 4.5 ng/g. The average dietary intake of total perfluorocarboxylates and PFOS for Canadians was estimated to be 250 ng/day, using results from the 2004 TDS composites. A comparison with intakes of perfluorocarboxylates and PFOS via other routes (air, water, dust, treated carpeting, and apparel) suggested that diet is an important source of these compounds. There was a substantial margin of exposure between the toxicological points of reference and the magnitude of dietary intake of perfluorinated compounds for Canadians >/= 12 years old.

  4. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A., E-mail: ami.s.yamada@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Bemrah, N., E-mail: nawel.bemrah@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Veyrand, B., E-mail: bruno.veyrand@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Pollono, C., E-mail: charles.pollono@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Merlo, M., E-mail: mathilde.merlo@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Desvignes, V., E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Sirot, V., E-mail: sirotv@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis.

  5. Ethyl glucoside in human urine following dietary exposure: detection by 1H NMR spectroscopy as a result of metabonomic screening of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Claire; Holmes, Elaine; Maibaum, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy; Tang, Huiru; Chan, Queenie; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhou, Beifan; Wilson, Ian

    2004-03-01

    Metabonomic screening of human urine samples using 1H NMR spectroscopy has revealed the presence of signals resulting from the excretion of ethyl glucoside. Experiments in volunteers have demonstrated that this ethyl glucoside results from dietary exposure to the compound, which is present in beverages such as rice wine and sake, rather than representing a new route for the metabolism of ethanol by humans. The limited studies undertaken in volunteers indicate that ethyl glucoside has a longer biological half life than ethanol itself. The potential problems associated with using this glucoside metabolite as a marker of ethanol consumption are considered.

  6. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B-1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Le Danh Tuyen; Do Huu Tuan

    2016-01-01

    B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical...

  7. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light alkylate naphtha distillate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, C; Lapadula, E; Breglia, R; Bui, Q; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; White, R; Mandella, R; Hoffman, G

    1998-10-23

    A 13-wk inhalation study was conducted with Sprague-Dawley CD rats (12/sex/group) were exposed by inhalation for 13 weeks to a light alkylate naphtha distillate (LAND-2, C4-C10; average molecular weight 89.2) at actual average concentrations of 0 (room air), 668, 2220, or 6646 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk; 12 additional rats/sex in the control and high dose groups were held after final exposure for a 4-wk recovery period. The highest exposure concentration was 75% of the lower explosive limit. Standard parameters of subchronic toxicity were measured throughout the study; at necropsy, organs were weighed and tissues processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurotoxicity evaluations consisted of motor activity (MA) and a functional operational battery (FOB) measured pretest, during 5, 9, and 14 wk of the study, and after the 4-wk recovery period. Whole-body perfusion and microscopic examination of selected organs and nervous tissue from the control and high dose rats were conducted at the end of exposure. No test-related mortality or effects on physical signs, body weight, or food consumption were observed. Statistically significant increases in absolute and relative kidney weights in high-exposure males correlated with microscopically observed hyaline droplet formation and renal nephropathy, effects in male rats that are not toxicologically significant for humans. Increased liver weights in both sexes at the highest dose had no microscopic correlate and appeared reversible after the 4-wk recovery period. Exposure to LAND-2 at any dose did not produce neurotoxicity measured by MA, FOB, or neuropathology. The no-observed-effects level (NOEL) for LAND-2 was 2220 ppm for subchronic toxicity and > or =26646 ppm for neurotoxicity.

  8. Cultivation of garden vegetables in Peoria Pool sediments from the Illinois River: a case study in trace element accumulation and dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen; Talbott, Jonathan; Sankaran, Renuka

    2006-08-01

    This case study was conducted to evaluate the use of reclaimed lake sediment as a growth media for vegetable production and to estimate whether accumulation of micronutrients and heavy metals in the vegetables would impact human nutrition or health, respectively. Five plant species, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), pepper (Capsicum annum L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), were grown in pots containing either reclaimed sediment from the Illinois River or a reference soil. Edible and vegetative tissues from the plants were analyzed for 19 elements, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn. Tomato and pepper grown in sediment showed significantly greater biomass and yield as compared to plants from the reference soil. Elemental analysis of the tissues revealed that Zn and Mo were the only elements that were significantly greater in sediment-grown plants on a consistent basis. While significant, Zn concentrations were no more than 3-fold higher than those in plants from the reference soil. The same trend was observed for Mo, except for bean tissues, which showed a 10-fold greater concentration in sediment-grown plants. The projected dietary intake of Cu, Mo, and Zn from consumption of sediment-grown vegetable tissues was significantly higher than for soil-grown plants, although the contribution to the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for these elements was substantial only for Mo. Intake of sediment-grown beans would have provided 500% of the dietary Mo RDA. While this is below the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) value for this element, there is no evidence to indicate that there would be a nutritional or therapeutic benefit from the consumption of bean containing this level of Mo. The dietary exposures to Cd and Pb would have been below the pertinent limits for all age and gender groups with the exception of the cumulative dietary Cd exposure to the 1-3 year age group

  9. Assessment of dietary exposure to bisphenol A in the French population with a special focus on risk characterisation for pregnant French women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Jean, Julien; Rivière, Gilles; Sanaa, Moez; Leconte, Stéphane; Bachelot, Morgane; Deceuninck, Yoann; Bizec, Bruno Le; Dauchy, Xavier; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Camel, Valérie; Grob, Konrad; Feidt, Cyril; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Foures, Franck; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a wide variety of products and objects for consumers use (digital media such as CD's and DVD's, sport equipment, food and beverage containers, medical equipment). Here, we demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of this contaminant in foods with a background level of contamination of less than 5 μg/kg in 85% of the 1498 analysed samples. High levels of contamination (up to 400 μg/kg) were found in some foods of animal origin. We used a probabilistic approach to calculate dietary exposure from French individual consumption data for infants under 36 months, children and adolescents from 3 to 17 years, adults over 18 years and pregnant women. The estimated average dietary exposure ranged from 0.12 to 0.14 μg/kg body weight per day (bw/d) for infants, from 0.05 to 0.06 μg/kg bw/d for children and adolescents, from 0.038 to 0.040 μg/kg bw/d for adults and from 0.05 to 0.06 μg/kg bw/d for pregnant women. The main sources of exposure were canned foods (50% of the total exposure), products of animal origin (20%) and 30% as a background level. Based on the toxicological values set by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) for pregnant women, the risk was non negligible. Thus, we simulated scenarios to study the influence of cans and/or food of animal origin on the BPA-related risk for this specific population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety assessment of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds: Subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liju Vijayasteltar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the various reports on the toxicity of clove oil and its major component eugenol, systematic evaluations on the safety of polyphenolic extracts of clove buds have not been reported. Considering the health beneficial pharmacological effects and recent use of clove polyphenols as dietary supplements, the present study investigated the safety of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds (Clovinol, as assessed by oral acute (5 g/kg b.wt. for 14 days and subchronic (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg b.wt. for 90 days toxicity studies on Wistar rats and mutagenicity studies employing Salmonella typhimurium strains. Administration of Clovinol did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in clinical/behavioural observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights, organ weights, feed consumption, urinalysis, hematology and clinical biochemistry parameters when compared to the untreated control group of animals, indicating the no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL as 1000 mg/kg b.wt./day; the highest dose tested. Terminal necropsy did not reveal any treatment-related histopathology changes. Clovinol did not show genotoxicity when tested on TA-98, TA-100 and TA-102 with or without metabolic activation; rather exhibited significant antimutagenic potential against the known mutagens, sodium azide, NPD and tobacco as well as against 2-acetamidoflourene, which needed metabolic activation for mutagenicity.

  11. Safety assessment of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds: Subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasteltar, Liju; Nair, Gopakumar Gopinathan; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadasan; I M, Krishnakumar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the various reports on the toxicity of clove oil and its major component eugenol, systematic evaluations on the safety of polyphenolic extracts of clove buds have not been reported. Considering the health beneficial pharmacological effects and recent use of clove polyphenols as dietary supplements, the present study investigated the safety of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds (Clovinol), as assessed by oral acute (5 g/kg b.wt. for 14 days) and subchronic (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg b.wt. for 90 days) toxicity studies on Wistar rats and mutagenicity studies employing Salmonella typhimurium strains. Administration of Clovinol did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in clinical/behavioural observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights, organ weights, feed consumption, urinalysis, hematology and clinical biochemistry parameters when compared to the untreated control group of animals, indicating the no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) as 1000 mg/kg b.wt./day; the highest dose tested. Terminal necropsy did not reveal any treatment-related histopathology changes. Clovinol did not show genotoxicity when tested on TA-98, TA-100 and TA-102 with or without metabolic activation; rather exhibited significant antimutagenic potential against the known mutagens, sodium azide, NPD and tobacco as well as against 2-acetamidoflourene, which needed metabolic activation for mutagenicity.

  12. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  13. Dietary exposure to di-isobutyl phthalate increases urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine level and affects reproductive function in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yitao; Wang, Xiaoyang; Yeung, Leo W Y; Sheng, Nan; Cui, Qianqian; Cui, Ruina; Zhang, Hongxia; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-11-01

    Phthalates are a large family of ubiquitous environmental pollutants suspected of being endocrine disruptors. Epidemiological studies have associated phthalate metabolites with decreased reproductive parameters and linked phthalate exposure with the level of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC, a product of methylated DNA). In this study, adult male mice were exposed to 450mg di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP)/(kg·day) via dietary exposure for 28days. Mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, the urinary metabolite) and reproductive function parameters were determined. The levels of 5mdC and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC) were measured in urine to evaluate if their contents were also altered by DiBP exposure in this animal model. Results showed that DiBP exposure led to a significant increase in the urinary 5mdC level and significant decreases in sperm concentration and motility in the epididymis, accompanied with reduced testosterone levels and down-regulation of the P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) gene in the mice testes. Our findings indicated that exposure to DiBP increased the urinary 5mdC levels, which supported our recent epidemiological study about the associations of urinary 5mdC with phthalate exposure in the male human population. In addition, DiBP exposure impaired male reproductive function, possibly by disturbing testosterone levels; P450scc might be a major steroidogenic enzyme targeted by DiBP or other phthalates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David; Al-Bairuty, Genan A; Henry, Theodore B; Handy, Richard D

    2013-11-01

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO2-NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO2-NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO2-NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO2-NPs and bulk TiO2. Injected TiO2-NPs accumulated only in kidney (94% of measured Ti) and to a lesser extent in spleen; and injected bulk TiO2 was found only in kidney. No toxicity of TiO2 was observed in kidney, spleen, or other tissues. Critical comparison of these data with previous studies indicates that dietary and waterborne exposures to TiO2-NPs do not lead to Ti accumulation in internal tissues, and previous reports of minor toxicity are inconsistent or attributable to respiratory distress resulting from gill occlusion during waterborne exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PSA-Based Screening Outcomes, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk in African Americans: Annual Report (Year 1 of 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2006-01-18

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of male U.S. cancer deaths, with African-Americans having the highest rate of PC mortality worldwide, as well as more abnormal results from screening tests that correlate with current or eventual PC. A 3-year prospective clinic-based study is studying the performance of current (PSA and DRE) vs. (% free PSA) clinical biomarkers of PC risk in 400 African-American men 50 to 70 years of age who undergo PC screening in Oakland, CA (East Bay San Francisco area), as well as possible association of PC screening results for these men with their dietary exposures to the cancer-causing heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) that forms when meat is cooked. This study expands an ongoing NIH-funded study (by the same research team) to add a new %-free-PSA test, results of which will be compared with PSA/DRE results and PhIP exposures estimated by dietary interviews. For 392 men studied under the NIH protocol, an odds ratio (95% CL) of 32 (3.2, 720) for highly elevated PSA ({ge}20 ng/mL) was observed in the highest 15% vs. the lower 50% of estimated daily PhIP intakes. Approximately 100 additional men have completed participation in the expanded NIH/DOD-supported study. This study will help define the potential value of improved screening and dietary/behavioral intervention to reduce PC risk, namely, prevention of PhIP intake by avoiding overcooked meats.

  16. Integrated assessment of infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants and mercury via dietary intake in a central western Mediterranean site (Menorca Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqué, Eva; Garí, Mercè; Arce, Anna; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O

    2017-07-01

    In this research the levels of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and mercury (Hg) in several food items from Menorca Island were presented. The dietary exposure assessment was performed in children population from the island. Finally, body burden of OCs and Hg in these infants were associated with their dietary intakes of the selected food items. The dietary exposure to persistent pollutants by children population from Menorca Island was assessed. The concentrations of 11 organochlorine pesticides, 6 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs) and 1 inorganic toxic element, Hg, were determined in 46 food samples that included fish, shellfish, meat, fruit, vegetables, cheese and eggs, which were acquired in local markets and department stores in the Menorca Island. The most contaminated food items were fish and shellfish, followed by meat and cheese products. OC levels were similar or lower than in other previous studies. However, 66% of the analysed fish and shellfish species for Hg exceeded the human consumption safety limits according to the European Union Legislation. Pollutant data from food was combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of these contaminants. According to our results, fish and fruit were the main sources of OCs to the EDIs (contributing to 37% and 29%, respectively) while fish and shellfish were the main sources of Hg (76% and 17%). The estimated EDIs of OCs were well below to the reported FAO/WHO Tolerable Intakes. However, estimated weekly intake of Hg would exceed the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake indicated by EFSA in the case that the only fish and seafood source would be from the central western Mediterranean. Direct associations between fish/shellfish consumption and hair concentrations of Hg and fish and meat consumption and 4,4'-DDT concentrations in venous serum in the Menorcan children were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute dietary restriction in heifers alters expression of genes regulating exposure and response to gonadotrophins and IGF in dominant follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S W; Matthews, D; Browne, J A; Forde, N; Crowe, M A; Mihm, M; Diskin, M; Evans, A C O

    2012-07-01

    Dietary restriction in growing cattle and severe negative energy balance in lactating cows have been associated with altered gonadotropin secretion, reduced follicle diameter, reduced circulating oestradiol concentrations and anovulation. Therefore, we hypothesised that acute dietary restriction would influence the fate and function of the dominant follicle by altering the expression for genes regulating gonadotrophin and IGF response in ovarian follicles. Newly selected dominant follicles were collected 7-8 days after prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF) administration from heifers (n=25) that were individually fed a diet supplying 1.2 maintenance (M; control, n=8) or 0.4 M (restricted, n=17) for a total duration of 18-19 days. Heifers within 0.4 M were ovulatory (n=11) or anovulatory (n=6) depending on whether the dominant follicle present at PGF ovulated or became atretic following luteolysis. Control animals were all ovulatory. Acute dietary restriction decreased IGF-I (P<0.001) and insulin (P<0.05) in circulation; oestradiol (P<0.01) and IGF-I (P<0.01) in follicular fluid; and mRNA for FSHR (P<0.01) in granulosa cells but increased mRNA for IGFBP2 (P<0.05) in theca cells of the newly selected dominant follicle. However, this only led to anovulation when dietary restriction also decreased mRNA for CYP19A1 (P<0.05), IGF2 (P<0.01) and IGF1R (P<0.05) in granulosa cells and LHCGR (P<0.05) in theca cells of follicles collected from heifers fed 0.4 M. These results suggest that the catabolic environment induced by dietary restriction may ultimately cause anovulation by reducing oestradiol synthesis, FSH-responsiveness and IGF signaling in granulosa, and LH-responsiveness in theca cells of dominant follicles. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions in Norwegian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Aase, Heidi; Biele, Guido; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Knutsen, Helle K

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (dioxins) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with potentially adverse impact on child neurodevelopment. Whether the potential detrimental effects of dioxins and PCBs on neurodevelopment are of specific or unspecific character is not clear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functioning in preschoolers. We aimed to investigate a range of functions, in particular IQ, expressive language, and executive functions. This study includes n=1024 children enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged 3.5years participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), Stanford-Binet 5th revision (SB-5), Child Development Inventory (CDI), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Generalized linear and additive models adjusted for confounders were used to examine exposure-outcome associations. Exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compound was not significantly associated with any of the outcome measures when analyses were performed for boys and girls together. After stratifying by sex, adjusted analyses indicated a small inverse association with language in girls. An increase in the exposure variables of 1 SD was associated with a reduction in language score of -0.2 [CI -0.4, -0

  19. Light catalytically cracked naphtha: subchronic toxicity of vapors in rats and mice and developmental toxicity screen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbey, W E; Feuston, M H; Yang, J J; Kommineni, C V; Roy, T A

    1996-01-01

    Both a subchronic inhalation study and a developmental toxicity screen were performed with vapors of light catalytically cracked naphtha (LCCN). In the subchronic study, four groups of mice and rats (10 animals per sex per species) were exposed for approximately 13 wk (6 h/d, 5 d/wk) to concentrations of LCCN vapors of 0, 530, 2060, or 7690 mg/m3. An untreated control group was also included. Animals were observed daily and body weights were taken weekly. No significant treatment-related changes were found in clinical signs, body weight, serum chemistry, hematology, histopathology of 24 tissues, or weights of 12 organs. A marginal decrease was noted in the number of sperm per gram of epididymis. In the developmental toxicity screen, presumed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 2150, or 7660 mg/m3 of LCCN vapors, 6 h/d on d 0-19 of gestation. Females were sacrificed on d 20; dams and fetuses were examined grossly and fetuses were later evaluated for skeletal and visceral effects. The number of resorptions was increased by approximately 140% in the group receiving 7660 mg/m3; no other definite treatment-related changes were observed. Overall, the effects of exposure to partially vaporized LCCN were minimal.

  20. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show a positive association between cancer incidence and high intake of processed meat. N-nitrosamines (NAs) in these products have been suggested as one potential causative factor. Most volatile NAs (VNAs) are classified as probable human carcinogens, whereas the c...... value ≥17,000 was derived for the exposure to NA known to be carcinogenic (VNA including NSAR), indicating an exposure of low concern. The exposure to the NVNA is substantially higher and if found to be of toxicological significance the exposure may be of concern....

  1. Effects on levels of glutathione and some related enzymes in tissues after an acute arsenic exposure in rats and their relationship to dietary protein deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, S. [University Grants Commission, New Delhi (India); Dept. of Physiology, Calcutta Univ. (India); Chatterjee, A.K. [Dept. of Physiology, Calcutta Univ. (India)

    2001-11-01

    Arsenic is a potent toxin, carcinogen and modulator of antioxidant defense system. In this study, male rats of Wistar strain, maintained on either 18% or 6% protein (casein) diet, received an acute i.p. exposure to sodium arsenite (As{sup 3+}) at its LD{sub 50} dose (15.86 mg/kg body weight). One hour after the arsenic exposure, glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly depleted and lipid peroxidation was increased. A relationship between any two of tissue arsenic concentrations, GSH levels and lipid peroxidation values was observed only for liver when the proportional changes of respective parameters in either of the dietary groups of animals were compared. This suggests that, in liver, arsenic metabolism appears dependant upon the GSH concentration. Acute arsenic exposure significantly increased the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in liver of both dietary groups and in kidney of only the 18% protein-fed group of animals. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity significantly decreased in liver of the 18% protein-fed animals while GST increased in kidney of both the 18% and the 6% protein-fed groups. No significant change in glutathione reductase (GR) or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was observed. In the present investigation, liver as a whole seems to be more affected in terms of GSH level and GST activity. The mode of responses of GPx and GR activities as well as the unaltered G6PDH activity might result in arsenic-induced GSH depletion and increase in lipid peroxidation. The animals of the 6% protein-fed group, appeared to be affected less in terms of tissue arsenic concentration, lipid peroxidation, GSH level and GST activity. (orig.)

  2. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  3. Testing of a cumulative and aggregate exposure model using biomonitoring studies and dietary records for Italian vineyard spray operators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, M.C.; Glass, C.R.; Fustinoni, S.; Moretto, A.; Mandic-Rajcevic, S.; Riso, P.; Turrini, A.; Voet, van der H.; Hetmanski, M.T.; Fussel, R.J.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The need for improved tools to estimate the cumulative and aggregate exposure to compounds such as plant protection products (PPPs) is recognised in the EU Regulation 1107/2009. A new model has been developed to estimate the exposure within a population to single compounds or compounds within a

  4. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  5. Toxicological evaluation of subchronic use of pioglitazone in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Said Elshama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pioglitazone (Actos is one of the most controversial recent oral antidiabetic drugs. It was originally authorized in the European Union in 2000, and approved as an oral monotherapy for overweight second type of diabetic patients in 2002. It belongs to the thiazolidinedione group which some of its members have been withdrawn from the market due to the hepatotoxicity or cardiotoxicity effects.This studyinvestigates sub-chronic use of pioglitazone induced toxicity in mice by the assessment of renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes, and some hematological indices with histological changes of liver, kidney, heart, and bladder. Materials and Methods: 120 albino mice were divided into four groups; 30 in each. The first group (control received water, second (diabetic group received alloxan only, while the third and the fourth groups received alloxan with 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of pioglitazone, respectively for 90 days. Results: Prolonged use of pioglitazone induced significant abnormalities of hepatic, renal, and cardiac biomarkers and some hematological indices associated with histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, heart, and bladder that increased based on administered dose. Conclusion: Subchronic use of pioglitazone leads to hepatic, renal, cardiac, hematological, and bladder affection depending on the applied dose.

  6. Toxic effects and depuration after the dietary lead(II) exposure on the bioaccumulation and hematological parameters in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Ki; Kim, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-07-01

    Platichthys stellatus (mean length 20±2cm, mean weight 160.15±15g) were exposed to the different levels of dietary lead(II) at the concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240mg/kg for 4 weeks. Depuration was conducted for 2 weeks after exposure. The lead exposure over 60mg Pb/kg induced the significant bioaccumulation in tissues of P. stellatus (5-30μg/g tissue), except for brain and muscle where the exposure to 240mg Pb/kg caused the bioaccumulation (2-4μg/g tissue). The hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit (Ht) value and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were substantially decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and lasted even after the depuration period. For plasma components, calcium and magnesium levels in plasma were generally decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and glucose level was also mainly increased over 60mg Pb/kg. Total protein was significantly decreased over 120mg Pb/kg after 4 weeks exposure. Glucose and total protein showed the restoration after the depuration period in groups of fish exposed previously to over 60 and 120mg Pb/kg, respectively. However, other parameters that changed during the exposure over 60mg Pb/kg did not recovered. For enzymatic components in plasma, glutamic oxalate transminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvate transminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased over 120mg Pb/kg, and there was only restoration observed after the depuration for ALP over 120mg Pb/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary pre-exposure of rats to fish oil does not enhance myocardial efficiency of isolated working hearts or their left ventricular trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Soyeon; Han, June-Chiew; Nisbet, Linley A; LeGrice, Ian J; Taberner, Andrew J; Loiselle, Denis S

    2014-04-15

    Numerous epidemiological studies, supported by clinical and experimental findings, have suggested beneficial effects of dietary fish or fish oil supplementation on cardiovascular health. One such experimental study showed a profound (100%) increase in myocardial efficiency (i.e. the ratio of work output to metabolic energy input) of the isolated whole heart, achieved by a corresponding decrease in the rate of myocardial oxygen consumption. However, a number of other investigations have returned null results on the latter energetic index. Such conflicting findings have motivated us to undertake a re-examination. To that effect, we investigated the effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on myocardial mechano-energetics, with our primary focus on cardiac efficiency. We used both isolated hearts and isolated left ventricular trabeculae of rats fed with one of three distinct diets: reference (REF), fish oil-supplemented (FO) or saturated fat-supplemented (SFA). For all three groups, and at both spatial levels, we supplied 10 mm glucose as the exogenous metabolic substrate. In the working heart experiments, we found no difference in the average mechanical efficiency among the three dietary groups: 14.8 ± 1.1% (REF), 13.9 ± 0.6% (FO) and 13.6 ± 0.7% (SFA). Likewise, we observed no difference in peak mechanical efficiency of left ventricular trabeculae among the REF, FO and SFA groups: 13.3 ± 1.4, 11.2 ± 2.2 and 12.5 ± 1.5%, respectively. We conclude that there is no effect of a period of pre-exposure to a diet supplemented with either fish oil or saturated fatty acids on the efficiency of the myocardium at either spatial level: tissue or whole heart.

  8. Dietary pre-exposure of rats to fish oil does not enhance myocardial efficiency of isolated working hearts or their left ventricular trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Soyeon; Han, June-Chiew; Nisbet, Linley A; LeGrice, Ian J; Taberner, Andrew J; Loiselle, Denis S

    2014-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies, supported by clinical and experimental findings, have suggested beneficial effects of dietary fish or fish oil supplementation on cardiovascular health. One such experimental study showed a profound (100%) increase in myocardial efficiency (i.e. the ratio of work output to metabolic energy input) of the isolated whole heart, achieved by a corresponding decrease in the rate of myocardial oxygen consumption. However, a number of other investigations have returned null results on the latter energetic index. Such conflicting findings have motivated us to undertake a re-examination. To that effect, we investigated the effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on myocardial mechano–energetics, with our primary focus on cardiac efficiency. We used both isolated hearts and isolated left ventricular trabeculae of rats fed with one of three distinct diets: reference (REF), fish oil-supplemented (FO) or saturated fat-supplemented (SFA). For all three groups, and at both spatial levels, we supplied 10 mm glucose as the exogenous metabolic substrate. In the working heart experiments, we found no difference in the average mechanical efficiency among the three dietary groups: 14.8 ± 1.1% (REF), 13.9 ± 0.6% (FO) and 13.6 ± 0.7% (SFA). Likewise, we observed no difference in peak mechanical efficiency of left ventricular trabeculae among the REF, FO and SFA groups: 13.3 ± 1.4, 11.2 ± 2.2 and 12.5 ± 1.5%, respectively. We conclude that there is no effect of a period of pre-exposure to a diet supplemented with either fish oil or saturated fatty acids on the efficiency of the myocardium at either spatial level: tissue or whole heart. PMID:24535444

  9. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  10. Gene Expression Changes Related to Endocrine Function and Decline in Reproduction in Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) after Dietary Methylmercury Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebecca Klaper; Christopher B. Rees; Paul Drevnick; Daniel Weber; Mark Sandheinrich; Michael J. Carvan

    2006-01-01

    ...: The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in gene expression associated with MeHg exposure, specifically those associated with previously observed changes in reproduction and reproductive biomarkers...

  11. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light catalytic cracked naphtha distillate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; Lapadula, E; Roth, R; Schreiner, C; White, R; Clark, C; Mandella, R; Hoffman, G

    2001-01-01

    A 15-week, whole-body inhalation study of the vapors of a distillate (LCCN-D) of light catalytic cracked naphtha (CAS no. 64741-55-5, LCCN) was conducted with Sprague-Dawley rats. Target exposure concentrations were 0, 750, 2500, and 7500 ppm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week. Over the course of the study, animals received at least 65 exposures. For a portion of the control and 7500-ppm groups, a 4-week postexposure period was included in the study. Subchronic toxicity was evaluated using standard parameters. During life, neurotoxicity was evaluated by motor activity assessment and a functional observational battery. Selected tissues from animals in all exposure groups were examined microscopically. Neuropathologic examination of selected neuronal tissues from animals in the control and high-exposure groups was also conducted. No compound-related effects were seen on survival, clinical chemistry, food consumption, or physical signs. No evidence of neurotoxicity was seen at any exposure level. Slight decreases in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations were seen in male rats at the end of exposure to 7500 ppm LCCN-D. However, values were within normal physiological ranges and recovery occurred. Slight decreases in mean body weights and body weight gain were observed in high-exposure females during the first 7 weeks of exposure, but this decrease was not seen during the second half of the study. Male rat nephropathy involving hyaline droplet formation and alpha-2micro-globulin accumulation was seen in mid- and high-exposure males, an effect not relevant to humans. The incidence and severity of goblet cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia and respiratory epithelium hyperplasia in nasoturbinal tissues were greater in high-exposure animals, but recovery occurred. None of the effects observed were considered toxicologically significant. The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for subchronic and neurotoxicity of LCCN-D was > or = 7500 ppm.

  12. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Christensen, T; Olesen, P T; Granby, K

    2015-06-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show a positive association between cancer incidence and high intake of processed meat. N-nitrosamines (NAs) in these products have been suggested as one potential causative factor. Most volatile NAs (VNAs) are classified as probable human carcinogens, whereas the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15-75 years) and children (4-6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced and boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29 µg kg bw(-1) day(-1) a MOE value ≥17,000 was derived for the exposure to NA known to be carcinogenic (VNA including NSAR), indicating an exposure of low concern. The exposure to the NVNA is substantially higher and if found to be of toxicological significance the exposure may be of concern. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of exposure to dietary acrylamide based on mercapturic acids level in urine of Polish women post partum and an assessment of health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Zielińska, Aleksandra; Winiarek, Joanna; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    We determined metabolites of acrylamide and glycidamide concentrations (AAMA and GAMA, respectively) in urine of 93 women within the first days after delivery, using LC-MS/MS. The median AAMA and GAMA levels in urine were 20.9 μg/l (2.3÷399.0 μg/l) and 8.6 μg/l (1.3÷85.0 μg/l), respectively. In smokers we found significantly (Pacrylamide intake was low (median: 7.04 μg/day). Estimated exposure to acrylamide based on AAMA and GAMA levels in the whole group of women was 0.16 μg/kg b.w./day (1.15 μg/kg b.w./day, P95). We found significantly (Pacrylamide in the diet (≥10 μg/day vs acrylamide intake calculated on the basis of urinary levels of AAMA and GAMA and estimated on the basis of 24-h dietary recall (r=0.26, Pacrylamide intake. Our results have shown that even a low dietary acrylamide intake may be associated with health risk.

  14. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from infancy until adulthood: A comparison between breast-feeding, toddler, and long-term exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); E.L.M. Op de Coul (Eline); J.E. van der Veen; N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractFood is the major source for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin accumulation in the human body. Therefore, investigating food habits from early ages until reproductive age (25 years) is important in order to assess exposure risk for the next

  15. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from infancy until adulthood : A comparison between breast-feeding, toddler, and longterm exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Dagnelie, PC; Mulder, PGH; de Coul, EO; van der Veen, JE; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ

    Food is the major source for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin accumulation in the human body. Therefore, investigating food habits from early ages until reproductive age (25 years) is important in order to assess exposure risk for the next generation. The objective of this study was to

  16. Health Effects of Subchronic Inhalation of Simulated Downwind Coal Combustion Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Mauderly

    2009-01-07

    The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive laboratory-based evaluation of selected respiratory and cardiac health hazards of subchronic (up to 6 months) inhalation of simulated key components of 'downwind plume' emissions of coal combustion. This project was performed as an integral part of a joint government-industry program termed the 'National Environmental Respiratory Center' (NERC), which is aimed at disentangling the roles of different physical-chemical air pollutants and their sources in the health effects associated statistically with air pollution. The characterization of the exposure atmosphere and the health assays were identical to those employed in the NERC protocols used to evaluate other pollution source emissions, such as diesel, gasoline, and wood combustion. The project had two phases, each encompassing multiple tasks. Guidelines for the composition of the exposure atmosphere were set by consensus of an expert workshop. Development of the capability to generate the exposure atmosphere and pilot studies of the comparative exposure composition using two coal types were accomplished in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the toxicological study was conducted using Powder River Basin Sub-bituminous coal. NETL provided 50% support for the work in Phase 1 and had intended to provide 20% support for the work in Phase 2. Phase 1 is completed and Phase 2 is in the final stages. All animal exposures were completed without incident, and the composition of the exposure atmospheres met the targets. All of the health sample collections are completed, but some samples remain to be analyzed. Data summaries and final statistical analysis of results remain to be completed. The goal is to submit all publications before the end of FY-08. Repeated exposure to simulated downwind coal emissions caused some significant health effects, but the number of effects tended to be fewer than those caused by the other NERC exposures (diesel and gasoline

  17. Impact of dietary exposure to methoxychlor, genistein, or diisononyl phthalate during the perinatal period on the development of the rat endocrine/reproductive systems in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutomi, Naoya; Shibutani, Makoto; Takagi, Hironori; Uneyama, Chikako; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Hirose, Masao

    2003-11-05

    To evaluate the impact of dietary exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during the sensitive period of brain sexual differentiation, maternal Sprague-Dawley rats were fed three representative chemicals, methoxychlor (MXC; 24, 240, and 1200 ppm), genistein (GEN; 20, 200, and 1000 ppm), or diisononyl phthalate (DINP; 400, 4000, and 20,000 ppm), from gestational day 15 to postnatal day 10. Soy-free diet was used as a basal diet to eliminate possible estrogenic effects from the standard diet. Offspring were examined in terms of anogenital distances, prepubertal organ weights, onset of puberty, estrous cyclicity, and organ weights and histopathology of endocrine organs at adult stage (week 11) as well as the volumes of sexually dimorphic nucleus of preoptic area (SDN-POA). All chemicals caused signs of maternal toxicity at high doses. MXC, at 1200 ppm, facilitated and delayed the onset of puberty in females and males, respectively, females also showing endocrine disrupting effects thereafter, such as irregular estrous cyclicity and histopathological alterations in the reproductive tract and anterior pituitary. GEN, at all doses, reduced body weight (BW) at week 11, but did not affect endocrine parameters. Treatment with DINP at 20,000 ppm resulted in degeneration of meiotic spermatocytes and Sertoli cells in the testis and decrease of corpora lutea in the ovary at week 11, although changes remained minimal or slight. The SDN-POA volume remained unchanged with all three chemicals. The results demonstrated that perinatal dietary exposure to EDCs for a limited period causes endocrine disruption in offspring only at high doses.

  18. No bioavailability of 17α-ethinylestradiol when associated with nC60 aggregates during dietary exposure in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Woo; Henry, Theodore B; Menn, Fu-Min; Compton, Robert N; Sayler, Gary

    2010-11-01

    The C(60) fullerene is a manufactured carbon nanoparticle (CNP) that could pose a risk to humans and other organisms after release into the environment. In surface waters, C(60) is likely to be present as aggregates of nC(60) and these aggregates can associate with other substances that are toxic. Our goal was to evaluate the association of a model contaminant [17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)] with nC(60) and determine bioavailability of EE2 after accumulation by a filter feeding organism [Brine shrimp (BS) Artemia sp.] and subsequent dietary exposure in zebrafish. Aqueous suspensions of nC(60) were prepared (600 mg C(60)/900 mL, 6-month water stirred method) with/without EE2 (1 μg/L) and BS were exposed to these preparations. Accumulation of nC(60) in gut of BS was assessed by light microscopy, and C(60) were extracted from BS and concentration analyzed by HPLC. Adult male zebrafish were fed (5d) live BS according to the following treatments: BS (control); BS containing nC(60); BS containing nC(60)+EE2; or BS containing EE2. Liver was excised from exposed fish and total RNA was extracted for assessment of vitellogenin gene (vtg1A/B) expression. The vtg1A/B was highly up-regulated in fish exposed to BS containing EE2, but expression of vtg1A/B did not differ from controls in other treatments. The EE2 associated with nC(60) did not become bioavailable in zebrafish during passage through the intestinal tract of zebrafish. Results have implications on the effect of nC(60) on the bioavailability of co-contaminants in organisms during dietary exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. River transport of mercury from artisanal and small-scale gold mining and risks for dietary mercury exposure in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diringer, Sarah E; Feingold, Beth J; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Gallis, John A; Araújo-Flores, Julio M; Berky, Axel; Pan, William K Y; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-02-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a major contributor to deforestation and the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric mercury worldwide. Despite significant information on the direct health impacts of mercury to ASGM miners, the impact of mercury contamination on downstream communities has not been well characterized, particularly in Peru's Madre de Dios region. In this area, ASGM has increased significantly since 2000 and has led to substantial political and social controversy. This research examined the spatial distribution and transport of mercury through the Madre de Dios River with distance from ASGM activity. This study also characterized risks for dietary mercury exposure to local residents who depend on fish from the river. River sediment, suspended solids from the water column, and fish samples were collected in 2013 at 62 sites near 17 communities over a 560 km stretch of the Madre de Dios River and its major tributaries. In areas downstream of known ASGM activity, mercury concentrations in sediment, suspended solids, and fish within the Madre de Dios River were elevated relative to locations upstream of mining. Fish tissue mercury concentrations were observed at levels representing a public health threat, with greater than one-third of carnivorous fish exceeding the international health standard of 0.5 mg kg(-1). This study demonstrates that communities located hundreds of kilometers downstream of ASGM activity, including children and indigenous populations who may not be involved in mining, are at risk of dietary mercury exposure that exceed acceptable body burdens. This report represents the first systematic study of the region to aid policy decision-making related to ASGM activities in Peru.

  20. Morbid condition involving cardio-vascular, broncho-pulmonary, digestive and neural lesions in children and young adults after dietary arsenic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaldivar, R.

    1980-02-01

    An investigation on the relationship between dietary arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases was made. In Antofagasta Commune, northern Chile, since 1955 arsenic has polluted public drinking water. This environmental contamination is of geological origin. The concentration of arsenic in drinking water for the 1955 to 1970 period was 0.5980 ppM. In the period June 1970 to March 1972, the concentration decreased to 0.0815 ppM due to a water filtration plant which started operating in May 1970. Greater Santiago showed 0.00 ppM of arsenic in drinking water. Amongst 10 autopsied patients with chronic arsenical dermatosis from Antofagasta Commune, 9 showed marked fibrous intimal thickening of the arterial wall and/or restricted lumen of the left coronary artery, 2 of these 9 also exhibiting myocardial infarction. Of the 10 patients, 7 developed cardiomegaly, which was related to chronic exposure to dietary arsenic. Two series of patients with myocardial infarction under 40 years of age, one from Antofagasta Commune, the other from greater Santiago (not exposed to arsenic) were compared. The Yates corrected chi 2 value being 11.7776. The difference was statistically highly significant. In Antofagasta Commune, the number of cases which had myocardial infarction with chronic arsenical dermatosis were compared with the cases which showed, myocardial infarction without chronic arsenical dermatosis. The Yates corrected chi 2 value was 13.0395. A highly significant difference was detected. Children from the two cities were also compared. The number of cases with myocardial infarction showed a significant difference; Fisher's exact test yielded a P approximately equal to 0.004944, the Yates corrected chi 2 value being 20.7311. The number of children with systemic occlusive arterial disease from the two cities also exhibited a highly significant difference.

  1. High-throughput dietary exposure predictions for chemical migrants from food contact substances for use in chemical prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryol, Derya; Nicolas, Chantel I; Wambaugh, John; Phillips, Katherine; Isaacs, Kristin

    2017-11-01

    Under the ExpoCast program, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) researchers have developed a high-throughput (HT) framework for estimating aggregate exposures to chemicals from multiple pathways to support rapid prioritization of chemicals. Here, we present methods to estimate HT exposures to chemicals migrating into food from food contact substances (FCS). These methods consisted of combining an empirical model of chemical migration with estimates of daily population food intakes derived from food diaries from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A linear regression model for migration at equilibrium was developed by fitting available migration measurements as a function of temperature, food type (i.e., fatty, aqueous, acidic, alcoholic), initial chemical concentration in the FCS (C0) and chemical properties. The most predictive variables in the resulting model were C0, molecular weight, log Kow, and food type (R2=0.71, pchemicals identified via publicly-available data sources as being present in polymer FCSs were predicted for 12 food groups (combinations of 3 storage temperatures and food type). The model was parameterized with screening-level estimates of C0 based on the functional role of chemicals in FCS. By combining these concentrations with daily intakes for food groups derived from NHANES, population ingestion exposures of chemical in mg/kg-bodyweight/day (mg/kg-BW/day) were estimated. Calibrated aggregate exposures were estimated for 1931 chemicals by fitting HT FCS and consumer product exposures to exposures inferred from NHANES biomonitoring (R2=0.61, pchemicals), they can provide critical refinement to aggregate exposure predictions used in risk-based chemical priority-setting. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Testicular toxicity induced by dietary cadmium in cocks and ameliorative effect by selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Long; Gao, Rui; Li, Shu; Wang, Jin-Tao; Tang, Zhao-Xin; Xu, Shi-Wen

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant that has been associated with male reproductive toxicity in animal models. However, little is known about the reproductive toxicity of Cd in birds. To investigate the toxicity of Cd on male reproduction in birds and the protective effects of selenium (Se) against subchronic exposure to dietary Cd, 100-day-old cocks received either Se (as 10 mg Na(2)SeO(3) per kg of diet), Cd (as 150 mg CdCl(2) per kg of diet) or Cd + Se in their diets for 60 days. Histological and ultrastructural changes in the testis, the concentrations of Cd and Se, amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO), the activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and apoptosis and serum testosterone levels were determined. Exposure to Cd significantly lowered SOD and GPx activity, Se content in the testicular tissue, and serum testosterone levels. It increased the amount of LPO, the numbers of apoptotic cells and Cd concentration and caused obvious histopathological changes in the testes. Concurrent treatment with Se reduced the Cd-induced histopathological changes in the testis, oxidative stress, endocrine disorder and apoptosis, suggesting that the toxic effects of cadmium on the testes is ameliorated by Se. Se supplementation also modified the distribution of Cd in the testis.

  3. Disruption of medial prefrontal synchrony in the subchronic phencyclidine model of schizophrenia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A M J; Stubbendorff, C; Valencia, M; Gerdjikov, T V

    2015-02-26

    Subchronic treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) produces behavioral abnormalities in rodents which are considered a reliable pharmacological model of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Alterations in prefrontal neuronal firing after acute PCP administration have been observed, however enduring changes in prefrontal activity after subchronic PCP treatment have not been studied. To address this we have recorded cortical oscillations and unit responses in putative cortical pyramidal cells in subchronic PCP-treated rats (2mg/kg twice daily for 7 days) under urethane anesthesia. We found that this regimen reduced theta oscillations in the medial prefrontal cortex. It further produced abnormal cortical synchronization in putative cortical pyramidal cells. These alterations in prefrontal cortex functioning may contribute to cognitive deficits seen in subchronic NMDA antagonist pre-treated animals in prefrontal-dependent tasks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang R & D Center for Food Technology and Equipment, Fuli Institute of Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, Zhejiang (China); Ren, Yiping, E-mail: renyiping@263.net [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-09-24

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1–0.3 ng/mL and 0.4–1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%–105.4%, 98.2%–114.0% and 92.2%–108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD < 7.0%) substantially supported the use of current method for robust analysis. Rapid pretreatment procedures and short run time (8 min per sample) ensured good efficiency of metabolism profiling, indicating a wide application for investigating short-term internal exposure of dietary acrylamide. Our proposed UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of acrylamide in rats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive

  5. Subchronic Sleep Restriction Causes Tissue-Specific Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylan, Thomas C.; Grunfeld, Carl; Mulligan, Kathleen; Schambelan, Morris; Schwarz, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context: Short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Subchronic sleep restriction (SR) causes insulin resistance, but the mechanisms and roles of specific tissues are unclear. Objective: The purpose of this article was to determine whether subchronic SR altered (1) hepatic insulin sensitivity, (2) peripheral insulin sensitivity, and (3) substrate utilization. Design: This was a randomized crossover study in which 14 subjects underwent 2 admissions separated by a washout period. Each admission had 2 acclimatization nights followed by 5 nights of either SR (4 hours time in bed) or normal sleep (8 hours time in bed). Main Outcome Measure/Methods: Insulin sensitivity (measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and hepatic insulin sensitivity (measured by stable isotope techniques) were measured. In addition, we assayed stress hormone (24-hour urine free cortisol, metanephrine, and normetanephrine), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OH butyrate) levels. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured by indirect calorimetry. Results: Compared to normal sleep, whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased by 25% (P = .008) with SR and peripheral insulin sensitivity decreased by 29% (P = .003). Whereas hepatic insulin sensitivity (endogenous glucose production) did not change significantly, percent gluconeogenesis increased (P = .03). Stress hormones increased modestly (cortisol by 21%, P = .04; metanephrine by 8%, P = .014; normetanephrine by 18%, P = .002). Fasting NEFA and β-OH butyrate levels increased substantially (62% and 55%, respectively). REE did not change (P = 0.98), but RQ decreased (0.81±.02 vs 0.75±0.02, P = .045). Conclusion: Subchronic SR causes unique metabolic disturbances characterized by peripheral, but not hepatic, insulin resistance; this was associated with a robust increase in fasting NEFA levels (indicative of increased lipolysis), decreased RQ, and

  6. Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum Phlomidis Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Reena; Duggal Sanjiv; Kapoor Bhupinder

    2012-01-01

    Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of gynecological disturbances and for agricultural uses. It has been used in many Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations as an immunomodulatory agent. Irrespective of its widespread use, no data on subchronic toxicity has been described. The present study was designed to access sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves. Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves was given orally at doses of ...

  7. Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Jungil Choi; Ju Young Chang; Jeana Hong; Sue Shin; Jeong Su Park; Sohee Oh

    2017-01-01

    Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children?s development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5?12.0), the median ...

  8. Antagonistic Effect of Laver, Pyropia yezonensis and P. haitanensis, on Subchronic Lead Poisoning in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Gu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Yanhua; Zhu, Wenjia; Yao, Lin; Liu, Zhantao; Gao, Hua; Wang, Lianzhu

    2017-06-03

    Lead, one of the most harmful heavy metals, can cause various hazardous effects on living organisms. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antagonistic and protective effects of two economically important laver species, Pyropia yezoensis and P. haitanensis, against subchronic lead poisoning in rats by a 30-day feeding test. Sixty-four healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups with eight rats (4♂ + 4♀) per group, among which, one group was served as the control, the others were respectively treated with lead acetate (5 mg/kg b w), and a combination of lead acetate and P. yezoensis or P. haitanensis at different dosages. Weight gain of rats was observed and recorded. Changes in antioxidant indexes, and liver and renal function markers were determined to evaluate the antagonistic effect. Lead content in rats was determined to investigate lead excretion effect of laver. The results showed that exposure to lead caused lead accumulation in kidney and liver, thus leading to significant oxidative damage and impaired liver and renal function compared to the control group. The co-treatment of laver slightly increased body weight compared to the lead-treated group. The co-administration of laver restored liver and renal function of rats by preventing the increment in the activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate transaminase (AST), and the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr). The increasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and lowering of the enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of rats were observed in the laver co-treated groups, which indicated that laver enhanced the antioxidative capacity of rats. The laver also enhanced lead content in feces and reduced it in liver and kidney. The results indicated that P. yezoensis and P. haitanensis could maintain or promote the normal physiological and biochemical function of lead

  9. Evaluation of subchronic toxicity of pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Chao; Liao, Chen-Wei; Cheng, Fen-Pang; Chou, Chi-Chung; Chang, Shih-Chien; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Chen, Yng-Tay; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2009-12-01

    Outbreaks of food-associated renal failure in pets occurred in Asia and the United States of America in 2004 and 2007. They were related to the combined intoxication of cyanuric acid and melamine. Our aims were to investigate cyanuric acid and melamine contamination of pet food and to examine subchronic toxicity in rats. Levels of 10%, 20%, 50%, and 50%-100% (w/w) of contaminated pet food were fed to rats for three months. Analytical results revealed that the tainted food contained significant levels of cyanuric acid and melamine in a ratio of 1:6.8. Rats fed the diet of 50%-100% for three months exhibited elevated serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, as well as dose-dependent melamine/cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephrotoxicity. The melamine/cyanuric acid crystals of various sizes were mixed with necrotic cell debris and inflammatory cells, accompanied by tubular dilation and interstitial fibrosis. The immunohistochemistry index of proliferative cellular nuclear antigen and osteopontin in the kidney of the 50%-100% group were elevated, indicating regeneration of renal cells and the formation of crystals. In conclusion, the combination ratio of cyanuric acid to melamine and the acidic urine content were two factors that, upon repeated exposure, determined the severity of the nephrotoxicity.

  10. A subchronic 90-day oral toxicity study of Origanum vulgare essential oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Cameán, A M

    2017-03-01

    Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) (OEO) is being used in the food industry due to its useful properties to develop new active packaging systems. In this concern, the safety assessment of this natural extract is of great interest before being commercialized. The European Food Safety Authority requests different in vivo assays to ensure the safety of food contact materials. One of these studies is a 90 days repeated-dose oral assay in rodents. In the present work, 40 male and 40 female Wistar rats were orally exposed to 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) OEO during 90 days following the OECD guideline 408. Data revealed no mortality and no treatment-related adverse effects of the OEO in food/water consumption, body weight, haematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. These findings suggest that the oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of this OEO is 200 mg/kg b.w. in Wistar rats, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, the use of this OEO in food packaging appears to be safe based on the lack of toxicity during the subchronic study at doses 330-fold higher than those expected to be in contact consumers in the worst scenario of exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of subchronic lithium administration in male Wistar mice on some biochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, R; Allagui, Ms; Vincent, C; Murat, J C; Croute, F; El Feki, A

    2009-10-01

    Lithium salts are efficiently used for treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, prolonged treatment frequently involves adverse side effects. In this study, effects of lithium carbonate administration on some biochemical parameters were studied in male mice. Lithium carbonate (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg body weight corresponding to 3.77, 7.54, or 15.08 mg Li element/kg body weight, respectively) was injected daily for 14 or 28 days. The following parameters were recorded: drinking water consumption, body weight, lithium and testosterone serum concentrations, activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-peroxidase (GPX), and level of lipid peroxidation (expressed as TBARS) in liver was performed. Lithium treatment, especially at the highest dose for 28 days, was found to induce weight gain and polydipsia and a significant decrease of plasma testosterone level. Lipid peroxidation level and activities of SOD and GPX were increased in liver, which suggests a perturbation of the antioxidative status. Our results indicate that subchronic exposure to lithium, which induces weight gain and polydipsia under our experimental conditions, also damages the male reproductive system and triggers an oxidative stress in the liver.

  12. DNA adduct formation and oxidative stress in colon and liver of Big Blue rats after dietary exposure to diesel particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, Marianne; Risom, Lotte; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) via the gastrointestinal route may impose risk of cancer in the colon and liver. We investigated the effects of DEP given in the diet to Big Blue rats by quantifying a panel of markers of DNA damage and repair, mutation, oxidative damage to proteins and ...

  13. Risk assessment of the dietary exposure to contaminants and pesticide residues in young children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Bakker, R.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Rossum, van C.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The diet of children aged 2 to 6 years in the Netherlands is safe regarding the exposure to fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, patulin (toxic compounds produced by fungi), nitrate and organophosphorus pesticides. For dioxins, that are mainly present in animal fats, there is a limited probability that an

  14. Safety of PVAP and PVAP-T including a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats and genotoxicity tests with polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMerlis, C C; Schoneker, D R; Borzelleca, J F

    2014-08-01

    The safety of PVAP was evaluated in a 90-day subchronic toxicity study in rats. Sprague Dawley Crl:CD(SD) rats were administered a dietary concentration of 0.75%, 1.5% and 5.0% PVAP for a minimum of 90days. There were no adverse effects reported. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in the 90-day sub chronic study was the 5% dietary concentration, which corresponds to a dose of 3120mg/kg/day for males and 3640mg/kg/day for females, the highest level tested. PVAP is co-processed with titanium dioxide to produce polyvinyl acetate phthalate and titanium dioxide (PVAP-T). The chemical composition, physiochemical properties and specifications of PVAP-T are unchanged during manufacturing process based on various analytical studies. Therefore, the toxicological data that support the safety of PVAP can be used to support the use of PVAP-T as a pharmaceutical excipient. An independent expert panel evaluated the safety of PVAP and PVAP-T. Based on the toxicology study results, safety assessment and the estimated exposure assessment for PVAP and PVAP-T, the expert panel concluded that PVAP and PVAP-T could safely be used in drug products up to 829mg per day which was the estimated exposure provided to the expert panel for current applications of PVAP and PVAP-T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comet-assay parameters as rapid biomarkers of exposure to dietary/environmental compounds -- an in vitro feasibility study on spermatozoa and lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A; Kurzawa-Zegota, M; Laubenthal, J; Cemeli, E; Anderson, D

    2012-03-18

    Twelve chemical compounds have been selected for the European NewGeneris study on the basis of their potential to damage DNA, in order to establish adequate and reliable biomarkers of exposure. These genotoxic chemicals include heterocyclic amines, organochlorines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mycotoxins, lipid peroxidation products and alcohol. Damage in somatic cells such as lymphocytes could give rise to cancer, while damage in germ cells could not only give rise to cancer but also to heritable defects. The alkaline Comet assay, with and without metabolic activation, as well as the neutral Comet assay were used to assess DNA integrity in spermatozoa and lymphocytes after in vitro treatment with low, middle and high doses of each chemical. DNA-reactive aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation, food mutagens such as heterocyclic amines, nitrosamine and benzo[a]pyrene produced the highest amounts of DNA damage, even without metabolic activation. Damage seen with the neutral Comet assay - detecting primarily double-strand breaks - was lower than with the alkaline assay. In general, there was increased damage in the spermatozoa by comparison with the lymphocytes, with altered slopes in the dose-response curves. The Comet assay with sperm was generally very sensitive in assessing genotoxic damage, with the Comet parameters being good biomarkers of induced DNA damage. Establishing reliable biomarkers of exposure for the evaluation of dietary/environmental carcinogens is of utmost importance to protect our health and the health of our offspring. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary exposure of PBDEs resulting from a subsistence diet in three First Nation communities in the James Bay Region of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Wainman, Bruce C; Leblanc, Alain; Dumas, Pierre; Martin, Ian; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2011-04-01

    Concerns regarding the persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport, and adverse health effects of polybrominated dipheyl ethers (PBDEs) have recently come to light. PBDEs may potentially be of concern to indigenous (First Nations) people of Canada who subsist on traditional foods, but there is a paucity of information on this topic. To investigate whether the traditional diet is a major source of PBDEs in sub-Arctic First Nations populations of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (James and Hudson Bay),Ontario, Canada, a variety of tissues from wild game and fish were analyzed for PBDE content (n=147) and dietary exposure assessed and compared to the US EPA reference doses (RfDs). In addition, to examine the effect of isolation/industrialization on PBDE body burdens, the blood plasma from three First Nations (Cree Nation of Oujé-Bougoumou, Quebec; Fort Albany First Nation, Ontario; and Weenusk First Nation [Peawanuck], Ontario, Canada) were collected (n=54) and analyzed using a log-linear contingency model. The mean values of PBDEs in wild meats and fish adjusted for standard consumption values and body weight, did not exceed the US EPA RfD. Log linear modeling of the human PBDE body burden showed that PBDE body burden increases as access to manufactured goods increases. Thus, household dust from material goods containing PBDEs is likely responsible for the human exposure; the traditional First Nations diet appears to be a minor source of PBDEs. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantiumL.) extract subchronic 90-day safety study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, N S; Stohs, S J; Magar, C C; Kale, A; Sowmya, B

    2017-01-01

    Bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium L.) extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p -Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p -synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect to any of the observed parameters of clinical signs, functional observations of sensory reactivity, grip strength and motor activity, ophthalmology, body weights, hematology, food consumption, urinalysis, organ weights, as well as gross and microscopic pathology at termination at any of the doses in either sex. Treatment at 1000 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract resulted in non-adverse effects including fully reversible signs of repetitive head burrowing in the bedding material and piloerection for short periods of time in both sexes immediately after administration, which gradually disappeared by treatment day-81. A slight and reversible elevation of BUN and urea levels in male rats, and slight to mild increase in the relative but not absolute heart weights of male and female rats was observed. Based on these results, the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for this bitter orange extract standardized to 50% p -synephrine was 300 mg/kg, while the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) was 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate a high degree of safety for this bitter orange extract.

  18. Assessment of PCDD/F, PCB, OCP and BPA dietary exposure of non-breast-fed European infants

    OpenAIRE

    Pandelova, Marchela; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Levy Lopez, Walkiria; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Molina-Molina, Jose Manuel; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Olea, Nicolas; Leclercq, Catherine; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to obtain data on the exposure of non-breast-fed infants to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) and its chlorinated derivatives through consumption of commercial infant foods with largest shares of the market in 22 EU countries. The E-Screen bioassay was employed to assess the estrogenicity of the baby foods and the ethoxyresorufin-O-de...

  19. Excessive early-life dietary exposure: a potential source of elevated brain iron and a risk factor for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic J; Cardoso, Bárbara Rita; Raven, Erika P; Double, Kay L; Finkelstein, David I; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Iron accumulates gradually in the ageing brain. In Parkinson's disease, iron deposition within the substantia nigra is further increased, contributing to a heightened pro-oxidant environment in dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesise that individuals in high-income countries, where cereals and infant formulae have historically been fortified with iron, experience increased early-life iron exposure that predisposes them to age-related iron accumulation in the brain. Combined with genetic factors that limit iron regulatory capacity and/or dopamine metabolism, this may increase the risk of Parkinson's diseases. We propose to (a) validate a retrospective biomarker of iron exposure in children; (b) translate this biomarker to adults; (c) integrate it with in vivo brain iron in Parkinson's disease; and (d) longitudinally examine the relationships between early-life iron exposure and metabolism, brain iron deposition and Parkinson's disease risk. This approach will provide empirical evidence to support therapeutically addressing brain iron deposition in Parkinson's diseases and produce a potential biomarker of Parkinson's disease risk in preclinical individuals.

  20. Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Chang, Ju Young; Hong, Jeana; Shin, Sue; Park, Jeong Su; Oh, Sohee

    2017-04-06

    Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children's development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5-12.0), the median levels of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were 1.2 μg/L, 0.05 μg/L, 0.8 μg/L, and 0.83 μg/dL, respectively. In adjusted linear regression models, post-birth weight gain (Pb) and current head circumference (As, Pb) were negatively associated with toxic metal levels. In multiple linear regression or logistic regression analysis, the duration of breastfeeding (all four metals), perceived adequacy of rice-based food intake (As), regular fish intake (As, Hg), and iron deficiency with/without anemia (Cd, Pb) were associated with increased toxic metal levels. Although levels of toxic metals may not usually be high in this population, individual exposure risk may need to be assessed after considering the type of feeding or intake of complementary foods and the iron/anemia status while evaluating growth status during late infancy.

  1. Sub-lethal effects of dietary neonicotinoid insecticide exposure on honey bee queen fecundity and colony development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Smart, Judy; Spivak, Marla

    2016-08-01

    Many factors can negatively affect honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health including the pervasive use of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides. Through direct consumption of contaminated nectar and pollen from treated plants, neonicotinoids can affect foraging, learning, and memory in worker bees. Less well studied are the potential effects of neonicotinoids on queen bees, which may be exposed indirectly through trophallaxis, or food-sharing. To assess effects on queen productivity, small colonies of different sizes (1500, 3000, and 7000 bees) were fed imidacloprid (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 ppb) in syrup for three weeks. We found adverse effects of imidacloprid on queens (egg-laying and locomotor activity), worker bees (foraging and hygienic activities), and colony development (brood production and pollen stores) in all treated colonies. Some effects were less evident as colony size increased, suggesting that larger colony populations may act as a buffer to pesticide exposure. This study is the first to show adverse effects of imidacloprid on queen bee fecundity and behavior and improves our understanding of how neonicotinoids may impair short-term colony functioning. These data indicate that risk-mitigation efforts should focus on reducing neonicotinoid exposure in the early spring when colonies are smallest and queens are most vulnerable to exposure.

  2. Dietary- and tissue-based exposure of belted kingfisher to PCDFs and PCDDs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, MI, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seston, Rita M; Giesy, John P; Fredricks, Timothy B; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2012-05-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and other dioxin-like compounds in soils and sediments of the Tittabawassee River and associated floodplains downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than upstream sites. As a result of these concentrations, which are some of the greatest ever reported, a site-specific exposure assessment of belted kingfisher breeding in the assessment area was conducted. To reduce the uncertainty associated with predicting exposure from abiotic matrices, concentrations of residues were quantified in site-specific prey items and in eggs and nestlings of belted kingfisher. Dietary exposure, expressed as the potential average daily dose, based on site-specific concentrations of PCDFs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO-Avian)) in prey items was consistently greater along the Tittabawassee River than in associated reference areas and further downstream sites in the Saginaw River. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in eggs and nestlings of belted kingfisher varied among sampling areas, being greater in both eggs and nestlings nesting along the Tittabawassee River compared to those of belted kingfisher from upstream reference areas. Geometric mean concentrations of PCDD/DFs were 130 and 200 ng/kg wet weight in eggs and nestlings of belted kingfisher, respectively. These concentrations are the equivalent of 84 and 95 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg. Site-specific biomagnification factors for select PCDD/DF congeners ranged from <1.0 to 1.8 in belted kingfisher. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  3. Effects of chronic dietary exposure to monosodium glutamate on feeding behavior, adiposity, gastrointestinal motility, and cardiovascular function in healthy adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miranda, V; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Uranga-Ocio, J A; Vera, G; Herradón, E; González, C; Blas, C; Martínez-Villaluenga, M; López-Pérez, A E; Desco, M; Abalo, R

    2015-11-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor-enhancer widely used as a food additive. However, its safe dietary concentration and its toxicity, including its possible implication in the recent metabolic syndrome pandemia, is still a controversial issue. Therefore, a deep knowledge of its effects upon regular dietary use is needed. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to MSG on feeding behavior, abdominal fat, gastrointestinal motility, and cardiovascular function in rats. Two groups of adult male Wistar rats were used: control and treated with MSG (4 g/L in drinking water) for 6 weeks. Different functional parameters were determined and the histological structure was analyzed in tissues of interest. Compared to control animals, chronic MSG increased water intake but did not modify food ingestion or body weight gain. Neither the abdominal fat volume nor the fat fraction, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, was modified by MSG. Monosodium glutamate did not alter general gastrointestinal motility, but significantly increased the colonic response to mechanical stimulation. It slightly reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in aorta, without significantly modifying any other cardiovascular parameters. No significant histological alterations were detected in salivary glands, intestinal wall, aorta, heart, and kidney. Chronic treatment with MSG in the adult rat increased water intake. This supports its potential to improve acceptance of low-fat regimens and to increase hydration in the elderly and sportspeople, often at risk of dehydration. Changes in colonic contractility and cardiovascular function could have some long-term repercussions warranting further research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The subcellular fate of cadmium and zinc in the scallop Chlamys nobilis during waterborne and dietary metal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Ke [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: wwang@ust.hk

    2008-12-11

    Subcellular metal distribution has received increasing attention in aquatic toxicology studies, but the relationship between metal distribution and metal biokinetics remains largely unexplored. A series of short-term experiments on different concentrations of dissolved and dietary metals and on metal elimination were conducted to investigate the dynamics of subcellular distribution of Cd and Zn in the scallop Chlamys nobilis, a bivalve species that is known to accumulate very high concentrations of Cd and Zn in its tissues. Our results showed that, in general, both Cd and Zn were sequestered in insoluble forms (organelles, metal-rich granules, and cellular debris). The main binding pool for the newly acquired metals was organelles for Cd and cellular debris for Zn. Metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) was the most important storage pool for Cd in the scallops. Storage in the non-toxic form both in organelles and MTLP instead of through exocytosis was the major detoxification strategy to control Cd and accounted for the low efflux rate of Cd from scallops. In contrast to Cd, the main binding pool for Zn was cellular debris. Significant changes were found in the scallops when they were challenged with different concentrations of metals in the aqueous and food phases. Such changes provide important information on how scallops handle metals when there is increasing metal uptake. The redistribution of Zn among each subcellular compartment was much faster than the redistribution of Cd, suggesting an effective regulation mechanism for Zn in scallops. Thus, knowing subcellular metal distribution helps in studying the toxicity of both waterborne and dietborne metals.

  5. Dietary exposure assessment of pregnant women to bisphenol-A from cans and microwave containers in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal-Arcas, M; Rivas, A; Granada, A; Monteagudo, C; Murcia, M A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2009-02-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), material for polycarbonate and epoxy resin synthesis, has been detected in canned food, among other food containers. In mammal studies, BPA transferred from mother to fetus, caused abnormality of reproductive organs, and advanced female puberty. BPA from canned food and microwave containers was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population was cohort of mother-son pairs established at Granada University Hospital. Frequency of food consumption (including canned food) was studied with a semi-quantitative questionnaire. The most frequently consumed products were fish and juice cans, consumed 1-3 times/week by 34.7% and 22.3% of the study population, respectively. The women made little use of polymer microwave containers, 52.8% never using them and 45.9% using them canned foods and drinks by these women means that their exposure was lower than EFSA estimates for the European population. Nevertheless it remains of concern, given the proven undesirable effects of low-level exposure and higher susceptibility of pregnant women.

  6. Excretion of N-mononitrosopiperazine after low level exposure to piperazine in air: effects of dietary nitrate and ascorbate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellander, T.; Osterdahl, B.G.; Hagmar, L.

    1988-04-01

    The secondary amine piperazine may be nitrosated in vivo, following oral intake or occupational exposure by inhalation. The suspected carcinogen N-mononitrosopiperazine could be formed in the human stomach, and in part excreted in the urine. In this study, 0.4 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine, determined by gas chromatography-Thermal Energy Analysis, was observed in the urine in one of four volunteers, at an experimental exposure by inhalation of 0.3 mg piperazine/m3. The intake of spinach and beetroot caused an increased nitrosation of piperazine, and up to 1.7 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine was excreted in the urine in the four individuals. This excretion indicates that about 5% of the absorbed piperazine dose was converted to N-mononitrosopiperazine. With the same nitrate-rich diet, but with the addition of citrus fruits and fresh vegetables, the highest excretion was 0.6 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine. The excretion was significantly correlated with the ratio between the maximum level of nitrite in saliva and the ascorbate level in plasma. There was also a significant interindividual variation. N,N'-Dinitrosopiperazine was not found in any sample of urine.

  7. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  8. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Yiping

    2015-09-24

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1-0.3 ng/mL and 0.4-1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%-105.4%, 98.2%-114.0% and 92.2%-108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDacrylamide. Our proposed UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of acrylamide in rats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive profiling of toxicokinetics and daily internal exposure evaluations of acrylamide in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF FEMORAL BONE TISSUE IN ADULT MALE RATS AFTER SUBCHRONIC PERORAL ADMINISTRATIONS OF CADMIUM AND SELENIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Boboňová

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine effects of subchronic peroral administrations of cadmium and selenium on femoral bone microscopic structure in adult male rats. 1-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, each containing 10 males. In the first group (EG1, rats were administered by cadmium at the dose of 30 mg of CdCl2/L in drinking water for 90 days. In the second group (EG2, animals received a drinking water containing 5 mg of Na2SeO3/L for the same treatment period. The third group of rats without cadmium and selenium applications, served as a control group (CG. At the end of the experiment (90 days, all animals were killed and their right femora were collected for microscopic evaluation. We found that the qualitative histological characteristics of the compact bone tissue were different in the middle part of compact bone in medial and lateral views between experimental (EG1, EG2 and control groups (CG. In Cd- and Se-treated rats, a smaller number of primary and secondary osteons was identified. Moreover, a few resorption lacunae were observed in rats perorally exposed to Cd (EG1. Histomorphometric evaluation showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in all variables (area, perimeter, maximum and minimum diameter of the primary osteons' vascular canals in the Cd-exposed rats (EG1 as compared to the control group. In comparison with the group CG, they were significantly increased (P<0.05 in the Se-exposed rats (EG2. Values of the Haversian canals and secondary osteons were significantly decreased (P<0.05 for all variables in rats from both experimental groups (EG1, EG2 as compared to the control (CG. The results allow for the conclusion that subchronic exposure to Cd and Se at the levels used in this study significantly influenced microscopic structure of femoral bone tissue in adult male rats.

  10. Assessing human exposure to inorganic arsenic in high-arsenic areas of Latium: a biomonitoring study integrated with indicators of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubadda, F; D'Amato, M; Mancini, F R; Aureli, F; Raggi, A; Busani, L; Mantovani, A

    2015-01-01

    In Latium (central Italy), arsenic concentrations exceeding the regulatory limit of 10 μg/L for drinking water are present in groundwater from a large area of volcanic origin. At least in part of the area, high arsenic concentrations have been detected also in soil and phytoavailable geogenic arsenic enters the food chain. As a result, local population may be exposed to inorganic arsenic via water and also through consumption of food with higher than background arsenic concentrations. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess inorganic arsenic exposure and metabolism in 269 residents of 27 municipalities in the provinces of Viterbo, Rome and Latina. Total arsenic in toenails and the sum of inorganic arsenic and methylated metabolites in urine, the latter determined by HPLC-ICP-MS, were used as biomarkers of inorganic arsenic exposure. All the subjects involved in the study provided samples of the water(s) used for drinking and cooking as well as detailed information on water use. To get an insight into dietary intake from locally-processed food, inorganic arsenic in bread samples collected in affected municipalities of the three provinces was determined and compared to background levels of samples from reference areas. 30% of the sample used bottled water or resorted to water treatment in order to lower the arsenic content <10 μg/L (Group 1), 51% of the sample drank bottled water and used tap water with an arsenic content exceeding 10 μg/L for cooking only (Group 2), 19% of the sample used tap water with an arsenic content exceeding 10 μg/L for both drinking and cooking (Group 3). Nail arsenic was higher for Group 2 and 3 compared to Group 1, whereas all groups had higher nail arsenic than the reference group. The sum of inorganic arsenic and related metabolites in urine was higher in Group 3 than in the other two groups, and higher in Group 2 compared to Group 1. White bread from the study area showed significantly higher inorganic arsenic levels

  11. Challenging Role of Dietary Aflatoxin B1 Exposure and Hepatitis B Infection on Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Kucukcakan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins (AFT are poisonous substances which are classified in Group 1 carcinogenic agents to humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC. AFT can occur naturally in food commodities (maize, corn, rice as a result of fungal contamination in hot and humid environments. In the food, toxin contamination can remain during manufacturing and long after fungi have stopped being biologically active. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most dominant and potent agent from all AFT. In developing countries, high exposure to AFB1 can cause chronic toxicity and usually increases the incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC. However, in these regions hepatitis B is the most common risk factor for HCC cases. Many researches were aimed to enlighten the mechanism and the role of two etiological agents on risk of HCC, but the obtained data was conflicting with each other. It was uncertain that the indicators/biomarkers might be the contribution of the carcinogenic status of the patient; and, the biomarker samples from the subject may only reflect the recent effects of the toxin exposure after consumption of AFB1 contaminated commodities. The studies were facing with the errors of methods which were un-fit to enlighten the possible interaction between Hepatitis B and AFB1 on contribution to HCC. It was pivotal to understand the effect of each risk factor in order to prevent and improve public health in poor and undeveloped regions. Although some of the studies evaluate AFB1 alone as a considerable factor on HCC risk, according to this review it was concluded vice versa. This study was aimed to clarify the main etiological agent of HCC where AFB1 and HBV are endangering public health. In additionally, the purpose was to enlighten the possible synergistic effect between these two factors among HCC pathogenesis. Hence forth, appropriate and right applications could be conducted in undeveloped countries in order to protect public health.

  12. Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas-González, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M. [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan [Unidad de Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D. F., México (Mexico); Jacobo-Estrada, Tania [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); López-Bayghen, Esther [Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); and others

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary β-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: • Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury • Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group • Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups • Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels.

  13. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  14. Arsenic (As Contamination in Different Food and Dietary Samples from Several Districts of Bangladesh and Arsenic (As Detection, Mitigation and Toxicity Measurement and impact of Dietary Arsenic Exposure on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Awal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the level of arsenic concentration in vegetables and other food categories in three selected areas of Pabna district and to estimate quantitatively the dietary arsenic exposure in one of the arsenic contaminated areas of Bangladesh.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in CharRuppur, Char mirkamari and Lakshmikunda village of IshwardiUpzila in Pabna district. Ishwardi (Town consists of 12 wardsand 37 mahallas. Arsenic was detected in the ADM Lab,Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh with Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HG-AAS; PG-990, PG Instruments Ltd. UK. Arsenic was detected by forming AsH3 at below pH 1.0 after the reaction of As with a solution of sodiumborohydride (NaBH4, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, M=40,000g/mol, and 10% HCl. In this test, standard was maintained asAsV ranging from 0 to 12.5 μg/L.Results: A total of 120 vegetable samples, 15 rice samples and15 fish samples were collected from five different markets ofthree different villages of Pabna district and were tested forarsenic concentration. Findings demonstrated that the mean concentration of As in leafy vegetables (0.52 μg g-1 was significantly higher compared to those found in fruity (0.422μg g-1 and root & tuber vegetables (0.486 μg g-1.Conclusion: Underground Contaminated water was the major source for the As contamination of various products in Pabna.The arsenic levels were found higher among the leafy vegetables samples in comparison to fruit and root & tuber vegetables. Further studies will be conducted to search the genetic risk factors of arsenic toxicity in the population of the mostly affected people.

  15. Examination of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Uptake and Toxicity from Dietary Exposure: Tracking Movement and Impacts in the Gastrointestinal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Bisesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that exposure of fish to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by oral gavage, causes no overt toxicity, and no appreciable absorption has been observed. However, in the environment, SWCNTs are likely to be present in dietary sources, which may result in differential impacts on uptake and biological effects. Additionally, the potential of these materials to sorb nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids while present in the gastrointestinal (GI tract may lead to nutrient depletion conditions that impact processes such as growth and reproduction. To test this phenomenon, fathead minnows were fed a commercial diet either with or without SWCNTs for 96 h. Tracking and quantification of SWCNTs using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging during feeding studies showed the presence of food does not facilitate transport of SWCNTs across the intestinal epithelia. Targeting genes shown to be responsive to nutrient depletion (peptide transporters, peptide hormones, and lipases indicated that pept2, a peptide transporter, and cck, a peptide hormone, showed differential mRNA expression by 96 h, a response that may be indicative of nutrient limitation. The results of the current study increase our understanding of the movement of SWCNTs through the GI tract, while the changes in nutrient processing genes highlight a novel mechanism of sublethal toxicity in aquatic organisms.

  16. Total mercury in fresh and processed tuna marketed in Galicia (NW Spain) in relation to dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M Ángeles; Núñez, Ricardo; Alonso, Julián; Melgar, M Julia

    2016-12-01

    Mercury is a toxic trace metal, which can accumulate to levels threatening human and environmental health. In this study, contents of total mercury have been determined by ICP-MS spectrometry in fresh and processed tuna (110 samples) purchased from supermarkets in NW Spain. Mercury was present in all samples analyzed; however, only one sample of fresh tuna (1.070 mg kg-1 wet weight (w.w.)) slightly exceeded the limit of the EU (1.0 mg kg-1 w.w.). The average mercury concentration in processed tuna was lower than fresh, 0.306 mg kg-1 w.w., and ranged from 0.080 to 0.715 mg kg-1 w.w. Results were compared with literature data. In regard to the three types of preparation-packaging media for canned tuna, total Hg content was found in the following order: olive oil > natural > pickled sauce; the last showed significant statistical differences (p exposure to Hg.

  17. Dietary human exposure to mercury in two artisanal small-scale gold mining communities of northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Camacho, Carlos; Salas-Moreno, Manuel; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Marrugo-Negrete, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-10-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest anthropogenic source of mercury pollution worldwide, posing a grave threat to human health. The present study identifies current levels of mercury in the human population from mining areas of the Chocó Department, Colombia, through total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) measurements in human hair. Mercury exposure of the local population was assessed in two towns affected by ASGM and was related to different variables of interest. Concentrations of THg in human hair ranged from 0.06 to 17.54ppm and the mean value for the subjects under study was 2.48ppm. Men had significantly higher levels than women in both towns (3.29ppm vs. 0.77ppm). Fish consumption was related to a marked increase of THg in hair, with mean values close to five times higher in frequent fish consumers (5-7 times/week) than in non-fish consumers (4.80ppm vs. 0.90ppm). A multiple linear regression model was fitted successfully (R=0.671) and reveals that gender, fish consumption and location of residence were significant indicators of Hg levels in hair, while no significant relationship was found for age. Approximately 60% of subjects tested had THg levels that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 1.0ppm, while 25% surpassed that of the World Health Organization (2.2ppm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of dietary exposure to annatto (E160b), nitrites (E249-250), sulphites (E220-228) and tartaric acid (E334) in the French population: the second French total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, N; Vin, K; Sirot, V; Aguilar, F; Ladrat, A-C; Ducasse, C; Gey, J-L; Rétho, C; Nougadere, A; Leblanc, J-C

    2012-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the dietary exposure to annatto, nitrites, tartaric acid and sulphites within the framework of the second French total diet study (TDS) are reported. These 4 additives were selected from the Bemrah et al. study [Bemrah N, Leblanc JC, Volatier JL. 2008. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners. Food Addit Contam B. 1(1):2-14] on 13 food additives which identified a possible health risk for annatto, sulphites and nitrites and a lack of data for tartaric acid. Among the composite samples selected for the whole TDS, 524 were analysed for additives (a sample was analysed for a given additive when it was identified as a major contributor for this additive only): 130 for tartaric acid, 135 for nitrites, 59 for annatto and 200 for sulphites. Estimated concentrations (minimum lower bound to maximum upper bound) vary nationally from 0 to 9 mg/kg for annatto, 0 to 420 mg/kg for tartaric acid, 0 to 108 mg/kg for sulphites and 0 to 3.4 mg/kg for nitrites. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure was calculated for adults and children, separately, using lower bound and upper bound assumptions. The European ADIs for these 4 additives were not exceeded except for the dietary exposure for sulphites among 2.9% of the adult population, where the major contributors were alcoholic drinks and especially wine under both hypotheses (lower and upper bound).

  19. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of p-nitroaniline and p-nitrochlorobenzene in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, R.S.; Johannsen, F.R.; Levinskas, G.J.; Terrill, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    For evaluation of subchronic toxicity of the two single-ring nitroaromatics, p-nitroaniline (PNA) and p-nitrochlorobenzene (PNCB), groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to an aerosol/vapor of PNA in isopropanol at target concentrations of 0, 10, 30, or 90 mg/m3 or to PNCB vaporized from a solution in ethylene glycol monoethyl ether at target concentrations of 0, 5, 15, or 45 mg/m3 for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Clinical signs of toxicity, body weights, results of ophthalmoscopic exam, hematology and clinical chemistry tests, organ weights, gross and histopathological changes were recorded. Exposure to PNA or PNCB resulted in a dose-related increase in blood methemoglobin levels. Mean red blood cell counts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were significantly decreased in mid and high level animals exposed to PNCB. Mean spleen weights (absolute and relative to body weight) were significantly increased at the high dose levels in the two studies. A slight increase in spleen weights was also observed at the low concentration level in the PNA study. Absolute and relative liver weights also were increased among animals exposed to 45 mg/m3 PNCB. Microscopic changes were observed mainly in the spleen and included an increase in intensity of extramedullary hematopoiesis and hemosiderosis with both compounds. Spleens of animals exposed to PNCB also exhibited congestion. Neither PNA nor PNCB exhibited significant toxicological effects other than those of methemoglobinemia, anemia, and splenic changes classically associated with nitroaromatics at levels significantly above presently accepted occupational standard. Our data suggest that the current TLV for PNA which is 3 mg/m3 will provide adequate protection to the workers. OSHA's PEL of 1 mg/m3 for PNCB is to be preferred over the current TLV of 3 mg/m3 to provide a comparable margin of safety.

  20. Effects of diet quality on vulnerability to mild subchronic social defeat stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model is a potentially useful system for understanding stress responses to social environments. We previously developed a mouse model of subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) that exhibits increased body weight gain and food intake following polydipsia-like features. sCSDS mice also show avoidance behavior in a social interaction test. In this study, we examined the effects of diet quality on susceptibility to sCSDS by feeding these mice semi- and non-purified diets. Male C57BL/6J (B6; n = 82) mice were exposed to sCSDS using male ICR mice. The B6 mice were divided into four test groups: semi-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, non-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, semi-purified diet + control (no sCSDS), and non-purified diet + control. Although increased body weight, and food and water intake following sCSDS exposure were consistently observed in the groups that were fed semi- and non-purified diets, social avoidance behavior was influenced by food type (i.e., sCSDS mice fed semi-purified diet showed the greatest social avoidance behavior). In addition, the rates of stress susceptibility were estimated at 73.9 and 34.8% in sCSDS mice fed semi-purified and non-purified diets, respectively (P diets, respectively. These results suggest that diet quality affects the vulnerability of mice to social defeat stress.

  1. The gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Redrobe, Paul; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina

    The gut microbiota has major impact on the individual. Here we show that the gut microbiota influence behavior in the subchronic PCP induced animal model of schizophrenia. The gut microbiota were changed in the group treated subchronic with PCP, and restoration coincided with normalisation...... of memory performance in lister hooded rats. Furthermore the individual gut microbiota correlated to the individual behavior abserved in the tests conducted. In conclusion results show an influence of the gut microbiota on behavior in this model, and therefore it might be relavant to include the information...

  2. Urinary Metabolites of the Dietary Carcinogen PhIP are Predictive of Colon DNA Adducts After a Low Dose Exposure in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malfatti, M; Dingley, K; Nowell, S; Ubick, E; Mulakken, N; Nelson, D; Lang, N; Felton, J; Turteltaub, K

    2006-04-28

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to heterocyclic amines (HAs) in the diet is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Well-done cooked meats contain significant levels of HAs which have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. To better understand the mechanisms of HA bioactivation in humans, the most mass abundant HA, 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), was used to assess the relationship between PhIP metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Ten human volunteers were administered a dietary relevant dose of [{sup 14}C]PhIP 48-72 h prior to surgery to remove colon tumors. Urine was collected for 24 h after dosing for metabolite analysis, and DNA was extracted from colon tissue and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry for DNA adducts. All ten subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2, NAT2, and SULT1A1 enzyme activity. Twelve PhIP metabolites were detected in the urine samples. The most abundant metabolite in all volunteers was N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Metabolite levels varied significantly between the volunteers. Interindividual differences in colon DNA adducts levels were observed between each individual. The data showed that individuals with a rapid CYP1A2 phenotype and high levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide, had the lowest level of colon PhIP-DNA adducts. This suggests that glucuronidation plays a significant role in detoxifying N-hydroxy-PhIP. The levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide were negatively correlated to colon DNA adduct levels. Although it is difficult to make definite conclusions from a small data set, the results from this pilot study have encouraged further investigations using a much larger study group.

  3. Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients from Malda district, West Bengal- A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golui, Debasis; Guha Mazumder, D N; Sanyal, S K; Datta, S P; Ray, P; Patra, P K; Sarkar, S; Bhattacharya, K

    2017-10-01

    Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients was established in Malda district of West Bengal. Out of 182 participants examined, 80 (43.9%) participants showed clinical features of arsenicosis, characterized by arsenical skin lesion (pigmentation and keratosis), while 102 participants did not have any such lesion (control). Experimental results of the twenty eight soils (own field) of the participants showed the mean Olsen extractable and total arsenic concentration of 0.206 and 6.70mgkg-1, respectively. Arsenic concentration in rice grain ranged from 2.00 to 1260μgkg-1 with the mean value of 146μgkg-1. The hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of As by human through consumption of rice varied from 0.03 to 3.52. HQ exceeds 1.0 for drinking water and rice grain grown in the study area in many cases. As high as 77.6% variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by the solubility-free ion activity model. Toxic limit of extractable As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard, associated with consumption of rice grain by human, was established. For example, the permissible limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.43mgkg-1 for rice cultivation, if soil pH and organic carbon content were 7.5% and 0.50%, respectively. However, the critical limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.54mgkg-1, if soil pH and organic carbon were 8.5% and 0.75%, respectively. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of arsenic in soils with respect to soil properties and human health under modeling-framework was established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF VASELINE OIL AND GLYCELAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary therapeutic approaches offer a wide range of laxative agents, which are often used without a control, exceeding the regime recommended. Therefore, the comparative study for subchronic toxicity of both drugs from this group (Vaseline oil and Glycelax appears interesting.The aim of the study was the comparison of a toxic influence of 14-days application of the drugs under study.Methods. The drugs were studied in two doses: higher therapeutic, and toxic, which 10 times exceeds therapeutic dose. We used “Polispektr-8/B” electrocardiograph, BC 2800vet (Mindray hematologic veterinary analyzer, BS-380 (Mindray biochemical analyzer, CL-50 urine analyzer. After the animals autopsy we determined organs’ coefficient (heart, lungs, spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, adrenals.Results. While studying the ECG of female rats, amplitude of R wave increased after they got Glycelax in both doses. Female rats who got Vaseline oil this index decreased at minimum dose and increased at maximum dose. After Glycelax application, male rats had an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase. After Vaseline oil application at maximum dose, female rats had alkaline phosphatase activity lowered. Female rats, which got a maximum dose of Vaseline oil had a total protein lowered. Glycelax at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin and its fractions in male and female rats, while Vaseline oil application at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin in female rats. Male rats which got Glycelax had hemoglobin and hematocrit level increased.Conclusion. At long-term application of Vaseline oil, animals of both genders had heart disorders with possible development of arrhythmia, hepatotoxic effect, lipid exchange dysfunction. After excessive use of Glycelax the above mentioned is added with possible hemoglobin and rheological blood properties level decrease.

  6. Acute and 28-day subchronic toxicity studies of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalena Prado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pharmacological properties of mangiferin have been reported, but few studies have investigated mangiferin toxicity. Aims: To study the acute and 28-day toxicity effects of mangiferin in rodents. Methods: Single doses of mangiferin were administered by oral or i.p. route or were applied dermally to Sprague-Dawley rats and Balb/C mice. Clinical symptoms of animals were observed during 14 days after treatment. Animals also received single oral doses daily for 28 consecutive days. Blood biochemistry, hematology and pathology findings were reported. Results: In the acute study, no toxic effects were observed after dermal exposure to mangiferin 2000 mg/kg but transient dyspnea, flank position and piloerection were observed after oral administration to this xanthone. I.p. administration induced similar toxicity signs, but at the highest dose (2000 mg/kg all mice, one female rat and one male rat died. Rats orally treated with mangiferin (250-1000 mg/kg for 28 days did not show any abnormal clinical signs or hematology alterations, when compared to control group animals. Histopathological alterations like vacuolar degeneration, necrosis and increment of apoptosis of the acinar cells were observed in the exocrine pancreas of rats at 1000 mg/kg. This suggesting that exocrine pancreas was the target organ for mangiferin’s toxicity. Conclusions: These studies indicated that acute and subchronic toxicities of mangiferin for oral exposure are low.

  7. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yuan-Horng [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Charles, Chou C.-K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyh-Seng [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tung, Chun-Liang [Department of Pathology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM{sub 2.5} exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM{sub 2.5} in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic

  8. Sub-Chronic Toxicity of the Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f. (Cucurbitaceae in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2018-01-01

    leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis is relatively non-toxic on acute and sub-chronic exposures at low to moderate doses, with the potential to elicit anti-anemic effects, reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, and enhance antioxidant status in the brain and liver. Although possibly beneficial at low to moderate doses, the extract could be harmful to the testes with prolonged oral exposure at high dose.

  9. Sub-Chronic Toxicity of the Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f. (Cucurbitaceae) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Oladimeji-Salami, Joy A; Oyetola, Ramon A; Osiagwu, Daniel D

    2018-01-06

    of Telfairia occidentalis is relatively non-toxic on acute and sub-chronic exposures at low to moderate doses, with the potential to elicit anti-anemic effects, reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, and enhance antioxidant status in the brain and liver. Although possibly beneficial at low to moderate doses, the extract could be harmful to the testes with prolonged oral exposure at high dose.

  10. Adverse Effects of Subchronic Dose of Aspirin on Reproductive Profile of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid is widely used for cardiovascular prophylaxis and as anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of subchronic dose of aspirin on reproductive profile of male rats, if any. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: control and aspirin subchronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg for 30 days and 60 days, respectively, while alterations in sperm dynamics, testicular histopathological and planimetric investigations, body and organs weights, lipid profiles, and hematology were performed as per aimed objectives. Subchronic dose of aspirin reduced sperm density, count, and mobility in cauda epididymis and testis; histopathology and developing primary spermatogonial cells (primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, and mature spermatocyte count were also significantly decreased in rats. Hematological investigations revealed hemopoietic abnormalities in 60-day-treated animals along with dysfunctions in hepatic and renal functions. The findings of the present study revealed that administration with subchronic dose of aspirin to male rats resulted in altered reproductive profiles and serum biochemistry.

  11. Analysis of sociability and preference for social novelty in the acute and subchronic phencyclidine rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Claire E; Reynolds, Gavin P; Jenkins, Trisha A

    2014-10-01

    Both acute and sub-chronic phencyclidine administration produce behavioural and pathophysiological changes that resemble some features of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to determine if acute and sub-chronic phencyclidine treatment in male rats produces deficits in sociability and social novelty preference, which may reflect aspects of the negative symptomatology observed in schizophrenia. Rats were treated with phencyclidine acutely (2 or 5 mg/kg) or subchronically (2 or 5 mg/kg bi-daily for one week followed by a one week wash-out period) or vehicle. Social affiliative behaviour was assessed using the sociability and preference for social novelty paradigm where social interaction time was measured in (a) a chamber containing an unfamiliar conspecific vs an empty chamber (sociability), or (b) a chamber containing an unfamiliar conspecific vs a chamber containing a familiar conspecific (preference for social novelty). Results showed that acute administration of phencyclidine produced a reduction in measures of sociability but had no effect on preference for social novelty while sub-chronic administration of phencyclidine had no effect on sociability or social novelty. This study provides further evidence for the usefulness of phencyclidine models in modelling the symptomatology of schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Subchronic toxicity experiment with rats fed a diet containing ergotamine-tartrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers GJA; Wester PW; van Leeuwen FXR; de la Fonteyne-Blankestijn LJJ; Post W; van Egmond HP; Sizoo EA; Janssen GB

    1993-01-01

    In a subchronic toxicity study 4 groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley rats/group/sex received 0, 5, 20 and 80 mg ergotamine tartrate (EAT)/kg diet respectively during 13 weeks. Food intake and water intake were measured twice a week. Body weight gain was recorded weekly. After 7 weeks and 12 weeks urine

  14. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Manraj Singh Cheema, Zuraini Ahmad, Ching Siew Mooi, Siti Farah Md. Tohid ...

  15. Bioaccumulation, morphological changes, and induction of metallothionein gene expression in the digestive system of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense after exposure to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Li, Yingjun; Lang, Xingping; Wang, Lan

    2015-08-01

    To study the responses of digestive system of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense to the exposure with cadmium (Cd), crabs were acutely exposed to 7.25, 14.50, and 29.00 mg/l Cd for 96 h and subchronically exposed to 0.725, 1.450, and 2.900 mg/l for 21 days. Cd bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas and digestive tract (esophagus and intestine) was examined. Furthermore, histopathological alterations of the esophagus, midgut, hindgut, and hepatopancreas were assessed in animals from the 29.0 and 2.90 mg/l Cd treatment groups, and expression of metallothionein messenger RNA (MT mRNA) in the hepatopancreas and intestine was measured in all treatment groups. The results showed difference in the middle and high concentrations between acute and subchronic treatment groups. Cd content in digestive tract after acute 14.5 and 29.0 mg/l Cd exposure was significantly higher than that at subchronic 1.45 and 2.90 mg/l exposure, but Cd levels in hepatopancreas were not significantly different under the same condition. Acute exposure to Cd induced greater morphological damage than subchronic exposure: large areas of epithelial cells were necrotic in hepatopancreas and midgut, which detached from the basal lamina. Vacuolated muscle cells were observed in the hindgut of animals from the acute exposure group, but the changes of esophageal morphology were not obvious after acute or subchronic treatments. The expression of MT mRNA increased with increasing Cd concentration, and MT mRNA level in acute exposure groups was significantly lower when compared to the subchronic exposure groups. Higher Cd content and lower MT mRNA expression in the acutely exposed groups may be responsible for more severe damage of digestive system in these exposure groups.

  16. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, T J N; Okorie, O; Okonta, J M; Okonkwo, C J

    2010-05-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD(50)of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats.

  17. Subchronic oral toxicity studies with α-cyclodextrin in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), a cyclic polymer of six α-1,4-linked glucopyranosyl units with potential applications as a food ingredient, more specifically a water-soluble dietary fiber, was examined in a 4-week range finding study and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. In the 4-week

  18. Influence of dietary fat type on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] biotransformation in a B(a)P-induced mouse model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Deacqunita L; Myers, Jeremy N; Banks, Leah D; Niaz, Mohammad S; Hood, Darryl B; Roberts, L Jackson; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2013-12-01

    In the US alone, around 60,000 lives/year are lost due to colon cancer. Diet and environment have been implicated in the development of sporadic colon tumors. The objective of this study was to determine how dietary fat potentiates the development of colon tumors through altered B(a)P biotransformation, using the Adenomatous polyposis coli with Multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse model. Benzo(a)pyrene was administered to mice through tricaprylin, and unsaturated (USF; peanut oil) and saturated (SF; coconut oil) fats at doses of 50 and 100 μg/kg via oral gavage over a 60-day period. Blood, colon, and liver were collected at the end of exposure period. The expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes [cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1 and glutathione-S-transferase] in liver and colon were assayed at the level of protein, mRNA and activities. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for B(a)P metabolites. Additionally, DNA isolated from colon and liver tissues was analyzed for B(a)P-induced DNA adducts by the (32)P-postlabeling method using a thin-layer chromatography system. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure through dietary fat altered its metabolic fate in a dose-dependent manner, with 100 μg/kg dose group registering an elevated expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes, and greater concentration of B(a)P metabolites, compared to the 50 μg/kg dose group (PB(a)P biotransformation enzymes and extensive metabolism of this toxicant. As a consequence, B(a)P metabolites were generated to a greater extent in colon and liver, whose concentrations also registered a dose-dependent increase. These metabolites were found to bind with DNA and form B(a)P-DNA adducts, which may have contributed to colon tumors in a subchronic exposure regimen. © 2013.

  19. Assessment of human health hazards associated with the dietary exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Boada, Luis D.; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Almeida González, Maira [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Zaccaroni, Annalisa [Large Pelagic Vertebrate Group, Veterinary Faculty, University of Bologna, Viale Vespucci 2, Cesenatico (FC) 47042 (Italy); Zumbado, Manuel [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]P{sub eq})), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]P{sub eq,} which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. - Highlights: • The daily intake of persistent pollutants through fish consumption is estimated

  20. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an

  1. Bioassay-guided evaluation of Dioscorea villosa - an acute and subchronic toxicity, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lima, Claudio Moreira; Lima, Adriana Karla; Melo, Marcelia G Dória; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Oliveira, Dênisson Lima; de Almeida, Enrik Barbosa; Barreto, Rosana Souza Siqueira; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Oliveira, Edica Ramone Andrade; de Albuquerque, Jr, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Araújo, Adriano Antunes Souza

    2013-01-01

    .... In this regard, we carried out to evaluated both antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental models and assess the toxic effects of the acute (single dose) and subchronic (30 days...

  2. Imbalanced immune responses involving inflammatory molecules and immune-related pathways in the lung of acute and subchronic arsenic-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Lu; Zhang, Yang; Li, Wei; Duan, Xiaoxu; Chen, Jinli; Guo, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shan; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2017-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic has been claimed to increase the risk of pulmonary diseases through ingestion, as opposed to inhalation, which makes it a unique and intriguing environmental toxicant. However, the immunotoxic effects of lung, one of the targets of arsenic exposure, have not been extensively investigated in vivo. In the present study, we first confirmed that 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg NaAsO2 orally for 24h dose-dependently triggered the infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF. Not only the transcription activity, but also the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were consistently raised in the lung and BALF of acute arsenic-exposed mice. Acute oral administration of NaAsO2 also raised pulmonary MPO activity and mRNA levels of chemokine Mip-2 and Mcp-1. Meanwhile, obvious histopathological damages with inflammatory cells infiltration and erythrocyte aggregation around the capillaries were verified in the lung of mice drank arsenic-rich water freely for 3 months. Furthermore, we affirmed notable disturbance of CD4+ T-cell differentiation in the lung of acute arsenic-exposed mice, as demonstrated by up-regulated mRNA levels of regulator Gata3 and cytokine Il-4 of Th2, enhanced Foxp3 and Il-10 of Treg, down-regulated T-bet and Ifn-γ of Th1, as well as lessened Ror-γt and Il-23 of Th17. However, impressive elevation of cytokine Ifn-γ and Il-23, as well as moderate enhancement of Il-4 and Il-10 were found in the lung by subchronic arsenic administration. Finally, our present study demonstrated that both a single and sustained arsenic exposure prominently increased the expression of immune-related p38, JNK, ERK1/2 and NF-κB proteins in the lung tissue. While disrupting the pulmonary redox homeostasis by increasing MDA levels, exhausting GSH and impaired enzyme activities of CAT and GSH-Px, antioxidant regulator NRF2 and its downstream targets HO-1 and GSTO1/2 were also up-regulated by both acute and subchronic arsenic

  3. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine in adolescence leads to impaired exploratory behavior in adult rats without altering social interaction or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, A; Willems, R; Kooijman, E J M; Renjaän, V A; Klein, P J; Windhorst, A D; Donck, L Ver; Leysen, J E; Berckel, B N M van

    2014-11-01

    Although both the onset of schizophrenia and human phencyclidine (PCP) abuse typically present within the interval from adolescence to early adulthood, the majority of preclinical research employing the PCP model of schizophrenia has been conducted on neonatal or adult animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence. Male 35-42-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously administered either saline (10 ml · kg(-1) ) or PCP hydrochloride (10 mg · kg(-1) ) once daily for a period of 14 days (n = 6/group). The animals were allowed to withdraw from treatment for 2 weeks, and their social and exploratory behaviors were subsequently assessed in adulthood by using the social interaction test. To examine the effects of adolescent PCP administration on the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), quantitative autoradiography was performed on brain sections of adult, control and PCP-withdrawn rats by using 20 nM (3) H-MK-801. Prior subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence had no enduring effects on the reciprocal contact and noncontact social behavior of adult rats. Spontaneous rearing in response to the novel testing arena and time spent investigating its walls and floor were reduced in PCP-withdrawn animals compared with control. The long-term behavioral effects of PCP occurred in the absence of persistent deficits in spontaneous locomotion or self-grooming activity and were not mediated by altered NMDAR density. Our results document differential effects of adolescent PCP administration on the social and exploratory behaviors of adult rats, suggesting that distinct neurobiological mechanisms are involved in mediating these behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. TWO-WEEK INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE (LA) AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative potency of LA compared to UICC amosite was assessed in a subacute inhalation study designed to set exposure levels for a future subchronic study. Male F344 rats (n=7/group) were exposed nose-only to air (control), 3 concentrations of LA, or I concentration of amosite...

  5. Sex Differences in Nucleus Accumbens Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Susceptibility versus Resilience to Subchronic Variable Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Ahn, H Francisca; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Magida, Jane; Brancato, Anna; Takahashi, Aki; Flanigan, Meghan E; Ménard, Caroline; Aleyasin, Hossein; Koo, Ja Wook; Lorsch, Zachary S; Feng, Jian; Heshmati, Mitra; Wang, Minghui; Turecki, Gustavo; Neve, Rachel; Zhang, Bin; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J; Russo, Scott J

    2015-12-16

    Depression and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in females, but the majority of research in animal models, the first step in finding new treatments, has focused predominantly on males. Here we report that exposure to subchronic variable stress (SCVS) induces depression-associated behaviors in female mice, whereas males are resilient as they do not develop these behavioral abnormalities. In concert with these different behavioral responses, transcriptional analysis of nucleus accumbens (NAc), a major brain reward region, by use of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed markedly different patterns of stress regulation of gene expression between the sexes. Among the genes displaying sex differences was DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a), which shows a greater induction in females after SCVS. Interestingly, Dnmt3a expression levels were increased in the NAc of depressed humans, an effect seen in both males and females. Local overexpression of Dnmt3a in NAc rendered male mice more susceptible to SCVS, whereas Dnmt3a knock-out in this region rendered females more resilient, directly implicating this gene in stress responses. Associated with this enhanced resilience of female mice upon NAc knock-out of Dnmt3a was a partial shift of the NAc female transcriptome toward the male pattern after SCVS. These data indicate that males and females undergo different patterns of transcriptional regulation in response to stress and that a DNA methyltransferase in NAc contributes to sex differences in stress vulnerability. Women have a higher incidence of depression than men. However, preclinical models, the first step in developing new diagnostics and therapeutics, have been performed mainly on male subjects. Using a stress-based animal model of depression that causes behavioral effects in females but not males, we demonstrate a sex-specific transcriptional profile in brain reward circuitry. This transcriptional profile can be altered by removal of an epigenetic mechanism, which

  6. Power of Pen: Expressive Writing as an Intervention Tool on Exposure to Thin-Ideal Images with Dietary Restraint and Self-Compassion as Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relojo, Dennis; Gagani, Angelo Emil

    2016-01-01

    Expressive Writing (EW) has been recognised as an intervention tool for thin-ideal images. However, to date, there are limited studies which investigated its efficacy to involve dietary restraint and self-compassion as moderating variables. The present work assessed the efficacy of EW in improving levels of body satisfaction and positive affect…

  7. Influence of acute and subchronic oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on nociceptive threshold in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsińska, Emilia; Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Sar, Monika; Makulska-Nowak, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a neurosteroid, is known to be the most abundant hormone in the human body. Its role in the central nervous system has not been well defined. Previous studies indicate that DHEA is synthesized in the spinal cord and plays an important role in pain modulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHEA on pain threshold in rats after both acute and subchronic treatment. Rats were orally administered with DHEA at a dose of 10 mg/kg once daily and the pain threshold was measured with mechanical and thermal stimuli. After acute treatment, DHEA exhibited pronociceptive effects which lasted up to 150 min. After subchronic administration, DHEA showed an opposite effect by elevating the pain threshold. The results suggest that DHEA could be indicated as a drug to improve treatment of chronic pain disorders.

  8. [Subchronic toxicity test of genetically modified rice with double antisense starch-branching enzyme gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2010-07-01

    To observe the sub-chronic toxic effects of the genetically modified rice with double antisense SBE gene. Based on gender and weight, weanling Wistar rats were randomly sorted into five groups: non-genetically modified rice group (group A), genetically modified rice group (group B), half genetically modified rice group (group C), quarter genetically modified rice group (group D) and AIN-93G normal diet group (group E). Indicators were the followings: body weight, food consumption, blood routine, blood biochemical test, organ weight, bone density and pathological examination of organs. At the middle of the experiment, the percentage of monocyte of female group B was less than that of group E (P 0.05), and no notable abnormity in the pathological examination of main organs (P > 0.05). There were no enough evidence to confirm the sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice on rats.

  9. Noise exposure and serious injury to active sawmill workers in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Rakel N; Demers, Paul A; Alamgir, Hasanat; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-03-01

    Occupational noise might increase the risk of workplace injury through a variety of mechanisms, including interference with communication and increased stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of chronic noise exposure on serious workplace injury, and how the timing of exposure influenced risk. The authors examined a cohort of 26 000 workers, who worked between 1950 and 1989. Cases were those hospitalised for a work-related injury (ICD-9 codes 800-999, and E codes E800-E999), from April 1989 to December 1998. Cumulative exposure levels were estimated for subjects based on a quantitative retrospective exposure assessment. An internal comparison of cumulative noise exposure and subchronic durations of noise exposure and injury was conducted using Poisson regression. There were 163 cases for the cumulative and 161 cases for the subchronic analysis. Cumulative noise exposure were associated with a decreased risk for injuries, with the risk generally decreasing as cumulative noise levels increased, while most durations of subchronic exposure were associated with an increased risk for injury. An inverse U-shaped trend was observed with the time period of 90 days to 1 year demonstrating the most elevated RR compared with 0-1 days of exposure. Workers highly exposed to noise, or exposed for long periods of time, might develop effective methods of communicating the risk and preventing injuries when exposed to noise.

  10. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Damiana Diniz Rosa; Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio; Tania Pérez Bueno; Ernesto Vega Cañizares; Lilian Sánchez Miranda; Betty Mancebo Dorbignyi; Dainé Chong Dubí; Ivette Espinosa Castaño; Łukasz Marcin Grześkowiak; Célia Lucia de Luces Fortes Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. Objective: The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Methods: Wistar rat...

  11. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in rat brain is downregulated by sub-chronic antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Ochi, Shinichiro; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Nakata, Shunsuke; Iga, Jun-Ichi; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2017-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter that may be related to major depressive disorder (MDD) because the selective neuronal NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, induces a dose-dependent antidepressant-like effect. NO modulates major neurotransmitters involved in the neurobiology of MDD, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. In this study, we investigated the effects of antidepressants as NO modulators in acute and sub-chronic treatments. Rats were injected with the SSRI paroxetine (PAR, 10 mg/kg), the SNRI milnacipran (MIL, 30 mg/kg), or the NaSSA mirtazapine (MIR, 10 mg/kg) for acute (1 h) or sub-chronic (3 weeks) treatment prior to analysis of nine brain regions (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb). The mRNA expression levels of three NOS subtypes (neuronal: nNOS, inducible: iNOS, and endothelial: eNOS) were an