WorldWideScience

Sample records for subcategory effluent limitations

  1. 40 CFR 426.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  3. 40 CFR 417.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  4. 40 CFR 417.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.22 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  5. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  6. 40 CFR 417.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.12 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  7. 40 CFR 417.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.62 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  8. 40 CFR 417.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.32 Effluent limitations...

  9. 40 CFR 417.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  10. 40 CFR 417.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  11. 40 CFR 417.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  12. 40 CFR 417.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  13. 40 CFR 421.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electrolytic Copper Refining Subcategory § 421.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... .063 .030 Nickel .027 .018 (d) Subpart E—Casting Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations...

  14. 40 CFR 417.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  15. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 463.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory § 463.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 463.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory § 463.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 463.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 463.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 471.52 - Effluent limitations representating the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.52 Effluent limitations representating the degree of... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT): (a) Rolling...

  1. 40 CFR 407.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.22 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of raw material) BOD5 1...

  2. 40 CFR 407.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.12 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of raw material) BOD5 0...

  3. 40 CFR 415.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.22 Effluent limitations guidelines...—Aluminum Sulfate Pollutant or pollutant property BPT limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily...

  4. 40 CFR 421.223 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Molybdenum filtrate solvent extraction raffinate. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium... Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.223 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of.... BAT Limitations for the Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property...

  5. 40 CFR 471.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.22 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT): (a) Rolling spent emulsions...

  6. 40 CFR 471.21 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.21 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... available (BPT): (a) Rolling spent emulsions. Subpart B—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any...

  7. 40 CFR 471.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.12 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT): (a) Rolling...

  8. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  9. 40 CFR 471.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... 60.1 26.7 (k) Tube reducing spent lubricants—Subpart F—BAT. There shall be no discharge of process...

  10. 40 CFR 471.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.32 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... nickel-cobalt rolled with water Chromium 0.028 0.011 Nickel 0.042 0.028 Fluoride 4.49 1.99 (d) Tube...

  11. 40 CFR 471.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... 0.006 Cyanide 0.010 0.004 Nickel 0.066 0.044 Ammonia 4.57 2.01 Fluoride 2.04 0.906 (g) Tube Reducing...

  12. 40 CFR 436.192 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frasch Sulfur Subcategory § 436.192 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... section for operations mining anhydrite deposits, any existing point source subject to this subpart shall...

  13. 40 CFR 415.362 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....30 through 125.32 any existing point source subject to this subpart and producing copper carbonate... AJ—Copper Carbonate Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.362 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  14. 40 CFR 440.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.32 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... or underground, from which uranium, radium and vanadium ores are produced excluding mines using in... acid leach, alkaline leach or combined acid and alkaline leach process for the extraction of uranium...

  15. 40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COPPER FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.12...—Hot Rolling Spent Lubricant BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average Metric units—mg/off-kg of copper or copper alloy hot rolled...

  16. 40 CFR 471.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.11 Effluent limitations representing the degree of... technology currently available (BPT): (a) Rolling spent emulsions. Subpart A—BPT Pollutant or pollutant...

  17. 40 CFR 457.12 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.12 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of... this paragraph, which may be discharged from the manufacture of explosives by a point source subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 457.32 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory § 457.32 Effluent limitations and guidelines... properties, controlled by this paragraph, which may be discharged from the explosives load, assemble and pack...

  19. 40 CFR 446.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 446.12 Section 446.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  20. 40 CFR 471.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.31 Effluent limitations representing the degree of... 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (d) Tube Reducing Spent Lubricant—Subpart C—BPT. (1) There shall be no...

  1. 40 CFR 421.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently... Raffinate from Bertrandite Ore. BPT Limitations for the Primary Beryllium Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant...

  2. 40 CFR 430.124 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.124 Effluent limitations... best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Non-continuous dischargers shall not be... limitations. Concentration limitations are only applicable to non-continuous dischargers. Permittees not using...

  3. 40 CFR 440.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that use dump, heap, in situ leach or vat-leach processes to extract copper from ores or ore waste..., Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.103 Effluent limitations representing the... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum bearing ores or any combination of these ores from open...

  4. 40 CFR 415.223 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to this subpart and producing titanium dioxide by the sulfate process must achieve the following... CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.223 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the..., any existing point source subject to this subpart and producing titanium dioxide by the chloride...

  5. 40 CFR 415.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... point source subject to this subpart and producing titanium dioxide by the sulfate process must achieve... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.222 Effluent limitations guidelines... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): Subpart V—Titanium Dioxide...

  6. 40 CFR 415.367 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing point source subject to this subpart and producing copper carbonate must achieve the following... CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.367 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the... this subpart and producing copper sulfate, copper chloride, copper iodide, or copper nitrate must...

  7. 40 CFR 430.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.122 Effluent limitations... available (BPT), except that non-continuous dischargers shall not be subject to the maximum day and average... Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Non-continuous dischargers...

  8. 77 FR 29167 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Airport Deicing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... technological achievability and economic impacts unique to that subcategory. In some cases, effluent limitations... (e.g., potassium acetate, sodium acetate) and a small amount of additives (e.g., corrosion inhibitors...., potassium acetate, sodium acetate, and sodium formate) will all ionize in water, creating positive salt ions...

  9. 40 CFR 440.75 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  10. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  11. 40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  12. 40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440... of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  13. 40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  14. 40 CFR 440.25 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  15. 40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  16. 40 CFR 451.21 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Net Pen Subcategory § 451.21 Effluent limitations... rates of aquatic animal growth. These strategies must minimize the accumulation of uneaten food beneath... aquatic animals including blood, viscera, aquatic animal carcasses, or transport water containing blood...

  17. 40 CFR 439.14 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fermentation Products § 439.14 Effluent limitations attainable by the... effluent limitations representing the application of BAT: Effluent Limitations (BAT) Regulated parameter...

  18. 40 CFR 440.85 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory... reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). ...

  19. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations...

  20. 40 CFR 434.63 - Effluent limitations for precipitation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations for precipitation... SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.63 Effluent limitations for precipitation... discharge or increase in the volume of a discharge caused by precipitation within any 24 hour period less...

  1. 40 CFR 414.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.52 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. 40 CFR 414.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.23 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  3. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  4. 40 CFR 414.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  5. 40 CFR 414.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.42 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  6. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  7. 40 CFR 414.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.73 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  8. 40 CFR 414.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.53 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  9. 40 CFR 414.21 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.21 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  10. 40 CFR 414.43 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.43 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  11. 40 CFR 414.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.41 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  12. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  13. 40 CFR 414.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.31 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  14. 40 CFR 414.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.22 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  15. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  16. 40 CFR 414.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.32 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  17. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  18. 40 CFR 414.51 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.51 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  19. 40 CFR 414.33 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.33 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  20. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. 40 CFR 421.263 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... raffinate and wash water. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Precious Metals Subcategory Pollutant or... gold produced by electrolysis Copper 0.0111 0.0053 Cyanide (total) 0.0017 0.0007 Zinc 0.0089 0.0037...

  3. Meeting NPDES permit limits for an effluent-dependent stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, W.L.

    1998-09-01

    When the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina received a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit containing very low copper and toxicity limits for an effluent-dependent stream, an innovative and cost-effective method to meet them was sought. The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control mandated that compliance with the new limits be achieved within three years of the effective date of the permit. SRS personnel studied various regulatory options for complying with the new limits including Water Effect Ratio, use of a Metals Translator, blending with additional effluents, and outfall relocation. Regulatory options were determined to not be feasible because the receiving stream is effluent dependent. Treatment options were studied after it was determined that none of the regulatory pathways were viable. Corrosion inhibitors were evaluated on a full-scale basis with only limited benefits. Ion exchange was promising, but not cost effective for a high flow effluent with a very low concentration of copper. A treatment wetlands, not normally given consideration for the removal of metals, proved to be the most cost effective method studied and is currently under construction.

  4. 40 CFR 464.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plants that are casting primarily ductile or gray iron and to plants that are casting primarily malleable iron where greater than 3,557 tons of metal are poured per year. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... where equal to or less than 3,557 tons of metal are poured per year. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant...

  5. 40 CFR 434.62 - Alternate effluent limitation for pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate effluent limitation for pH... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.62 Alternate effluent limitation for pH. Where the... otherwise applicable manganese limitations, the permit issuer may allow the pH level in the final effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 421.262 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and wash water. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Precious Metals Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant... produced by electrolysis Copper 0.017 0.009 Cyanide (total) 0.003 0.001 Zinc 0.103 0.005 Ammonia (as N) 1...

  7. 40 CFR 421.293 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (total) 0.007 0.003 Fluoride 1.225 0.697 Tin 0.013 0.008 (c) Tin mud acid neutralization filtrate. BAT... for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of neutralized dewatered tin mud produced Lead 1... electrowinning solution from municipal solid waste. BAT Limitations for the Secondary Tin Subcategory Pollutant...

  8. 40 CFR 421.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Tin mud acid neutralization filtrate. BPT... for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of neutralized, dewatered tin mud produced Lead... electrowinning solution from municipal solid waste. BPT Limitations for the Secondary Tin Subcategory Pollutant...

  9. 40 CFR 406.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice... Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of rice) BOD5 0.42 0.14 TSS 0.24 .08 pH (1) (1) English units...

  10. 40 CFR 428.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 428.62 Section 428.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium...

  11. 40 CFR 428.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 428.63 Section 428.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General...

  12. 40 CFR 401.17 - pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true pH Effluent limitations under... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.17 pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring. (a) Where a permittee continuously measures the pH of wastewater pursuant to a...

  13. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling... limitations establish the quantity or quality of pollutants or pollutant properties which may be discharged by...

  14. 78 FR 78954 - Extension of Comment Period for the Alaska Seafood Processing Effluent Limitation Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... made available for public review and comment additional data and information gathered recently by the... AGENCY Extension of Comment Period for the Alaska Seafood Processing Effluent Limitation Guidelines... comment period for the Alaska Seafood Processing Effluent Limitation Guidelines Notice of Data...

  15. 78 FR 34431 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point Source Category; Proposed Rule #0;#0... PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 423 RIN 2040-AF14 Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam... certain steam electric power plants by revising technology-based effluent limitations guidelines and...

  16. 40 CFR 421.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) Subpart M—Battery Cracking. BAT...) Subpart M—Casting Contact Cooling. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for... Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 Ammonia (as N) .000 .000 (h) Subpart M—Battery Case Classification. BAT...

  17. 40 CFR 421.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best practicable technology currently available: (a) Subpart M—Battery... Lead .283 .135 Zinc .983 .411 Ammonia (as N) .000 .000 Total suspended solids 27.600 13.130 pH (1) (1... Furnace Wet Air Pollution Control BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any...

  18. 40 CFR 420.100 - Applicability; description of the cold forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... soluble oil or water solutions used in cold worked pipe and tube forming operations. Limitations for other... forming subcategory. 420.100 Section 420.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming...

  19. 40 CFR 432.107 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT... TSS limitations for process wastewater associated with cattle hide curing, in addition to the...

  20. 40 CFR 437.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CENTRALIZED WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metals Treatment and Recovery § 437.13 Effluent limitations... antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, tin, titanium...

  1. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.77... Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (d) Pipe and tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant or...

  2. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming Subcategory § 420...) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J...

  3. 40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). ...

  4. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). ...

  5. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BTC). ...

  6. 40 CFR 463.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology...

  7. 40 CFR 463.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable...

  8. 40 CFR 463.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  9. 40 CFR 440.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently...

  10. 78 FR 41907 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Electric Power Generating Point Source Category,'' published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2013, by 45..., rather than August 6, 2013. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 423 Environmental protection, Electric power... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 423 RIN 2040-AF14 Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric...

  11. 30 CFR 816.42 - Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.42 Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and effluent limitations. Discharges of water from areas disturbed by surface mining activities shall be made in compliance...

  12. 30 CFR 817.42 - Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.42 Hydrologic balance: Water quality standards and effluent limitations. Discharges of water from areas disturbed by underground mining activities shall be made in...

  13. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10 Applicability; description of the...

  14. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall not exceed 72 mg/l and the 30-day average shall not exceed 48 mg/l. Drilling Fluids and Drill... drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge. 2 Non-aqueous drilling fluids and dewatering effluent No discharge. Drill cuttings associated with non-aqueous drilling fluids...

  15. 40 CFR 471.91 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (f) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart I—BPT... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently...

  16. 40 CFR 420.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming...) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property BAT effluent... for lead and zinc when cold forming wastewaters are treated with descaling or combination acid...

  17. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming.... (b) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant of pollutant property BPT effluent... and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold forming wastewaters are...

  18. 40 CFR 463.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available...

  19. 40 CFR 463.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available...

  20. 40 CFR 440.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  1. 40 CFR 440.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  2. 40 CFR 440.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  3. 40 CFR 440.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  4. 40 CFR 440.142 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  5. 40 CFR 440.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in...

  6. CURRENT-VOLTAGE CURVES FOR TREATING EFFLUENT CONTAINING HEDP: DETERMINATION OF THE LIMITING CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Scarazzato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Membrane separation techniques have been explored for treating industrial effluents to allow water reuse and component recovery. In an electrodialysis system, concentration polarization causes undesirable alterations in the ionic transportation mechanism. The graphic construction of the current voltage curve is proposed for establishing the value of the limiting current density applied to the cell. The aim of this work was to determine the limiting current density in an electrodialysis bench stack, the function of which was the treatment of an electroplating effluent containing HEDP. For this, a system with five compartments was used with a working solution simulating the rinse waters of HEDP-based baths. The results demonstrated correlation between the regions defined by theory and the experimental data.

  7. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for pH. 420.07 Section 420.07 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 420.07 Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within this part shall be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be...

  8. 40 CFR 432.102 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT... curing that apply in addition to the limitation specified in paragraph (a) of this section: lbs BOD5/1000...

  9. 40 CFR 440.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which employ dump, heap, in situ leach or vat leach processes for the extraction of copper from ores or...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold... obtain copper bearing ores, lead bearing ores, zinc bearing ores, gold bearing ores, or silver bearing...

  10. 40 CFR 423.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE... such as those commonly used for transformer fluid. (3) The quantity of pollutants discharged from low... concentration for any time (mg/l) TSS 50 (10) Any untreated overflow from facilities designed, constructed, and...

  11. 40 CFR 471.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (c) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart G—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for... shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (e) Surface treatment spent baths. Subpart G—BAT... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  12. 40 CFR 471.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (g) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart H... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT...

  13. 40 CFR 471.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Stationary casting contact cooling water—Subpart H—BAT. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (g) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart H—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  14. 40 CFR 471.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—BPT. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—Subpart F—BPT. There shall be no allowance for the discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (m... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  15. 40 CFR 467.13 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology economically achievable. The mass of pollutants in the core and ancillary operations' process... Zinc 0.00287 0.0012 Aluminum 0.0127 0.0062 Subpart A Solution Heat Treatment Contact Cooling Water... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  16. 40 CFR 471.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart G—BPT... lubricants—Subpart G—BPT. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (e) Surface treatment... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  17. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of this...

  18. 40 CFR 426.10 - Applicability; description of the insulation fiberglass subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insulation fiberglass subcategory. 426.10 Section 426.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.10 Applicability; description of the insulation fiberglass subcategory. The...

  19. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cereal subcategory. 406.80 Section 406.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  20. 40 CFR 428.30 - Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solution crumb rubber subcategory. 428.30 Section 428.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.30 Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber subcategory...

  1. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory...

  2. 40 CFR 428.40 - Applicability; description of the latex rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... latex rubber subcategory. 428.40 Section 428.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.40 Applicability; description of the latex rubber subcategory. The provisions of...

  3. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section 464.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  4. 40 CFR 464.30 - Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ferrous casting subcategory. 464.30 Section 464.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ferrous Casting Subcategory § 464.30 Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory. The...

  5. 40 CFR 464.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum casting subcategory. 464.10 Section 464.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum casting subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... casting subcategory. 464.40 Section 464.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The provisions of this...

  7. 40 CFR 440.50 - Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... titanium ore subcategory. 440.50 Section 440.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.50 Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory. The provisions of this...

  8. 40 CFR 410.80 - Applicability; description of the nonwoven manufacturing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonwoven manufacturing subcategory. 410.80 Section 410.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonwoven Manufacturing Subcategory § 410.80 Applicability; description of the nonwoven manufacturing subcategory. The...

  9. 40 CFR 419.20 - Applicability; description of the cracking subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cracking subcategory. 419.20 Section 419.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cracking Subcategory § 419.20 Applicability; description of the cracking subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  10. 40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... animal feed subcategory. 406.70 Section 406.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory § 406.70 Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  11. 40 CFR 429.30 - Applicability; description of the veneer subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... veneer subcategory. 429.30 Section 429.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Veneer Subcategory § 429.30 Applicability; description of the veneer subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges...

  12. 40 CFR 436.380 - Applicability; description of the graphite subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... graphite subcategory. 436.380 Section 436.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Graphite Subcategory § 436.380 Applicability; description of the graphite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  14. 40 CFR 417.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operation of spray drying towers as defined above, the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic...) 1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. (b) For air quality restricted operation of a spray drying tower, but...— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.02 0.01 COD 0.08 .04 TSS 0.04 .02...

  15. 40 CFR 407.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES... Mayonnaise and dressings 0.37 0.24 0.17 Soups 4.14 2.46 1.69 Tomato-starch-cheese canned specialties 1.87 1... Soups 7.38 5.09 3.10 Tomato-starch-cheese canned specialties 3.31 2.23 1.30 (c) The following...

  16. 76 FR 68749 - Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...-31-5000 (Permit). The effluent limits subject to the final action are: mercury, copper, total...), pursuant to the provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA or ``the Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1251. The Permit...: This action is taken under the authority of Section 402 of the Clean Water Act as amended, 42 U.S.C...

  17. 76 FR 28776 - Re-Proposal of Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ...- proposal are: mercury, copper, total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH), total aqueous hydrocarbons (TAqH), silver... of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category as authorized by Section 402 of the Clean Water... requested the Court to remand the less stringent produced water effluent limits for mercury, copper, TAH...

  18. 40 CFR 439.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fermentation Products § 439.12 Effluent limitations attainable... and solvents remaining after the practices of recovery and/or separate disposal or reuse. These... of recovery, and/or separate disposal or reuse include: physical separation and removal of separable...

  19. 40 CFR 439.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Research § 439.52 Effluent limitations attainable by the... practices of recovery and/or separate disposal or reuse. Residual amounts of these substances may be.../or separate disposal or reuse include: recovery of solvents from wastestreams; and incineration of...

  20. 40 CFR 439.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Extraction Products § 439.22 Effluent limitations attainable.../or separate disposal or reuse. Residual amounts of these substances may be included in the calculation of the average influent BOD5 loading. (3) The practices of recovery, and/or separate disposal or...

  1. 40 CFR 437.11 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CENTRALIZED WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metals Treatment and Recovery § 437.11 Effluent limitations... (2) (2) TSS 60.0 31.0 Metal Parameters Antimony 0.249 0.206 Arsenic 0.162 0.104 Cadmium 0.474 0.0962...

  2. 40 CFR 130.7 - Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations. 130.7 Section 130.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.7 Total...

  3. 40 CFR 420.123 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating and other coatings—(1... 0.0000501 1 The limitations for hexavalent chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewater from the chromate rinse step. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1...

  4. 77 FR 112 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Point Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ..., and be free of any defects or viruses. Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the http...: North American Industry Category Examples of affected Classification entities System (NAICS) Code... basin was 168 mg/L. Effluent turbidity values ranged from approximately 30 to 80 NTU. Using computer...

  5. 40 CFR 414.20 - Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fibers subcategory. 414.20 Section 414.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers § 414.20 Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.60 Applicability...

  7. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion...

  8. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash...

  9. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description of...

  10. 40 CFR 465.20 - Applicability; description of the galvanized basis material subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... galvanized basis material subcategory. 465.20 Section 465.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Galvanized Basis Material Subcategory § 465.20 Applicability; description of the galvanized basis material...

  11. 40 CFR 421.260 - Applicability: Description of the secondary precious metals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary precious metals subcategory. 421.260 Section 421.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Precious Metals Subcategory § 421.260 Applicability: Description of the secondary...

  12. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare...

  13. 40 CFR 471.100 - Applicability; description of the powder metals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder metals subcategory. 471.100 Section 471.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metals Powders Subcategory § 471.100 Applicability; description of the powder metals...

  14. 40 CFR 471.50 - Applicability; description of the refractory metals forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refractory metals forming subcategory. 471.50 Section 471.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.50 Applicability; description of the...

  15. 40 CFR 471.40 - Applicability; description of the precious metals forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... precious metals forming subcategory. 471.40 Section 471.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Precious Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.40 Applicability; description of the...

  16. 40 CFR 418.30 - Applicability; description of the urea subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the urea...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Urea Subcategory § 418.30 Applicability; description of the urea subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the...

  17. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar...

  18. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.80 Applicability; description of the manufacture of...

  19. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. 417.20 Section 417.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.20 Applicability...

  20. EFFLUENT - DISCHARGE DESCRIPTION and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM and Other Platforms From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 19800529 to 19840609 (NODC Accession 8600070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effluent discharge was studied from fixed platform and other platforms from NW Atlantic (limit-40 w) for a period of three years. The trace metal concentrations were...

  1. Assessment of derived emission limits for radioactive effluents resulted from the decommissioning activities of the VVR-S nuclear research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuca, C; Stochioiu, A; Sahagia, M; Gurau, D; Dragusin, M

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents complex studies on establishment of derived emission limits for potential radionuclides emitted as gaseous and liquid effluents, during the decommissioning activities (2nd and 3rd phases) of a nuclear research reactor, cooled and moderated with distilled water, type VVR-S, owned by the IFIN-HH. In the present paper there are described: the analysis methods and equipment used, the methodologies for calculating doses and the Derived Emission Limits (DEL), the experimentally measured activities of the representative radionuclides found in gaseous and liquid effluents resulted from decommissioning activities, as well as the effective derived limits of liquid and gaseous effluents, applying the calculation methodologies, specific to critical categories of exposed subjects. A constraint effective dose limit for a person from the critical group of 50 μSv/year was considered in calculations. From the comparison of the two series of values, measured released activities and DELs, there has been concluded that for the gaseous effluents they comply with the DELs, while in the case of liquid effluents they are higher and consequently they must be treated as liquid radioactive wastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90...

  3. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory. 457.30 Section 457.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory § 457.30...

  4. 40 CFR 430.110 - Applicability; description of the fine and lightweight papers from purchased pulp subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and lightweight papers from purchased pulp subcategory. 430.110 Section 430.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fine and Lightweight Papers from Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.110...

  5. 78 FR 277 - Section 610 Review of NPDES Permit Regulation and Effluent Limitations Guidelines Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Limitations Guidelines Standards for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs); Extension of Comment... Standards for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). As initially published in the Federal Register... the EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your...

  6. Achieving the Great Lakes Initiative mercury limits in oil refinery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem; Gillenwater, Patricia; Negri, M Cristina; Lin, YuPo; Snyder, Seth; Doctor, Richard; Pierce, Linda; Alvarado, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    To meet the stringent Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) wastewater discharge mercury (Hg) limit of 1.3 ppt (ng/L), mercury removal technologies need to be identified and investigated. The goals of this study were to (1) identify and assess available wastewater treatment technologies for mercury removal from an oil refinery wastewater; and (2) conduct bench-scale tests to provide comparable, transparent, and uniform results to assess their performance at low mercury concentrations. The study found that many tested technologies were able to achieve the GLI mercury target concentration at the bench-scale, albeit with different efficiencies and engineering implications. These results demonstrate that at this scale there is no fundamental physical or chemical barrier to achieving oil refinery wastewater, which might be applicable to other types of mercury-containing wastewater.

  7. 40 CFR 428.100 - Applicability; description of the latex-dipped, latex-extruded, and latex-molded rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... latex-dipped, latex-extruded, and latex-molded rubber subcategory. 428.100 Section 428.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex-Dipped, Latex-Extruded, and Latex-Molded Rubber Subcategory § 428.100...

  8. 40 CFR 414.30 - Applicability; description of the other fibers subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) *Polyaramid (Kevlar) Resin-Fibers *Polyaramid (Nomex) Resin-Fibers *Polyester Fibers *Polyethylene Fibers... fibers subcategory. 414.30 Section 414.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers...

  9. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the soap...

  10. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability...

  11. 40 CFR 420.70 - Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resulting from hot forming operations conducted in primary, section, flat, and pipe and tube mills. ... forming subcategory. 420.70 Section 420.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming...

  12. 40 CFR 417.130 - Applicability; description of the chlorosulfonic acid sulfation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the chlorosulfonic acid sulfation subcategory. 417.130 Section 417.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  13. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  14. 40 CFR 417.110 - Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. 417.110 Section 417.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING...

  15. 40 CFR 417.90 - Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory. 417.90 Section 417.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  16. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING...

  17. 40 CFR 417.120 - Applicability; description of the sulfamic acid sulfation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sulfamic acid sulfation subcategory. 417.120 Section 417.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  18. 78 FR 48159 - Preliminary 2012 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan and 2011 Annual Effluent Guidelines Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the... delist from the effluent guidelines plan the rulemaking for the Coalbed Methane Extraction subcategory... Regenerated Cellulose Manufacturers (previously categorized as Plastics Molding and Forming (40 CFR Part 463...

  19. Silage effluent management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  20. 40 CFR 417.100 - Applicability; description of the air-SO3 sulfation and sulfonation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the air-SO3 sulfation and sulfonation subcategory. 417.100 Section 417.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING...

  1. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the limitations... monthly average limitation. 4 May be measured as hexane extractable material (HEM). (2) In addition to the...

  2. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-temperature rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... associated with dry rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead... extractable material (HEM). (2) In addition to the limitations specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section...

  3. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-temperature rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... monthly average limitation. 4 May be measured as hexane extractable material (HEM). (2) In addition to the...

  4. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals, the... any time. 4 No maximum monthly average limitation. 5 May be measured as hexane extractable material... the wet or low-temperature rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off...

  5. Decision no 2009-DC-0157 of the 15. of September 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of the base nuclear installation n. 29 operated by the CIS Bio International on the district of Saclay (Essonne department); Decision n. 2009-DC-0157 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 15 septembre 2009 fixant les limites de rejets dans l'environnement des effluents gazeux de l'installation nucleaire de base n. 29 exploitee par la societe CIS bio international, sur le territoire de la commune de Saclay (departement de l'Essonne)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of a base nuclear installation. Tables present the limits for radioactive liquid effluents (iodine, rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) and the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, VOCs)

  6. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti) in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves) from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum ...

  8. The disposal of industrial effluents on pastures | RE | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An agricultural project for the disposal of industrial liquid effluent has been initiated by African Explosives and Chemical Industries Limited at their Modderfontein factory. This effluent, which has a high nitrogen content, is sprayed on veld and sown pastures. In spite of two very dry years the effluent has stimulated the growth ...

  9. S-CNN: Subcategory-aware convolutional networks for object detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Lu, Shijian; Fan, Jiayuan

    2017-09-26

    The marriage between the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and region proposals has made breakthroughs for object detection in recent years. While the discriminative object features are learned via a deep CNN for classification, the large intra-class variation and deformation still limit the performance of the CNN based object detection. We propose a subcategory-aware CNN (S-CNN) to solve the object intra-class variation problem. In the proposed technique, the training samples are first grouped into multiple subcategories automatically through a novel instance sharing maximum margin clustering process. A multi-component Aggregated Channel Feature (ACF) detector is then trained to produce more latent training samples, where each ACF component corresponds to one clustered subcategory. The produced latent samples together with their subcategory labels are further fed into a CNN classifier to filter out false proposals for object detection. An iterative learning algorithm is designed for the joint optimization of image subcategorization, multi-component ACF detector, and subcategory-aware CNN classifier. Experiments on INRIA Person dataset, Pascal VOC 2007 dataset and MS COCO dataset show that the proposed technique clearly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for generic object detection.

  10. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  11. 40 CFR 467.10 - Applicability; description of the rolling with neat oils subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rolling with neat oils subcategory. 467.10 Section 467.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Neat Oils Subcategory § 467.10 Applicability; description of the rolling with neat oils... the rolling with neat oils subcategory. ...

  12. 40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section 467.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions... the rolling with emulsions subcategory. ...

  13. Correlating Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Effluents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. K. Attiogbe1, Mary Glover-Amengor2 and K. T. Nyadziehe3

    for the effluents from Ghana Brewery Limited (GBL), Guinness Ghana Limited GGL) and Coca-Cola Bottling. Company of Ghana (Coca-Cola), thus, the variables are correlated. However, the degree of common variation between the variables was low for the effluent from the Kumasi Abattoir. The fitted equations were GBL, ...

  14. Biotreatment of effluent from 'Adire' textile factories in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okareh, Oladapo T; Ademodi, Tuntunlade F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-11-10

    In this present study, bacteria were isolated from wastewater and polluted soil collected from two cottage textile factories in Ibadan. These bacteria isolates were used for the biotreatment of textile mill effluent. The physicochemical parameters of the textile mill effluent before treatment were carried out and percentage decolourisation of the effluent was analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis technique). The degradation products of the textile mill effluent characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The pH values of the effluent were within the permissible limit of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), while temperature and electric conductivity of the effluents were below the permissible limit of FEPA and NESREA. The BOD, COD, TSS, TDS and chloride of the textile mill effluent from the two cottage textile factories were above the permissible limits of FEPA and NESREA. Twelve bacteria isolates were screened, effective in decolourising commercial dyes and used to decolourise the textile mill effluent. The bacteria isolates were characterised and identified as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Erwinia sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Nocardia sp. The decolourisation of textile effluent was observed through the changes of spectra of UV-visible spectrophotometer. The following bacteria revealed different percentage proportion of decolouration profile:- Bacillus sp., had the highest percentage decolourisation of 57.7%, whereas Micrococcus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. had percentage decolourisation of 32.8 and 26.3%, respectively. The degradation profile of textile effluent was revealed through FTIR spectral analysis. The changes in the position of major peaks revealed from the textile effluent through FTIR spectral analysis, appearances of new peaks and the disappearances of existing peaks signify the degradation of the wastewater. Thus, some native

  15. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  16. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  17. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge derived activated carbon. ... The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances. KEY WORDS: Adsorption ...

  18. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  19. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  20. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  1. The effects of brewery effluent discharge on the water quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effluent discharge into the river significantly altered the water quality. Monitoring of effluent discharge into the aquatic environment and strict adherence to regulatory limits will halt further degradation of the environment. Key words: Water, sediment physico-chemistry, distribution coefficient, effluent discharge, tropical river ...

  2. Fate and Effect of Dissolved Silicon within Wastewater Treatment Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J; Fulweiler, Robinson W

    2017-07-05

    In large rivers, the ratios of silicon (Si)/nitrogen (N)/phosphorus (P) have changed dramatically as anthropogenic additions of N or P are not matched by Si. Wastewater effluent is a recognized source of N and P to coastal environments. Few previous studies, however, have examined the Si load of a large wastewater plant's effluent or the molar ratios of Si/N and Si/P in effluent. We examine the annual flux of dissolved silicon (DSi) carried by effluent from the second largest treatment plant by flow in the United States (Deer Island Treatment Plant, DITP, Boston, MA). We compare treatment plant nutrient fluxes to local urban river nutrient fluxes and trace the impact of the DITP DSi loading on receiving waters. Estimates (±95% confidence interval) of treated effluent (67 800 ± 1500 kmol DSi year-1) compared to untreated (69 500 kmol DSi year-1) indicate that the process of sewage treatment at DITP likely does not remove DSi. DITP effluent was Si-limited and this Si-limitation is reflected in the receiving waters (Massachusetts Bay). However, Si-limitation appears only in the area immediately surrounding the effluent discharge. We use these results to explain phytoplankton patterns in Massachusetts Bay and to provide the first estimate of DSi loading (3.6 Gmol SiO2 year-1) from wastewater effluent across the US.

  3. 40 CFR 421.280 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tantalum subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary tantalum subcategory. 421.280 Section 421.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Tantalum Subcategory § 421.280 Applicability: Description of the secondary tantalum... tantalum at secondary tantalum facilities. ...

  4. 40 CFR 421.140 - Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary antimony subcategory. 421.140 Section 421.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory § 421.140 Applicability: Description of the primary antimony... antimony at primary antimony facilities. ...

  5. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  6. 40 CFR 415.360 - Applicability; description of the copper salts production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) copper carbonate. ... copper salts production subcategory. 415.360 Section 415.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.360 Applicability; description of the copper...

  7. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section 417.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  8. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  9. 40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. 421.110 Section 421.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory § 421.110 Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  10. 40 CFR 411.30 - Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials storage piles runoff subcategory. 411.30 Section 411.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Materials Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.30 Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  11. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  12. 40 CFR 429.80 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-steam subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preserving-steam subcategory. 429.80 Section 429.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.80 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—steam subcategory... steam impingment on wood as the predominant conditioning method; processes that use the vapor drying...

  13. 40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415.20 Section 415.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  14. 40 CFR 471.90 - Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. 471.90 Section 471.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.90 Applicability; description of the zirconium-hafnium forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  15. 40 CFR 421.330 - Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. 421.330 Section 421.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Zirconium and Hafnium Subcategory § 421.330 Applicability: Description of the primary zirconium and hafnium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  16. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  17. 40 CFR 420.110 - Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkaline cleaning subcategory. 420.110 Section 420.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.110 Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory... publicly owned treatment works resulting from operations in which steel and steel products are immersed in...

  18. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  19. 40 CFR 405.60 - Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... natural and processed cheese subcategory. 405.60 Section 405.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Natural and Processed Cheese Subcategory § 405.60 Applicability; description of the natural and processed cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  20. 40 CFR 420.60 - Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous casting subcategory. 420.60 Section 420.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.60 Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory. The... owned treatment works resulting from the continous casting of molten steel into intermediate or semi...

  1. 40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... citrus products subcategory. 407.30 Section 407.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  2. 40 CFR 408.240 - Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mechanized clam processing subcategory. 408.240 Section 408.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.240 Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  3. 40 CFR 408.230 - Applicability; description of the hand-shucked clam processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-shucked clam processing subcategory. 408.230 Section 408.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.230 Applicability; description of the hand-shucked clam processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  4. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. 40 CFR 424.60 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electrolytic manganese products subcategory. 424.60 Section 424.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.60 Applicability; description of the electrolytic manganese products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  6. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  7. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  8. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  9. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415.300 Section 415.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  10. 40 CFR 406.100 - Applicability; description of the wheat starch and gluten subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... starch and gluten subcategory. 406.100 Section 406.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Gluten Subcategory § 406.100 Applicability; description of the wheat starch and gluten subcategory. The... wheat flour as a raw material for production of wheat starch and gluten (protein) components through...

  11. 40 CFR 443.20 - Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt concrete subcategory. 443.20 Section 443.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.20 Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  12. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  13. 40 CFR 424.70 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electrolytic chromium subcategory. 424.70 Section 424.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Electrolytic Chromium Subcategory § 424.70 Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of chromium...

  14. 40 CFR 421.300 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary titanium subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... primary and secondary titanium subcategory. 421.300 Section 421.300 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Titanium Subcategory § 421.300 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary titanium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  15. 40 CFR 417.40 - Applicability; description of the glycerine concentration subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycerine concentration subcategory. 417.40 Section 417.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Glycerine Concentration Subcategory § 417.40 Applicability; description of the glycerine concentration subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  16. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  17. 40 CFR 454.50 - Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... essential oils subcategory. 454.50 Section 454.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Essential Oils Subcategory § 454.50 Applicability; description of the essential oils subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of essential oils. ...

  18. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  19. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  20. 40 CFR 407.70 - Applicability; description of the canned and preserved vegetables subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... canned and preserved vegetables subcategory. 407.70 Section 407.70 Protection of Environment... VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.70 Applicability; description of the canned and preserved vegetables subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 413.10 - Applicability: Description of the electroplating of common metals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating of common metals subcategory. 413.10 Section 413.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Electroplating of Common Metals Subcategory § 413.10 Applicability: Description of the electroplating of common metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply to dischargers of pollutants in process...

  2. 40 CFR 415.110 - Applicability; description of the potassium metal production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... potassium metal production subcategory. 415.110 Section 415.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.110 Applicability; description of the potassium metal production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  3. 40 CFR 413.20 - Applicability: Description of the electroplating of precious metals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating of precious metals subcategory. 413.20 Section 413.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Electroplating of Precious Metals Subcategory § 413.20 Applicability: Description of the electroplating of precious metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply to discharges of process wastewaters...

  4. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the United...

  5. 40 CFR 436.40 - Applicability; description of the industrial sand subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial sand subcategory. 436.40 Section 436.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Sand Subcategory § 436.40 Applicability; description of the industrial sand subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the mining and the processing of sand and gravel for uses other...

  6. 40 CFR 436.30 - Applicability; description of the construction sand and gravel subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construction sand and gravel subcategory. 436.30 Section 436.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Construction Sand and Gravel Subcategory § 436.30 Applicability; description of the construction sand and gravel subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the mining and the...

  7. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available 3815 9 D A Lord Department of Oceanography University of Port Elizabeth P 0 Box 1600 PORT ELIZABETH 6000 N D Geldenhuys Department of Environment Affairs Private Bag X9005 CAPE TOWN 8000 Cover: Richards Bay from the air showing city... of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material...

  8. Input Variability Facilitates Unguided Subcategory Learning in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvåg, Sunniva Sørhus; Austad, Margit; Plante, Elena; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This experiment investigated whether input variability would affect initial learning of noun gender subcategories in an unfamiliar, natural language (Russian), as it is known to assist learning of other grammatical forms. Method: Forty adults (20 men, 20 women) were familiarized with examples of masculine and feminine Russian words. Half…

  9. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  10. Pretreatment of brewery effluent to cultivate Spirulina sp. for nutrients removal and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhong, Yuming; Ming, Caibing; Qian, Wei; Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianliang

    2017-10-01

    Due to the low concentration of nitrate and high contents of organics, brewery effluent was not suitable for the cultivation of Spirulina sp. This work changed the nutrient profile of brewery effluent effectively by dilution, addition of nitrate, and anaerobic digestion. The result showed that the optimum dilution rate and NaNO3 addition for brewery effluent were 20% and 0.5 g/L, respectively. Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent produced 1.562 mg/L biomass and reduced concentrations of nutrients to reach the permissible dischargeable limits. In addition, Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent had much higher protein content and oil content. So the appropriate treatment converted brewery effluent into a nutrient balanced medium for algae cultivation and alleviated the potential environmental problems. Pretreatment procedure developed in this work is an effective way to realize the sustainable utilization of brewery effluent and produce algal biomass with valuable nutrients.

  11. Effluent characterization and different modes of reuse in agriculture-a model case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhumita; Kumar, Ashwani

    2009-06-01

    High-quality waters are steadily retreating worldwide. Discharge of industrial effluent in the environment again declines soil/water quality to a great extent. On the other hand, effluent reuse in agriculture could be a means to conserve natural resources by providing assured water supply for growing crops. But industrial effluents are highly variable in nature, containing a variety of substances, and all are not favorable for farming. Appraisal and developing modes of effluent reuse is therefore a prerequisite to enable its proper use in agriculture. Effluents of various industries were assessed and approaches for their use in farming were developed for a particular region in this study. As per availability of effluents, the same could be implemented in other water-scarce areas. Effluents of 20 different industrial units were characterized by 24 attributes. Comparing these with corresponding irrigation water quality standards, the probability of their reuse was interpreted in the first approach. On the basis of relevant properties of major soil types dominated in a particular region, the soil-based usability of effluent was worked out in the second approach. By emphasizing the limitation of groundwater development where it went beyond 50% exploitation level, the land form and major soil type were then identified by applying a soil-based effluent reuse approach; the area-specific suitability of its use was perceived in the third approach. On the basis of irrigation water quality standards, the irrigation potentials of paper mill, fermentation (breweries and distilleries), and sugar factory effluents were recognized. In a soil-based approach, the compatibility of effluent with soil type was marked with A (preferred) and B (moderately preferred) classes and, compiling their recurring presence, the unanimous preference for paper mill effluent followed by rubber goods manufacturing industries/marine shrimp processing units, fermentation, and sugar mills was noted

  12. Performance of the freshwater shrimp Atyaephyra desmarestii as indicator of stress imposed by textile effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Fidalgo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Textile plants consume large volumes of water and produce a great amount of wastewaters, which can be important sources of toxic discharges in receiving environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of textile effluents on the freshwater shrimp A. desmarestii. A whole effluent toxicity test procedure was used to determine the aggregate toxicity of three samples taken before and after wastewater treatment in a textile mill. The following LC50 − 48 h values (%, v/v were calculated: Untreated effluent −29% effluent (sample 1, 22% effluent (sample 2, and 47% (sample 3; Treated effluent −73% effluent (sample 1, 74% effluent (sample 2, and > 100% (sample 3. Based upon acute toxicity units (TUa = 100/LC50, untreated effluent varied from toxic in samples 1 and 3 (2.00 ≤ TUa ≤ 4.00 to very toxic in sample 2 (TUa > 4.0, whereas treated effluent varied from no toxic in sample 3 to moderately toxic in samples 1 and 2 (1.33 ≤ TUa ≤ 1.99. Despite some limitations and constraints related to innate variability of industrial effluents, our results suggested that A. desmarestii can be a promising and potential test organism for assessing toxicity of complex chemical mixtures.

  13. Decision no 2010-DC-0182 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations no 46, no 74 and no 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department); Decision n.2010-DC-0182 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 18 mai 2010 fixant les limites de rejets dans l'environnement des effluents liquides et gazeux des installations nucleaires de base n. 46, n. 74 et n. 100 exploitees par Electricite de France - Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) sur la commune de Saint-Laurent Nouan (departement du Loir-et-Cher)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of civil base nuclear installations operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan. Commented tables in appendix present the limits for different radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other alpha, beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  14. Textile effluent biodegradation potentials of textile effluent-adapted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental pollution has been recognized as one of the major problems of the modern world. The increasing demand for water and the dwindling supply has made the treatment and reuse of industrial effluents an attractive option. Textile effluents are of concern because they colour the drains and ultimately the water ...

  15. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  16. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  17. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  18. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  19. 40 CFR 35.918-3 - Requirements for discharge of effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.918-3 Requirements for discharge of effluents. Best practicable waste treatment criteria published... from individual systems. Discharges to surface waters shall meet effluent discharge limitations for...

  20. Definition and means of maintaining the effluent stack monitors portion of the PFP safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.J.

    1997-01-21

    The Effluent Stack Monitors ensure that the release of alpha emitting radionuclides to the environment via the building exhaust stacks is continuously monitored and alarms are initiated if the release exceeds identified limits. This document defines the safety envelope for the Effluent Stack Monitors and identifies the operability requirements, components, and procedures which ensure this safety envelope is maintained.

  1. Purifying manure effluents with duckweed

    OpenAIRE

    Timmerman, M.; Hoving, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to recuperate nutrients from manure effluents and that the concerning duckweed can be utilized as a source of feed, energy and ingredients

  2. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the extraction of uranium, radium and vanadium. Only vanadium byproduct production from uranium... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the...

  3. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe... asbestos. Portland cement, silica and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of asbestos-cement...

  4. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from the production of chrome pigments. ...

  5. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  6. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to, mills producing non-wood pulps from chemical pulping processes such as kraft, sulfite, or soda. ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical...

  7. 40 CFR 415.220 - Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... titanium dioxide by the sulfate process, the chloride process, and the simultaneous beneficiation... titanium dioxide production subcategory. 415.220 Section 415.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.220 Applicability; description of the...

  8. 40 CFR 422.50 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory. 422.50 Section 422.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.50 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric... defluorination of phosphoric acid. Wet process phosphoric acid is dehydrated by application of heat and other...

  9. 40 CFR 467.50 - Applicability; description of the drawing with neat oils subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drawing with neat oils subcategory. 467.50 Section 467.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Drawing With Neat Oils Subcategory § 467.50 Applicability; description of the drawing with neat oils... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the core of the drawing with neat oils...

  10. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering...

  11. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar. ...

  12. 40 CFR 421.190 - Applicability: Description of the secondary indium subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary indium subcategory. 421.190 Section 421.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Indium Subcategory § 421.190 Applicability: Description of the secondary indium... indium at secondary indium facilities processing spent electrolyte solutions and scrap indium metal raw...

  13. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  14. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  15. Nutrient removal from farm effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Wong, L; Adriano, D C

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a two-pond system used to treat dairy farm effluent was monitored over a period of 7 months. The retention of nutrients by two porous materials was examined both in the laboratory batch (zeolite and bark) and pilot-scale field (bark) experiments. The results indicated that biological treatment of farm effluents using the two-pond system was not effective in the removal of nutrients, which are likely to become pollutant when discharged to waterways. Both the bark and zeolite materials were effective in the removal of N, P and K from effluent. These materials can be placed in the second (i.e., aerobic) pond to treat effluents, which can then be discharged to streams with minimum impact on water quality. The nutrient-enriched porous materials can be recycled as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner.

  16. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  17. Efficient removal of mercury from aqueous solutions and industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Maria B P; Leal, Katia Z; Oliveira, Fernando J S; Sella, Silvia M; Vieira, Méri D; Marques, Elisa M D; Gomes, Vanessa A C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ability of a solid waste produced during beneficiation of ornamental rocks to remove mercury (Hg) from an industrial effluent and aqueous solutions under various conditions. Batch studies have been carried out by observing the effects of pH, concentration of the adsorbate, contact time, and so on. Various sorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tóth have been applied for the adsorbent. Film and intraparticle diffusion were both found to be rate-limiting steps. Adsorption was properly described by the Freundlich model (capacity constant of 0.3090 (mg g(-1))(mg L(-1))(-1/n) and adsorption intensity indicator of 2.2939), which indicated a favorable sorption and encouraged subsequent studies for treatment of Hg-containing industrial effluent. Industrial effluent treatment efficiency reached Hg removals greater than 90% by using ornamental rock solid waste (ORSW). Besides, desorption studies indicated that the maximum recovery of mercury was 100 ± 2% for 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 and 74 ± 8% for 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO3. The ORSW could be reused thrice without significant difference on the Hg removal rate from industrial effluent. These findings place ORSW as a promising efficient and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Hg from aqueous solutions and industrial effluent.

  18. Optimizing nitrate removal in woodchip beds treating aquaculture effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is typically removed from aquaculture effluents using heterotrophic denitrification reactors. Heterotrophic denitrification reactors, however, require a constant input of readily available organic carbon (C) sources which limits their application in many aquaculture systems for practical...... the potential of optimizing woodchip reactors for treating aquaculture effluent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to assess the effects of simultaneously changing the empty bed contact time (EBCTs of 5.0-15.0 h; corresponding to theoretical hydraulic retention times of 3.3-9.9 h) and bicarbonate...... (HCO3 -) inlet concentration (0.50-1.59 g HCO3 -/l) on the removal rate of NO3 -N, and additional organic and inorganic nutrients, in effluent deriving from an experimental recirculating aquaculture system (RAS).Volumetric NO3 -N removal rates ranged from 5.20 ± 0.02 to 8.96 ± 0.19 g/m3/day and were...

  19. 40 CFR 425.10 - Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory. 425.10 Section 425.10 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.10 Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  20. 40 CFR 425.20 - Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. 425.20 Section 425.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.20 Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  1. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The provisions...

  2. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  3. Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Effluents on Groundwater Quality in Okhla Industrial Area, New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wequar Ahmad Siddiqui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study physicochemical parameters like pH, hardness, TDS, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, DO, COD and conductivity of some important heavy metals such as iron, cobalt, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, selenium and arsenic were first analyzed in effluent water of Okhla industrial area phase-II and then groundwater of near by areas. Obtained values of effluent water were compared with ISI standard for effluent water discharge and groundwater values were compared with ISI and WHO drinking water standards. The result shows that discharge of untreated effluents by the industries is leading to contamination of groundwater of the surrounding areas. Lead, mercury, fluoride, TDS, sulphate was above the desirable limit in effluent water (ISI standard for effluent water discharge. Subsequent analysis of groundwater of nearby areas was rated as unacceptable for drinking because of presence of fluoride in all the samples above the desirable limit. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chloride was also detected in many samples.

  4. Research priorities in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences: categories and subcategories in the Iranian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARISA NABEIEI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research in education is a globally significant issue without a long history. Due to the importance of the issue in Health System Development programs, this study intended to determine research priorities in medical education, considering their details and functions. By determining barriers existing in research in education progress, it is tried to make research priorities more functional by recommending acceptable strategies. Methods: This is a qualitative-descriptive study in two descriptive phases. The goal of these phases was to determine research priorities subcategories in medical education by Nominal Group Technique (NGT and two rounds of Delphi method. Through the first phase, subcategories of research priorities were determined, using Nominal Group Technique under medical education experts’ supervision. Through two rounds of Delphi, a questionnaire was constructed based on the subcategories. Eventually, research priorities were determined based on their highest score (scores more than 7 out of 10. Results: In the first phase (NGT, 35 priorities in 5 major fields of medical education were presented. In the second phase, priorities were scored, using Delphi method. Medical Ethics and professionalism gained the highest scores (7.63±1.26 and educational evaluation the lowest (7.28±1.52. In this stage, 7 items were omitted but 2 of them were added again after experts’ revision in the third round of Delphi. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study and based on previous studies, it really seems that the fields of “Learning and Teaching Approaches” and “Medical Ethics and Professionalism” were more important. Because of financial and resource limitations in our country and the importance of research priorities, it is recommended to frequently study “research priorities determination program” at universities.

  5. The effect of hospital effluent on antimicrobial resistant E. coli within a municipal wastewater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S; Morris, C; Morris, D; Cormican, M; Cummins, E

    2013-03-01

    There is a concern that hospital effluent potentially containing antimicrobial compounds, antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria and genetic determinants of resistance may contribute to the emergence, dissemination and persistence of AMR bacteria in municipal wastewaters. Hence, it is of interest to investigate the effect, if any, hospital effluent has on the percentage of AMR bacteria within wastewater. Water from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (one receives and treats hospital effluent (WWTPhe) and the second does not (WWTPc)) were examined for E. coli expressing resistance to seven antimicrobials (ampicillin, streptomycin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulphonamide and ciprofloxacin). A two-sample t-test showed that AMR E. coli are present in WWTP influent and effluent, irrespective of receiving hospital effluent, and are being released into the environment (no statistical difference in count between the two WWTPs). The effect of hospital effluent on resistance varies for each AMR bacteria. Excluding tetracycline, sulphonamide and ciprofloxacin, the results suggest that the release of hospital effluent does not significantly affect the frequency with which AMR E. coli are detected in effluent. For some hospital specific antimicrobial agents, such as ciprofloxacin, the release of hospital effluent is associated with an increased proportion of antimicrobial resistance. The results suggest resistance to AMR E. coli may already be well developed in the community, making the effect of hospital effluent on AMR E. coli indistinguishable. However, for hospital specific antimicrobials, there may be a selective effect and hence limiting the release of hospital effluent containing such antimicrobials may impact the proportion of antimicrobial resistance. This research has provided statistical evidence to support necessary mitigation and remediation of antimicrobial residue release and subsequent resistance in the environment.

  6. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF STREAM WATER. ... Global Journal of Engineering Research ... In this work, the effects of refinery effluent discharge on the physico-chemical parameters of the stream water has been studied, using treated effluent water discharged ...

  7. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The main course of water pollution in the Alaro river is the direct discharge of food and beverages processing effluents. .... many polluting industries located at the estate, only food and beverage industries discharge effluents ..... protein bound glutathione substance in the effluent to release ammonia as a form of nitrogen is.

  8. Purifying manure effluents with duckweed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.; Hoving, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to

  9. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    10 Sulfur Content of Certain Liquid Fuels Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...diesel and gasoline components DIN Dissolved inorganic nitrogen THC Total hydrocarbon TKN Total Kjeldahl nitrogen HEM Hexane extractable...Benefit Analysis to support the impact assessment accompanying the revision of Directive 1999/32/EC on the sulfur content of certain liquid fuels

  10. The genotoxicity and systemic toxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent in Wistar rats may involve oxidative stress induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, Grace O; Alimba, Chibuisi G; Oyeleke, Olanrewaju B

    2015-01-01

    There is scarcity of information on the possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical effluent induced genotoxicity and systemic toxicity. This study investigated the genotoxicity and systemic toxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent in Wistar rats. Rats were orally treated with 5-50% concentrations of the effluent for 28 days. At post-exposure, blood, liver, kidney and bone marrow cells were examined for alterations in serum biochemical parameters and hematological indices, histopathological lesions and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes formation (MNPCE). The effluent caused concentration independent significant (p metals and anions in the effluent were above standard permissible limits. These findings showed that the pharmaceutical effluent caused somatic DNA damage and systemic toxicity in rats may involve induction of oxidative stress, suggesting environmental contamination and health risks in wildlife and humans.

  11. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of sanitizer products (including pool chemicals); microorganisms; inorganic wastewater treatment... subpart do not apply to wastewater discharges from the development of new formulations of pesticide... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...

  12. 40 CFR 407.80 - Applicability; description of the canned and miscellaneous specialties subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Miscellaneous Specialties Subcategory § 407.80...; mayonnaise and dressings; soups; and tomato-starch-cheese canned specialties. When a plant is subject to...

  13. Uptake of three antibiotics and an anti-epileptic drug by wheat plants spray irrigated with wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    With rising demands on water supplies necessitating water reuse, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is often used to irrigate agricultural lands. Emerging contaminants, like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), are frequently found in effluent due to limited removal during WWT...

  14. Impact of industrial effluents on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, V; Jeevan Rao, K

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the long-term effect of industrial effluents on groundwater quality for irrigation. Kattedan industrial area (India) was selected and five contaminated locations were identified. From each location, water which is being used to irrigate the crops, was collected during the months of October 2005 and February 2006. The results indicated that the concentrations of all parameters were higher in groundwater samples of Kattedan industrial area and they were found more in water samples collected during the month of February 2006 than those collected during October 2005. Among different parameters studied in water samples, Ni, Cd, Zn, Ca, Mg, TS, Na and SO4(2-) were found within the permissible limits for drinking. The results of the water samples indicated that the water of Kattedan industrial area is not suitable for drinking and irrigation purpose.

  15. Program review: Ground disposal of reactor effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1967-10-18

    With the exception of N Reactor the plutonium production reactors operated by Douglas United Nuclear, Inc., use treated Columbia River water as coolant on a once through basis. Thus, radionuclides formed by neutron activation of Columbia River salts not removed in the water treatment process and water treatment additives are discharged to the river. Although the quantity and possible effects of the radionuclides released are well within nationally accepted limits, emphasis has been placed for some time on reducing the releases to as low a level as possible. More recently increasing concern has been evidenced with regard to the heat which is also discharged to the river. This report discusses concept which not only would drastically reduce the radionuclide content of the river but which would also substantially decrease the heat discharge. This concept is the disposal of the reactor effluent to the ground either to a pond or to a network of trenches.

  16. Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-06-01

    The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam.

  17. 300 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) Authorization Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WRIGHT, E.J.; STORDEUR, R.T.

    2000-04-07

    The purpose of this document is to establish the facility Authorization Envelope (AE) for the 300 Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEP )Project and identify the requirements related to the maintenance of the AE as Specified in HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The 300 LEF Project consists of two separate facilities operating under one management organization. They are the 310 Facility and the 340 Facility. The AE documents the limits of operations for all 300 LEF Project activities.

  18. Salmonella in effluent from sewage treatment plants, wastepipe of butcher's shops and surface water in Walcheren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampelmacher, E H; van Noorle Jansen, L M

    1976-07-01

    In the frame of the "Walcheren-project" in which the epidemiology of salmonellosis is studied in a certain area, effluent from sewage treatment plants, wastepipe's of butcher's shops and surface waters, which receive the effluent were studied for the presence of salmonellae. From 160 samples of effluent 150 (94%) contained salmonellae. The most common serotype was S. typhi murium (35%) followed by S. panama and S. infantis. 14 butcher's shops' wastepipes were sampled 54 times. 14 (26%) times salmonellae were found, but only twice was the type isolated from the butcher's shop the same as found in the effluent on the same day. With regard to the presence of salmonellae in surface waters receiving effluent it was shown that from the immediate vicinity of the plant to 250 m downstream from the site of drainage of effluent the number of salmonellae per 100 ml remains almost constant. After 1.5-4 kilometers Salmonella could not be isolated from any of the samples examined. The results underline the hypothesis that salmonellae multiply in the sewage system and/or plant. The spread of samonellae by effluent seems to be limited to the plant itself and of the nearest vicinity. Proposals are brought forward to interupt contamination cycles by decontamination measures.

  19. Electro-coagulation applied to the treatment of industrial effluents; Electrocoagulation appliquee en traitement des effluents industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, C.; Leboucher, G.; Coste, M. [Anjou Recherche, Vivendi Water, 78 - Maisons-Laffitte (France)

    2001-07-01

    The electro-coagulation is a water treatment technic in electrolysis cell with double anode. In substitution to the coagulant reagent often used in water de-pollution, it realizes also the coloring decomposition, the DCO abatement and sometimes improving the sludges processing. The technic presents meanwhile some limitations as its poor treatment capacity and the necessity of a high effluent conductivity. An example of application shows that this technic is economically competitive. (A.L.B.)

  20. 78 FR 66916 - Alaskan Seafood Processing Effluent Limitations Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... residents, and recreational activities from associated nuisances and aesthetics. At certain times and in..., collective by- product recovery facilities employ a modest number of trained and skilled professionals. These...

  1. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  2. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  3. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  4. Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enormous volumes of effluent are generated at different stages of textile manufacturing, as a result of the use of copious amounts of chemicals and dyes. Several tons of textiles required to meet up with societal demands are produced daily in this industry. Effluent derived from the textile and dyestuff activities can provoke ...

  5. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  6. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  7. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2011-08-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  8. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any combination of these ores; (3) Mines and mills that use dump, heap, in-situ leach, or vat-leach... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100...

  9. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production...

  10. Wampum Belts with Initials and/or Dates as Design Elements: A Preliminary Review of One Subcategory of Political Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marshall Joseph; Lainey, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Data on seventeen relatively well-documented examples as a preliminary review to an ongoing study of all that is known about belts that are a subcategory of the secular-political category is discussed. Evidence indicates that Wampum belts with initials and/or dates as design elements can clearly be demonstrated as but one subcategory of…

  11. Choices between different off-farm employment sub-categories: An empirical analysis for Jiangxi Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, X.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relative importance of four sub-categories of off-farm employment, and the factors driving participation of individuals in these sub-categories for three villages in Jiangxi Province. We find that migration is the most important type of off-farm employment, while agricultural

  12. Gammarus fossarum as a sensitive tool to reveal residual toxicity of treated wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigh, Adriana; Geffard, Olivier; Abbaci, Khedidja; Francois, Adeline; Noury, Patrice; Bergé, Alexandre; Vulliet, Emmanuelle; Domenjoud, Bruno; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain

    2017-04-15

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the main sources of freshwater pollution eventually resulting in adverse effects in aquatic organisms. Treated effluents can contain many micropollutants at concentrations often below the limit of chemical quantification. On a regulatory basis, WWTP effluents have to be non-toxic to the aquatic environment, wherefore not only chemical abatement but also ecotoxicological evaluation through relevant bioassays is required. Standardized bioassays currently used are often not sensitive enough to reveal a residual toxicity in treated effluents. Therefore, attention must be paid to the development of better-adapted approaches implementing more sensitive organisms and relevant endpoints. In this study, the toxicity of two differently treated effluents (activated sludge treated effluents with and without ozonation) towards the ecologically relevant species Gammarus fossarum was evaluated. Organism fitness traits such as reproduction and sperm DNA integrity were followed in exposed organisms. In complement, enzymatic biomarkers were measured indicating the presence of neurotoxic compounds (acetylcholinesterase activity), the presence of pathogens likely to increase the toxic effects of chemical compounds (phenol-oxidase activity), and the presence of toxic compounds inducing detoxification mechanisms (glutathione-S-transferase activity). Enzymatic activities were not modified, but significant sub-lethal effects were observed in exposed organisms. In both effluents, females showed a retarded molt cycle, a reduced fecundity and fertility, and >90% of developed embryos exhibited developmental malformations. In addition, a slight but significant genotoxic effect was measured in gammarid sperm. In a whole, no difference in toxicity was found between both effluents. Coupling reproduction impairment and genotoxicity assessment in Gammarus fossarum seems to be a valuable and sensitive tool to reveal residual toxicity in effluents

  13. Co-composting of alkaline tissue digester effluent with yard trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K C

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline digestion of animal carcasses is gaining popularity as a method of disposing of animals because of its very effective pathogen control and general ease of operation. Once completed, the resulting high-strength effluent can be released into the municipal sewer systems. In some cases where the municipal system is unable to handle this high-strength wastewater, alternate methods of treatment are required. Co-composting with a low-moisture substrate such as yard trimmings can be an effective option. This paper reports the results of absorption tests to determine the amount of digester effluent (from the Tissue Digestor process) that can be added to yard waste before leachate production begins. In addition, a low dosage of liquid effluent was added to yard trimmings and composted in laboratory bioreactors. Results show that leachate production begins when 0.6L-effluent is added per kg-unamended yard waste at an original moisture content of 55.6%. The amount of leachate produced increases exponentially following the empirical equation: leachate in mL/kg=0.145 e(6.007Effluent dosage in L/kg) (valid in the effluent addition range of 0-1.2L/kg). Composting of yard waste with effluent showed that the initial pH did not inhibit microbial activity up to 9.39 pH. Variability was high and there was no statistically significant difference in dry matter degradation between treatments (measured range was 1.3-6.0% of initial dry matter). Final compost had nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of approximately 1% and 0.1%, respectively. The potassium concentration increased with increasing effluent addition and was 1.84% in the 0.2-L/kg treatment. All regulated heavy metals were several-fold below US EPA limits.

  14. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial effluents are generally discharged into receiving water bodies or disposed on land. These effluents are often used by the communities around for domestic activities like farming. Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of ...

  15. 40 CFR 425.30 - Applicability; description of the hair save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. 425.30 Section 425.30 Protection of... FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save or Pulp, Non-Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.30 Applicability; description of the hair save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. The...

  16. Evaluation of Phytodesalination Potential of Vegetated Bioreactors Treating Greenhouse Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Fatehi Pouladi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved salt ions that are not absorbed during irrigation of greenhouse crops are gradually accumulated in the nutrient solution resulting in levels of salinity high enough to damage the crops. This water salinity presents operational and environmental challenges as the nutrient-rich greenhouse effluent should be discharged to the environment when deemed unsuited for irrigation. In this pilot-scale study, the potential of passive salt reduction (phytodesalination in gravel and wood-chip flow-through reactors was evaluated using seven plant species including Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Andropogon gerardii, Typha angustifolia, Elymus canadensis, Panicum virgatum, Spartina pectinata and Distichlis spicata along with an unplanted control reactor. While the unplanted system outperformed the planted units with gravel media, the wood-chip bioreactors with S. tabernaemontani and S. pectinata improved the greenhouse effluent reducing the solution conductivity (EC by a maximum of 15% (average = 7%. S. tabernaemontani and D. spicata showed higher accumulated contents of Na+ and Cl− in comparison with T. angustifolia and S. pectinata. Overall, S. tabernaemontani was selected as the most capable species in the wood-chip bioreactors for its better salt management via EC reduction and salt accumulation. It was however concluded that further treatment would be required for the greenhouse effluent to meet the stringent irrigation water quality guidelines in order not to pose any adverse effects on sensitive crops. Finally, the present hydraulic residence time (HRT = 3.7 days and the solution salinity concentration were identified as the potential factors that may be limiting the efficiency of plant salt uptake, emphasizing the need for conducting more research on the optimization and enhancement of passive desalination systems for the greenhouse effluent.

  17. Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

  18. Subcategories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization…

  19. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other materials (whole grain wheat, rice, corn grits, oat flour, sugar, and minor ingredients) to produce various breakfast cereals normally available for human consumption without cooking. ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  20. 40 CFR 415.440 - Applicability; description of the lead monoxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Lead Monoxide Production Subcategory § 415.440 Applicability; description of the lead monoxide... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of lead... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the lead...

  1. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section 455.20 Protection of Environment...; Endothall Acid; EXD (Herbisan); Gibberellic Acid; Glyphosate; Naphthalene Acetic Acid; Propargite; 1,8...

  2. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the boric...

  3. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    bodies without proper treatment may results to exposure of humans to such .... Pollution effect of food and beverages effluents on the Alaro river in Ibadan city, Nigeria ..... (enlarged liver), and a 100% increase in both cancer and congenital ...

  4. (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    , palm oil mill effluent. could solve several problems including reducing the high load of waste produced by palm oil industry. It can also create a market for biofertilizer which have proven to be more effective and cheaper than ...

  5. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    Faunal composition of benthos and its spatial and temporal distribution at 9 stations in the northern limb of the Cochin backwaters are studied. An industrial belt is located about 18 km upstream of barmouth, and the effluents are discharged...

  6. A quasitopos containing CONV and MET as full subcategories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lowen

    1988-01-01

    contractions, can be viewed as entities of the same kind. Both can be characterized by a “limit function” λ which with each filter ℱ associates a map λℱ from the underlying set to the extended positive real line. Continuous maps and contractions can both be characterized as limit function preserving maps.

  7. CROSS-FLOW ULTRAFILTRATION OF SECONDARY EFFLUENTS. MEMBRANE FOULING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of cross-flow ultrafiltration to regenerate secondary effluents is limited by membrane fouling. This work analyzes the influence of the main operational parameters (transmembrane pressure and cross-flow velocity about the selectivity and fouling observed in an ultrafiltration tubular ceramic membrane. The experimental results have shown a significant retention of the microcolloidal and soluble organic matter (52 – 54% in the membrane. The fouling analysis has defined the critical operational conditions where the fouling resistance is minimized. Such conditions can be described in terms of a dimensionless number known as shear stress number and its relationship with other dimensionless parameter, the fouling number.

  8. Assessment of effluent turbidity in mesophilic and thermophilic sludge reactors - origin of effluent colloidal material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Lier, van J.B.; Klapwijk, B.; Vries, M.C.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    Two lab-scale plug flow activated sludge reactors were run in parallel for 4 months at 30 and 55°C. Research focussed on: (1) COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, (2) effluent turbidity at both temperatures, (3) the origin of effluent colloidal material and (4) the possible role of protozoa on

  9. Studies on phyto-genotoxic assessment of tannery effluent and chromium on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2012-05-01

    Tannery effluent contributes significantly to pollution of the environment. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluent and chromium (Cr) were investigated in Allium cepa. Forthis purpose, tannery effluent was collected from "Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket" (U.A.S.B) Jajmau, Kanpur. A. cepa were exposed to various concentrations of tannery effluent (0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.50, 25.0%) and Cr (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 mgl(-1)) for 48 and 168 hr. The perusal of data revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of tannery effluent viz. pH (8.5), EC (11.94 dSm(-1)), BOD (499 mgl(-1)), COD (1382 mgl(-1)) and Cr content (2.32 mgI(-1)) were much higher than the prescribed permissible limit for industrial effluent discharged into inland waters. These substances provoked phytotoxic and genotoxic effects in A. cepa. Total chlorophyll and protein content in leaves of tannery effluent and Cr treated plants decreased significantly in dose-duration dependent manner. A maximum decrease of 86.29 and 84.26% in total chlorophyll and 81.27 and 76.16% in protein content was observed after 168 hr of exposure while carotenoid content increased up to 6.25% effluent and 2.0 mgl(-1) Cr treatment and decreased further. In all treated plants, a significant (p > or = 0.05) reduction in root length, mitotic index (MI) and induction in chromosomal (CA)/mitotic (MA) aberration and micronuclei (MNC) were observed as compared to unstressed plants. A maximum reduction of 81.15 and 79.71% in MI, and induction of 6.8 and 4.8% in CA, 29.24 and 26.66% in MA and 0.52 and 0.43% in MNC were found at 12.50% effluent and 4 mgl(-1) Cr treated plants as compared to unstressed plants, however at highest effluent and Cr concentration both the plants showed pyknosis condition after 168 hr.

  10. Analysis of sugar mill effluent and its influence on germination and growth of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithiyanathan, Thanapal; Sundaramoorthy, Perumal

    2017-10-01

    Sugar industry is a very important agro-based industry in India and it discharges large amount of effluent into water bodies to create high pollution in water bodies which affects the plants and other living organisms. In the present investigation, the physico-chemical analyses of N. P. K. R. Ramaswamy co-operative sugar mill effluent was determined and impact of different concentrations (control, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of sugar mill effluent on seed germination behavior of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) was studied. The morphological parameters such as germination percentage, shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings, seed vigour index, tolerance index and percentage of phytotoxicity were calculated. The results recorded for the analyses of sugar mill effluent indicated their some parameters such as PH, EC, acidity, TDS, TS, BOD, COD, sulphate, magnesium, nitrogen, zinc, iron, copper, lead, manganese and oil and grease exceeded the permissible limit compared to Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) and then germination and growth parameters increased in lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent and this morphological parameters gradually decreased with increasing effluent concentration. The lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent may be used for irrigation purposes.

  11. Analysis of sugar mill effluent and its influence on germination and growth of African marigold ( Tagetes erecta L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithiyanathan, Thanapal; Sundaramoorthy, Perumal

    2017-12-01

    Sugar industry is a very important agro-based industry in India and it discharges large amount of effluent into water bodies to create high pollution in water bodies which affects the plants and other living organisms. In the present investigation, the physico-chemical analyses of N. P. K. R. Ramaswamy co-operative sugar mill effluent was determined and impact of different concentrations (control, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of sugar mill effluent on seed germination behavior of African marigold ( Tagetes erecta L.) was studied. The morphological parameters such as germination percentage, shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings, seed vigour index, tolerance index and percentage of phytotoxicity were calculated. The results recorded for the analyses of sugar mill effluent indicated their some parameters such as PH, EC, acidity, TDS, TS, BOD, COD, sulphate, magnesium, nitrogen, zinc, iron, copper, lead, manganese and oil and grease exceeded the permissible limit compared to Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) and then germination and growth parameters increased in lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent and this morphological parameters gradually decreased with increasing effluent concentration. The lower (10%) concentration of sugar mill effluent may be used for irrigation purposes.

  12. Bio-decolourization of textile effluent containing Reactive Black-B by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Release of coloured textile effluents is undesirable in the aquatic environment as they reduce light penetration, thereby affecting aquatic life and limits utilization of the water media. Microbial bioremediation is an alternative treatment option available other than the commonly employed physicochemical and biological ...

  13. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  14. Integrating the Fenton's Process with Biofiltration by to Reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand of Winery Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipolo, Marco; Martins, Rui C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M; Costa, Raquel

    2017-03-01

    The discharge of poorly decontaminated winery wastewater remains a serious environmental problem in many regions, and the industry is welcoming improved treatment methods. Here, an innovative decontamination approach integrating Fenton's process with biofiltration by Asian clams is proposed. The potential of this approach was assessed at the pilot scale using real effluent and by taking an actual industrial treatment system as a benchmark. Fenton peroxidation was observed to remove 84% of the effluent's chemical oxygen demand (COD), reducing it to 205 mg L. Subsequent biofiltration decreased the effluent's COD to approximately zero, well below the legal discharge limit of 150 mg L, in just 3 d. The reduction of the effluent's organic load through Fenton's process did not decrease its toxicity toward , but the effluent was much less harmful after biofiltration. The performance of the treatment proposed exceeded that of the integrated Fenton's process-sequencing batch reactor design implemented in the winery practice, where a residence time of around 10 d in the biological step typically results in 80 to 90% of COD removal. The method proposed is effective and compatible with typical winery budgets and potentially contributes to the management of a nuisance species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Electro persulphate oxidation for polishing of biologically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Wei, Chong Jia; Aun, Ng Choon; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2017-05-15

    Malaysia alone produces more than 49 million m 3 palm oil mill effluent per year. Biological treated palm oil mill effluent via ponding system often fails to fulfill the regulatory discharge standards. This is due to remaining of non-biodegradable organics in the treated effluent. Thus, the aim of this study was to resolve such issue by using electro persulphate oxidation process, for the first time, as a post treatment of palm oil mill effluent. Central composite design in response surface methodology was used to analyze and optimize the interaction of operational variables (i.e., current density, contact time, initial pH and persulphate dosage) targeted on maximum treatment efficiency. The significance of quadratic model of each response was determined by analysis of variance, where all models indicated sufficient significance with p-value < 0.0001. Optimum operational conditions with 45 mA/cm 2 of current density, 45 min of contact time, pH 4 and 0.892 g of S 2 O 8 2- proved that 77.70% of Chemical Oxygen Demand, 97.96% of colour as well as 99.72% of Suspended Solids removal were achieved. The final pH of 5.88 of the effluent was obtained that fulfilled the limit and suitable for direct discharge to the natural environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Canadian uranium mines and mills evolution of regulatory expectations and requirements for effluent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeClair, J.; Ashley, F. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The regulation of uranium mining in Canada has changed over time as our understanding and concern for impacts on both human and non-human biota has evolved. Since the mid-1970s and early 1980s, new uranium mine and mill developments have been the subject of environmental assessments to assess and determine the significance of environmental effects throughout the project life cycle including the post-decommissioning phase. Water treatment systems have subsequently been improved to limit potential effects by reducing the concentration of radiological and non-radiological contaminants in the effluent discharge and the total loadings to the environment. This paper examines current regulatory requirements and expectations and how these impact uranium mining/milling practices. It also reviews current water management and effluent treatment practices and performance. Finally, it examines the issues and challenges for existing effluent treatment systems and identifies factors to be considered in optimizing current facilities and future facility designs. (author)

  17. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  18. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Araújo de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze–slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyroplasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing.

  19. Anthropometric and Somatotype Characteristics of Young Soccer Players: Differences Among Categories, Subcategories, and Playing Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ≤ 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ≤ 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence.

  20. Decontamination of coal mine effluent generated at the Rajrappa coal mine using phytoremediation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Kalpana C; Lal, B; Banerjee, T K

    2017-06-03

    Toxicity of the effluent generated at the Rajrappa coal mine complex under the Central Coalfields Limited (CCL, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited) in Jharkhand, India was investigated. The concentrations (mg L-1) of all the toxic metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Cd) in the coal mine effluent were above the safe limit suggested by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2003). Among these, Fe showed the highest concentration (18.21 ± 3.865), while Cr had the lowest effluent concentration (0.15 ± 0.014). Efforts were also made to detoxify the effluent using two species of aquatic macrophytes namely "'Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes." After 10 days of phytoremediation, S. molesta removed Pb (96.96%) > Ni (97.01%) > Cu (96.77%) > Zn (96.38%) > Mn (96.22%) > Fe (94.12%) > Cr (92.85%) > Cd (80.99%), and P. stratiotes removed Pb (96.21%) > Fe (94.34%) > Ni (92.53%) > Mn (85.24%) > Zn (79.51%) > Cr (78.57%) > Cu (74.19%) > Cd (72.72%). The impact of coal mine exposure on chlorophyll content showed a significant decrease of 42.49% and 24.54% from control values in S. molesta and P. stratiotes, respectively, perhaps due to the damage inflicted by the toxic metals, leading to the decay of plant tissues.

  1. Correlating biochemical and chemical oxygen demand of effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected for an ...

  2. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Toxicity assessment of treated effluents from a textile industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veejay

    Key words: Textile effluent, toxicity, surface waters, growth inhibition, Celosia argentea. INTRODUCTION. Industrial effluents are undesirable by-products of economic development and technological advancement. When improperly disposed off, they imperil human health and the environment. Effluents from textile industries ...

  4. Analysis of tannery effluents from the Challawa industrial estate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many tanneries are located at Challawa Industrial Estate in Kano. These tanneries discharge their effluents into canals which converge at a point and eventually flow into the Challawa river. Tannery effluent was collected from the effluent confluence point at Challawa Industrial Estate and some physicochemical parameters ...

  5. Toxicity Of Industrial Effluent To Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity of industrial effluent from Odua Textile Mill, Ado-Ekiti on Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings was investigated. The fingerlings were exposed to increasing concentrations of the effluent in spring and pond water respectively. The mean lethal concentration (LC50) of the effluent in spring and pond water was ...

  6. REUSE OF SALINE AQUACULTURE EFFLUENT FOR ENERGY PLANT PRODUCTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Réka Hegedus; Dénes Gál; Ferenc Pekár; Mária Oncsik Bíróné; Gyula Lakatos

    2011-01-01

    ...). Keywords: effluent, energy plant, irrigation, salt, phytoremediation INTRODUCTION The growth of the aquaculture industry has been associated with negative environmental impacts from the discharge of untreated effluent into the adjacent receiving water bodies. It is well known that discharge of effluents, treated or non-treated, into the envir...

  7. Remediation of feedlot effluents using aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Elvira; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Feedlots have increased in several regions of Argentina, particularly in the Pampas. The absence of adequate treatments of the effluents produced in these establishments creates serious problems to the society. Phytoremediation can be defined as inexpensive and environmentally sustainable strategy used to remove pollutants by plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential of two ...

  8. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15

  9. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. BIOEQUIVALENCE APPROACH FOR WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current...

  11. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the in situ degradation of textile industrial effluent was carried out. The degradation of two different dyes, blue and green colour has ... The degradation of dye was confirmed via the decolourisation assay and by the measurement of COD and BOD values. A trickling bed reactor was designed and the treatment of ...

  12. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of specific aquaculture systems and the impacts of their management practices leads to sound and cost-effective policies to protect the aquatic environment. Water samples were collected in 2009 from fish ponds, streams that receive effluents directly from ponds and reference streams in Ghana to assess ...

  14. Short communication: Industrial effluent treatments using heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioflocculants produced by Herbaspirillium sp. CH7, Paenibacillus sp. CH11, Bacillus sp. CH15 and a Halomonas sp. were preliminarily evaluated as flocculating agents in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluents. Industrial (1 local chemical-industry and 2 textile-industry: Biavin 109-medium blue dye and Whale dye) ...

  15. Environmental impacts of Sheba tannery (Ethiopia effluents on the surrounding water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraha Gebrekidan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The levels of hexavalent chromium from direct and treated Sheba tannery effluents, downstream river and spring water samples and upstream river water samples were determined spectrophotometrically by the s-diphenylcarbazide method at 540 nm. Temporal and representative samples were collected from the untreated tannery effluent (S1, sedimentation pond (S2, chromium oxidation pond (S3, downstream river (S4, downstream spring (S5 and 5 kms upstream river (S6. The mean levels of hexavalent chromium in S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 were 10.54, 9.15, 7.82, 0.58, 0.54 and 0.015 mg/L, respectively. The levels of hexavalent chromium in the downstream river and spring water samples exceed the World Health Organization (WHO permissible limit of total chromium in drinking waters (0.05 mg/L as opposed to the levels in the upstream waters. The increased concentrations of Cr(VI in the water samples indicate the possible environmental pollution of the downstream water bodies by the Sheba tannery effluents. In view of the toxicity and related environmental hazards, the levels of hexavalent chromium from the Sheba tannery effluents must be reduced to a permissible limit before discharging into the down stream waters being used for domestic purposes by the nearby communities.

  16. STUDY ON THE REUSE OF ZAMYAD FACTORY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT IN IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Massoudinejad, M. Manshouri, A.R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the population increase in the cities and also the increase of per capita water consumption in these societies, the use of treated effluents for the green area irrigation has been taken into consideration. Human ever–increasing needs to green area in municipal societies and on the other hand the limitations in water supplies cause a new review in wastewater reuse. Also making use of treated effluents in irrigation has some limitations including clogging of the soil porosities, increasing of the chemicals and toxic substances to plants and increasing the probability of groundwater pollution. In this research, considering the indicators using recognition of the effluent’s quality, at the first stage compound samples of domestic wastewater treatment effluents of Zamyad Factory were taken. The samples were tested from the viewpoint of quality. Results showed that the indicator of Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Sodium Percentage, amounts of chloride, and electrical conductivity comparing to Food and Agriculture Organization and Department of the Environment of Iran standards were higher than the standard levels. Also parameters such as TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, anions and cations were in standard levels. Results also showed that the increase of some of the undesirable parameters was not related to the operation of wastewater treatment plant. Therefore, in order to make the standard effluent, different methods may be proposed and the most practical and economical one is dilution by using 50% mixing with raw water.

  17. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  18. Electrochemical degradation of a real textile effluent using boron-doped diamond or β-PbO2 as anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, José M; Pereira, Gabriel F; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Bocchi, Nerilso; Biaggio, Sonia R

    2011-09-15

    Constant current electrolyses are carried out in a filter-press reactor using a boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) or a Ti-Pt/β-PbO(2) anode, varying current density (j) and temperature. The degradation of the real textile effluent is followed by its decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement. The effect of adding NaCl (1.5 g L(-1)) on the degradation of the effluent is also investigated. The Nb/BDD anode yields much higher decolorization (attaining the DFZ limit) and COD-abatement rates than the Ti-Pt/β-PbO(2) anode, at any experimental condition. The best conditions are j = 5 mA cm(-2) and 55 °C, for the system's optimized hydrodynamic conditions. The addition of chloride ions significantly increases the decolorization rate; thus a decrease of more than 90% of the effluent relative absorbance is attained using an applied electric charge per unit volume of the electrolyzed effluent (Q(ap)) of only about 2 kA h m(-3). Practically total abatement of the effluent COD is attained with the Nb/BDD anode using a Q(ap) value of only 7 kA h m(-3), with an energy consumption of about 30 kW h m(-3). This result allows to conclude that the Nb/BDD electrode might be an excellent option for the remediation of textile effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effluents and Solid Waste Analysis in a Petrochemical Company- A Case Study of Eleme Petrochemical Company Ltd, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluents and soil samples where sediments from the treated effluents are dumped were analyzed for physicochemical properties, metallic and non-metallic ions. These parameters were compared with established international standard (FEPA. Effluents were classified as process waste water (PWW, clarified water (CW, and final discharge (FD. The petrochemical effluents contained very high concentration of TDS (284.00±014 mg/L and significant concentrations of TSS (78.89±0.01 mg/L, COD (30.10±0.02 mg/L, DO (13.20±0.01 mg/L, BOD (6.12±0.00 mg/L, PO43- (4.34±0.00 mg/L, SO42- (3.59±0.00 mg/L, Cl- (55.52±0.01 mg/L and NO3- (8.40±0.01 mg/L. Low concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and cobalt was also observed. Some heavy metals were not detected at all in some of the effluent samples analyzed. Apart from temperature and total dissolved solid TDS, all the other parameters were below FEPA effluent limitations for guidelines for Petroleum Refinery, Fuel/Gasoline oil category in Nigeria.

  20. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M.; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S.; Barber, Larry B.

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L−1. Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall. 

  1. The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark D

    2005-11-01

    Patient WBN has a lexical-semantic deficit resulting in impaired performance on language comprehension tasks that require access to verb meanings in both single-word and sentence contexts. However, WBN shows no such comprehension impairment with respect to lexical syntax. Specifically, he performs without error on comprehension tasks that rely on knowledge of lexical-specific verb subcategory requirements. This performance pattern supports theories of lexical representation and processing in which lexical syntactic information may be encoded and retrieved independently from lexical semantic information.

  2. Treatment of effluent textiles with ultraviolet light

    OpenAIRE

    Tinoco Gómez, Oscar Rafael; UNMSM; Medina Escudero, Ana María; UNMSM; Zapata Gamarra, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    The use of clean technologies for the treatment of textile effluents is essential to achieve a significant contribution by the textile industry, environmental treatment of them. According to the literature, the dyes used in textile industry are hardly degradable and have strong opposition to biological treatments are subjected to appropriate wastewater. At lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (oxygenated water) leads to better dye fading. It also shows that lower concentrations of titani...

  3. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile dying industry effluent in this study. The color removal performance of tannery sludge derived activated carbon and commercial coal based activated carbon has been investigated using parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. It was found that tannery sludge derived activated carbon exhibits dye removal efficiency that is about 80–90 % of that observed with commercial coal based activated carbon. The amount of dye adsorbed on to tannery sludge derived activated carbon is lower compared with commercial activated carbon at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased with increase of initial dye concentration and temperature, and deceasing pH. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances.

  4. Use of the effluent from biogas production for cultivation of Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Malin; Lind, Olle; Birgersson, Göran; Asp, Håkan

    2017-04-01

    The effluent from the biogas process was tested as a nutrient source during cultivation of the protein-rich and edible microalgae Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and compared with conventional Spirulina medium. Equal biomass production was observed until late exponential phase and no significant differences could be observed between the treatments in protein amount, amino acid composition, and total lipid concentration. The concentration of the pigment phycocyanin differed significantly between Spirulina medium and the effluent-based medium (63.3 ± 11.7 and 86.2 ± 1.9 mg g -1 , respectively). Slightly higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids, mainly palmitic acid, were observed in the biomass produced in Spirulina medium than in that produced in the effluent-based medium. In the biomass produced in the effluent-based medium, the cadmium concentration was 0.07 ± 0.05 mg kg -1 of dry weight, whereas it was below the detection limit in the biomass produced in Spirulina medium. There is a need to identify new food and feed resources and a possible future scenario is to integrate Spirulina production into the biogas plant for protein production as it contains more than 60% of protein on dry weight basis. In that scenario, it is important to control heavy metal concentrations in the biogas slurry fed to Spirulina.

  5. Treatment of tannery effluent by passive uptake-parametric studies and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Rajamohan; Manivasagan, Rajasimman

    2017-06-08

    Galactomyces geotrichum was utilized as a potential biosorbent for the treatment of tannery effluent under controlled environmental conditions. Tannery effluent treatment was studied through parametric experiments to study the effect of effluent pH (3.0-10.0), initial COD (1100-4400 mg/L), and biosorbent dosage (0.3-3.0 g/L).The zeta potential of the biosorbent was determined and found to influence the optimal pH. Increase in effluent COD values resulted in decreased COD removal percentages which attributed to limited availability of surface active sites. The equation relating the COD removal efficiency and biosorbent dose was proposed. Two popular kinetic models, namely pseudo-second order and power function models, were employed to the experimental data. Pseudo-second order model proved to be a good fit with high values of regression coefficient (R (2) > 0.960). Potential application of a fungal biosorption process was explored and the optimal process parameters were identified.

  6. Site Dependent Beneficial Effects of Aquaculture Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, K. M.; Viadero, R. C.

    2005-05-01

    The effect of aquaculture effluent on community structure was examined in a stream formed by the discharge of treated acid mine water. The mine water stream and the raceway stream whose source was treated mine water were sampled. In addition, a site below the confluence of the mine water and raceway streams was also sampled. Initially, there were no significant differences in macroinvertebrate density, diversity or community structure in the closed canopy, low light, mine water and raceway streams. However, in the high light environment below the confluence, the community included a substantial proportion of grazers and density was significantly lower. After an inadvertent resuspension of precipitated metal hydroxides from the AMD treatment facility, communities in the mine water stream and below the confluence were strongly dominated by chironomids while the raceway stream maintained much of its diversity. At the end of the study period diversity in all streams was significantly greater than in earlier samples however, densities were 6-8x lower than initial values in the raceway and mine water streams. This study demonstrated that there was little effect of aquaculture effluent on the benthic community in a low-light environment. Additionally, aquaculture effluent mediated the negative effects of AMD metals.

  7. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  9. Ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration of wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reungoat, J; Escher, B I; Macova, M; Argaud, F X; Gernjak, W; Keller, J

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the fate of trace organic chemicals (TrOCs) in three full-scale reclamation plants using ozonation followed by biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration to treat wastewater treatment plant effluents. Chemical analysis was used to quantify a wide range of TrOCs and combined with bioanalytical tools to assess non-specific toxicity (Microtox assay) and estrogenicity (E-SCREEN assay). Limited dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal (recycling schemes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aquaculture impact and treatment systems of effluents with aquatic macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Henry-Silva, Gustavo Gonzaga; Monteiro Camargo, Antonio Fernando [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Aquaculture effluents are enriched by nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter and contribute to increase eutrophication of the receiving water bodies and reduction or change in biodiversity. To reduce effluent loading is important to formulate highly digestible diets with lower nutrient levels. In addition, it is necessary to treat effluents to attend to new legislation demands and the pressure of environmentalist. This review of the aquaculture activities and its impacts on the environmental...

  11. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  12. COD reduction of textile effluent in three-phase fluidized bed bioreactor using Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Dharmesh H; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigated the effect of mixed cultures of Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Escherichia coli and air as gas on degradation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in three-phase inverse fluidized beds (TPIFBs) for textile effluents with initial COD of 1200 ppm (effluent 1) and 640 ppm (effluent 2). Investigators focused on the importance of different design of gas spargers of the TPIFB for checking its effect on COD reduction performance. For this purpose, four different gas spargers were fabricated for gas flow entry into bioreactor with different  % open area: Gas sparger 1 (18% open area), sparger 2 (10.42% open area), sparger 3 (8.077% open area) and sparger 4 (1.53% open area). These percentage open area decided the amount of gas flow in a unit time in batch studies, which in turn rely mainly on superficial gas velocity. The reduction in COD was measured at two different superficial gas velocity (0.00343 and 0.004068 m/s) and at two ratio of static bed height to diameter (H/D) of 0.5 and 0.25 in an aerobic mode. Textile effluent 1 resulted in 98.07% COD reduction with sparger 3 and discharged at 23.14 ppm in 28 h. Textile effluent 2 resulted in 96.5% COD reduction with sparger 2 and discharged at 22.4 ppm in 22 h. The resulting COD values of Effluent 1 and effluent 2 were in range of discharge limit and resulted at a low gas velocity of 0.00343 m/s and low H/D ratio of 0.25. The gas holdup correlation was found to be ε g = 0.0064 U g(0.98) .

  13. Oxidative stress defence responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chilli (Capsicum annum L.) cultivars grown under textile effluent fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ratan; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2018-02-01

    Oxidative stress is complex physiological phenomenon that accompanies virtually in all stresses including either the deficiency or the surplus of micronutrients in the soil. In response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, plants use a range of mechanisms to minimize the toxicity and protect cell membranes from damage. There are known reports indicating that effluents from the textile industry can serve as a micronutrient supplier under otherwise limited conditions. However, the addition of these effluents may cause toxicity to plants due to the presence of some non-essential heavy metals and persistent compounds if supplied in excess. A mesocosm study was conducted with wheat (Triticum aestivum L) and chilli (Capsicum annum L) cultivars grown under textile effluent fertilization to evaluate the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H 2 O 2 , and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defences developed against this stress. Our findings indicated that the accumulation of MDA and H 2 O 2 were mainly stimulated in control plants (0% textile effluent) followed by 60% concentration of textile effluent fertilization. Plants counteract oxidative stress by increasing both enzymatic (Superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POX; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR) and non-enzymatic (phenolic compounds, flavonoids and ascorbic acid) antioxidants significantly. The activities of major antioxidants were promoted by higher concentrations of textile effluents. In addition, low antioxidative defences against damage caused by oxidative stress to the controls were evident by yield loss and deteriorated product quality. Compared to the chilli cultivars, MDA and H 2 O 2 were higher in wheat cultivars; at the same time activities of antioxidants were also higher in wheat cultivars. The results of this study showed that the application of textile effluents supplied plant nutrients which improved antioxidative defences by regulating the

  14. Fecal Coliform and E. coli Concentrations in Effluent-Dominated Streams of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balancing water quality and water quantity concerns is an ongoing challenge for communities in the semi-arid southwest. Over pumping of groundwater aquifers and limited surface water resources have created effluent-dominated sections of watersheds. As rapid urbanization increases...

  15. Functional Repertoire of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Antibiotic Manufacturing Effluents and Receiving Freshwater Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Plaza, Juan J; Šimatović, Ana; Milaković, Milena; Bielen, Ana; Wichmann, Fabienne; Udiković-Kolić, Nikolina

    2017-01-01

    Environments polluted by direct discharges of effluents from antibiotic manufacturing are important reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which could potentially be transferred to human pathogens. However, our knowledge about the identity and diversity of ARGs in such polluted environments remains limited. We applied functional metagenomics to explore the resistome of two Croatian antibiotic manufacturing effluents and sediments collected upstream of and at the effluent discharge sites. Metagenomic libraries built from an azithromycin-production site were screened for resistance to macrolide antibiotics, whereas the libraries from a site producing veterinary antibiotics were screened for resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and beta-lactams. Functional analysis of eight libraries identified a total of 82 unique, often clinically relevant ARGs, which were frequently found in clusters and flanked by mobile genetic elements. The majority of macrolide resistance genes identified from matrices exposed to high levels of macrolides were similar to known genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins, macrolide phosphotransferases, and transporters. Potentially novel macrolide resistance genes included one most similar to a 23S rRNA methyltransferase from Clostridium and another, derived from upstream unpolluted sediment, to a GTPase HflX from Emergencia . In libraries deriving from sediments exposed to lower levels of veterinary antibiotics, we found 8 potentially novel ARGs, including dihydrofolate reductases and beta-lactamases from classes A, B, and D. In addition, we detected 7 potentially novel ARGs in upstream sediment, including thymidylate synthases, dihydrofolate reductases, and class D beta-lactamase. Taken together, in addition to finding known gene types, we report the discovery of novel and diverse ARGs in antibiotic-polluted industrial effluents and sediments, providing a qualitative basis for monitoring the dispersal of ARGs

  16. Toxicological and ecotoxic impact of secondary and tertiary treated sewage effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petala, M; Kokokiris, L; Samaras, P; Papadopoulos, A; Zouboulis, A

    2009-12-01

    Secondary sewage effluents are discharged in significant quantities in aquatic environments delivering pollutants that were not removed during treatment; yet advanced treated effluents are not lacking of contaminants. In this study, biochemical biomarkers were measured in liver and kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) exposed to unchlorinated, chlorinated and tertiary treated secondary sewage effluents. In addition, organic matter, nitrogen and suspended solids were assayed, while a common bioassay, Daphnia magna 21d reproduction test was also applied in order to examine potential relation between the performed bioassay and the biomarkers. Processes using oxidative conditions, such as ozonation and chlorination, resulted in significantly increased breeding rate (up to 74%) of the organism. Biomarkers measurements incorporated the determination of total glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and an innovative biomarker in such applications, haem peroxidase. In general, the response of biomarkers was dependent upon the treatment method and it was tissue specific. Secondary effluents inhibited liver GST and haem peroxidase, while GSH levels and LPO were significantly provoked in liver. Ozonation provoked hepatic peroxidation, in terms of haem peroxidase and LPO, and GST; while the protective (to Reactive Oxidant Species - ROS) GSH was depleted, suggesting extended ROS attack to the organism. Similar response of biomarkers (but to a lesser extend) was observed after exposure of trout to effluents submitted to both coagulation and ozonation, emphasizing the significance of removing the residual organic matter by other methods than oxidative ones. Ozonation also enhanced renal LPO and GPX; however the former employment of coagulation limited the peroxidation phenomena. Chlorination mainly affected the levels of total GSH in both tissues.

  17. 40 CFR 419.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feedstock) Phenolic compounds (4AAP): Crude 0.037 0.009 Cracking and coking 0.419 0.102 Asphalt 0.226 0.055... Reforming and alkylation 0.0196 0.0088 English units (pounds per 1,000 bbl of feedstock) Phenolic compounds... flow) Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.60 0.21 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 COD...

  18. 40 CFR 419.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 360.0 187.0 Oil and grease 16.2 8.5 Phenolic compounds 0.38 0.184 Ammonia as N 23.4 10.6 Sulfide 0.33...) BOD5 48. 26. TSS 33. 21. COD 1 360. 180. Oil and grease 15. 8. Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17... gallons of flow) BOD5 0.40 0.22 TSS 0.28 0.18 COD 1 3.0 1.5 Oil and grease 0.13 0.067 Phenolic compounds...

  19. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... days shall not exceed Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 cubic meters of feedstock) Phenolic compounds... alkylation 0.0196 0.0088 English units (pounds per 1,000 bbl of feedstock) Phenolic compounds (4AAP): Crude 0... flow) Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.60 0.21 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 COD...

  20. 40 CFR 419.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COD1 210.0 109 Oil and grease 8.4 4.5 Phenolic compounds 0.21 0.10 Ammonia as N 18.8 8.5 Sulfide 0.18 0...,000 bbl feedstock) BOD5 9.9 5.5 TSS 6.9 4.4 COD1 74.0 38.4 Oil and grease 3.0 1.6 Phenolic compounds 0... Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.0029 0.0014 Total chromium 0.0060 0.0035 Hexavalent chromium 0.00052 0.00023 pH...

  1. 40 CFR 419.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 10.1 COD 1 117.0 60.3 Oil and grease 6.9 3.7 Phenolic compounds 0.168 0.076 Ammonia as N 2.81 1.27... Phenolic compounds 0.060 0.027 Ammonia as N 0.99 0.45 Sulfide 0.053 0.024 Total chromium 0.122 0.071.... 8. Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.73 0.43 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 pH...

  2. 40 CFR 419.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Phenolic compounds (4AAP): Crude 0.037 0.009 Cracking and coking 0.419 0.102 Asphalt 0.226 0.055 Lube 1.055... Reforming and alkylation 0.0196 0.0088 English units (pounds per 1,000 bbl of feedstock) Phenolic compounds... flow) Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.60 0.21 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 COD...

  3. 40 CFR 419.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 23.7 COD 1 388.0 198.0 Oil and grease 17.1 9.1 Phenolic compounds 0.40 0.192 Ammonia as N 23.4 10.6... Phenolic compounds 0.14 0.068 Ammonia as N 8.3 3.8 Sulfide 0.124 0.056 Total chromium 0.29 0.17 Hexavalent.... 8. Phenolic compounds (4AAP) 0.35 0.17 Total chromium 0.73 0.43 Hexavalent chromium 0.062 0.028 pH...

  4. 40 CFR 430.24 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Kappa number (annual average) Filtraterecycling Total pulping area condensate, evaporator condensate... bleaching processes. b Complete recycling to the chemical recovery system of all filtrates generated prior... bleach plant, pulping area and evaporator condensates flow and BAT parameters other than Adsorbable...

  5. 40 CFR 421.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... per million pounds) of concentrate leached Cadmium .180 .072 Copper 1.153 .550 Lead .252 .117 Zinc... zinc processed through leaching Cadmium .000 .000 Copper .000 .000 Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 (d... Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of zinc reduced Cadmium .334 .134 Copper 2...

  6. 40 CFR 435.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-92 method: “Standard Guide for Conducting 10-day Static Sediment Toxicity Tests with Marine and... Marine and Estuarine Amphipods,” 1992, after preparing the sediment according to the method specified in... Marine and Estuarine Amphipods,” 1992, after preparing the sediment according to the method specified in...

  7. 40 CFR 409.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...): (a) Any cane sugar factory continuously discharging both barometric condenser cooling water and other... factory employing waste stabilization where all or a portion of the waste water discharge is stored for... (b) and (c), 306 (b) and (c), 307 (c) and (d) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended...

  8. 40 CFR 419.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chromium. Refinery process Process feedstock rate 1,000 bbl/day 1. Atmospheric crude distillation 100 2. Crude desalting 50 3. Vacuum crude distillation 75 Total crude processes (C) 225 6. Fluid catalytic...

  9. 40 CFR 421.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold refined electrolytically... Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold and silver smelted Lead 0.546 0.260 Mercury 0.325 0.130 Silver 0.533 0.221 Zinc 1.898 0.793 Gold 0.130 Oil...

  10. 40 CFR 421.253 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gold refined electrolytically Lead 5.544 2.574 Mercury 2.970 1.188 Silver 5.742 2.376 Zinc 20.200 8.316... pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/troy ounce of gold and silver smelted Lead 0.364 0.169 Mercury 0.195 0.078 Silver 0.377 0.156 Zinc 1.326 0.546 Gold 0.130 (b) Silver...

  11. 40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available (BPT): (a) For normal operation of spray drying towers as defined above, the following values... operation of a spray drying tower, but only when a high rate of wet scrubbing is in operation which produces... consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.03 0.01...

  12. 40 CFR 405.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.976 0.488 TSS 1.462 .731 pH (1) (1) English units... for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.716 0.290 TSS 1.088 .435 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 100 lb of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.073 0.029...

  13. 40 CFR 409.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... design, within the boundaries of all waste water treatment or retention facilities associated with the... maximum permissible discharge of process waste water pollutants when the process waste water discharge... maximum permissible discharge of process waste water pollutants when the process waste water discharge...

  14. 40 CFR 471.101 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder wet atomized Copper 9.58 5.04 Cyanide 1.46 0.605 Lead 2.12 1.01 Oil and grease 101 60.5 TSS 207 98... (pounds per million off-pounds) of powder sized Copper 0.028 0.015 Cyanide 0.004 0.002 Lead 0.006 0.003... (pounds per million off-pounds) of powder cooled after pressing Copper 16.7 8.80 Cyanide 2.55 1.06 Lead 3...

  15. 40 CFR 421.282 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder produced Copper 438.100 230.600 Lead 96.850 46.120 Nickel 442.800 292.900 Zinc 336.700 140.700... pounds) of tantalum powder produced from leaching Copper 38.380 20.200 Lead 8.484 4.040 Nickel 38.780 25... powder produced Copper 0.665 0.350 Lead 0.147 0.070 Nickel 0.672 0.445 Zinc 0.511 0.214 Tantalum 0.158...

  16. 40 CFR 421.283 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pounds) of equivalent pure tantalum powder produced Copper 262.800 125.200 Lead 57.480 26.690 Nickel 112... tantalum powder produced Copper 6.246 2.977 Lead 1.366 0.634 Nickel 2.684 1.806 Zinc 4.978 2.050 Tantalum 2... Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of tantalum powder produced Copper 295.200...

  17. 40 CFR 471.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... powder production atomization wastewater. Subpart J—BAT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...-pounds) or powder sized Copper 0.028 0.015 Cyanide 0.004 0.002 Lead 0.006 0.003 (c) Oil-resin... million off-pounds) of powder cooled after pressing Copper 16.7 8.80 Cyanide 2.55 1.06 Lead 3.70 1.760 (j...

  18. 40 CFR 420.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other... shall apply only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and fasteners...

  19. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other coatings—(1) Strip, sheet, and miscellaneous products. Subpart L...) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and...

  20. 40 CFR 471.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... soap solutions. Subpart D—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/off-kg (pounds per million off-pounds) of precious metals drawn with soap solutions Cadmium 0... water. Subpart D—BPT Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average...

  1. 40 CFR 471.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....048 Cyanide 0.014 0.006 Silver 0.020 0.008 (e) Drawing spent soap solutions. Subpart D—BAT Pollutant... off-pounds) of precious metals drawn with soap solutions Cadmium 0.001 0.0005 Copper 0.006 0.003... Cyanide 1.94 0.802 Silver 2.74 1.14 (g) Heat treatment contact cooling water. Subpart D—BAT Pollutant or...

  2. 40 CFR 435.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced water) associated with production, field exploration, drilling, well completion, or well treatment (i.e., drilling muds, drill cuttings, and produced sands). (b) Produced water discharges shall not...

  3. 40 CFR 421.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....660 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Vanadium decomposition wet air....000 3551.000 Total Suspended Solids 799.950 380.460 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at....000 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (d) Molybdenum drying wet air pollution...

  4. Assessment of pollution of river Ganges by tannery effluents using genotoxicity biomarkers in murrel fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, N S; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Ravindra; Dabas, Anurag; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Pavan

    2015-07-01

    River pollution due to rapid industrialization and anthropogenic activities adversely affects the aquatic organisms, especially fish. Here, we assessed the genotoxicity, mutagenicity and bioaccumulative aspects of tannery effluents in freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus, an inhabitant of river Ganges. Test specimens were collected from three different polluted sites of the river within and nearby Kanpur area during different seasons and blood samples of these specimens were processed for comet assay and micronucleus test as genotoxicity biomarkers. A significantly (P industry) above the maximum permissible limits as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). The findings of the present analysis indicated contamination of river Ganges with tannery effluents which induce genotoxicity in fish with seasonal variation.

  5. Effects of volatile fatty acids in biohydrogen effluent on biohythane production from palm oil mill effluent under thermophilic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Mamimin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.

  6. A Critique of Mark D. Allen's "The Preservation of Verb Subcategory Knowledge in a Spoken Language Comprehension Deficit"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). "The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit." "Brain and Language, 95", 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic…

  7. CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND THE PRESENCE OF PRIORITY SUBSTANCES IN COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, we examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the e...

  8. Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer.

  9. Microbiological quality of a waste stabilization pond effluent used for restricted irrigation in Valle Del Cauca, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, C A; Peña, M R; Mara, D D

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of effluent reuse in agriculture after treatment in a series of anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds. The WSP system is located in Ginebra municipality, a small town in southwest Colombia. The total HRT is 12 days. Several samples of the final effluent were taken over a 55 day period and were analysed for E. coli, Streptococcus spp. and helminth eggs. Some additional grab samples were taken to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. The results showed that the system was able to remove 4 log units of E. coli, 1 log unit of Streptococcus spp. and 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella spp. were detected in the effluent of the facultative pond whilst Shigella spp. were not detected in any sample. The main species of helminth eggs encountered were Taenia spp., Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and Enterobius vermicularis. Removal efficiencies were satisfactory despite the relatively short HRT. Nevertheless, WHO guidelines were slightly surpassed in the case of E. coli for unrestricted irrigation. The helminth egg value was always below the maximum WHO limit. Hence, this effluent can be safely used for restricted irrigation provided that field workers are protected from direct contact with wastewater given the presence of Salmonella spp. in the facultative pond effluent.

  10. Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

    2009-01-01

    For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of

  11. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment...... (WEA) to identify problematic urban discharges, e.g. stormwater, municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflow (CSO), industrial wastewater. Samples from around Copenhagen were therefore tested in the Larval Development Ratio (LDR) test using the marine crustacean Acartia tonsa. The number of non...

  12. Textile effluent & waste water: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2013-01-01

    Textile processing is a growing industry that traditionally has used a lot of water, energy and harsh chemicals. Textile industries consume over 7 x 105tons of dyes annually and use up to 1 litre of water per kg of dye processed and arethird largest polluters in the world. As a characteristic of the textile processing industry, a wide range of structurally diverse dyes can be used in a single factory, and therefore effluents from the industry are extremely variable in composition. This needed...

  13. An assessment of Microtox{trademark} as a biomonitoring tool for whole effluent testing for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Morrow, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1994-06-13

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has special discharge problems relating to potential radioactive content of the effluent discharge waters. Because of this all testing must be performed on-site and results must be rapidly determined. There is a need to examine the development of a real-time procedure for effluent biomonitoring to met these site limitations. The Microtox{trademark} unit for toxicity testing is a microbially-based test system that shows great promise to be used for WET testing. The overall goal of this study is to develop an acceptable protocol for operational biomonitoring using the Microtox {trademark} toxicity test for LANL. The specific objectives include: development of an appropriate toxicity testing protocol using the Microtox{trademark} toxicity test for whole effluent toxicity testing and evaluation of the protocol based on factors such as sensitivity, response time, cost of analysis, and simplicity of operation.

  14. The characterisation of organic components in the calcium and magnesium effluent streams at Sappi Saiccor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moodley, B; Marsh, J.J; Mulholland, D.A

    2003-01-01

    .... The major constituents identified in the calcium effluent stream and the magnesium condensate effluent stream were a mixture of lignan isomers, episyringaresinol and meso-syringaresinol and lignin...

  15. Palm oil mill effluent treatment using coconut shell – based activated carbon: Adsorption equilibrium and isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman Sherlynna Parveen Deshon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current ponding system applied for palm oil mill effluent (POME treatment often struggle to comply with the POME discharge limit, thus it has become a major environmental concern. Batch adsorption study was conducted for reducing the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Color of pre-treated POME using coconut shell-based activated carbon (CS-AC. The CS-AC showed BET surface area of 744.118 m2/g, with pore volume of 04359cm3/g. The adsorption uptake was studied at various contact time and POME initial concentration. The CS-AC exhibited good ability with average percentage removal of 70% for COD, TSS and Color. The adsorption uptake increased over time and attained equilibrium in 30 hours. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. Based on the coefficient regression and sum of squared errors, the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption of COD satisfactorily, while best described the TSS and Color adsorption; giving the highest adsorption capacity of 10.215 mg/g, 1.435 mg/g, and 63.291 PtCo/g respectively. The CS-AC was shown to be a promising adsorbent for treating POME and was able to comply with the Environmental Quality Act (EQA discharge limit. The outcome of treated effluent using CS-AC was shown to be cleaner than the industrial biologically treated effluent, achieved within shorter treatment time.

  16. 1994 Environmental monitoring drinking water and nonradiological effluent programs annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.D.; Brock, T.A.; Meachum, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated monitoring programs for drinking water in 1988 and for nonradiological parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents in 1985. These programs were initiated for the facilities operated by EG&G Idaho for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. On October 1, 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) replaced EG&G Idaho as the prime contractor at the INEL and assumed responsibility for these programs. Section I discusses the general site characteristics, the analytical laboratories, and sampling methodology general to both programs. Section 2, the Drinking Water Program, tracks the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters required by State and Federal regulations. This section describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at 17 LITCO-operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters detected and the regulatory limits exceeded during calendar year 1994. In addition, groundwater quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for LITCO production wells. Section 3 discusses the nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring results for 27 liquid effluent streams. These streams are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1994 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  17. Bahir Dar tannery effluent characterization and its impact on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to characterize Bahir Dar tannery effluent and determine its impact on the head of Blue Nile River using selected physicochemical parameters. Samples were taken from the direct effluent stream and four sampling sites (one upstream and three downstream) were selected along the river to determine ...

  18. Concentrations of heavy metals in effluent discharges downstream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... Various effluent samples were collected from their sources of discharge to the Ikpoba river in Benin. City, Edo State between September and October, 2008. Six heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc) in the effluents and receiving water were analyzed by atomic absorption.

  19. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A deliberate lowering of effluent pH may increase root uptake thereby possibly reducing the clean-up time and improving effluent quality. There is potential for application of this technology in cities struggling with the cost of conventional sewage treatment. Keywords: bio-accumulation, bio-sorption, heavy metals, hydroponic, ...

  20. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The recovery of oil based drilling muds was monitored for a period of 12 weeks upon inoculation with kitchen effluent. Oil based drilling muds inoculated with varying volumes (200ml, 250ml and 300ml) of kitchen effluent constituted the experimental set-ups, while the control set-ups were made up of oil based ...

  1. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    h EC50), root growth inhibition, mitotic index and chromosome aberration rate. Based on the 96 h EC50, textile effluent was 4.5 times more toxic than the paint effluent. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean root length of A. cepa exposed to different concentrations ...

  2. Effects of abattoir effluent on composition and distribution of insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological impacts of abattoir effluents discharge into Lower Ogun River were assessed by studying the composition, distributions and diversity of insect fauna of the river both in lsheri-Olofin(abattoir effluents discharge/downstream) and lshasi (upstream/control) areas for 24months (January 2006 to December 2007).

  3. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.TECHNOLOGY

    Industrial effluents are generally discharged into receiving water bodies or disposed on land. These effluents .... 3°C increase in temperature of the receiving water body. **Minimum value in ... DO, Dissolved oxygen; BOD5, biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days at 20 ± 1°C; COD, chemical oxygen demand and. TSS, total ...

  4. Impact of Effluent from Gudu District Sewage Treatment Plant on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    PMB 152, Garki, Abuja. ABSTRACT: Gudu stream, the major stream providing water for Durumi 1, Durumi 2 and Durumi 3 ..... wastewater exits the plant into the water body and a .... DSP → down stream point (effluent and stream at point of use); SWE → stream without effluent (wastewater); NB: All values showed significant ...

  5. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cytogenotoxic effects of the industrial effluents from paint (0, 7.2, 18, 36 and 72%) and textile (0, 1.6, 4, 8 and 16%) manufacturing were ... were the most common aberration. The suitability of A. cepa chromosomal assay as a tool for monitoring the genotoxic effects of industrial effluents and wastewater is discussed.

  6. Effects of cassava mill effluent on some chemical and micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the effects of cassava mill effluent on the Physicochemical and biological properties of soils of Obubra and Odukpani Local Areas in Cross River State after long time of pollution by the effluent. The soil samples were collected with an auger at the depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm in each of the polluted ...

  7. Electrocoagulation method for colour removal in tea effluent: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and efficient electrochemical method that utilizes two steel electrodes and is capable of reducing the colour of tea effluent prior to its discharge into the river system has been developed. The effects of ... Effluent dilution led to increase in power consumption while raising temperatures led to a reduction in power

  8. Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria on the physico-chemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream was investigated. The qualities of effluent and stream water (before and after mixing with effluent) were studied using the basic water quality parameters. The ranges of the physico-chemical parameters studied were as follows: pH 6.92 –8.18, temperature 31 ...

  9. Coagulation pretreatment for ultrafiltration of deinking effluents containing flexographic inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Chabot; Gopal A. Krishnagopalan; Said Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the potential of coagulation pretreatment with organic or inorganic coagulants to improve ultrafiltration performance during processing of wash deinking effluents containing flexographic inks. Wash filtrate effluents generated from mixtures of old flexographic and offset newspapers and old magazines were pretreated with a...

  10. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Talukdar et al. (2008) in their study on the effect of pulp and paper mill effluents on seed germination and seedling growth of mu- stard, pea and rice seeds noted varying degrees of symp- toms on these plants and that the more concentrated the industrial effluent, the more pronounced the symptoms.

  11. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  12. physico-chemical characteristics of effluents from garri processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Effluent and soil samples were collected from five different garri processing industries in Bida and analysed for conductivity ... highest values of 4.0, 618ppm, 400ppm, 61µs/cm, 700ppm and 315ppm respectively while those from Efumayaki has the ... indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents [Salami and Egwin, 1997].

  13. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  14. Acute toxicity of brewery effluent on Chironomus travalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... value of 1.25), which was most toxic, while 24 h-LC50 of 46% was the least toxic to the test organism. Median lethal time, LT50 for 30% effluent concentration was 95 hours. Mortality varies with the concentrations. Key Words: Toxicity, Effluent, Dipteran larvae and Benthos Journal of Aquatic Sciences Vol.19(1) 2004: 23-26 ...

  15. Effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... The study investigated the effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water. It was observed that the colour, taste and odour of the water changed after cassava effluent had been discharched into it. This was an indication of pollution. ... Water samples were collected in plastic jars 10 L each at 3 points in.

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  17. The effects of hair dressing effluent irrigation on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of hair dressing effluent on soil chemical properties, germination and growth of maize and cowpea were investigated in pot experiment. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design of 3 effluent treatments (100 ml, 200 ml and 400 ml) and control with 5 replications at University of Port Harcourt ...

  18. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  19. A postal survey of effluent generation and disposal in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a major utility in the dairy industry, which results in significant effluent volumes being generated, hence the challenge of its disposal cannot be ignored. In Zimbabwe, industry generally is not made to pay the full cost of managing industrial effluents, which inadvertently encourages environmental pollution.

  20. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos, Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra. Other parameters ...

  1. effluent by bacillus cereus and clostridium butyricum using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    respectively; while with the use of Clostridium butyricum, it achieved the highest COD removal, TOC degradation and coulombic efficiencies of 54.2%, ... liquid effluent (liquid consisting of surface runoff water, sanitary wastewater, solid ... polluted with petroleum refinery effluent using Nutrient. Agar medium (Beef Extract-3 g; ...

  2. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  3. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) in effluent treated in ponds (biological lagoons) than straight from the factory, presumably due to concentration by evaporation. Chlorophyll-a concentration in lake ...

  4. A Study Of Dyehouse Activities And Effluent Treatment Practices In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the treatment practices of dyehouse effluent in Mauritius. An overview of the activities of dyehouses, characteristics of wastewater as well as effluent treatment methods is given. The effectiveness of different treatment systems is summarized. Finally appropriate pollution prevention measures have been ...

  5. Removal of pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents by ozone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For pH 6.0 effluents, the removal of pharmaceuticals was most efficient in the effluent with the lowest organic content. The addition of H2O2 had no significant effect on the quantitative removal of pharmaceuticals but enhanced the ozone decomposition rate. Thus, H2O2 addition increased the reaction rate. In practice, this ...

  6. Characteristics of Effluent from a Chemical Fertilizer Industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of Effluent from a Chemical Fertilizer Industry in Southern Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ... A study was conducted on the characteristics of effluents emanating from a chemical fertilizer industry in Nigeria with the objective of proffering effective management strategies.

  7. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    observed in 1:625 diluted effluents. From the results, it is evidenced that the lower volume of effluent discharge into higher volume of water could not affect the growth rate of phytoplankton. It is more important that to reduce the effect of pollution and environmental sustainability. @JASEM. The primary producers are at the ...

  8. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of brewery effluent to Strandesia prava Klie (crustacean, ostracoda) was determined in 24, 48 and 96 hour static bioassay under laboratory conditions. The test was conducted in replicates of 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125% effluent concentrations. Mortality of the test organism increased with the ...

  9. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.TECHNOLOGY

    strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), ... INTRODUCTION. Industrial effluents referred to as wastewaters are dis- charges from industries. Wastewaters generally comprise of a mixture of domestic ..... Chemistry including Chemical Engineering, 14th edition, 161-165.

  10. Assessment of effluents discharged from textiles industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of effluents discharged from textiles industries in selected villages in Kaduna State, Nigeria. ... The study recommend the need for the intervention of appropriate regulatory agencies to ensure production of high quality treated final effluents by wastewater treatment facilities in selected villages of Kaduna.

  11. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  12. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year 24 tabs., 7 figs.; Glossary; Appendices

  13. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors). 29 refs., 26 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Irrigational impact of distillery effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Okra with special reference to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sachin; Chopra, A K

    2014-07-01

    The present study was performed under natural environment to assess levels of different heavy metals in soil and Abelmoschus esculentus plants along with soil microbial population irrigated with five rates of distillery effluent (DE) viz. 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % concentration in comparison with control (Bore well water). Results revealed that among various concentrations of DE, irrigation with 100 % DE significantly (P Cr > Cd > Zn > Cu, and for A. esculentus plants, it was in the order Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd > Zn after irrigation with distillery effluent. The enrichment factor value was found maximum for Ni in comparison to other metals at 100 % DE concentration as compared with BWW. However, the values of these metals were below the recommended permissible limit.

  15. Biological Treatment of Textile Effluent Using Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Abioye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of yeasts isolated from soil in the treatment of textile wastewater. Two yeast species were isolated from soil; they were identified as Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeasts were inoculated into flask containing effluent and incubated for 15 days. Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the most significant treatment capacity with a 66% reduction in BOD; this was followed closely by Candida zeylanoides with 57.3% reduction in BOD and a consortium of the two species showed the least remediation potential of 36.9%. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida zeylanoides in treatment of textile wastewater will help to limit the adverse environmental and health implications associated with disposal of untreated effluent into water bodies.

  16. Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Hey, Gerly; Rodríguez Vega, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    of each investigated API (DDO3) was determined for each effluent by fitting a first order equation to the remaining concentration of API at each applied ozone dose. Ozone dose requirements were found to vary significantly between effluents depending on their matrix characteristics.The specific ozone dose...... was then normalized to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of each effluent. The DDO3/DOC ratios were comparable for each API between the effluents.15 of the 42 investigated APIs could be classified as easily degradable (DDO3/DOC≤0.7), while 19 were moderately degradable (0.71.4). Furthermore, we predict...... that a reasonable estimate of the ozone dose required to remove any of the investigated APIs may be attained by multiplying the experimental average DDO3/DOC obtained with the actual DOC of any effluent....

  17. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  18. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years.

  19. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra K; Tripathi, Manikant

    2011-01-01

    The potential hazards associated with industrial effluents, coupled with increasing awareness of environment problems, have prompted many countries to limit the indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewaters. The pulp and paper industry has been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways, and therefore has been one of the industries of concern. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of brown/black effluent that primarily result from pulping, bleaching, and paper-making production stages. The dark color and toxicity of pulp-paper mill effluent comes primarily from lignin and its chlorinated derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. The color originates from pulping and pulp bleaching stages, while adsorbable organic halides (AOX) originates exclusively from chlorine bleaching. Discharge of untreated effluent results in increased BOD/COD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving waterbodies. The dark brow color of pulp-paper effluent is not only responsible for aesthetic unacceptability, but also prevents the passage of sunlight through colored waterbodies. This reduces the photosynthetic activity of aquatic flora, ultimately causing depletion of dissolved oxygen. The pulp-paper organic waste, coupled with the presence of chlorine, results in the generation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. These toxic constituents of wastewater pose a human health risk through long term exposure. via drinking water and\\or through consumption of fish that can bioaccumulate certain pollutants from the food chain. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused by many countries on decolorization of paper mill effluents , along with reduction in the contaminants that pose human health or other environmental hazards. Various

  1. Effects of Bahir Dar Textile Factory Effluents on the Water Quality of the Head Waters of Blue Nile River, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrehet Kahsay Mehari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2013/14 with the objective of determining the effects of Bahir Dar textile factory effluents on the head of Blue Nile River water quality. Dissolve oxygen was higher at the upstream site of the river, whereas BOD5, TDS, and total alkalinity values were higher at wastewater outlet of the factory site. The mean values of dissolved oxygen, BOD5, and total alkalinity were above maximum permissible limits set by WHO for drinking water at head of Blue Nile River. The mean value of BOD5 was above permissible limit of IFC for textile effluents to be discharged to surface water. A total of 836 aquatic macroinvertebrate individuals belonging to 21 families were collected. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index, the Hilsenhoff family-level biotic index, family richness, and percent dipterans were calculated. Hilsenhoff family-level biotic index and percent dipterans metrics differed significantly among sampling sites (P<0.05. Hilsenhoff family-level biotic index was higher at the most downstream site but percent dipterans were higher at site of discharge of effluent to the head of Blue Nile River. Therefore, there is indication that effluent demands frequent control and proper treatment before being discharged to the environment.

  2. Estrogenicity patterns in the Swiss midland river Lützelmurg in relation to treated domestic sewage effluent discharges and hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Suter, Marc J F; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    Sewage treatment works (STW) discharge estrogenic effluent into rivers, which leads to variable estrogenicity of river water. Here, we characterize how the factors effluent and hydrology influence the estrogenicity of river water. We selected a river for which good hydrological data are available and collected water samples upstream and downstream from a STW discharge; effluent was sampled as well. Sampling took place during four 12-d periods, associated with the seasons, and always occurred in the morning. We also investigated the estrogenicity along the river, both by grab sampling and by passive sampling. Estrogens were analyzed by a recombinant yeast assay (YES); the estrogenicity of a sample was equated to the 17beta-estradiol standard of the YES (ng/L). Estrogenicity upstream from the STW was mostly close to the detection limit of the YES (maximum, 0.4 ng/L). Estrogenicity of effluent ranged between 0.2 and 7.7 ng/L; lower estrogenicity was associated with higher hydraulic retention times. Downstream from the STW, estrogenicity exceeded 1 ng/L on 25% of the days (maximum, 2.1 ng/L). Measured river water estrogenicity correlated positively and significantly with predicted estrogenicity based on effluent estrogenicity and effluent dilution factor. Grab samples taken along the river indicate that no significant sources of estrogens were upstream from the STW; downstream from the STW, the pattern of estrogenicity was highly variable. However, passive sampling showed that the estrogenicity of river water downstream from the STW decreased continuously with increasing distance from the STW, which is largely explained by dilution.

  3. Kinetic speciation of nickel in mining and municipal effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Gopalapillai, Yamini; Fasfous, Ismail I.; Chakrabarti, Chuni L. [Carleton University, Ottawa-Carleton Chemistry Institute, Department of Chemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Murimboh, John [Acadia University, Department of Chemistry, Wolfville, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    This study presents the results of kinetic speciation of nickel in undiluted mining and municipal effluents and effluents diluted with receiving freshwaters from the surrounding environment. The dilution ratios used for the dilution of the effluents were arbitrarily chosen, but were representative of the prevailing mining practices. The purpose of the this dilution was to mimic dilution with natural waters that result from dilution of the mining and municipal effluents with receiving freshwaters, so that this study would reveal environmental realities that are of concern to the managers and regulators of water resources. Ligand exchange kinetics using the competing ligand exchange method (CLEM) was studied using two independent techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) with Chelex 100 resin as the competing ligand, and adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV) with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as the competing ligand to determine the percentage of Ni metal released from Ni(II)-DOC complexes and the rate of dissociation of Ni(II)-DOC complexes. Using a sample containing a mixture of 30% Copper Cliff Mine effluent, 40% Sudbury municipal effluent and 30% Vermillion River water, both techniques gave results showing that the dilution of the effluent samples increased the percentage of nickel released from Ni(II)-DOC complexes. This increase in the release of nickel from the Ni(II)-DOC complexes may be of concern to managers and regulators of water resources. Agreement between the results of these two techniques has enhanced the validity of the competing ligand exchange method used by both techniques. (orig.)

  4. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  5. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fast microbial reduction of ferrihydrite colloids from a soil effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Bosch, Julian; Rennert, Thilo; Heister, Katja; Braunschweig, Juliane; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Totsche, Kai U.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the microbial reduction of synthetic iron oxide colloids showed their superior electron accepting property in comparison to bulk iron oxides. However, natural colloidal iron oxides differ in composition from their synthetic counterparts. Besides a potential effect of colloid size, microbial iron reduction may be accelerated by electron-shuttling dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as slowed down by inhibitors such as arsenic. We examined the microbial reduction of OM- and arsenic-containing ferrihydrite colloids. Four effluent fractions were collected from a soil column experiment run under water-saturated conditions. Ferrihydrite colloids precipitated from the soil effluent and exhibited stable hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 281 (±146) nm in the effluent fraction that was collected first and 100 (±43) nm in a subsequently obtained effluent fraction. Aliquots of these oxic effluent fractions were added to anoxic low salt medium containing diluted suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Independent of the initial colloid size, the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids were quickly and completely reduced. The rates of Fe2+ formation ranged between 1.9 and 3.3 fmol h-1 cell-1, and are in the range of or slightly exceeding previously reported rates of synthetic ferrihydrite colloids (1.3 fmol h-1 cell-1), but greatly exceeding previously known rates of macroaggregate-ferrihydrite reduction (0.07 fmol h-1 cell-1). The inhibition of microbial Fe(III) reduction by arsenic is unlikely or overridden by the concurrent enhancement induced by soil effluent DOM. These organic species may have increased the already high intrinsic reducibility of colloidal ferrihydrite owing to quinone-mediated electron shuttling. Additionally, OM, which is structurally associated with the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids, may also contribute to the higher reactivity due to increasing solubility and specific surface area of ferrihydrite. In conclusion, ferrihydrite

  7. A comparative study of clonal selection algorithm for effluent removal forecasting in septic sludge treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ting Sie; Malek, M A; Ismail, Amelia Ritahani

    2015-01-01

    The development of effluent removal prediction is crucial in providing a planning tool necessary for the future development and the construction of a septic sludge treatment plant (SSTP), especially in the developing countries. In order to investigate the expected functionality of the required standard, the prediction of the effluent quality, namely biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solid of an SSTP was modelled using an artificial intelligence approach. In this paper, we adopt the clonal selection algorithm (CSA) to set up a prediction model, with a well-established method - namely the least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) as a baseline model. The test results of the case study showed that the prediction of the CSA-based SSTP model worked well and provided model performance as satisfactory as the LS-SVM model. The CSA approach shows that fewer control and training parameters are required for model simulation as compared with the LS-SVM approach. The ability of a CSA approach in resolving limited data samples, non-linear sample function and multidimensional pattern recognition makes it a powerful tool in modelling the prediction of effluent removals in an SSTP.

  8. Nutrient Loadings to Streams of the Continental United States from Municipal and Industrial Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using "typical pollutant concentrations" to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales.

  9. Nutrient loadings to streams of the continental United States from municipal and industrial effluent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System national database were used to calculate annual total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads to surface waters from municipal and industrial facilities in six major regions of the United States for 1992, 1997, and 2002. Concentration and effluent flow data were examined for approximately 118,250 facilities in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Inconsistent and incomplete discharge locations, effluent flows, and effluent nutrient concentrations limited the use of these data for calculating nutrient loads. More concentrations were reported for major facilities, those discharging more than 1 million gallons per day, than for minor facilities, and more concentrations were reported for TP than for TN. Analytical methods to check and improve the quality of the Permit Compliance System data were used. Annual loads were calculated using "typical pollutant concentrations" to supplement missing concentrations based on the type and size of facilities. Annual nutrient loads for over 26,600 facilities were calculated for at least one of the three years. Sewage systems represented 74% of all TN loads and 58% of all TP loads. This work represents an initial set of data to develop a comprehensive and consistent national database of point-source nutrient loads. These loads can be used to inform a wide range of water-quality management, watershed modeling, and research efforts at multiple scales.

  10. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum while the one around the direct tank was Chloris pilosa. The correlation coefficient (Cc of the metals in the open channel gave the values: soil sediments/water (0.61, roots/leaves (0.709; and (0.34, (0.91, respectively, in direct tank. F-test values showed that 67 % of the metals were significantly different (p < 0.05 among the samples. The soil sediments would serve as reservoir for all the metals determined. This was also the case for both plant roots with species variation. The plant leaves showed evidence of bioaccumulation of some metals. The high levels of Pb, As and Cd in the samples call for concern as environmental contaminants.

  11. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  12. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  13. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endoparasite Community Differences in Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) Above and Below Coal Mine Effluent in Southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Andrew; Laursen, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    Parasite assemblages acquired through trophic interactions in fish hosts are increasingly cited as a means to determine pollution effects on water quality and food web structure. We examined gastrointestinal parasite community changes above and below coal mine input from 597 individuals representing 3 species of sunfish: green sunfish ( Lepomis cyanellus ), bluegill ( L. macrochirus ), and longear sunfish ( L. megalotis ). Hosts were collected from 6 sites in or near the south fork of the Saline River Basin in southern Illinois in the spring and fall of 2006. Three sites received no known effluent from coal mines. An additional 3 sites received effluent termed acid mine drainage (AMD). We recovered 1,064 parasites from 12 genera. The parasite community in sunfish collected downstream nearest to the source of AMD was significantly different from 3 upstream sites. In addition, 2 sites farther downstream receiving AMD were different from 2 of 3 reference sites. However, there was also considerable variability in parasite assemblages between sites grouped as above or below coal mine effluent. Several parasite species responded to changes in water quality. Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda), which uses sensitive mayfly hosts to complete its life cycle, was less abundant at sites downstream of coal mine effluent in both green sunfish and bluegill. In contrast, 2 acanthocephalans ( Neoechinorhynchus sp. and Eocollis arcanus) and a nematode ( Spiroxys sp.) were found in green sunfish more frequently in areas downstream of AMD. This study further suggests metazoan parasites may be useful as indicators of water quality; however, variability among similar sites may limit their application. In addition, strong assemblage differences were found among the 3 sunfish species, suggesting variable habitat usage and potential resource partitioning among congeneric fish hosts in streams.

  15. Impaired generation of new subcategories and switching in a semantic verbal fluency test in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, Laiss; Cunha Lima, Maria Luiza; Romano-Silva, Marco A; de Moraes, Edgar N; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2014-01-01

    The semantic verbal fluency task is broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects. Even some studies have identified differences in verbal fluency clustering and switching measures between subjects with normal aging and a clinical condition such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease, the results are not always consistent. This study aimed to compare clustering and switching measures of an animal's semantic verbal fluency task among normal controls (NC, n = 25), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 25), amnestic multiple domain Mild Cognitive Impairment (a+mdMCI; n = 25) and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 25) Brazilian subjects. The analyses were executed considering three (unifying the MCI subtypes) and four groups. As the data were not normally distributed, we carried out non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) to evaluate the differences in performance in the measures of the verbal fluency test among the groups. The comparison demonstrated that the groups differed in the total of correct words produced, number of clusters and switching but the measure of new subcategories was the only with significant difference among the NC and all the clinical groups. The measure of new subcategories is the number of original subcategories inside the higher category of animals that the subject produced, such as farm, domestic, African animals. Our results indicate that semantic memory impairment is a visible and recent deficit that occurs even in non-demented subjects with very MCI and the implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Diagnosis of water pollution caused by chemical effluents using hydro biological methods; Diagnostic de la pollution des eaux par les effluents chimiques au moyen des methodes hydrobiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeon, C.; Bonnefoy-Claudet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-04-01

    Industrial plants which discharge chemical effluents into rivers are faced with a double problem. 1 - To avoid excessive pollution which leads to an important modification of the medium and to a poisoning of the aquatic fauna, and in particular to the killing of fish. These disadvantages are avoided by a treatment of the effluents, by calculating the minimum fatal doses and the limiting dilutions for fish, and by carrying out biological analyses and tests on the residual waters. 2 - To avoid provoking continuous, slow and insidious pollutions which are more difficult to detect and which would result in the gradual sterilization of receptive media. In order to estimate this possible influence, the authors have listed the aquatic fauna and flora found in the canal which was the object of the experiment, and have modified the Saprobies system due to Kolwickz. They have tried to detect the presence or absence of pollution by estimating the density of the phyto-plankton formed on submerged laminae (periphyton) and the specific variations in the alga of which these populations are made up. In this report are given details of the tests and of the first results obtained. (authors) [French] Les usines deversant dans les cours d'eaux des effluents chimiques se trouvent devant un double probleme. 1 - Eviter les pollutions aigues qui se traduisent par une modification importante du milieu et par l'empoisonnement de la faune aquatique et notamment la mort du poisson. On evite ces inconvenients en traitant les effluents, en calculant les doses minima mortelles et les dilutions limites pour le poisson, en surveillant les eaux residuaires par analyses et tests biologiques. 2 - Ne pas provoquer des pollutions chroniques, lentes, insidieuses, plus difficiles a mettre en evidence qui aboutiraient a la sterilisation progressive des milieux recepteurs. Pour apprecier cette influence eventuelle les auteurs ont inventorie la faune et la flore aquatique du canal, objet de l

  17. Temperament and Character in Psychotic Depression Compared with Other Subcategories of Depression and Normal Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap G. Goekoop

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Support has been found for high harm avoidance as general vulnerability trait for depression and decreased self-directedness (SD as central state-related personality change. Additional personality characteristics could be present in psychotic depression (PD. Increased noradrenergic activation in PD predicts the involvement of reward dependence (RD. Methods. The data during the acute episode and after full remission from the same subjects, that we used before, were reanalyzed. The dependence of the 7 dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory version 9 on PD, three other subcategories of depression, and a group of normal controls was tested by MANCOVA. Results. Low RD at both time points, and low Cooperativeness during the acute episode, were found as additional characteristics of PD. Conclusion. The combination of two premorbid temperaments, high HA and low RD, and the development of a state-related reduction of two character functions, SD and CO, may be the precondition for the development of combined depressive and psychotic psychopathology.

  18. Method Description, Quality Assurance, Environmental Data, and other Information for Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater-Treatment-Plant Effluents, Streamwater, and Reservoirs, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Smith, Steven G.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluents are a demonstrated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. During 2004-09, a study was conducted to identify pharmaceutical compounds in effluents from WWTPs (including two that receive substantial discharges from pharmaceutical formulation facilities), streamwater, and reservoirs. The methods used to determine and quantify concentrations of seven pharmaceuticals are described. In addition, the report includes information on pharmaceuticals formulated or potentially formulated at the two pharmaceutical formulation facilities that provide substantial discharge to two of the WWTPs, and potential limitations to these data are discussed. The analytical methods used to provide data on the seven pharmaceuticals (including opioids, muscle relaxants, and other pharmaceuticals) in filtered water samples also are described. Data are provided on method performance, including spike data, method detection limit results, and an estimation of precision. Quality-assurance data for sample collection and handling are included. Quantitative data are presented for the seven pharmaceuticals in water samples collected at WWTP discharge points, from streams, and at reservoirs. Occurrence data also are provided for 19 pharmaceuticals that were qualitatively identified. Flow data at selected WWTP and streams are presented. Between 2004-09, 35-38 effluent samples were collected from each of three WWTPs in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial inflows (greater than 20 percent of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally less than 1 ug/L. Four pharmaceuticals (methadone, oxycodone

  19. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  20. Decolorization of synthetic dyes and textile effluents by basidiomycetous fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwaniyan, S.; Kharb, D.; Raghukumar, C.; Kuhad, R.C.

    tested in liquid cultures. A statistically significant positive correlation between laccase production and decolorization of dyes and effluents was obtained as compared to other ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase) production...