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Sample records for subchannel analysis codes

  1. Development of a subchannel analysis code MATRA (Ver. {alpha})

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    Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, D. H

    1998-04-01

    A subchannel analysis code MATRA-{alpha}, an interim version of MATRA, has been developed to be run on an IBM PC or HP WS based on the existing CDC CYBER mainframe version of COBRA-IV-I. This MATRA code is a thermal-hydraulic analysis code based on the subchannel approach for calculating the enthalpy and flow distribution in fuel assemblies and reactor cores for both steady-state and transient conditions. MATRA-{alpha} has been provided with an improved structure, various functions, and models to give the more convenient user environment and to increase the code accuracy, various functions, and models to give the more convenient user environment and to increase the code accuracy. Among them, the pressure drop model has been improved to be applied to non-square-lattice rod arrays, and the lateral transport models between adjacent subchannels have been improved to increase the accuracy in predicting two-phase flow phenomena. Also included in this report are the detailed instructions for input data preparation and for auxiliary pre-processors to serve as a guide to those who want to use MATRA-{alpha}. In addition, we compared the predictions of MATRA-{alpha} with the experimental data on the flow and enthalpy distribution in three sample rod-bundle cases to evaluate the performance of MATRA-{alpha}. All the results revealed that the prediction of MATRA-{alpha} were better than those of COBRA-IV-I. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  2. Development and Application of Subchannel Analysis Code Technology for Advanced Reactor Systems

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    Hwang, Dae Hyun; Seo, K. W

    2006-01-15

    A study has been performed for the development and assessment of a subchannel analysis code which is purposed to be used for the analysis of advanced reactor conditions with various configurations of reactor core and several kinds of reactor coolant fluids. The subchannel analysis code was developed on the basis of MATRA code which is being developed at KAERI. A GUI (Graphic User Interface) system was adopted in order to reduce input error and to enhance user convenience. The subchannel code was complemented in the property calculation modules by including various fluids such as heavy liquid metal, gas, refrigerant,and supercritical water. The subchannel code was applied to calculate the local thermal hydraulic conditions inside the non-square test bundles which was employed for the analysis of CHF. The applicability of the subchannel code was evaluated for a high temperature gas cooled reactor condition and supercritical pressure conditions with water and Freon. A subchannel analysis has been conducted for European ADS(Accelerator-Driven subcritical System) with Pb-Bi coolant through the international cooperation work between KAERI and FZK, Germany. In addition, the prediction capability of the subchannel code was evaluated for the subchannel void distribution data by participating an international code benchmark program which was organized by OECD/NRC.

  3. On the use of RELAP5-3D as a subchannel analysis code

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    Memmott, Matthew [Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 77 Massachusetts Ave., 02139 Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo, E-mail: jacopo@mit.ed [Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 77 Massachusetts Ave., 02139 Cambridge, MA (United States); Hejzlar, Pavel [Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 77 Massachusetts Ave., 02139 Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The capabilities of the RELAP5-3D code to perform subchannel analyses in sodium-cooled fuel assemblies were evaluated. The motivation was the desire to analyze fuel assemblies with traditional (solid pins) as well as non-traditional (e.g., annular pins with internal cooling, bottle-shape) geometries. Since no current subchannel codes can handle such fuel assembly designs, a new flexible RELAP5-based subchannel model was developed. It was shown that subchannel analysis of sodium-cooled fuel assemblies is indeed possible through the use of control variables in RELAP5. The subchannel model performance was then verified and validated in code-to-code and code-to-experiment analyses, respectively. First, the model was compared to the SUPERENERGY II code for solid fuel pins in a conventional hexagonal lattice. It was shown that the temperature predictions from the two codes agreed within 2% (<3.5 deg. C). Second, the model was applied to the Oak Ridge 19-pin test, and it was found that the measured outlet temperature distribution could be predicted with a maximum error of 8% (<7 deg. C). Furthermore, the use of semicircular ribs on the duct wall to flatten the temperature distribution in a traditional hexagonal assembly was explored by means of the newly developed RELAP5-3D subchannel model; the results are reported here as an example of the model capabilities.

  4. Validation of a Subchannel Analysis Code MATRA Version 1.0

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    Hwang, Dae Hyun; Seo, Kyung Won; Kwon, Hyouk

    2008-10-15

    A subchannel analysis code MATRA has been developed for the thermal hydraulic analysis of SMART core. The governing equations and important models were established, and validation calculations have been performed for subchannel flow and enthalpy distributions in rod bundles under steady-state conditions. The governing equations of the MATRA were on the basis of integral balance equation of the two-phase mixture. The effects of non-homogeneous and non-equilibrium states were considered by employing the subcooled boiling model and the phasic slip model. Solution scheme and main structure of the MATRA code, as well as the difference of MATRA and COBRA-IV-I codes, were summarized. Eight different test data sets were employed for the validation of the MATRA code. The collected data consisted of single-phase subchannel flow and temperature distribution data, single-phase inlet flow maldistribution data, single-phase partial flow blockage data, and two-phase subchannel flow and enthalpy distribution data. The prediction accuracy as well as the limitation of the MATRA code was evaluated from this analysis.

  5. Accuracy and Uncertainty Analysis of PSBT Benchmark Exercises Using a Subchannel Code MATRA

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    Dae-Hyun Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark, the subchannel grade void distribution data and DNB data were assessed by a subchannel code, MATRA. The prediction accuracy and uncertainty of the zone-averaged void fraction at the central region of the 5 × 5 test bundle were evaluated for the steady-state and transient benchmark data. Optimum values of the turbulent mixing parameter were evaluated for the subchannel exit temperature distribution benchmark. The influence of the mixing vanes on the subchannel flow distribution was investigated through a CFD analysis. In addition, a regionwise turbulent mixing model was examined to account for the nonhomogeneous mixing characteristics caused by the vane effect. The steady-state DNB benchmark data with uniform and nonuniform axial power shapes were evaluated by employing various DNB prediction models: EPRI bundle CHF correlation, AECL-IPPE 1995 CHF lookup table, and representative mechanistic DNB models such as a sublayer dryout model and a bubble crowding model. The DNBR prediction uncertainties for various DNB models were evaluated from a Monte-Carlo simulation for a selected steady-state condition.

  6. ANTEO+: A subchannel code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of liquid metal cooled systems

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    Lodi, F., E-mail: francesco.lodi5@unibo.it [DIN – Laboratory of Montecuccolino, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Grasso, G., E-mail: giacomo.grasso@enea.it [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mattioli, D., E-mail: davide.mattioli@enea.it [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Sumini, M., E-mail: marco.sumini@unibo.it [DIN – Laboratory of Montecuccolino, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The code structure is presented in detail. • The performed validation is outlined. • Results are critically discussed assessing code accuracy. • Conclusions are drawn and ground for future work identified. - Abstract: Liquid metal cooled fast reactors are promising options for achieving the high degrees of safety and sustainability demanded by the Generation IV paradigm. Among the critical aspects to be addressed in the design process, thermal-hydraulics is one of the most challenging; in order to embed safety in the core conceptualization, these aspects are to be considered at the very beginning of the design process, and translated in a design perspective. For achieving these objectives the subchannel code ANTEO+ has been conceived, able to simulate pin bundle arrangements cooled by liquid metals. The main purposes of ANTEO+ are simplifying the problem description maintaining the required accuracy, enabling a more transparent interface with the user, and having a clear and identifiable application domain, in order to help the user interpreting the results and, mostly, defining their confidence. Since ANTEO+ relies on empirical correlations, the validation phase is of paramount importance along with a clear discussion on the simplifications adopted in modeling the conservation equations. In the present work a detailed description of ANTEO+ structure is given along with a thorough validation of the main models implemented for flow split, pressure drops and subchannel temperatures. The analysis confirmed the ability of ANTEO+ in reproducing experimental data in its anticipated validity domain, with a relatively high degree of accuracy when compared to other classical subchannel tools like ENERGY-II, COBRA-IV-I-MIT and BRS-TVS.

  7. Coupling of MCNPX with a sub-channel code for analysis of a HPLWR fuel assembly

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    Waata, C.; Schulenberg, T.; Cheng Xu [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) project was launched in 2000 under the 5. Framework Program of the European Commission. The main objective of this project was to study the technical and economic feasibility of light water reactors operating at supercritical pressure conditions. This study aims to achieve high thermal efficiency of the nuclear power plant with operating conditions of pressure at 25 MPa, coolant temperature of about 510?C and an efficiency of up to 45%. The utilization of supercritical water as coolant and moderator in the HPLWR core introduces some challenges in the design of the HPLWR core due to the special behavior of the thermal-physical properties of water under super-critical pressure conditions. At supercritical pressure conditions, water does not exhibit a phase change. Therefore no boiling phenomenon occurs in the reactor core. However, there exist a strong variation in the water density in the core as the temperature changes across the pseudo-critical value. The strong variation in the water density affects strongly to the neutron-physical behavior in the core. Therefore, for an accurate and detailed design analysis of a HPLWR core, coupled analysis of neutron-physics with thermal-hydraulics is mandatory. Although extensive activities have been carried worldwide on the design of super-critical pressure light water reactors, accurate design analysis with neutron-physical/thermal-hydraulic coupling is still very limited. In the present study, the Monte-Carlo code, MCNPX, is coupled with the sub-channel analysis code, STAFAS (Sub-channel Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Fuel Assembly under Supercritical conditions), which was developed specifically for fuel assemblies of supercritical water cooled reactors and is also flexible for complex fuel assembly designs. In this paper, a short description about both codes is given. The coupling methodology and procedure is presented and assessed. A

  8. Comprehensive assessment of the Ispra BWR and PWR subchannel experiments and code analysis with different two-phase models and solution schemes

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    Wolf, L.; Fischer, K.; Herkenrath, H.; Hufschmidt, W.

    1987-02-01

    This paper presents subchannel code results for a selection of the subchannel experiments performed at the Joint Research Centre of the CEC at Ispra with 16-rod BWR and PWR bundles at prototypical conditions. Three different well-known subchannel codes (COBRA-IIIC, CANAL, THERMIT) have been applied, each of which is representative of widely used two-phase flow methodologies (homogeneous, drift-flux, 2-fluid modelling) and numerical solution schemes. Their degrees of agreement with the measured subchannel exit mass flow and enthalpy distributions are reported as well as their limitations due to the lack of details in modelling two-phase flow rod bundle transport phenomena and/or numerical solution schemes both in transverse and axial directions. It is conclusively demonstrated that the extra expenditures of using advanced codes such as THERMIT effectively pay off when stringent requirements for optimizing LWR fuel rod bundles should be met.

  9. Coarse-grid-CFD. An advantageous alternative to subchannel analysis

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    Class, A.G.; Himmel, S.R.; Viellieber, M.O. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1960{sup th} to 80{sup th} when current GEN II reactor technology was developed, the only possible approach was to use one-dimensional subchannel analysis to compute the flow inside a fuel bundle so that the subchannel scale could be resolved. For simulations of the whole reactor core either system codes or homogenization were employed. In system codes resolution of individual assemblies was the state of the art. Homogenization used porous media equations simulations and averaged the thermohydraulics on reactor core scale. Current potent computing power allows using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate individual fuel assemblies. Yet the large number of fuel assemblies within the core forbids exploiting CFD for core wide simulation. We propose to combine ideas of subchannel analysis and CFD to develop a new methodology which takes advantage of the fast development of commercial CFD software and the efficiency of subchannel analysis. In this methodology was first applied to simulate a wire-wrap fuel bundle of the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). Computations using an inviscid Euler solver on an extremely coarse grid were tuned to predict the true thermohydraulics by adding volumetric forces. These forces represent the non-resolved sub-grid physics. The volumetric forces cannot be measured directly. However, they can be accessed from detailed CFD simulations resolving all relevant physics. Parameterization of these subgrid forces can be realized analogous to models in subchannel codes. In the present work we extend the methodology to the open source solver OpenFOAM and a specific hexagonal fuel assembly which is studied in the framework of liquid metal cooled GEN IV reactor concepts. (orig.)

  10. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

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    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  11. An investigation of subchannel analysis models for single-phase and two-phase flow

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    Hwang, Dae Hyun

    1996-01-01

    The governing equations and lateral transport modelings of subchannel analysis code, which is the most widely used tool for the analysis of thermal hydraulics fields in reactor cores, have been thoroughly investigated in this study. The procedure for the derivation of subchannel integral balance equations from the local instantaneous phase equations was investigated by stages. The characteristics of governing equations according to the treatment of phase velocity were studies, and the equations based on the drift-flux equilibrium formulation have been derived. Turbulent mixing and void drift modeling, which affect considerably to the accuracy of subchannel analysis code, have been reviewed. In addition, some representative modelings of single-phase and two-phase turbulent mixing models have been introduced. (author). 5 tabs., 4 figs., 16 refs.

  12. Studies on supercritical water reactor fuel assemblies using the sub-channel code COBRA-EN

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    Ammirabile, Luca, E-mail: luca.ammirabile@ec.europa.e [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Energy, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    In the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) program, the supercritical water reactor (SCWR) concept is among the six innovative reactor types selected for development in the near future. In principle the higher efficiency and better economics make the SCWR concept competitive with the current reactor design. Due to different technical challenges that, however exist, fuel assembly design represents a crucial aspect for the success of this concept. In particular large density variations, low moderation, heat transfer enhancement and deterioration have a strong effect on the core design parameters. Only a few computational tools are currently able to perform sub-channel thermal-hydraulic analysis under supercritical water conditions. At JRC-IE the existing sub-channel code COBRA-EN has been improved to work above the critical pressure of water. The water properties package of the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 was integrated in COBRA-EN to compute the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam. New heat transfer and pressure drop correlations more indicated for the supercritical region of water have also been incorporated in the code. As part of the efforts to appraise the new code capabilities, a code assessment was carried out on the hexagonal fuel assembly of a fast supercritical water reactor. COBRA-EN was also applied in combination with the neutronic code MCNP to investigate on the use of hydride fuel in the HPLWR supercritical water fuel assembly. The results showed that COBRA-EN was able to reproduce the results of similar studies with acceptable accuracy. Future activities will focus on the validation of the code against experimental data and the implementation of new features (counter-current moderator channel, wall, and wire-wrap models).

  13. Comparison of THALES and VIPRE-01 Subchannel Codes for Loss of Flow and Single Reactor Coolant Pump Rotor Seizure Accidents using Lumped Channel APR1400 Geometry

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    Oezdemir, Erdal; Moon, Kang Hoon; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongdeog [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Subchannel analysis plays important role to evaluate safety critical parameters like minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR), peak clad temperature and fuel centerline temperature. In this study, two different subchannel codes, VIPRE-01 (Versatile Internals and Component Program for Reactors: EPRI) and THALES (Thermal Hydraulic AnaLyzer for Enhanced Simulation of core) are examined. In this study, two different transient cases for which MDNBR result play important role are selected to conduct analysis with THALES and VIPRE-01 subchannel codes. In order to get comparable results same core geometry, fuel parameters, correlations and models are selected for each code. MDNBR results from simulations by both code are agree with each other with negligible difference. Whereas, simulations conducted by enabling conduction model in VIPRE-01 shows significant difference from the results of THALES.

  14. Subchannel Scale Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Rod Bundle Geometry under Single-phase Adiabatic Conditions Using CUPID

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    Yoon, Seok Jong; Park, Goon Cherl; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In Korea, subchannel analysis code, MATRA has been developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). MATRA has been used for reactor core T/H design and DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio) calculation. Also, the code has been successfully coupled with neutronics code and fuel analysis code. However, since major concern of the code is not the accident simulation, some features of the code are not optimized for the accident conditions, such as the homogeneous model for two-phase flow and spatial marching method for numerical scheme. For this reason, in the present study, application of CUPID for the subchannel scale T/H analysis in rod bundle geometry was conducted. CUPID is a component scale T/H analysis code which adopts three dimensional two-fluid three-field model developed by KAERI. In this paper, the validation results of the CUPID code for subchannel scale rod bundle analysis at single phase adiabatic conditions were presented. At first, the physical models required for a subchannel scale analysis were implemented to CUPID. In the future, the scope of validation tests will be extended to diabetic and two phase flow conditions and required models will be implemented into CUPID.

  15. Development and Implementation of CFD-Informed Models for the Advanced Subchannel Code CTF

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    Blyth, Taylor S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The research described in this PhD thesis contributes to the development of efficient methods for utilization of high-fidelity models and codes to inform low-fidelity models and codes in the area of nuclear reactor core thermal-hydraulics. The objective is to increase the accuracy of predictions of quantities of interests using high-fidelity CFD models while preserving the efficiency of low-fidelity subchannel core calculations. An original methodology named Physics- based Approach for High-to-Low Model Information has been further developed and tested. The overall physical phenomena and corresponding localized effects, which are introduced by the presence of spacer grids in light water reactor (LWR) cores, are dissected in corresponding four building basic processes, and corresponding models are informed using high-fidelity CFD codes. These models are a spacer grid-directed cross-flow model, a grid-enhanced turbulent mixing model, a heat transfer enhancement model, and a spacer grid pressure loss model. The localized CFD-models are developed and tested using the CFD code STAR-CCM+, and the corresponding global model development and testing in sub-channel formulation is performed in the thermal- hydraulic subchannel code CTF. The improved CTF simulations utilize data-files derived from CFD STAR-CCM+ simulation results covering the spacer grid design desired for inclusion in the CTF calculation. The current implementation of these models is examined and possibilities for improvement and further development are suggested. The validation experimental database is extended by including the OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark data. The outcome is an enhanced accuracy of CTF predictions while preserving the computational efficiency of a low-fidelity subchannel code.

  16. Development and Implementation of CFD-Informed Models for the Advanced Subchannel Code CTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Taylor S.

    The research described in this PhD thesis contributes to the development of efficient methods for utilization of high-fidelity models and codes to inform low-fidelity models and codes in the area of nuclear reactor core thermal-hydraulics. The objective is to increase the accuracy of predictions of quantities of interests using high-fidelity CFD models while preserving the efficiency of low-fidelity subchannel core calculations. An original methodology named Physics-based Approach for High-to-Low Model Information has been further developed and tested. The overall physical phenomena and corresponding localized effects, which are introduced by the presence of spacer grids in light water reactor (LWR) cores, are dissected in corresponding four building basic processes, and corresponding models are informed using high-fidelity CFD codes. These models are a spacer grid-directed cross-flow model, a grid-enhanced turbulent mixing model, a heat transfer enhancement model, and a spacer grid pressure loss model. The localized CFD-models are developed and tested using the CFD code STAR-CCM+, and the corresponding global model development and testing in sub-channel formulation is performed in the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code CTF. The improved CTF simulations utilize data-files derived from CFD STAR-CCM+ simulation results covering the spacer grid design desired for inclusion in the CTF calculation. The current implementation of these models is examined and possibilities for improvement and further development are suggested. The validation experimental database is extended by including the OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark data. The outcome is an enhanced accuracy of CTF predictions while preserving the computational efficiency of a low-fidelity subchannel code.

  17. Analysis of the influence of subchannel effects on the PWR average channel calculation

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    Diana Cuervo; Carol Ahnert; Jose M Aragones [Dept. Ingenieria Nuclear. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Whole core analysis of nuclear reactors is presently made by the coupling of neutronic and thermalhydraulic codes. Nodes size is commonly one node per fuel assembly or higher what makes to lose the detailed representation of neutronic and thermal-hydraulic variables. In the first case, neutronic variables, the detailed distribution within different types of assemblies is used to generate the nodal distribution in the whole core but for thermal-hydraulic variables it is only calculated in an off-line manner for the hot channel in order to obtain the safety limits after the whole core calculation. The main problem of this whole core calculation is that some thermal-hydraulic variables are under or over-predicted. One of them is the enthalpy exchange between channels that is usually utilized as boundary condition for the hot channel subchannel analysis. This fact makes the subchannel analysis not to be very realistic. The important implication of these conclusions is that the refinement of the subchannel analysis models will not be useful if subchannel effects are not taken into account when the whole core analysis is carried out. Systematic analysis of these effects has been developed using the SEANAP system, a neutronic and thermal-hydraulic integrated system that includes three main calculation levels: fuel rod clusters (WIMS-D code, 24 groups, S6 approximation, 2-D); fuel assemblies and core planes (COBAYA code, 2 groups, 2-D); and whole core (SIMULA/SIMTRAN code, 3-D). SIMTRAN code is a whole reactor core dynamic model consisting in the neutronic code SIMULA, with six delayed neutrons precursor groups, and the thermalhydraulic code COBRA IIIC/ MIT2, that is a HEM code (4 equations) with explicit cross flows. A quarter of fuel assembly nodalization is used for both codes. Relations between whole core and subchannel calculations for critical variables like fuel and clad temperatures, DNBR, void fraction and cross flows have been

  18. Comparison of MATRA-S and COBRA-SFS for Low Flow Subchannel Analysis

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    Seo, Kyong Won; Kwon, Hyuk; Kim, Seong Jin; Hwang, Dae Hyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we compared the MATRA-S with COBRA-SFS for the PNL test because the COBRASFS is believed to be superior to MATRA-S for the low flow conditions. COBRA-SFS code was developed for subchannel analysis of spent fuel storage system based on COBRA-3C, COBRA-4I, and COBRA-WC. As the code was designed to predict temperature and flow distributions in spent fuel storage system, it can analyze thermal hydraulic fields of natural convection as well as radiation and conduction heat transfer. In the way of improving XSHCME of MATRA-S to be applicable to low flow problems, we compared MATRA-S XSCHEM and COBRA-SFS RECIRC for steady state and flow transient. Both methods use similar algorithms to solve pressure, axial flow and cross flow. MATRA-S XSCHEM predicted flow velocity profile well even negative flow in recirculation flow.

  19. Subchannel Code Benchmarking to Columbia University 4x4 and Pacific Northwest Laboratory 2x6 Bundle Test Data

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    Moon, Kang Hoon; Oezdemir, Erdal; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The subchannel code is used to assess the safety of a reactor core at the steady-state and transient conditions. KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF) has been developed new subchannel code, THALES, for PWR core design application. In this study, we are comparing the THALES result with VIPRE-01 code result utilizing bundle test data. VIPRE-01 was developed under EPRI sponsorship and has been used by U.S. PWR commercial nuclear utilities, historically. THALES and VIPRE-01 codes were benchmarked to two kind of bundle test data which were at the steady-state and transient conditions. THALES predicted fluid velocity and temperature profile of bundle test data well and the error rate between THALES and VIPRE-01 was very small.

  20. Coupled neutronic core and subchannel analysis of nanofluids in VVER-1000 type reactor

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    Zarifi, Ehsan; Sepanloo, Kamran [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor and Nuclear Safety School; Jahanfarnia, Golamreza [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch

    2017-05-15

    This study is aimed to perform the coupled thermal-hydraulic/neutronic analysis of nanofluids as the coolant in the hot fuel assembly of VVER-1000 reactor core. Water-based nanofluid containing various volume fractions of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle is analyzed. WIMS and CITATION codes are used for neutronic simulation of the reactor core, calculating neutron flux and thermal power distribution. In the thermal-hydraulic modeling, the porous media approach is used to analyze the thermal behavior of the reactor core and the subchannel analysis is used to calculate the hottest fuel assembly thermal-hydraulic parameters. The derived conservation equations for coolant and conduction heat transfer equation for fuel and clad are discretized by Finite volume method and solved numerically using visual FORTRAN program. Finally the analysis results for nanofluids and pure water are compared together. The achieved results show that at low concentration (0.1 percent volume fraction) alumina is the optimum nanoparticles for normal reactor operation.

  1. Flow distribution and pressure loss in subchannels of a wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle for sodium-cooled fast reactor

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    Chang, Seok Kyu; Euh, Dong Jin; Choi, Hae Seob; Kim, Hyung Mo; Choi, Sun Rock; Lee, Hyeong Yeon [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Department, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    A hexagonally arrayed 37-pin wire-wrapped rod bundle has been chosen to provide the experimental data of the pressure loss and flow rate in subchannels for validating subchannel analysis codes for the sodium-cooled fast reactor core thermal/hydraulic design. The iso-kinetic sampling method has been adopted to measure the flow rate at subchannels, and newly designed sampling probes which preserve the flow area of subchannels have been devised. Experimental tests have been performed at 20-115% of the nominal flow rate and 60 degrees C (equivalent to Re ∼ 37,100) at the inlet of the test rig. The pressure loss data in three measured subchannels were almost identical regardless of the subchannel locations. The flow rate at each type of subchannel was identified and the flow split factors were evaluated from the measured data. The predicted correlations and the computational fluid dynamics results agreed reasonably with the experimental data.

  2. Subchannel analysis and correlation of the Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) steam cooling experimental data

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    Riley, M.P.; Mohanta, L.; Miller, D.J.; Cheung, F.B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bajorek, S.M.; Tien, K.; Hoxie, C.L. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2016-07-15

    A subchannel analysis of the steam cooling data obtained in the Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) test facility has been performed in this study to capture the effect of spacer grids on heat transfer. The RBHT test facility has a 7 x 7 rod bundle with heater rods and with seven spacer grids equally spaced along the length of the rods. A method based on the concept of momentum and heat transport analogy has been developed for calculating the subchannel bulk mean temperature from the measured steam temperatures. Over the range of inlet Reynolds number, the local Nusselt number was found to exhibit a minimum value between the upstream and downstream spacer grids. The presence of a spacer grid not only affects the local Nusselt number downstream of the grid but also affects the local Nusselt number upstream of the next grid. A new correlation capturing the effect of Reynolds number on the local flow restructuring downstream as well as upstream of the spacer grids was proposed for the minimum Nusselt number. In addition, a new enhancement factor accounting for the effects of the upstream as well as downstream spacer grids was developed from the RBHT data. The new enhancement factor was found to compare well with the data from the ACHILLLES test facility.

  3. Analysis of Subchannel and Rod Bundle PSBT Experiments with CATHARE 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of CATHARE 3 against PWR subchannel and rod bundle tests of the PSBT benchmark. Noticeable measurements were the following: void fraction in single subchannel and rod bundle, multiple liquid temperatures at subchannel exit in rod bundle, and DNB power and location in rod bundle. All these results were obtained both in steady and transient conditions. Void fraction values are satisfactory predicted by CATHARE 3 in single subchannels with the pipe module. More dispersed predictions of void values are obtained in rod bundles with the CATHARE 3 3D module at subchannel scale. Single-phase liquid mixing tests and DNB tests in rod bundle are also analyzed. After calibrating the mixing in liquid single phase with specific tests, DNB tests using void mixing give mitigated results, perhaps linked to inappropriate use of CHF lookup tables in such rod bundles with many spacers.

  4. Flow Distribution and Pressure Loss in Subchannels of a Wire-Wrapped 37-pin Rod Bundle for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Seok-Kyu; Euh, Dong-Jin; Choi, Hae Seob; Kim, Hyungmo; Choi, Sun Rock; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    A hexagonally arrayed 37-pin wire-wrapped rod bundle has been chosen to provide the experimental data of the pressure loss and flow rate in subchannels for validating subchannel analysis codes for the sodium-cooled fast reactor core thermal/hydraulic design. The iso-kinetic sampling method has been adopted to measure the flow rate at subchannels, and newly designed sampling probes which preserve the flow area of subchannels have been devised. Experimental tests have been performed at 20–115% ...

  5. Subchannel analysis of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofluid as a coolant in VMHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarifi, Ehsan; Tashakor, Saman [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor Research School

    2015-11-15

    The main objective of this study is to predict the thermal hydraulic behavior of nanofluids as the coolant in the fuel assembly of variable moderation high performance light water reactor (VMHWR). VMHWR is the new version of high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) conceptual design. Light water reactors at supercritical pressure (VMHWR, HPLWR), being currently under design, are the new generation of nuclear reactors. Water-based nanofluids containing various volume fractions of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles are analyzed. The conservation equations and conduction heat transfer equation for fuel and clad have been derived and discretized by the finite volume method. The transfer of mass, momentum and energy between adjacent subchannels are split into diversion crossflow and turbulent mixing components. The governed non linear algebraic equations are solved by using analytical iteration methods. Finally the nanofluid analysis results are compared with the pure water results.

  6. Measurement of Flow Distribution at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, HYungmo; Chang, Seokkyu; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dongjin; Lee, Hyeongyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this SFR type of fuel rod, core subchannels are classified with interior, edge, and corner subchannels. Flow distribution of each subchannel is a crucial factor for the core thermal design, and experimental tests for the design code verification and validation in a temperature limitation analysis were conducted. To verify and validate computer codes for the SFR core thermal design, a hexagonally arrayed 37-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section was fabricated. The measurement experiments were conducted using a well- designed test loop and iso-kinetic sampling probe. The developed iso-kinetic sampling method in the present study has its own merits, and flow rate results by sampling showed in good agreement with the preliminary CFD analysis results. In addition, the estimated mass balance error was only about 3% in the experiments. Therefore, the present methodology and results can be used in future experiments for design code verification and validation.

  7. Flow Distribution and Pressure Loss in Subchannels of a Wire-Wrapped 37-pin Rod Bundle for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kyu Chang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A hexagonally arrayed 37-pin wire-wrapped rod bundle has been chosen to provide the experimental data of the pressure loss and flow rate in subchannels for validating subchannel analysis codes for the sodium-cooled fast reactor core thermal/hydraulic design. The iso-kinetic sampling method has been adopted to measure the flow rate at subchannels, and newly designed sampling probes which preserve the flow area of subchannels have been devised. Experimental tests have been performed at 20–115% of the nominal flow rate and 60°C (equivalent to Re ∼ 37,100 at the inlet of the test rig. The pressure loss data in three measured subchannels were almost identical regardless of the subchannel locations. The flow rate at each type of subchannel was identified and the flow split factors were evaluated from the measured data. The predicted correlations and the computational fluid dynamics results agreed reasonably with the experimental data.

  8. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of heat transfer in subchannels of the European high performance supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor for different CFD turbulence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Landy Y.; Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Gamez, Abel; Rosales, Jesus; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos, E-mail: lcastro@instec.cu, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com, E-mail: agamezgmf@gmail.com, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Dominguez, Dany S., E-mail: dsdominguez@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    Chosen as one of six Generation‒IV nuclear-reactor concepts, Supercritical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are expected to have high thermal efficiencies within the range of 45 - 50% owing to the reactor's high pressures and outlet temperatures. In this reactor, the primary water enters the core under supercritical-pressure condition (25 MPa) at a temperature of 280 deg C and leaves it at a temperature of up to 510 deg C. Due to the significant changes in the physical properties of water at supercritical-pressure, the system is susceptible to local temperature, density and power oscillations. The behavior of supercritical water into the core of the SCWR, need to be sufficiently studied. Most of the methods available to predict the effects of the heat transfer phenomena within the pseudocritical region are based on empirical one-directional correlations, which do not capture the multidimensional effects and do not provide accurate results in regions such as the deteriorated heat transfer regime. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was carried out to study the thermal-hydraulic behavior of supercritical water flows in sub-channels of a typical European High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) fuel assembly using commercial CFD code CFX-14. It was determined the steady-state equilibrium parameters and calculated the temperature and density distributions. A comparative study for different turbulence models were carried out and the obtained results are discussed. (author)

  9. Nanofluid Applied Numerical Analysis of Subchannel in Square Rod Bundle for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Jubair Ahmed; Bhowmik, Palash Kumar; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    the heat transfer enhancement by nanofluids. One is that the suspended particles increase the thermal conductivity of the two-phase mixture. Another is that chaotic movement of ultrafine particles accelerates the energy exchange process in the fluid. The average Nusselt number Νu, convective heat transfer coefficient h and axial pressure drop Δp are assessed along the centerline of the subchannel for the Reynolds number Re ranging from 20000 to 80000. The hydrophilic rod-like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (AF-alumina type with mean particle diameter ∼7 nm) are dispersed in the base fluid of pure water with particle volume concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5% for comparison. The standard k-ε. two-equation model is employed to simulate turbulence in ANSYS FLUENT 12.1.

  10. Measurements of Flow Mixing at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 61-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Hyungmo; Ko, Yung Joo; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Jeong, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    For a safety analysis in a core thermal design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), flow mixing characteristics at subchannels in a wire-wrapped rod bundle are crucial factor for the design code verification and validation. Wrapped wires make a cross flow in a circumference of the fuel rod, and this effect lets flow be mixed. Therefore the sub-channel analysis method is commonly used for thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped sub-channel type. To measure flow mixing characteristics, a wire mesh sensing technique can be useful method. A wire mesh sensor has been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field, i.e. gas and liquid. However, the recent reports that the wire mesh sensor can be used successfully to recognize the flow field in liquid phase by injecting a tracing liquid with a different level of electric conductivity. The subchannel flow characteristics analysis method is commonly used for the thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped subchannel type. In this study, mixing experiments were conducted successfully at a hexagonally arrayed 61-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section. Wire mesh sensor was used to measure flow mixing characteristics. The developed post-processing method has its own merits, and flow mixing results were reasonable.

  11. Coupled neutronic-thermal-hydraulics analysis in a coolant subchannel of a PWR using CFD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Felipe P.; Su, Jian, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The high capacity of Computational Fluid Dynamics code to predict multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulics behaviour and the increased availability of capable computer systems are making that method a good tool to simulate phenomena of thermal-hydraulics nature in nuclear reactors. However, since there are no neutron kinetics models available in commercial CFD codes to the present day, the application of CFD in the nuclear reactor safety analyses is still limited. The present work proposes the implementation of the point kinetics model (PKM) in ANSYS - Fluent to predict the neutronic behaviour in a Westinghouse Sequoyah nuclear reactor, coupling with the phenomena of heat conduction in the rod and thermal-hydraulics in the cooling fluid, via the reactivity feedback. Firstly, a mesh convergence and turbulence model study was performed, using the Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes method, with square arrayed rod bundle featuring pitch to diameter ratio of 1:32. Secondly, simulations using the k-! SST turbulence model were performed with an axial distribution of the power generation in the fuel to analyse the heat transfer through the gap and cladding, and its in fluence on the thermal-hydraulics behaviour of the cooling fluid. The wall shear stress distribution for the centre-line rods and the dimensionless velocity were evaluated to validate the model, as well as the in fluence of the mass flow rate variation on the friction factor. The coupled model enabled to perform a dynamic analysis of the nuclear reactor during events of insertion of reactivity and shutdown of primary coolant pumps. (author)

  12. SUBCHANFLOW: a thermal hydraulic sub-channel program to analyse fuel rod bundles and reactor cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, V.; Imke, U.; Ivanov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gomez, R., E-mail: Victor.Sanchez@kit.ed [University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, Badstr. 24, 77652 Offenburg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The improvement of numerical analysis tools for the design and safety evaluation of reactor cores in a continuous effort in the nuclear community not only to improve the plant efficiency but also to demonstrate high degree of safety. Investigations at the Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) are focused on the further development and qualification of subchannel and system codes using experimental data. The majority of sub-channel codes in use likes Thesis, Bacchus, Cobra and Matra, were developed in the seventies and eighties. The programming style is rather obsolete and most of these codes are working internally with British Units instead of Si-Units. In the case of water, outdated steam tables are used. Both the trends to improve the efficiency of light water reactors (LWR) and the involvement of KIT in European projects related to the study of the technical feasibility of different fast reactors systems reinforced the need for the development and improvement of sub-channel codes, since they will play a key role in performing better designs as stand-alone tools or coupled to neutron physical codes (deterministic or stochastic). Hence, KIT started the development of a new sub-channel code SUBCHANFLOW based on the Cobra-family. SUBCHANFLOW is a modular code programmed in Fortran-95 with dynamic memory allocation using Si-units. Different fluids like liquid metals and water are available as coolant. In addition some models were improved or replaced by new ones. In this paper the structure, the physical models and the current validation status will be presented and discussed. (Author)

  13. Measurement and analysis of flow wall shear stress in an interior subchannel of triangular array rods. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakori-Monazah, M.R.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-08-01

    A simulated model of triangular array rods with pitch to diameter ratio of 1.10 (as a test section) and air as the fluid flow was used to study the LMFBR hydraulic parameters. The wall shear stress distribution around the rod periphery, friction factors, static pressure distributions and turbulence intensity corresponding to various Reynolds numbers ranging from 4140 to 36170 in the central subchannel were measured. Various approaches for measurement of wall shear stress were compared. The measurement was performed using the Preston tube technique with the probe outside diameter equal to 0.014 in.

  14. Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  15. High fidelity analysis of BWR fuel assembly with COBRA-TF/PARCS and trace codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G., E-mail: aabarca@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: rmiro@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: tbarrachina@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, (ISIRYM/UPV), (Spain). Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety; Concejal, A.; Melara, J.; Albendea, M., E-mail: acbe@iberdrola.es, E-mail: jls@iberdrola.es, E-mail: manuel.albendea@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola, Madrid (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: asoler@iberdrola.es [SEA Propulsion SL, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The growing importance of detailed reactor core and fuel assembly description for light water reactors (LWRs) as well as the sub-channel safety analysis requires high fidelity models and coupled neutronic/thermalhydraulic codes. Hand in hand with advances in the computer technology, the nuclear safety analysis is beginning to use a more detailed thermal hydraulics and neutronics. Previously, a PWR core and a 16 by 16 fuel assembly models were developed to test and validate our COBRA-TF/PARCS v2.7 (CTF/PARCS) coupled code. In this work, a comparison of the modeling and simulation advantages and disadvantages of modern 10 by 10 BWR fuel assembly with CTF/PARCS and TRACE codes has been done. The objective of the comparison is making known the main advantages of using the sub-channel codes to perform high resolution nuclear safety analysis. The sub-channel codes, like CTF, permits obtain accurate predictions, in two flow regime, of the thermalhydraulic parameters important to safety with high local resolution. The modeled BWR fuel assembly has 91 fuel rods (81 full length and 10 partial length fuel rods) and a big square central water rod. This assembly has been modeled with high level of detail with CTF code and using the BWR modeling parameters provided by TRACE. The same neutronic PARCS's model has been used for the simulation with both codes. To compare the codes a coupled steady state has be performed. (author)

  16. Code Coupling for Multi-Dimensional Core Transient Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Guen-Tae; Park, Min-Ho; Ryu, Seok-Hee; Um, Kil-Sup; Lee Jae-Il [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    After the CEA ejection, the nuclear power of the reactor dramatically increases in an exponential behavior until the Doppler effect becomes important and turns the reactivity balance and power down to lower levels. Although this happens in a very short period of time, only few seconds, the energy generated can be very significant and cause fuel failures. The current safety analysis methodology which is based on overly conservative assumptions with the point kinetics model results in quite adverse consequences. Thus, KEPCO Nuclear Fuel(KNF) is developing the multi-dimensional safety analysis methodology to mitigate the consequences of the single CEA ejection accident. For this purpose, three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, sub-channel analysis code THALES, and fuel performance analysis code FROST, which have transient calculation performance, were coupled using message passing interface (MPI). This paper presents the methodology used for code coupling and the preliminary simulation results with the coupled code system (CHASER). Multi-dimensional core transient analysis code system, CHASER, has been developed and it was applied to simulate a single CEA ejection accident. CHASER gave a good prediction of multi-dimensional core transient behaviors during transient. In the near future, the multi-dimension CEA ejection analysis methodology using CHASER is planning to be developed. CHASER is expected to be a useful tool to gain safety margin for reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs), such as a single CEA ejection accident.

  17. Measurements of high-pressure steam-water enthalpy/void migration in unequally heated horizontal twin subchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutradhar, S.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: sutradhars@aecl.ca; Yin, S.T. [Consultant, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: yinst@sympatico.ca; Tain, R.M. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: rtain@itri.org.tw

    2006-07-01

    An experimental study of enthalpy/void migration in two interconnected, unequally heated horizontal subchannels was conducted using high-pressure steam-water as the operating medium. The cross-sectional geometry of the twin subchannels simulated two adjacent, top-to-bottom aligned inner subchannels of a 37-element CANDU fuel bundle. The effect of unequal heating on enthalpy/void migration was measured using three different heat flux ratios of 1.00, 1.11 and 1.21, with the higher heat flux in the top subchannel. The test results indicated that under similar flow conditions, the unequal heat flux set-up enhanced the enthalpy/void migration from the bottom to the top subchannel compared to the equal heat flux set up. This study quantifies and characterizes the buoyancy-induced enthalpy/void migration between two interconnected horizontal subchannels subject to different heat fluxes. The database will be used to validate and improve the flow-mixing models in subchannel codes. (author)

  18. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  19. Imbalance of the liquid-metal flow and heat extraction in a manifold with sub-channels having locally different eletric conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yang; Wen, Meimei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in, Kyunggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Nyung, E-mail: cnkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in, Kyunggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Shangjing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in, Kyunggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, the characteristics of liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and convective heat transfer in a manifold with three sub-channels having locally different electric conductivity are investigated with the use of commercial code CFX, allowing an imbalance in flow rate among the sub-channels, which can be used for intensive cooling of the region with higher heat load in the blanket. In a manifold with co-flow multiple sub-channels, the electrical current can cross the fluid regions and channel walls, thus influencing the flow distribution in each sub-channel. In the present study, cases with various arrangements of the electric conductivity in different parts of the channel walls are investigated, yielding different distributions of the current and fluid flow in different cases. Here, the mechanism governing the imbalance in mass flow rate among the sub-channels is discussed. The interdependency of the fluid velocity, current and electric potential of LM MHD flows in the three sub-channels are analyzed in detail. The results show that, in the sub-channel surrounded by the walls with lower electric conductivity, higher axial velocity and superior heat extraction can be obtained, with an effective cooling associated with higher velocity, where the higher velocity is closely related to the distribution of the electromotive component of the current in the flow field.

  20. Application of the coupled Relap5/Panther codes for PWR steam. Line break accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guisset, J.-P.; Bosso, S.; Charlier, A.; Delhaye, X.; Ergo, O.; Ouliddren, K.; Schneidesch, C.; Zhang, J. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    A dynamic coupling between the existing 1-dimensional thermal-hydraulics system code RELAP5 and the 3-dimensional neutronics code PANTHER is applied via the transient analysis code linkage program TALINK. An interface between PANTHER and the subchannel thermal-hydraulic analysis code COBRA 3C allows direct evaluation of the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio in parallel with the coupled PANTHER/RELAP5 simulation. The coupled codes are applied to develop a Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accident analysis methodology for the major Steam Line Break (SLB) accident at hot zero power in a typical three-loop pressurised water reactor. In this methodology, the uncertainties related to the plant, core thermal-hydraulic and neutronic parameters are combined in a deterministic bounding approach based on sensitivity studies. The results of coupled thermal-hydraulic and neutronic analysis of SLB are presented and discussed. It is shown that there exists an important margin in the traditional FSAR accident analysis for SLB, which can be attributed by the conservatism's introduced by de-coupling the plant sub-systems. (author)

  1. Recent developments in KTF. Code optimization and improved numerics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Javier; Avramova, Maria; Sanchez, Victor Hugo; Ivanov, Kostadin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany). Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR)

    2012-11-01

    The rapid increase of computer power in the last decade facilitated the development of high fidelity simulations in nuclear engineering allowing a more realistic and accurate optimization as well as safety assessment of reactor cores and power plants compared to the legacy codes. Thermal hydraulic subchannel codes together with time dependent neutron transport codes are the options of choice for an accurate prediction of local safety parameters. Moreover, fast running codes with the best physical models are needed for high fidelity coupled thermal hydraulic / neutron kinetic solutions. Hence at KIT, different subchannel codes such as SUBCHANFLOW and KTF are being improved, validated and coupled with different neutron kinetics solutions. KTF is a subchannel code developed for best-estimate analysis of both Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and BWR. It is based on the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) version of COBRA-TF (Coolant Boling in Rod Arrays Two Fluids) named CTF. In this paper, the investigations devoted to the enhancement of the code numeric and informatics structure are presented and discussed. By some examples the gain on code speed-up will be demonstrated and finally an outlook of further activities concentrated on the code improvements will be given. (orig.)

  2. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shan, Jianqiang; Wang, Henan; Liu, Wei; Song, Linxing; Chen, Xuanxiang; Jiang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    .... The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1) the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2...

  3. Comparative Analysis of CTF and Trace Thermal-Hydraulic Codes Using OECD/NRC PSBT Benchmark Void Distribution Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avramova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark has been established to provide a test bed for assessing the capabilities of thermal-hydraulic codes and to encourage advancement in the analysis of fluid flow in rod bundles. The benchmark was based on one of the most valuable databases identified for the thermal-hydraulics modeling developed by NUPEC, Japan. The database includes void fraction and departure from nucleate boiling measurements in a representative PWR fuel assembly. On behalf of the benchmark team, PSU in collaboration with US NRC has performed supporting calculations using the PSU in-house advanced thermal-hydraulic subchannel code CTF and the US NRC system code TRACE. CTF is a version of COBRA-TF whose models have been continuously improved and validated by the RDFMG group at PSU. TRACE is a reactor systems code developed by US NRC to analyze transient and steady-state thermal-hydraulic behavior in LWRs and it has been designed to perform best-estimate analyses of LOCA, operational transients, and other accident scenarios in PWRs and BWRs. The paper presents CTF and TRACE models for the PSBT void distribution exercises. Code-to-code and code-to-data comparisons are provided along with a discussion of the void generation and void distribution models available in the two codes.

  4. Measurements of Flow Mixing at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungmo; Bae, Hwang; Chang, Seok-Kyu; Choi, Sun Rock; Lee, Dong Won; Ko, Yung Joo; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    For a safety analysis in a core thermal design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), flow mixing characteristics at subchannels in a wire-wrapped rod bundle are very important. Wrapped wires make a cross flow in a around the fuel rod) of the fuel rod, and this effect lets flow be mixed. Experimental results of flow mixing can be meaningful for verification and validation of thermal mixing correlation in a reactor core thermo-hydraulic design code. A wire mesh sensing technique can be useful method for measuring of flow mixing characteristics. A wire mesh sensor has been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field, i.e. gas and liquid. However, it has been recently reported that the wire mesh sensor can be used successfully to recognize the flow field in liquid phase by injecting a tracing liquid with a different level of electric conductivity. This can be powerfully adapted to recognize flow mixing characteristics by wrapped wires in SFR core thermal design. In this work, we conducted the flow mixing experiments using a custom designed wire mesh sensor. To verify and validate computer codes for the SFR core thermal design, mixing experiments were conducted at a hexagonally arrayed 37-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section. The well-designed wire mesh sensor was used to measure flow mixing characteristics. The developed post-processing method has its own merits, and flow mixing results were reasonable. In addition, by uncertainty analysis, the system errors and the random error were estimated in experiments. Therefore, the present results and methods can be used for design code verification and validation.

  5. Flow Analysis of Code Customizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders; Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Inconsistency between metadata and code customizations is a major concern in modern, configurable enterprise systems. The increasing reliance on metadata, in the form of XML files, and code customizations, in the form of Java files, has led to a hybrid development platform. The expected consisten...

  6. The study and development of the empirical correlations equation of natural convection heat transfer on vertical rectangular sub-channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamajaya, Ketut; Umar, Efrizon; Sudjatmi, K. S.

    2012-06-01

    This study focused on natural convection heat transfer using a vertical rectangular sub-channel and water as the coolant fluid. To conduct this study has been made pipe heaters are equipped with thermocouples. Each heater is equipped with five thermocouples along the heating pipes. The diameter of each heater is 2.54 cm and 45 cm in length. The distance between the central heating and the pitch is 29.5 cm. Test equipment is equipped with a primary cooling system, a secondary cooling system and a heat exchanger. The purpose of this study is to obtain new empirical correlations equations of the vertical rectangular sub-channel, especially for the natural convection heat transfer within a bundle of vertical cylinders rectangular arrangement sub-channels. The empirical correlation equation can support the thermo-hydraulic analysis of research nuclear reactors that utilize cylindrical fuel rods, and also can be used in designing of baffle-free vertical shell and tube heat exchangers. The results of this study that the empirical correlation equations of natural convection heat transfer coefficients with rectangular arrangement is Nu = 6.3357 (Ra.Dh/x)0.0740.

  7. CFD analyses of the rod bowing effect on the subchannel outlet temperature distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Karoliina; Toppila, Timo [Fortum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    In the Loviisa 1 and 2 nuclear power plants the subcooling margin of the hottest subchannel of the fuel assembly is monitored. The temperature of the coolant in the hottest subchannel is limited to the constant saturation temperature. Bending of the fuel rods occurs during normal operation due to the differences in the heat profiles of the rods. The coolant temperature will rise more in the subchannel with smaller flow area due to the bending and this has to be taken into account in the safety margin of subchannel enthalpy rise. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to estimate how much the estimated maximum bow of a rod affects the temperature rise of the subchannel. The quantitative uncertainty of the predicted enthalpy rise in fuel bundle subchannel is estimated based on the uncertainty of modelling of mixing between subchannels. The measured turbulence quantities from LDA measurements of cold test assembly made in 1990s in Fortum are compared with CFD results to give uncertainty estimation for turbulence, which is further used for uncertainty estimation of mixing and simulated subchannel enthalpy rise.

  8. COBRA-IV-I: an interim version of COBRA for thermal-hydraulic analysis of rod bundle nuclear fuel elements and cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, C.L.; Stewart, C.W.; Cena, R.J.; Rowe, D.S.; Sutey, A.M.

    1976-03-01

    The COBRA-IV-I computer code uses the subchannel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state and transient solution schemes used in COBRA-IIIC are still available in COBRA-IV-I as the implicit solution scheme option. In addition to these techniques, a new explicit solution scheme is now available which allows the calculation of severe transients involving flow reversals, recirculations, expulsion and reentry flows, with a pressure or flow boundary condition specified. Significant storage compaction and reduced running times have been achieved to allow the calculation of problems involving hundreds of subchannels.

  9. Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to April, 1983, version of SINDA. Additional routines provide for mathematical modeling of active heat-transfer loops. Simulates steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different components of heat-transfer loops, including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs, and many types of valves and fittings. Program contains property-analysis routine used to compute thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. Source code written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Analysis of MELCOR code structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Sun Hee

    2000-04-01

    MELCOR executes in two parts. The first is a MELGEN program, in which most of the input is specified, processed, and checked. The second part of MELCOR is the MELCOR program itself, which advances the program through time based on the database generated by MELGEN and any additional MELCOR input. In particular, MELCOR execution involves two steps: (1) a setup mode in MEXSET, during which the database is read from the restart file and any additional input is processed, and (2) a run mode in MEXRUN, which advances the simulation through time, updating the time-dependent portion of the database each cycle. MELGEN and MELCOR share a structured and modular architecture that facilitates the incorporation of additional or altenative phenomenological modes. This structure consists of four primary levels: executive level, database manager routine level, package level, and utility level. MELCOR is composed of 24 different packages, each of which models a different portion of the accident phenomenology or program control. To identify the relation of the MELCOR subroutines with the packages, first two or three letters of the package's name are duplicated in the name of the subroutines. The same rule applies to the naming of the common block. Data flows and the specific subroutines in the MELGEN and MELCOR are analyzed by their functions according to the hierarchy of four levels for model improvement and replacement during the integral code development project.

  11. MGEX data analysis at CODE - current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Lars; Dach, Rolf; Lutz, Simon; Schaer, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is contributing as an analysis center to the International GNSS Service (IGS) since many years. The processing of GPS and GLONASS data is well established in CODE's ultra-rapid, rapid, and final product lines. In 2012 the IGS started its "Multi GNSS EXperiment" (MGEX). Meanwhile (status end of 2012) about 50 new or upgraded MGEX tracking stations offer their data to the user community meeting the IGS standards (e.g., correct equipment information, calibrated antennas, RINEX data format). MGEX supports the RINEX3 data format, new signal types for the established GNSS (e.g., L5 for GPS), and new GNSS, such as Galileo, Compass, and QZSS. It is therefore well suited as a testbed for future developments in GNSS processing. CODE supports MGEX by providing a three-system orbit solution (GPS+GLONASS+Galileo) on a non-operational basis. The CODE MGEX products are freely available at ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gnss/products/mgex (solution ID "com" stands for CODE-MGEX). The current status of the MGEX processing at CODE will be presented focusing on the consistency of GNSS-derived results based on different frequencies/signals. An outlook about CODE's future multi-GNSS activities will be given.

  12. Numerical Study of the Steady-State Subchannel Test-Case with NEPTUNE_CFD for the OECD/NRC NUPEC PSBT Benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baudry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multifield computational fluid dynamics (CFD code NEPTUNE_CFD is applied to carry out a numerical study of the steady-state subchannel test-case of the OECD/NRC NUPEC PWR subchannel and bundle tests (PSBTs international benchmark, focusing on the simulation of a subset of five selected experimental runs of the centered subchannel configuration. First, using a standard choice for the physical models and a constant, predetermined bubble diameter, the calculated void fraction is compared to experimental data. Besides, the mesh sensitivity of the calculated void fraction is investigated by performing simulations of three grid levels, and the propagation of the experimental uncertainties on the input parameters of the simulations is also studied. Last, calculation results with devoted models for the bubble-size distribution are analyzed. Their impact is visible on the subcooled run, giving void fraction closer to experiments than those obtained with a fixed bubble-size. Void-fraction distribution with bubble-size models is also shown to come closer to experiment for another run with a higher equilibrium quality.

  13. Centrifugal Compressor Aeroelastic Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Centrifugal compressors are very widely used in the turbomachine industry where low mass flow rates are required. Gas turbine engines for tanks, rotorcraft and small jets rely extensively on centrifugal compressors for rugged and compact design. These compressors experience problems related with unsteadiness of flowfields, such as stall flutter, separation at the trailing edge over diffuser guide vanes, tip vortex unsteadiness, etc., leading to rotating stall and surge. Considerable interest exists in small gas turbine engine manufacturers to understand and eventually eliminate the problems related to centrifugal compressors. The geometric complexity of centrifugal compressor blades and the twisting of the blade passages makes the linear methods inapplicable. Advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are needed for accurate unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of centrifugal compressors. Most of the current day industrial turbomachines and small aircraft engines are designed with a centrifugal compressor. With such a large customer base and NASA Glenn Research Center being, the lead center for turbomachines, it is important that adequate emphasis be placed on this area as well. Currently, this activity is not supported under any project at NASA Glenn.

  14. Single- and Two-Phase Turbulent Mixing Rate between Subchannels in Triangle Tight Lattice Rod Bundle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAWAHARA, Akimaro; SADATOMI, Michio; KUDO, Hiroyuki; KANO, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain the data on turbulent mixing rate between triangle tight lattice subchannels, which will be adopted as the next generation BWR fuel rod bundle, adiabatic experiments were conducted...

  15. Buddly, slug, and annular two-phase flow in tight-lattice subchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasser, Horst-Michael; Bolesch, Charistian; Cramer, Kerstin; Papadopoulos, Petros; Saxena, Abhishek; Zboray, Robert [ETH Zurich, Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering (D-MAVT), Zurich (Switzerland); Ito, Daisuke [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    An overview is given on the work of the Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems at ETH, Zurich (ETHZ) and of the Laboratory of Thermal Hydraulics at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland on tight-lattice bundles. Two-phase flow in subchannels of a tight triangular lattice was studied experimentally and by computational fluid dynamics simulations. Two adiabatic facilities were used: (1) a vertical channel modeling a pair of neighboring subchannels; and (2) an arrangement of four subchannels with one subchannel in the center. The first geometry was equipped with two electrical film sensors placed on opposing rod surfaces forming the subchannel gap. They recorded 2D liquid film thickness distributions on a domain of 16 × 64 measuring points each, with a time resolution of 10 kHz. In the bubbly and slug flow regime, information on the bubble size, shape, and velocity and the residual liquid film thickness underneath the bubbles were obtained. The second channel was investigated using cold neutron tomography, which allowed the measurement of average liquid film profiles showing the effect of spacer grids with vanes. The results were reproduced by large eddy simulation + volume of fluid. In the outlook, a novel nonadiabatic subchannel experiment is introduced that can be driven to steady-state dryout. A refrigerant is heated by a heavy water circuit, which allows the application of cold neutron tomography.

  16. Bubbly, Slug, and Annular Two-Phase Flow in Tight-Lattice Subchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst-Michael Prasser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given on the work of the Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems at ETH, Zurich (ETHZ and of the Laboratory of Thermal Hydraulics at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Switzerland on tight-lattice bundles. Two-phase flow in subchannels of a tight triangular lattice was studied experimentally and by computational fluid dynamics simulations. Two adiabatic facilities were used: (1 a vertical channel modeling a pair of neighboring subchannels; and (2 an arrangement of four subchannels with one subchannel in the center. The first geometry was equipped with two electrical film sensors placed on opposing rod surfaces forming the subchannel gap. They recorded 2D liquid film thickness distributions on a domain of 16 × 64 measuring points each, with a time resolution of 10 kHz. In the bubbly and slug flow regime, information on the bubble size, shape, and velocity and the residual liquid film thickness underneath the bubbles were obtained. The second channel was investigated using cold neutron tomography, which allowed the measurement of average liquid film profiles showing the effect of spacer grids with vanes. The results were reproduced by large eddy simulation + volume of fluid. In the outlook, a novel nonadiabatic subchannel experiment is introduced that can be driven to steady-state dryout. A refrigerant is heated by a heavy water circuit, which allows the application of cold neutron tomography.

  17. Static Code Analysis with Gitlab-CI

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Szymon Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Static Code Analysis is a simple but efficient way to ensure that application’s source code is free from known flaws and security vulnerabilities. Although such analysis tools are often coming with more advanced code editors, there are a lot of people who prefer less complicated environments. The easiest solution would involve education – where to get and how to use the aforementioned tools. However, counting on the manual usage of such tools still does not guarantee their actual usage. On the other hand, reducing the required effort, according to the idea “setup once, use anytime without sweat” seems like a more promising approach. In this paper, the approach to automate code scanning, within the existing CERN’s Gitlab installation, is described. For realization of that project, the Gitlab-CI service (the “CI” stands for "Continuous Integration"), with Docker assistance, was employed to provide a variety of static code analysers for different programming languages. This document covers the gene...

  18. Wing-Design And -Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Christine M.; Carlson, Harry W.

    1990-01-01

    WINGDES2 computer program provides wing-design algorithm based on modified linear theory taking into account effects of attainable leading-edge thrust. Features improved numerical accuracy and additional capabilities. Provides analysis as well as design capability and applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow. Replaces earlier wing-design code designated WINGDES (see LAR-13315). Written in FORTRAN V.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories analysis code data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, mission is to solve important problems in the areas of national defense, energy security, environmental integrity, and industrial technology. The Laboratories` strategy for accomplishing this mission is to conduct research to provide an understanding of the important physical phenomena underlying any problem, and then to construct validated computational models of the phenomena which can be used as tools to solve the problem. In the course of implementing this strategy, Sandia`s technical staff has produced a wide variety of numerical problem-solving tools which they use regularly in the design, analysis, performance prediction, and optimization of Sandia components, systems and manufacturing processes. This report provides the relevant technical and accessibility data on the numerical codes used at Sandia, including information on the technical competency or capability area that each code addresses, code ``ownership`` and release status, and references describing the physical models and numerical implementation.

  20. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Mike Patterson

    2010-10-01

    Idaho National Laboratory developed the Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) for tritium permeation in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). All the component models in the VHTR were developed and were embedded into the MATHLAB SIMULINK package with a Graphic User Interface. The governing equations of the nuclear ternary reaction and thermal neutron capture reactions from impurities in helium and graphite core, reflector, and control rods were implemented. The TPAC code was verified using analytical solutions for the tritium birth rate from the ternary fission, the birth rate from 3He, and the birth rate from 10B. This paper also provides comparisons of the TPAC with the existing other codes. A VHTR reference design was selected for tritium permeation study from the reference design to the nuclear-assisted hydrogen production plant and some sensitivity study results are presented based on the HTGR outlet temperature of 750 degrees C.

  1. Error-correction coding and decoding bounds, codes, decoders, analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tomlinson, Martin; Ambroze, Marcel A; Ahmed, Mohammed; Jibril, Mubarak

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses both the theory and practical applications of self-correcting data, commonly known as error-correcting codes. The applications included demonstrate the importance of these codes in a wide range of everyday technologies, from smartphones to secure communications and transactions. Written in a readily understandable style, the book presents the authors’ twenty-five years of research organized into five parts: Part I is concerned with the theoretical performance attainable by using error correcting codes to achieve communications efficiency in digital communications systems. Part II explores the construction of error-correcting codes and explains the different families of codes and how they are designed. Techniques are described for producing the very best codes. Part III addresses the analysis of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, primarily to calculate their stopping sets and low-weight codeword spectrum which determines the performance of these codes. Part IV deals with decoders desi...

  2. SINFAC - SYSTEMS IMPROVED NUMERICAL FLUIDS ANALYSIS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, F. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to the April 1983 revision of SINDA, a general thermal analyzer program. The purpose of the additional routines is to allow for the modeling of active heat transfer loops. The modeler can simulate the steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different heat transfer loop components including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs and many types of valves and fittings. In addition, the program contains a property analysis routine that can be used to compute the thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. SINFAC can simulate the response to transient boundary conditions. SINFAC was first developed as a method for computing the steady-state performance of two phase systems. It was then modified using CNFRWD, SINDA's explicit time-integration scheme, to accommodate transient thermal models. However, SINFAC cannot simulate pressure drops due to time-dependent fluid acceleration, transient boil-out, or transient fill-up, except in the accumulator. SINFAC also requires the user to be familiar with SINDA. The solution procedure used by SINFAC is similar to that which an engineer would use to solve a system manually. The solution to a system requires the determination of all of the outlet conditions of each component such as the flow rate, pressure, and enthalpy. To obtain these values, the user first estimates the inlet conditions to the first component of the system, then computes the outlet conditions from the data supplied by the manufacturer of the first component. The user then estimates the temperature at the outlet of the third component and computes the corresponding flow resistance of the second component. With the flow resistance of the second component, the user computes the conditions down stream, namely the inlet conditions of the third. The computations follow for the rest of the system, back to the first component

  3. Analysis and Design of Tuned Turbo Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Koller, Christian; Kliewer, Joerg; Vatta, Francesca; Zigangirov, Kamil S; Costello, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    It has been widely observed that there exists a fundamental trade-off between the minimum distance properties and the iterative decoding convergence behavior of turbo-like codes. While capacity achieving code ensembles typically are asymptotically bad in the sense that their minimum distance does not grow linearly with block length, and they therefore exhibit an error floor at moderate-to-high signal to noise ratios, asymptotically good codes usually converge further away from channel capacity. In this paper, we introduce the concept of tuned turbo codes, a family of asymptotically good hybrid concatenated code ensembles, where minimum distance growth rates, convergence thresholds, and code rates can be traded-off using two tuning parameters, {\\lambda} and {\\mu}. By decreasing {\\lambda}, the asymptotic minimum distance growth rate is reduced for the sake of improved iterative decoding convergence behavior, while increasing {\\lambda} raises the growth rate at the expense of worse convergence behavior, and thus...

  4. Convergence Analysis of Turbo Decoding of Serially Concatenated Block Codes and Product Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Amir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric interpretation of turbo decoding has founded a framework, and provided tools for the analysis of parallel-concatenated codes decoding. In this paper, we extend this analytical basis for the decoding of serially concatenated codes, and focus on serially concatenated product codes (SCPC (i.e., product codes with checks on checks. For this case, at least one of the component (i.e., rows/columns decoders should calculate the extrinsic information not only for the information bits, but also for the check bits. We refer to such a component decoder as a serial decoding module (SDM. We extend the framework accordingly, derive the update equations for a general turbo decoder of SCPC, and the expressions for the main analysis tools: the Jacobian and stability matrices. We explore the stability of the SDM. Specifically, for high SNR, we prove that the maximal eigenvalue of the SDM's stability matrix approaches , where is the minimum Hamming distance of the component code. Hence, for practical codes, the SDM is unstable. Further, we analyze the two turbo decoding schemes, proposed by Benedetto and Pyndiah, by deriving the corresponding update equations and by demonstrating the structure of their stability matrices for the repetition code and an SCPC code with information bits. Simulation results for the Hamming and Golay codes are presented, analyzed, and compared to the theoretical results and to simulations of turbo decoding of parallel concatenation of the same codes.

  5. Verification of the CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Darl; Ahn, Kwang Il; Song, Yong Man; Choi, Young; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha; Jin, Young Ho

    1997-09-01

    CONPAS is a computer code package to integrate the numerical, graphical, and results-oriented aspects of Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants under a PC window environment automatically. For the integrated analysis of Level 2 PSA, the code utilizes four distinct, but closely related modules: (1) ET Editor, (2) Computer, (3) Text Editor, and (4) Mechanistic Code Plotter. Compared with other existing computer codes for Level 2 PSA, and CONPAS code provides several advanced features: computational aspects including systematic uncertainty analysis, importance analysis, sensitivity analysis and data interpretation, reporting aspects including tabling and graphic as well as user-friendly interface. The computational performance of CONPAS has been verified through a Level 2 PSA to a reference plant. The results of the CONPAS code was compared with an existing level 2 PSA code (NUCAP+) and the comparison proves that CONPAS is appropriate for Level 2 PSA. (author). 9 refs., 8 tabs., 14 figs.

  6. Teacher Dress Codes in Employee Handbooks: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Beth Winfrey

    2010-01-01

    This study used role theory to analyze dress codes for teachers to discern what dress items expressed role embracement and role distance. Inductive content analysis of teacher dress codes in 103 U.S. K-12 school handbooks revealed three categories of dress: (a) conventional dress (mentioned in 97.1% of the dress codes); (b) casual dress (mentioned…

  7. Codeword Structure Analysis for LDPC Convolutional Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The codewords of a low-density parity-check (LDPC convolutional code (LDPC-CC are characterised into structured and non-structured. The number of the structured codewords is dominated by the size of the polynomial syndrome former matrix H T ( D , while the number of the non-structured ones depends on the particular monomials or polynomials in H T ( D . By evaluating the relationship of the codewords between the mother code and its super codes, the low weight non-structured codewords in the super codes can be eliminated by appropriately choosing the monomials or polynomials in H T ( D , resulting in improved distance spectrum of the mother code.

  8. Updated Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of the General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis (LSENS) computer code has become available. A prior version of LSENS was described in "Program Helps to Determine Chemical-Reaction Mechanisms" (LEW-15758), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 1995), page 66. To recapitulate: LSENS solves complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical-kinetics problems (e.g., combustion of fuels) that are represented by sets of many coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations. LSENS has been designed for flexibility, convenience, and computational efficiency. The present version of LSENS incorporates mathematical models for (1) a static system; (2) steady, one-dimensional inviscid flow; (3) reaction behind an incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; (4) a perfectly stirred reactor; and (5) a perfectly stirred reactor followed by a plug-flow reactor. In addition, LSENS can compute equilibrium properties for the following assigned states: enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static and one-dimensional-flow problems, including those behind an incident shock wave and following a perfectly stirred reactor calculation, LSENS can compute sensitivity coefficients of dependent variables and their derivatives, with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate-coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

  9. Turbulence Model Evaluation Study for a Secondary Flow and a Flow Pulsation in the Sub-Channels of an 18-Finned Rod Bundle by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek; Park, Cheol; Kim, Heon Il

    2008-09-15

    Since the heat flux of the rod type fuel used in the HANARO, a research reactor being operated in the KAERI, is substantially higher than the heat flux of power reactors, the HANARO fuel has 8 longitudinal fins for enhancing the heat release from the fuel rod surface. This unique shape of a nuclear fuel led us to study the flows and thermal hydraulic characteristics of it. Especially because the flows through the narrow channels built up by these finned rod fuels would be different from the flow characteristics in the coolant channels formed by bare rod fuels, some experimental studies to investigate the flow behaviors and structures in a finned rod bundle were done by other researchers. But because of the very complex geometries of the flow channels in the finned rod bundle only allowed us to obtain limited information about the flow characteristics, a numerical study by a computational fluid dynamics technique has been adopted to elucidate more about such a complicated flow in a finned rod bundle. In this study, for the development of an adequate computational model to simulate such a complex geometry, a mesh sensitivity study and the effects of various turbulence models were examined. The CFD analysis results were compared with the experimental results. Some of them have a good agreement with the experimental results. All linear eddy viscosity turbulence models could hardly predict the secondary flows near the fuel surfaces and in the sub-channel, but the RSM (Reynolds Stress Model) revealed very different results from the eddy viscosity turbulence models. In the transient analysis all turbulence model predicted flow pulsation at the center of a subchannel as well as at the gap between rods in spite of large P/D. The flow pulsation showed different results with turbulence models and the location in the sub-channels.

  10. Local Laplacian Coding From Theoretical Analysis of Local Coding Schemes for Locally Linear Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Junbiao; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Chunjie; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yin, Baocai

    2015-12-01

    Local coordinate coding (LCC) is a framework to approximate a Lipschitz smooth function by combining linear functions into a nonlinear one. For locally linear classification, LCC requires a coding scheme that heavily determines the nonlinear approximation ability, posing two main challenges: 1) the locality making faraway anchors have smaller influences on current data and 2) the flexibility balancing well between the reconstruction of current data and the locality. In this paper, we address the problem from the theoretical analysis of the simplest local coding schemes, i.e., local Gaussian coding and local student coding, and propose local Laplacian coding (LPC) to achieve the locality and the flexibility. We apply LPC into locally linear classifiers to solve diverse classification tasks. The comparable or exceeded performances of state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Challenges on innovations of newly-developed safety analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yanhua [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Zhang, Hao [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Beijing (China). Beijing Future Science and Technology City

    2016-05-15

    With the development of safety analysis method, the safety analysis codes meet more challenges. Three challenges are presented in this paper, which are mathematic model, code design and user interface. Combined with the self-reliance safety analysis code named COSINE, the ways of meeting these requirements are suggested, that is to develop multi-phases, multi-fields and multi-dimension models, to adopt object-oriented code design ideal and to improve the way of modeling, calculation control and data post-processing in the user interface.

  12. Mal-Xtract: Hidden Code Extraction using Memory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Charles; Syailendra Kotualubun, Yohanes; Suryadi; Ramli, Kalamullah

    2017-01-01

    Software packer has been used effectively to hide the original code inside a binary executable, making it more difficult for existing signature based anti malware software to detect malicious code inside the executable. A new method of written and rewritten memory section is introduced to to detect the exact end time of unpacking routine and extract original code from packed binary executable using Memory Analysis running in an software emulated environment. Our experiment results show that at least 97% of the original code from the various binary executable packed with different software packers could be extracted. The proposed method has also been successfully extracted hidden code from recent malware family samples.

  13. Development of code system for analysis of skyshine dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hidemasa; Mishima, Tsuyoshi; Nakae, Nobuo (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works)

    1989-09-01

    A code system which can easily and accurately analyze skyshine dose rate of neutron and gamma rays has been developed by combining analysis codes with cross-section libraries. The code system is composed of four kinds of modules and driver-routine and the modules are separately used for each objective. The code system is also equiped with atomic densities for major materials and the function of automatically meshing and so on. The code system has been verified by using the data of available benchmark problems which have already been reported. In this paper, the system developed here is described and the results of verification is reported. (author).

  14. Manometer Behavior Analysis using CATHENA, RELAP and GOTHIC Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Hoon; Han, Kee Soo; Moon, Bok Ja; Jang, Misuk [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this presentation, simple thermal hydraulic behavior is analyzed using three codes to show the possibility of using alternative codes. We established three models of simple u-tube manometer using three different codes. CATHENA (Canadian Algorithm for Thermal hydraulic Network Analysis), RELAP (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program), GOTHIC (Generation of Thermal Hydraulic Information for Containments) are used for this analysis. CATHENA and RELAP are widely used codes for the analysis of system behavior of CANDU and PWR. And GOTHIC code also has been widely used for the analysis of thermal hydraulic behavior in the containment system. In this paper, the internal behavior of u-tube manometer was analyzed using 3 codes, CATHENA, RELAP and GOTHIC. The general transient behavior is similar among 3 codes. However, the behavior simulated using GOTHIC shows some different trend compared with the results from the other 2 codes at the end of the transient. It would be resulted from the use of different physical model in GOTHIC, which is specialized for the multi-phase thermal hydraulic behavior analysis of containment system unlike the other two codes.

  15. WINGDES2 - WING DESIGN AND ANALYSIS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    This program provides a wing design algorithm based on modified linear theory which takes into account the effects of attainable leading-edge thrust. A primary objective of the WINGDES2 approach is the generation of a camber surface as mild as possible to produce drag levels comparable to those attainable with full theoretical leading-edge thrust. WINGDES2 provides both an analysis and a design capability and is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow. The optimization can be carried out for designated wing portions such as leading and trailing edge areas for the design of mission-adaptive surfaces, or for an entire planform such as a supersonic transport wing. This program replaces an earlier wing design code, LAR-13315, designated WINGDES. WINGDES2 incorporates modifications to improve numerical accuracy and provides additional capabilities. A means of accounting for the presence of interference pressure fields from airplane components other than the wing and a direct process for selection of flap surfaces to approach the performance levels of the optimized wing surfaces are included. An increased storage capacity allows better numerical representation of those configurations that have small chord leading-edge or trailing-edge design areas. WINGDES2 determines an optimum combination of a series of candidate surfaces rather than the more commonly used candidate loadings. The objective of the design is the recovery of unrealized theoretical leading-edge thrust of the input flat surface by shaping of the design surface to create a distributed thrust and thus minimize drag. The input consists of airfoil section thickness data, leading and trailing edge planform geometry, and operational parameters such as Mach number, Reynolds number, and design lift coefficient. Output includes optimized camber surface ordinates, pressure coefficient distributions, and theoretical aerodynamic characteristics. WINGDES2 is written in FORTRAN V for batch execution and has been

  16. Convergence Analysis of Turbo Decoding of Serially Concatenated Block Codes and Product Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Amir; Sella, Assaf; Be'ery, Yair

    2005-12-01

    The geometric interpretation of turbo decoding has founded a framework, and provided tools for the analysis of parallel-concatenated codes decoding. In this paper, we extend this analytical basis for the decoding of serially concatenated codes, and focus on serially concatenated product codes (SCPC) (i.e., product codes with checks on checks). For this case, at least one of the component (i.e., rows/columns) decoders should calculate the extrinsic information not only for the information bits, but also for the check bits. We refer to such a component decoder as a serial decoding module (SDM). We extend the framework accordingly, derive the update equations for a general turbo decoder of SCPC, and the expressions for the main analysis tools: the Jacobian and stability matrices. We explore the stability of the SDM. Specifically, for high SNR, we prove that the maximal eigenvalue of the SDM's stability matrix approaches [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is the minimum Hamming distance of the component code. Hence, for practical codes, the SDM is unstable. Further, we analyze the two turbo decoding schemes, proposed by Benedetto and Pyndiah, by deriving the corresponding update equations and by demonstrating the structure of their stability matrices for the repetition code and an SCPC code with [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] information bits. Simulation results for the Hamming [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] and Golay [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] codes are presented, analyzed, and compared to the theoretical results and to simulations of turbo decoding of parallel concatenation of the same codes.

  17. Model for subchannel friction factors and flow redistribution in wire-wrapped rod bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Fernandez y Fernandez, Elói

    1999-01-01

    The fuel element of LMFBR consists of a bundle of rods wrapped with an helical wire as spacer, surrounded by an hexagonal duct. In the present work, a semi-empirical model is developed to calculate bundle average and subchannel based friction factors and flow redistribution. The obtained results were compared to experimental data and they were considered satisfactory for wide range of geometrical parameters.

  18. Evaluation of the DRAGON code for VHTR design analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taiwo, T. A.; Kim, T. K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-01-12

    This letter report summarizes three activities that were undertaken in FY 2005 to gather information on the DRAGON code and to perform limited evaluations of the code performance when used in the analysis of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. These activities include: (1) Use of the code to model the fuel elements of the helium-cooled and liquid-salt-cooled VHTR designs. Results were compared to those from another deterministic lattice code (WIMS8) and a Monte Carlo code (MCNP). (2) The preliminary assessment of the nuclear data library currently used with the code and libraries that have been provided by the IAEA WIMS-D4 Library Update Project (WLUP). (3) DRAGON workshop held to discuss the code capabilities for modeling the VHTR.

  19. ONU discovery using multiple subchannels for seamless service support in long-reach OFDMA-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hakjeon; Doo, Kyeong-Hwan; Lee, Jonghyun; Lee, Sangsoo

    2014-09-08

    In a passive optical network (PON), discovery is a process that detects and registers newly connected optical network units (ONUs). A long-reach PON requires a longer discovery window, e.g., at least 1 ms for 100 km, due to the increased round-trip time between an optical line terminal (OLT) and an ONU. The longer discovery window consumes more network resources and issues longer service-interruption time. From this motivation, for a long-reach orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-PON, we propose a discovery method using multiple subchannels, where each subchannel consists of one or several subcarrier(s). Compared to discovery using a single channel, the proposed discovery method can increase the number of successfully detected ONUs at the same resources (i.e., for a discovery window) and ensure seamless service support to already registered ONUs, by assigning some subchannels for discovery and the remainder for data transmission. We analyze the discovery efficiency (i.e., the number of successfully detected ONUs in the discovery process) based on a probability and optimize the discovery window size by numerical simulations.

  20. Joint subchannel pairing and power control for cognitive radio networks with amplify-and-forward relaying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanyan; Wang, Shuqiang; Wei, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic spectrum sharing has drawn intensive attention in cognitive radio networks. The secondary users are allowed to use the available spectrum to transmit data if the interference to the primary users is maintained at a low level. Cooperative transmission for secondary users can reduce the transmission power and thus improve the performance further. We study the joint subchannel pairing and power allocation problem in relay-based cognitive radio networks. The objective is to maximize the sum rate of the secondary user that is helped by an amplify-and-forward relay. The individual power constraints at the source and the relay, the subchannel pairing constraints, and the interference power constraints are considered. The problem under consideration is formulated as a mixed integer programming problem. By the dual decomposition method, a joint optimal subchannel pairing and power allocation algorithm is proposed. To reduce the computational complexity, two suboptimal algorithms are developed. Simulations have been conducted to verify the performance of the proposed algorithms in terms of sum rate and average running time under different conditions.

  1. Improving the Automated Detection and Analysis of Secure Coding Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    vulnerabilities in the National Vulnerability Database in 2004 were caused by programming errors. The CERT Division’s Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe...was as follows: 1. Modify SCALe workflow, infrastructure, and database (s) to support data collection and in- strumentation, such as the measurement of...12A DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Unclassified/Unlimited, DTIC, NTIS 12B DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (MAXIMUM 200 WORDS) Coding errors

  2. Source Code Review Using Static Analysis Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Moiras, Stavros; Lüders, Stefan; Tsouvelekakis, Aimilios

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many teams at CERN, develop their own software to solve their tasks. This software may be public or it may be used for internal purposes. It is of major importance for developers to know that their software is secure. Humans are able to detect bugs and vulnerabilities but it is impossible to discover everything when they need to read hundreds’ lines of code. As a result, computer scientists have developed tools which complete efficiently and within minut...

  3. CTF (Subchannel) Calculations and Validation L3:VVI.H2L.P15.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Natalie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The goal of the Verification and Validation Implementation (VVI) High to Low (Hi2Lo) process is utilizing a validated model in a high resolution code to generate synthetic data for improvement of the same model in a lower resolution code. This process is useful in circumstances where experimental data does not exist or it is not sufficient in quantity or resolution. Data from the high-fidelity code is treated as calibration data (with appropriate uncertainties and error bounds) which can be used to train parameters that affect solution accuracy in the lower-fidelity code model, thereby reducing uncertainty. This milestone presents a demonstration of the Hi2Lo process derived in the VVI focus area. The majority of the work performed herein describes the steps of the low-fidelity code used in the process with references to the work detailed in the companion high-fidelity code milestone (Reference 1). The CASL low-fidelity code used to perform this work was Cobra Thermal Fluid (CTF) and the high-fidelity code was STAR-CCM+ (STAR). The master branch version of CTF (pulled May 5, 2017 – Reference 2) was utilized for all CTF analyses performed as part of this milestone. The statistical and VVUQ components of the Hi2Lo framework were performed using Dakota version 6.6 (release date May 15, 2017 – Reference 3). Experimental data from Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC – Reference 4) was used throughout the demonstrated process to compare with the high-fidelity STAR results. A CTF parameter called Beta was chosen as the calibration parameter for this work. By default, Beta is defined as a constant mixing coefficient in CTF and is essentially a tuning parameter for mixing between subchannels. Since CTF does not have turbulence models like STAR, Beta is the parameter that performs the most similar function to the turbulence models in STAR. The purpose of the work performed in this milestone is to tune Beta to an optimal value that brings the CTF results closer to those

  4. Dependency graph for code analysis on emerging architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lipnikov, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Direct acyclic dependency (DAG) graph is becoming the standard for modern multi-physics codes.The ideal DAG is the true block-scheme of a multi-physics code. Therefore, it is the convenient object for insitu analysis of the cost of computations and algorithmic bottlenecks related to statistical frequent data motion and dymanical machine state.

  5. Analysis of LT Codes with Unequal Recovery Time

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, Jesper H; Østergaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a specific class of rateless codes, called LT codes with unequal recovery time. These codes provide the option of prioritizing different segments of the transmitted data over other. The result is that segments are decoded in stages during the rateless transmission, where higher prioritized segments are decoded at lower overhead. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the expected amount of received symbols, which are redundant already upon arrival, i.e. all input symbols contained in the received symbols have already been decoded. This analysis gives novel insights into the probabilistic mechanisms of LT codes with unequal recovery time, which has not yet been available in the literature. We show that while these rateless codes successfully provide the unequal recovery time, they do so at a significant price in terms of redundancy in the lower prioritized segments. We propose and analyze a modification where a single intermediate feedback is transmitted, when the first segment is decoded...

  6. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tills, J. [J. Tills and Associates, Inc., Sandia Park, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.

  7. Characteristic Analysis of Fire Modeling Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Yang, Joon Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hoon [Kyeongmin College, Ujeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-15

    This report documents and compares key features of four zone models: CFAST, COMPBRN IIIE, MAGIC and the Fire Induced Vulnerability Evaluation (FIVE) methodology. CFAST and MAGIC handle multi-compartment, multi-fire problems, using many equations; COMPBRN and FIVE handle single compartment, single fire source problems, using simpler equation. The increased rigor of the formulation of CFAST and MAGIC does not mean that these codes are more accurate in every domain; for instance, the FIVE methodology uses a single zone approximation with a plume/ceiling jet sublayer, while the other models use a two-zone treatment without a plume/ceiling jet sublayer. Comparisons with enclosure fire data indicate that inclusion of plume/ceiling jet sublayer temperatures is more conservative, and generally more accurate than neglecting them. Adding a plume/ceiling jet sublayer to the two-zone models should be relatively straightforward, but it has not been done yet for any of the two-zone models. Such an improvement is in progress for MAGIC.

  8. Guide to Using Onionskin Analysis Code (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugate, Michael Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Statistical Sciences Group; Morzinski, Jerome Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Statistical Sciences Group

    2016-09-15

    This document is a guide to using R-code written for the purpose of analyzing onionskin experiments. We expect the user to be very familiar with statistical methods and the R programming language. For more details about onionskin experiments and the statistical methods mentioned in this document see Storlie, Fugate, et al. (2013). Engineers at LANL experiment with detonators and high explosives to assess performance. The experimental unit, called an onionskin, is a hemisphere consisting of a detonator and a booster pellet surrounded by explosive material. When the detonator explodes, a streak camera mounted above the pole of the hemisphere records when the shock wave arrives at the surface. The output from the camera is a two-dimensional image that is transformed into a curve that shows the arrival time as a function of polar angle. The statistical challenge is to characterize a baseline population of arrival time curves and to compare the baseline curves to curves from a new, so-called, test series. The hope is that the new test series of curves is statistically similar to the baseline population.

  9. Benchmarking Of Improved DPAC Transient Deflagration Analysis Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, James E.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    The transient deflagration code DPAC (Deflagration Pressure Analysis Code) has been upgraded for use in modeling hydrogen deflagration transients. The upgraded code is benchmarked using data from vented hydrogen deflagration tests conducted at the HYDRO-SC Test Facility at the University of Pisa. DPAC originally was written to calculate peak deflagration pressures for deflagrations in radioactive waste storage tanks and process facilities at the Savannah River Site. Upgrades include the addition of a laminar flame speed correlation for hydrogen deflagrations and a mechanistic model for turbulent flame propagation, incorporation of inertial effects during venting, and inclusion of the effect of water vapor condensation on vessel walls. In addition, DPAC has been coupled with CEA, a NASA combustion chemistry code. The deflagration tests are modeled as end-to-end deflagrations. The improved DPAC code successfully predicts both the peak pressures during the deflagration tests and the times at which the pressure peaks.

  10. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  11. Analysis of Iterated Hard Decision Decoding of Product Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Products of Reed-Solomon codes are important in applications because they offer a combination of large blocks, low decoding complexity, and good performance. A recent result on random graphs can be used to show that with high probability a large number of errors can be corrected by iterating...... minimum distance decoding. We present an analysis related to density evolution which gives the exact asymptotic value of the decoding threshold and also provides a closed form approximation to the distribution of errors in each step of the decoding of finite length codes....

  12. New York State Code Adoption Analysis: Lighting Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2004-10-20

    The adoption of the IECC 2003 Energy code will include a set of Lighting Power Density (LPD) values that are effectively a subset of the values in Addendum g to the ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard which will soon be printed as part of the 90.1-2004 version. An analysis of the effectiveness of this adoption for New York State can be provided by a direct comparison of these values with existing LPD levels represented in the current IECC 2000 code, which are themselves a subset of the current ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard (without addenda). Because the complete ASHRAE 2001 and 2004 sets of LPDs are supported by a set of detailed models, they are best suited to provide the basis for an analysis comparison of the two code levels of lighting power density stringency. It is important to note that this kind of analysis is a point-to-point comparison where a fixed level of real world activity is assumed. It is understood that buildings are not built precisely to code levels and that actual percentage of compliance above and below codes will vary among individual buildings and building types. However, without specific knowledge of this real world activity for all buildings in existence and in the future (post-code adoption) it is not possible to analyze actual effects of code adoption. However, it is possible to compare code levels and determine the potential effect of changes from one code requirement level to another. This is the comparison and effectiveness assessment

  13. PROSA-1: a probabilistic response-surface analysis code. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaurio, J. K.; Mueller, C.

    1978-06-01

    Techniques for probabilistic response-surface analysis have been developed to obtain the probability distributions of the consequences of postulated nuclear-reactor accidents. The uncertainties of the consequences are caused by the variability of the system and model input parameters used in the accident analysis. Probability distributions are assigned to the input parameters, and parameter values are systematically chosen from these distributions. These input parameters are then used in deterministic consequence analyses performed by mechanistic accident-analysis codes. The results of these deterministic consequence analyses are used to generate the coefficients for analytical functions that approximate the consequences in terms of the selected input parameters. These approximating functions are used to generate the probability distributions of the consequences with random sampling being used to obtain values for the accident parameters from their distributions. A computer code PROSA has been developed for implementing the probabilistic response-surface technique. Special features of the code generate or treat sensitivities, statistical moments of the input and output variables, regionwise response surfaces, correlated input parameters, and conditional distributions. The code can also be used for calculating important distributions of the input parameters. The use of the code is illustrated in conjunction with the fast-running accident-analysis code SACO to provide probability studies of LMFBR hypothetical core-disruptive accidents. However, the methods and the programming are general and not limited to such applications.

  14. Implementation of Boundary Condition to THALES Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Beomjun; Chun, Chong Kuk; Park, Ho Young; Woo, Hae-Seuk [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The boundary condition of momentum equation of THALES code utilizes the exit pressure boundary to solve the elliptic partial difference momentum equations. This method is the same as the most of the subchannel analysis codes. Other codes such as VIPRE utilize the uniform pressure distribution as outlet boundary condition. In this case, uniform inlet flow rate is assumed. In order to test the core flow field regarding the boundary conditions, analysis was performed for two core conditions. One condition is nominal plant operating condition. In this paper, generic THALES power distribution is used. For nominal operation case, there are no different results depending on the type of outlet pressure boundary condition. But low-power and high-peaking case, density difference for lateral direction becomes large due to high peaking power of core. Since density change causes pressure change, In this case, uniform outlet pressure distribution can't be assumed anymore. Design outlet pressure distribution is measured at nominal core condition. Therefore, design outlet pressure distribution also can't be used due to the difference in core power and flow rate. As a result, it is reasonable that neumann boundary condition is applied in low-power and high peaking core condition including various accident condition.

  15. PCTRAN: a transient analysis code for personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichi Cliff Po

    1988-05-01

    The PCTRAN code has been developed to enable analysis and real-time reactor simulation to be carried out on personal computers. It is designed to exploit all the advantages of personal computers, including accessibility, interactive capabilities, convenience, economy and the ability to get certain kinds of analysis performed at short notice.

  16. Upgrades of Two Computer Codes for Analysis of Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2005-01-01

    Major upgrades have been made in two of the programs reported in "ive Computer Codes for Analysis of Turbomachinery". The affected programs are: Swift -- a code for three-dimensional (3D) multiblock analysis; and TCGRID, which generates a 3D grid used with Swift. Originally utilizing only a central-differencing scheme for numerical solution, Swift was augmented by addition of two upwind schemes that give greater accuracy but take more computing time. Other improvements in Swift include addition of a shear-stress-transport turbulence model for better prediction of adverse pressure gradients, addition of an H-grid capability for flexibility in modeling flows in pumps and ducts, and modification to enable simultaneous modeling of hub and tip clearances. Improvements in TCGRID include modifications to enable generation of grids for more complicated flow paths and addition of an option to generate grids compatible with the ADPAC code used at NASA and in industry. For both codes, new test cases were developed and documentation was updated. Both codes were converted to Fortran 90, with dynamic memory allocation. Both codes were also modified for ease of use in both UNIX and Windows operating systems.

  17. Safety Analysis for Key Design Features of KALIMER-600 Design Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, E. K.; Suk, S. D.; Chang, W. P.; Jeong, H. Y.; Ha, K. S

    2007-02-15

    This report contains the safety analyses of the KALIMER-600 conceptual design which KAERI has been developing under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. The analyses have been performed reflecting the design developments during the second year of the 4th design phase in the program. The specific presentations are the key design features with the safety principles for achieving the safety objectives, the event categorization and safety criteria, and results on the safety analyses for the DBAs and ATWS events, the containment performance, and the channel blockages. The safety analyses for both the DBAs and ATWS events have been performed using SSC-K version 1.3., and the results have shown the fulfillment of the safety criteria for DBAs with conservative assumptions. The safety margins as well as the inherent safety also have been confirmed for the ATWS events. For the containment performance analysis, ORIGEN-2.1 and CONTAIN-LMR have been used. In results, the structural integrity has been acceptable and the evaluated exposure dose rate has been complied with 10 CFR 100 and PAG limits. The analysis results for flow blockages of 6-subchannels, 24-subchannels, and 54- subchannels with the MATRA-LMR-FB code, have assured the integrity of subassemblies.

  18. Analysis of LAPAN-IPB image lossless compression using differential pulse code modulation and huffman coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, P. R.; Permala, R.

    2017-01-01

    LAPAN-A3/IPB satellite is the latest Indonesian experimental microsatellite with remote sensing and earth surveillance missions. The satellite has three optical payloads, which are multispectral push-broom imager, digital matrix camera and video camera. To increase data transmission efficiency, the multispectral imager data can be compressed using either lossy or lossless compression method. This paper aims to analyze Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) method and Huffman coding that are used in LAPAN-IPB satellite image lossless compression. Based on several simulation and analysis that have been done, current LAPAN-IPB lossless compression algorithm has moderate performance. There are several aspects that can be improved from current configuration, which are the type of DPCM code used, the type of Huffman entropy-coding scheme, and the use of sub-image compression method. The key result of this research shows that at least two neighboring pixels should be used for DPCM calculation to increase compression performance. Meanwhile, varying Huffman tables with sub-image approach could also increase the performance if on-board computer can support for more complicated algorithm. These results can be used as references in designing Payload Data Handling System (PDHS) for an upcoming LAPAN-A4 satellite.

  19. [Bioethical analysis of the Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrrho, Monique; do Prado, Mauro Machado; Cordón, Jorge; Garrafa, Volnei

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics (DCE), Resolution CFO-71 from May 2006, is an instrument created to guide dentists' behavior in relation to the ethical aspects of professional practice. The purpose of the study is to analyze the above mentioned code comparing the deontological and bioethical focuses. In order to do so, an interpretative analysis of the code and of twelve selected texts was made. Six of the texts were about bioethics and six on deontology, and the analysis was made through the methodological classification of the context units, textual paragraphs and items from the code in the following categories: the referentials of bioethical principlism--autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice -, technical aspects and moral virtues related to the profession. Together the four principles represented 22.9%, 39.8% and 54.2% of the content of the DCE, of the deontological texts and of the bioethical texts respectively. In the DCE, 42% of the items referred to virtues, 40.2% were associated to technical aspects and just 22.9% referred to principles. The virtues related to the professionals and the technical aspects together amounted to 70.1% of the code. Instead of focusing on the patient as the subject of the process of oral health care, the DCE focuses on the professional, and it is predominantly turned to legalistic and corporate aspects.

  20. Characterization of sub-channel based Málaga atmospheric optical links with real β  parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-González, Francisco Javier; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Garrido-Balsells, José María

    2017-01-01

    A generalization of the Málaga atmospheric optical communications links treated as a finite number of generalized-K distributed sub-channels is analyzed in terms of outage probability and outage rate when its β parameter belongs to the set of real numbers. To the best of the author's knowledge, ...

  1. Experimental investigation of effect of spacer on two phase turbulent mixing rate in subchannels of pressure tube type BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shashi Kant; Sinha, S.L. [National Institute of Technology, Raipur (India). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Chandraker, D.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Design and Development Group

    2017-11-15

    Turbulent mixing rate between adjacent subchannels in a two-phase flow has been known to be strongly dependent on the flow pattern. The most important aspect of turbulent motion is that the velocity and pressure at a fixed point do not remain constant with time even in steady state but go through very irregular high frequency fluctuations. These fluctuations influence the diffusion of scalar and vector quantities. The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a vertical pressure tube type, heavy water moderated and boiling light water cooled natural circulation based reactor. The fuel bundle of AHWR contains 54 fuel rods set in three concentric rings of 12, 18 and 24 fuel rods. This fuel bundle is divided into number of imaginary interacting flow channel called subchannels. Alteration from single phase to two phase flow situation occurs in reactor rod bundle with raise in power. The two phase flow regimes like bubbly, slug-churn, and annular flow are generally encountered in reactor rod bundle. Prediction of thermal margin of the reactor has necessitated the investigation of turbulent mixing rate of coolant between these subchannels under these flow regimes. Thus, it is fundamental to estimate the effect of spacer grids on turbulent mixing between subchannels of AHWR rod bundle.

  2. 76 FR 57982 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis Correction In notice document 2011-23236 beginning on page 56413 in the issue of Tuesday, September 13, 2011 make the following...

  3. 76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of reopening the public... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000...

  4. Joint fractional Fourier analysis of wavefront-coding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Shane; Finnigan, Jerome S

    2009-01-15

    The analysis of wavefront-coding systems is explored via the joint fractional Fourier signal representation (JFF) of the pupil function. The properties of the JFF of the pupil function are presented and are shown to be revealing with regard to the system response to defocus. Numerical examples that illustrate the properties are given.

  5. New design of a cathode flow-field with a sub-channel to improve the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Yue, Like; Wang, Shixue

    2017-03-01

    The cathode flow-field design of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells determines the distribution of reactant gases and the removal of liquid water. A suitable design can result in perfect water management and thus high cell performance. In this paper, a new design for a cathode flow-field with a sub-channel was proposed and had been experimentally analyzed in a parallel flow-field PEM fuel cell. Three sub-channel inlets were placed along the cathode channel. The main-channel inlet was fed with moist air to humidify the membrane and maintain high proton conductivity, whereas, the sub-channel inlet was fed with dry air to enhance water removal in the flow channel. The experimental results indicated that the sub-channel design can decrease the pressure drop in the flow channel, and the sub-channels inlet positions (SIP, where the sub-channel inlets were placed along the cathode channel) and flow rates (SFR, percentage of air from the sub-channel inlet in the total cathode flow rate) had a considerable impact on water removal and cell performance. A proposed design that combines the SIP and SFR can effectively eliminate water from the fuel cell, increasing the maximum power density by more than 13.2% compared to the conventional design.

  6. FARO and KROTOS code simulation and analysis at JRC Ispra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziato, A.; Yerkess, A.; Addabbo, C. [European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Systems, Informatics and Safety, 21020 Ispra (Italy)

    1998-01-01

    The paper summarizes relevant results from the pre and post test calculations of fuel coolant interaction and quenching tests performed in the FARO and KROTOS test facilities. The main analytical tools adopted at JRC Ispra are the COMETA and the TEXAS codes. COMETA pre and post test calculations of FARO Test L-20 as well as an application of the code to KROTOS test facility are presented. The analysis provides the need to account for H{sub 2} generation models into the pre-mixing calculations. In addition salient results from the application of TEXAS to FARO and KROTOS tests are shown. (author)

  7. Room Heat-Up Analysis with GOTHIC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, G.; Olza, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    The GOTHIC{sup T}M computer code is a state-of-the art program for modeling multiphase, multicomponent fluid flow. GOTHIC is rapidly becoming the industry-standard code for performing both containment design basis accident (DBA) analyses and analyses to support equipment qualification. GOTHIC has a flexible nodding structure that allows both lumped parameter and 3-D modeling capabilities. Multidimensional analysis capabilities greatly enhance the study of noncondensable gases and stratification and permit the calculation of flow field details within any given volume.

  8. Development and assessment of best estimate integrated safety analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Jin; Hwang, Moon Kyu (and others)

    2007-03-15

    Improvement of the integrated safety analysis code MARS3.0 has been carried out and a multi-D safety analysis application system has been established. Iterative matrix solver and parallel processing algorithm have been introduced, and a LINUX version has been generated to enable MARS to run in cluster PCs. MARS variables and sub-routines have been reformed and modularised to simplify code maintenance. Model uncertainty analyses have been performed for THTF, FLECHT, NEPTUN, and LOFT experiments as well as APR1400 plant. Participations in international cooperation research projects such as OECD BEMUSE, SETH, PKL, BFBT, and TMI-2 have been actively pursued as part of code assessment efforts. The assessment, evaluation and experimental data obtained through international cooperation projects have been registered and maintained in the T/H Databank. Multi-D analyses of APR1400 LBLOCA, DVI Break, SLB, and SGTR have been carried out as a part of application efforts in multi-D safety analysis. GUI based 3D input generator has been developed for user convenience. Operation of the MARS Users Group (MUG) was continued and through MUG, the technology has been transferred to 24 organisations. A set of 4 volumes of user manuals has been compiled and the correction reports for the code errors reported during MARS development have been published.

  9. Overview of Key Computer Codes for the PGSFR Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Lee, Kwi-Lim; Yoo, Jaewoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The engineering project for licensing and construction of a PGSFR (Proto-type Generation IV Sodium cooled Fast Reactor) was launched in 2012. The efficient electricity generation as well as the high level of safety is a requirement for the PGSFR design. In this context, the safety analysis is a key concern for the PGSFR specific design. In this regard, the present manuscript is aimed at sharing the knowledge on the PGSFR safety analysis with concerned individuals or organizations for a mutual understanding and collaboration. It introduces overall characteristics of the PGSFR design first, and then describes an accident classification with acceptance criteria, highlights of safety analysis computer codes, and discussion of covering ranges and availability of the codes. MARSLMR has a wide range of applicability to accident analyses for an integrated system. SAS4A/SASSYS-1 also has a capability to model a system, but its models address more to the fuel failures during the initiating phase of HCDA. On the other hand, the codes such as MATRA-LMR/FB, SWAAM-II, and CONTAIN-LMR have their specific purposes and limited applications, while ORIGEN-2, ISFRA, and MACCS-II are used for the PSA purpose. A code which can analyze the molten core progress post assembly duct failure is not available at present time.

  10. SCORE-EVET: a computer code for the multidimensional transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear fuel rod arrays. [BWR; PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, R. L.; Lords, L. V.; Kiser, D. M.

    1978-02-01

    The SCORE-EVET code was developed to study multidimensional transient fluid flow in nuclear reactor fuel rod arrays. The conservation equations used were derived by volume averaging the transient compressible three-dimensional local continuum equations in Cartesian coordinates. No assumptions associated with subchannel flow have been incorporated into the derivation of the conservation equations. In addition to the three-dimensional fluid flow equations, the SCORE-EVET code ocntains: (a) a one-dimensional steady state solution scheme to initialize the flow field, (b) steady state and transient fuel rod conduction models, and (c) comprehensive correlation packages to describe fluid-to-fuel rod interfacial energy and momentum exchange. Velocity and pressure boundary conditions can be specified as a function of time and space to model reactor transient conditions such as a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or flow blockage.

  11. Evolutionary analysis of DNA-protein-coding regions based on a genetic code cube metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Robersy

    2014-01-01

    The right estimation of the evolutionary distance between DNA or protein sequences is the cornerstone of the current phylogenetic analysis based on distance methods. Herein, it is demonstrated that the Manhattan distance (dw), weighted by the evolutionary importance of the nucleotide bases in the codon, is a naturally derived metric in the standard genetic code cube inserted into the three-dimensional Euclidean space. Based on the application of distance dw, a novel evolutionary model is proposed. This model includes insertion/deletion mutations that are very important for cancer studies, but usually discarded in classical evolutionary models. In this study, the new evolutionary model was applied to the phylogenetic analysis of the DNA protein-coding regions of 13 mammal mitochondrial genomes and of four cancer genetic- susceptibility genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53) from nine mammals. The opossum (a marsupial) was used as an out-group species for both sets of sequences. The new evolutionary model yielded the correct topology, while the current models failed to separate the evolutionarily distant species of mouse and opossum.

  12. Impact of advanced systems on LMFBR accident analysis code development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, F. E.; Kyser, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of an advanced computer, using currently available software, to handle large LMFBR accident analysis codes, the SAS3D code has been run on the NCAR CRAY-1. SAS3D is a large code (56,000 Fortran cards) using many different physical models and numerical algorithms, no one of which dominates the computing time. Even though SAS3D was developed on IBM computers, remarkably little effort was required to run it on the CRAY-1. Making limited use of the CRAY-1 vector capabilities, it runs a factor of 2.5 to 4 times faster on the NCAR CRAY-1 than on the ANL IBM 370-195. With minor modifications, an additional 20 to 30% speed improvement on the CRAY-1 is achieved. In the current process of completely re-writing SAS3D to make SAS4A, much of the coding is being vectorized for the CRAY-1 without sacrificing IBM, CDC 7600, or UNIVAC performance and portability. An initial SAS4A test case runs a factor of 7.1 faster on the CRAY-1 than on the IBM 370-195.

  13. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences through chaos-game representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Mayukha; Satish, B.; Srinivas, K.; Rao, P. Madhusudana; Manimaran, P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new approach combining the chaos game representation and the two dimensional multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis methods to examine multifractal behavior in power law cross correlation between any pair of nucleotide sequences of unequal lengths. In this work, we analyzed the characteristic behavior of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of eight prokaryotes. The results show the presence of strong multifractal nature between coding and non-coding sequences of all data sets. We found that this integrative approach helps us to consider complete DNA sequences for characterization, and further it may be useful for classification, clustering, identification of class affiliation of nucleotide sequences etc. with high precision.

  14. Development of the SCHAMBETA code for scoping analysis of HCDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Hahn, D. H

    2000-06-01

    A computer code, SCHAMBETA(Scoping Code for HCDA Analysis using Modified Bethe-Tait Method), is developed to investigate the core disassembly process following a meltdown accident in the framework of a mofified Bethe-Tait method as part of the scoping analysis work to demonstrate the inherent safety of conceptual designs of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor(KALIMER), A 150 Mwe pool-type sodium cooled prototype fast reactor that uses U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel. The methodologies adopted in the code ared particularly useful to perform various parametric studies for better understanding of core disassembly process of liquid metal fast reactors as well as to estimate upper-limit values of the energy release resulting from a power excursion. In the SCHAMBETA code, the core kinetics and hydraulic behavior of the KALIMER is followed over the period of the super-prompt critical power excursion induced by the ramp reactivity insertion, starting at the time that the sodium-voided core reaches the melting temperature of the metallic fuels. For this purpose, the equations of state of pressure-energy density relationship are derived for the saturated-vapor as well as the solid liquid of metallic uranium fuel, and implemenmted into the formulations of the disassembly reactivity. Mathematical formulations are then developed, in the framework of Modified Bethe-Tait method, in a form relevant to utilize the improved equations of state as well as to consider Doppler effects, for scoping analysis of the super-prompt-critical power excursions driven by a specified rate of reactivity insertion.

  15. Site-specific Probabilistic Analysis of DCGLs Using RESRAD Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeongju; Yoon, Suk Bon; Sohn, Wook [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In general, DCGLs can be conservative (screening DCGL) if they do not take into account site specific factors. Use of such conservative DCGLs can lead to additional remediation that would not be required if the effort was made to develop site-specific DCGLs. Therefore, the objective of this work is to provide an example on the use of the RESRAD 6.0 probabilistic (site-specific) dose analysis to compare with the screening DCGL. Site release regulations state that a site will be considered acceptable for unrestricted use if the residual radioactivity that is distinguishable from background radiation results in a Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) to an average member of the critical group of less than the site release criteria, for example 0.25 mSv per year in U.S. Utilities use computer dose modeling codes to establish an acceptable level of contamination, the derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) that will meet this regulatory limit. Since the DCGL value is the principal measure of residual radioactivity, it is critical to understand the technical basis of these dose modeling codes. The objective this work was to provide example on nuclear power plant decommissioning dose analysis in a probabilistic analysis framework. The focus was on the demonstration of regulatory compliance for surface soil contamination using the RESRAD 6.0 code. Both the screening and site-specific probabilistic dose analysis methodologies were examined. Example analyses performed with the screening probabilistic dose analysis confirmed the conservatism of the NRC screening values and indicated the effectiveness of probabilistic dose analysis in reducing the conservatism in DCGL derivation.

  16. Morphological coding of Brazilian Portuguese and child directed speech analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Scliar-Cabral

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A report on what has been done by the project Morphological coding of Brazilian Portuguese, altogether with its theoretical referential and respective methodology is presented. This project is sponsored by the Researching Group “Emergent Linguistic Productivity”, and is relevant for language acquisition researchers and sociolinguists interested on speech registers, since an automatic grammar for morphological analysis will be available for statistic and qualitative analysis of examining corpora. Procedures for building the automatic grammar with the help of CLAN program are extensively described.

  17. TMI-2 accident analysis with SCDAP/RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, Giacomino [Ente per le Nuove Technologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Bologna (Italy)

    2000-11-01

    Analysis of the TMI-2 accident has been performed using the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 system code, which is being developed by INEEL for the U.S. NRC. The nodalization of the TMI-2 plant included a detailed modeling of the primary coolant system with the reactor pressure vessel, the two coolant loops with once-through steam generators and main coolant pumps, the pressurizer with surge-line and pilot operated relief valve. The nodalization of the secondary system was limited to the secondary side of steam generators. The boundary conditions for the calculations were fixed according to the OECD TMI-2 Analysis Exercise. The first three phases of the accident including small break LOCA, core heat-up and melting, and core reflood were adequately modeled with SCDAP/RELAP5. Hydrogen generation and relevant primary system pressure increase were well predicted during both core heat-up and reflood. The code predicted the formation of a large molten pool in the central region of the core and complete quenching and fragmentation of embrittled fuel rod in the upper part of the core, in reasonable agreement with the TMI-2 accident scenario. No molten core material slumping to the lower head was computed by the code in the late phase of the accident. (author)

  18. ANNA: A Convolutional Neural Network Code for Spectroscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Brown, Donald; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    We present ANNA, a Python-based convolutional neural network code for the automated analysis of stellar spectra. ANNA provides a flexible framework that allows atmospheric parameters such as temperature and metallicity to be determined with accuracies comparable to those of established but less efficient techniques. ANNA performs its parameterization extremely quickly; typically several thousand spectra can be analyzed in less than a second. Additionally, the code incorporates features which greatly speed up the training process necessary for the neural network to measure spectra accurately, resulting in a tool that can easily be run on a single desktop or laptop computer. Thus, ANNA is useful in an era when spectrographs increasingly have the capability to collect dozens to hundreds of spectra each night. This talk will cover the basic features included in ANNA and demonstrate its performance in two use cases: an open cluster abundance analysis involving several hundred spectra, and a metal-rich field star study. Applicability of the code to large survey datasets will also be discussed.

  19. Dictionary Learning for Sparse Coding: Algorithms and Convergence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chenglong; Ji, Hui; Quan, Yuhui; Shen, Zuowei

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, sparse coding has been widely used in many applications ranging from image processing to pattern recognition. Most existing sparse coding based applications require solving a class of challenging non-smooth and non-convex optimization problems. Despite the fact that many numerical methods have been developed for solving these problems, it remains an open problem to find a numerical method which is not only empirically fast, but also has mathematically guaranteed strong convergence. In this paper, we propose an alternating iteration scheme for solving such problems. A rigorous convergence analysis shows that the proposed method satisfies the global convergence property: the whole sequence of iterates is convergent and converges to a critical point. Besides the theoretical soundness, the practical benefit of the proposed method is validated in applications including image restoration and recognition. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves similar results with less computation when compared to widely used methods such as K-SVD.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of Hardwired Parameters in GALE Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geelhood, Kenneth J.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Droppo, James G.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide a data-gathering plan for updating the hardwired data tables and parameters of the Gaseous and Liquid Effluents (GALE) codes to reflect current nuclear reactor performance. This would enable the GALE codes to make more accurate predictions about the normal radioactive release source term applicable to currently operating reactors and to the cohort of reactors planned for construction in the next few years. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to define the importance of hardwired parameters in terms of each parameter’s effect on the emission rate of the nuclides that are most important in computing potential exposures. The results of this study were used to compile a list of parameters that should be updated based on the sensitivity of these parameters to outputs of interest.

  1. The Analysis of SBWR Critical Power Bundle Using Cobrag Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Sardjono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The coolant mechanism of SBWR is similar with the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant (NPP in the Netherlands that first went critical in 1968. The similarity of both NPP is cooled by natural convection system. These coolant concept is very related with same parameters on fuel bundle design especially fuel bundle length, core pressure drop and core flow rate as well as critical power bundle. The analysis was carried out by using COBRAG computer code. COBRAG computer code is GE Company proprietary. Basically COBRAG computer code is a tool to solve compressible three-dimensional, two fluid, three field equations for two phase flow. The three fields are the vapor field, the continuous liquid field, and the liquid drop field. This code has been applied to analyses model flow and heat transfer within the reactor core. This volume describes the finitevolume equations and the numerical solution methods used to solve these equations. This analysis of same parameters has been done i.e.; inlet sub cooling 20 BTU/lbm and 40 BTU/lbm, 1000 psi pressure and R-factor is 1.038, mass flux are 0.5 Mlb/hr.ft2, 0.75 Mlb/hr.ft2, 1.00 Mlb/hr.ft2 and 1.25 Mlb/hr.ft2. Those conditions based on history operation of some type of the cell fuel bundle line at GE Nuclear Energy. According to the results, it can be concluded that SBWR critical power bundle is 10.5 % less than current BWR critical power bundle with length reduction of 12 ft to 9 ft.

  2. Incorporating Non-Coding Annotations into Rare Variant Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G Richardson

    Full Text Available The success of collapsing methods which investigate the combined effect of rare variants on complex traits has so far been limited. The manner in which variants within a gene are selected prior to analysis has a crucial impact on this success, which has resulted in analyses conventionally filtering variants according to their consequence. This study investigates whether an alternative approach to filtering, using annotations from recently developed bioinformatics tools, can aid these types of analyses in comparison to conventional approaches.We conducted a candidate gene analysis using the UK10K sequence and lipids data, filtering according to functional annotations using the resource CADD (Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion and contrasting results with 'nonsynonymous' and 'loss of function' consequence analyses. Using CADD allowed the inclusion of potentially deleterious intronic variants, which was not possible when filtering by consequence. Overall, different filtering approaches provided similar evidence of association, although filtering according to CADD identified evidence of association between ANGPTL4 and High Density Lipoproteins (P = 0.02, N = 3,210 which was not observed in the other analyses. We also undertook genome-wide analyses to determine how filtering in this manner compared to conventional approaches for gene regions. Results suggested that filtering by annotations according to CADD, as well as other tools known as FATHMM-MKL and DANN, identified association signals not detected when filtering by variant consequence and vice versa.Incorporating variant annotations from non-coding bioinformatics tools should prove to be a valuable asset for rare variant analyses in the future. Filtering by variant consequence is only possible in coding regions of the genome, whereas utilising non-coding bioinformatics annotations provides an opportunity to discover unknown causal variants in non-coding regions as well. This should allow

  3. Development status of Severe Accident Analysis Code SAMPSON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, Tsuyoshi; Ujita, Hiroshi [Advanced Simulation Systems Department, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    The Four years of the IMPACT, 'Integrated Modular Plant Analysis and Computing Technology' project Phase 1 have been completed. The verification study of Severe Accident Analysis Code SAMPSON prototype developed in Phase 1 was conducted in two steps. First, each analysis module was run independently and analysis results were compared and verified against separate-effect test data with good results. Test data are as follows: CORA-13 (FZK) for the Core Heat-up Module; VI-3 of HI/VI Test (ORNL) for the FP Release from Fuel Module; KROTOS-37 (JRC-ISPRA) for the Molten Core Relocation Module; Water Spread Test (UCSB) for the Debris Spreading Model and Benard's Melting Test for Natural Convection Model in the Debris Cooling Module; Hydrogen Burning Test (NUPEC) for the Ex-Vessel Thermal Hydraulics Module; PREMIX, PM10 (FZK) for the Steam Explosion Module; and SWISS-2 (SNL) for the Debris-Concrete Interaction Module. Second, with the Simulation Supervisory System, up to 11 analysis modules were executed concurrently in the parallel environment (currently, NUPEC uses IBM-SP2 with 72 process elements), to demonstrate the code capability and integrity. The target plant was Surry as a typical PWR and the initiation events were a 10-inch cold leg failure. The analysis is divided to two cases; one is in-vessel retention analysis when the gap cooling is effective (In-vessel scenario test), the other is analysis of phenomena event is extended to ex-vessel due to the Reactor Pressure Vessel failure when the gap cooling is not sufficient (Ex-vessel scenario test). The system verification test has confirmed that the full scope of the scenarios can be analyzed and phenomena occurred in scenarios can be simulated qualitatively reasonably considering the physical models used for the situation. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan sponsors this work. (author)

  4. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER-600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. B.; Chang, W. P.; Suk, S. D.; Ha, K. S.; Jeong, H. Y.; Heo, S

    2004-03-01

    KAERI is developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER-600 (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER-600 addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, key safety design features are described and safety analyses results for typical ATWS accidents in the KALIMER design with breakeven core are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in Chapter 1, and the event categorization and acceptance criteria for the KALIMER-600 safety analysis are described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER-600 conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER-600 core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) have been performed using the SSC-K code to investigate the KALIMER-600 system response to the events. They are categorized as Bounding Events (BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In Chapter 4, the analysis of flow blockage for KALIMER-600 with the MATRA-LMR-FB code, which has been developed for the internal flow blockage in a LMR subassembly. The cases with a blockage of 6-subchannel, 24-subchannel, and 54-subchannel are analyzed.The performance analysis of the KALIMER-600 containment and some evaluations for the behaviors during HCDA will be performed later.

  5. A simple in-surge pressure analysis using the SPACE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Bum Soo; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Yang, Chang Keun; Kim, Se Yun; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Currently, nuclear safety analysis codes used in Korea are developed by all the overseas. These codes are paying huge fee and permission must be obtained for use in the country. In addition, orders for nuclear power plants must ensure the safety analysis code for independent domestic technology. Therefore, Korea Electric Power Research Institute(KEPRI) is developing the domestic nuclear power safety analysis, SPACE(Safety and Performance Analysis Code for nuclear power plants). To determine the computational power of pressurizer model in development SPACE code, it was compared with existing commercial nuclear power safety analysis code, RETRAN

  6. Bandwidth efficient coding for fading channels - Code construction and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Christian; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The authors apply a general method of bounding the event error probability of trellis-coded modulation schemes to fading channels and use the effective length and the minimum-squared-product distance to replace the minimum-free-squared-Euclidean distance as code design parameters for Rayleigh and Rician fading channels with a substantial multipath component. They present 8-PSK trellis codes specifically constructed for fading channels that outperform equivalent codes designed for the additive white Gaussian noise channel when v is greater than or equal to 5. For quasiregular trellis codes there exists an efficient algorithm for evaluating event error probability, and numerical results on Pe which demonstrate the importance of the effective length as a code design parameter for fading channels with or without side information have been obtained. This is consistent with the case for binary signaling, where the Hamming distance remains the best code design parameter for fading channels. The authors show that the use of Reed-Solomon block codes with expanded signal sets becomes interesting only for large values of E(s)/N(0), where they begin to outperform trellis codes.

  7. Dynamic Subchannel Assignment-Based Cross-Layer MAC and Network Protocol for Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Nguyen Quang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a dynamic subchannel assignment algorithm based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access technology operating in the time division duplexing and a new cross-layer design based on a proposed routing protocol jointed with the MAC protocol. The proposed dynamic sub-channel assignment algorithm provides a new interference avoidance mechanism which solves several drawbacks of existing radio resource allocation techniques in wireless networks using OFDMA/TDD, such as the hidden node and exposed node problems, mobility, and cochannels interference in frequency (CCI. Besides, in wireless networks, when a route is established, the radio resource allocation problems may decrease the end to end performance proportionally with the length of each route. The contention at MAC layer may cause the routing protocol at network layer to respond by finding new routes and routing table updates. The proposed routing protocol is jointed with the MAC protocol based on dynamic sub-channel assignment to ensure that the quality of service in multihop ad hoc networks is significantly improved.

  8. Neutronic Analysis of HTTR Core Using DeCART Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The neutronic analysis for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has been performed. The HTTR is a graphite-moderated and helium gas cooled reactor with an outlet temperature of 950 .deg. C and thermal output of 30 MW. It has been studied as one of the Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor. In this study, the DECART code is used with a 190-group KARMA library. The calculation results are compared with those of the McCARD with ENDFB/VII.0 library.

  9. 3-D rod ejection analysis using a conservative methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Ho; Park, Jin Woo; Park, Guen Tae; Um, Kil Sup; Ryu, Seok Hee; Lee, Jae Il; Choi, Tong Soo [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The point kinetics model which simplifies the core phenomena and physical specifications is used for the conventional rod ejection accident analysis. The point kinetics model is convenient to assume conservative core parameters but this simplification loses large amount of safety margin. The CHASER system couples the three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, the sub-channel analysis code THALES and the fuel performance analysis code FROST. The validation study for the CHASER system is addressed using the NEACRP three-dimensional PWR core transient benchmark problem. A series of conservative rod ejection analyses for the APR1400 type plant is performed for both hot full power (HFP) and hot zero power (HZP) conditions to determine the most limiting cases. The conservative rod ejection analysis methodology is designed to properly consider important phenomena and physical parameters.

  10. Analysis of Non-binary Hybrid LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Sassatelli, Lucile; Declercq, David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse asymptotically a new class of LDPC codes called Non-binary Hybrid LDPC codes, which has been recently introduced. We use density evolution techniques to derive a stability condition for hybrid LDPC codes, and prove their threshold behavior. We study this stability condition to conclude on asymptotic advantages of hybrid LDPC codes compared to their non-hybrid counterparts.

  11. Development of improved thermal hydraulics and fuel performance technology; development of turbulence model and simulation code for flow analysis in nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, H. K.; Yang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Song, J. H.; Oh, J. Z. [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The flow through a nuclear rod bundle with mixing vanes is very complex and so required a suitable turbulence model for its accurate prediction. Subchannel flow in a nuclear bundle having vanes to mix flow appears complex turbulent flow. Objective of this study is to investigate performance of prediction about turbulence model contained in STAR-CD code and to develop suitable turbulence model which can predict complex flow in nuclear assembly. For several nonlinear {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence models, their performance were investigated in the prediction of the flow in nuclear fuel assembly, and also their problems were discussed in detail. The results obtained from the present research would give a help for the development of turbulence model which can accurately predict the flow through the rod bundles with mixing vanes. 19 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  12. Comparative analysis of design codes for timber bridges in Canada, the United States, and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; James (Scott) Groenier

    2010-01-01

    The United States recently completed its transition from the allowable stress design code to the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) reliability-based code for the design of most highway bridges. For an international perspective on the LRFD-based bridge codes, a comparative analysis is presented: a study addressed national codes of the United States, Canada, and...

  13. Content analysis of ethical codes written by medical students compared with other codes of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Jotkowitz, Alan B

    2009-09-01

    Swearing to a medical oath is a common practice in medical schools today. Students at the Medical School for International Health (MSIH) participate in an elaborate physician's oath ceremony held in the first year of studies. At this ceremony, students read a code of ethics written by their class, the content of which includes the ethical principles the class as a whole deems significant. 9 codes of ethics, written by students at the MSIH between 1998 and 2006, as well as the oaths of Hippocrates and Maimonides, were collected and the principles contained within them were analyzed and compared. The oaths were broken up into preamble, covenant, code, and peroration sections, each encompassing various content domains. Principles discussed in both the oaths of Hippocrates and Maimonides, as well in two-thirds or more of the student-written codes, included loyalty to one's colleagues, the profession, and one's teachers, as well as acting with beneficence. Attributes including compassion, integrity, and honesty, were mentioned in two-thirds or more of the student-written codes but neither the oath of Hippocrates nor Maimonides. Controversial issues, such as abortion and discussing God were not included in codes written by students. Ethical codes written by students at the MSIH contained some similar principles to those contained within the traditional oaths; however, there was more emphasis on attributes that establish a good physician-patient relationship in the codes written by students. Future studies need to examine the content of other student-written codes. 2008 European Federation of Internal Medicine.

  14. Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsir, Khairina; Yazid, Putranto Ilham; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi

    2014-09-01

    Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.

  15. Corporate governance codes and their contents : An analysis of Eastern European codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Postma, Theo J. B. M.; Zivkov, Orestis

    2007-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that the contents of corporate governance codes are similar due to external forces, such as increased integration of countries in the global economy, the increased role of foreign institutional investors and recommendations on corporate governance practices of

  16. The analysis of convolutional codes via the extended Smith algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Onyszchuk, I.

    1993-01-01

    Convolutional codes have been the central part of most error-control systems in deep-space communication for many years. Almost all such applications, however, have used the restricted class of (n,1), also known as 'rate 1/n,' convolutional codes. The more general class of (n,k) convolutional codes contains many potentially useful codes, but their algebraic theory is difficult and has proved to be a stumbling block in the evolution of convolutional coding systems. In this article, the situation is improved by describing a set of practical algorithms for computing certain basic things about a convolutional code (among them the degree, the Forney indices, a minimal generator matrix, and a parity-check matrix), which are usually needed before a system using the code can be built. The approach is based on the classic Forney theory for convolutional codes, together with the extended Smith algorithm for polynomial matrices, which is introduced in this article.

  17. Development of a safety analysis code for molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Dalin [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); Qiu Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); Su Guanghui [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) well suited to fulfill the criteria defined by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is presently revisited all around the world because of different attractive features of current renewed relevance. The MSRs are characterized by using the fluid-fuel, so that their technologies are fundamentally different from those used in the conventional solid-fuel reactors. In this work, in particular, the attention is focused on the safety characteristic analysis of the MSRs, in which a point kinetic model considering the flow effects of the fuel salt is established for the MSRs and calculated by developing a microcomputer code coupling with a simplified heat transfer model in the core. The founded models and developed code are applied to analyze the safety characteristics of the molten salt actinide recycler and transmuter system (MOSART) by simulating three types of basic transient conditions including the unprotected loss of flow, unprotected overcooling accident and unprotected transient overpower. Some reasonable results are obtained for the MOSART, which show that the MOSART conceptual design is an inherently stable reactor design. The present study provides some valuable information for the research and design of the new generation MSRs.

  18. Analysis of Code Refactoring Impact on Software Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur Amandeep; Kaur Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    Code refactoring is a “Technique used for restructuring an existing source code, improving its internal structure without changing its external behaviour”. It is the process of changing a source code in such a way that it does not alter the external behaviour of the code yet improves its internal structure. It is a way to clean up code that minimizes the chances of introducing bugs. Refactoring is a change made to the internal structure of a software component to make it easier to understand ...

  19. Turbine Airfoil Optimization Using Quasi-3D Analysis Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Goel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to optimize the geometry of a turbine airfoil by simultaneously designing multiple 2D sections of the airfoil is presented in this paper. The complexity of 3D geometry modeling is circumvented by generating multiple 2D airfoil sections and constraining their geometry in the radial direction using first- and second-order polynomials that ensure smoothness in the radial direction. The flow fields of candidate geometries obtained during optimization are evaluated using a quasi-3D, inviscid, CFD analysis code. An inviscid flow solver is used to reduce the execution time of the analysis. Multiple evaluation criteria based on the Mach number profile obtained from the analysis of each airfoil cross-section are used for computing a quality metric. A key contribution of the paper is the development of metrics that emulate the perception of the human designer in visually evaluating the Mach Number distribution. A mathematical representation of the evaluation criteria coupled with a parametric geometry generator enables the use of formal optimization techniques in the design. The proposed approach is implemented in the optimal design of a low-pressure turbine nozzle.

  20. Safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER-600 design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong-Bum; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, E. K.; Suk, S. D.; Chang, W. P.; Joeng, H. Y.; Ha, K. S.; Heo, S

    2005-03-01

    KAERI is developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER-600 (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER-600 addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, key safety design features are described and safety analyses results for typical ATWS accidents, containment design basis accidents, and flow blockages in the KALIMER design are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal and main design features of KALIMER-600 are introduced in Chapter 1, and the event categorization and acceptance criteria for the KALIMER-600 safety analysis are described in Chapter 2, In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER-600 conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER-600 core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) have been performed using the SSC-K code to investigate the KALIMER-600 system response to the events. The objectives of Chapter 4, are to assess the response of KALIMER-600 containment to the design basis accidents and to evaluate whether the consequences are acceptable or not in the aspect of structural integrity and the exposure dose rate. In Chapter 5, the analysis of flow blockage for KALIMER-600 with the MATRA-LMR-FB code, which has been developed for the internal flow blockage in a LMR subassembly, are described. The cases with a blockage of 6-subchannel, 24-subchannel, and 54-subchannel are analyzed.

  1. Code Pulse: Software Assurance (SWA) Visual Analytics for Dynamic Analysis of Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    mark different execution sessions with recordings. For example, a “ startup ” recording could be created to mark the startup se- quence of the traced...testing processes. It is an OWASP project and has an active network of security professionals to lean on as it slowly cracks out of its R&D cocoon. Code

  2. Sensitivity analysis on various parameters for lattice analysis of DUPIC fuel with WIMS-AECL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok; Park, Jee Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The code WIMS-AECL has been used for the lattice analysis of DUPIC fuel. The lattice parameters calculated by the code is sensitive to the choice of number of parameters, such as the number of tracking lines, number of condensed groups, mesh spacing in the moderator region, other parameters vital to the calculation of probabilities and burnup analysis. We have studied this sensitivity with respect to these parameters and recommend their proper values which are necessary for carrying out the lattice analysis of DUPIC fuel.

  3. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  4. Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, Juan (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache %3CU%2B2013%3E CEA, France)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the

  5. Choreographer Pre-Testing Code Analysis and Operational Testing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Harrison, Christopher B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Perr, C. W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hurd, Steven A [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Choreographer is a "moving target defense system", designed to protect against attacks aimed at IP addresses without corresponding domain name system (DNS) lookups. It coordinates actions between a DNS server and a Network Address Translation (NAT) device to regularly change which publicly available IP addresses' traffic will be routed to the protected device versus routed to a honeypot. More details about how Choreographer operates can be found in Section 2: Introducing Choreographer. Operational considerations for the successful deployment of Choreographer can be found in Section 3. The Testing & Evaluation (T&E) for Choreographer involved 3 phases: Pre-testing, Code Analysis, and Operational Testing. Pre-testing, described in Section 4, involved installing and configuring an instance of Choreographer and verifying it would operate as expected for a simple use case. Our findings were that it was simple and straightforward to prepare a system for a Choreographer installation as well as configure Choreographer to work in a representative environment. Code Analysis, described in Section 5, consisted of running a static code analyzer (HP Fortify) and conducting dynamic analysis tests using the Valgrind instrumentation framework. Choreographer performed well, such that only a few errors that might possibly be problematic in a given operating situation were identified. Operational Testing, described in Section 6, involved operating Choreographer in a representative environment created through EmulyticsTM . Depending upon the amount of server resources dedicated to Choreographer vis-á-vis the amount of client traffic handled, Choreographer had varying degrees of operational success. In an environment with a poorly resourced Choreographer server and as few as 50-100 clients, Choreographer failed to properly route traffic over half the time. Yet, with a well-resourced server, Choreographer handled over 1000 clients without missrouting. Choreographer

  6. Probabilistic performance analysis using the SLEUTH fuel modelling code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes the development and sample use of a computer code which automates both the Monte Carlo and response surface approaches to probabilistic fuel performance modelling utilising the SLEUTH-82 deterministic program. A number of the statistical procedures employed, which have been prepared as independent computer codes, are also described. These are of general applicability in many areas of probabilistic assessment.

  7. Analysis of Code Refactoring Impact on Software Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Amandeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Code refactoring is a “Technique used for restructuring an existing source code, improving its internal structure without changing its external behaviour”. It is the process of changing a source code in such a way that it does not alter the external behaviour of the code yet improves its internal structure. It is a way to clean up code that minimizes the chances of introducing bugs. Refactoring is a change made to the internal structure of a software component to make it easier to understand and cheaper to modify, without changing the observable behaviour of that software component. Bad smells indicate that there is something wrong in the code that have to refactor. There are different tools that are available to identify and remove these bad smells. It is a technique that change our source code in a more readable and maintainable form by removing the bad smells from the code. Refactoring is used to improve the quality of software by reducing the complexity. In this paper bad smells are found and perform the refactoring based on these bad smell and then find the complexity of program and compare with initial complexity. This paper shows that when refactoring is performed the complexity of software decrease and easily understandable.

  8. MMA, A Computer Code for Multi-Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeter, Eileen P.; Hill, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the Multi-Model Analysis (MMA) computer code. MMA can be used to evaluate results from alternative models of a single system using the same set of observations for all models. As long as the observations, the observation weighting, and system being represented are the same, the models can differ in nearly any way imaginable. For example, they may include different processes, different simulation software, different temporal definitions (for example, steady-state and transient models could be considered), and so on. The multiple models need to be calibrated by nonlinear regression. Calibration of the individual models needs to be completed before application of MMA. MMA can be used to rank models and calculate posterior model probabilities. These can be used to (1) determine the relative importance of the characteristics embodied in the alternative models, (2) calculate model-averaged parameter estimates and predictions, and (3) quantify the uncertainty of parameter estimates and predictions in a way that integrates the variations represented by the alternative models. There is a lack of consensus on what model analysis methods are best, so MMA provides four default methods. Two are based on Kullback-Leibler information, and use the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) or AICc (second-order-bias-corrected AIC) model discrimination criteria. The other two default methods are the BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion) and the KIC (Kashyap Information Criterion) model discrimination criteria. Use of the KIC criterion is equivalent to using the maximum-likelihood Bayesian model averaging (MLBMA) method. AIC, AICc, and BIC can be derived from Frequentist or Bayesian arguments. The default methods based on Kullback-Leibler information have a number of theoretical advantages, including that they tend to favor more complicated models as more data become available than do the other methods, which makes sense in many situations. Many applications of MMA will

  9. LSENS - GENERAL CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    which provides the relationships between the predictions of a kinetics model and the input parameters of the problem. LSENS provides for efficient and accurate chemical kinetics computations and includes sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal conditions. LSENS replaces the previous NASA general chemical kinetics codes GCKP and GCKP84. LSENS is designed for flexibility, convenience and computational efficiency. A variety of chemical reaction models can be considered. The models include static system, steady one-dimensional inviscid flow, reaction behind an incident shock wave including boundary layer correction, and the perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, computations of equilibrium properties can be performed for the following assigned states, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static problems LSENS computes sensitivity coefficients with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rates coefficient parameters of each chemical reaction. To integrate the ODEs describing chemical kinetics problems, LSENS uses the packaged code LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations, because it has been shown to be the most efficient and accurate code for solving such problems. The sensitivity analysis computations use the decoupled direct method, as implemented by Dunker and modified by Radhakrishnan. This method has shown greater efficiency and stability with equal or better accuracy than other methods of sensitivity analysis. LSENS is written in FORTRAN 77 with the exception of the NAMELIST extensions used for input. While this makes the code fairly machine independent, execution times on IBM PC compatibles would be unacceptable to most users. LSENS has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS and a DEC VAX running VMS. With minor modifications, it should also be easily implemented on other

  10. Performance Analysis of Faulty Gallager-B Decoding of QC-LDPC Codes with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Al Rasheed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of Gallager-B algorithm, used for decoding low-density parity-check (LDPC codes, under unreliable message computation. Our analysis is restricted to LDPC codes constructed from circular matrices (QC-LDPC codes. Using Monte Carlo simulation we investigate the effects of different code parameters on coding system performance, under a binary symmetric communication channel and independent transient faults model. One possible application of the presented analysis in designing memory architecture with unreliable components is considered.

  11. MMA, A Computer Code for Multi-Model Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eileen P. Poeter and Mary C. Hill

    2007-08-20

    This report documents the Multi-Model Analysis (MMA) computer code. MMA can be used to evaluate results from alternative models of a single system using the same set of observations for all models. As long as the observations, the observation weighting, and system being represented are the same, the models can differ in nearly any way imaginable. For example, they may include different processes, different simulation software, different temporal definitions (for example, steady-state and transient models could be considered), and so on. The multiple models need to be calibrated by nonlinear regression. Calibration of the individual models needs to be completed before application of MMA. MMA can be used to rank models and calculate posterior model probabilities. These can be used to (1) determine the relative importance of the characteristics embodied in the alternative models, (2) calculate model-averaged parameter estimates and predictions, and (3) quantify the uncertainty of parameter estimates and predictions in a way that integrates the variations represented by the alternative models. There is a lack of consensus on what model analysis methods are best, so MMA provides four default methods. Two are based on Kullback-Leibler information, and use the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) or AICc (second-order-bias-corrected AIC) model discrimination criteria. The other two default methods are the BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion) and the KIC (Kashyap Information Criterion) model discrimination criteria. Use of the KIC criterion is equivalent to using the maximum-likelihood Bayesian model averaging (MLBMA) method. AIC, AICc, and BIC can be derived from Frequentist or Bayesian arguments. The default methods based on Kullback-Leibler information have a number of theoretical advantages, including that they tend to favor more complicated models as more data become available than do the other methods, which makes sense in many situations.

  12. OPR1000 CEA Withdrawal at Power Accident Analysis using the SPACE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hyuk; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The code has been Verification (V and V) matrix prepared for the SPACE code as the second phase of the development. In this study, CEA withdrawal at power accident has been simulated using the SPACE code as one aspect of the V and V work. The results from this simulation were compared with results of the RETRAN code which was used to approval of methodology for safety analysis of OPR1000 from regulatory committee. The KNAP methodology is applied to OPR1000 CEA withdrawal at power accident analysis and the results are compared with those mentioned in OPR1000 results of RETRAN code. Although there is some difference in peak temperature and SG pressure, the results from RETRAN calculation show similar trends. Through this evaluation of a OPR1000 CEA withdrawal at power accident analysis using the SPACE code, it is concluded that the SPACE code has the capability to predict the system response caused by a CEA withdrawal at power accident.

  13. Computer codes for beam dynamics analysis of cyclotronlike accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.

    2017-12-01

    Computer codes suitable for the study of beam dynamics in cyclotronlike (classical and isochronous cyclotrons, synchrocyclotrons, and fixed field alternating gradient) accelerators are reviewed. Computer modeling of cyclotron segments, such as the central zone, acceleration region, and extraction system is considered. The author does not claim to give a full and detailed description of the methods and algorithms used in the codes. Special attention is paid to the codes already proven and confirmed at the existing accelerating facilities. The description of the programs prepared in the worldwide known accelerator centers is provided. The basic features of the programs available to users and limitations of their applicability are described.

  14. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Dionna

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3’UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3’UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions. PMID:28166241

  15. Exposure calculation code module for reactor core analysis: BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-02-01

    The code module BURNER for nuclear reactor exposure calculations is presented. The computer requirements are shown, as are the reference data and interface data file requirements, and the programmed equations and procedure of calculation are described. The operating history of a reactor is followed over the period between solutions of the space, energy neutronics problem. The end-of-period nuclide concentrations are determined given the necessary information. A steady state, continuous fueling model is treated in addition to the usual fixed fuel model. The control options provide flexibility to select among an unusually wide variety of programmed procedures. The code also provides user option to make a number of auxiliary calculations and print such information as the local gamma source, cumulative exposure, and a fine scale power density distribution in a selected zone. The code is used locally in a system for computation which contains the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other modules.

  16. Vehicle Codes and Standards: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, C.; Buttner, W.; Rivkin, C.

    2010-02-01

    This report identifies gaps in vehicle codes and standards and recommends ways to fill the gaps, focusing on six alternative fuels: biodiesel, natural gas, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, and propane.

  17. Business Ethics: International Analysis of Codes of Ethics and Conduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josmar Andrade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Codes of ethics and code of conduct formalize an ideal of expected behavior patterns to managers and employees of organizations, providing standards and orientation that states companies interactions with the community, through products /services, sales force, marketing communications, investments, and relationships with other stakeholders, influencing company reputation and overall Marketing performance. The objective of this study is to analyze the differences in codes of ethics of the largest companies based in Brazil and in Portugal, given their cultural and linguistic similarities. Findings show that the use of codes of ethics are more common in Brazil than in Portugal and that codes of ethics are substantially more extensive and cover a larger number of categories in Brazilian companies, reflecting the organizations’ mission and perception of stakeholders concerns and priorities. We conclude that ethical issues severely impact company reputation and, in a comprehensive sense, overall Marketing performance. Marketing professionals should be systematically aware of how company core values are transmitted to different audiences, including the use of code of ethics to communicate both with internal and external publics. 0 0 1 171 966 CASA DOS ANDRADES 23 14 1123 14.0 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE  

  18. Code Blue Emergencies: A Team Task Analysis and Educational Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James W; Applegarth, Oliver; Vu, Mark; Price, John R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that have a positive or negative influence on resuscitation team performance during emergencies in the operating room (OR) and post-operative recovery unit (PAR) at a major Canadian teaching hospital. This information was then used to implement a team training program for code blue emergencies. In 2009/10, all OR and PAR nurses and 19 anesthesiologists at Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) were invited to complete an anonymous, 10 minute written questionnaire regarding their code blue experience. Survey questions were devised by 10 recovery room and operation room nurses as well as 5 anesthesiologists representing 4 different hospitals in British Columbia. Three iterations of the survey were reviewed by a pilot group of nurses and anesthesiologists and their feedback was integrated into the final version of the survey. Both nursing staff (n = 49) and anesthesiologists (n = 19) supported code blue training and believed that team training would improve patient outcome. Nurses noted that it was often difficult to identify the leader of the resuscitation team. Both nursing staff and anesthesiologists strongly agreed that too many people attending the code blue with no assigned role hindered team performance. Identifiable leadership and clear communication of roles were identified as keys to resuscitation team functioning. Decreasing the number of people attending code blue emergencies with no specific role, increased access to mock code blue training, and debriefing after crises were all identified as areas requiring improvement. Initial team training exercises have been well received by staff.

  19. Promoter Analysis Reveals Globally Differential Regulation of Human Long Non-Coding RNA and Protein-Coding Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2014-10-02

    Transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes is increasingly well-understood on a global scale, yet no comparable information exists for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes, which were recently recognized to be as numerous as protein-coding genes in mammalian genomes. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of the promoters of human lncRNA and protein-coding genes, finding global differences in specific genetic and epigenetic features relevant to transcriptional regulation. These two groups of genes are hence subject to separate transcriptional regulatory programs, including distinct transcription factor (TF) proteins that significantly favor lncRNA, rather than coding-gene, promoters. We report a specific signature of promoter-proximal transcriptional regulation of lncRNA genes, including several distinct transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Experimental DNase I hypersensitive site profiles are consistent with active configurations of these lncRNA TFBS sets in diverse human cell types. TFBS ChIP-seq datasets confirm the binding events that we predicted using computational approaches for a subset of factors. For several TFs known to be directly regulated by lncRNAs, we find that their putative TFBSs are enriched at lncRNA promoters, suggesting that the TFs and the lncRNAs may participate in a bidirectional feedback loop regulatory network. Accordingly, cells may be able to modulate lncRNA expression levels independently of mRNA levels via distinct regulatory pathways. Our results also raise the possibility that, given the historical reliance on protein-coding gene catalogs to define the chromatin states of active promoters, a revision of these chromatin signature profiles to incorporate expressed lncRNA genes is warranted in the future.

  20. Estimation and analysis of Galileo differential code biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yuan, Yunbin; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zishen; Li, Ying; Huo, Xingliang

    2017-03-01

    When sensing the Earth's ionosphere using dual-frequency pseudorange observations of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the satellite and receiver differential code biases (DCBs) account for one of the main sources of error. For the Galileo system, limited knowledge is available about the determination and characteristic analysis of the satellite and receiver DCBs. To better understand the characteristics of satellite and receiver DCBs of Galileo, the IGGDCB (IGG, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Wuhan, China) method is extended to estimate the satellite and receiver DCBs of Galileo, with the combined use of GPS and Galileo observations. The experimental data were collected from the Multi-GNSS Experiment network, covering the period of 2013-2015. The stability of both Galileo satellite and receiver DCBs over a time period of 36 months was thereby analyzed for the current state of the Galileo system. Good agreement of Galileo satellite DCBs is found between the IGGDCB-based DCB estimates and those from the German Aerospace Center (DLR), at the level of 0.22 ns. Moreover, high-level stability of the Galileo satellite DCB estimates is obtained over the selected time span (less than 0.25 ns in terms of standard deviation) by both IGGDCB and DLR algorithms. The Galileo receiver DCB estimates are also relatively stable for the case in which the receiver hardware device stays unchanged. It can also be concluded that the receiver DCB estimates are rather sensitive to the change of the firmware version and that the receiver antenna type has no great impact on receiver DCBs.

  1. Analysis of the KUCA MEU experiments using the ANL code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroya, S.; Hayashi, M.; Kanda, K.; Shibata, T.; Woodruff, W.L.; Matos, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides some preliminary results on the analysis of the KUCA critical experiments using the ANL code system. Since this system was employed in the earlier neutronics calculations for the KUHFR, it is important to assess its capabilities for the KUHFR. The KUHFR has a unique core configuration which is difficult to model precisely with current diffusion theory codes. This paper also provides some results from a finite-element diffusion code (2D-FEM-KUR), which was developed in a cooperative research program between KURRI and JAERI. This code provides the capability for mockup of a complex core configuration as the KUHFR. Using the same group constants generated by the EPRI-CELL code, the results of the 2D-FEM-KUR code are compared with the finite difference diffusion code (DIF3D(2D) which is mainly employed in this analysis.

  2. LAVENDER: A steady-state core analysis code for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengcheng; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi; Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Kai; He, Mingtao; Li, Xunzhao

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new code system for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) is developed. • S{sub N} transport solver in triangular-z meshes, fine deletion analysis and multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis are coupled in the code. • Numerical results indicate that the code is reliable and efficient for design studies of ADSRs. - Abstract: Accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) have been proposed and widely investigated for the transmutation of transuranics (TRUs). ADSRs have several special characteristics, such as the subcritical core driven by spallation neutrons, anisotropic neutron flux distribution and complex geometry etc. These bring up requirements for development or extension of analysis codes to perform design studies. A code system named LAVENDER has been developed in this paper. It couples the modules for spallation target simulation and subcritical core analysis. The neutron transport-depletion calculation scheme is used based on the homogenized cross section from assembly calculations. A three-dimensional S{sub N} nodal transport code based on triangular-z meshes is employed and a multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis model is integrated. In the depletion calculation, the evolution of isotopic composition in the core is evaluated using the transmutation trajectory analysis algorithm (TTA) and fine depletion chains. The new code is verified by several benchmarks and code-to-code comparisons. Numerical results indicate that LAVENDER is reliable and efficient to be applied for the steady-state analysis and reactor core design of ADSRs.

  3. L3.PHI.CTF.P10.02-rev2 Coupling of Subchannel T/H (CTF) and CRUD Chemistry (MAMBA1D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palmtag, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kendrick, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Seker, Jeffrey [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this milestone is to create a preliminary capability for modeling light water reactor (LWR) thermal-hydraulic (T/H) and CRUD growth using the CTF subchannel code and the subgrid version of the MAMBA CRUD chemistry code, MAMBA1D. In part, this is a follow-on to Milestone L3.PHI.VCS.P9.01, which is documented in Report CASL-U-2014-0188-000, titled "Development of CTF Capability for Modeling Reactor Operating Cycles with Crud Growth". As the title suggests, the previous milestone set up a framework for modeling reactor operation cycles with CTF. The framework also facilitated coupling to a CRUD chemistry capability for modeling CRUD growth throughout the reactor operating cycle. To demonstrate the capability, a simple CRUD \\surrogate" tool was developed and coupled to CTF; however, it was noted that CRUD growth predictions by the surrogate were not considered realistic. This milestone builds on L3.PHI.VCS.P9.01 by replacing this simple surrogate tool with the more advanced MAMBA1D CRUD chemistry code. Completing this task involves addressing unresolved tasks from Milestone L3.PHI.VCS.P9.01, setting up an interface to MAMBA1D, and extracting new T/H information from CTF that was not previously required in the simple surrogate tool. Speci c challenges encountered during this milestone include (1) treatment of the CRUD erosion model, which requires local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) (a value that CTF does not calculate) and (2) treatment of the MAMBA1D CRUD chimney boiling model in the CTF rod heat transfer solution. To demonstrate this new T/H, CRUD modeling capability, two sets of simulations were performed: (1) an 18 month cycle simulation of a quarter symmetry model of Watts Bar and (2) a simulation of Assemblies G69 and G70 from Seabrook Cycle 5. The Watts Bar simulation is merely a demonstration of the capability. The simulation of the Seabrook cycle, which had experienced CRUD-related fuel rod failures, had actual CRUD-scrape data to compare with

  4. Fusion PIC code performance analysis on the Cori KNL system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Tuomas S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Deslippe, Jack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Friesen, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Raman, Karthic [INTEL Corp. (United States)

    2017-05-25

    We study the attainable performance of Particle-In-Cell codes on the Cori KNL system by analyzing a miniature particle push application based on the fusion PIC code XGC1. We start from the most basic building blocks of a PIC code and build up the complexity to identify the kernels that cost the most in performance and focus optimization efforts there. Particle push kernels operate at high AI and are not likely to be memory bandwidth or even cache bandwidth bound on KNL. Therefore, we see only minor benefits from the high bandwidth memory available on KNL, and achieving good vectorization is shown to be the most beneficial optimization path with theoretical yield of up to 8x speedup on KNL. In practice we are able to obtain up to a 4x gain from vectorization due to limitations set by the data layout and memory latency.

  5. Code Blue Emergencies: A Team Task Analysis and Educational Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Price

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify factors that have a positive or negative influence on resuscitation team performance during emergencies in the operating room (OR and post-operative recovery unit (PAR at a major Canadian teaching hospital. This information was then used to implement a team training program for code blue emergencies. Methods: In 2009/10, all OR and PAR nurses and 19 anesthesiologists at Vancouver General Hospital (VGH were invited to complete an anonymous, 10 minute written questionnaire regarding their code blue experience. Survey questions were devised by 10 recovery room and operation room nurses as well as 5 anesthesiologists representing 4 different hospitals in British Columbia. Three iterations of the survey were reviewed by a pilot group of nurses and anesthesiologists and their feedback was integrated into the final version of the survey. Results: Both nursing staff (n = 49 and anesthesiologists (n = 19 supported code blue training and believed that team training would improve patient outcome. Nurses noted that it was often difficult to identify the leader of the resuscitation team. Both nursing staff and anesthesiologists strongly agreed that too many people attending the code blue with no assigned role hindered team performance. Conclusion: Identifiable leadership and clear communication of roles were identified as keys to resuscitation team functioning. Decreasing the number of people attending code blue emergencies with no specific role, increased access to mock code blue training, and debriefing after crises were all identified as areas requiring improvement. Initial team training exercises have been well received by staff.

  6. Design and Analysis of LT Codes with Decreasing Ripple Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new design of LT codes, which decreases the amount of necessary overhead in comparison to existing designs. The design focuses on a parameter of the LT decoding process called the ripple size. This parameter was also a key element in the design proposed in the original...... to the redundancy within an LT code. We then propose a new design procedure, which can provide any desired achievable decreasing ripple size. The new design procedure is evaluated and compared to the current state of the art through simulations. This reveals a significant increase in performance with respect...

  7. TACI: a code for interactive analysis of neutron data produced by a tissue equivalent proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, F.M.

    1984-06-01

    The TEPC analysis code (TACI) is a computer program designed to analyze pulse height data generated by a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). It is written in HP BASIC and is for use on an HP-87XM personal computer. The theory of TEPC analysis upon which this code is based is summarized.

  8. OSSMETER D3.4 – Language-Specific Source Code Quality Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); A. Shahi (Ashim); H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis deliverable is part of WP3: Source Code Quality and Activity Analysis. It provides descriptions and prototypes of the tools that are needed for source code quality analysis in open source software projects. It builds upon the results of: • Deliverable 3.1 where infra-structure and

  9. OSSMETER D3.3 – Language Agnostic Source Code Quality Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); A. Shahi (Ashim); H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis deliverable is part of WP3: Source Code Quality and Activity Analysis. It provides descriptions and prototypes of the tools that are needed for source code quality analysis in open source software projects. It builds upon the results of: • Deliverable 3.1 where infra-structure and

  10. LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for homogeneous gas-phase reactions. 2: Code description and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 2 of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 2 describes the code, how to modify it, and its usage, including preparation of the problem data file required to execute LSENS. Code usage is illustrated by several example problems, which further explain preparation of the problem data file and show how to obtain desired accuracy in the computed results. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions. Part 1 (NASA RP-1328) derives the governing equations describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved by lSENS. Part 3 (NASA RP-1330) explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity-analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results.

  11. An Analysis of Countries which have Integrated Coding into their Curricula and the Content Analysis of Academic Studies on Coding Training in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Uzunboylu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The first aim is to conduct a general analysis of countries which have integrated coding training into their curricula, and the second aim is to conduct a content analysis of studies on coding training in Turkey. It was identified that there are only a few academic studies on coding training in Turkey, and that the majority of them were published in 2016, the intended population was mainly “undergraduate students” and that the majority of these students were Computer Education and Instructional Technology undergraduates. It was determined that the studies mainly focused on the subjects of “programming” and “Scratch”, the terms programming and coding were used as synonyms, most of the studies were carried out using quantitative methods and data was obtained mostly by literature review and scale/survey interval techniques.

  12. Evaluation of the analysis models in the ASTRA nuclear design code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam Jin; Park, Chang Jea; Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Kyeong Taek; Kim, Jong Woon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-15

    In the field of nuclear reactor design, main practice was the application of the improved design code systems. During the process, a lot of basis and knowledge were accumulated in processing input data, nuclear fuel reload design, production and analysis of design data, et al. However less efforts were done in the analysis of the methodology and in the development or improvement of those code systems. Recently, KEPO Nuclear Fuel Company (KNFC) developed the ASTRA (Advanced Static and Transient Reactor Analyzer) code system for the purpose of nuclear reactor design and analysis. In the code system, two group constants were generated from the CASMO-3 code system. The objective of this research is to analyze the analysis models used in the ASTRA/CASMO-3 code system. This evaluation requires indepth comprehension of the models, which is important so much as the development of the code system itself. Currently, most of the code systems used in domestic Nuclear Power Plant were imported, so it is very difficult to maintain and treat the change of the situation in the system. Therefore, the evaluation of analysis models in the ASTRA nuclear reactor design code system in very important.

  13. Analysis of SGTR of Hanul Unit 4 using the SPACE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chang Keun; Kim, Yo Han; Ha, Sang Jun [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, SGTR event of Hanul Unit 4 occurred in 2002 has been analyzed using the SPACE code as one aspect of the V and V work. The results from this work were compared with simulation of the SPACE codes. The SGTR of Hanul Unit 4 has been simulated for the SPACE code V and V. The results have been compared with those of the plant and RELAP5. Throughout the evaluation of SGTR of Hanul Unit 4 using the SPACE code, it is concluded that the SPACE code has a capability to predict the behavior of plant and thermal-hydraulic response caused by SGTR event. The Korea nuclear industry has developed a best estimated two-phase three-field thermal-hydraulic analysis code, SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants), for safety analysis and design of a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor). As the first phase, the demo version of the SPACE code was released in March 2010. The code has been verified and improved according to the Verification and Validation (V and V) matrix prepared for the SPACE code as the second phase of the development.

  14. ISODEP, A Fuel Depletion Analysis Code for Predicting Isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The code ISODEP is developed to compute the rate of production of nuclides in different homogeneous zones of a research reactor. An exponential method proposed by Hansen is the basis for the numerical solution of non-homogeneous simultaneous equations which describe the rate of production and decay of nuclides.

  15. Codon usage bias analysis for the coding sequences of Camellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the rare codons were identified by computing the recurrence of event of all codons in coding sequences of C. sinensis and B. campestris. The host cell, Escherichia coli used universally, failed to express smoothly many eukaryotic genes. For this, the authors prognosticated the codons showing the highest and ...

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Standardized Dress Code and Minority Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if a statistically significant variance exists in African American and Hispanic students' attendance and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills test scores in mathematics before and after the implementation of a standardized dress code. For almost two decades supporters and opponents of public school…

  17. LDPC Codes--Structural Analysis and Decoding Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been the focus of much research over the past decade thanks to their near Shannon limit performance and to their efficient message-passing (MP) decoding algorithms. However, the error floor phenomenon observed in MP decoding, which manifests itself as an abrupt change in the slope of the error-rate curve,…

  18. Validation of numerical codes for the analysis of plasma discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, R. (Univ. di Salerno, Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Fisciano (Italy)); Bottura, L. (NET Team, Garching (Germany)); Chiocchio, S. (NET Team, Garching (Germany)); Coccorese, E. (Univ. di Reggio Calabria, Ist. di Ingegneria Elettronica (Italy)); Gernhardt, J. (Max Planck IPP, Garching (Germany)); Gruber, O. (Max Planck IPP, Garching (Germany)); Fresa, R. (Univ. di Salerno, Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Fisciano (Italy)); Martone, R. (Univ. di Salerno, Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Fisciano (Italy)); Portone, A. (NET Team, Garching (Germany)); Seidel, U. (Max Planck IPP, Garching (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic aspects in the design of ITER-like reactors call for an extensive use of complex and advanced numerical codes. For this reason a strong attention has been paid within the NET-Team to the code development. In particular, through a cooperation with some Italian universities, during the last years a number of numerical procedures were developed and integrated. In order to assess the code reliability and to gain confidence on their predictions for next generation ITER-like reactors, the validation of the codes against experiments has to be considered as a strict requirement. Aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive presentation of this problem in the light of the results of a campaign of validation runs. The main outcome of this work is that the computational procedures, which have been developed for the NET project and then extensively used also for ITER studies, can be considered as experimentally validated in a sufficiently wide range of cases of interest. In particular, computed values are compared with experimental measurements made during some typical ASDEX-Upgrade discharges. From the electromagnetic point of view, many features of this machine are common to the ITER concept, so that the results of the validation can reasonably be extended to the ITER case. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of an XADS Target with the System Code TRACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Wadim; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Reactor Safety, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Feng, Bo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, NW12-219, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) present an option to reduce the radioactive waste of the nuclear industry. The experimental Accelerator-Driven System (XADS) has been designed to investigate the feasibility of using ADS on an industrial scale to burn minor actinides. The target section lies in the middle of the subcritical core and is bombarded by a proton beam to produce spallation neutrons. The thermal energy produced from this reaction requires a heat removal system for the target section. The target is cooled by liquid lead-bismuth-eutectics (LBE) in the primary system which in turn transfers the heat via a heat exchanger (HX) to the secondary coolant, Diphyl THT (DTHT), a synthetic diathermic fluid. Since this design is still in development, a detailed investigation of the system is necessary to evaluate the behavior during normal and transient operations. Due to the lack of experimental facilities and data for ADS, the analyses are mostly done using thermal hydraulic codes. In addition to evaluating the thermal hydraulics of the XADS, this paper also benchmarks a new code developed by the NRC, TRACE, against other established codes. The events used in this study are beam power switch-on/off transients and a loss of heat sink accident. The obtained results from TRACE were in good agreement with the results of various other codes. (authors)

  20. 76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... ft high ceilings. Area above unconditioned 1200 ft\\2\\ Over a vented space. crawlspace or... public input on this issue. ] Estimating the Cost Effectiveness of Code Changes Economic Metrics To Be... calculate three metrics. Life-cycle cost. Simple payback period. Cash flow. Life-cycle cost (LCC) is the...

  1. Sandia Engineering Analysis Code Access System v. 2.0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-30

    The Sandia Engineering Analysis Code Access System (SEACAS) is a suite of preprocessing, post processing, translation, visualization, and utility applications supporting finite element analysis software using the Exodus database file format.

  2. Energy Savings Analysis of the Proposed NYStretch-Energy Code 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edelson, Jim [New Buildings Inst. (NBI), Portland, OR (United States); Lyles, Mark [New Buildings Inst. (NBI), Portland, OR (United States)

    2018-01-20

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the stretch energy code development led by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). In 2017 NYSERDA developed its 2016 Stretch Code Supplement to the 2016 New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code (hereinafter referred to as “NYStretch-Energy”). NYStretch-Energy is intended as a model energy code for statewide voluntary adoption that anticipates other code advancements culminating in the goal of a statewide Net Zero Energy Code by 2028. Since then, NYSERDA continues to develop the NYStretch-Energy Code 2018 edition. To support the effort, PNNL conducted energy simulation analysis to quantify the energy savings of proposed commercial provisions of the NYStretch-Energy Code (2018) in New York. The focus of this project is the 20% improvement over existing commercial model energy codes. A key requirement of the proposed stretch code is that it be ‘adoptable’ as an energy code, meaning that it must align with current code scope and limitations, and primarily impact building components that are currently regulated by local building departments. It is largely limited to prescriptive measures, which are what most building departments and design projects are most familiar with. This report describes a set of energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) that demonstrate 20% energy savings over ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) across a broad range of commercial building types and all three climate zones in New York. In collaboration with New Building Institute, the EEMs were developed from national model codes and standards, high-performance building codes and standards, regional energy codes, and measures being proposed as part of the on-going code development process. PNNL analyzed these measures using whole building energy models for selected prototype commercial buildings and multifamily buildings representing buildings in New

  3. Coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics analysis of a high-performance light-water reactor fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waata, C.L.

    2006-07-15

    The use of water at supercritical pressure as coolant and moderator introduces a challenge in the design of a High-Performance Light-Water Reactor (HPLWR) fuel assembly. At supercritical pressure condition (P=25 MPa), the thermal-hydraulics behaviour of water differs strongly from that at sub-critical pressure due to a rapid variation of the thermal-physical properties across the pseudo-critical line. Due of the strong link between the water (moderation) and the neutron spectrum and subsequently the power distribution, a coupling of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics has become a necessity for reactor concepts operating at supercritical pressure condition. The effect of neutron moderation on the local parameters of thermal-hydraulics and vice-verse in a fuel assembly has to be considered for an accurate design analysis. In this study, the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) and the sub-channel code STAFAS (Sub-channel Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Fuel Assembly under Supercritical conditions) have been coupled for the design analysis of a fuel assembly with supercritical water as coolant and moderator. Both codes are well known for complex geometry modelling. The MCNP code is used for neutronics analyses and for the prediction of power profiles of individual fuel rods. The sub-channel code STAFAS for the thermal-hydraulics analyses takes into account the coolant properties beyond the critical point as well as separate moderator channels. The coupling procedure is realized automatically. MCNP calculates the power distribution in each fuel rod, which is then transferred into STAFAS to obtain the corresponding thermal-hydraulic conditions in each sub-channel. The new thermal-hydraulic conditions are used to generate a new input deck for the next MCNP calculation. This procedure is repeated until a converged state is achieved. The coupled code system was tested on a proposed fuel assembly design of a HPLWR. An under-relaxation was introduced to achieve convergence

  4. Statistical mechanics analysis of LDPC coding in MIMO Gaussian channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamino, Roberto C; Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-12

    Using analytical methods of statistical mechanics, we analyse the typical behaviour of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian channel with binary inputs under low-density parity-check (LDPC) network coding and joint decoding. The saddle point equations for the replica symmetric solution are found in particular realizations of this channel, including a small and large number of transmitters and receivers. In particular, we examine the cases of a single transmitter, a single receiver and symmetric and asymmetric interference. Both dynamical and thermodynamical transitions from the ferromagnetic solution of perfect decoding to a non-ferromagnetic solution are identified for the cases considered, marking the practical and theoretical limits of the system under the current coding scheme. Numerical results are provided, showing the typical level of improvement/deterioration achieved with respect to the single transmitter/receiver result, for the various cases.

  5. Static Code Analysis: A Systematic Literature Review and an Industrial Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyas, Bilal; Elkhalifa, Islam

    2016-01-01

    Context: Static code analysis is a software verification technique that refers to the process of examining code without executing it in order to capture defects in the code early, avoiding later costly fixations. The lack of realistic empirical evaluations in software engineering has been identified as a major issue limiting the ability of research to impact industry and in turn preventing feedback from industry that can improve, guide and orient research. Studies emphasized rigor and relevan...

  6. Evaluation of Computational Codes for Underwater Hull Analysis Model Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-05

    Simulia product family. At present ABAQUS does not offer modeling in electrochemistry . Even though it does not have a 8 corrosion or cathodic... electrochemistry dominated corrosion . Unique among the codes considered is the ability of COMSOL Multiphysics to solve the more general form of...2014 Memorandum Report Corrosion Finite element modeling Boundary element modeling Polarization 01-10-2007 – 09-09-2009 Unclassified Unlimited

  7. Program visualization: bringing visual analysis to code development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbacher, Robert F.; Grinstein, Georges G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper focuses on the visualization of application code. The goal is to provide a visual representation of the code that relieves the user from having to rely solely on textual representations. The visual representation of code can be correlated with visual displays of the data and displayed simultaneously within a single display. This prevents the user from having to change perceptual contexts or focus to a separate window. The visualization techniques are themselves based on the familiar metaphor of picture frames. Since we wish to provide the application data within the same display, representing operations and instructions as a frame around the application data provides a merged display with the data and operations correlated in an unobtrusive manner. The borders also work well by matching with the human perceptual systems ability to differentiate and characterize edges. The borders can be as simple as rectangles with the characteristics of the rectangle (i.e., thickness, color, consistency, etc.) identifying the type of operation. Portions of the frame can be made representative of the underlying data (i.e., current and termination conditions).

  8. Performance analysis of LDPC codes on OOK terahertz wireless channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Liu; Chang, Wang; Jun-Cheng, Cao

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric absorption, scattering, and scintillation are the major causes to deteriorate the transmission quality of terahertz (THz) wireless communications. An error control coding scheme based on low density parity check (LDPC) codes with soft decision decoding algorithm is proposed to improve the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of an on-off keying (OOK) modulated THz signal through atmospheric channel. The THz wave propagation characteristics and channel model in atmosphere is set up. Numerical simulations validate the great performance of LDPC codes against the atmospheric fading and demonstrate the huge potential in future ultra-high speed beyond Gbps THz communications. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339803), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA010205), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61131006, 61321492, and 61204135), the Major National Development Project of Scientific Instrument and Equipment (Grant No. 2011YQ150021), the National Science and Technology Major Project (Grant No. 2011ZX02707), the International Collaboration and Innovation Program on High Mobility Materials Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Shanghai Municipal Commission of Science and Technology (Grant No. 14530711300).

  9. Application of computational fluid dynamics methods to improve thermal hydraulic code analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, Dennis Shannon, Jr.

    A computational fluid dynamics code is used to model the primary natural circulation loop of a proposed small modular reactor for comparison to experimental data and best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code results. Recent advances in computational fluid dynamics code modeling capabilities make them attractive alternatives to the current conservative approach of coupled best-estimate thermal hydraulic codes and uncertainty evaluations. The results from a computational fluid dynamics analysis are benchmarked against the experimental test results of a 1:3 length, 1:254 volume, full pressure and full temperature scale small modular reactor during steady-state power operations and during a depressurization transient. A comparative evaluation of the experimental data, the thermal hydraulic code results and the computational fluid dynamics code results provides an opportunity to validate the best-estimate thermal hydraulic code's treatment of a natural circulation loop and provide insights into expanded use of the computational fluid dynamics code in future designs and operations. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine those physical phenomena most impactful on operations of the proposed reactor's natural circulation loop. The combination of the comparative evaluation and sensitivity analysis provides the resources for increased confidence in model developments for natural circulation loops and provides for reliability improvements of the thermal hydraulic code.

  10. Teaching, Morality, and Responsibility: A Structuralist Analysis of a Teachers' Code of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Damien; Hallett, Fiona; Spendlove, David; Hardy, Graham; Barton, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a Structuralist analysis of the General Teaching Council for England's "Code of Conduct and Practice for Registered Teachers" in order to reveal how teachers are required to fulfil an apparently impossible social role. The GTCE's "Code," we argue, may be seen as an attempt by a government agency to…

  11. Analysis code for large rupture accidents in ATR. SENHOR/FLOOD/HEATUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    In the evaluation of thermo-hydraulic transient change, the behavior of core reflooding and the transient change of fuel temperature in the events which are classified in large rupture accidents of reactor coolant loss, that is the safety evaluation event of the ATR, the analysis codes for thermo-hydraulic transient change at the time of large rupture SENHOR, for core reflooding characteristics FLOOD and for fuel temperature HEATUP are used, respectively. The analysis code system for loss of coolant accident comprises the analysis code for thermo-hydraulic transient change at the time of medium and small ruptures LOTRAC in addition to the above three codes. Based on the changes with time lapse of reactor thermal output and steam drum pressure obtained by the SENHOR, average reflooding rate is analyzed by the FLOOD, and the time of starting the turnaround of fuel cladding tube temperature and the heat transfer rate after the turnaround are determined. Based on these data, the detailed temperature change of fuel elements is analyzed by the HEATUP, and the highest temperature and the amount of oxidation of fuel cladding tubes are determined. The SENHOR code, the FLOOD code and the HEATUP code and various models for these codes are explained. The example of evaluation and the sensitivity analysis of the ATR plant are reported in the Appendix. (K.I.)

  12. A computer code for analysis of severe accidents in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The ICARE2 computer code, developed and validated since 1988 at IPSN (nuclear safety and protection institute), calculates in a mechanistic way the physical and chemical phenomena involved in the core degradation process during possible severe accidents in LWR's. The coupling between ICARE2 and the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code CATHARE2 was completed at IPSN and led to the release of a first ICARE/CATHARE V1 version in 1999, followed by 2 successive revisions in 2000 and 2001. This documents gathers all the contributions presented at the first international ICARE/CATHARE users'club seminar that took place in November 2001. This seminar was characterized by a high quality and variety of the presentations, showing an increase of reactor applications and user needs in this area (2D/3D aspects, reflooding, corium slumping into the lower head,...). 2 sessions were organized. The first one was dedicated to the applications of ICARE2 V3mod1 against small-scale experiments such as PHEBUS FPT2 and FPT3 tests, PHEBUS AIC, QUENCH experiments, NRU-FLHT-5 test, ACRR-MP1 and DC1 experiments, CORA-PWR tests, and PBF-SFD1.4 test. The second session involved ICARE/CATHARE V1mod1 reactor applications and users'guidelines. Among reactor applications we found: code applicability to high burn-up fuel rods, simulation of the TMI-2 transient, simulation of a PWR-900 high pressure severe accident sequence, and the simulation of a VVER-1000 large break LOCA scenario. (A.C.)

  13. Performance analysis of simultaneous dense coding protocol under decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming; Zhang, Cai; Situ, Haozhen

    2017-09-01

    The simultaneous dense coding (SDC) protocol is useful in designing quantum protocols. We analyze the performance of the SDC protocol under the influence of noisy quantum channels. Six kinds of paradigmatic Markovian noise along with one kind of non-Markovian noise are considered. The joint success probability of both receivers and the success probabilities of one receiver are calculated for three different locking operators. Some interesting properties have been found, such as invariance and symmetry. Among the three locking operators we consider, the SWAP gate is most resistant to noise and results in the same success probabilities for both receivers.

  14. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  15. Analysis Code for High Gradient Dielectric Insulator Surface Breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc.; Verboncoeur, John [University of California - Berkeley; Aldan, Manuel [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-05-30

    High voltage (HV) insulators are critical components in high-energy, accelerator and pulsed power systems that drive diverse applications in the national security, nuclear weapons science, defense and industrial arenas. In these systems, the insulator may separate vacuum/non-vacuum regions or conductors with high electrical field gradients. These insulators will often fail at electric fields over an order of magnitude lower than their intrinsic dielectric strength due to flashover at the dielectric interface. Decades of studies have produced a wealth of information on fundamental processes and mechanisms important for flashover initiation, but only for relatively simple insulator configurations in controlled environments. Accelerator and pulsed power system designers are faced with applying the fundamental knowledge to complex, operational devices with escalating HV requirements. Designers are forced to rely on “best practices” and expensive prototype testing, providing boundaries for successful operation. However, the safety margin is difficult to estimate, and system design must be very conservative for situations where testing is not practicable, or replacement of failed parts is disruptive or expensive. The Phase I program demonstrated the feasibility of developing an advanced code for modeling insulator breakdown. Such a code would be of great interest for a number of applications, including high energy physics, microwave source development, fusion sciences, and other research and industrial applications using high voltage devices.

  16. The error performance analysis over cyclic redundancy check codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee B.

    1991-06-01

    The burst error is generated in digital communication networks by various unpredictable conditions, which occur at high error rates, for short durations, and can impact services. To completely describe a burst error one has to know the bit pattern. This is impossible in practice on working systems. Therefore, under the memoryless binary symmetric channel (MBSC) assumptions, the performance evaluation or estimation schemes for digital signal 1 (DS1) transmission systems carrying live traffic is an interesting and important problem. This study will present some analytical methods, leading to efficient detecting algorithms of burst error using cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code. The definition of burst error is introduced using three different models. Among the three burst error models, the mathematical model is used in this study. The probability density function, function(b) of burst error of length b is proposed. The performance of CRC-n codes is evaluated and analyzed using function(b) through the use of a computer simulation model within CRC block burst error. The simulation result shows that the mean block burst error tends to approach the pattern of the burst error which random bit errors generate.

  17. Jointly Decoded Raptor Codes: Analysis and Design for the BIAWGN Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkiah Auguste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We are interested in the analysis and optimization of Raptor codes under a joint decoding framework, that is, when the precode and the fountain code exchange soft information iteratively. We develop an analytical asymptotic convergence analysis of the joint decoder, derive an optimization method for the design of efficient output degree distributions, and show that the new optimized distributions outperform the existing ones, both at long and moderate lengths. We also show that jointly decoded Raptor codes are robust to channel variation: they perform reasonably well over a wide range of channel capacities. This robustness property was already known for the erasure channel but not for the Gaussian channel. Finally, we discuss some finite length code design issues. Contrary to what is commonly believed, we show by simulations that using a relatively low rate for the precode , we can improve greatly the error floor performance of the Raptor code.

  18. A Convolutional Code-Based Sequence Analysis Model and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Geng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for encoding DNA sequences as input for DNA sequence analysis is proposed using the error correction coding theory of communication engineering. The encoder was designed as a convolutional code model whose generator matrix is designed based on the degeneracy of codons, with a codon treated in the model as an informational unit. The utility of the proposed model was demonstrated through the analysis of twelve prokaryote and nine eukaryote DNA sequences having different GC contents. Distinct differences in code distances were observed near the initiation and termination sites in the open reading frame, which provided a well-regulated characterization of the DNA sequences. Clearly distinguished period-3 features appeared in the coding regions, and the characteristic average code distances of the analyzed sequences were approximately proportional to their GC contents, particularly in the selected prokaryotic organisms, presenting the potential utility as an added taxonomic characteristic for use in studying the relationships of living organisms.

  19. Comparative analysis of the Code of Professional Ethics in Bulgaria and the Hippocratic Oath, Declaration of Geneva and International Code of Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Silviya

    2005-09-01

    In this paper I aim at making a comparative analysis of The Code of Professional Ethics in Bulgaria (CPEB), The Hippocratic Oath, The Declaration of Geneva, and The World Medical Association International Code of Medical Ethics. Two problems of special interest are explored: whether the leading principles of fundamental ethical codes are presented in CPEB and whether the code itself is relevant to the current medical professional and social situation in the country. The conclusion reached after a step-by-step analysis is that CPEB attempts to cover a wide range of principles and problems in medical practice and corresponds with the fundamental ethical codes. Although the code is criticized in some points, it could be very useful, provided that it is well publicized in the profession.

  20. Analysis of the Length of Braille Texts in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth Code, and Computer Braille Code versus the Unified English Braille Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Marie; Wetzel, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the length of text in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth code, and the computer braille code with the Unified English Braille Code (UEBC)--also known as Unified English Braille (UEB). The findings indicate that differences in the length of text are dependent on the type of material that is transcribed and the grade…

  1. Analysis of optical pulse coding in spontaneous Brillouin-based distributed temperature sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcelo A. Soto; Gabriele Bolognini; Fabrizio Di Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of optical pulse coding techniques applied to distributed optical fiber temperature sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering using the Landau-Placzek ratio (LPR...

  2. De-randomizing Shannon: The Design and Analysis of a Capacity-Achieving Rateless Code

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, Hari; Perry, Jonathan; Shah, Devavrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of spinal codes, a class of rateless codes proposed recently. We prove that spinal codes achieve Shannon capacity for the binary symmetric channel (BSC) and the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with an efficient polynomial-time encoder and decoder. They are the first rateless codes with proofs of these properties for BSC and AWGN. The key idea in the spinal code is the sequential application of a hash function over the message bits. The sequential structure of the code turns out to be crucial for efficient decoding. Moreover, counter to the wisdom of having an expander structure in good codes, we show that the spinal code, despite its sequential structure, achieves capacity. The pseudo-randomness provided by a hash function suffices for this purpose. Our proof introduces a variant of Gallager's result characterizing the error exponent of random codes for any memoryless channel. We present a novel application of these error-exponent results within the framework of an...

  3. Probabilistic analysis of PWR and BWR fuel rod performance using the code CASINO-SLEUTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, A.J.

    1987-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the Monte Carlo and response surface techniques used in the code, and a probabilistic analysis of fuel rod performance in PWR and BWR applications. The analysis shows that fission gas release predictions are very sensitive to changes in certain of the code's inputs, identifies the most dominant input parameters and compares their effects in the two cases.

  4. Sensitivity analysis codes fire simulation; Analisis de sensibilidad en codigos de simulacion contra incendios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero Garcia, S.; Peco Espinosa, J.

    2010-07-01

    The fire simulation and analytical validation procedures have been gaining importance in the context of safety analysis and probabilistic deterministic Fire at Nuclear Power Plants. Meanwhile, the fire simulation codes have been accepted as valuable tools for risk analysis in fire protection. To evaluate the quality and predictability of the codes used in fire protection, they are validated with different experiments. This work is performed to find the dependency of the FDS output parameters against a certain input.

  5. A Lower-hybrid/Fast-wave package for the TRANSP transport analysis code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobes, F. C.; Ignat, D. W.; McCune, D. C.

    1996-11-01

    A software package is being added to the TRANSP code which will permit analysis of tokamak plasmas with either lower hybrid current drive or fast wave heating or current drive. The package is a outgrowth of the LSC (Lower Hybrid Simulation) code(Ignat, D. W. et al.), Nucl. Fusion 34 837 (1994). used in conjunction with TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code)(Jardin, S. C. et al.), J. Comput. Phys. 66 481 (1986). The fastwave analysis was added to LSC, and and that combined package then adapted to TRANSP usage.

  6. Assessment on the characteristics of the analysis code for KALIMER PSDRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Seong O.; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Eui Kwang; Wi, Myung Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The PARS2 code was developed to analyze the RHR(Residual Heat Removal) system, especially PSDRS(Passive Safety Decay Heat Removal System), of KALIMER. In this report, preliminary verification and sensitivity analyses for PARS2 code were performed. From the results of the analyses, the PARS2 code has a good agreement with the experimental data of CRIEPI in the range of turbulent airside flow, and also the radiation heat transfer mode was well predicted. In this verification work, it was founded that the code calculation stopped in a very low air flowrate, and the numerical scheme related to the convergence of PARS2 code was adjusted to solve this problem. Through the sensitivity analysis on the PARS2 calculation results from the change of the input parameters, the pool-mixing coefficient related to the heat capacity of the structure in the system was improved such that the physical phenomenon can be well predicted. Also the initial conditions for the code calculation such as the hot and cold pool temperatures at the PSDRS commencing time were set up by using the transient analysis of the COMMIX code, and the surface emissivity of PSDRS was investigated and its permitted variation rage was set up. From this study, overall sensitivity characteristics of the PARS2 code were investigated and the results of the sensitivity analyses can be used in the design of the RHR system of KALIMER. 14 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  7. The significance, development and progress of high-throughput combinatorial histone code analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicolas L; Dimaggio, Peter A; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2010-12-01

    The physiological state of eukaryotic DNA is chromatin. Nucleosomes, which consist of DNA in complex with histones, are the fundamental unit of chromatin. The post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play a critical role in the control of gene transcription, epigenetics and other DNA-templated processes. It has been known for several years that these PTMs function in concert to allow for the storage and transduction of highly specific signals through combinations of modifications. This code, the combinatorial histone code, functions much like a bar code or combination lock providing the potential for massive information content. The capacity to directly measure these combinatorial histone codes has mostly been laborious and challenging, thus limiting efforts often to one or two samples. Recently, progress has been made in determining such information quickly, quantitatively and sensitively. Here we review both the historical and recent progress toward routine and rapid combinatorial histone code analysis.

  8. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  9. Application of coupled code technique to a safety analysis of a standard MTR research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidouche, Tewfik [Division de l' Environnement, de la Surete et des Dechets Radioactifs, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger (Algeria); Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides Theorique et Appliquee, Faculte de Physique, Universite Des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, (USTHB), Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)], E-mail: t.hamidouche@crna.dz; Bousbia-Salah, Anis [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleari e della Produzione-Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: b.salah@ing.unipi.it; Si-Ahmed, El Khider [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides Theorique et Appliquee, Faculte de Physique, Universite Des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, (USTHB), Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)], E-mail: esi-ahmed@usthb.dz; Mokeddem, Mohamed Yazid [Division de la Physique et des Applications Nucleaires, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire de Draria (CRND) (Algeria); D' Auria, Franscesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleari e della Produzione-Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Accident analyses in nuclear research reactors have been performed, up to now, using simple computational tools based on conservative physical models. These codes, developed to focus on specific phenomena in the reactor, were widely used for licensing purposes. Nowadays, the advances in computer technology make it possible to switch to a new generation of computational tools that provides more realistic description of the phenomena occurring in a nuclear research reactor. Recent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) activities have emphasized the maturity in using Best Estimate (BE) Codes in the analysis of accidents in research reactors. Indeed, some assessments have already been performed using BE thermal-hydraulic system codes such as RELAP5/Mod3. The challenge today is oriented to the application of coupled code techniques for research reactors safety analyses. Within the framework of the current study, a Three-Dimensional Neutron Kinetics Thermal-Hydraulic Model (3D-NKTH) based on coupled PARCS and RELAP5/Mod3.3 codes has been developed for the IAEA High Enriched Uranium (HEU) benchmark core. The results of the steady state calculations are sketched by comparison to tabulated results issued from the IAEA TECDOC 643. These data were obtained using conventional diffusion codes as well as Monte Carlo codes. On the other hand, the transient analysis was assessed with conventional coupled point kinetics-thermal-hydraulic channel codes such as RELAP5 stand alone, RETRAC-PC, and PARET codes. Through this study, the applicability of the coupled code technique is emphasized with an outline of some remaining challenges.

  10. Fuel burnup analysis for IRIS reactor using MCNPX and WIMS-D5 codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, E. A.; Bashter, I. I.; Hassan, Nabil M.; Mustafa, S. S.

    2017-02-01

    International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) reactor is a compact power reactor designed with especial features. It contains Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber (IFBA). The core is heterogeneous both axially and radially. This work provides the full core burn up analysis for IRIS reactor using MCNPX and WIMDS-D5 codes. Criticality calculations, radial and axial power distributions and nuclear peaking factor at the different stages of burnup were studied. Effective multiplication factor values for the core were estimated by coupling MCNPX code with WIMS-D5 code and compared with SAS2H/KENO-V code values at different stages of burnup. The two calculation codes show good agreement and correlation. The values of radial and axial powers for the full core were also compared with published results given by SAS2H/KENO-V code (at the beginning and end of reactor operation). The behavior of both radial and axial power distribution is quiet similar to the other data published by SAS2H/KENO-V code. The peaking factor values estimated in the present work are close to its values calculated by SAS2H/KENO-V code.

  11. A new correlation for convective heat transfer coefficient of water–alumina nanofluid in a square array subchannel under PWR condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Jubair A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Bhowmik, Palash K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1201 N. State St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Xiangyi, Chen [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kune Y., E-mail: kysuh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Thermo-hydrodynamic properties of water–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofluid at PWR condition is analyzed. • Details of CFD simulation and validation procedure is outlined. • Augmented heat transfer capacity of nanofluid is governed by larger pumping power. • A new correlation for nanofluid Nusselt number in subchannel geometry is proposed. - Abstract: The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is performed to determine on the thermo- and hydrodynamic performance of the water–alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanofluid in a square array subchannel featuring pitch-to-diameter ratios of 1.25 and 1.35. Two fundamental aspects of thermal hydraulics, viz. heat transfer and pressure drop, are assessed under typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions at various flow rates (3 × 10{sup 5} ⩽ Re ⩽ 6 × 10{sup 5}) using pure water and differing concentrations of water–alumina nanofluid (0.5–3.0 vol.%) as coolant. Numerical results are compared against predictions made by conventional single-phase convective heat transfer and pressure loss correlations for fully developed turbulent flow. It is observed that addition of tiny nanoparticles in PWR coolant can give rise to the convective heat transfer coefficient at the expense of larger pressure drop. Nevertheless, a modified correlation as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction is proposed to estimate nanofluid Nusselt number more precisely in square array subchannel.

  12. ICC-CLASS: isotopically-coded cleavable crosslinking analysis software suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borchers Christoph H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful application of crosslinking combined with mass spectrometry for studying proteins and protein complexes requires specifically-designed crosslinking reagents, experimental techniques, and data analysis software. Using isotopically-coded ("heavy and light" versions of the crosslinker and cleavable crosslinking reagents is analytically advantageous for mass spectrometric applications and provides a "handle" that can be used to distinguish crosslinked peptides of different types, and to increase the confidence of the identification of the crosslinks. Results Here, we describe a program suite designed for the analysis of mass spectrometric data obtained with isotopically-coded cleavable crosslinkers. The suite contains three programs called: DX, DXDX, and DXMSMS. DX searches the mass spectra for the presence of ion signal doublets resulting from the light and heavy isotopic forms of the isotopically-coded crosslinking reagent used. DXDX searches for possible mass matches between cleaved and uncleaved isotopically-coded crosslinks based on the established chemistry of the cleavage reaction for a given crosslinking reagent. DXMSMS assigns the crosslinks to the known protein sequences, based on the isotopically-coded and un-coded MS/MS fragmentation data of uncleaved and cleaved peptide crosslinks. Conclusion The combination of these three programs, which are tailored to the analytical features of the specific isotopically-coded cleavable crosslinking reagents used, represents a powerful software tool for automated high-accuracy peptide crosslink identification. See: http://www.creativemolecules.com/CM_Software.htm

  13. FRAPCON-1: a computer code for the steady state analysis of oxide fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, G. A.; Bohn, M. P.; Coleman, D. R.; Lanning, D. D.

    1978-08-01

    FRAPCON is a FORTRAN IV computer code which predicts the steady state long-term burnup response of a light water reactor fuel rod. The coupled effects of fuel and cladding deformation, temperature, and internal gas pressure on the behavior of the fuel rod are considered in determining fuel rod response. The cladding deformation model includes multi-axial, elasto-plastic analysis and considers both primary and secondary creep. The fuel temperature model considers the effects of fuel cracking and relocation in determining the fuel temperature distribution. Burnup dependent fission gas generation and release is included in calculating fuel rod internal pressure. An integral fuel rod failure subcode determines failure and failure modes based on the operating conditions at each timestep. The material property subcode, MATPRO, provides gas, fuel and cladding properties to the computational subcodes in FRAPCON. No material properties need to be supplied by the code user. FRAPCON is a completely modular code with each major computational subcode isolated within the code and coupled to the main code by subroutine calls and data transfer through argument lists. FRAPCON is soft-coupled to the transient fuel rod code, FRAP-T, to provide initial conditions to initiate analysis of such off-normal transients as a loss-of-coolant accident. The code is presently programmed and running on a CDC 7600 computer.

  14. TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-03-01

    The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Quantification for the LAMMPS Molecular Dynamics Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bhat, Kabekode Ghanasham [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-18

    We examine sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification for molecular dynamics simulation. Extreme (large or small) output values for the LAMMPS code often occur at the boundaries of input regions, and uncertainties in those boundary values are overlooked by common SA methods. Similarly, input values for which code outputs are consistent with calibration data can also occur near boundaries. Upon applying approaches in the literature for imprecise probabilities (IPs), much more realistic results are obtained than for the complacent application of standard SA and code calibration.

  16. Distributed Space-Time Block Coded Transmission with Imperfect Channel Estimation: Achievable Rate and Power Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Aïssa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of channel estimation error at the receiver on the achievable rate of distributed space-time block coded transmission. We consider that multiple transmitters cooperate to send the signal to the receiver and derive lower and upper bounds on the mutual information of distributed space-time block codes (D-STBCs when the channel gains and channel estimation error variances pertaining to different transmitter-receiver links are unequal. Then, assessing the gap between these two bounds, we provide a limiting value that upper bounds the latter at any input transmit powers, and also show that the gap is minimum if the receiver can estimate the channels of different transmitters with the same accuracy. We further investigate positioning the receiving node such that the mutual information bounds of D-STBCs and their robustness to the variations of the subchannel gains are maximum, as long as the summation of these gains is constant. Furthermore, we derive the optimum power transmission strategy to achieve the outage capacity lower bound of D-STBCs under arbitrary numbers of transmit and receive antennas, and provide closed-form expressions for this capacity metric. Numerical simulations are conducted to corroborate our analysis and quantify the effects of imperfect channel estimation.

  17. Development of 3-D Flow Analysis Code for Fuel Assembly using Unstructured Grid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Hyon Kook; Kim, Jong Eun; Ahn, Jong Ki; Yang, Seung Yong [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The flow through a nuclear rod bundle with mixing vanes are very complex and required a suitable turbulence model to be predicted accurately. Final objective of this study is to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system. In order to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system, the following researches are made: - Development of numerical algorithm for CFD code's solver - Grid and geometric connectivity data - Development of software(PowerCFD code) for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system - Modulation of software(PowerCFD code) - Development of turbulence model - Development of analysis module of RANS/LES hybrid models - Analysis of turbulent flow and heat transfer - Basic study on LES analysis - Development of main frame on pre/post processors based on GUI - Algorithm for fully-developed flow.

  18. Analysis and reflection of the Code of Ethics of Social Workers

    OpenAIRE

    PODZIMKOVÁ, Petra

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with professional ethical reflection and analysis of the code of ethics of social workers to join in the broader context of the social work profession and human rights principles. The introduction deals with disabilities, the basic concepts of ethics and social work with regard to the specifics of the social work profession and the requirements of professional social worker. Based on professional ethical reflection theoretical work also analyzes the document Code of Ethics of ...

  19. Studies on the liquid fluoride thorium reactor: Comparative neutronics analysis of MCNP6 code with SRAC95 reactor analysis code based on FUJI-U3-(0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaradat, S.Q., E-mail: sqjxv3@mst.edu; Alajo, A.B., E-mail: alajoa@mst.edu

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The verification for FUJI-U3-(0)—a molten salt reactor—was performed. • The MCNP6 was used to study the reactor physics characteristics for FUJI-U3 type. • The results from the MCNP6 were comparable with the ones obtained from literature. - Abstract: The verification for FUJI-U3-(0)—a molten salt reactor—was performed. The reactor used LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 as the mixed liquid fuel salt, and the core was graphite moderated. The MCNP6 code was used to study the reactor physics characteristics for the FUJI-U3-(0) reactor. Results for reactor physics characteristic of the FUJI-U3-(0) exist in literature, which were used as reference. The reference results were obtained using SRAC95 (a reactor analysis code) coupled with ORIGEN2 (a depletion code). Some modifications were made in the reconstruction of the FUJI-U3-(0) reactor in MCNP due to unavailability of more detailed description of the reactor core. The assumptions resulted in two representative models of the reactor. The results from the MCNP6 models were compared with the reference results obtained from literature. The results were comparable with each other, but with some notable differences. The differences are because of the approximations that were done on the SRAC95 model of the FUJI-U3 to simplify the simulation. Based on the results, it is concluded that MCNP6 code predicts well the overall simulation of neutronics analysis to the previous simulation works using SRAC95 code.

  20. Development of a thermal-hydraulic code for reflood analysis in a PWR experimental loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Sabrina P.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C., E-mail: sabrinapral@gmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.brm, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A process of fundamental importance in the event of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR) is the reflood of the core or rewetting of nuclear fuels. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has been developing since the 70’s programs to allow Brazil to become independent in the field of reactor safety analysis. To that end, in the 80’s was designed, assembled and commissioned one Rewetting Test Facility (ITR in Portuguese). This facility aims to investigate the phenomena involved in the thermal hydraulic reflood phase of a Loss of Coolant Accident in a PWR nuclear reactor. This work aim is the analysis of physical and mathematical models governing the rewetting phenomenon, and the development a thermo-hydraulic simulation code of a representative experimental circuit of the PWR reactors core cooling channels. It was possible to elaborate and develop a code called REWET. The results obtained with REWET were compared with the experimental results of the ITR, and with the results of the Hydroflut code, that was the old program previously used. An analysis was made of the evolution of the wall temperature of the test section as well as the evolution of the front for two typical tests using the two codes calculation, and experimental results. The result simulated by REWET code for the rewetting time also came closer to the experimental results more than those calculated by Hydroflut code. (author)

  1. Development and preliminary validation of a steam generator 3D thermohydraulics analysis code STAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Tenglong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zhang, Rui; Tian, Wenxi; Qiu, Suizheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Su, G.H., E-mail: ghsu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • A steam generator thermohydraulics analysis code STAF is developed based on FLUENT. • Heat transfer from primary to secondary side is calculated during iteration in STAF. • Localized flow characteristics in steam generator can be obtained by STAF. • STAF is validated by simulating the AP 1000 steam generator. • STAF is validated by FRIGG test. - Abstract: Porous media model in Fluent code, coupled with two-phase mixture flow model, resistance model of tubes and heat transfer model through tubes, is employed to develop a steam generator thermohydraulics analysis code STAF (Steam generator Thermohydraulics Analysis code based on Fluent). In this code, the heat transfer from primary to secondary side is calculated three-dimensionally during iteration. The localized velocity, temperature, enthalpy, quality and void fraction in steam generator can be obtained by this code. STAF is validated in two ways. First, STAF is used to calculate the thermal-hydraulic parameters in steam generator of AP 1000. The calculated results are compared with designed values to prove that the coupled heat transfer calculation in STAF is accurate. Second, STAF is employed to simulate the FRIGG test to validate the localized parameter calculation performance by comparing the calculated localized void fraction with test values.

  2. Development of platform to compare different wall heat transfer packages for system analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Won Woong; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Gil [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    System thermal hydraulic (STH) analysis code is used for analyzing and evaluating the safety of a designed nuclear system. The system thermal hydraulic analysis code typically solves mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for multiple phases with sets of selected empirical constitutive equations to close the problem. Several STH codes are utilized in academia, industry and regulators, such as MARS-KS, SPACE, RELAP5, COBRA-TF, TRACE, and so on. Each system thermal hydraulic code consists of different sets of governing equations and correlations. However, the packages and sets of correlations of each code are not compared quantitatively yet. Wall heat transfer mode transition maps of SPACE and MARS-KS have a little difference for the transition from wall nucleate heat transfer mode to wall film heat transfer mode. Both codes have the same heat transfer packages and correlations in most region except for wall film heat transfer mode. Most of heat transfer coefficients calculated for the range of selected variables of SPACE are the same with those of MARS-KS. For the intervals between 500K and 540K of wall temperature, MARS-KS selects the wall film heat transfer mode and Bromley correlation but SPACE select the wall nucleate heat transfer mode and Chen correlation. This is because the transition from nucleate boiling to film boiling of MARS-KS is earlier than SPACE. More detailed analysis of the heat transfer package and flow regime package will be followed in the near future.

  3. Performance Comparison of Containment PT analysis between CAP and CONTEMPT Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Jun; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [KHNP-CENTERAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    CAP, in the form that is linked with SPACE, computed the containment back-pressure during LOCA accident. In previous SAR (safety analysis report) report of Shin-Kori Units 3 and 4, the CONTEMPT series of codes(hereby referred to as just 'CONTEMPT') is used to evaluate the containment safety during the postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). In more detail, CONTEMPT-LT/028 was used to calculate the containment maximum PT, while CONTEMPT4/MOD5 to calculate the minimum PT. Actually, in minimum PT analysis, CONTEMPT4/MOD5, which provide back pressure condition of containment, was linked with RELAP5/MOD3.3 which calculate the amount of blowdown into containment. In this analysis, CONTEMPT4/MOD5 was modified based on KREM. CONTEMPT code was developed to predict the long term behavior of water-cooled nuclear reactor containment systems subjected to LOCA conditions. It calculates the time variation of compartment pressures, temperatures, mass and energy inventories, heat structure temperature distributions, and energy exchange with adjacent compartments, leakage on containment response. Models are provided for fan cooler and cooling spray as engineered safety systems. Any compartment may have both a liquid pool region and an air-vapor atmosphere region above the pool. Each region is assumed to have a uniform temperature, but the temperatures of the two regions may be different. As mentioned above, CONTEMP has the similar code features and it therefore is expected to show the similar analysis performance with CAP. In this study, the differences between CAP and two CONTEMPT code versions (CONTEMPT-LT/028 for maximum PT and CONTEMPT4/MOD5 for minimum PT) are, in detail, identified and the code performances were compared for the same problem. Code by code comparison was carried out to identify the difference of LOCA analysis between a series of COMTEMPT and CAP code. With regard to important factors that affect the transient behavior of compartment thermodynamic

  4. Development of CIAU database for NPP safety analysis by Cathare2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Nevo, A.; D' Auria, F. [Pisa Univ., Dept. of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    The process of application of Best Estimate (BE) computer codes to the safety analysis of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) implies the evaluation of uncertainty. This uncertainty is due to several causes connected with such codes and their use that includes the approximations in the constitutive equations, the numerical solution methods, the imperfect knowledge of boundary and initial conditions, nodalization and user effects, etc. The application of the BE SYStem (BE-SYS) codes with the connected uncertainty of the final results allows to provide a good view of existing margins or limits on NPP operation, consequently offering a basis for possible parameters optimizations. For this reasons, given the availability of mature codes for BE analysis and in the framework of the research of methods and tools for uncertainty evaluation, in the early nineties, University of Pisa (UNIPI) proposed a methodology, the Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE), using measured and calculated data related to counterpart and similarity tests performed in Integral Test Facilities (ITF). The objective was to avoid or minimize the expert judgments. Some years later, following the experience of UMAE, a new method was developed. This method, the Code with the capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU), aims at the objectives of reducing the dependence by the engineering judgments and the resources needed for the uncertainty evaluation. On the other hand, the application of the CIAU method implies the availability of a database constituted by a Quantity Uncertainty Matrix (QUM) and Time Uncertainty Vector (TUV) set up using qualified experimental data and qualified system code calculation results. This is the topic of this paper that describes the development of the database for the CIAU method application to CATHARE2 code. The activity and the methodology used are highlighted, including the main features of the database carried out in order to perform BE

  5. Finite-SNR analysis for partial relaying cooperation with channel coding and opportunistic relay selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thang X.; Duhamel, Pierre; Chatzinotas, Symeon; Ottersten, Bjorn

    2017-12-01

    This work studies the performance of a cooperative network which consists of two channel-coded sources, multiple relays, and one destination. To achieve high spectral efficiency, we assume that a single time slot is dedicated to relaying. Conventional network-coded-based cooperation (NCC) selects the best relay which uses network coding to serve the two sources simultaneously. The bit error rate (BER) performance of NCC with channel coding, however, is still unknown. In this paper, we firstly study the BER of NCC via a closed-form expression and analytically show that NCC only achieves diversity of order two regardless of the number of available relays and the channel code. Secondly, we propose a novel partial relaying-based cooperation (PARC) scheme to improve the system diversity in the finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. In particular, closed-form expressions for the system BER and diversity order of PARC are derived as a function of the operating SNR value and the minimum distance of the channel code. We analytically show that the proposed PARC achieves full (instantaneous) diversity order in the finite SNR regime, given that an appropriate channel code is used. Finally, numerical results verify our analysis and demonstrate a large SNR gain of PARC over NCC in the SNR region of interest.

  6. The Analysis of Dimensionality Reduction Techniques in Cryptographic Object Code Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason L. Wright; Milos Manic

    2010-05-01

    This paper compares the application of three different dimension reduction techniques to the problem of locating cryptography in compiled object code. A simple classi?er is used to compare dimension reduction via sorted covariance, principal component analysis, and correlation-based feature subset selection. The analysis concentrates on the classi?cation accuracy as the number of dimensions is increased.

  7. Improvement in the Plutonium Parameter Files of the FRAM Isotopic Analysis Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. T. Vo; T. E. Sampson

    2000-09-01

    The isotopic analysis code Fixed-energy Response-function Analysis with Multiple efficiency (FRAM) employs user-editable parameter sets to analyze a broad range of sample types. This report presents new parameter files, based upon a new set of plutonium branding ratios, which give more accurate isotope results than the current parameter files that use FRAM.

  8. A three-dimensional pin-wise analysis for CEA ejection accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Guen-Tae; Park, Min-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Um, Kil-Sup; Choi, Tong-Soo [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The ejection of a control element assembly (CEA) with high reactivity worth causes the sudden insertion of reactivity into the core. Immediately after the CEA ejection, the nuclear power of the reactor dramatically increases in an exponential behavior until the doppler effect becomes important and turns the reactivity balance and power down to lower levels. The 3-D CEA ejection analysis methodology has been developed using the multi-dimensional code coupling system, CHASER, which couples three dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, subchannel analysis code THALES, and fuel performance analysis code FROST using message passing interface (MPI). This paper presents the pin-by-pin level analysis result with the 3-D CEA ejection analysis methodology using the CHASER. The pin-by-pin level analysis consists of DNBR, enthalpy and Pellet/Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI) analysis. All the evaluations are simulated for APR1400 plant loaded with PLUS7 fuel. In this paper, the pin-by-pin analysis using the multidimensional core transient code, CHASER, is presented with respect to enthalpy, DNBR and PCMI for APR1400 plant loaded with PLUS7 fuel. For the pin-by-pin enthalpy and DNBR analysis, the quarter core for HFP case or 15 - 20 assemblies around the most severe assembly for part powers or HZP cases are selected. And PCMI calculation is performed for all the rods in the whole core during a conservative time period. The pin-by-pin analysis results show that the regulatory guidelines of CEA ejection accident are satisfied.

  9. Preliminary Core Analysis of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor Using DeCART Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The 2-dimensional core analysis for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has been performed. The HTTR is a graphite-moderated and helium gas cooled reactor with an outlet temperature of 950 .deg. C and thermal output of 30 MW. In this study, the DECART code is used with a 190-group KARMA library. The calculation results are compared with those of the McCARD with the ENDF-B/VII.0 library. From the analysis results, it is known that the DeCART code generally overestimates k{sub inf} with a moderator temperature variation. In addition, it can be seen that the DeCART code predicts less negative MTC than the McCARD code. However, the DeCART code gives a slightly more negative FTC value. From the depletion results, the error of the DeCART decreases over the burnup until 600 FPD. The DeCART code gives very similar trend within the error of 190 pcm, which is very small error when compared with other result.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Corporate Governance Codes of the Five BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Colares Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the codes of good corporate governance (CG practices adopted by the five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa using the set of practices recommended by the United Nations (UN as categories of analysis. The present study was exploratory (our comparison of the CG codes of the five BRICS countries in light of the UN recommended practices has no precedent in the literature. Its nature is qualitative because we performed a multiple case study focused on a specific group of countries – BRICS – and used the content analysis technic to analyze and cross data with the literature reviewed. The research is documental because it is based on a review of documents and the literature. Among the five BRICS countries, the Corporate Governance codes of Brazil, Russia and South Africa are those most closely aligned with the recommendations set forth by the UN. It was observed that although these countries are developing their codes of good corporate governance practices focused on the requirements of international investors, corporate governance and codes in these countries are at very different stages. In comparison, the low level of convergence of the Chinese and Indian codes with the UN recommendations suggests a greater concern in those countries with the local context than with international standards.

  11. Demonstration of Emulator-Based Bayesian Calibration of Safety Analysis Codes: Theory and Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Yurko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available System codes for simulation of safety performance of nuclear plants may contain parameters whose values are not known very accurately. New information from tests or operating experience is incorporated into safety codes by a process known as calibration, which reduces uncertainty in the output of the code and thereby improves its support for decision-making. The work reported here implements several improvements on classic calibration techniques afforded by modern analysis techniques. The key innovation has come from development of code surrogate model (or code emulator construction and prediction algorithms. Use of a fast emulator makes the calibration processes used here with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC sampling feasible. This work uses Gaussian Process (GP based emulators, which have been used previously to emulate computer codes in the nuclear field. The present work describes the formulation of an emulator that incorporates GPs into a factor analysis-type or pattern recognition-type model. This “function factorization” Gaussian Process (FFGP model allows overcoming limitations present in standard GP emulators, thereby improving both accuracy and speed of the emulator-based calibration process. Calibration of a friction-factor example using a Method of Manufactured Solution is performed to illustrate key properties of the FFGP based process.

  12. Regulation of Coding and Non-coding Genes : New insights obtained through analysis of high-throughput sequencing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rooijers (Koos)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe genetic code of a cell is kept in its DNA. However, a vast number of functions of a cell are carried out by proteins. Through gene expression the genetic code can be expressed and give rise to proteins. The expression of genes into proteins follows two steps: transcription of

  13. Application of CFD Codes in Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Höhne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD is increasingly being used in nuclear reactor safety (NRS analyses as a tool that enables safety relevant phenomena occurring in the reactor coolant system to be described in more detail. Numerical investigations on single phase coolant mixing in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR have been performed at the FZD for almost a decade. The work is aimed at describing the mixing phenomena relevant for both safety analysis, particularly in steam line break and boron dilution scenarios, and mixing phenomena of interest for economical operation and the structural integrity. For the experimental investigation of horizontal two phase flows, different non pressurized channels and the TOPFLOW Hot Leg model in a pressure chamber was build and simulated with ANSYS CFX. In a common project between the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz and FZD the behaviour of insulation material released by a LOCA released into the containment and might compromise the long term emergency cooling systems is investigated. Moreover, the actual capability of CFD is shown to contribute to fuel rod bundle design with a good CHF performance.

  14. A New Phenomenon in Saudi Females’ Code-switching: A Morphemic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona O. Turjoman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This sociolinguistics study investigates a new phenomenon that has recently surfaced in the field of code-switching among Saudi females residing in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. This phenomenon basically combines bound Arabic pronouns, tense markers or definite article to English free morphemes or the combination of bound English affixes to Arabic morphemes. Moreover, the study examines the factors that affect this type of code-switching. The results of the study indicate that this phenomenon provides data that invalidates Poplack’s (1980 universality of the ‘Free Morpheme Constraint’. It is also concluded that the main factors that influence this type of code-switching is solidarity and group identity among other factors. Keywords: Code-switching, Saudi females, sociolinguistics, CS factors, morphemic analysis

  15. Development of Advanced Suite of Deterministic Codes for VHTR Physics Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Cho, J. Y.; Lee, K. H. (and others)

    2007-07-15

    Advanced Suites of deterministic codes for VHTR physics analysis has been developed for detailed analysis of current and advanced reactor designs as part of a US-ROK collaborative I-NERI project. These code suites include the conventional 2-step procedure in which a few group constants are generated by a transport lattice calculation, and the reactor physics analysis is performed by a 3-dimensional diffusion calculation, and a whole core transport code that can model local heterogeneities directly at the core level. Particular modeling issues in physics analysis of the gas-cooled VHTRs were resolved, which include a double heterogeneity of the coated fuel particles, a neutron streaming in the coolant channels, a strong core-reflector interaction, and large spectrum shifts due to changes of the surrounding environment, temperature and burnup. And the geometry handling capability of the DeCART code were extended to deal with the hexagonal fuel elements of the VHTR core. The developed code suites were validated and verified by comparing the computational results with those of the Monte Carlo calculations for the benchmark problems.

  16. Development of a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for annular fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnoi, A.K.; Chandraker, D.K.; Vijayan, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Centre (BARC), Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2012-03-15

    In this work a detailed study of the annular fuel has been carried out. A thermal hydraulics code, ANUFAN (Annular Fuel Analysis), based on the bundle average method, capable of modeling both internally and externally cooled annular fuel pins is developed. Code predictions have been compared with calculations from Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and MIT. Heat transfer fraction difference between ANUFAN and RELAP was found about 1.7%. Analysis of a 54 - fuel rod assembly is carried out with 36 and 45 numbers of annular fuel pins keeping the same channel size and bundle power as of the solid fuel assembly. Fuel pin maximum temperature of the annular fuel is found much less than the solid fuel. MCHFR value for annular fuel is found much higher compared to that of the solid fuel of 54 - fuel rod assembly. The full paper covers the details of the computer code, the analysis carried out and the results obtained. (orig.)

  17. Development and application of a deflagration pressure analysis code for high level waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, S.J.; Thomas, J.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Deflagration Pressure Analysis Code (DPAC) was developed primarily to evaluate peak pressures for deflagrations in radioactive waste storage and process facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Deflagrations in these facilities are generally considered to be incredible events, but it was judged prudent to develop modeling capabilities in order to facilitate risk estimates. DPAC is essentially an engineering analysis tool, as opposed to a detailed thermal hydraulics code. It accounts for mass loss via venting, energy dissipation by radiative heat transfer, and gas PdV work. Volume increases due to vessel deformation can also be included using pressure-volume data from a structural analysis of the enclosure. This paper presents an overview of the code, benchmarking, and applications at SRS.

  18. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  19. Performance Analysis of Iterative Decoding Algorithms for PEG LDPC Codes in Nakagami Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Al Rasheed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give a comparative analysis of decoding algorithms of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes in a channel with the Nakagami distribution of the fading envelope. We consider the Progressive Edge-Growth (PEG method and Improved PEG method for the parity check matrix construction, which can be used to avoid short girths, small trapping sets and a high level of error floor. A comparative analysis of several classes of LDPC codes in various propagation conditions and decoded using different decoding algorithms is also presented.

  20. An overview of data acquisition, signal coding and data analysis techniques for MST radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the data acquisition, signal processing, and data analysis techniques that are currently in use with high power MST/ST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere/stratosphere troposphere) radars. This review supplements the works of Rastogi (1983) and Farley (1984) presented at previous MAP workshops. A general description is given of data acquisition and signal processing operations and they are characterized on the basis of their disparate time scales. Then signal coding, a brief description of frequently used codes, and their limitations are discussed, and finally, several aspects of statistical data processing such as signal statistics, power spectrum and autocovariance analysis, outlier removal techniques are discussed.

  1. A Rasch analysis of nurses' ethical sensitivity to the norms of the code of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-de Paz, Luis; Kostov, Belchin; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni; Zabalegui-Yárnoz, Adela

    2012-10-01

    To develop an instrument to measure nurses' ethical sensitivity and, secondarily, to use this instrument to compare nurses' ethical sensitivity between groups. Professional codes of conduct are widely accepted guidelines. However, their efficacy in daily nursing practice and influence on ethical sensitivity is controversial. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and forty-three registered nurses from Barcelona (Spain) participated in the study, of whom 45.83% were working in primary health care and 53.84% in hospital wards. A specifically designed confidential, self-administered questionnaire assessing ethical sensitivity was developed. Knowledge of the nursing code and data on ethical sensitivity were summarised, with the quality of the questionnaire assessed using Rasch analysis. Item on knowledge of the code showed that one-third of nurses knew the contents of the code and two-thirds had limited knowledge. To fit the Rasch model, it was necessary to rescore the rating scale from five to three categories. Residual principal components analysis confirmed the unidimensionality of the scale. Three items of the questionnaire presented fit problems with the Rasch model. Although nurses generally have high ethical sensitivity to their code of conduct, differences were found according to years of professional practice, place of work and knowledge of the code (pcode was high. However, many factors might influence the degree of ethical sensitivity. Further research to measure ethical sensitivity using invariant measures such as Rasch units would be valuable. Other factors, such as assertiveness or courage, should be considered to improve ethical sensitivity to the code of conduct. Rigorous measurement studies and analysis in applied ethics are needed to assess ethical performance in practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, Paul Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Laboratories

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  3. Validation Calculations for the Application of MARS Code to the Safety Analysis of Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol; Kim, H.; Chae, H. T.; Lim, I. C

    2006-10-15

    In order to investigate the applicability of MARS code to the accident analysis of the HANARO and other RRs, the following test data were simulated. Test data of the HANARO design and operation, Test data of flow instability and void fraction from published documents, IAEA RR transient data in TECDOC-643, Brazilian IEA-R1 experimental data. For the simulation of the HANARO data with finned rod type fuels at low pressure and low temperature conditions, MARS code, developed for the transient analysis of power reactors, was modified. Its prediction capability was assessed against the experimental data for the HANARO. From the assessment results, it can be said that the modified MARS code could be used for analyzing the thermal hydraulic transient of the HANARO. Some other simulations such as flow instability test and reactor transients were also done for the application of MARS code to RRs with plate type fuels. In the simulation for these cases, no modification was made. The results of simulated cases show that the MARS code can be used to the transient analysis of RRs with careful considerations. In particular, it seems that an improvement on a void model may be necessary for dealing with the phenomena in high void conditions.

  4. Recent development and application of a new safety analysis code for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J., E-mail: Brad.Merrill@inl.gov; Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Shimada, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents recent code development activities for the MELCOR for fusion and Tritium Migration Analysis Program computer codes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. • The capabilities of these computer codes are being merged into a single safety analysis tool for fusion reactor accidents. • The result of benchmarking these codes against previous code versions is presented by the authors of this paper. • This new capability is applied to study the tritium inventory and permeation rate for a water cold tungsten divertor that has neutron damage at 0.3 dpa. - Abstract: This paper describes the recent progress made in the development of two codes for fusion reactor safety assessments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): MELCOR for fusion and the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP). During the ITER engineering design activity (EDA), the INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) modified the MELCOR 1.8.2 code for fusion applications to perform ITER thermal hydraulic safety analyses. Because MELCOR has undergone many improvements at SNL-NM since version 1.8.2 was released, the INL FSP recently imported these same fusion modifications into the MELCOR 1.8.6 code, along with the multiple fluids modifications of MELCOR 1.8.5 for fusion used in US advanced fusion reactor design studies. TMAP has also been under development for several decades at the INL by the FSP. TMAP treats multi-specie surface absorption and diffusion in composite materials with dislocation traps, plus the movement of these species from room to room by fluid flow within a given facility. Recently, TMAP was updated to consider multiple trap site types to allow the simulation of experimental data from neutron irradiated tungsten. The natural development path for both of these codes is to merge their capabilities into one computer code to provide a more comprehensive safety tool for analyzing accidents in fusion reactors. In this paper we detail recent developments in this

  5. A multi-platform linking code for fuel burnup and radiotoxicity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, R.; Pereira, C.; Veloso, M. A. F.; Cardoso, F.; Costa, A. L.

    2014-02-01

    A linking code between ORIGEN2.1 and MCNP has been developed at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/UFMG to calculate coupled neutronic/isotopic results for nuclear systems and to produce a large number of criticality, burnup and radiotoxicity results. In its previous version, it evaluated the isotopic composition evolution in a Heat Pipe Power System model as well as the radiotoxicity and radioactivity during lifetime cycles. In the new version, the code presents features such as multi-platform execution and automatic results analysis. Improvements made in the code allow it to perform simulations in a simpler and faster way without compromising accuracy. Initially, the code generates a new input for MCNP based on the decisions of the user. After that, MCNP is run and data, such as recoverable energy per prompt fission neutron, reaction rates and keff, are automatically extracted from the output and used to calculate neutron flux and cross sections. These data are then used to construct new ORIGEN inputs, one for each cell in the core. Each new input is run on ORIGEN and generates outputs that represent the complete isotopic composition of the core on that time step. The results show good agreement between GB (Coupled Neutronic/Isotopic code) and Monteburns (Automated, Multi-Step Monte Carlo Burnup Code System), developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  6. Throughput-Delay Analysis of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Swapna, B T; Shroff, Ness B

    2011-01-01

    In an unreliable single-hop broadcast network setting, we investigate the throughput and decoding-delay performance of random linear network coding as a function of the coding window size and the network size. Our model consists of a source transmitting packets of a single flow to a set of $n$ users over independent erasure channels. The source performs random linear network coding (RLNC) over $k$ (coding window size) packets and broadcasts them to the users. We note that the broadcast throughput of RLNC must vanish with increasing $n$, for any fixed $k.$ Hence, in contrast to other works in the literature, we investigate how the coding window size $k$ must scale for increasing $n$. Our analysis reveals that the coding window size of $\\Theta(\\ln(n))$ represents a phase transition rate, below which the throughput converges to zero, and above which it converges to the broadcast capacity. Further, we characterize the asymptotic distribution of decoding delay and provide approximate expressions for the mean and v...

  7. [An analysis of code-switching phenomenon in bimodal bilinguals (Libras and Portuguese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2012-01-01

    An interesting linguistic phenomenon that happens in the interaction among bilingual people is code-switching. In this paper, we are investigating code-switching among oral Brazilian Portuguese and Brazilian Sign Language - Libras, in a same enunciative chain, with the goal of identifying and analyzing the use of code-switching in the speech of a child and an adult (both hearing from deaf parents), interacting in an intermodal bilingual context, with deaf and hearing interlocutors. Code-switching in languages, in this case, occurs when a person stops to speak in Portuguese and he/she alternates to sign. This present research is a starting study, with qualitative analysis of data. Our corpus is composed of nine sections of interactions in Libras and oral Portuguese, recorded in video, part of the Bimodal Bilingual Development Project from UFSC. The data shows that adult and child's characteristics of code-switching seem to have similarities and differences. The adult seems to switch more worried about the course of the interaction. On the other hand, the child did not seem to use code-switching for specific pragmatic reasons. In regard to the switching extension, it is noted that both the child and the adult used more than one word sentences. The role of the interlocutors seems to be decisive in the interactions investigated here - especially for the adult, since the child is still acquiring awareness about the role of the interlocutor in an interaction.

  8. Analysis of Edge Detection in Bar Code Symbols: An Overview and Open Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Krešić-Jurić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate edge localization is essential in bar code decoding. Since speckle noise is the most dominant form of noise in laser bar code scanners, it is important to fully understand its effects on edge detection. Starting with the basic statistical properties of speckle patterns, we present stochastic analysis of speckle noise. We derive the autocorrelation function and power spectral density (PSD of the noise in terms of intensity distribution of the scanning beam. We then study the signal-to-noise ratio for signals that result from scanning different configurations of edges. Next, we consider statistical properties of edge localization error caused by speckle noise. We show that the standard deviation of the error is determined by the PSD of the noise and relative positions of edges in a bar code symbol. Based on the analysis presented here, we propose new criteria for system design.

  9. Artificial viscosity method for the design of supercritical airfoils. [Analysis code H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, G.B.

    1979-07-01

    The need for increased efficiency in the use of our energy resources has stimulated applied research in many areas. Recently progress has been made in the field of aerodynamics, where the development of the supercritical wing promises significant savings in the fuel consumption of aircraft operating near the speed of sound. Computational transonic aerodynamics has proved to be a useful tool in the design and evaluation of these wings. A numerical technique for the design of two-dimensional supercritical wing sections with low wave drag is presented. The method is actually a design mode of the analysis code H developed by Bauer, Garabedian, and Korn. This analysis code gives excellent agreement with experimental results and is used widely by the aircraft industry. The addition of a conceptually simple design version should make this code even more useful to the engineering public.

  10. An Overview of the XGAM Code and Related Software for Gamma-ray Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-13

    The XGAM spectrum-fitting code and associated software were developed specifically to analyze the complex gamma-ray spectra that can result from neutron-induced reactions. The XGAM code is designed to fit a spectrum over the entire available gamma-ray energy range as a single entity, in contrast to the more traditional piecewise approaches. This global-fit philosophy enforces background continuity as well as consistency between local and global behavior throughout the spectrum, and in a natural way. This report presents XGAM and the suite of programs built around it with an emphasis on how they fit into an overall analysis methodology for complex gamma-ray data. An application to the analysis of time-dependent delayed gamma-ray yields from 235U fission is shown in order to showcase the codes and how they interact.

  11. NOAA/DOE CWP structural analysis package. [CWPFLY, CWPEXT, COTEC, and XOTEC codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompa, J.A.; Lunz, D.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The theoretical development and computer code user's manual for analysis of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant cold water pipe (CWP) are presented. The analysis of the CWP includes coupled platform/CWP loadngs and dynamic responses. This report with the exception of the Introduction and Appendix F was orginally published as Hydronautics, Inc., Technical Report No. 7825-2 (by Barr, Chang, and Thasanatorn) in November 1978. A detailed theoretical development of the equations describing the coupled platform/CWP system and preliminary validation efforts are described. The appendices encompass a complete user's manual, describing the inputs, outputs and operation of the four component programs, and detail changes and updates implemented since the original release of the code by Hydronautics. The code itself is available through NOAA's Office of Ocean Technology and Engineering Services.

  12. Investigation of NACOK air ingress experiment using different system analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yanhua, E-mail: zhengyh@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Stempniewicz, Marek M. [NRG Arnhem, Utrechtseweg 310, P.O. Box 9034, 6800 ES Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    Air ingress into to the core after the primary circuit depressurization due to large breaks of the pressure boundary is considered as one of the severe hypothetical accidents for the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR). If the air source and the natural convection cannot be impeded, the continuous graphite oxidation reaction along with the formation of burnable gas mixtures resulting in the corrosion of the fuel elements and the reflectors might damage the reactor structure integrity and endanger the reactor safety. In order to study the effects of air flow driven by natural convection as well as to investigate the corrosion of graphite, the NACOK (Naturzug im Core mit Korrosion) facility was built at Juelich Research Center in Germany. A complete 2A-rupture of the coaxial duct in the HTR primary system, as well as the chimney effect caused by breaks in both upper and lower parts of the pressure boundary was simulated in the test facility. Several series of experiments and the related code validations (TINTE, DIREKT, THERMIX/REACT, etc.) have been performed on this facility since the 1990s. In this paper, the latest NACOK air ingress experiment, carried out on October 23, 2008 to simulate the chimney effect, was preliminarily analyzed at NRG with the SPECTRA code, as well as at INET, Tsinghua University of China with the TINTE code. The calculating results of air flow rate of natural convection, time-dependent graphite corrosion, and temperature distribution are compared with the NACOK test results. The preliminary code-to-experiment and code-to-code validation successfully proves the code capability to simulate and predict the air-ingress accident. In addition, more research work, including parameter sensitivity analysis, modeling refinement, code amelioration, etc., should be performed to improve the simulation accuracy in the future.

  13. VVER-1000 MOX Core Computational Benchmark analysis using indigenous codes EXCEL, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilagam, L. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)], E-mail: thilagam@igcar.gov.in; Jagannathan, V. [Light Water Reactors Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: v_jagan1952@rediffmail.com; Sunil sunny, C.; Subbaiah, K.V. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)

    2009-10-15

    Validation studies based on the analysis of theoretical benchmarks play a key role in the identification of deficiencies in the reactor physics design computational codes and the associated nuclear data libraries. Implementation of improvements, if any, in theoretical models and the choice of appropriate nuclear data libraries help in enhancing the accuracy of calculations. As part of the effort for the validation of computer codes for plutonium utilization in VVER type reactors, the indigenous codes EXCEL, TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN, developed at Light Water Reactor Physics Section (LWRPS), RPDD, BARC, and the associated nuclear data library (JEF22XS), were employed to analyse 'VVER-1000 MOX Core Computational Benchmark'. The few group homogenized parameters of assembly cell or individual lattice cells were obtained by the hexagonal lattice burn-up code EXCEL and the core diffusion calculations were then performed using hexagonal assembly geometric code TRIHEX-FA or the pin-by-pin diffusion code HEXPIN. VVER-1000 reactor core loaded with 2/3rd of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FAs) and 1/3rd of weapons grade MOX FAs was investigated. Effective multiplication factors and assembly average fission reaction rate distributions have been calculated for various reactor state descriptions using 3-D diffusion theory codes TRIHEX-FA and HEXPIN. Further, estimate of detailed pin-by-pin fission reaction rate distributions of a few selected assemblies were made for the normal working state of the reactor using pin-by-pin core simulation code HEXPIN. A comparison of results was done with the reported Monte Carlo (MC) values of the benchmark and in most cases good agreement was observed with the benchmark results.

  14. Robust discriminant analysis and its application to identify protein coding regions of rice genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; An, Jinbing

    2011-08-01

    Identification of protein coding regions is fundamentally a statistical pattern recognition problem. Discriminant analysis is a statistical technique for classifying a set of observations into predefined classes and it is useful to solve such problems. It is well known that outliers are present in virtually every data set in any application domain, and classical discriminant analysis methods (including linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA)) do not work well if the data set has outliers. In order to overcome the difficulty, the robust statistical method is used in this paper. We choose four different coding characters as discriminant variables and an approving result is presented by the method of robust discriminant analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and Verification of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Code for Analysis of Tsunami near NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Young Beom; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It becomes more complicated when considering the shape and phase of the ground below the seawater. Therefore, some different attempts are required to precisely analyze the behavior of tsunami. This paper introduces an on-going activities on code development in SNU based on an unconventional mesh-free fluid analysis method called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and its verification work with some practice simulations. This paper summarizes the on-going development and verification activities on Lagrangian mesh-free SPH code in SNU. The newly developed code can cover equation of motions and heat conduction equation so far, and verification of each models is completed. In addition, parallel computation using GPU is now possible, and GUI is also prepared. If users change input geometry or input values, they can simulate for various conditions geometries. A SPH method has large advantages and potential in modeling of free surface, highly deformable geometry and multi-phase problems that traditional grid-based code has difficulties in analysis. Therefore, by incorporating more complex physical models such as turbulent flow, phase change, two-phase flow, and even solid mechanics, application of the current SPH code is expected to be much more extended including molten fuel behaviors in the sever accident.

  16. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-V (Ver.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-09-01

    A light water fuel analysis code FEMAXI-V is an advanced version which has been produced by integrating FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), high burn-up fuel code EXBURN-I, and a number of functional improvements and extensions, to predict fuel rod behavior in normal and transient (not accident) conditions. The present report describes in detail the basic theories and structure, models and numerical solutions applied, improvements and extensions, and the material properties adopted in FEMAXI-V(Ver.1). FEMAXI-V deals with a single fuel rod. It predicts thermal and mechanical response of fuel rod to irradiation, including FP gas release. The thermal analysis predicts rod temperature distribution on the basis of pellet heat generation, changes in pellet thermal conductivity and gap thermal conductance, (transient) change in surface heat transfer to coolant, using radial one-dimensional geometry. The heat generation density profile of pellet can be determined by adopting the calculated results of burning analysis code. The mechanical analysis performs elastic/plastic, creep and PCMI calculations by FEM. The FP gas release model calculates diffusion of FP gas atoms and accumulation in bubbles, release and increase in internal pressure of rod. In every analysis, it is possible to allow some materials properties and empirical equations to depend on the local burnup or heat flux, which enables particularly analysis of high burnup fuel behavior and boiling transient of BWR rod. In order to facilitate effective and wide-ranging application of the code, formats and methods of input/output of the code are also described, and a sample output in an actual form is included. (author)

  17. Changes among Israeli Youth Movements: A Structural Analysis Based on Kahane's Code of Informality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erik H.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-dimensional data analysis tools are applied to Reuven Kahane's data on the informality of youth organizations, yielding a graphic portrayal of Kahane's code of informality. This structure helps address questions of the whether the eight structural components exhaustively cover the field without redundancy. Further, the structure is used to…

  18. A study of the analysis of lexical insertion in the code switching of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the analysis of lexical insertion in the code-switching of Igbo-English bilinguals in Awka, Anambra state. Data for the study was collected from both primary and secondary sources. Nevertheless, note taking and audio recording of oral interview was the major instrument of data collection. The data were ...

  19. Investigation on series of length of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of bacteria using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Cristina; Cristescu, Monica Teodora; Luiza, Buimaga Iarinca; Cristescu, C P

    2013-03-21

    In the framework of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, we investigate characteristics of series of length of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of some bacteria and archaea. We propose the use of a multifractal cross-correlation series that can be defined for any pair of equal lengths data sequences (or time series) and that can be characterized by the full set of parameters that are attributed to any time series. Comparison between characteristics of series of length of coding and non-coding DNA sequences and of their associated multifractal cross-correlation series for selected groups is used for the identification of class affiliation of certain bacteria and archaea. The analysis is carried out using the dependence of the generalized Hurst exponent on the size of fluctuations, the shape of the singularity spectra, the shape and relative disposition of the curves of the singular measures scaling exponent and the values of the associated parameters. Empirically, we demonstrate that the series of lengths of coding and non-coding sequences as well as the associated multifractal cross-correlation series can be approximated as universal multifractals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression profile of long non-coding RNAs in colorectal cancer: A microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jia; Xu, Luning; Jiang, Yigui; Zhuo, Dexiang; Zhang, Shengjun; Wu, Lianhui; Xu, Huadong; Huang, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors and the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Due to increased morbidity and mortality rates, there is an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis of CRC, discover strategies that can improve diagnosis, and ultimately identify therapies targeting this disease. Over the past several years, research into tumor progression mechanisms has been devoted to identifying and understanding various coding and non-coding regions of the genome and how these genetic variants may affect tumorigenesis and progression. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are non‑protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, have emerged as a key aspect in tumor pathogenesis. In the present study, we examined the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in 4 patients with colon adenocarcinoma, with paired adjacent normal tissues as controls. Microarray data showed that a total of 3,523 lncRNAs and 2,515 mRNAs were consistently differentially expressed in the CRC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Upon comparison of the differentially expressed transcripts between the groups, we identified 22 pathways which were related to the upregulated transcripts and 24 pathways that corresponded to the downregulated transcripts. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the upregulated transcripts were predominantly enriched in DNA metabolic processes, and the downregulated transcripts were predominantly enriched in organic hydroxyl compound metabolic processes. Coding-non-coding gene co-expression analysis showed that these differentially expressed lncRNAs were closely correlated with 'Wnt signaling pathway' components, whose aberrant activation plays a central role in CRC, indicating that a functional correlation exists between them. In conclusion, the results of the microarray and informatic analysis strongly suggest that lncRNA dysregulation is involved in the complicated process of CRC development

  1. Secondary Analysis of Interviews: Using Codes and Theoretical Concepts From the Primary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Medjedovic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possibilities of using secondary analysis in social science there are reservations about methodological and ethic issues. Furthermore, the method is under-utilised in Germany due to the lack of readiness and access to the primary data. In our opinion, the lack of methodological experiences dominates scepticism. Using an interview from a panel-study about young adults entering the job market, we show in our contribution the opportunities, constraints and circumstances involved in secondary analysis. When carrying out secondary analysis, usually the demand for data is restricted to original data from the primary study. However, based on our experience, codes and category schemes used in the computer-assisted qualitative data analysis (CAQDAS of the primary study are also adequate for performing secondary analysis. Under certain conditions inductive analysis is possible even when relying on theoretical concepts like typologies used in the primary study. If such schemes have the heuristic function of an "oversized card-index box" with broad and not apriori theoretically deduced categories, their applicability for secondary analysis should not contradict open-ended coding in the process of creating in-vivo-codes. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0501462

  2. BETA. A code for {beta}{sub eff} measurement and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yuichi; Okajima, Shigeaki; Sakurai, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    The code BETA has been developed to calculate the following reactor physics parameters which are used for the {beta}{sub eff} measurement and analysis; Diven factor, Spatial correction factor (g-factor) for neutron correlation experiment, Adjoint weighted g-factor, Fission rate integrated in whole reactor and Adjoint weighted fission rate integrated in whole reactor: The code also calculates the effective delayed neutron fraction with different evaluated delayed neutron data. These parameters are calculated with using the forward and adjoint fluxes given by SLAROM, POPLARS or TWOTRAN-II. This report describes the input data and job control statements instructions, file requirements and sample input output data. (author)

  3. Code flid (dep 051). A code for the two-dimensional analysis of the thermodynamic behaviour of a boiling liquid; Code flid (dep 051). Programme numerique analysant en deux dimensions le comportement thermodynamique d'un liquide bouillant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M.; Saunier, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement des etudes de piles, service de physique mathematique

    1967-01-01

    This two-dimensional code handles the following problems: 1. Analysis of thermal and experiments on a water-loop at high or low pressure, steady state or transient behaviour. 2. Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of a light water reactor hot channel, The fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates. The power and pressure drop variations are obtained from the complementary one-dimensional code CACTUS (CEA report R-3039). (authors) [French] Ce code bidimensionnel permet de traiter les problemes suivants: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute et basse pression, regime permanent ou transitoire. 2. Etude thermique et hydraulique du canal chaud d'un reacteur a eau, a plaques. Les lois de variation de puissance ou de perte de pression imposee aux bornes du canal au cours d'un transitoire sont obtenues par le code complementaire unidimensionnel CACTUS (rapport CEA-R 3039). (auteurs)

  4. Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Security Analysis of Large-Scale Source Code and Binary Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2007-08-30

    Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.

  5. Current research on shear buckling and thermal loads with PASCO - Panel analysis and sizing code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    The stiffened composite structural panel analysis and sizing code designated 'PASCO' encompasses both the generality required for the exploitation of composite materials' design flexibility and an accurate buckling analysis for the detection of complex buckling modes. PASCO can accordingly design for buckling, frequency, material strength, and panel stiffness requirements. Attention is given to an additional thermal loading design capability. Design studies illustrate the importance of the multiple load condition capability when thermal loads are present.

  6. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  7. Analysis code for medium and small rupture accidents in ATR. LOTRAC/HEATUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    In the evaluation of thermo-hydraulic and fuel temperature transient changes in the events which are classified in medium and small rupture accidents of reactor coolant loss that is the safety evaluation event of the ATR, the analysis code for synthetic thermo-hydraulic transient change at the time of medium and small ruptures LOTRAC and the detailed analysis code for fuel temperature HEATUP are used, respectively. By using the LOTAC, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of reactor cooling facility and the temperature behavior of fuel at the time of blow-down are analyzed, and also the characteristics of changing reactor thermal output is analyzed, considering the functioning characteristics of emergency core cooling system. Based on the data of thermo-hydraulic behavior obtained by the LOTRAC, the time of beginning the turn-around of fuel cladding tube temperature obtained by the data of ECCS pouring characteristics, the heat transfer rate after the turn-around and so on, the detailed temperature change of fuel elements is analyzed by the HEATUP, and the highest temperature and the amount of oxidation of fuel cladding tubes are determined. The LOTRAC code, the HEATUP code, various analysis models, and rupture simulation experiment are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -The development of a severe accident analysis code-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heui Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Park, Jong Hwa; Hong, Sung Wan; Yoo, Dong Han; Hwang, Moon Kyoo; Noh, Kee Man; Song, Yong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    For prevention and mitigation of the containment failure during severe accident, the study is focused on the severe accident phenomena, especially, the ones occurring inside the cavity and is intended to improve existing models and develop analytical tools for the assessment of severe accidents. A correlation equation of the flame velocity of pre mixture gas of H{sub 2}/air/steam has been suggested and combustion flame characteristic was analyzed using a developed computer code. For the analysis of the expansion phase of vapor explosion, the mechanical model has been developed. The development of a debris entrainment model in a reactor cavity with captured volume has been continued to review and examine the limitation and deficiencies of the existing models. Pre-test calculation was performed to support the severe accident experiment for molten corium concrete interaction study and the crust formation process and heat transfer characteristics of the crust have been carried out. A stress analysis code was developed using finite element method for the reactor vessel lower head failure analysis. Through international program of PHEBUS-FP and participation in the software development, the research on the core degradation process and fission products release and transportation are undergoing. CONTAIN and MELCOR codes were continuously updated under the cooperation with USNRC and French developed computer codes such as ICARE2, ESCADRE, SOPHAEROS were also installed into the SUN workstation. 204 figs, 61 tabs, 87 refs. (Author).

  9. Development of best estimate auditing code for CANDU thermal-hydraulic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Lim, Hong Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a thermal hydraulic auditing code for the CANDU reactor, modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool, i.e. RELAP5/MOD3.The study was performed by reconsideration of the previous code assessment works and phenomena identification for essential accident scenario. Improvement areas of model development for auditing tool were identified based on the code comparison and PIRT results. Nine models have been improved significantly for the analysis of LOCA and Mon LOCA event. Conceptual problem or separate effect assessment have been performed to verify the model improvement. The linking calculation with CONTAIN 2.0 has been also enabled to establish the unified auditing code system. Analysis for the CANDU plant real transient and hypothetical LOCA bas been performed using the improved version. It has been concluded that the developed version can be utilized for the auditing analysis of LOCA and non-LOCA event for the CANDU reactor. 25 refs., 84 figs., 36 tabs. (Author)

  10. Architectural and Algorithmic Requirements for a Next-Generation System Analysis Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Mousseau

    2010-05-01

    This document presents high-level architectural and system requirements for a next-generation system analysis code (NGSAC) to support reactor safety decision-making by plant operators and others, especially in the context of light water reactor plant life extension. The capabilities of NGSAC will be different from those of current-generation codes, not only because computers have evolved significantly in the generations since the current paradigm was first implemented, but because the decision-making processes that need the support of next-generation codes are very different from the decision-making processes that drove the licensing and design of the current fleet of commercial nuclear power reactors. The implications of these newer decision-making processes for NGSAC requirements are discussed, and resulting top-level goals for the NGSAC are formulated. From these goals, the general architectural and system requirements for the NGSAC are derived.

  11. LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for gas-phase reactions: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1993-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for complex, homogeneous, gas-phase reactions is described. The main features of the code, LSENS, are its flexibility, efficiency and convenience in treating many different chemical reaction models. The models include static system, steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow, shock initiated reaction, and a perfectly stirred reactor. In addition, equilibrium computations can be performed for several assigned states. An implicit numerical integration method, which works efficiently for the extremes of very fast and very slow reaction, is used for solving the 'stiff' differential equation systems that arise in chemical kinetics. For static reactions, sensitivity coefficients of all dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate coefficient parameters can be computed. This paper presents descriptions of the code and its usage, and includes several illustrative example problems.

  12. Development of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code within the NPSS Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    During the preliminary or conceptual design phase of an aircraft engine, the turbomachinery designer has a need to estimate the effects of a large number of design parameters such as flow size, stage count, blade count, radial position, etc. on the weight and efficiency of a turbomachine. Computer codes are invariably used to perform this task however, such codes are often very old, written in outdated languages with arcane input files, and rarely adaptable to new architectures or unconventional layouts. Given the need to perform these kinds of preliminary design trades, a modern 2-D turbomachinery design and analysis code has been written using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. This paper discusses the development of the governing equations and the structure of the primary objects used in OTAC.

  13. Context-based coding of bilevel images enhanced by digital straight line analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2006-01-01

    A new efficient compression scheme for bilevel images containing locally straight edges is presented. This paper is especially focused on lossless (intra) coding of binary shapes for image and video objects, but other images with similar characteristics such as line drawings, layers of digital maps......, or segmentation maps are also encoded efficiently. The algorithm is not targeted at document images with text, which can be coded efficiently with dictionary-based techniques as in JBIG2. The scheme is based on a local analysis of the digital straightness of the causal part of the object boundary, which is used...... in the context definition for arithmetic encoding. Tested on individual images of standard TV resolution binary shapes and the binary layers of a digital map, the proposed algorithm outperforms PWC, JBIG, JBIG2, and MPEG-4 CAE. On the binary shapes, the code lengths are reduced by 21%, 27 %, 28 %, and 41...

  14. CODE SWITCHING ANALYSIS IN CLASSROOM INTERACTIONS IN HUSNUL KHOTIMAH ISLAMIC SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Yulyana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines types, functions, teacher’s reasons and students’ responses of code switching in classroom interactions in school context at Husnul Khotimah Islamic Senior High School. This study focuses on analyzing English teacher’s utterances at eleventh grade and their students’ utterances by using Poplack and Gumperz theory. The method of this study is descriptive qualitative. The data of the study is in the form of written recording utterances during teaching and learning process in the classroom, interview and questionnaire. Based on the analysis of the data, this study concludes that the teacher used code switching in order to give particular purpose in delivering the teachers’ feelings during teaching and learning process. The language change often makes the teacher and the students feel better and more meaningful in conveying and obtaining their feelings. Concisely, code switching not only represents teachers’ competence but also shows particular purposes.

  15. Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dane, Alexander [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Sivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Municipal governments in the United States are well positioned to influence clean energy (energy efficiency and alternative energy) and transportation technology and strategy implementation within their jurisdictions through planning, programs, and codification. Municipal governments are leveraging planning processes and programs to shape their energy futures. There is limited understanding in the literature related to codification, the primary way that municipal governments enact enforceable policies. The authors fill the gap in the literature by documenting the status of municipal codification of clean energy and transportation across the United States. More directly, we leverage online databases of municipal codes to develop national and state-specific representative samples of municipal governments by population size. Our analysis finds that municipal governments with the authority to set residential building energy codes within their jurisdictions frequently do so. In some cases, communities set codes higher than their respective state governments. Examination of codes across the nation indicates that municipal governments are employing their code as a policy mechanism to address clean energy and transportation.

  16. Comparative Neutronics Analysis of DIMPLE S06 Criticality Benchmark with Contemporary Reactor Core Analysis Computer Code Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonkyeong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-leakage core has been known to be a challenging problem not only for a two-step homogenization approach but also for a direct heterogeneous approach. In this paper the DIMPLE S06 core, which is a small high-leakage core, has been analyzed by a direct heterogeneous modeling approach and by a two-step homogenization modeling approach, using contemporary code systems developed for reactor core analysis. The focus of this work is a comprehensive comparative analysis of the conventional approaches and codes with a small core design, DIMPLE S06 critical experiment. The calculation procedure for the two approaches is explicitly presented in this paper. Comprehensive comparative analysis is performed by neutronics parameters: multiplication factor and assembly power distribution. Comparison of two-group homogenized cross sections from each lattice physics codes shows that the generated transport cross section has significant difference according to the transport approximation to treat anisotropic scattering effect. The necessity of the ADF to correct the discontinuity at the assembly interfaces is clearly presented by the flux distributions and the result of two-step approach. Finally, the two approaches show consistent results for all codes, while the comparison with the reference generated by MCNP shows significant error except for another Monte Carlo code, SERPENT2.

  17. Coupling Computer Codes for The Analysis of Severe Accident Using A Pseudo Shared Memory Based on MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Chul; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Min [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As there are four codes in-vessel analysis code (CSPACE), ex-vessel analysis code (SACAP), corium behavior analysis code (COMPASS), and fission product behavior analysis code, for the analysis of severe accident, it is complex to implement the coupling of codes with the similar methodologies for RELAP and CONTEMPT or SPACE and CAP. Because of that, an efficient coupling so called Pseudo shared memory architecture was introduced. In this paper, coupling methodologies will be compared and the methodology used for the analysis of severe accident will be discussed in detail. The barrier between in-vessel and ex-vessel has been removed for the analysis of severe accidents with the implementation of coupling computer codes with pseudo shared memory architecture based on MPI. The remaining are proper choice and checking of variables and values for the selected severe accident scenarios, e.g., TMI accident. Even though it is possible to couple more than two computer codes with pseudo shared memory architecture, the methodology should be revised to couple parallel codes especially when they are programmed using MPI.

  18. Recent developments in seismic analysis in the code Aster; Les developpements recents en analyse sismique dans le code aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihot, P.; Devesa, G.; Dumond, A.; Panet, M.; Waeckel, F.

    1996-12-31

    Progress in the field of seismic qualification and design methods made these last few years allows physical phenomena actually in play to be better considered, while cutting down the conservatism associated with some simplified design methods. So following the change in methods and developing the most advantageous ones among them contributes to the process of the seismic margins assessment and the preparation of new design tools for future series. In this paper, the main developments and improvements in methods which have been made these last two years in the Code Aster, in order to improve seismic calculation methods and seismic margin assessment are presented. The first development relates to making the MISS3D soil structure interaction code available, thanks to an interface made with the Code Aster. The second relates to the possibility of making modal basis time calculations on multi-supported structures by considering local non linearities like impact, friction or squeeze fluid forces. Recent developments in random dynamics and postprocessing devoted to earthquake designs are then mentioned. Three applications of these developments are then ut forward. The first application relates to a test case for soil structure interaction design using MISS3D-Aster coupling. The second is a test case for a multi-supported structure. The last application, more for manufacturing, refers to seismic qualification of Main Live Steam stop valves. First results of the independent validation of the Code Aster seismic design functionalities, which provide and improve the quality of software, are also recalled. (authors). 11 refs.

  19. An Analysis of Code-Mixing and Code-Switching in EFL Teaching of Cross Cultural Communication Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kustati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to determine types of code-mixing and code-switching made by teachers and students in EFL cross cultural communication class and to identify reasons for the emergence of code-switching and mixing in the classroom. The data was obtained through observation and in-depth interviews of the second year students of undergraduate program of English in Tarbiyah Faculty, IAIN IB Padang. The finding showed that tag-switching, intra-sentential, inter-sentential, and intra-word were commonly used by EFL teachers and students in classroom. It was also found that the teachers used code-mixing and switching in the process of clarifying certain issues to make them more comprehensible to students. Teachers also do these kinds of switching during their attempt to promote relationship with students, to switch the topic, and to persuade or motivate students to be more engaged in learning English. Meanwhile, the students mix and switch their language to overcome their lack of knowledge of English. It is expected that this study provided empirical evidence to advise on their optimal uses in EFL teaching of State Institute for Islamic Studies.Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  20. HIBRA: A computer code for heavy ion binary reaction analysis employing ion track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Ahmad, Siraj-ul-Islam; Manzoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Collisions of heavy ions many times result in production of only two reaction products. Study of heavy ions using ion track detectors allows experimentalists to observe the track length in the plane of the detector, depth of the tracks in the volume of the detector and angles between the tracks on the detector surface, all known as track parameters. How to convert these into useful physics parameters such as masses, energies, momenta of the reaction products and the Q-values of the reaction? This paper describes the (a) model used to analyze binary reactions in terms of measured etched track parameters of the reaction products recorded in ion track detectors, and (b) the code developed for computing useful physics parameters for fast and accurate analysis of a large number of binary events. A computer code, HIBRA (Heavy Ion Binary Reaction Analysis) has been developed both in C++ and FORTRAN programming languages. It has been tested on the binary reactions from 12.5 MeV/u 84Kr ions incident upon U (natural) target deposited on mica ion track detector. The HIBRA code can be employed with any ion track detector for which range-velocity relation is available including the widely used CR-39 ion track detectors. This paper provides the source code of HIBRA in C++ language along with input and output data to test the program.

  1. Development of integrated core disruptive accident analysis code for FBR - ASTERIA-FBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizu, T.; Endo, H.; Tatewaki, I.; Yamamoto, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization JNES, Toranomon Towers Office, 4-1-28, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Shirakawa, N. [Inst. of Applied Energy IAE, Shimbashi SY Bldg., 14-2 Nishi-Shimbashi 1-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The evaluation of consequence at the severe accident is the most important as a safety licensing issue for the reactor core of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), since the LMFBR core is not in an optimum condition from the viewpoint of reactivity. This characteristics might induce a super-prompt criticality due to the core geometry change during the core disruptive accident (CDA). The previous CDA analysis codes have been modeled in plural phases dependent on the mechanism driving a super-prompt criticality. Then, the following event is calculated by connecting different codes. This scheme, however, should introduce uncertainty and/or arbitrary to calculation results. To resolve the issues and obtain the consistent calculation results without arbitrary, JNES is developing the ASTERIA-FBR code for the purpose of providing the cross-check analysis code, which is another required scheme to confirm the validity of the evaluation results prepared by applicants, in the safety licensing procedure of the planned high performance core of Monju. ASTERIA-FBR consists of the three major calculation modules, CONCORD, dynamic-GMVP, and FEMAXI-FBR. CONCORD is a three-dimensional thermal-hydraulics calculation module with multi-phase, multi-component, and multi-velocity field model. Dynamic-GMVP is a space-time neutronics calculation module. FEMAXI-FBR calculates the fuel pellet deformation behavior and fuel pin failure behavior. This paper describes the needs of ASTERIA-FBR development, major module outlines, and the model validation status. (authors)

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of the TRIGA IPR-R1 Reactor Models Using the MCNP Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of verification and validation of code modelling, the sensitivity analysis including systematic variations in code input variables must be used to help identifying the relevant parameters necessary for a determined type of analysis. The aim of this work is to identify how much the code results are affected by two different types of the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor modelling processes performed using the MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code. The sensitivity analyses included small differences of the core and the rods dimensions and different levels of model detailing. Four models were simulated and neutronic parameters such as effective multiplication factor (keff, reactivity (ρ, and thermal and total neutron flux in central thimble in some different conditions of the reactor operation were analysed. The simulated models presented good agreement between them, as well as in comparison with available experimental data. In this way, the sensitivity analyses demonstrated that simulations of the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor can be performed using any one of the four investigated MCNP models to obtain the referenced neutronic parameters.

  3. BILAM: a composite laminate failure-analysis code using bilinear stress-strain approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, P.V. Jr.; Dasgupta, A.; Chun, Y.W.

    1980-10-01

    The BILAM code which uses constant strain laminate analysis to generate in-plane load/deformation or stress/strain history of composite laminates to the point of laminate failure is described. The program uses bilinear stress-strain curves to model layer stress-strain behavior. Composite laminates are used for flywheels. The use of this computer code will help to develop data on the behavior of fiber composite materials which can be used by flywheel designers. In this program the stress-strain curves are modelled by assuming linear response in axial tension while using bilinear approximations (2 linear segments) for stress-strain response to axial compressive, transverse tensile, transverse compressive and axial shear loadings. It should be noted that the program attempts to empirically simulate the effects of the phenomena which cause nonlinear stress-strain behavior, instead of mathematically modelling the micromechanics involved. This code, therefore, performs a bilinear laminate analysis, and, in conjunction with several user-defined failure interaction criteria, is designed to provide sequential information on all layer failures up to and including the first fiber failure. The modus operandi is described. Code BILAM can be used to: predict the load-deformation/stress-strain behavior of a composite laminate subjected to a given combination of in-plane loads, and make analytical predictions of laminate strength.

  4. Systematic analysis of coding and noncoding DNA sequences using methods of statistical linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegna, R. N.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We compare the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions in eukaryotic and viral DNA sequences by adapting two tests developed for the analysis of natural languages and symbolic sequences. The data set comprises all 30 sequences of length above 50 000 base pairs in GenBank Release No. 81.0, as well as the recently published sequences of C. elegans chromosome III (2.2 Mbp) and yeast chromosome XI (661 Kbp). We find that for the three chromosomes we studied the statistical properties of noncoding regions appear to be closer to those observed in natural languages than those of coding regions. In particular, (i) a n-tuple Zipf analysis of noncoding regions reveals a regime close to power-law behavior while the coding regions show logarithmic behavior over a wide interval, while (ii) an n-gram entropy measurement shows that the noncoding regions have a lower n-gram entropy (and hence a larger "n-gram redundancy") than the coding regions. In contrast to the three chromosomes, we find that for vertebrates such as primates and rodents and for viral DNA, the difference between the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions is not pronounced and therefore the results of the analyses of the investigated sequences are less conclusive. After noting the intrinsic limitations of the n-gram redundancy analysis, we also briefly discuss the failure of the zeroth- and first-order Markovian models or simple nucleotide repeats to account fully for these "linguistic" features of DNA. Finally, we emphasize that our results by no means prove the existence of a "language" in noncoding DNA.

  5. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 3, Verification/validation assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.

    1987-10-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume I - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. This volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. This volume also documents comparisons between the results of simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and actual experimental data. 11 refs., 55 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of Ex-Vessel Steam Explosion using TEXAS-V code for APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Chu; Lee, Jung Jae; Cho, Yong Jin; Hwang, Taesuk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to explore input development and the audit calculation using TEXAS-V code for ex-vessel steam explosion for a flooded reactor cavity of APR1400. TEXAS computational models are one of the simplified tools for simulations of fuel-coolant interaction during mixing, triggering and explosion phase. The models of TEXAS code were validated by performing the fundamental experimental investigation in the KROTOS facility at JRC, Ispra. The experiments such as KROTOS and FARO experiment are aimed at providing benchmark data to examine the effect of fuel-coolant initial conditions and mixing on explosion energetics with alumina and prototypical core material. TEXAS-V code used in this study was to analyze and predict the ex-vessel steam explosion for a reactor scale. The input deck to simulate the flooded reactor cavity of APR1400 is developed and base case calculation is performed. This study will provide a base for further study. The code will be of use for the evaluation and sensitivity study of ex-vessel steam explosion for ERVC strategy in the future studies. Analysis result of this study is similar to the result of other study. Through this study, it is found that TEXAS-V could be the used as a tool for predicting the steam explosion load on a reactor scale, as fast running computer code. In addition, TEXAS-V code could be to evaluate the impact of various uncertainties, which are not clearly understood yet, to provide a conservative envelope for the steam explosion.

  7. Analysis of unmitigated large break loss of coolant accidents using MELCOR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescarini, M.; Mascari, F.; Mostacci, D.; De Rosa, F.; Lombardo, C.; Giannetti, F.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of severe accident research activity developed by ENEA, a MELCOR nodalization of a generic Pressurized Water Reactor of 900 MWe has been developed. The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of MELCOR code calculations concerning two independent unmitigated large break loss of coolant accident transients, occurring in the cited type of reactor. In particular, the analysis and comparison between the transients initiated by an unmitigated double-ended cold leg rupture and an unmitigated double-ended hot leg rupture in the loop 1 of the primary cooling system is presented herein. This activity has been performed focusing specifically on the in-vessel phenomenology that characterizes this kind of accidents. The analysis of the thermal-hydraulic transient phenomena and the core degradation phenomena is therefore here presented. The analysis of the calculated data shows the capability of the code to reproduce the phenomena typical of these transients and permits their phenomenological study. A first sequence of main events is here presented and shows that the cold leg break transient results faster than the hot leg break transient because of the position of the break. Further analyses are in progress to quantitatively assess the results of the code nodalization for accident management strategy definition and fission product source term evaluation.

  8. Key for protein coding sequences identification: computer analysis of codon strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, F; Gabarro-Arpa, J; Ehrlich, R; Reiss, C

    1982-01-11

    The signal qualifying an AUG or GUG as an initiator in mRNAs processed by E. coli ribosomes is not found to be a systematic, literal homology sequence. In contrast, stability analysis reveals that initiators always occur within nucleic acid domains of low stability, for which a high A/U content is observed. Since no aminoacid selection pressure can be detected at N-termini of the proteins, the A/U enrichment results from a biased usage of the code degeneracy. A computer analysis is presented which allows easy detection of the codon strategy. N-terminal codons carry rather systematically A or U in third position, which suggests a mechanism for translation initiation and helps to detect protein coding sequences in sequenced DNA.

  9. Detailed description and user`s manual of high burnup fuel analysis code EXBURN-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Saitou, Hiroaki

    1997-11-01

    EXBURN-I has been developed for the analysis of LWR high burnup fuel behavior in normal operation and power transient conditions. In the high burnup region, phenomena occur which are different in quality from those expected for the extension of behaviors in the mid-burnup region. To analyze these phenomena, EXBURN-I has been formed by the incorporation of such new models as pellet thermal conductivity change, burnup-dependent FP gas release rate, and cladding oxide layer growth to the basic structure of low- and mid-burnup fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV. The present report describes in detail the whole structure of the code, models, and materials properties. Also, it includes a detailed input manual and sample output, etc. (author). 55 refs.

  10. IAEA programme to support development and validation of advanced design and safety analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J., E-mail: J.H.Choi@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been organized many international collaboration programs to support the development and validation of design and safety analysis computer codes for nuclear power plants. These programs are normally implemented with a frame of Coordinated Research Project (CRP) or International Collaborative Standard Problem (ICSP). This paper introduces CRPs and ICSPs currently being organized or recently completed by IAEA for this purpose. (author)

  11. PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1979-10-01

    The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined.

  12. MC2-3: Multigroup Cross Section Generation Code for Fast Reactor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, W. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-08

    The MC2-3 code is a Multigroup Cross section generation Code for fast reactor analysis, developed by improving the resonance self-shielding and spectrum calculation methods of MC2-2 and integrating the one-dimensional cell calculation capabilities of SDX. The code solves the consistent P1 multigroup transport equation using basic neutron data from ENDF/B data files to determine the fundamental mode spectra for use in generating multigroup neutron cross sections. A homogeneous medium or a heterogeneous slab or cylindrical unit cell problem is solved in ultrafine (~2000) or hyperfine (~400,000) group levels. In the resolved resonance range, pointwise cross sections are reconstructed with Doppler broadening at specified isotopic temperatures. The pointwise cross sections are directly used in the hyperfine group calculation whereas for the ultrafine group calculation, self-shielded cross sections are prepared by numerical integration of the pointwise cross sections based upon the narrow resonance approximation. For both the hyperfine and ultrafine group calculations, unresolved resonances are self-shielded using the analytic resonance integral method. The ultrafine group calculation can also be performed for two-dimensional whole-core problems to generate region-dependent broad-group cross sections. Multigroup cross sections are written in the ISOTXS format for a user-specified group structure. The code is executable on UNIX, Linux, and PC Windows systems, and its library includes all isotopes of the ENDF/BVII. 0 data.

  13. Development and evaluation of a Monte Carlo Code System for analysis of ionization chamber responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1987-07-01

    This document reports on the development and testing of a Monte Carlo code system for calculating the response of an ionization chamber to mixed neutron and photon radiation environment. The code system, Monte Carlo Ionization Chamber Analysis Package (MICAP), determines the neutron, photon, and total responses of the ionization chamber to the mixed field radiation environment. The Monte Carlo method performs accurate simulations of the physical processes involved in detecting radiation using ionization chambers, and eliminates limitations inherent in approximate methods. To evaluate MICAP, comparisons were made with results obtained using other code systems and with experimental results. Separate comparisons with other code systems verified the validity of the neutron, photon, and charged particle transport processes and the nuclear models used to describe the individual neutron reactions, respectively. Comparisons with mono-energetic photon calibration experiments and with mixed neutron and photon radiation experiments verified the applicability of MICAP for analyzing the response of ionization chambers to mixed field radiation environments. 47 refs., 23 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. The Construction of an Universal Linearized Control Flow Graph for Static Code Analysis of Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bitner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description of a possible way to build the universal linearized control flow graph which is supposed to be architecture-independent and applicable to the description of any high level language programs. The practical usefulness of the graph considered is the existence of the fast and optimal search of the unique execution paths that is valuable in the methods of static code analysis of algorithms for race condition search. Optimizing compiler CLANG&LLVM is used as a technical tool for building a linearized control flow graph. The analysis of LLVM compiler procedural optimizations is carried out in the article. Transformations of intermediate representation of those optimizations result in reduction of the number of instructions responsible for conditional or unconditional branches in the code as well as the elimination or simplification of the whole loops and conditional constructions. The results of the analysis performed in the paper allowed revealing the most effective optimizations line of the LLVM compiler, which leads to a significant linearization of the control flow graph. That fact was demonstrated by the example code of the Peterson mutual execution algorithm for 2 threads.

  15. Development of a prototype pin-by-pin fine mesh calculation code for BWR core analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Akio; Yamane, Yoshihiro [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kosaka, Shinya; Hirano, Gou [TEPCO SYSTEMS CORPORATION, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    A prototype core analysis code for BWR, SUBARU, which is based on the three-dimensional pin-by-pin fine-mesh calculation, is being developed. The SUBARU code has several features, e.g., incorporation of the SP3 transport theory, capability to treat the staggered meshes, and so on. In this paper, to estimate the prediction accuracy of this core analysis code, a hypothetical 2D ABWR core which is consisted by 8x8 low-enrichment UO{sub 2} fuel assembly, 9x9 high-enrichment UO{sub 2} fuel assembly, and 10x10 MOX fuel assembly is analyzed. To investigate the prediction accuracy, we compared the pin-wise fission rate distribution which was obtained by the cell-heterogeneous transport calculation by MOC. To evaluate the computational costs, a hypothetical 3D ABWR core is also used. These results suggest that SUBARU would have enough accuracy and reasonable calculation costs for the reference BWR core analysis when further investigation is taken into account. (authors)

  16. Three-dimensional two-fluid code for U-tube steam generator thermal design analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.Y.; No, H.C.

    1986-11-01

    A computer code, FAUST (Flow Analysis of U-tube Steam generators), for U-tube steam generator design analysis is developed on the basis of the pressurized water reactor core transient analysis code, THERMIT. The original (x,y,z) coordinates used in THERMIT are transformed into the cylindrical (r,theta,z) coordinates for FAUST, which are better fitted in the geometry of steam generators. To couple the primary side with the secondary side, a one-dimensional tube representative of a computational cell in the heat transfer model is developed with a geometrical mapping between the primary and secondary sides. The special unitary group SU(2) is used to treat the complex geometry of the U-bend region for frictional wall force. A form loss model for tube support plates in two-phase flow is implemented in the code. The steam dome model developed here enables us to consider the different amounts of feedwater distributed into the hot and cold sides of the downcomer.

  17. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  18. Development of MOX fueled core analysis code based on the refined analytic function expansion nodal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. Y.; Noh, J. M.; Joo, H. G. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Since the plutonium isotopes have a relatively high thermal neutron absorption cross sections, the spatial thermal neutron transient occurs at the interface between MOX and UO{sub 2} fuel assemblies. In order to predict the spatial thermal neutron transient accurately, the reactor core analysis code, NUREC (Nuclear Reactor Analysis Code), has been developed especially for MOX fueled core analysis based on the refined-AFEN method. In addition to the basic neutron flux calculation module, burnup correction model and heterogeneous control rod model are also incorporated in the NUREC. The NUREC can perform the transient calculation such as rod ejection accident as well as the steady-state calculation. The NUREC was verified against the NEACRP-L336 MOX benchmark problem and the experimental value of Yeongkwang Unit 3 and 4. The accuracy of the calculated results with NUREC was similar to those of design code for Yeongkwang Unit 3 and 4 loaded with only UO{sub 2} fuel and was improved for the NEACRP-L336 MOX benchmark problem. The transient calculation capability of the NUREC was also tested against the NEACRP C1 problem without large discrepancy.

  19. Thermal behavior analysis of PWR fuel during RIA at various fuel burnups using modified theatre code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel irradiation and burnup causes geometrical and dimensional changes in the fuel rod which affects its thermal resistance and ultimately affects the fuel rod behavior during steady-state and transient conditions. The consistent analysis of fuel rod thermal performance is essential for precise evaluation of reactor safety in operational transients and accidents. In this work, analysis of PWR fuel rod thermal performance is carried out under steady-state and transient conditions at different fuel burnups. The analysis is performed by using thermal hydraulic code, THEATRe. The code is modified by adding burnup dependent fuel rod behavior models. The original code uses as-fabricated fuel rod dimensions during steady-state and transient conditions which can be modified to perform more consistent reactor safety analysis. AP1000 reactor is considered as a reference reactor for this analysis. The effect of burnup on steady-state fuel rod parameters has been investigated. For transient analysis, hypothetical reactivity initiated accident was simulated by considering a triangular power pulse of variable pulse height (relative to the full power reactor operating conditions and pulse width at different fuel burnups which corresponds to fresh fuel, low and medium burnup fuels. The effect of power pulse height, pulse width and fuel burnup on fuel rod temperatures has been investigated. The results of reactivity initiated accident analysis show that the fuel failure mechanisms are different for fresh fuel and fuel at different burnup levels. The fuel failure in fresh fuel is expected due to fuel melting as fuel temperature increases with increase in pulse energy (pulse height. However, at relatively higher burnups, the fuel failure is expected due to cladding failure caused by strong pellet clad mechanical interaction, where, the contact pressure increases beyond the cladding yield strength.

  20. Analysis of Simplified Hydrogen and Dust Explosion in the Vacuum Vessel Accident using MELCOR Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Soo Min; Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The failure of the confinement barriers inside a penetration line between the VV and a port cell initiates the accident. Air ingress in VV results in formation of hydrogen/air explosive mixture and further explosion. Hydrogen explosion is assumed to trigger a dust explosion which leads to a large pressure peak creating a connection between VV and NBI Cell. Any other components related to the accident other than VV, suppression tank (ST), port cell, NBI Cell and Gallery are ignored in the analysis. Additional Free volume is assumed connected to the VV to simulate hydrogen/dust explosions. Figure 1 presents schematics of modeling of thermal-hydraulic analysis used in the accident analysis. For ITER design, three volumes of accident analysis report (AAR) presents analysis of selected postulated events important in ITER safety studies including hypothetical events. MELCOR 1.8.2 code was chosen as one of the several codes to perform ITER safety analysis because it models wide range of physical phenomena such as thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, and other phenomena including aerosol physics. MELCOR can also predict structural temperatures using energy produced by radioactive heat or chemical reactions. Analysis has shown that hydrogen/dust explosion damaged the VV confinement barriers transporting dust from VV to the port cell, NBI cell and other penetrating lines. Unlike the accident analysis performed in the accident analysis report (AAR), the radioactive material was released into the environment shortly after the event. Simplified accident analysis was performed in attempt to perform fast safety analysis, however, multiple components and initial conditions not under consideration caused significant difference from the AAR analysis results.

  1. Best-Response Distributed Subchannel Selection for Minimizing Interference in Femtocell Networks}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Kittipiyakul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study a distributed channel allocation problem of non-cooperative OFDMA femtocells in two-tiered macro-femto networks. The objective is to maximize the total capacity of uplink macro users and femto users. We assume a time-slotted system, a time-invariant channel model (no fading, each user knows the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR of all channels, and the channel selection happens only at the beginning of each time-slot. We study the performance of a best-response strategy where each user chooses to transmit in the highest-SINR channel. For simplicity, we focus on the homogeneous 3-link, 2-channel case and show that if all users update their actions every time-slot (i.e., all users make simultaneous moves, an oscillation can occur and result in the worst performance. To avoid the oscillation and achieve the highest total capacity, while still assuming no coordination among the users, we propose a stochastic best-response algorithm, where each user updates its channel selection with a selection probability p. We use a Markov chain to analyze the average capacity performance and use simulation results to confirm our analysis and also provide performance of other homogeneous cases with more number of links and channels. It is shown that the highest total capacity can be achieved when the selection probability p is very small. This stochastic best response with small p in effect provides a sequential move mechanism which requires no coordination.

  2. Using finite mixture models in thermal-hydraulics system code uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, S., E-mail: scarlos@iqn.upv.es [Department d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s.n, 46022 València (Spain); Sánchez, A. [Department d’Estadística Aplicada i Qualitat, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s.n, 46022 València (Spain); Ginestar, D. [Department de Matemàtica Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s.n, 46022 València (Spain); Martorell, S. [Department d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s.n, 46022 València (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Best estimate codes simulation needs uncertainty quantification. • The output variables can present multimodal probability distributions. • The analysis of multimodal distribution is performed using finite mixture models. • Two methods to reconstruct output variable probability distribution are used. -- Abstract: Nuclear Power Plant safety analysis is mainly based on the use of best estimate (BE) codes that predict the plant behavior under normal or accidental conditions. As the BE codes introduce uncertainties due to uncertainty in input parameters and modeling, it is necessary to perform uncertainty assessment (UA), and eventually sensitivity analysis (SA), of the results obtained. These analyses are part of the appropriate treatment of uncertainties imposed by current regulation based on the adoption of the best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) approach. The most popular approach for uncertainty assessment, based on Wilks’ method, obtains a tolerance/confidence interval, but it does not completely characterize the output variable behavior, which is required for an extended UA and SA. However, the development of standard UA and SA impose high computational cost due to the large number of simulations needed. In order to obtain more information about the output variable and, at the same time, to keep computational cost as low as possible, there has been a recent shift toward developing metamodels (model of model), or surrogate models, that approximate or emulate complex computer codes. In this way, there exist different techniques to reconstruct the probability distribution using the information provided by a sample of values as, for example, the finite mixture models. In this paper, the Expectation Maximization and the k-means algorithms are used to obtain a finite mixture model that reconstructs the output variable probability distribution from data obtained with RELAP-5 simulations. Both methodologies have been applied to a separated

  3. Instanton-based techniques for analysis and reduction of error floor of LDPC codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chilappagari, Shashi K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stepanov, Mikhail G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasic, Bane [SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE

    2008-01-01

    We describe a family of instanton-based optimization methods developed recently for the analysis of the error floors of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Instantons are the most probable configurations of the channel noise which result in decoding failures. We show that the general idea and the respective optimization technique are applicable broadly to a variety of channels, discrete or continuous, and variety of sub-optimal decoders. Specifically, we consider: iterative belief propagation (BP) decoders, Gallager type decoders, and linear programming (LP) decoders performing over the additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGNC) and the binary symmetric channel (BSC). The instanton analysis suggests that the underlying topological structures of the most probable instanton of the same code but different channels and decoders are related to each other. Armed with this understanding of the graphical structure of the instanton and its relation to the decoding failures, we suggest a method to construct codes whose Tanner graphs are free of these structures, and thus have less significant error floors.

  4. Design and Analysis of Self-Healing Tree-Based Hybrid Spectral Amplitude Coding OCDMA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas A. Imtiaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient tree-based hybrid spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA system that is able to provide high capacity transmission along with fault detection and restoration throughout the passive optical network (PON. Enhanced multidiagonal (EMD code is adapted to elevate system’s performance, which negates multiple access interference and associated phase induced intensity noise through efficient two-matrix structure. Moreover, system connection availability is enhanced through an efficient protection architecture with tree and star-ring topology at the feeder and distribution level, respectively. The proposed hybrid architecture aims to provide seamless transmission of information at minimum cost. Mathematical model based on Gaussian approximation is developed to analyze performance of the proposed setup, followed by simulation analysis for validation. It is observed that the proposed system supports 64 subscribers, operating at the data rates of 2.5 Gbps and above. Moreover, survivability and cost analysis in comparison with existing schemes show that the proposed tree-based hybrid SAC-OCDMA system provides the required redundancy at minimum cost of infrastructure and operation.

  5. Analysis, simulation and modeling of atmospheric stratification erosion with lumped parameter codes; Analyse, Simulation und Modellierung der Erosion atmosphaerischer Schichtungen mit Lumped Parameter-Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    The courses and consequences of severe accidents in nuclear power plants are usually simulated with the help of so called Lumped Parameter-Codes which are especially designed for this purpose. These codes are able to simulate complex physical phenomena within short computing times since they are based on a simplified zone principle. Furthermore they are provided with a simplified flow model basis. This dissertation aims at the ability of the German Containment Code System (COCOSYS) to simulate local accumulations of hydrogen. During severe accidents with a melting reactor core (as in Harrisburg or Fukushima) hydrogen can be generated and then be released to the containment. In case of a local accumulation a detonation can occur that endangers the buildings integrity. The results show that the development and the erosion of these hydrogen accumulations based on bouant flows are qualitatively well simulated. From a systematic grid study general rules concerning the simulation of the stratification erosion have been derivated. Those have been applied and confirmed by several blind code-benchmarks. A detailed analysis has shown that the simulated erosion rate and the resistance of simulated hydrogen accumulations are directly related to the grid discretisation chosen by the user. Based upon this analysis a model concept has been developed, which is able to detect hydrogen accumulations and to determine their intensity of interaction with impinging flows by non-dimensional numbers. The erosion flow is controlled by adjusting local grid effects. The model is in the development phase.

  6. A general-purpose contact detection algorithm for nonlinear structural analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinstein, M.W.; Attaway, S.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Mello, F.J.

    1993-05-01

    A new contact detection algorithm has been developed to address difficulties associated with the numerical simulation of contact in nonlinear finite element structural analysis codes. Problems including accurate and efficient detection of contact for self-contacting surfaces, tearing and eroding surfaces, and multi-body impact are addressed. The proposed algorithm is portable between dynamic and quasi-static codes and can efficiently model contact between a variety of finite element types including shells, bricks, beams and particles. The algorithm is composed of (1) a location strategy that uses a global search to decide which slave nodes are in proximity to a master surface and (2) an accurate detailed contact check that uses the projected motions of both master surface and slave node. In this report, currently used contact detection algorithms and their associated difficulties are discussed. Then the proposed algorithm and how it addresses these problems is described. Finally, the capability of the new algorithm is illustrated with several example problems.

  7. 1DB, a one-dimensional diffusion code for nuclear reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, W.W. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    1DB is a multipurpose, one-dimensional (plane, cylinder, sphere) diffusion theory code for use in reactor analysis. The code is designed to do the following: To compute k{sub eff} and perform criticality searches on time absorption, reactor composition, reactor dimensions, and buckling by means of either a flux or an adjoint model; to compute collapsed microscopic and macroscopic cross sections averaged over the spectrum in any specified zone; to compute resonance-shielded cross sections using data in the shielding factor format; and to compute isotopic burnup using decay chains specified by the user. All programming is in FORTRAN. Because variable dimensioning is employed, no simple restrictions on problem complexity can be stated. The number of spatial mesh points, energy groups, upscattering terms, etc. is limited only by the available memory. The source file contains about 3000 cards. 4 refs.

  8. Equivalent Linearization Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Random Vibrations Using Commercial Finite Element Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    Two new equivalent linearization implementations for geometrically nonlinear random vibrations are presented. Both implementations are based upon a novel approach for evaluating the nonlinear stiffness within commercial finite element codes and are suitable for use with any finite element code having geometrically nonlinear static analysis capabilities. The formulation includes a traditional force-error minimization approach and a relatively new version of a potential energy-error minimization approach, which has been generalized for multiple degree-of-freedom systems. Results for a simply supported plate under random acoustic excitation are presented and comparisons of the displacement root-mean-square values and power spectral densities are made with results from a nonlinear time domain numerical simulation.

  9. Mathematical Description of Wafer-1, a Three-Dimensional Code for LWR Fuel Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Pedersen, Niels

    1975-01-01

    This article describes in detail the mathematical formulation used in the WAFER-1 code, which is presently used for three-dimensional analysis of LWR fuel pin performance. The code aims at a prediction of the local stress-strain history in the cladding, especially with regard to the ridging...... phenomenon. To achieve this, a clad model based on shell theory has been developed. This model interacts with a detailed finite difference pellet model which treats radial and transversal cracking in the pellet in a deterministic way, based on certain assumptions with respect to the cracking pattern. Pellet...... and clad creep are taken into account. The inner core of the pellet, bounded by a specified isotherm, may be treated as a viscous material. Axial force exchange between pellet and clad is also included. The axial loading is distributed on the pellet end face with due regard to any pellet dishing...

  10. Development of best estimate auditing code for CANDU thermal hydraulic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Lee, W. J.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a thermal hydraulic auditing code for the CANDU reactor, modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool, i.e. RELAP5/MOD3. This scope of project is first step of the whole project, thus focus to the establishment of improvement area. The study was performed by reconsideration of the previous code assessment works and investigation of AECL design analysis tools. In order to identify the thermal hydraulic phenomena for events, the whole system of CANDU plant was divided into main functional systems and subcomponents. Each phenomena was addressed to the each subcomponent. Finally improvement areas of model development for auditing tool were established based on the identified phenomena. 8 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  11. Development of the CFD analysis methodology for PCCS using CFX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Oh; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Bae, Yoon Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-05-01

    This study is to develop heat transfer analysis of in AP600 type PCCS. The heat and mass transfer phenomena was analysized by CFX4.1 code for the simplified geometry. In calculation of film flow, height function model seems to be appropriate, since the shape of film is flat along the surface of steel containment and the motion of free surface does not include complicated motion of free surface such as free surface folding and merging. Based on the models, the thermal hydraulic phenomena which include free surface flow, turbulent and natural circulation in two separated domain were calculated by the CFX4.1 code. Reviewing the results in qualitative aspect, the trends of the variables shows reasonable results but the quantitatives of the variables should be compared with the experimental for actual applications since appropriate data are not available at present. (author). 19 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Development of best estimate auditing code for CANDU thermal hydraulic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Lee, W. J.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-15

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a thermal hydraulic auditing code for the CANDU reactor, modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool, i.e. RELAP5/MOD3. This scope of project is first step of the whole project, thus focus to the establishment of improvement area. The study was performed by reconsideration of the previous code assessment works and investigation of AECL design analysis tools. In order to identify the thermal hydraulic phenomena for events, the whole system of CANDU plant was divided into main functional systems and subcomponents. Each phenomena was addressed to the each subcomponent. FinaIly improvement areas of model development for auditing tool were established based on the identified phenomena.

  13. Use of Forward Sensitivity Analysis Method to Improve Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau; Nam T. Dinh

    2010-10-01

    Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology was developed in late 1980s by US NRC to systematically quantify reactor simulation uncertainty. Basing on CSAU methodology, Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) methods have been developed and widely used for new reactor designs and existing LWRs power uprate. In spite of these successes, several aspects of CSAU have been criticized for further improvement: i.e., (1) subjective judgement in PIRT process; (2) high cost due to heavily relying large experimental database, needing many experts man-years work, and very high computational overhead; (3) mixing numerical errors with other uncertainties; (4) grid dependence and same numerical grids for both scaled experiments and real plants applications; (5) user effects; Although large amount of efforts have been used to improve CSAU methodology, the above issues still exist. With the effort to develop next generation safety analysis codes, new opportunities appear to take advantage of new numerical methods, better physical models, and modern uncertainty qualification methods. Forward sensitivity analysis (FSA) directly solves the PDEs for parameter sensitivities (defined as the differential of physical solution with respective to any constant parameter). When the parameter sensitivities are available in a new advanced system analysis code, CSAU could be significantly improved: (1) Quantifying numerical errors: New codes which are totally implicit and with higher order accuracy can run much faster with numerical errors quantified by FSA. (2) Quantitative PIRT (Q-PIRT) to reduce subjective judgement and improving efficiency: treat numerical errors as special sensitivities against other physical uncertainties; only parameters having large uncertainty effects on design criterions are considered. (3) Greatly reducing computational costs for uncertainty qualification by (a) choosing optimized time steps and spatial sizes; (b) using gradient information

  14. Development of system analysis code for thermal-hydraulic simulation of integral reactor, Rex-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Rex-10 is an environment-friendly and economical small-scale nuclear reactor to provide the energy for district heating as well as the electric power in micro-grid. This integral reactor comprises several innovative concepts supported by advanced primary circuit components, low coolant parameters and natural circulation cooling. To evaluate the system performance and thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactor, a system analysis code is being developed so that the new designs and technologies adopted in Rex-10 can be reflected. The research efforts are absorbed in programming the simple and fast-running thermal-hydraulic analysis software. The details of hydrodynamic governing equations component models and numerical solution scheme used in this code are presented in this paper. On the basis of one-dimensional momentum integral model, the models of point reactor neutron kinetics for thorium-fueled core, physical processes in the steam-gas pressurizer, and heat transfers in helically coiled steam generator are implemented to the system code. Implicit numerical scheme is employed to momentum and energy equations to assure the numerical stability. The accuracy of simulation is validated by applying the solution method to the Rex-10 test facility. Calculated natural circulation flow rate and coolant temperature at steady-state are compared to the experimental data. The validation is also carried out for the transients in which the sudden reduction in the core power or the feedwater flow takes place. The code's capability to predict the steady-state flow by natural convection and the qualitative behaviour of the primary system in the transients is confirmed. (Author)

  15. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines. OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  16. Performance Analysis for Cooperative Communication System with QC-LDPC Codes Constructed with Integer Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents four different integer sequences to construct quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC codes with mathematical theory. The paper introduces the procedure of the coding principle and coding. Four different integer sequences constructing QC-LDPC code are compared with LDPC codes by using PEG algorithm, array codes, and the Mackey codes, respectively. Then, the integer sequence QC-LDPC codes are used in coded cooperative communication. Simulation results show that the integer sequence constructed QC-LDPC codes are effective, and overall performance is better than that of other types of LDPC codes in the coded cooperative communication. The performance of Dayan integer sequence constructed QC-LDPC is the most excellent performance.

  17. Teaching the computer to code frames in news: comparing two supervised machine learning approaches to frame analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burscher, B.; Odijk, D.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Rijke, M.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the application of supervised machine learning (SML) to frame coding. By automating the coding of frames in news, SML facilitates the incorporation of large-scale content analysis into framing research, even if financial resources are scarce. This furthers a more integrated investigation

  18. "SEN's Completely Different Now": Critical Discourse Analysis of Three "Codes of Practice for Special Educational Needs" (1994, 2001, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Regardless of the differing shades of neo-liberalism, successive governments have claimed to champion the cause of "special educational needs and/or disability" (SEND) through official Codes of Practice in 1994, 2001 and 2015. This analysis and comparison of the three Codes of Practice aims to contribute to the debate by exploring…

  19. The Preliminary GAMMA Code Thermal hydraulic Analysis for the Steady State of HTR-10 Initial Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Su; Lim, Hong Sik; Lee, Won Jae

    2006-07-15

    This report describes the preliminary thermalhydraulic analysis of HTR-10 steady state full power initial core to provide a benchmark calculation of VHTGR(Very High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) safety analysis code of GAMMA(GAs Multicomponent Mixture Analysis). The input data of GAMMA code are produced for the models of fluid block, wall block, radiation heat transfer and each component material properties in HTR-10 reactor. The temperature and flow distributions of HTR-10 steady state 10 MW{sub th} full power initial core are calculated by GAMMA code with boundary conditions of total reactor inlet flow rate of 4.32 kg/s, inlet temperature of 250 .deg. C, inlet pressure of 3 MPa, outlet pressure of 2.992 MPa and the fixed temperature at RCCS water cooling tube of 50 .deg C. The calculation results are compared with the measured solid material temperatures at 22 fixed instrumentation positions in HTR-10. The wall temperature distribution in pebble bed core shows that the minimum temperature of 358 .deg. C is located at upper core, a higher temperature zone than 829 .deg. C is located at the inner region of 0.45 m radius at the bottom of core centre, and the maximum wall temperature is 897 .deg. C. The wall temperatures linearly decreases at radially and axially farther side from the bottom of core centre. The maximum temperature of RPV is 230 .deg. C, and the maximum values of fuel average temperature and TRISO centreline temperature are 907 .deg. C and 929 .deg. C, respectively and they are much lower than the fuel temperature limitation of 1230 .deg. C. The comparsion between the GAMMA code predictions and the measured temperature data shows that the calculation results are very close to the measured values in top and side reflector region, but a great difference is appeared in bottom reflector region. Some measured data are abnormally high in bottom reflector region, and so the confirmation of data is necessary in future. Fifteen of twenty two data have a

  20. Performance Analysis of New Binary User Codes for DS-CDMA Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Kamle; Jaya Sankar, Kottareddygari

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes new binary spreading codes through correlation properties and also presents their performance over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The proposed codes are constructed using gray and inverse gray codes. In this paper, a n-bit gray code appended by its n-bit inverse gray code to construct the 2n-length binary user codes are discussed. Like Walsh codes, these binary user codes are available in sizes of power of two and additionally code sets of length 6 and their even multiples are also available. The simple construction technique and generation of code sets of different sizes are the salient features of the proposed codes. Walsh codes and gold codes are considered for comparison in this paper as these are popularly used for synchronous and asynchronous multi user communications respectively. In the current work the auto and cross correlation properties of the proposed codes are compared with those of Walsh codes and gold codes. Performance of the proposed binary user codes for both synchronous and asynchronous direct sequence CDMA communication over AWGN channel is also discussed in this paper. The proposed binary user codes are found to be suitable for both synchronous and asynchronous DS-CDMA communication.

  1. YT: A Multi-Code Analysis Toolkit for Astrophysical Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Matthew J.; /San Diego, CASS; Smith, Britton D.; /Michigan State U.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Skory, Stephen; Skillman, Samuel W.; /Colorado U., CASA; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Norman, Michael L.; /aff San Diego, CASS

    2011-06-23

    The analysis of complex multiphysics astrophysical simulations presents a unique and rapidly growing set of challenges: reproducibility, parallelization, and vast increases in data size and complexity chief among them. In order to meet these challenges, and in order to open up new avenues for collaboration between users of multiple simulation platforms, we present yt (available at http://yt.enzotools.org/) an open source, community-developed astrophysical analysis and visualization toolkit. Analysis and visualization with yt are oriented around physically relevant quantities rather than quantities native to astrophysical simulation codes. While originally designed for handling Enzo's structure adaptive mesh refinement data, yt has been extended to work with several different simulation methods and simulation codes including Orion, RAMSES, and FLASH. We report on its methods for reading, handling, and visualizing data, including projections, multivariate volume rendering, multi-dimensional histograms, halo finding, light cone generation, and topologically connected isocontour identification. Furthermore, we discuss the underlying algorithms yt uses for processing and visualizing data, and its mechanisms for parallelization of analysis tasks.

  2. FY2017 Updates to the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Safety Analysis Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 safety analysis software is used to perform deterministic analysis of anticipated events as well as design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents for advanced fast reactors. It plays a central role in the analysis of U.S. DOE conceptual designs, proposed test and demonstration reactors, and in domestic and international collaborations. This report summarizes the code development activities that have taken place during FY2017. Extensions to the void and cladding reactivity feedback models have been implemented, and Control System capabilities have been improved through a new virtual data acquisition system for plant state variables and an additional Block Signal for a variable lag compensator to represent reactivity feedback for novel shutdown devices. Current code development and maintenance needs are also summarized in three key areas: software quality assurance, modeling improvements, and maintenance of related tools. With ongoing support, SAS4A/SASSYS-1 can continue to fulfill its growing role in fast reactor safety analysis and help solidify DOE’s leadership role in fast reactor safety both domestically and in international collaborations.

  3. Development of a High Fidelity System Analysis Code for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Haihua Zhao

    2008-06-01

    Traditional nuclear reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP and TRAC employ an operator split methodology. In this approach, each of the physics (fluid flow, heat conduction and neutron diffusion) is solved separately and the coupling terms are done explicitly. This approach limits accuracy (first order in time at best) and makes the codes slow in running since the explicit coupling imposes stability restrictions on the time step size. These codes have been extensively tested and validated for the existing LWRs. However, for GEN IV nuclear reactor designs which tend to have long lasting transients resulting from passive safety systems, the performance is questionable and modern high fidelity simulation tools will be required. The requirement for accurate predictability is the motivation for a large scale overhaul of all of the models and assumptions in transient nuclear reactor safety simulation software. At INL we have launched an effort with the long term goal of developing a high fidelity system analysis code that employs modern physical models, numerical methods, and computer science for transient safety analysis of GEN IV nuclear reactors. Modern parallel solution algorithms will be employed through utilizing the nonlinear solution software package PETSc developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The physical models to be developed will have physically realistic length scales and time scales. The solution algorithm will be based on the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solution methods. In this approach all of the physical models are solved implicitly and simultaneously in a single nonlinear system. This includes the coolant flow, nonlinear heat conduction, neutron kinetics, and thermal radiation, etc. Including modern physical models and accurate space and time discretizations will allow the simulation capability to be second order accurate in space and in time. This paper presents the current status of the development efforts as

  4. The NEST Dry-Run Mode: Efficient Dynamic Analysis of Neuronal Network Simulation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Susanne; Schenck, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    NEST is a simulator for spiking neuronal networks that commits to a general purpose approach: It allows for high flexibility in the design of network models, and its applications range from small-scale simulations on laptops to brain-scale simulations on supercomputers. Hence, developers need to test their code for various use cases and ensure that changes to code do not impair scalability. However, running a full set of benchmarks on a supercomputer takes up precious compute-time resources and can entail long queuing times. Here, we present the NEST dry-run mode, which enables comprehensive dynamic code analysis without requiring access to high-performance computing facilities. A dry-run simulation is carried out by a single process, which performs all simulation steps except communication as if it was part of a parallel environment with many processes. We show that measurements of memory usage and runtime of neuronal network simulations closely match the corresponding dry-run data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the successful application of the dry-run mode in the areas of profiling and performance modeling. PMID:28701946

  5. The NEST Dry-Run Mode: Efficient Dynamic Analysis of Neuronal Network Simulation Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Susanne; Schenck, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    NEST is a simulator for spiking neuronal networks that commits to a general purpose approach: It allows for high flexibility in the design of network models, and its applications range from small-scale simulations on laptops to brain-scale simulations on supercomputers. Hence, developers need to test their code for various use cases and ensure that changes to code do not impair scalability. However, running a full set of benchmarks on a supercomputer takes up precious compute-time resources and can entail long queuing times. Here, we present the NEST dry-run mode, which enables comprehensive dynamic code analysis without requiring access to high-performance computing facilities. A dry-run simulation is carried out by a single process, which performs all simulation steps except communication as if it was part of a parallel environment with many processes. We show that measurements of memory usage and runtime of neuronal network simulations closely match the corresponding dry-run data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the successful application of the dry-run mode in the areas of profiling and performance modeling.

  6. Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaffy, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Boyack, B.E.; Steinke, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization.

  7. Analysis of Parkinson's disease brain-derived DNA for alpha-synuclein coding somatic mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proukakis, Christos; Shoaee, Maryiam; Morris, James; Brier, Timothy; Kara, Eleanna; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Charlesworth, Gavin; Tolosa, Eduardo; Houlden, Henry; Wood, Nicholas W; Schapira, Anthony H

    2014-07-01

    Although alpha-synuclein (SNCA) is crucial to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), mutations in the gene appear to be rare. We have recently hypothesized that somatic mutations in early development could contribute to PD. Expanding on our recent negative small study, we used high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to screen SNCA coding exons for somatic point mutations in DNA from 539 PD and DLB cerebellar samples, with two additional regions (frontal cortex, substantia nigra) for 20 PD cases. We used artificial mosaics to determine sensitivity where possible. We did not detect any evidence of somatic coding mutations. Three cases were heterozygous for known silent polymorphisms. The protocol we used was sensitive enough to detect 5% to 10% mutant DNA. Using DNA predominantly from cerebellum, but also from frontal cortex and substantia nigra (n = 20 each), we have not detected any somatic coding SNCA point mutations. © 2014 The Authors. International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. ARES: A Parallel Discrete Ordinates Transport Code for Radiation Shielding Applications and Reactor Physics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixue Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ARES is a multidimensional parallel discrete ordinates particle transport code with arbitrary order anisotropic scattering. It can be applied to a wide variety of radiation shielding calculations and reactor physics analysis. ARES uses state-of-the-art solution methods to obtain accurate solutions to the linear Boltzmann transport equation. A multigroup discretization is applied in energy. The code allows multiple spatial discretization schemes and solution methodologies. ARES currently provides diamond difference with or without linear-zero flux fixup, theta weighted, directional theta weighted, exponential directional weighted, and linear discontinuous finite element spatial differencing schemes. Discrete ordinates differencing in angle and spherical harmonics expansion of the scattering source are adopted. First collision source method is used to eliminate or mitigate the ray effects. Traditional source iteration and Krylov iterative method preconditioned with diffusion synthetic acceleration are applied to solve the linear system of equations. ARES uses the Koch-Baker-Alcouffe parallel sweep algorithm to obtain high parallel efficiency. Verification and validation for the ARES transport code system have been done by lots of benchmarks. In this paper, ARES solutions to the HBR-2 benchmark and C5G7 benchmarks are in excellent agreement with published results. Numerical results are presented which demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of these methods.

  9. The NEST Dry-Run Mode: Efficient Dynamic Analysis of Neuronal Network Simulation Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kunkel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available NEST is a simulator for spiking neuronal networks that commits to a general purpose approach: It allows for high flexibility in the design of network models, and its applications range from small-scale simulations on laptops to brain-scale simulations on supercomputers. Hence, developers need to test their code for various use cases and ensure that changes to code do not impair scalability. However, running a full set of benchmarks on a supercomputer takes up precious compute-time resources and can entail long queuing times. Here, we present the NEST dry-run mode, which enables comprehensive dynamic code analysis without requiring access to high-performance computing facilities. A dry-run simulation is carried out by a single process, which performs all simulation steps except communication as if it was part of a parallel environment with many processes. We show that measurements of memory usage and runtime of neuronal network simulations closely match the corresponding dry-run data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the successful application of the dry-run mode in the areas of profiling and performance modeling.

  10. Engineering Overview of a Multidisciplinary HSCT Design Framework Using Medium-Fidelity Analysis Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, R. P.; Green, L. L.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Townsend, J. C.; Walsh, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    An objective of the HPCC Program at NASA Langley has been to promote the use of advanced computing techniques to more rapidly solve the problem of multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic transport configuration. As a result, a software system has been designed and is being implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them CPU-intensive, into a distributed computational framework for the design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration. The proposed paper will describe the engineering aspects of integrating these analysis codes and additional interface codes into an automated design system. The objective of the design problem is to optimize the aircraft weight for given mission conditions, range, and payload requirements, subject to aerodynamic, structural, and performance constraints. The design variables include both thicknesses of structural elements and geometric parameters that define the external aircraft shape. An optimization model has been adopted that uses the multidisciplinary analysis results and the derivatives of the solution with respect to the design variables to formulate a linearized model that provides input to the CONMIN optimization code, which outputs new values for the design variables. The analysis process begins by deriving the updated geometries and grids from the baseline geometries and grids using the new values for the design variables. This free-form deformation approach provides internal FEM (finite element method) grids that are consistent with aerodynamic surface grids. The next step involves using the derived FEM and section properties in a weights process to calculate detailed weights and the center of gravity location for specified flight conditions. The weights process computes the as-built weight, weight distribution, and weight sensitivities for given aircraft configurations at various mass cases. Currently, two mass cases are considered: cruise and gross take-off weight (GTOW

  11. Life Expectancy at Birth in Milwaukee County: A Zip Code-Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. LeCounte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Life expectancy at birth is used as a barometer of the health and well-being of a population. Life expectancies vary widely across Wisconsin counties. While much of the analysis of life expectancy in Wisconsin has focused on counties, there may be important differences in life expectancy within counties by zip code. Methods: To calculate life expectancy, death count data and population estimates were entered into an abridged life table using the Chiang methodology. Data were linked with measures from the American Community Survey to examine the relationship between life expectancy and zip code characteristics. Results: Life expectancy varies greatly across zip codes in Milwaukee County. Overall, there was a 12-year difference in the life expectancy of children born into zip codes with the lowest and highest life expectancy: 53206 (71.3 years and 53217 (83.2 years. There was a strong positive correlation between life expectancy and median household income (r = 0.784, P < 0.0001, educational attainment of a bachelor’s degree or higher (r = 0.741, P < 0.0001 and the socioeconomic index combining education and income (r = 0.819, P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Disparities in life expectancy within Milwaukee County are stark and correlate with differences in social and economic factors. To improve health outcomes such as life expectancy, health care practitioners and health care systems must become more involved in activities at the social and policy levels to improve social and economic conditions that would allow their patients to live healthier and longer lives.

  12. Error Floor Analysis of Coded Slotted ALOHA over Packet Erasure Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Graell i Amat, Alexandre; Brannstrom, F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of the error floor of coded slotted ALOHA (CSA) for finite frame lengths over the packet erasure channel. The error floor is caused by stopping sets in the corresponding bipartite graph, whose enumeration is, in general, not a trivial problem. We therefore...... identify the most dominant stopping sets for the distributions of practical interest. The derived analytical expressions allow us to accurately predict the error floor at low to moderate channel loads and characterize the unequal error protection inherent in CSA....

  13. Behavioral analysis of malicious code through network traffic and system call monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégio, André R. A.; Fernandes Filho, Dario S.; Afonso, Vitor M.; Santos, Rafael D. C.; Jino, Mario; de Geus, Paulo L.

    2011-06-01

    Malicious code (malware) that spreads through the Internet-such as viruses, worms and trojans-is a major threat to information security nowadays and a profitable business for criminals. There are several approaches to analyze malware by monitoring its actions while it is running in a controlled environment, which helps to identify malicious behaviors. In this article we propose a tool to analyze malware behavior in a non-intrusive and effective way, extending the analysis possibilities to cover malware samples that bypass current approaches and also fixes some issues with these approaches.

  14. Verification of combined thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction analysis code FLOWNET/TRUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Soh; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Kiso, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Sudo, Yukio

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the verification results of the combined thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction analysis code, FLOWNET/TRUMP which has been utilized for the core thermal hydraulic design, especially for the analysis of flow distribution among fuel block coolant channels, the determination of thermal boundary conditions for fuel block stress analysis and the estimation of fuel temperature in the case of fuel block coolant channel blockage accident in the design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor(HTTR), which the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been planning to construct in order to establish basic technologies for future advanced very high temperature gas-cooled reactors and to be served as an irradiation test reactor for promotion of innovative high temperature new frontier technologies. The verification of the code was done through the comparison between the analytical results and experimental results of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop Multi-channel Test Section(HENDEL T(sub 1-M)) with simulated fuel rods and fuel blocks.

  15. A study on cooling efficiency using 1-d analysis code suitable for cooling system of thermoforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen Zhe; Heo, Kwang Su; Xuan, Dong Ji; Seol, Seoung Yun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Thermoforming is one of the most versatile and economical processes available for polymer products, but cycle time and production cost must be continuously reduced in order to improve the competitive power of products. In this study, water spray cooling was simulated to apply to a cooling system instead of compressed air cooling in order to shorten the cycle time and reduce the cost of compressed air used in the cooling process. At first, cooling time using compressed air was predicted in order to check the state of mass production. In the following step, the ratio of removed energy by air cooling or water spray cooling among the total removed energy was found by using 1-D analysis code of the cooling system under the condition of checking the possibility of conversion from 2-D to 1-D problem. The analysis results using water spray cooling show that cycle time can be reduced because of high cooling efficiency of water spray, and cost of production caused by using compressed air can be reduced by decreasing the amount of the used compressed air. The 1-D analysis code can be widely used in the design of a thermoforming cooling system, and parameters of the thermoforming process can be modified based on the recommended data suitable for a cooling system of thermoforming

  16. A generalized fitting technique for the LIFE2 fatigue analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, H.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Research Dept.; Wilson, T. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Engineering Research Inst.

    1996-08-01

    The analysis of component fatigue lifetime for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) requires that the component load spectrum be formulated in terms of stress cycles. Typically, these stress cycles are obtained from time series data using a cycle identification scheme. As discussed by many authors, the matrix or matrices of cycle counts that describe the stresses on a turbine are constructed from relatively short, representative samples of time series data. The ability to correctly represent the long-term behavior of the distribution of stress cycles from these representative samples is critical to the analysis of service lifetimes. Several techniques are currently used to convert representative samples to the lifetime cyclic loads on the turbine. There has been recently developed a set of fitting algorithms that is particularly useful for matching the body of the distribution of fatigue stress cycles on a turbine component. Fitting techniques are now incorporated into the LIFE2 fatigue/fracture analysis code for wind turbines. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the fitting algorithms and describe the pre- and post-count algorithms developed to permit their use in the LIFE2 code. Typical case studies are used to illustrate the use of the technique.

  17. LSENS, A General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code for Homogeneous Gas-Phase Reactions. Part 2; Code Description and Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part II of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part II describes the code, how to modify it, and its usage, including preparation of the problem data file required to execute LSENS. Code usage is illustrated by several example problems, which further explain preparation of the problem data file and show how to obtain desired accuracy in the computed results. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions. Part I (NASA RP-1328) derives the governing equations and describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved by LSENS. Part III (NASA RP-1330) explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity-analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results.

  18. Development of a best estimate auditing code for CANDU thermal hydraulic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B.D.; Lee, W.J.; Lim, H.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a thermal hydraulic auditing code for the CANDU reactor, modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool , i.e. RELAP5/MOD3. This scope of project is a third step of the whole project, and expand the RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU version for implementation of LOCA Analysis. There are three main area of model development, i.e. Moody critical flow model, flow regime model of horizontal CANDU bundle, and fuel element heatup model when the stratification occurs. Newly developed version, namely RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU+ is applicable to CANDU plant analysis with keeping the function of light water reactor analysis. The limited validations of model installation were performed. Assessment of CHF model using AECL separated effect test and calculation for Wolsong 2 plant were performed also for the applicability test of the developed version. 15 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  19. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  20. CFD analysis of turbulent flow in nuclear fuel bundle with flow mixing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Kee; Oh, Dong Seok; Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    A CFD analysis was performed to confirm the applicability of the CFD method and to examine the 3-D turbulent flow characteristics in rod bundles with typical flow mixing promoters on grid spacer. Both the axial and lateral mean velocities predicted by the CFD method showed good agreement with the measurements except for the axial velocity near the spacer with the split vane. The CFD predictions produced the swirling flow pattern in the subchannel for the split-vane design and the crossflow mixing between adjacent subchannels for the ripped-open blades. The actual flow rate through the Y-nozzle is predicted to be smaller than the expected flow rate that is estimated based on the ratio of flow area of the Y-nozzle to the total flow area of the subchannel. The pressure drop across the Y-nozzle spacer is also estimated to be larger than the other spacer designs. The CFD simulations of the swirl-vane design showed an intense swirling flow in the subchannel but a negligible crossflow between neighboring subchannels. (author). 9 refs., 45 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The GridCAT: A Toolbox for Automated Analysis of Human Grid Cell Codes in fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Stangl, Matthias; Shine, Jonathan; Wolbers, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies examining the putative firing of grid cells (i.e., the grid code) suggest that this cellular mechanism supports not only spatial navigation, but also more abstract cognitive processes. Despite increased interest in this research, there remain relatively few human grid code studies, perhaps due to the complex analysis methods, which are not included in standard fMRI analysis packages. To overcome this, we have developed the Matlab-base...

  2. ALOAD - a code to determine the concentrated forces equivalent with a distributed pressure field for a FEM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae APOSTOLESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to describe a code for calculating an equivalent systemof concentrate loads for a FEM analysis. The tables from the Aerodynamic Department containpressure field for a whole bearing surface, and integrated quantities both for the whole surface andfor fixed and mobile part. Usually in a FEM analysis the external loads as concentrated loadsequivalent to the distributed pressure field are introduced. These concentrated forces can also be usedin static tests. Commercial codes provide solutions for this problem, but what we intend to develop isa code adapted to the user’s specific needs.

  3. iRegNet3D: three-dimensional integrated regulatory network for the genomic analysis of coding and non-coding disease mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Siqi; Tippens, Nathaniel D; Zhou, Yaoda; Mort, Matthew; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Yu, Haiyuan

    2017-01-18

    The mechanistic details of most disease-causing mutations remain poorly explored within the context of regulatory networks. We present a high-resolution three-dimensional integrated regulatory network (iRegNet3D) in the form of a web tool, where we resolve the interfaces of all known transcription factor (TF)-TF, TF-DNA and chromatin-chromatin interactions for the analysis of both coding and non-coding disease-associated mutations to obtain mechanistic insights into their functional impact. Using iRegNet3D, we find that disease-associated mutations may perturb the regulatory network through diverse mechanisms including chromatin looping. iRegNet3D promises to be an indispensable tool in large-scale sequencing and disease association studies.

  4. Development of essential system technologies for advanced reactor - Development of natural circulation analysis code for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Cherl; Park, Ik Gyu; Kim, Jae Hak; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Tae Wan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the natural circulation characteristics of integral type reactors and to develope the natural circulation analysis code for integral type reactors. This study is focused on the asymmetric 3-dimensional flow during natural circulation such as 1/4 steam generator section isolation and the inclination of the reactor systems. Natural circulation experiments were done using small-scale facilities of integral reactor SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). CFX4 code was used to investigate the flow patterns and thermal mixing phenomena in upper pressure header and downcomer. Differences between normal operation of all steam generators and the 1/4 section isolation conditions were observed and the results were used as the data 1/4 section isolation conditions were observed and the results were used as the data for RETRAN-03/INT code validation. RETRAN-03 code was modified for the development of natural circulation analysis code for integral type reactors, which was development of natural circulation analysis code for integral type reactors, which was named as RETRAN-03/INT. 3-dimensional analysis models for asymmetric flow in integral type reactors were developed using vector momentum equations in RETRAN-03. Analysis results using RETRAN-03/INT were compared with experimental and CFX4 analysis results and showed good agreements. The natural circulation characteristics obtained in this study will provide the important and fundamental design features for the future small and medium integral reactors. (author). 29 refs., 75 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Development of a kinetics analysis code for fuel solution combined with thermal-hydraulics analysis code PHOENICS and analysis of natural-cooling characteristic test of TRACY. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shouichi; Yamane, Yuichi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Since exact information is not always acquired in the criticality accident of fuel solution, parametric survey calculations are required for grasping behaviors of the thermal-hydraulics. On the other hand, the practical methods of the calculation with can reduce the computation time with allowable accuracy will be also required, since the conventional method takes a long calculation time. In order to fulfill the requirement, a two-dimensional (R-Z) nuclear-kinetics analysis code considering thermal-hydraulic based on the multi-region kinetic equations with one-group neutron energy was created by incorporating with the thermal-hydraulics analysis code PHOENICS for all-purpose use the computation time of the code was shortened by separating time mesh intervals of the nuclear- and heat-calculations from that of the hydraulics calculation, and by regulating automatically the time mesh intervals in proportion to power change rate. A series of analysis were performed for the natural-cooling characteristic test using TRACY in which the power changed slowly for 5 hours after the transient power resulting from the reactivity insertion of a 0.5 dollar. It was found that the code system was able to calculate within the limit of practical time, and acquired the prospect of reproducing the experimental values considerably for the power and temperature change. (author)

  6. Analysis of fission gas release in LWR fuel using the BISON code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Pastore; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; R.L. Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in the development of the finite-element based, multidimensional fuel performance code BISON of Idaho National Laboratory are presented. Specifically, the development, implementation and testing of a new model for the analysis of fission gas behavior in LWR-UO2 fuel during irradiation are summarized. While retaining a physics-based description of the relevant mechanisms, the model is characterized by a level of complexity suitable for application to engineering-scale nuclear fuel analysis and consistent with the uncertainties pertaining to some parameters. The treatment includes the fundamental features of fission gas behavior, among which are gas diffusion and precipitation in fuel grains, growth and coalescence of gas bubbles at grain faces, grain growth and grain boundary sweeping effects, thermal, athermal, and transient gas release. The BISON code incorporating the new model is applied to the simulation of irradiation experiments from the OECD/NEA International Fuel Performance Experiments database, also included in the IAEA coordinated research projects FUMEX-II and FUMEX-III. The comparison of the results with the available experimental data at moderate burn-up is presented, pointing out an encouraging predictive accuracy, without any fitting applied to the model parameters.

  7. Development of a best estimate auditing code for CANDU thermal hydraulic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, M. K.; Lee, W. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a thermal hydraulic auditing code for the CANDU reactor, modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool , i.e. RELAP5/MOD3. This scope of project is a fourth step of the whole project, applying the RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU+ version for the real CANDU plant LOCA Analysis and D2O leakage incident. There are three main models under investigation, i.e. Moody critical flow model, flow regime model of horizontal CANDU bundle, and fuel element heatup model when the stratification occurs, especially when CANDU LOCA is tested. Also, for Wolsung unit 1 D2O leakage incident analysis, the plant behavior is predicted with the newly developed version for the first 1000 seconds after onset of the incident, with the main interest aiming for system pressure, level control system, and thermal hydraulic transient behavior of the secondary system. The model applied for this particular application includes heat transfer model of nuclear fuel assembly, decay heat model, and MOV (Motor Operated Valve) model. Finally, the code maintenance work, mainly correcting the known errors, is presented. 12 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  8. Genomic context analysis reveals dense interaction network between vertebrate ultraconserved non-coding elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrieva, Slavica; Bucher, Philipp

    2012-09-15

    Genomic context analysis, also known as phylogenetic profiling, is widely used to infer functional interactions between proteins but rarely applied to non-coding cis-regulatory DNA elements. We were wondering whether this approach could provide insights about utlraconserved non-coding elements (UCNEs). These elements are organized as large clusters, so-called gene regulatory blocks (GRBs) around key developmental genes. Their molecular functions and the reasons for their high degree of conservation remain enigmatic. In a special setting of genomic context analysis, we analyzed the fate of GRBs after a whole-genome duplication event in five fish genomes. We found that in most cases all UCNEs were retained together as a single block, whereas the corresponding target genes were often retained in two copies, one completely devoid of UCNEs. This 'winner-takes-all' pattern suggests that UCNEs of a GRB function in a highly cooperative manner. We propose that the multitude of interactions between UCNEs is the reason for their extreme sequence conservation. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online and at http://ccg.vital-it.ch/ucne/

  9. A new code for spectrometric analysis for environmental radiological surveillance on monitors focused on gamma radioactivity on aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Blas, Alfredo; Tapia, Carlos; Riego, Albert; Garcia, Roger; Dies, Javier; Diaz, Pedro [Nuclear Engineering Research Group, Departament of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Toral, Juan [Raditel Serveis, Tarragona (Spain); Batalla, Enric [Radiological Activities Corrdination Service - SCAR, Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    pGamma is a code developed by the NERG group of the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech for the analysis of gamma spectra generated by the Equipment for the Continuous Measurement and Identification of Gamma Radioactivity on Aerosols with Paper Filter developed for our group and Raditel Servies company. Nowadays the code is in the process of adaptation for the monitors of the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network of the Local Government of Catalonia (Generalitat of Catalonia), Spain. The code is a Spectrum Analysis System, it identifies the gamma emitters on the spectrum, determines its Concentration of Activity, generates alarms depending on the Activity of the emitters and generates a report. The Spectrum Analysis System includes a library with emitters of interest, NORM and artificial. The code is being used on the three stations with the aerosol monitor of the Network (Asco and Vandellos, near both Nuclear Power Plants and Barcelona). (authors)

  10. A First-Stage Approximation to Identify New Imprinted Genes through Sequence Analysis of Its Coding Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Daura-Oller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a positive training set of 30 known human imprinted gene coding regions are compared with a set of 72 randomly sampled human nonimprinted gene coding regions (negative training set to identify genomic features common to human imprinted genes. The most important feature of the present work is its ability to use multivariate analysis to look at variation, at coding region DNA level, among imprinted and non-imprinted genes. There is a force affecting genomic parameters that appears through the use of the appropriate multivariate methods (principle components analysis (PCA and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA to analyse quantitative genomic data. We show that variables, such as CG content, [bp]% CpG islands, [bp]% Large Tandem Repeats, and [bp]% Simple Repeats, are able to distinguish coding regions of human imprinted genes.

  11. Proteomic analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi developmental stages using isotope-coded affinity tag reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paba, Jaime; Ricart, Carlos A O; Fontes, Wagner; Santana, Jaime M; Teixeira, Antonio R L; Marchese, Jason; Williamson, Brian; Hunt, Tony; Karger, Barry L; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2004-01-01

    Comparative proteome analysis of developmental stages of the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi was carried out by isotope-coded affinity tag technology (ICAT) associated with liquid cromatography-mass spectrometry peptide sequencing (LC-MS/MS). Protein extracts of the protozoan trypomastigote and amastigote stages were labeled with heavy (D8) and light (D0) ICAT reagents and subjected to cation exchange and avidin affinity chromatographies followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. High confidence sequence information and expression levels for 41 T. cruzi polypeptides, including metabolic enzymes, paraflagellar rod components, tubulins, and heat-shock proteins were reported. Twenty-nine proteins displayed similar levels of expression in both forms of the parasite, nine proteins presented higher levels in trypomastigotes, whereas three were more expressed in amastigotes.

  12. Software Architecture of Code Analysis Frameworks Matters: The Frama-C Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Signoles

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Implementing large software, as software analyzers which aim to be used in industrial settings, requires a well-engineered software architecture in order to ease its daily development and its maintenance process during its lifecycle. If the analyzer is not only a single tool, but an open extensible collaborative framework in which external developers may develop plug-ins collaborating with each other, such a well designed architecture even becomes more important. In this experience report, we explain difficulties of developing and maintaining open extensible collaborative analysis frameworks, through the example of Frama-C, a platform dedicated to the analysis of code written in C. We also present the new upcoming software architecture of Frama-C and how it aims to solve some of these issues.

  13. Verification and Validation of the PLTEMP/ANL Code for Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Experimental and Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalimullah, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Olson, Arne P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Feldman, E. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hanan, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-04-07

    The document compiles in a single volume several verification and validation works done for the PLTEMP/ANL code during the years of its development and improvement. Some works that are available in the open literature are simply referenced at the outset, and are not included in the document. PLTEMP has been used in conversion safety analysis reports of several US and foreign research reactors that have been licensed and converted. A list of such reactors is given. Each chapter of the document deals with the verification or validation of a specific model. The model verification is usually done by comparing the code with hand calculation, Microsoft spreadsheet calculation, or Mathematica calculation. The model validation is done by comparing the code with experimental data or a more validated code like the RELAP5 code.

  14. Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2). Detailed structure and user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Saitou, Hiroaki

    1997-11-01

    A light water reactor fuel behavior analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2) was developed as an improved version of FEMAXI-IV. Development of FEMAXI-IV has been already finished in 1992, though a detailed structure and input manual of the code have not been open to users yet. Here, the basic theories and structure, the models and numerical solutions applied to FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), and the material properties adopted in the code are described in detail. In FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), programming bugs in previous FEMAXI-IV were eliminated, renewal of the pellet thermal conductivity was performed, and a model of thermal-stress restraint on FP gas release was incorporated. For facilitation of effective and wide-ranging application of the code, methods of input/output of the code are also described in detail, and sample output is included. (author)

  15. The GridCAT: A Toolbox for Automated Analysis of Human Grid Cell Codes in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, Matthias; Shine, Jonathan; Wolbers, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies examining the putative firing of grid cells (i.e., the grid code) suggest that this cellular mechanism supports not only spatial navigation, but also more abstract cognitive processes. Despite increased interest in this research, there remain relatively few human grid code studies, perhaps due to the complex analysis methods, which are not included in standard fMRI analysis packages. To overcome this, we have developed the Matlab-based open-source Grid Code Analysis Toolbox (GridCAT), which performs all analyses, from the estimation and fitting of the grid code in the general linear model (GLM), to the generation of grid code metrics and plots. The GridCAT, therefore, opens up this cutting-edge research area by allowing users to analyze data by means of a simple and user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). Researchers confident with programming can edit the open-source code and use example scripts accompanying the GridCAT to implement their own analysis pipelines. Here, we review the current literature in the field of fMRI grid code research with particular focus on the different analysis options that have been implemented, which we describe in detail. Key features of the GridCAT are demonstrated via analysis of an example dataset, which is also provided online together with a detailed manual, so that users can replicate the results presented here, and explore the GridCAT's functionality. By making the GridCAT available to the wider neuroscience community, we believe that it will prove invaluable in elucidating the role of grid codes in higher-order cognitive processes.

  16. The GridCAT: A Toolbox for Automated Analysis of Human Grid Cell Codes in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Stangl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies examining the putative firing of grid cells (i.e., the grid code suggest that this cellular mechanism supports not only spatial navigation, but also more abstract cognitive processes. Despite increased interest in this research, there remain relatively few human grid code studies, perhaps due to the complex analysis methods, which are not included in standard fMRI analysis packages. To overcome this, we have developed the Matlab-based open-source Grid Code Analysis Toolbox (GridCAT, which performs all analyses, from the estimation and fitting of the grid code in the general linear model (GLM, to the generation of grid code metrics and plots. The GridCAT, therefore, opens up this cutting-edge research area by allowing users to analyze data by means of a simple and user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI. Researchers confident with programming can edit the open-source code and use example scripts accompanying the GridCAT to implement their own analysis pipelines. Here, we review the current literature in the field of fMRI grid code research with particular focus on the different analysis options that have been implemented, which we describe in detail. Key features of the GridCAT are demonstrated via analysis of an example dataset, which is also provided online together with a detailed manual, so that users can replicate the results presented here, and explore the GridCAT’s functionality. By making the GridCAT available to the wider neuroscience community, we believe that it will prove invaluable in elucidating the role of grid codes in higher-order cognitive processes.

  17. Development of a multi-dimensional realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis code, MARS 1.3 and its verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    A multi-dimensional realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis code, MARS version 1.3 has been developed. Main purpose of MARS 1.3 development is to have the realistic analysis capability of transient two-phase thermal-hydraulics of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) especially during Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LBLOCAs) where the multi-dimensional phenomena domain the transients. MARS code is a unified version of USNRC developed COBRA-TF, domain the transients. MARS code is a unified version of USNRC developed COBRA-TF, three-dimensional (3D) reactor vessel analysis code, and RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2, one-dimensional (1D) reactor system analysis code., Developmental requirements for MARS are chosen not only to best utilize the existing capability of the codes but also to have the enhanced capability in code maintenance, user accessibility, user friendliness, code portability, code readability, and code flexibility. For the maintenance of existing codes capability and the enhancement of code maintenance capability, user accessibility and user friendliness, MARS has been unified to be a single code consisting of 1D module (RELAP5) and 3D module (COBRA-TF). This is realized by implicitly integrating the system pressure matrix equations of hydrodynamic models and solving them simultaneously, by modifying the 1D/3D calculation sequence operable under a single Central Processor Unit (CPU) and by unifying the input structure and the light water property routines of both modules. In addition, the code structure of 1D module is completely restructured using the modular data structure of standard FORTRAN 90, which greatly improves the code maintenance capability, readability and portability. For the code flexibility, a dynamic memory management scheme is applied in both modules. MARS 1.3 now runs on PC/Windows and HP/UNIX platforms having a single CPU, and users have the options to select the 3D module to model the 3D thermal-hydraulics in the reactor vessel or other

  18. A VVER-1000 LEU and MOX assembly computational benchmark analysis using the lattice burnup code EXCEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilagam, L. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)], E-mail: thilagam@igcar.gov.in; Sunil Sunny, C. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India); Jagannathan, V. [Light Water Reactor Physics Section, Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: v_jagan1952@rediffmail.com; Subbaiah, K.V. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)

    2009-05-01

    Utilization of Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide (MOX) fuel in VVER-1000 reactors envisages the core physics analysis using computational methods and validation of the related computer codes. Towards this objective, an international experts group has been established at OECD/NEA. The experts group facilitates sharing of existing information on physics parameters and fuel behaviour. Several benchmark exercises have been proposed by them with intent to investigate the core physics behaviour of a VVER-1000 reactor loaded with 2/3rd of low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA) and 1/3rd of weapons grade mixed oxide (MOX) FA. In the present study an attempt is made to analyse 'AVVER-1000LEUandMOXAssemblyComputationalBenchmark' and predict the neutronics behaviour at the lattice level. The lattice burnup code EXCEL, developed at Light Water Reactor Physics Section, BARC is employed for this task. The EXCEL code uses the 172 energy group 'JEFF31GX' cross-section library in WIMS-D format. Assembly level fuel depletion calculations are performed up to a burnup of 40 MWD/kg of heavy metal (HM). Studies are made for the parametric variations of fuel and moderator temperatures, coolant density and boron content in the coolant. Both operational and off-normal states are analysed to determine the corresponding infinite neutron multiplication factor (k{sub {infinity}}). Pin wise isotopic compositions are computed as a function of burnup. Isotopic compositions in different annular regions of Uranium-Gadolinium (UGD) pin, fission rate distributions in UGD, UO{sub 2} and MOX pin cells are also computed. The predicted results are compared with the benchmark mean results.

  19. ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF INTRODUCTION OF THE SCHOOL DRESS CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O, I, Denisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the international discourse on policy issues of school dress code; to identify problems relevant to the national system of education, and proposed ways of their solution.Methods. The methods involve summarizing of the content of the leading internationalsources regarding issues regarding school education and health; a systematic analysis of sociological researchResults. The polemic aspects to the requirements for the appearance of the students are considered. These requirements affect many important aspects and the principles of functioning of an educational system and all society in general: the observance of the constitutional rights of a child, including freedom of expression on grounds of gender; tolerance policy of intra school and state policy in the light of migration processes; problems of leveling of social and economic stratification of children, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of existing approaches to the development requirements in the countries of Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America are analysed.Scientific novelty. The influence of policy of a school dress-code on children’s behavior and health, relationships in multinational school groups, identification and safety of school students is proved. The ambiguity of information expressiveness and  ignificance of garments of clothing and other elements of appearance of modern school students is disclosed: symbols of belonging to a religious and/or national culture, a well-known fashion brand, a modern informal/political trend, as well as the severity of gender differences in the design of school uniforms. The correlation between the wording of the requirements of the dress code and the effectiveness of its implementation from the point of view of minimization of internal stresses in the school team is defined.Practical significance. Based on the systemized proposals for quality improvement of the socio-cultural environment of

  20. Code C# for chaos analysis of relativistic many-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossu, I. V.; Besliu, C.; Jipa, Al.; Bordeianu, C. C.; Felea, D.; Stan, E.; Esanu, T.

    2010-08-01

    This work presents a new Microsoft Visual C# .NET code library, conceived as a general object oriented solution for chaos analysis of three-dimensional, relativistic many-body systems. In this context, we implemented the Lyapunov exponent and the “fragmentation level” (defined using the graph theory and the Shannon entropy). Inspired by existing studies on billiard nuclear models and clusters of galaxies, we tried to apply the virial theorem for a simplified many-body system composed by nucleons. A possible application of the “virial coefficient” to the stability analysis of chaotic systems is also discussed. Catalogue identifier: AEGH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 30 053 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 801 258 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Visual C# .NET 2005 Computer: PC Operating system: .Net Framework 2.0 running on MS Windows Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Each many-body system is simulated on a separate execution thread RAM: 128 Megabytes Classification: 6.2, 6.5 External routines: .Net Framework 2.0 Library Nature of problem: Chaos analysis of three-dimensional, relativistic many-body systems. Solution method: Second order Runge-Kutta algorithm for simulating relativistic many-body systems. Object oriented solution, easy to reuse, extend and customize, in any development environment which accepts .Net assemblies or COM components. Implementation of: Lyapunov exponent, “fragmentation level”, “average system radius”, “virial coefficient”, and energy conservation precision test. Additional comments: Easy copy/paste based deployment method. Running time: Quadratic complexity.

  1. Analysis of protein-coding genetic variation in 60,706 humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Monkol; Karczewski, Konrad J; Minikel, Eric V; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Banks, Eric; Fennell, Timothy; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne H; Ware, James S; Hill, Andrew J; Cummings, Beryl B; Tukiainen, Taru; Birnbaum, Daniel P; Kosmicki, Jack A; Duncan, Laramie E; Estrada, Karol; Zhao, Fengmei; Zou, James; Pierce-Hoffman, Emma; Berghout, Joanne; Cooper, David N; Deflaux, Nicole; DePristo, Mark; Do, Ron; Flannick, Jason; Fromer, Menachem; Gauthier, Laura; Goldstein, Jackie; Gupta, Namrata; Howrigan, Daniel; Kiezun, Adam; Kurki, Mitja I; Moonshine, Ami Levy; Natarajan, Pradeep; Orozco, Lorena; Peloso, Gina M; Poplin, Ryan; Rivas, Manuel A; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Rose, Samuel A; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Shakir, Khalid; Stenson, Peter D; Stevens, Christine; Thomas, Brett P; Tiao, Grace; Tusie-Luna, Maria T; Weisburd, Ben; Won, Hong-Hee; Yu, Dongmei; Altshuler, David M; Ardissino, Diego; Boehnke, Michael; Danesh, John; Donnelly, Stacey; Elosua, Roberto; Florez, Jose C; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Glatt, Stephen J; Hultman, Christina M; Kathiresan, Sekar; Laakso, Markku; McCarroll, Steven; McCarthy, Mark I; McGovern, Dermot; McPherson, Ruth; Neale, Benjamin M; Palotie, Aarno; Purcell, Shaun M; Saleheen, Danish; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Sklar, Pamela; Sullivan, Patrick F; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tsuang, Ming T; Watkins, Hugh C; Wilson, James G; Daly, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Large-scale reference data sets of human genetic variation are critical for the medical and functional interpretation of DNA sequence changes. We describe the aggregation and analysis of high-quality exome (protein-coding region) sequence data for 60,706 individuals of diverse ethnicities generated as part of the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). This catalogue of human genetic diversity contains an average of one variant every eight bases of the exome, and provides direct evidence for the presence of widespread mutational recurrence. We have used this catalogue to calculate objective metrics of pathogenicity for sequence variants, and to identify genes subject to strong selection against various classes of mutation; identifying 3,230 genes with near-complete depletion of truncating variants with 72% having no currently established human disease phenotype. Finally, we demonstrate that these data can be used for the efficient filtering of candidate disease-causing variants, and for the discovery of human “knockout” variants in protein-coding genes. PMID:27535533

  2. Optimized conical shaped charge design using the SCAP (Shaped Charge Analysis Program) code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.G.

    1988-09-01

    The Shaped Charge Analysis Program (SCAP) is used to analytically model and optimize the design of Conical Shaped Charges (CSC). A variety of existing CSCs are initially modeled with the SCAP code and the predicted jet tip velocities, jet penetrations, and optimum standoffs are compared to previously published experimental results. The CSCs vary in size from 0.69 inch (1.75 cm) to 9.125 inch (23.18 cm) conical liner inside diameter. Two liner materials (copper and steel) and several explosives (Octol, Comp B, PBX-9501) are included in the CSCs modeled. The target material was mild steel. A parametric study was conducted using the SCAP code to obtain the optimum design for a 3.86 inch (9.8 cm) CSC. The variables optimized in this study included the CSC apex angle, conical liner thickness, explosive height, optimum standoff, tamper/confinement thickness, and explosive width. The non-dimensionalized jet penetration to diameter ratio versus the above parameters are graphically presented. 12 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Development and Validation of a Momentum Integral Numerical Analysis Code for Liquid Metal Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangyi; Suh, Kune Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, this benchmark problem is conducted to assess the precision of the upgraded in-house code MINA. Comparison of the results from different best estimate codes employed by various grid spacer pressure drop correlations is carried out to suggest the best one. By modifying In's method, it presents good agreement with the experiment data which is shown in Figure 7. The reason for the failure of the prediction in previous work is caused by the utilization of Rehme's method which is categorized into four groups according to different fitting strategy. Through comparison of drag coefficients calculated by four groups of Rheme's method, equivalent drag coefficient calculated by In's method and experiment data shown in Figure 8, we can conclude that Rehme's method considerably underestimate the drag coefficients in grid spacers used in HELIOS and In's method give a reasonable prediction. Starting from the core inlet, the accumulated pressure losses are presented in figure 9 along the accumulated length of the forced convection flow path; the good agreement of the prediction from MINA with the experiment result shows MINA has very good capability in integrated momentum analysis makes it robust in the future design scoping method development of LFR.

  4. Analysis of a full-scale integral test in PERSEO facility by using TRACE code

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, S.; Lombardo, C.; Moscato, I.; Polidori, M.; Vella, G.

    2017-11-01

    Over the last decades a lot of experimental researches have been done to increase the reliability of passive decay heat removal systems implementing in-pool immersed heat exchanger. In this framework, a domestic research program on innovative safety systems was carried out leading the design and the development of the PERSEO facility at the SIET laboratories. The configuration of the system consists of an heat exchanger contained in a small pool which is connected both at the bottom and at the top to a large water reservoir pool. Within the frame of a national research program funded by the Italian minister of economic development, the DEIM department of the University of Palermo in cooperation with ENEA has developed a computational model of the PERSEO facility in order to simulate its behaviour during an integrated test. The analysis here presented has been performed by using the best-estimate TRACE code and - in order to highlight the capabilities and limits of the TRACE model in reproducing qualitatively and quantitatively the experimental trends - the main results have been compared with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the model is able to predict the overall behaviour of the plant during the meaningful phases of the transient analysed. Nevertheless, some improvements in the modelling of certain components in which take place complex three-dimensional phenomena are suggested in order to reduce some discrepancies observed between code results and test measurements.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Uncertainty Parameter based on MARS-LMR Code on SHRT-45R of EBR II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seok-Ju; Kang, Doo-Hyuk; Seo, Jae-Seung [System Engineering and Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hae-Yong [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to assess the uncertainty quantification of the MARS-LMR code, the code has been improved by modifying the source code to accommodate calculation process required for uncertainty quantification. In the present study, a transient of Unprotected Loss of Flow(ULOF) is selected as typical cases of as Anticipated Transient without Scram(ATWS) which belongs to DEC category. The MARS-LMR input generation for EBR II SHRT-45R and execution works are performed by using the PAPIRUS program. The sensitivity analysis is carried out with Uncertainty Parameter of the MARS-LMR code for EBR-II SHRT-45R. Based on the results of sensitivity analysis, dominant parameters with large sensitivity to FoM are picked out. Dominant parameters selected are closely related to the development process of ULOF event.

  6. Committed to the Honor Code: An Investment Model Analysis of Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Emily L.; Emery, Lydia F.; Le, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Educators worldwide face challenges surrounding academic integrity. The development of honor codes can promote academic integrity, but understanding how and why honor codes affect behavior is critical to their successful implementation. To date, research has not examined how students' "relationship" to an honor code predicts…

  7. A critical analysis of the use of code-switching in Nhlapho's novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Code-switching has become a common social phenomenon governed by social conversational needs. Central to the use of code-switching is the way in which social norms, which are also called rights and obligations, are attributed to speakers and listeners of certain social categories. Studies on code-switching reveal that ...

  8. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  9. MadAnalysis Recast Code for Dark Matter Production in Association with Bottom Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Diptaparna

    The CMS-B2G-15-007 analysis was carried out to investigate the $pp\\rightarrow bb+DM$ process, which is a candidate process of direct Dark Matter production. In this particular work, this process is simulated and analyzed for 13 TeV LHC experiment using MadGraph, Pythia 8 and MadAnalysis C++ API. The recast code is written to reproduce the results obtained by the experimentalists in CMS-B2G-15-007 analysis. The result is interpreted within simplified scalar model in terms of the coupling between the mediator and the DM candidate and evaluated based on the MET distribution. CMS-B2G-15-007 uses a dataset of $2.17fb^{-1}$ of data collected by the CMS experiment in $\\sqrt{s}=13TeV$ proton-proton collisions at LHC. This analysis is sensitive also to DM production processes in association with top quarks. Results are reported as upper limits on the cross section for the b quark and top quark associated production independently, and interpreted within simplified models in terms of the coupling between the mediator an...

  10. R134a Flow Boiling Analysis with Modified Thermodynamic Property File of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Gyumin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Previous study showed application of RELAP5 code to solar energy facility with molten salt (60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3) as working fluid. Based on external experimental correlations, thermodynamic properties of molten salt were evaluated as a function of pressure and temperature and those equations were used to generate tpf. To validate external tpf, experimental values were compared with RELAP5 analysis. In nuclear field, utilization of other fluid is also important since many thermal-hydraulic experiments used various fluids such as FC-72, R123, and R134a. Theses refrigerants have been used to simulate the high pressure environment of nuclear power plants due to their low boiling point, and density ratio between vapor and liquid. Thus, this study aims for tpf generation of R134a and verification by analyzing real case. R134a is selected as a fluid to be implemented and analyzed because it is currently used in refrigerator and frequently used in flow boiling experiment related with heat transfer coefficient and CHF measurement. R134a property file were generated with fitted equation using temperature and pressure as variables, originated from external data source. For validation, flow boiling experiment case were made into simplified input. Analysis with tpfr134a showed that application of Gnielinksi correlation could enhance single phase flow accuracy. Large error of HTC from two phase analysis requires parameter study. Future work aims for more specified experimental case comparison and correlation enhancement for two phase analysis.

  11. A Comparison of Human Narrative Coding of Redemption and Automated Linguistic Analysis for Understanding Life Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Sara J; Cox, Keith S; Condon, David M; Jackson, Joshua J

    2016-10-01

    The majority of life narrative research is performed using trained human coders. In contrast, automated linguistic analysis is oft employed in the study of verbal behaviors. These two methodological approaches are directly compared to determine the utility of automated linguistic analysis for the study of life narratives. In a study of in-person interviews (N = 158) and a second study of life stories collected online (N = 242), redemption scores are compared to the output of the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (Pennebaker, Francis & Booth, 2001). Additionally, patterns of language are found using exploratory principal components analysis. In both studies, redemption scores are modestly correlated with some LIWC categories and unassociated with the components. Patterns of language do not replicate across samples, indicating that the structure of language does not extend to a broader population. Redemption scores and linguistic components are independent predictors of life satisfaction up to 3 years later. These studies converge on the finding that human-coded redemption and automated linguistic analysis are complementary and nonredundant methods of analyzing life narratives, and considerations for the study of life narratives are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. On the safety and performance demonstration tests of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and validation and verification of computational codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jeong, Ji Young; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Sung Kyun; Euh, Dong Jin; Joo, Hyung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The design of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) has been developed and the validation and verification (V and V) activities to demonstrate the system performance and safety are in progress. In this paper, the current status of test activities is described briefly and significant results are discussed. The large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test program, Sodium Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment-1 (STELLA-1), produced satisfactory results, which were used for the computer codes V and V, and the performance test results of the model pump in sodium showed good agreement with those in water. The second phase of the STELLA program with the integral effect tests facility, STELLA-2, is in the detailed design stage of the design process. The sodium thermal-hydraulic experiment loop for finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger performance test, the intermediate heat exchanger test facility, and the test facility for the reactor flow distribution are underway. Flow characteristics test in subchannels of a wire-wrapped rod bundle has been carried out for safety analysis in the core and the dynamic characteristic test of upper internal structure has been performed for the seismic analysis model for the PGSFR. The performance tests for control rod assemblies (CRAs) have been conducted for control rod drive mechanism driving parts and drop tests of the CRA under scram condition were performed. Finally, three types of inspection sensors under development for the safe operation of the PGSFR were explained with significant results.

  13. Analysis of ATLAS 6-inch cold leg break simulation with MARS-KS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Yun; Jun, Hwang Yong; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Electric Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A Domestic Standard Problem (DSP) exercise using ATLAS facility has been organized by KAERI. As the second DSP exercise, the 6-inch cold leg bottom break was determined. This experiment is the counterpart test to the DVI line break to verify the safety performance of the DVI method over the traditional CLI method. Compared with the large break LOCA, the phases of the small break LOCA prior to core recovery occur over a long period. The blowdown, natural circulation, loop seal clearance, boil-off, and core recovery phase should be investigated minutely with relevant models of safety analysis codes in order to predict these thermal hydraulic phenomena correctly. To investigate the ECC bypass phenomena, a finer study on the thermalhydraulic behavior in upper annulus downcomer was carried out

  14. Application of bifurcation analysis for determining the mechanism of coding of nociceptive signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, O. E.; Shelykh, T. N.; Plakhova, V. B.; Nozdrachev, A. D.; Podzorova, S. A.; Krylov, B. V.

    2015-10-01

    The patch clamp method is used for studying the characteristics of slow sodium channels responsible for coding of nociceptive signals. Quantitative estimates of rate constants of transitions of "normal" and pharmacologically modified activation gating mechanisms of these channels are obtained. A mathematical model of the type of Hogdkin-Huxley nociceptive neuron membrane is constructed. Cometic acid, which is a drug substance of a new nonopioid analgesic, is used as a pharmacological agent. The application of bifurcation analysis makes it possible to outline the boundaries of the region in which a periodic impulse activity is generated. This boundary separates the set of values of the model parameter for which periodic pulsation is observed from the values for which such pulsations are absent or damped. The results show that the finest effect of modulation of physical characteristic of a part of a protein molecule and its effective charge suppresses the excitability of the nociceptive neuron membrane and, hence, leads to rapid reduction of pain.

  15. Counter-part Test and Code Analysis of the Integral Test Loop, SNUF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Cherl; Bae, B. U.; Lee, K. H.; Cho, Y. J. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The thermal-hydraulic phenomena of Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) line Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) in pressurized water reactor, APR1400, were investigated. The reduced-height and reduced-pressure integral test loop, SNUF (Seoul National University Facility), was constructed with scaling down the prototype. For the appropriate test conditions in the experiment of SNUF, the energy scaling methodology was suggested as scaling the coolant mass inventory and thermal power for the reduced-pressure condition. From the MARS code analysis, the energy scaling methodology was confirmed to show the reasonable transient when ideally scaled-down SNUF model was compared to the prototype model. In the experiments according to the conditions determined by energy scaling methodology, the phenomenon of downcomer seal clearing had a dominant role in decrease of the system pressure and increase of the coolant level of core. The experimental results was utilized to validate the calculation capability of MARS.

  16. Coding and differential analysis of the problems of teenagers residing in protection centers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Fernández-Millán

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a stage of life characterized by a marked and dififficult psysical, psychological and social development in which the young must face different daily problems and vital stressors. Knowing and classifying the conflicts that most worry the teenager might be used to direct the educative projects or therapeutic intervention more efficients. In this paper, problems perceived as more stressing have been codified and quantified through Adolescent’s Problems Differential Analysis and Coding System using a sample of minors leaving in a residential child care. A comparison betweenhoused teenagers and those who live with their parents show that housed minors (between 11 and 17 years old rise different vital situations in every single category. An outstanding fact is the high percentage of interpersonal problems with other house mates and related to sports and leisure time.

  17. Analysis methods of safe Coulomb-excitation experiments with radioactive ion beams using the GOSIA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinska, M. [CEA Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gaffney, L.P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); University of the West of Scotland, School of Engineering, Paisley (United Kingdom); Wrzosek-Lipska, K. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Clement, E. [GANIL, Caen Cedex (France); Grahn, T.; Pakarinen, J. [University of Jyvaskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaskylae (Finland); University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Kesteloot, N. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Napiorkowski, P. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Duppen, P. van [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Warr, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    With the recent advances in radioactive ion beam technology, Coulomb excitation at safe energies becomes an important experimental tool in nuclear-structure physics. The usefulness of the technique to extract key information on the electromagnetic properties of nuclei has been demonstrated since the 1960s with stable beam and target combinations. New challenges present themselves when studying exotic nuclei with this technique, including dealing with low statistics or number of data points, absolute and relative normalisation of the measured cross-sections and a lack of complementary experimental data, such as excited-state lifetimes and branching ratios. This paper addresses some of these common issues and presents analysis techniques to extract transition strengths and quadrupole moments utilising the least-squares fit code, GOSIA. (orig.)

  18. An Analysis of Statewide Adoption Rates of Building Energy Code by Local Jurisdictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to generally inform the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program of the local, effective energy code adoption rate for a sample set of 21 states, some which have adopted statewide codes and some that have not. Information related to the residential energy code adoption process and status at the local jurisdiction was examined for each of the states. Energy code status information was gathered for approximately 2,800 jurisdictions, which effectively covered approximately 80 percent of the new residential building construction in the 21 states included in the study.

  19. Improvement of system code importing evaluation of Life Cycle Analysis of tokamak fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobori, Hikaru [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hiwatari, Ryoji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We incorporated the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code. • We calculated CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. • We found that the objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. • The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. • The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant. - Abstract: This study incorporate the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code to calculate CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. Competitiveness of tokamak fusion power reactors is expected to be evaluated by the cost and environmental impact represented by the CO{sub 2} emissions, compared with present and future power generating systems such as fossil, nuclear and renewables. Result indicated that (1) The objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. (2) The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. (3) The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant.

  20. Analysis of codon usage pattern of mitochondrial protein-coding genes in different hookworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Bornali; Uddin, Arif; Mazumder, Gulshana Akthar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-11-20

    The phenomenon of unequal usage of synonymous codons encoding an amino acid in which some codons are more preferred to others is the codon usage bias (CUB) and it is species specific. Analysis of CUB helps in understanding evolution at molecular level and acquires significance in mRNA translation, design of transgenes and new gene discovery. In our current study, we analyzed synonymous codon usage pattern and the factors influencing it on mitochondrial protein coding genes of 6 different hookworms i.e. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria sanguinis as no work was reported yet. The effective number of codons for mitochondrial genes suggested that codon usage bias was high in most species. The GC content was lower than AT content i.e. genes were AT rich as indicated by nucleotide composition analysis. The overall nucleotide composition along with its composition at 3rd codon position and correspondence analysis suggested that both natural selection and mutation pressure might have affected the codon usage bias in mitochondrial genes. However, neutrality plot revealed that mutation pressure might have played a major role in A. ceylanicum while natural selection might have played the dominant role in Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria sanguinis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-Fidelity Buckling Analysis of Composite Cylinders Using the STAGS Finite Element Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Results from previous shell buckling studies are presented that illustrate some of the unique and powerful capabilities in the STAGS finite element analysis code that have made it an indispensable tool in structures research at NASA over the past few decades. In particular, prototypical results from the development and validation of high-fidelity buckling simulations are presented for several unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells along with a discussion on the specific methods and user-defined subroutines in STAGS that are used to carry out the high-fidelity simulations. These simulations accurately account for the effects of geometric shell-wall imperfections, shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform applied end loads, and elastic boundary conditions. The analysis procedure uses a combination of nonlinear quasi-static and transient dynamic solution algorithms to predict the prebuckling and unstable collapse response characteristics of the cylinders. Finally, the use of high-fidelity models in the development of analysis-based shell-buckling knockdown (design) factors is demonstrated.

  2. Basic Static Code Analysis Untuk Mendeteksi Backdoor Shell Pada Web Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Indriani Widiastuti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mengakses  sistem komputer tanpa ijin merupakan kejahatan yang dilakukan dengan memasuki atau menyusup kedalam suatu sistem jaringan komputer tanpa sepengetahuan dari pemilik sistem tersebut. Kejahatan  tersebut bertujuan untuk mengintai atau mencuri informasi penting dan rahasia. Dalam praktiknya peretas menyisipkan berkas backdoor shell pada lokasi yang sulit ditemukan oleh pemilik sistem. Beberapa perangkat yang sudah ada masih dalam bentuk terminal. Perangkat tersebut melakukan pencarian berkas berdasarkan nama-nama yang telah terdaftar sebelumnya. Akibatnya, pada saat berkas backdoor shell  jenis baru menginfeksi, tools tersebut tidak dapat mendeteksi keberadaannya. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, maka dalam penelitian ini pencarian backdoor shell pada web server menggunakan metode basic static code analysis. File sistem diproses melalui dua tahap utama yaitu string matching dan taint analysis. Dalam proses taint analysis, sistem menghitung peluang kemungkinan setiap signature sebagai backdoor untuk mengatasi kamus backdoor yang tidak lengkap. Berdasarkan  hasil yang didapat dari pengujian yang dilakukan terhadap 3964 berkas diperoleh tingkat akurasi  yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan aplikasi php shell detector sebesar 75%.

  3. Analysis of Channel Coding Performance in OFDM Technique for Underwater Acoustic Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machmud Roby Alhamidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase the performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System (OFDM system is by adding a channel coding (error correction code in order to detect and correct errors that occur when sending data.At communication of acoustic underwater channel coding is required because of the characteristics of the channel bottom water is much different compared with the air channel and errors are likely to occur.In this research it was made simulation of acoustic underwater communication system with OFDM applied channel codingin which using Hamming code (7,4 and Hamming code (15,11 that is able to correct one error and detect two errors then BCH code capable to correct two errors for BCH (15,7 and correct 9 errors forBCH (127,64 and Reed Solomon code able to correct two errors for RS (15,11 and correct 8 errors for RS (31,15. Results of the study confirm the better performance when system usesOFDM with BCH Code (127.64 than other codes that are used, starting from 1 decibel (dB to 3 dB for the performance of BER as10 -3 on Additive Gaussian White Noise (AWGN channel while at the multipath channel, the performance of Bit Error Rate (BER got better result on 1 dB up to 8 dB for BER performance as10 -3. Keyword: Underwater, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM, channel coding

  4. Analysis of the impact of correlated benchmark experiments on the validation of codes for criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, M.; Stuke, M.; Behler, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Garching (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The validation of a code for criticality safety analysis requires the recalculation of benchmark experiments. The selected benchmark experiments are chosen such that they have properties similar to the application case that has to be assessed. A common source of benchmark experiments is the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments' (ICSBEP Handbook) compiled by the 'International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project' (ICSBEP). In order to take full advantage of the information provided by the individual benchmark descriptions for the application case, the recommended procedure is to perform an uncertainty analysis. The latter is based on the uncertainties of experimental results included in most of the benchmark descriptions. They can be performed by means of the Monte Carlo sampling technique. The consideration of uncertainties is also being introduced in the supplementary sheet of DIN 25478 'Application of computer codes in the assessment of criticality safety'. However, for a correct treatment of uncertainties taking into account the individual uncertainties of the benchmark experiments is insufficient. In addition, correlations between benchmark experiments have to be handled correctly. For example, these correlations can arise due to different cases of a benchmark experiment sharing the same components like fuel pins or fissile solutions. Thus, manufacturing tolerances of these components (e.g. diameter of the fuel pellets) have to be considered in a consistent manner in all cases of the benchmark experiment. At the 2012 meeting of the Expert Group on 'Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment' (UACSA) of the OECD/NEA a benchmark proposal was outlined that aimed for the determination of the impact on benchmark correlations on the estimation of the computational bias of the neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}). The analysis presented here is based on this

  5. Development of Monte Carlo code for coincidence prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaogang

    Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) offers a non-destructive, relatively rapid on-line method for determination of elemental composition of bulk and other samples. However, PGNAA has an inherently large background. These backgrounds are primarily due to the presence of the neutron excitation source. It also includes neutron activation of the detector and the prompt gamma rays from the structure materials of PGNAA devices. These large backgrounds limit the sensitivity and accuracy of PGNAA. Since most of the prompt gamma rays from the same element are emitted in coincidence, a possible approach for further improvement is to change the traditional PGNAA measurement technique and introduce the gamma-gamma coincidence technique. It is well known that the coincidence techniques can eliminate most of the interference backgrounds and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. A new Monte Carlo code, CEARCPG has been developed at CEAR to simulate gamma-gamma coincidence spectra in PGNAA experiment. Compared to the other existing Monte Carlo code CEARPGA I and CEARPGA II, a new algorithm of sampling the prompt gamma rays produced from neutron capture reaction and neutron inelastic scattering reaction, is developed in this work. All the prompt gamma rays are taken into account by using this new algorithm. Before this work, the commonly used method is to interpolate the prompt gamma rays from the pre-calculated gamma-ray table. This technique works fine for the single spectrum. However it limits the capability to simulate the coincidence spectrum. The new algorithm samples the prompt gamma rays from the nucleus excitation scheme. The primary nuclear data library used to sample the prompt gamma rays comes from ENSDF library. Three cases are simulated and the simulated results are benchmarked with experiments. The first case is the prototype for ETI PGNAA application. This case is designed to check the capability of CEARCPG for single spectrum simulation. The second

  6. Performance Analysis of MIMO-STBC Systems with Higher Coding Rate Using Adaptive Semiblind Channel Estimation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiblind channel estimation method provides the best trade-off in terms of bandwidth overhead, computational complexity and latency. The result after using multiple input multiple output (MIMO systems shows higher data rate and longer transmit range without any requirement for additional bandwidth or transmit power. This paper presents the detailed analysis of diversity coding techniques using MIMO antenna systems. Different space time block codes (STBCs schemes have been explored and analyzed with the proposed higher code rate. STBCs with higher code rates have been simulated for different modulation schemes using MATLAB environment and the simulated results have been compared in the semiblind environment which shows the improvement even in highly correlated antenna arrays and is found very close to the condition when channel state information (CSI is known to the channel.

  7. Performance analysis of MIMO-STBC systems with higher coding rate using adaptive semiblind channel estimation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Saxena, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Semiblind channel estimation method provides the best trade-off in terms of bandwidth overhead, computational complexity and latency. The result after using multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems shows higher data rate and longer transmit range without any requirement for additional bandwidth or transmit power. This paper presents the detailed analysis of diversity coding techniques using MIMO antenna systems. Different space time block codes (STBCs) schemes have been explored and analyzed with the proposed higher code rate. STBCs with higher code rates have been simulated for different modulation schemes using MATLAB environment and the simulated results have been compared in the semiblind environment which shows the improvement even in highly correlated antenna arrays and is found very close to the condition when channel state information (CSI) is known to the channel.

  8. A Statistical Analysis of the Robustness of Alternate Genetic Coding Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Aksan Kurnaz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules that specify how the information contained in DNA is translated into amino acid “language” during protein synthesis are called “the genetic code”, commonly called the “Standard” or “Universal” Genetic Code Table. As a matter of fact, this coding table is not at all “universal”: in addition to different genetic code tables used by different organisms, even within the same organism the nuclear and mitochondrial genes may be subject to two different coding tables. Results In an attempt to understand the advantages and disadvantages these coding tables may bring to an organism, we have decided to analyze various coding tables on genes subject to mutations, and have estimated how these genes “survive” over generations. We have used this as indicative of the “evolutionary” success of that particular coding table. We find that the “standard” genetic code is not actually the most robust of all coding tables, and interestingly, Flatworm Mitochondrial Code (FMC appears to be the highest ranking coding table given our assumptions. Conclusions It is commonly hypothesized that the more robust a genetic code, the better suited it is for maintenance of the genome. Our study shows that, given the assumptions in our model, Standard Genetic Code is quite poor when compared to other alternate code tables in terms of robustness. This brings about the question of why Standard Code has been so widely accepted by a wider variety of organisms instead of FMC, which needs to be addressed for a thorough understanding of genetic code evolution.

  9. The Code of the Street and Romantic Relationships: A dyadic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.; Stewart, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its publication, Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street thesis has found support in studies connecting disadvantage to the internalization of street-oriented values and an associated lifestyle of violent/deviant behavior. This primary emphasis on deviance in public arenas has precluded researchers from examining the implications of the code of the street for less public arenas, like intimate relationships. In an effort to understand if and how the endorsement of the street code may infiltrate such relationships, the present study examines the associations between the code of the street and relationship satisfaction and commitment among young adults involved in heterosexual romantic relationships. Using a dyadic approach, we find that street code orientation, in general, negatively predicts satisfaction and commitment, in part due to increased relationship hostility/conflict associated with the internalization of the code. Gender differences in these associations are considered and discussed at length. PMID:23504000

  10. Compendium of computer codes for the safety analysis of fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    The objective of the compendium is to provide the reader with a guide which briefly describes many of the computer codes used for liquid metal fast breeder reactor safety analyses, since it is for this system that most of the codes have been developed. The compendium is designed to address the following frequently asked questions from individuals in licensing and research and development activities: (1) What does the code do. (2) To what safety problems has it been applied. (3) What are the code's limitations. (4) What is being done to remove these limitations. (5) How does the code compare with experimental observations and other code predictions. (6) What reference documents are available.

  11. Ex-vessel break in ITER divertor cooling loop analysis with the ECART code

    CERN Document Server

    Cambi, G; Parozzi, F; Porfiri, MT

    2003-01-01

    A hypothetical double-ended pipe rupture in the ex-vessel section of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor primary heat transfer system during pulse operation has been assessed using the nuclear source term ECART code. That code was originally designed and validated for traditional nuclear power plant safety analyses, and has been internationally recognized as a relevant nuclear source term codes for nuclear fission plants. It permits the simulation of chemical reactions and transport of radioactive gases and aerosols under two-phase flow transients in generic flow systems, using a built-in thermal-hydraulic model. A comparison with the results given in ITER Generic Site Safety Report, obtained using a thermal-hydraulic system code (ATHENA), a containment code (INTRA) and an aerosol transportation code (NAUA), in a sequential way, is also presented and discussed.

  12. An evaluation and analysis of three dynamic watershed acidification codes (MAGIC, ETD, and ILWAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.; Vail, L.W.; Girvin, D.C.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Hibler, L.F.; Miley, T.B.; Monsour, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently using the dynamic watershed acidification codes MAGIC, ILWAS, and ETD to assess the potential future impact of the acidic deposition on surface water quality by simulating watershed acid neutralization processes. The reliability of forecasts made with these codes is of considerable concern. The present study evaluates the process formulations (i.e., conceptual and numerical representation of atmospheric, hydrologic geochemical and biogeochemical processes), compares their approaches to calculating acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and estimates the relative effects (sensitivity) of perturbations in the input data on selected output variables for each code. Input data were drawn from three Adirondack (upstate New York) watersheds: Panther Lake, Clear Pond, and Woods Lake. Code calibration was performed by the developers of the codes. Conclusions focus on summarizing the adequacy of process formulations, differences in ANC simulation among codes and recommendations for further research to increase forecast reliability. 87 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs.

  13. LDPC concatenated space-time block coded system in multipath fading environment: Analysis and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Sharma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have been found to show exceptionally good performance for single antenna systems over a wide class of channels. In this paper, the performance of LDPC codes with multiple antenna systems is investigated in flat Rayleigh and Rician fading channels for different modulation schemes. The focus of attention is mainly on the concatenation of irregular LDPC codes with complex orthogonal space-time codes. Iterative decoding is carried out with a density evolution method that sets a threshold above which the code performs well. For the proposed concatenated system, the simulation results show that the QAM technique achieves a higher coding gain of 8.8 dB and 3.2 dB over the QPSK technique in Rician (LOS and Rayleigh (NLOS faded environments respectively.

  14. Interpretive analysis of the textual codes in the Parrot and Merchant story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Najafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narratology is a brunch of semiology which considers any kind of narrative, literary or non literary, verbal or visual, story or non story and after this specifies the plot. One of the most important subjects in narratology is the interpretation of textual cods which based on can be understood a lot of hidden meanings. Molavi expresses a lot of mystic points in Mathnavi in narrative form which some of his ideas can be realized in the first study but these ideas aren’t all of subjects which he wants to say and a complex of different meaning is hidden in any narrative which can be revealed by consideration of cods.     In terminology of semiology, code is a special situation in historical process of all of indexes and signs which specified for synchronized analyze. In review of literary texts textual cods are more important. Textual cods are the cods which their ambit is more extended than few special text and links these texts to each other in an interpretational form. Aesthetic cods are a group of textual cods which are used in different arts like: poem, painting, theater, music and so on.       The style of expression of aesthetic cods is the same style of art and literature. In the review of Mathnavi's narratives paying attention to narrative cods and using them can be considered as paralinguistic signs. Narrative cods contain interpretational form which used by authors and commentators of texts. In the story of parrot and merchant the textual cods are as follows:   - Parrot: in this story parrot is a symbolic code which shows all of human soul's features.   - Merchant: in this story merchant act as a cultural code which indicates rich who always are solicitous about their finance and are unaware of spiritual world.    - India: in this story India as a signifier code indicates spiritual world. Hermeneutic cods   Molana uses codes which act as turning point and addressed can understand hidden meanings which haven

  15. Refined analysis of RGHWs of code pairs coming from Garcia-Stichtenoth’s second tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Geil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymptotically good sequences of ramp secret sharing schemes were given in [5] by using one-point algebraic geometric codes defined from asymptotically good towers of function fields. Their security is given by the relative generalized Hamming weights of the corresponding codes. In this paper we demonstrate how to obtain refined information on the RGHWs when the codimension of the codes is small. For general codimension, we give an improved estimate for the highest RGHW.

  16. Mapa-an object oriented code with a graphical user interface for accelerator design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shasharina, S.G.; Cary, J.R. [Tech-X Corporation 4588 Pussy Willow Court, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    We developed a code for accelerator modeling which will allow users to create and analyze accelerators through a graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI can read an accelerator from files or create it by adding, removing and changing elements. It also creates 4D orbits and lifetime plots. The code includes a set of accelerator elements classes, C++ utility and GUI libraries. Due to the GUI, the code is easy to use and expand. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Design and Characteristic Analysis of Multicarrier Chaotic Phase Coded Radar Pulse Train Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Qiongdan Huang; Yong Li; Yaoping Zeng; Yinjuan Fu

    2014-01-01

    By introducing phase code into multicarrier orthogonal frequency division multiplex signal, the multicarrier phase coded (MCPC) radar signal possesses a good spectrum utilization rate and can achieve a good combination of narrowband and wideband processing. Radar pulse train signal not only reserves the high range resolution of monopulse signal, but also has the same velocity resolution performance as continuous wave signal does. In this study, we use the chaotic biphase code generated by Che...

  18. Performance Analysis of a CDMA VSAT System With Convoltional and Reed-Solomon Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ugur

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to model a satellite communication system with VSATs, using Spread Spectrum CDMA methods and Forward Error Correction (FEC), Walsh codes and PN sequences are used to generate a CDMA system and FEC is used to further improve the performance. Convolutional and block coding methods are examined and the results are obtained for each different case, including concatenated use of the codes, The performance of the system is given in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER), As observed from the results, the performance is mainly affected by the number of users and the code rates,

  19. Development and testing of a Monte Carlo code system for analysis of ionization chamber responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    To predict the perturbation of interactions between radiation and material by the presence of a detector, a differential Monte Carlo computer code system entitled MICAP was developed and tested. This code system determines the neutron, photon, and total response of an ionization chamber to mixed field radiation environments. To demonstrate the ability of MICAP in calculating an ionization chamber response function, a comparison was made to 05S, an established Monte Carlo code extensively used to accurately calibrate liquid organic scintillators. Both code systems modeled an organic scintillator with a parallel beam of monoenergetic neutrons incident on the scintillator. (LEW)

  20. Transcriptional analysis of the queD gene coding for quercetinase of Streptomyces sp. FLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkens, Hedda; Fetzner, Susanne

    2008-10-01

    Quercetinase, catalyzing the 2,4-dioxygenolytic cleavage of the flavonol quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) to carbon monoxide and 2-protocatechuoylphloroglucinol carboxylic acid, is encoded by the queD gene in Streptomyces sp. FLA. Because studies on the transcriptional regulation of quercetinase genes are rare, we analyzed the expression of queD in response to quercetin and other carbon compounds. RNA hybridization experiments revealed that transcription of queD is triggered by quercetin and its 3-O-rhamnosylglucoside rutin, but not by the flavonol morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone), the presumed quercetin degradation products protocatechuate and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate or the sugars rhamnose and glucose. Quercetin-induced queD expression was not influenced by the presence of Ni(II), the preferred cofactor of Streptomyces QueD. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed a concerted transcription of queD and two putative genes located downstream of queD, which were predicted to code for an amidohydrolase and an esterase. By determination of the transcriptional start site of the queD operon, putative -10 and -35 regions could be identified, suggesting transcription from a sigma70-dependent promoter. Sequence analysis of the queD promoter region indicated possible binding sites for an LmrA/YxaF-like repressor.

  1. Parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis for large kinetic models using a real-coded genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohsato, Yukako; Ikuta, Kunihiko; Shionoya, Akitaka; Mazaki, Yusaku; Ito, Masahiro

    2013-04-10

    Dynamic modeling is a powerful tool for predicting changes in metabolic regulation. However, a large number of input parameters, including kinetic constants and initial metabolite concentrations, are required to construct a kinetic model. Therefore, it is important not only to optimize the kinetic parameters, but also to investigate the effects of their perturbations on the overall system. We investigated the efficiency of the use of a real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis in the case of a large kinetic model involving glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway in Escherichia coli K-12. Sensitivity analysis of the kinetic model using an RCGA demonstrated that the input parameter values had different effects on model outputs. The results showed highly influential parameters in the model and their allowable ranges for maintaining metabolite-level stability. Furthermore, it was revealed that changes in these influential parameters may complement one another. This study presents an efficient approach based on the use of an RCGA for optimizing and analyzing parameters in large kinetic models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hearing the voices of service user researchers in collaborative qualitative data analysis: the case for multiple coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Angela; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Williams, Sally; Wykes, Til; Rose, Diana S

    2013-12-01

    Health research is frequently conducted in multi-disciplinary teams, with these teams increasingly including service user researchers. Whilst it is common for service user researchers to be involved in data collection--most typically interviewing other service users--it is less common for service user researchers to be involved in data analysis and interpretation. This means that a unique and significant perspective on the data is absent. This study aims to use an empirical report of a study on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) to demonstrate the value of multiple coding in enabling service users voices to be heard in team-based qualitative data analysis. The CBTp study employed multiple coding to analyse service users' discussions of CBT for psychosis (CBTp) from the perspectives of a service user researcher, clinical researcher and psychology assistant. Multiple coding was selected to enable multiple perspectives to analyse and interpret data, to understand and explore differences and to build multi-disciplinary consensus. Multiple coding enabled the team to understand where our views were commensurate and incommensurate and to discuss and debate differences. Through the process of multiple coding, we were able to build strong consensus about the data from multiple perspectives, including that of the service user researcher. Multiple coding is an important method for understanding and exploring multiple perspectives on data and building team consensus. This can be contrasted with inter-rater reliability which is only appropriate in limited circumstances. We conclude that multiple coding is an appropriate and important means of hearing service users' voices in qualitative data analysis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Kinetics Parameters of VVER-1000 Core with 3 MOX Lead Test Assemblies To Be Used for Accident Analysis Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2000-03-08

    The present work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactor and presents the neutronics calculations of kinetics parameters of VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs. MOX LTA design has been studied in [1] for two options of MOX LTA: 100% plutonium and of ''island'' type. As a result, zoning i.e. fissile plutonium enrichments in different plutonium zones, has been defined. VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs of chosen design has been calculated in [2]. In present work, the neutronics data for transient analysis codes (RELAP [3]) has been obtained using the codes chain of RRC ''Kurchatov Institute'' [5] that is to be used for exploitation neutronics calculations of VVER. Nowadays the 3D assembly-by-assembly code BIPR-7A and 2D pin-by-pin code PERMAK-A, both with the neutronics constants prepared by the cell code TVS-M, are the base elements of this chain. It should be reminded that in [6] TVS-M was used only for the constants calculations of MOX FAs. In current calculations the code TVS-M has been used both for UOX and MOX fuel constants. Besides, the volume of presented information has been increased and additional explications have been included. The results for the reference uranium core [4] are presented in Chapter 2. The results for the core with 3 MOX LTAs are presented in Chapter 3. The conservatism that is connected with neutronics parameters and that must be taken into account during transient analysis calculations, is discussed in Chapter 4. The conservative parameters values are considered to be used in 1-point core kinetics models of accident analysis codes.

  4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL CDMA SYSTEM USING VC CODE FAMILY UNDER VARIOUS OPTICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN YOUSIF AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to study the performance of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA systems using Vector Combinatorial (VC code under various optical parameters. This code can be constructed by an algebraic way based on Euclidian vectors for any positive integer number. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross-correlation is always one which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise are reduced. Transmitter and receiver structures based on unchirped fiber Bragg grating (FBGs using VC code and taking into account effects of the intensity, shot and thermal noise sources is demonstrated. The impact of the fiber distance effects on bit error rate (BER is reported using a commercial optical systems simulator, virtual photonic instrument, VPITM. The VC code is compared mathematically with reported codes which use similar techniques. We analyzed and characterized the fiber link, received power, BER and channel spacing. The performance and optimization of VC code in SAC-OCDMA system is reported. By comparing the theoretical and simulation results taken from VPITM, we have demonstrated that, for a high number of users, even if data rate is higher, the effective power source is adequate when the VC is used. Also it is found that as the channel spacing width goes from very narrow to wider, the BER decreases, best performance occurs at a spacing bandwidth between 0.8 and 1 nm. We have shown that the SAC system utilizing VC code significantly improves the performance compared with the reported codes.

  5. An Analysis on Code-Switching in "Fortress Besieged" from the Perspective of Register Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    Code-switching is a common yet complicated phenomenon. With the rapid development of cross cultural communication, the contact between language and language varieties become all the more frequent. With the appearance of more and more bilingual and multilingual communities, code-switching becomes a linguistic phenomenon of significant academic…

  6. The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Safety Analysis Code System, Version 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code is developed by Argonne National Laboratory for thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic analysis of power and flow transients in liquidmetal- cooled nuclear reactors (LMRs). SAS4A was developed to analyze severe core disruption accidents with coolant boiling and fuel melting and relocation, initiated by a very low probability coincidence of an accident precursor and failure of one or more safety systems. SASSYS-1, originally developed to address loss-of-decay-heat-removal accidents, has evolved into a tool for margin assessment in design basis accident (DBA) analysis and for consequence assessment in beyond-design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. SAS4A contains detailed, mechanistic models of transient thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical phenomena to describe the response of the reactor core, its coolant, fuel elements, and structural members to accident conditions. The core channel models in SAS4A provide the capability to analyze the initial phase of core disruptive accidents, through coolant heat-up and boiling, fuel element failure, and fuel melting and relocation. Originally developed to analyze oxide fuel clad with stainless steel, the models in SAS4A have been extended and specialized to metallic fuel with advanced alloy cladding. SASSYS-1 provides the capability to perform a detailed thermal/hydraulic simulation of the primary and secondary sodium coolant circuits and the balance-ofplant steam/water circuit. These sodium and steam circuit models include component models for heat exchangers, pumps, valves, turbines, and condensers, and thermal/hydraulic models of pipes and plena. SASSYS-1 also contains a plant protection and control system modeling capability, which provides digital representations of reactor, pump, and valve controllers and their response to input signal changes.

  7. International benchmark study of advanced thermal hydraulic safety analysis codes against measurements on IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainoun, A., E-mail: pscientific2@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Doval, A. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Av. Cmdt. Luis Piedrabuena 4950, C.P. 8400 S.C de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Umbehaun, P. [Centro de Engenharia Nuclear – CEN, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242-Cidade Universitaria, CEP-05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chatzidakis, S. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ghazi, N. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Park, S. [Research Reactor Design and Engineering Division, Basic Science Project Operation Dept., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mladin, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Street No. 1, P.O. Box 78, 115400 Mioveni, Arges (Romania); Shokr, A. [Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, Research Reactor Safety Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A set of advanced system thermal hydraulic codes are benchmarked against IFA of IEA-R1. • Comparative safety analysis of IEA-R1 reactor during LOFA by 7 working teams. • This work covers both experimental and calculation effort and presents new out findings on TH of RR that have not been reported before. • LOFA results discrepancies from 7% to 20% for coolant and peak clad temperatures are predicted conservatively. - Abstract: In the framework of the IAEA Coordination Research Project on “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors” the Brazilian research reactor IEA-R1 has been selected as reference facility to perform benchmark calculations for a set of thermal hydraulic codes being widely used by international teams in the field of research reactor (RR) deterministic safety analysis. The goal of the conducted benchmark is to demonstrate the application of innovative reactor analysis tools in the research reactor community, validation of the applied codes and application of the validated codes to perform comprehensive safety analysis of RR. The IEA-R1 is equipped with an Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA) which provided measurements for normal operation and loss of flow transient. The measurements comprised coolant and cladding temperatures, reactor power and flow rate. Temperatures are measured at three different radial and axial positions of IFA summing up to 12 measuring points in addition to the coolant inlet and outlet temperatures. The considered benchmark deals with the loss of reactor flow and the subsequent flow reversal from downward forced to upward natural circulation and presents therefore relevant phenomena for the RR safety analysis. The benchmark calculations were performed independently by the participating teams using different thermal hydraulic and safety

  8. Modification of the SAS4A Safety Analysis Code for Integration with the ADAPT Discrete Dynamic Event Tree Framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It is difficult to assess the consequences of a transient in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) using traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods, as numerous safety-related sys- tems have passive characteristics. Often there is significant dependence on the value of con- tinuous stochastic parameters rather than binary success/failure determinations. One form of dynamic PRA uses a system simulator to represent the progression of a transient, tracking events through time in a discrete dynamic event tree (DDET). In order to function in a DDET environment, a simulator must have characteristics that make it amenable to changing physical parameters midway through the analysis. The SAS4A SFR system analysis code did not have these characteristics as received. This report describes the code modifications made to allow dynamic operation as well as the linking to a Sandia DDET driver code. A test case is briefly described to demonstrate the utility of the changes.

  9. Analysis and Construction of Full-Diversity Joint Network-LDPC Codes for Cooperative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capirone Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmit diversity is necessary in harsh environments to reduce the required transmit power for achieving a given error performance at a certain transmission rate. In networks, cooperative communication is a well-known technique to yield transmit diversity and network coding can increase the spectral efficiency. These two techniques can be combined to achieve a double diversity order for a maximum coding rate on the Multiple-Access Relay Channel (MARC, where two sources share a common relay in their transmission to the destination. However, codes have to be carefully designed to obtain the intrinsic diversity offered by the MARC. This paper presents the principles to design a family of full-diversity LDPC codes with maximum rate. Simulation of the word error rate performance of the new proposed family of LDPC codes for the MARC confirms the full diversity.

  10. Thermal hydraulic codes for LWR safety analysis - present status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staedtke, H. [Commission of the European Union, Ispra (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    The aim of the present paper is to give a review on the current status and future perspective of present best-estimate Thermal Hydraulic codes. Reference is made to internationally well-established codes which have reached a certain state of maturity. The first part of the paper deals with the common basic code features with respect to the physical modelling and their numerical methods used to describe complex two-phase flow and heat transfer processes. The general predictive capabilities are summarized identifying some remaining code deficiencies and their underlying limitations. The second part discusses various areas including physical modelling, numerical techniques and informatic structure where the codes could be substantially improved.

  11. Validation of a transonic analysis code for use in preliminary design of advanced transport configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    The WBPPW code has the capability of analyzing flow-field effects about configurations which include wing pylons and engine nacelles or pods in addition to the basic wing/fuselage combination. Using the concept of grid embedding, the code solves the extended small disturbance transonic flow equation for complex flow interactions of the various configuration components. A general description of the code and solution algorithm is included. Results are presented and compared with experiment for various configurations which encompass the code capabilities. These include wing planform and wing contour modifications and variations in nacelle position beneath a high-aspect-ratio wing. Results are analyzed in the light of preliminary design, where the capability to accurately compute flow-field effects resulting from various configuration perturbations is important. The comparisons show that the computational results are sensitive to subtle design modifications and that the code could be used as an effective guide during the design process for transport configurations.

  12. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analysis and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S. H.; Chun, S. W.; Jang, H. S. and others [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-01-15

    As a continuing study for the development of a system of computer codes to analyze severe accidents which had been performed last year, major focuses were on the aspect of application of the developed code systems. As the first step, two most commonly used code packages other than STCP, i.e., MELCOR of NRC and MAAP of IDCOR were reviewed to compare the models that they used. Next, important heat transfer phenomena were surveyed as severe accident progressed. Particularly, debris bed coolability and molten core-concrete interaction were selected as sample models, and they were studied extensively. The recent theoretical works and experiments for these phenomena were surveyed, and also the relevant models adopted by major code packages were compared and assessed. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is expected to be able to take into account these phenomenological uncertainties when one uses the severe accident code packages for probabilistic safety assessments or accident management programs.

  13. Case-crossover analysis of heat-coded deaths and vulnerable subpopulations: Oklahoma, 1990-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brianna F.; Brooke Anderson, G.; Johnson, Matthew G.; Brown, Sheryll; Bradley, Kristy K.; Magzamen, Sheryl

    2017-06-01

    The extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths, for which heat is the primary cause of death, remains largely unknown. We explored the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and potential interactions with various demographic and environmental factors. A total of 335 heat-coded deaths that occurred in Oklahoma from 1990 through 2011 were identified using heat-related International Classification of Diseases codes, cause-of-death nomenclature, and narrative descriptions. Conditional logistic regression models examined the association between temperature and heat index on heat-coded deaths. Interaction by demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, living alone, outdoor/heavy labor occupations) and environmental factors (ozone, PM10, PM2.5) was also explored. Temperatures ≥99 °F (the median value) were associated with approximately five times higher odds of a heat-coded death as compared to temperatures estimates were attenuated when exposure to heat was characterized by heat index. The interaction results suggest that effect of temperature on heat-coded deaths may depend on sex and occupation. For example, the odds of a heat-coded death among outdoor/heavy labor workers exposed to temperatures ≥99 °F was greater than expected based on the sum of the individual effects (observed OR = 14.0, 95% CI 2.7, 72.0; expected OR = 4.1 [2.8 + 2.3-1.0]). Our results highlight the extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and emphasize the need for a comprehensive, multisource definition of heat-coded deaths. Furthermore, based on the interaction results, we recommend that states implement or expand heat safety programs to protect vulnerable subpopulations, such as outdoor workers.

  14. Case-crossover analysis of heat-coded deaths and vulnerable subpopulations: Oklahoma, 1990-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brianna F.; Brooke Anderson, G.; Johnson, Matthew G.; Brown, Sheryll; Bradley, Kristy K.; Magzamen, Sheryl

    2017-11-01

    The extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths, for which heat is the primary cause of death, remains largely unknown. We explored the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and potential interactions with various demographic and environmental factors. A total of 335 heat-coded deaths that occurred in Oklahoma from 1990 through 2011 were identified using heat-related International Classification of Diseases codes, cause-of-death nomenclature, and narrative descriptions. Conditional logistic regression models examined the association between temperature and heat index on heat-coded deaths. Interaction by demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, living alone, outdoor/heavy labor occupations) and environmental factors (ozone, PM10, PM2.5) was also explored. Temperatures ≥99 °F (the median value) were associated with approximately five times higher odds of a heat-coded death as compared to temperatures <99 °F (adjusted OR = 4.9, 95% CI 3.3, 7.2). The effect estimates were attenuated when exposure to heat was characterized by heat index. The interaction results suggest that effect of temperature on heat-coded deaths may depend on sex and occupation. For example, the odds of a heat-coded death among outdoor/heavy labor workers exposed to temperatures ≥99 °F was greater than expected based on the sum of the individual effects (observed OR = 14.0, 95% CI 2.7, 72.0; expected OR = 4.1 [2.8 + 2.3-1.0]). Our results highlight the extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and emphasize the need for a comprehensive, multisource definition of heat-coded deaths. Furthermore, based on the interaction results, we recommend that states implement or expand heat safety programs to protect vulnerable subpopulations, such as outdoor workers.

  15. Fiberprint: A subject fingerprint based on sparse code pooling for white matter fiber analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STAC -- a new Swedish code for statistical analysis of cracks in SG-tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator (SG) tubes in pressurized water reactor plants are exposed to various types of degradation processes, among which stress corrosion cracking in particular has been observed. To be able to evaluate the safety importance of such cracking of SG-tubes one has to have a good and empirically founded knowledge about the scope and the size of the cracks as well as the rate of their continuous growth. The basis of experience is to a large extent constituted of the annually performed SG-inspections and crack sizing procedures. On the basis of this experience one can estimate the distribution of existing crack lengths, and modify this distribution with regard to maintenance (plugging) and the predicted rate of crack propagation. Finally, one can calculate the rupture probability of SG-tubes as a function of a given critical crack length. On account of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate an introductory study has been performed in order to get a survey of what has been done elsewhere in this field. The study resulted in a proposal of a computerizable model to be able to estimate the distribution of true cracks, to modify this distribution due to the crack growth and to compute the probability of tube rupture. The model has now been implemented in a compute code, called STAC (STatistical Analysis of Cracks). This paper is aimed to give a brief outline of the model to facilitate the understanding of the possibilities and limitations associated with the model.

  17. Development of the thermal hydraulic analysis code for a copper bonded steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W. K.; Wei, M. H.; Yeo, J. H.; Kim, S. O. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Back, B. J. [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    An one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code was developed for the thermal sizing of copper bonded steam generator. It was assumed that the conduction heat transfer of copper region between hot side and cold side tube is one-dimensional and its thermal resistance of the function of a tube pitch was derived. The flow regions of water/steam side were devided into four regions, which are sub-cooled, saturated, film boiling, and super-heated regions. The numbers of tube were selected from 250 to 3500 for the parameter study calculation. The pitch over tube diameter ratios were 1.4, 1.6 and 1.8. The calculation results showed that when the number of tube was 2500, the length of heating tube was about 10 m and the diameter was about 3 m. If P/D ratio increases, the thermal resistance of copper component also increases, however the length of heating tube is not increasing so much.

  18. Outage Analysis and Optimization of SWIPT in Network-Coded Two-Way Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the outage performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT in network-coded two-way relay systems, where a relay first harvests energy from the signals transmitted by two sources and then uses the harvested energy to forward the received information to the two sources. We consider two transmission protocols, power splitting two-way relay (PS-TWR and time switching two-way relay (TS-TWR protocols. We present two explicit expressions for the system outage probability of the two protocols and further derive approximate expressions for them in high and low SNR cases. To explore the system performance limits, two optimization problems are formulated to minimize the system outage probability. Since the problems are nonconvex and have no known solution methods, a genetic algorithm- (GA- based algorithm is designed. Numerical and simulation results validate our theoretical analysis. It is shown that, by jointly optimizing the time assignment and SWIPT receiver parameters, a great performance gain can be achieved for both PS-TWR and TS-TWR. Moreover, the optimized PS-TWR always outperforms the optimized TS-TWR in terms of outage performance. Additionally, the effects of parameters including relay location and transmit powers are also discussed, which provide some insights for the SWIPT-enabled two-way relay networks.

  19. STATIC CODE ANALYSIS FOR SOFTWARE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: A CASE STUDY IN BCI FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indar Sugiarto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how the systematic approach in software testing using static code analysis method can be used for improving the software quality of a BCI framework. The method is best performed during the development phase of framework programs. In the proposed approach, we evaluate several software metrics which are based on the principles of object oriented design. Since such method is depending on the underlying programming language, we describe the method in term of C++ language programming whereas the Qt platform is also currently being used. One of the most important metric is so called software complexity. Applying the software complexity calculation using both McCabe and Halstead method for the BCI framework which consists of two important types of BCI, those are SSVEP and P300, we found that there are two classes in the framework which have very complex and prone to violation of cohesion principle in OOP. The other metrics are fit the criteria of the proposed framework aspects, such as: MPC is less than 20; average complexity is around value of 5; and the maximum depth is below 10 blocks. Such variables are considered very important when further developing the BCI framework in the future.

  20. RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CUPID CODE FOR A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL TWO-PHASE FLOW ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR REACTOR COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN YOUNG YOON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The CUPID code has been developed at KAERI for a transient, three-dimensional analysis of a two-phase flow in light water nuclear reactor components. It can provide both a component-scale and a CFD-scale simulation by using a porous media or an open media model for a two-phase flow. In this paper, recent advances in the CUPID code are presented in three sections. First, the domain decomposition parallel method implemented in the CUPID code is described with the parallel efficiency test for multiple processors. Then, the coupling of CUPID-MARS via heat structure is introduced, where CUPID has been coupled with a system-scale thermal-hydraulics code, MARS, through the heat structure. The coupled code has been applied to a multi-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis of a pool mixing test. Finally, CUPID-SG is developed for analyzing two-phase flows in PWR steam generators. Physical models and validation results of CUPID-SG are discussed.

  1. From tracking code to analysis generalised Courant-Snyder theory for any accelerator model

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    This book illustrates a theory well suited to tracking codes, which the author has developed over the years. Tracking codes now play a central role in the design and operation of particle accelerators. The theory is fully explained step by step with equations and actual codes that the reader can compile and run with freely available compilers. In this book, the author pursues a detailed approach based on finite “s”-maps, since this is more natural as long as tracking codes remain at the center of accelerator design. The hierarchical nature of software imposes a hierarchy that puts map-based perturbation theory above any other methods. This is not a personal choice: it follows logically from tracking codes overloaded with a truncated power series algebra package. After defining abstractly and briefly what a tracking code is, the author illustrates most of the accelerator perturbation theory using an actual code: PTC. This book may seem like a manual for PTC; however, the reader is encouraged to explore...

  2. Unraveling long non-coding RNAs through analysis of high-throughput RNA-sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Tripathi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive genome-wide transcriptome study mediated by high throughput sequencing technique has revolutionized the study of genetics and epigenetic at unprecedented resolution. The research has revealed that besides protein-coding RNAs, large proportions of mammalian transcriptome includes a heap of regulatory non protein-coding RNAs, the number encoded within human genome is enigmatic. Many taboos developed in the past categorized these non-coding RNAs as ‘‘dark matter” and “junks”. Breaking the myth, RNA-seq-- a recently developed experimental technique is widely being used for studying non-coding RNAs which has acquired the limelight due to their physiological and pathological significance. The longest member of the ncRNA family-- long non-coding RNAs, acts as stable and functional part of a genome, guiding towards the important clues about the varied biological events like cellular-, structural- processes governing the complexity of an organism. Here, we review the most recent and influential computational approach developed to identify and quantify the long non-coding RNAs serving as an assistant for the users to choose appropriate tools for their specific research. Keywords: Transcriptome, High throughput sequencing, Genetic and epigenetic, Long non-coding RNA, RNA-sequencing, RNA-seq

  3. Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2006-09-29

    This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

  4. Performance analysis of IM, DPSK and DQPSK payload signals with frequency swept coherent detected spectral amplitude code labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yongsheng; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Xin, Xiangjun

    2011-01-01

    We present the performance analysis for frequency swept coherent detection of spectral amplitude code (SAC) labelled switching systems for high-speed payload signals with different modulation formats. We consider a payload bit-rate of 40 Gbit/s for an intensity modulation (IM), differential phase...

  5. Hydrodynamic Experiments for a Flow Distribution of a 61-pin Wire-wrapped Rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S. K.; Euh, D. J.; Choi, H. S.; Kim, H. M.; Ko, Y. J.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, S. R. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Fuel assembly of the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast breeder Reactor) type reactor generally has wire spacers which are wrapped around each fuel pin helically in axial direction. The configuration of a helical wire spacer guarantees the fuel rods integrity by providing the bundle rigidity, proper spacing between rods and promoting coolant mixing between subchannels. It is important to understand the flow characteristics in such a triangular array wire wrapped rod bundle in a hexagonal duct. The experimental work has been undertaken to quantify the friction and mixing parameters which characterize the flow distribution in subchannels for the KAERI's own bundle geometric configuration. This work presents the hydrodynamic experimental results for the flow distribution and the pressure drop in subchannels of a 61-pin wire wrapped rod bundle which has been fabricated considering the hydraulic similarity of the reference reactor. Hydrodynamic experiments for a 61-pin wire wrapped test assembly has been performed to provide the data of a flow distribution and pressure losses in subchannels for verifying the analysis capability of subchannel analysis codes for a KAERI's own prototype SFR reactor. Three type of sampling probes have been specially designed to conserve the shape of the flow area for each type of subchannels. All 126 subchannels have been measured to identify the characteristics of the flow distribution in a 37-pin rod assembly. Pressure drops at the interior and the edge subchannels have been also measured to recognize the friction losses of each type of subchannels.

  6. Analysis of a gas stratification break-up by a vertical jet using the GOTHIC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Cosials, Mikel Kevin; Jimenez, Gonzalo, E-mail: gonzalo.jimenez@upm.es; Lopez-Alonso, Emma

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Study of a light gas distribution with the GOTHIC code based on the OECD/NEA IBE-3. • Sensitivity analysis on turbulence model, discretization scheme and heat transfer. • The jet erosion phenomena is captured properly with a relatively coarse mesh. • Development of a tool to evaluate the influence of each parameter on the simulation. • Several recommendation on modeling a stratification break-up are included. - Abstract: During a severe accident in light water reactor (LWR), hydrogen concentration can overpass the flammability limits locally, so the correct simulation of its behavior during a release is critical. The capability assessment of computational fluid dynamics tools to calculate the hydrogen distribution under different conditions has been the focus of intense research worldwide. In this context, the OECD/NEA conducted an international benchmark exercise (IBE-3), which was focused on the break-up of a stratified layer of a light gas by a vertical jet. The participants performed their simulations before the experiment data was released. When the data was released, it was noticed that a combination of several parameters like the mesh, turbulence model or solver controls were responsible for the broad differences between the participants’ results. To obtain information about how each parameter affects the simulation, a post-test sensitivity analysis has been done by the UPM. In this paper, the IBE-3 experiment simulation with GOTHIC 8.0 is presented along with extensive sensitivity analyses of the relevant parameters. The first objective of the work is to test the capability of GOTHIC 8.0 to simulate properly a gas stratification break-up by a vertical jet with a relatively coarse mesh. The second objective of the paper is to relate each sensitivity parameter with each other and with the experiment through the Parameter Influence Chart, a helpful tool specially designed for this purpose.

  7. Advantages of a mechanistic codon substitution model for evolutionary analysis of protein-coding sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzo Miyazawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A mechanistic codon substitution model, in which each codon substitution rate is proportional to the product of a codon mutation rate and the average fixation probability depending on the type of amino acid replacement, has advantages over nucleotide, amino acid, and empirical codon substitution models in evolutionary analysis of protein-coding sequences. It can approximate a wide range of codon substitution processes. If no selection pressure on amino acids is taken into account, it will become equivalent to a nucleotide substitution model. If mutation rates are assumed not to depend on the codon type, then it will become essentially equivalent to an amino acid substitution model. Mutation at the nucleotide level and selection at the amino acid level can be separately evaluated. RESULTS: The present scheme for single nucleotide mutations is equivalent to the general time-reversible model, but multiple nucleotide changes in infinitesimal time are allowed. Selective constraints on the respective types of amino acid replacements are tailored to each gene in a linear function of a given estimate of selective constraints. Their good estimates are those calculated by maximizing the respective likelihoods of empirical amino acid or codon substitution frequency matrices. Akaike and Bayesian information criteria indicate that the present model performs far better than the other substitution models for all five phylogenetic trees of highly-divergent to highly-homologous sequences of chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. It is also shown that multiple nucleotide changes in infinitesimal time are significant in long branches, although they may be caused by compensatory substitutions or other mechanisms. The variation of selective constraint over sites fits the datasets significantly better than variable mutation rates, except for 10 slow-evolving nuclear genes of 10 mammals. An critical finding for phylogenetic analysis is that

  8. Denoising analysis of spatial pixel multiplex coded spectrometer with Hadamard H-matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jiang; Han, Jing; Li, Long; Bai, Lian-fa

    2018-01-01

    We present a multiplex coded Hadamard transform spectrometer with which Hadamard H-matrix is employed to encode the entrance pixels. Specifically, the Hadamard H-matrix is divided into two coding matrices, H+ and H-; here H- =(H - J) / 2 and H+ =(H + J) / 2, where each element of J equals 1. We analyzed its denoising capability and compared with the ordinary Hadamard spectrometer with cyclic-S matrix coded and slit spectrometers. The simulation and experiment show that the proposed Hadamard spectrometer with H-matrix outperforms Hadamard transform spectrometer with cyclic-S matrix, gaining about 2 dB of the signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. Verification of a neutronic code for transient analysis in reactors with Hex-z geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Pintor, S.; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain); Ginestar, D. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Due to the geometry of the fuel bundles, to simulate reactors such as VVER reactors it is necessary to develop methods that can deal with hexagonal prisms as basic elements of the spatial discretization. The main features of a code based on a high order finite element method for the spatial discretization of the neutron diffusion equation and an implicit difference method for the time discretization of this equation are presented and the performance of the code is tested solving the first exercise of the AER transient benchmark. The obtained results are compared with the reference results of the benchmark and with the results provided by PARCS code. (authors)

  10. Population genomic analysis of gibberellin-responsive long non-coding RNAs in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiaxing; Song, Yuepeng; Du, Qingzhang; Yang, Xiaohui; Ci, Dong; Chen, Jinhui; Xie, Jianbo; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in a wide range of biological processes, but lncRNAs in plants remain largely unknown; in particular, we lack a systematic identification of plant lncRNAs involved in hormone responses. Moreover, allelic variation in lncRNAs remains poorly characterized at a large scale. Here, we conducted high-throughput RNA-sequencing of leaves from control and gibberellin (GA)-treated Populus tomentosa and identified 7655 reliably expressed lncRNAs. Among the 7655 lncRNAs, the levels of 410 lncRNAs changed in response to GA. Seven GA-responsive lncRNAs were predicted to be putative targets of 18 miRNAs, and one GA-responsive lncRNA (TCONS_00264314) was predicted to be a target mimic of ptc-miR6459b. Computational analysis predicted 939 potential cis-regulated target genes and 965 potential trans-regulated target genes for GA-responsive lncRNAs. Functional annotation of these potential target genes showed that they participate in many different biological processes, including auxin signal transduction and synthesis of cellulose and pectin, indicating that GA-responsive lncRNAs may influence growth and wood properties. Finally, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association analysis showed that 112 SNPs from 52 GA-responsive lncRNAs and 1014 SNPs from 296 potential target genes were significantly associated with growth and wood properties. Epistasis analysis also provided evidence for interactions between lncRNAs and their potential target genes. Our study provides a comprehensive view of P. tomentosa lncRNAs and offers insights into the potential functions and regulatory interactions of GA-responsive lncRNAs, thus forming the foundation for future functional analysis of GA-responsive lncRNAs in P. tomentosa. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Initial verification and validation of RAZORBACK - A research reactor transient analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talley, Darren G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the work and results of the initial verification and validation (V&V) of the beta release of the Razorback code. Razorback is a computer code designed to simulate the operation of a research reactor (such as the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR)) by a coupled numerical solution of the point reactor kinetics equations, the energy conservation equation for fuel element heat transfer, and the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for the water cooling of the fuel elements. This initial V&V effort was intended to confirm that the code work to-date shows good agreement between simulation and actual ACRR operations, indicating that the subsequent V&V effort for the official release of the code will be successful.

  12. A New Phenomenon in Saudi Females’ Code-switching: A Morphemic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mona O. Turjoman

    2016-01-01

    ...) universality of the ‘Free Morpheme Constraint’. It is also concluded that the main factors that influence this type of code-switching is solidarity and group identity among other factors. Keyword...

  13. Performance analysis of large scale parallel CFD computing based on Code_Saturne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhi

    2013-02-01

    In order to run computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes on large scales, parallel computing has to be employed. For instance, on Petascale computing, general parallel computing without any optimization is not enough, especially for complex industrial issues that employ a large number of mesh cells to capture the details of the geometry. How to distribute these mesh cells among the multi-processors for Terascale and Petascale systems to obtain a good performance on parallel computing is really a challenge. Some mesh partitioning software packages, such as Metis, ParMetis, PT-Scotch and Zoltan, were chosen as the candidates ported into Code_Saturne to test if they can lead Code_Saturne towards Petascale and Exascale parallel CFD computing. Through the studies, it was found that mesh partitioning optimization software packages based on the graph mesh partitioning method can help the CFD code obtain good mesh distributions for high performance computing (HPC).

  14. Analysis of VA-1 and VA4 RIA tests with FRAPTRAN and SCANAIR codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagrado, I. C.; Vallejo, I.; Herranz, L. E.

    2012-07-01

    This paper summarizes the CIEMAT results of VA-1 and VA-3 RIA tests modeling with the FRAPTRAN 1.4 (PNNL) and SCANAIR 7.1 (IRSN) codes. This work is framed within the international OECD-CABRI project in which a RIA code benchmarking has been set up with a broad international participation, Both experiments were conducted in the Japanese NSRR experimental reactor.

  15. Simulated data and code for analysis of herpetofauna response to forest management in the Missouri Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T; Wolf, Alexander J; Renken, Rochelle B; Gitzen, Robert A; Fantz, Debby K; Montgomery, Robert A; Olson, Matthew G; Vangilder, Larry D; Millspaugh, Joshua J

    2016-12-01

    We present predictor variables and R and Stan code for simulating and analyzing counts of Missouri Ozark herpetofauna in response to three forest management strategies. Our code performs four primary purposes: import predictor variables from spreadsheets; simulate synthetic response variables based on imported predictor variables and user-supplied values for data-generating parameters; format synthetic data for export to Stan; and analyze synthetic data.

  16. An Analysis of the Relationship between IFAC Code of Ethics and CPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe İrem Keskin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Code of ethics has become a significant concept as regards to the business world. That is why occupational organizations have developed their own codes of ethics over time. In this study, primarily the compatibility classification of the accounting code of ethics belonging to the IFAC (The International Federation of Accountants is carried out on the basis of the action plans assessing the levels of usage by the 175 IFAC national accounting organizations. It is determined as a result of the classification that 60,6% of the member organizations are applying the IFAC code in general, the rest 39,4% on the other hand, is not applying the code at all. With this classification, the hypothesis propounding that “The national accounting organizations in highly corrupt countries would be less likely to adopt the IFAC ethic code than those in very clean countries,” is tested using the “Corruption Perception Index-CPI” data. It is determined that the findings support this relevant hypothesis.          

  17. Performance analysis of parallel gravitational N-body codes on large GPU clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si-Yi; Spurzem, Rainer; Berczik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We compare the performance of two very different parallel gravitational N-body codes for astrophysical simulations on large Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) clusters, both of which are pioneers in their own fields as well as on certain mutual scales - NBODY6++ and Bonsai. We carry out benchmarks of the two codes by analyzing their performance, accuracy and efficiency through the modeling of structure decomposition and timing measurements. We find that both codes are heavily optimized to leverage the computational potential of GPUs as their performance has approached half of the maximum single precision performance of the underlying GPU cards. With such performance we predict that a speed-up of 200 - 300 can be achieved when up to 1k processors and GPUs are employed simultaneously. We discuss the quantitative information about comparisons of the two codes, finding that in the same cases Bonsai adopts larger time steps as well as larger relative energy errors than NBODY6++, typically ranging from 10 - 50 times larger, depending on the chosen parameters of the codes. Although the two codes are built for different astrophysical applications, in specified conditions they may overlap in performance at certain physical scales, thus allowing the user to choose either one by fine-tuning parameters accordingly.

  18. Groundwater flow code verification ``benchmarking`` activity (COVE-2A): Analysis of participants` work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykhuizen, R.C.; Barnard, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Nuclear Waste Repository Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is investigating the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for underground burial of nuclear wastes. One element of the investigations is to assess the potential long-term effects of groundwater flow on the integrity of a potential repository. A number of computer codes are being used to model groundwater flow through geologic media in which the potential repository would be located. These codes compute numerical solutions for problems that are usually analytically intractable. Consequently, independent confirmation of the correctness of the solution is often not possible. Code verification is a process that permits the determination of the numerical accuracy of codes by comparing the results of several numerical solutions for the same problem. The international nuclear waste research community uses benchmarking for intercomparisons that partially satisfy the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) definition of code verification. This report presents the results from the COVE-2A (Code Verification) project, which is a subset of the COVE project.

  19. Design and Characteristic Analysis of Multicarrier Chaotic Phase Coded Radar Pulse Train Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongdan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By introducing phase code into multicarrier orthogonal frequency division multiplex signal, the multicarrier phase coded (MCPC radar signal possesses a good spectrum utilization rate and can achieve a good combination of narrowband and wideband processing. Radar pulse train signal not only reserves the high range resolution of monopulse signal, but also has the same velocity resolution performance as continuous wave signal does. In this study, we use the chaotic biphase code generated by Chebyshev mapping to conduct a phase modulation on MCPC pulse train so as to design two different types of multicarrier chaotic phase coded pulse train signal. The ambiguity functions of the two pulse train signals are compared with that of P4 code MCPC pulse train. In addition, we analyze the influences of subcarrier number, phase-modulated bit number, and period number on the pulse train’s autocorrelation performance. The low probability of intercept (LPI performance of the two signals is also discussed. Simulation results show that the designed pulse train signals have a thumbtack ambiguity function, a periodic autocorrelation side lobe lower than P4 code MCPC pulse train, and excellent LPI performance, as well as the feature of waveform diversity.

  20. Coding SNPs analysis highlights genetic relationships and evolution pattern in eggplant complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro, Alberto; Barchi, Lorenzo; Gramazio, Pietro; Portis, Ezio; Vilanova, Santiago; Comino, Cinzia; Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Lanteri, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Brinjal (Solanum melongena), scarlet (S. aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are three Old World domesticates. The genomic DNA of a collection of accessions belonging to the three cultivated species, along with a representation of various wild relatives, was characterized for the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a genotype-by-sequencing approach. A total of 210 million useful reads were produced and were successfully aligned to the reference eggplant genome sequence. Out of the 75,399 polymorphic sites identified among the 76 entries in study, 12,859 were associated with coding sequence. A genetic relationships analysis, supported by the output of the FastSTRUCTURE software, identified four major sub-groups as present in the germplasm panel. The first of these clustered S. aethiopicum with its wild ancestor S. anguivi; the second, S. melongena, its wild progenitor S. insanum, and its relatives S. incanum, S. lichtensteinii and S. linneanum; the third, S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor S. dasyphyllum; and the fourth, the New World species S. sisymbriifolium, S. torvum and S. elaeagnifolium. By applying a hierarchical FastSTRUCTURE analysis on partitioned data, it was also possible to resolve the ambiguous membership of the accessions of S. campylacanthum, S. violaceum, S. lidii, S. vespertilio and S. tomentsum, as well as to genetically differentiate the three species of New World Origin. A principal coordinates analysis performed both on the entire germplasm panel and also separately on the entries belonging to sub-groups revealed a clear separation among species, although not between each of the domesticates and their respective wild ancestors. There was no clear differentiation between either distinct cultivar groups or different geographical provenance. Adopting various approaches to analyze SNP variation provided support for interpretation of results. The genotyping-by-sequencing approach showed to be highly efficient

  1. Coding SNPs analysis highlights genetic relationships and evolution pattern in eggplant complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acquadro

    Full Text Available Brinjal (Solanum melongena, scarlet (S. aethiopicum and gboma (S. macrocarpon eggplants are three Old World domesticates. The genomic DNA of a collection of accessions belonging to the three cultivated species, along with a representation of various wild relatives, was characterized for the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using a genotype-by-sequencing approach. A total of 210 million useful reads were produced and were successfully aligned to the reference eggplant genome sequence. Out of the 75,399 polymorphic sites identified among the 76 entries in study, 12,859 were associated with coding sequence. A genetic relationships analysis, supported by the output of the FastSTRUCTURE software, identified four major sub-groups as present in the germplasm panel. The first of these clustered S. aethiopicum with its wild ancestor S. anguivi; the second, S. melongena, its wild progenitor S. insanum, and its relatives S. incanum, S. lichtensteinii and S. linneanum; the third, S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor S. dasyphyllum; and the fourth, the New World species S. sisymbriifolium, S. torvum and S. elaeagnifolium. By applying a hierarchical FastSTRUCTURE analysis on partitioned data, it was also possible to resolve the ambiguous membership of the accessions of S. campylacanthum, S. violaceum, S. lidii, S. vespertilio and S. tomentsum, as well as to genetically differentiate the three species of New World Origin. A principal coordinates analysis performed both on the entire germplasm panel and also separately on the entries belonging to sub-groups revealed a clear separation among species, although not between each of the domesticates and their respective wild ancestors. There was no clear differentiation between either distinct cultivar groups or different geographical provenance. Adopting various approaches to analyze SNP variation provided support for interpretation of results. The genotyping-by-sequencing approach showed to be

  2. THE ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF AN ETHICS MANAGEMENT TOOL - CANADIAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION’S CODE OF ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRIAN CĂRĂMIDARU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is the Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice of the Canadian Marketing Association (CMA. The focus is on the structure, contents and the role of this tool. The developing, upgrading and implementing assigned to this code are compared to the standards proposed by Institute of Business Ethics (London.The fact that the CMA is an organization built upon a professional criteria places all its ethical rules in the area of professional business ethics, but being an association that postulates behavioural frames for marketers, it involves the behaviour of firms and individuals that may, or may not be members of the CMA. Using this type of code, proposed for analysis, the CMA replaces with its contents other business ethics tools (credo, policies and procedures, conduct codes etc. Actually, Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice presents both the overall strategies that the ACM uses concerning ethics management and the specific policies and procedures for controversial situations from a moral point of view.

  3. Throughput and Delay Analysis of HARQ with Code Combining over Double Rayleigh Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2018-01-15

    This paper proposes the use of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with code combining (HARQ-CC) to offer reliable communications over double Rayleigh channels. The double Rayleigh fading channel is of particular interest to vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems as well as amplify-and-forward relaying and keyhole channels. This work studies the performance of HARQ-CC over double Rayleigh channels from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical approximations are derived for the $\\\\epsilon$-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the throughput of HARQ-CC. Moreover, we evaluate the delay experienced by Poisson arriving packets for HARQ-CC. We provide analytical expressions for the average waiting time, the packets sojourn time, the average consumed power, and the energy efficiency. In our investigation, we take into account the impact of imperfect feedback on different performance metrics. Additionally, we explore the tradeoff between energy efficiency and the throughput. The proposed scheme is shown to maintain the outage probability below a specified threshold $\\\\epsilon$ which ensures the link reliability. Meanwhile, HARQ-CC adapts implicitly the transmission rate to the channel conditions such that the throughput is maximized. Our results demonstrate that HARQ-CC allows improving the achievable communication rate compared to fixed time diversity schemes. To maximize the throughput of HARQ-CC, the rate per HARQ round should be less than the rate required to meet the outage constraint. Our investigation of the performance of HARQ-CC over Rayleigh and double Rayleigh channels shows that double Rayleigh channels have a higher severity of fading and result in a larger degradation of the throughput. Our analysis reveals that HARQ with incremental redundancy (HARQ-IR) achieves a larger throughput compared to HARQ-CC, while HARQ-CC is simpler to implement, has a lower decoding

  4. Post-test calculation and uncertainty analysis of the experiment QUENCH-07 with the system code ATHLET-CD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine Bals; Henrique Austregesilo; Klaus Trambauer [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit - GRS - mbH Forschungsinstitute, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The QUENCH fuel bundle experiments, performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany, aim to investigate the hydrogen source term and the bundle degradation during reflood of an overheated reactor core. The test QUENCH-07, in which the bundle was cooled from high temperatures by steam injected from the bottom, was the first experiment in this test series with a boron carbide absorber rod in the bundle. One major objective of this test was to provide information on the B{sub 4}C/SS/Zry interactions, on the formation of gaseous reaction products during B{sub 4}C oxidation and control rod degradation, and on the impact of control rod degradation on surrounding rods. In the general frame of developmental assessment and code validation, a post-test calculation of test QUENCH-07 complemented by an uncertainty analysis was performed with the code ATHLET-CD. The system code ATHLET-CD is being developed for realistic simulation of accidents with core degradation and for evaluation of accident management procedures. It applies the detailed and validated models of the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET in an efficient coupling with dedicated models for core degradation, including mechanical rod behaviour, zirconium and B{sub 4}C oxidation, melting and relocation of metallic and ceramic components, and for the release and transport of fission products and aerosols. The first step of the work was the simulation of the QUENCH-07 experiment, applying the modeling options recommended in the code User's Manual (reference calculation). The global results of this calculation, mainly with respect to the hydrogen release rate and to the time evolution of bundle temperatures in different elevations, showed a good agreement with the measured data. This calculation was complemented by a sensitivity analysis in order to investigate the influence of a combined variation of code input parameters on the simulation of the main phenomena observed in the

  5. Evolution of the CYCLE code for the system analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Kalashnikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The CYCLE code is intended to simulate mathematically the operation of a nuclear power system (NPS with thermal and fast reactors in an open or closed nuclear fuel cycle, to develop scenarios of efficient nuclear power evolution in Russia and to analyze trends in global nuclear power. The code is based on a well-known software program, WIMSD-5B, broadly used for the design of thermal reactor cells, and on a 2D multi-group software system, RZA, for the fast neutron reactor simulation. The CYCLE code was developed at IPPE in Obninsk. This paper presents a brief review of the capabilities and information on the current status of the CYCLE code. The code allows simulation of key facilities of the external fuel cycle (fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities, SNF storage, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium stores, RW long-term storage sites, nuclear reactors, including RBMK-1000 reactors, existing and advanced VVER reactors (using different fuel types, and fast reactors (both existing and innovative. As an important feature, the CYCLE code allows the evolution of the fuel's nuclide composition both in reactors and at the external fuel cycle phase to be considered in details. Offered as an extra option is the capability to calculate a variety of the nuclear fuel cycle cost parameters for nuclear power plants with thermal and fast reactors. For years, the code has been successfully used as part of INPRO, an international innovative nuclear reactor and fuel cycle project. The results of studies into the Russian NPS evolution scenarios were presented at Global 2011. Some other of the CYCLE-based simulation results were presented at Global 2015.

  6. A restructuring proposal based on MELCOR for severe accident analysis code development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Song, Y. M.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    In order to develop a template based on existing MELCOR code, current data saving and transferring methods used in MELCOR are addressed first. Then a naming convention for the constructed module is suggested and an automatic program to convert old variables into new derived type variables has been developed. Finally, a restructured module for the SPR package has been developed to be applied to MELCOR. The current MELCOR code ensures a fixed-size storage for four different data types, and manages the variable-sized data within the storage limit by storing the data on the stacked packages. It uses pointer to identify the variables between the packages. This technique causes a difficult grasping of the meaning of the variables as well as memory waste. New features of FORTRAN90, however, make it possible to allocate the storage dynamically, and to use the user-defined data type which lead to a restructured module development for the SPR package. An efficient memory treatment and as easy understanding of the code are allowed in this developed module. The validation of the template has been done by comparing the results of the modified code with those from the existing code, and it is confirmed that the results are the same. The template for the SPR package suggested in this report hints the extension of the template to the entire code. It is expected that the template will accelerate the code domestication thanks to direct understanding of each variable and easy implementation of modified or newly developed models. 3 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein coding genes confirms the reciprocal paraphyly of Hexapoda and Crustacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapelli, Antonio; Liò, Pietro; Nardi, Francesco; van der Wath, Elizabeth; Frati, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Background The phylogeny of Arthropoda is still a matter of harsh debate among systematists, and significant disagreement exists between morphological and molecular studies. In particular, while the taxon joining hexapods and crustaceans (the Pancrustacea) is now widely accepted among zoologists, the relationships among its basal lineages, and particularly the supposed reciprocal paraphyly of Crustacea and Hexapoda, continues to represent a challenge. Several genes, as well as different molecular markers, have been used to tackle this problem in molecular phylogenetic studies, with the mitochondrial DNA being one of the molecules of choice. In this study, we have assembled the largest data set available so far for Pancrustacea, consisting of 100 complete (or almost complete) sequences of mitochondrial genomes. After removal of unalignable sequence regions and highly rearranged genomes, we used nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences of the 13 protein coding genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of Pancrustacea. The analysis was performed with Bayesian inference, and for the amino acid sequences a new, Pancrustacea-specific, matrix of amino acid replacement was developed and used in this study. Results Two largely congruent trees were obtained from the analysis of nucleotide and amino acid datasets. In particular, the best tree obtained based on the new matrix of amino acid replacement (MtPan) was preferred over those obtained using previously available matrices (MtArt and MtRev) because of its higher likelihood score. The most remarkable result is the reciprocal paraphyly of Hexapoda and Crustacea, with some lineages of crustaceans (namely the Malacostraca, Cephalocarida and, possibly, the Branchiopoda) being more closely related to the Insecta s.s. (Ectognatha) than two orders of basal hexapods, Collembola and Diplura. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial genome, unlike analyses based on morphological data or nuclear

  8. Analysis of PPM-CDMA and OPPM-CDMA communication systems with new optical code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.

    2005-11-01

    A novel type of optical spreading sequences, named the 'new-Modified Prime Code (nMPC)', is proposed for use in synchronous direct-detection optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems which employ both pulse position modulation (PPM) and overlapping pulse position modulation (OPPM) schemes. The upper bounds on the bit error rate (BER) for nMPC used in PPM-CDMA systems are derived and compared with the respective systems, using a modified prime code (MPC) and a padded modified prime code (PMPC). The nMPC is further applied to the OPPM-CDMA system and the system with a proposed interference cancellation scheme. Our results show that under the same conditions the PPM-CDMA system performances are more improved with the use of nMPC than with the two other traditional codes. Moreover, they show that the system performances are significantly enhanced by the proposed interference reduction methods, if the nMPC is used in the OPPM-CDMA systems.

  9. Structuring and coding in health care records: a qualitative analysis using diabetes as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R R Robertson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background   Globally, diabetes mellitus presents a substantial burden to individuals and healthcare systems. Structuring and/or coding of medical records underpin attempts to improve information sharing and searching, potentially bringing clinical and secondary uses benefits.Aims and objectives   We investigated if, how and why records for adults with diabetes were structured and/or coded, and explored stakeholders’ perceptions of current practice.Methods   We carried out a qualitative, theoretically-informed case study of documenting healthcare information for diabetes patients in family practice and hospital settings, using semi-structured interviews, observations, systems demonstrations and documentary data.Results   We conducted 22 interviews and four on-site observations, and reviewed 25 documents. For secondary uses – research, audit, public health and service planning – the benefits of highly structured and coded diabetes data were clearly articulated. Reported clinical benefits in terms of managing and monitoring diabetes, and perhaps encouraging patient self-management, were modest. We observed marked differences in levels of record structuring and/or coding between settings, and found little evidence that these data were being exploited to improve information sharing between them.Conclusions   Using high levels of data structuring and coding in medical records for diabetes patients has potential to be exploited more fully, and lessons might be learned from successful developments elsewhere in the UK.

  10. [History of medical ethics in Korea: focused on analysis of medical codes and covenants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D W

    2000-12-01

    This article deals with the emergence of the codes of medical ethics and their change in Korean history. The modernized medical codes or covenants by the group of medical doctors has been made from the mid-twentieth century, although Korea has a long tradition of medical ethics, so called the Confucian medical ethics, Insul or Uido which were taken on very strong paternalistic characters. The history of the codes of medical ethics in contemporary Korea showed several revisions in 1961, 1965, 1979, and 1997 since the first establishment in 1955. Changes of political circumstances, the cultural level of the people, medical care system, and medical power leaded to the revisions. Throughout the revisions the codes or covenants of medical ethics in Korea has changed from simple translations of the codes by the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association to the reflexes of domestic medical situations; from the ones based on paternalistic doctor-patient relationship to more democratic ones; from the ones that only medical ethics were expressed to the ones that bioethics was expressed too.

  11. Analysis of results of AZTRAN and AZKIND codes for a BWR; Analisis de resultados de los codigos AZTRAN y AZKIND para un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida O, G. E.; Vallejo Q, J. A.; Galicia A, J.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Xolocostli M, J. V.; Rodriguez H, A.; Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: gbo729@yahoo.com.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    This paper presents an analysis of results obtained from simulations performed with the neutron transport code AZTRAN and the kinetic code of neutron diffusion AZKIND, based on comparisons with models corresponding to a typical BWR, in order to verify the behavior and reliability of the values obtained with said code for its current development. For this, simulations of different geometries were made using validated nuclear codes, such as CASMO, MCNP5 and Serpent. The results obtained are considered adequate since they are comparable with those obtained and reported with other codes, based mainly on the neutron multiplication factor and the power distribution of the same. (Author)

  12. Analysis and Optimization of Sparse Random Linear Network Coding for Reliable Multicast Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tassi, Andrea; Chatzigeorgiou, Ioannis; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2016-01-01

    techniques, and without any assumption on the implementation of the RLNC decoder in use, we provide an efficient way to characterize the performance of users targeted by ultra-reliable layered multicast services. The proposed modeling allows to efficiently derive the average number of coded packet...... transmissions needed to recover one or more service layers. We design a convex resource allocation framework that allows to minimize the complexity of the RLNC decoder by jointly optimizing the transmission parameters and the sparsity of the code. The designed optimization framework also ensures service......Point-to-multipoint communications are expected to play a pivotal role in next-generation networks. This paper refers to a cellular system transmitting layered multicast services to a multicast group of users. Reliability of communications is ensured via different random linear network coding (RLNC...

  13. Analysis of Coded FHSS Systems with Multiple Access Interference over Generalized Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam A. Zummo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of interference on the performance of coded FHSS systems. This is achieved by modeling the physical channel in these systems as a block fading channel. In the derivation of the bit error probability over Nakagami fading channels, we use the exact statistics of the multiple access interference (MAI in FHSS systems. Due to the mathematically intractable expression of the Rician distribution, we use the Gaussian approximation to derive the error probability of coded FHSS over Rician fading channel. The effect of pilot-aided channel estimation is studied for Rician fading channels using the Gaussian approximation. From this, the optimal hopping rate in coded FHSS is approximated. Results show that the performance loss due to interference increases as the hopping rate decreases.

  14. Multi-code analysis of scrape-off layer filament dynamics in MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F.; Walkden, N. R.; Farley, T.

    2016-01-01

    velocities of the order of 1 km s(-1), a perpendicular diameter of around 2-3 cm and a density amplitude 2-3.5 times the background plasma. 3D and 2D numerical codes (the STORM module of BOUT++, GBS, HESEL and TOKAM3X) are used to reproduce the motion of the observed filaments with the purpose of validating...... the codes and of better understanding the experimental data. Good agreement is found between the 3D codes. The seeded filament simulations are also able to reproduce the dynamics observed in experiments with accuracy up to the experimental errorbar levels. In addition, the numerical results showed...... of evolving temperature fields were made and led to a better understanding of the behaviour of these coherent structures....

  15. Development of Safety Analysis Codes and Experimental Validation for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H. Oh, PhD; Cliff Davis; Richard Moore

    2004-11-01

    The very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTGRs) are those concepts that have average coolant temperatures above 900 degrees C or operational fuel temperatures above 1250 degrees C. These concepts provide the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation and nuclear hydrogen generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperatures to support process heat applications, such as desalination and cogeneration, the VHTGR's higher temperatures are suitable for particular applications such as thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the high temperature operation can be detrimental to safety following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) initiated by pipe breaks caused by seismic or other events. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air from the containment will enter the core by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structures and fuel. The oxidation will release heat and accelerate the heatup of the reactor core. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has investigated this event for the past three years for the HTGR. However, the computer codes used, and in fact none of the world's computer codes, have been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably predict this event. New code development, improvement of the existing codes, and experimental validation are imperative to narrow the uncertaninty in the predictions of this type of accident. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration are to develop advanced computational methods for VHTGR safety analysis codes and to validate these computer codes.

  16. Spallation integral experiment analysis by high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Sasa, Toshinobu; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Furihata, Shiori; Belyakov-Bodin, V.I.; Krupny, G.I.; Titarenko, Y.E.

    1997-03-01

    Reaction rate distributions were measured with various activation detectors on the cylindrical surface of the thick tungsten target of 20 cm in diameter and 60 cm in length bombarded with the 0.895 and 1.21 GeV protons. The experimental results were analyzed with the Monte Carlo simulation code systems of NMTC/JAERI-MCNP-4A, LAHET and HERMES. It is confirmed that those code systems can represent the reaction rate distributions with the C/E ratio of 0.6 to 1.4 at the positions up to 30 cm from beam incident surface. (author)

  17. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-07

    The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  18. SACO-1: a fast-running LMFBR accident-analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Vaurio, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    SACO is a fast-running computer code that simulates hypothetical accidents in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to the point of permanent subcriticality or to the initiation of a prompt-critical excursion. In the tradition of the SAS codes, each subassembly is modeled by a representative fuel pin with three distinct axial regions to simulate the blanket and core regions. However, analytic and integral models are used wherever possible to cut down the computing time and storage requirements. The physical models and basic equations are described in detail. Comparisons of SACO results to analogous SAS3D results comprise the qualifications of SACO and are illustrated and discussed.

  19. Vector radiative transfer code SORD: Performance analysis and quick start guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkin, Sergey; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sinyuk, Alexander; Holben, Brent; Kokhanovsky, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    We present a new open source polarized radiative transfer code SORD written in Fortran 90/95. SORD numerically simulates propagation of monochromatic solar radiation in a plane-parallel atmosphere over a reflecting surface using the method of successive orders of scattering (hence the name). Thermal emission is ignored. We did not improve the method in any way, but report the accuracy and runtime in 52 benchmark scenarios. This paper also serves as a quick start user's guide for the code available from ftp://maiac.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/skorkin, from the JQSRT website, or from the corresponding (first) author.

  20. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a cylindrical blanket module using ATHENA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.G.; Herring, J.S.; Carlson, K.E.; Ransom, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    ATHENA (Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) is a new computer code for thermal-hydraulic analyses of many energy systems. Multiple-loop and multiple-fluid capabilities have been emphasized during the code development. A pilot version of ATHENA has incorporated a fusion kinetic package to model the effect of first wall temperature variation on the reactor conditions. The capability has been demonstrated by analyzing the performance under various conditions of a cylindrical fusion blanket module. The results have shown the viability of using ATHENA for fusion reactor design and safety analyses.

  1. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of PWR core including intermediate flow mixers with the THYC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mur, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Meignin, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-07-01

    Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) is one of the major limiting factors of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Safety requires that occurrence of DNB should be precluded under normal or incidental operating conditions. The thermal-hydraulic THYC code developed by EDF is described. The code is devoted to heat and mass transfer in nuclear components. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is predicted from local thermal-hydraulic parameters such as pressure, mass flow rate, and quality. A three stage methodology to evaluate thermal margins in order to perform standard core design is described. (K.A.) 8 refs.

  2. Use of a Viscous Flow Simulation Code for Static Aeroelastic Analysis of a Wing at High-Lift Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaydin, H. Dogus; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Nhan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a static aeroelastic analysis of a wind tunnel test model of a wing in high-lift configuration using a viscous flow simulation code. The model wing was tailored to deform during the tests by amounts similar to a composite airliner wing in highlift conditions. This required use of a viscous flow analysis to predict the lift coefficient of the deformed wing accurately. We thus utilized an existing static aeroelastic analysis framework that involves an inviscid flow code (Cart3d) to predict the deformed shape of the wing, then utilized a viscous flow code (Overflow) to compute the aerodynamic loads on the deformed wing. This way, we reduced the cost of flow simulations needed for this analysis while still being able to predict the aerodynamic forces with reasonable accuracy. Our results suggest that the lift of the deformed wing may be higher or lower than that of the non-deformed wing, and the washout deformation of the wing is the key factor that changes the lift of the deformed wing in two distinct ways: while it decreases the lift at low to moderate angles of attack simply by lowering local angles of attack along the span, it increases the lift at high angles of attack by alleviating separation.

  3. Decoding of Cyclic Codes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    INFORMATION THEORY, *DECODING), (* DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , DECODING), STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, CODING, WHITE NOISE, NUMBER THEORY, CORRECTIONS, BINARY ARITHMETIC, SHIFT REGISTERS, CONTROL SYSTEMS, USSR

  4. FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF RLE-BLOCKS REPETITIONS IN THE SERIES OF BINARY CODES WITH OPTIMAL MINIMAX CRITERION OF AUTOCORRELATION FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kovylin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of searching for binary pseudo-random sequences with quasi-ideal autocorrelation function, which are to be used in contemporary communication systems, including mobile and wireless data transfer interfaces. In the synthesis of binary sequences sets, the target set is manning them based on the minimax criterion by which a sequence is considered to be optimal according to the intended application. In the course of the research the optimal sequences with order of up to 52 were obtained; the analysis of Run Length Encoding was carried out. The analysis showed regularities in the distribution of series number of different lengths in the codes that are optimal on the chosen criteria, which would make it possible to optimize the searching process for such codes in the future.

  5. Performance analysis of super-orthogonal space-frequency trellis coded OFDM system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sokoya, O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available that is used with OFDM. SOSFTC-OFDM utilizes the diversities in frequency and space domain by assuming that coding is done along adjacent subcarrier in an OFDM environment. This paper evaluates the exact pairwise error probability (PEP) of the SOSFTC...

  6. Measuring and detecting errors in occupational coding: an analysis of SHARE data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloni, M.; Brugiavini, A.; Meschi, E.; Tijdens, K.

    2016-01-01

    This article studies coding errors in occupational data, as the quality of this data is important but often neglected. In particular, we recoded open-ended questions on occupation for last and current job in the Dutch sample of the “Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe” (SHARE) using a

  7. Design and Analysis of Boiler Pressure Vessels based on IBR codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Kanimozhi, B.

    2017-05-01

    Pressure vessels components are widely used in the thermal and nuclear power plants for generating steam using the philosophy of heat transfer. In Thermal power plant, Coal is burnt inside the boiler furnace for generating the heat. The amount of heat produced through the combustion of pulverized coal is used in changing the phase transfer (i.e. Water into Super-Heated Steam) in the Pressure Parts Component. Pressure vessels are designed as per the Standards and Codes of the country, where the boiler is to be installed. One of the Standards followed in designing Pressure Parts is ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). The mandatory requirements of ASME code must be satisfied by the manufacturer. In our project case, A Shell/pipe which has been manufactured using ASME code has an issue during the drilling of hole. The Actual Size of the drilled holes must be, as per the drawing, but due to error, the size has been differentiate from approved design calculation (i.e. the diameter size has been exceeded). In order to rectify this error, we have included an additional reinforcement pad to the drilled and modified the design of header in accordance with the code requirements.

  8. CpG + CpNpG Analysis of Protein-Coding Sequences from Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We develop codon-based models for simultaneously inferring the mutational effects of CpG and CpNpG methylation in coding regions. In a data set of 369 tomato genes, we show that there is very little effect of CpNpG methylation but a strong effect of CpG methylation affecting almost all genes. We...

  9. A New Phenomenon in Saudi Females' Code-Switching: A Morphemic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjoman, Mona O.

    2016-01-01

    This sociolinguistics study investigates a new phenomenon that has recently surfaced in the field of code-switching among Saudi females residing in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. This phenomenon basically combines bound Arabic pronouns, tense markers or definite article to English free morphemes or the combination of bound English affixes to…

  10. Analysis of the new code stroke protocol in Asturias after one year. Experience at one hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabo, C; Benavente, L; Martínez-Ramos, J; Pérez-Álvarez, Á; Trigo, A; Calleja, S

    2016-07-25

    Prehospital code stroke (CS) systems have been proved effective for improving access to specialised medical care in acute stroke cases. They also improve the prognosis of this disease, which is one of the leading causes of death and disability in our setting. The aim of this study is to analyse results one year after implementation of the new code stroke protocol at one hospital in Asturias. We prospectively included patients who were admitted to our tertiary care centre as per the code stroke protocol for the period of one year. We analysed 363 patients. Mean age was 69 years and 54% of the cases were men. During the same period in the previous year, there were 236 non-hospital CS activations. One hundred forty-seven recanalisation treatments were performed (66 fibrinolysis and 81 mechanical thrombectomies or combined treatments), representing a 25% increase with regard to the previous year. Recent advances in the management of acute stroke call for coordinated code stroke protocols that are adapted to the needs of each specific region. This may result in an increased number of patients receiving early care, as well as revascularisation treatments. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis, Design and Iterative Decoding of Double Serially Concatenated Codes with Interleavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, S.; Divsalar, D.; Montorsi, G.; Pollara, F.

    1998-01-01

    A double serially concatenated code with two interleavers consists of the cascade of an outer encoder, an interleaver permuting the outer codeword bits, a middle encoder, another interleaver permuting the middle codeword bits and an inner encoder whose input words are the permuted middle codewords.

  12. Pronouncements and Denunciations: An Analysis of State Press Association Ethics Codes from the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Mary M.; McPherson, James B.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how four situational concerns (the rise of press agents, the fallout from World War I propaganda, sensationalism's resurgence, and editorial independence) contributed to a noticeable decline of the public's trust in the press. Shows how, as a result, 12 state press association ethics codes from the 1920s consistently emphasized the…

  13. A quantitative analysis of model-driven code generation through software experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papotti, Paulo Eduardo; do Prado, Antonio Francisco; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Cirilo, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Salinesi, C.; Norrie, M.C.; Pastor, O

    Recent research results have shown that Model-Driven Development (MDD) is a beneficial approach to develop software systems. The reduction of development time enabled by code generation mechanisms is often acknowledged as an important benefit to be further explored. This paper reports on an

  14. Development of the SPIKE code for analysis of the sodium-water reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kim, Tae Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    In the secondary loop of liquid metal reactors, including SG, water leak into sodium causes the sudden increase of pressure by the H{sub 2} and heat generated from reaction. At few miliseconds after leak, a sharp and short-lived increase of pressure is generated and its propagation depends on the acoustic constraint characteristics of secondary loop. As increasing leak amount of water, another pressure increase is caused by H{sub 2} and its transients depends on the resistance of pressure opening system, such as rupture disc. For prediction of the transients of initial spike pressure, a code of SPIKE was developed. The code was based on the following simplifications and assumptions: combination of total and half release of H{sub 2} rate, spherical shape of H{sub 2} bubble, compressible and Newtonian fluid for sodium. The program was built in FOTRAN language and consisted of 5 modules. Several sample calculations were performed to test the code and to determine the scale down factor of experimental facilities for experimental verification of the code: parameter study of the variables in chemical reaction model, comparison study with results calculated by superposition methods for simple piping structures, comparison study with results calculated by previous researchers, and calculation for KALIMER models of various size. With these calculation results, the generally predicted phenomena of sodium water reaction can be explained and the calculated ones by SPIKE code were well agreed with the previous study. And the scale down factor can be determined. (author). 88 refs., 99 figs., 39 tabs.

  15. Development of a 1D thermal-hydraulic analysis code for once-through steam generator in SMRs using straight tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngjae; Kim, Iljin; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Diverse integral/small-modular reactors (SMRs) have been developed. Once-through steam generator (OTSG) which generates superheated steam without steam separator and dryer was used in the SMRs to reduce volume of steam generator. It would be possible to design a new steam generator with best estimate thermal-hydraulic codes such as RELAP and MARS. However, it is not convenience to use the general purpose thermal-hydraulic analysis code to design a specific component of nuclear power plants. A widely used simulation tool for thermal-hydraulic analysis of drum-type steam generators is ATHOS, which allows 3D analysis. On the other hand, a simple 1D thermal-hydraulic analysis code might be accurate enough for the conceptual design of OTSG. In this study, thermal-hydraulic analysis code for conceptual design of OTSG was developed using 1D homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM). A benchmark calculation was also conducted to verify and validate the prediction accuracy of the developed code by comparing with the analysis results with MARS. Finally, conceptual design of OTSG was conducted by the developed code. A simple 1D thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed for the purpose of conceptual design OTSG for SMRs. A set of benchmark calculations was conducted to verify and validate the analysis accuracy of the developed code by comparing results obtained with a best-estimated thermal-hydraulic analysis code, MARS. Finally, analysis of two different OTSG design concepts with superheating and recirculation was demonstrated using the developed code.

  16. WALDIM: A code for the dimensionality analysis of magnetotelluric data using the rotational invariants of the magnetotelluric tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, A.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the magnetotelluric (MT) method, the analysis of geoelectric dimensionality has acquired special importance in the last years, because numerical codes have made it possible to model and invert data using either one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) approaches. We present a FORTRAN code termed WALDIM to perform the dimensionality analysis of a set of MT data, according to the WAL rotational invariants criteria. These criteria are based on the possible annulment of the invariants of the MT tensor, which allow retrieval of as much information as possible from this tensor, without taking any a priori dimensionality assumption. When determining the dimensionality of real and therefore noisy data, two problems arise. The first is due to the data errors, which propagate into the invariants values, and therefore, to the determination of the dimensionality. The second is the fact that the invariants are rarely precisely zero, and the definition of a threshold is necessary. To solve these problems, WALDIM takes into account the data errors. Additionally, the dimensionality results can be grouped into frequency bands. Thus, we provide a software utility that allows providing a robust description of the dimensionality, and the parameters necessary for data correction prior to modeling. Given its completeness at analyzing the MT tensor for both individual and bands of frequencies, this code is meant to be a practical tool for MT data analysis.

  17. LSENS: A General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code for homogeneous gas-phase reactions. Part 3: Illustrative test problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, David A.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 3 of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 3 explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results. These problems illustrate the various capabilities of, and reaction models that can be solved by, the code and may provide a convenient starting point for the user to construct the problem data file required to execute LSENS. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

  18. Behaviour Change Techniques embedded in health and lifestyle apps: coding and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence showing that commercially available health and lifestyle apps can be used as co-adjuvants to clinical interventions and for the prevention of chronic and non-communicable diseases. This can be particularly significant to support and improve wellbeing of young people given their familiarity with these resources. However it is important to understand the content and consistency of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT’s embedded in the apps to maximise their potential benefits. Objectives This study explores the BCT content of a selected list of health and lifestyle tracking apps in three behavioural dimensions: physical activity, sleep and diet. We identified BCT commonalities within and between categories to detect the most frequently used and arguably more effective techniques in the context of wellbeing and promotion of health behaviours. Methods Apps were selected by using keywords and by reviewing the “health and fitness” category of GooglePlay (477 apps. The selection criteria included free apps (even if they also offered paid versions and being common to GooglePlay and AppStore. A background review of each app was also completed. Selected apps were classified according to user ratings in GooglePlay (apps with less that 4+ star ratings were disregarded. The top ten apps in each category were selected, making it a total of 30 for the analysis. Three coders used the apps for two months and were trained to use a comprehensive 93 items taxonomy (BCTv1 to complete the analysis. Results Strong BCT similarities were found across all three categories, suggesting a consistent basic content composition. Out of all 93 BCTS’s 8 were identified as being present in at least 50% of the apps. 6 of these BCT’s are concentrated in categories “1. Goals and Planning” and “2. Feedback and Monitoring”. BCT “Social support (unspecified” was coded for in 63% of the apps, as it was present through different features in

  19. Research and Trends in the Field of Technology-Enhanced Learning from 2006 to 2011: A Content Analysis of Quick Response Code (QR-Code) and Its Application in Selected Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Goh Bak; Siraj, Saedah; Alias, Norlidah; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd.; Zakaria, Abd. Razak; Darusalam, Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a content analysis of selected articles in the field of QR code and its application in educational context that were published in journals and proceedings of international conferences and workshops from 2006 to 2011. These articles were cross analysed by published years, journal, and research topics. Further analysis was…

  20. Lattice Sequential Decoder for Coded MIMO Channel: Performance and Complexity Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abediseid, Walid

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the performance limit of lattice sequential decoder for lattice space-time coded MIMO channel is analysed. We determine the rates achievable by lattice coding and sequential decoding applied to such channel. The diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) under lattice sequential decoding is derived as a function of its parameter---the bias term. The bias parameter is critical for controlling the amount of computations required at the decoding stage. Achieving low decoding complexity requires increasing the value of the bias term. However, this is done at the expense of losing the optimal tradeoff of the channel. We show how such a decoder can bridge the gap between lattice decoder and low complexity decoders. Moreover, the computational complexity of lattice sequential decoder is analysed. Specifically, we derive the tail distribution of the decoder's computational complexity in the high signal-to-noise ratio regime. Similar to the conventional sequential decoder used in discrete memoryless channel,...

  1. TCODE: a computer code for analysis of tritium and vacuum systems for tokamak fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.

    1978-08-01

    TCODE can be used for either near-term experimental reactors or for commercial reactors. The code provides options for items that may be included in a commercial reactor such as a divertor, neutral beam heating, and a breeding blanket. The code was used to calculate tritium and vacuum system parameters for the near term reactors ITR, TNS-UP and EPR as well as for some commercial reactor designs, the UWMAK series. A selected sample of the tritium and vacuum parameters for these reactor designs is shown. Also shown are parameters for a hypothetical reactor UWMAK-III M having similar characteristics to UWMAK-III but with a higher fractional burnup (5.0% cf. 0.83%). The impact of the reactor design scenario upon major tritium and vacuum systems is discussed.

  2. Development of a best estimate auditing code for CANDU thermal hydraulic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B.D.; Lee, W.J.; Lim, H.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a thermal hydraulic auditing code for the CANDU reactor, modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool, i.e. RELAP5/MOD3. This scope of project is a second step of the whole project, and focus to the implementation of CANDU models based on the previous study. FORTRAN 90 language have been used for the development of RELAP5.MOD3/CANDU PC version. For the convenience of the previous Workstation users, the FOTRAN 77 version has been coded also and implanted into the original RELAP5 source file. The verification of model implementation has been performed through the simple verification calculations using the CANDU version. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  3. Analysis of Quasi-Cyclic LDPC codes under ML decoding over the erasure channel

    CERN Document Server

    Cunche, Mathieu; Roca, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that Quasi-Cyclic LDPC codes can efficiently accommodate the hybrid iterative/ML decoding over the binary erasure channel. We demonstrate that the quasi-cyclic structure of the parity-check matrix can be advantageously used in order to significantly reduce the complexity of the ML decoding. This is achieved by a simple row/column permutation that transforms a QC matrix into a pseudo-band form. Based on this approach, we propose a class of QC-LDPC codes with almost ideal error correction performance under the ML decoding, while the required number of row/symbol operations scales as $k\\sqrt{k}$, where $k$ is the number of source symbols.

  4. Genetic algorithms applied to reconstructing coded imaging of neutrons and analysis of residual watermark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiankui; Hu, Huasi; Jia, Qinggang; Zhang, Fengna; Chen, Da; Li, Zhenghong; Wu, Yuelei; Liu, Zhihua; Hu, Guang; Guo, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Monte-Carlo simulation of neutron coded imaging based on encoding aperture for Z-pinch of large field-of-view with 5 mm radius has been investigated, and then the coded image has been obtained. Reconstruction method of source image based on genetic algorithms (GA) has been established. "Residual watermark," which emerges unavoidably in reconstructed image, while the peak normalization is employed in GA fitness calculation because of its statistical fluctuation amplification, has been discovered and studied. Residual watermark is primarily related to the shape and other parameters of the encoding aperture cross section. The properties and essential causes of the residual watermark were analyzed, while the identification on equivalent radius of aperture was provided. By using the equivalent radius, the reconstruction can also be accomplished without knowing the point spread function (PSF) of actual aperture. The reconstruction result is close to that by using PSF of the actual aperture.

  5. DOWNFLOW code and LIDAR technology for lava flow analysis and hazard assessment at Mount Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fornaciai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a lava-flow simulation (DOWNFLOW probabilistic code and airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR technology are combined to analyze the emplacement of compound lava flow fields at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy. The goal was to assess the hazard posed by lava flows. The LIDAR-derived time series acquired during the 2006 Mount Etna eruption records the changing topography of an active lava-flow field. These short-time-interval, high-resolution topographic surveys provide a detailed quantitative picture of the topographic changes. The results highlight how the flow field evolves as a number of narrow (5-15 m wide disjointed flow units that are fed simultaneously by uneven lava pulses that advance within formed channels. These flow units have widely ranging advance velocities (3-90 m/h. Overflows, bifurcations and braiding are also clearly displayed. In such a complex scenario, the suitability of deterministic codes for lava-flow simulation can be hampered by the fundamental difficulty of measuring the flow parameters (e.g. the lava discharge rate, or the lava viscosity of a single flow unit. However, the DOWNFLOW probabilistic code approaches this point statistically and needs no direct knowledge of flow parameters. DOWNFLOW intrinsically accounts for complexities and perturbations of lava flows by randomly varying the pre-eruption topography. This DOWNFLOW code is systematically applied here over Mount Etna, to derive a lava-flow hazard map based on: (i the topography of the volcano; (ii the probability density function for vent opening; and (iii a law for the expected lava-flow length for all of the computational vents considered. Changes in the hazard due to the recent morphological evolution of Mount Etna have also been addressed.

  6. Functional analysis of PCSK2 coding variants: A founder effect in the Old Order Amish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Alexandra; Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Jarvela, Timothy S; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Pollin, Toni I; Lindberg, Iris

    2017-09-01

    In humans, noncoding variants of PCSK2, the gene encoding prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), have been previously associated with risk for and age of onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of this study were to identify coding variants in PCSK2; to determine their possible association with glucose handling; and to determine functional outcomes for coding variants in biochemical studies. Exome-wide genotyping was performed on 1725 Old Order Amish (OOA) subjects. PCSK2 coding variants were tested for association with diabetes-related phenotypes. In vitro analyses using transfected human PC2-encoding constructs were performed to determine the impact of each mutation on PC2 activity. We identified 10 rare missense coding variants in PCSK2 in various genomic databases. R430W (rs200711626) is greatly enriched in the OOA population (MAF 4.3%). This variant is almost twice as common (MAF 7.4%) in OOA individuals with T2D as in OOA individuals with normal or with normal/impaired glucose tolerance (MAF 3.9% and 2.9%, respectively; p=0.25 and p=0.10). In vitro experiments revealed a broadening of the pH optimum for the R430W variant, which may result in increased activity against PCSK2 substrates. Although the association of the R430W variation with T2D in the OOA population did not reach significance, based upon the broadened pH profile of R430W PC2, we speculate that the presence of this substitution may result in altered processing of PCSK2 substrates, ultimately leading to increased conversion to diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Statistical analysis of coding for molecular properties in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eAuffarth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between molecular properties of odorants and neural activities is arguably one of the most important issues in olfaction and the rules governing this relationship are still not clear. In the olfactory bulb (OB, glomeruli relay olfactory information to second-order neurons which in turn project to cortical areas. We investigate relevance of odorant properties, spatial localization of glomerular coding sites, and size of coding zones in a dataset of 2-deoxyglucose images of glomeruli over the entire OB of the rat. We relate molecular properties to activation of glomeruli in the OB using a nonparametric statistical test and a support-vector machine classification study. Our method permits to systematically map the topographic representation of various classes of odorants in the OB. Our results suggest many localized coding sites for particular molecular properties and some molecular properties that could form the basis for a spatial map of olfactory information. We found that alkynes, alkanes, alkenes, and amines affect activation maps very strongly as compared to other properties and that amines, sulfur-containing compounds, and alkynes have small zones and high relevance to activation changes, while aromatics, alkanes, and carboxylics acid recruit very big zones in the dataset. Results suggest a local spatial encoding for molecular properties.

  8. FIREFLY (Fitting IteRativEly For Likelihood analYsis): a full spectral fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David M.; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Thomas, Daniel; Parikh, Taniya

    2017-12-01

    We present a new spectral fitting code, FIREFLY, for deriving the stellar population properties of stellar systems. FIREFLY is a chi-squared minimization fitting code that fits combinations of single-burst stellar population models to spectroscopic data, following an iterative best-fitting process controlled by the Bayesian information criterion. No priors are applied, rather all solutions within a statistical cut are retained with their weight. Moreover, no additive or multiplicative polynomials are employed to adjust the spectral shape. This fitting freedom is envisaged in order to map out the effect of intrinsic spectral energy distribution degeneracies, such as age, metallicity, dust reddening on galaxy properties, and to quantify the effect of varying input model components on such properties. Dust attenuation is included using a new procedure, which was tested on Integral Field Spectroscopic data in a previous paper. The fitting method is extensively tested with a comprehensive suite of mock galaxies, real galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Milky Way globular clusters. We also assess the robustness of the derived properties as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and adopted wavelength range. We show that FIREFLY is able to recover age, metallicity, stellar mass, and even the star formation history remarkably well down to an S/N ∼ 5, for moderately dusty systems. Code and results are publicly available.1

  9. Aerodynamic analysis of three advanced configurations using the TranAir full-potential code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, M. D.; Carmichael, R. L.; Mendoza, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Computational results are presented for three advanced configurations: the F-16A with wing tip missiles and under wing fuel tanks, the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and an Advanced Turboprop research model. These results were generated by the latest version of the TranAir full potential code, which solves for transonic flow over complex configurations. TranAir embeds a surface paneled geometry definition in a uniform rectangular flow field grid, thus avoiding the use of surface conforming grids, and decoupling the grid generation process from the definition of the configuration. The new version of the code locally refines the uniform grid near the surface of the geometry, based on local panel size and/or user input. This method distributes the flow field grid points much more efficiently than the previous version of the code, which solved for a grid that was uniform everywhere in the flow field. TranAir results are presented for the three configurations and are compared with wind tunnel data.

  10. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.

  11. Simulation and Analysis of Small Break LOCA for AP1000 Using RELAP5-MV and Its Comparison with NOTRUMP Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltayeb Yousif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reactor safety simulation codes for nuclear power plants (NPPs have been developed. However, it is very important to evaluate these codes by testing different accident scenarios in actual plant conditions. In reactor analysis, small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA is an important safety issue. RELAP5-MV Visualized Modularization software is recognized as one of the best estimate transient simulation programs of light water reactors (LWR. RELAP5-MV has new options for improved modeling methods and interactive graphics display. Though the same models incorporated in RELAP5/MOD 4.0 are in RELAP5-MV, the significant difference of the latter is the interface for preparing the input deck. In this paper, RELAP5-MV is applied for the transient analysis of the primary system variation of thermal hydraulics parameters in primary loop under SBLOCA in AP1000 NPP. The upper limit of SBLOCA (10 inches is simulated in the cold leg of the reactor and the calculations performed up to a transient time of 450,000.0 s. The results obtained from RELAP5-MV are in good agreement with those of NOTRUMP code obtained by Westinghouse when compared under the same conditions. It can be easily inferred that RELAP5-MV, in a similar manner to RELAP5/MOD4.0, is suitable for simulating a SBLOCA scenario.

  12. Analysis of a Station Black-Out transient in SMR by using the TRACE and RELAP5 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, F.; Lombardo, C.; Mascari, F.; Polidori, M.; Chiovaro, P.; D'Amico, S.; Moscato, I.; Vella, G.

    2014-11-01

    The present paper deals with the investigation of the evolution and consequences of a Station Black-Out (SBO) initiating event transient in the SPES3 facility [1]. This facility is an integral simulator of a small modular reactor being built at the SIET laboratories, in the framework of the R&D program on nuclear fission funded by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development and led by ENEA. The SBO transient will be simulated by using the RELAP5 and TRACE nodalizations of the SPES3 facility. Moreover, the analysis will contribute to study the differences on the code predictions considering the different modelling approach with one and/or three-dimensional components and to compare the capability of these codes to describe the SPES3 facility behaviour.

  13. Cyclone Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Schindelhauer, Christian; Jakoby, Andreas; Köhler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Cyclone codes which are rateless erasure resilient codes. They combine Pair codes with Luby Transform (LT) codes by