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Sample records for subcapsular tumor nodules

  1. Angled Cool-Tip Electrode for Radiofrequency Ablation of Small Superficial Subcapsular Tumors in the Liver: A Feasibility Study

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    Park, Sung Il [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Jung [Department of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14647 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Shin Jae [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 13496 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Min Woo; Shin, Won Sun; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Gyoung Min; Kim, Man Deuk; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Sub [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kwang-Hyub [Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall, in order to traverse normal liver parenchyma, and thereby, obtain favorable configuration of ablation margin. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 15 small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall in 15 patients, treated with radiofrequency ablation from March 2013 to June 2015 using a cool-tip electrode manually modified to create 25–35° angle at the junction between exposed and insulated segments. The tumors were hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 13) and metastases (n = 2: cholangiocellular carcinoma and rectosigmoid cancer), with maximum diameter of 10–26 mm (mean, 15.68 ± 5.29 mm). Under ultrasonographic guidance, the electrode tip was advanced to the depth of the tumors' epicenter about 1 cm from the margin. The tip was re-directed to penetrate the tumor for radiofrequency ablation. Minimal ablation margin was measured at immediate post-treatment CT. Radiological images and medical records were evaluated for success rate, length of minimal ablation margin and complications. Technical success rate of obtaining complete necrosis of the tumors was 100%, with no procedure-related complication. Minimal ablation margin ranged from 3–12 mm (mean, 7.07 ± 2.23 mm). CT/MRI follow-up at 21–1022 days (mean, 519.47 ± 304.51 days) revealed no local recurrence, but distant recurrence in 9 patients. Using an angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular tumors abutting abdominal wall may be a feasible technique for obtaining adequate ablation margin and lower complication rate.

  2. Angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular tumors in the liver: A feasibility study

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    Park, Sung Il; Shin, Min Woo; Shin, Won Seon [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall, in order to traverse normal liver parenchyma, and thereby, obtain favorable configuration of ablation margin. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 15 small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall in 15 patients, treated with radiofrequency ablation from March 2013 to June 2015 using a cool-tip electrode manually modified to create 25–35° angle at the junction between exposed and insulated segments. The tumors were hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 13) and metastases (n = 2: cholangiocellular carcinoma and rectosigmoid cancer), with maximum diameter of 10–26 mm (mean, 15.68 ± 5.29 mm). Under ultrasonographic guidance, the electrode tip was advanced to the depth of the tumors' epicenter about 1 cm from the margin. The tip was re-directed to penetrate the tumor for radiofrequency ablation. Minimal ablation margin was measured at immediate post-treatment CT. Radiological images and medical records were evaluated for success rate, length of minimal ablation margin and complications. Technical success rate of obtaining complete necrosis of the tumors was 100%, with no procedure-related complication. Minimal ablation margin ranged from 3–12 mm (mean, 7.07 ± 2.23 mm). CT/MRI follow-up at 21–1022 days (mean, 519.47 ± 304.51 days) revealed no local recurrence, but distant recurrence in 9 patients. Using an angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular tumors abutting abdominal wall may be a feasible technique for obtaining adequate ablation margin and lower complication rate.

  3. The tumor suppressor gene Trp53 protects the mouse lens against posterior subcapsular cataracts and the BMP receptor Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens

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    Luke A. Wiley

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that lenses lacking the Acvr1 gene, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor, had abnormal proliferation and cell death in epithelial and cortical fiber cells. We tested whether the tumor suppressor protein p53 (encoded by Trp53 affected this phenotype. Acvr1 conditional knockout (Acvr1CKO mouse fiber cells had increased numbers of nuclei that stained for p53 phosphorylated on serine 15, an indicator of p53 stabilization and activation. Deletion of Trp53 rescued the Acvr1CKO cell death phenotype in embryos and reduced Acvr1-dependent apoptosis in postnatal lenses. However, deletion of Trp53 alone increased the number of fiber cells that failed to withdraw from the cell cycle. Trp53CKO and Acvr1;Trp53DCKO (double conditional knockout, but not Acvr1CKO, lenses developed abnormal collections of cells at the posterior of the lens that resembled posterior subcapsular cataracts. Cells from human posterior subcapsular cataracts had morphological and molecular characteristics similar to the cells at the posterior of mouse lenses lacking Trp53. In Trp53CKO lenses, cells in the posterior plaques did not proliferate but, in Acvr1;Trp53DCKO lenses, many cells in the posterior plaques continued to proliferate, eventually forming vascularized tumor-like masses at the posterior of the lens. We conclude that p53 protects the lens against posterior subcapsular cataract formation by suppressing the proliferation of fiber cells and promoting the death of any fiber cells that enter the cell cycle. Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens. Enhancing p53 function in the lens could contribute to the prevention of steroid- and radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataracts.

  4. "Nodule in Nodule" on Thyroid Ultrasonography: Possibility of Follicular Carcinoma Transformed from Benign Thyroid Tumor.

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    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Ota, Hisashi; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yabuta, Tomonori; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Masuoka, Hiroo; Higashiyama, Takuya; Kihara, Minoru; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miya, Akihiro; Miyauchi, Akira

    2017-04-01

    It is generally considered impossible to differentiate follicular carcinomas from follicular adenomas by means of ultrasonography or cytology before surgery. Therefore, follicular carcinoma is histopathologically diagnosed by verifying capsular and/or vascular invasion after surgery. However, ultrasonography may play an important role in diagnosing follicular carcinoma preoperatively in a small number of cases. Four cases of follicular carcinoma or follicular neoplasm that transformed from a benign thyroid tumor and demonstrated a "nodule in nodule" appearance on ultrasonography are presented in this report. Characteristic ultrasound features of such patients are: (1) a "nodule in nodule" appearance, (2) a well-defined boundary line between the nodules, and (3) separate distribution of blood signals within each nodule. A small number of patients with follicular carcinomas or follicular neoplasms may present with a "nodule in nodule" appearance on ultrasonography. It was suggested a long time ago that follicular carcinomas may develop from benign thyroid tumors. The fact that follicular carcinomas appear within benign tumors may be evidence of thyroid tumorigenesis.

  5. Hematoma subcapsular por Fasciolasis

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    MORALES G,JUAN L; ARRIAGADA H,RENATO; SALAS G,LUIS; MORALES A,CARLOS; FUENTES A,FELIPE; Santana, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de una paciente de sexo femenino de 60 años de edad, ingresada en nuestro centro hospitalario por cuadro agudo de dolor abdominal en hipocondrio derecho asociado a vómitos y fiebre. Destaca la presencia de leucocitosis con eosinofilia de 56%. La tomografía computanzada abdominal muestra una colección subcapsular hepática. Durante su evolución presenta abdomen agudo, realizándose una laparoscopía exploratoria que confirma un hematoma subcapsular con presencia de hemopentone...

  6. Sister Mary Joseph Nodules on 99mTc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

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    Jing, Hongli; Zhang, Yingqiang; Li, Fang

    2015-02-01

    A Sister Mary Joseph nodule represents an umbilical metastasis, which is more commonly caused by a primary malignancy in gastrointestinal tract or from reproductive system. We report Sister Mary Joseph nodules caused by neuroendocrine tumor and revealed on Tc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy.

  7. Ultrasonic and pathological characteristics of ovarian mucinous cystic tumors with malignant mural nodules

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    Zhang, Yan; YUAN, ZHENG; Sun, Kai; Li, Peifeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Sarcomatous or anaplastic carcinoma mural nodules presenting in ovarian mucinous cystic tumors are very rare. Here, we reported the ultrasonic and pathological features of 2 such cases. Patient concerns: A 60-year-old woman presented with a complaint of lower abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed a hard, palpable mass in her right lower abdomen with mild tenderness. In addition, a 48-year-old woman presented with left abdominal pain and abdominal fullness. Physical...

  8. Extradigital glomus tumor revisited: Painful subcutaneous nodules located in various parts of the body

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    Gökhan Temiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glomus tumor is a common lesion of the subungual area of the hand fingers. However, glomus tumors located outside the hand region are rare and the diagnosis is often difficult due to their low incidence and lack of distinct clinical features in the physical examination. The presented article contains five cases of extradigital glomus tumors with a short review of the literature. Patients and Methods: Five cases of extradigital glomus tumor were included in the study. All lesions were purple colored subcutaneous nodules with sharp pain by digital palpation. All lesions were examined with ultrasound imaging were operated under local anesthesia using loupe magnification. Results: Among five patients, only one patient was female with a mean age of 35. Two lesions were located at the arm region, two at the crural region and one at the sternal area. The smallest nodule was 0.5 cm and the biggest lesion was 2 cm in diameter. In all the cases, the early postoperative period was uneventful without any surgical complication or acute recurrence. The postoperative 1 st year examination of all patients revealed complete resolution of the pain and no recurrence was encountered. Conclusions: Glomus tumor should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of all painful subcutaneous lesions especially for those with purple reflection on the skin surface. In this manner, patients with extradigital glomus tumors may be diagnosed earlier and unnecessary and wrong treatments may be prevented.

  9. Testicular Sperm Sampling by Subcapsular Orchiectomy in Klinefelter Patients

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    Fedder, Jens; Gravholt, Claus H.; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate subcapsular orchiectomy as a method to retrieve spermatozoa from minute testicular foci in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). METHODS: Fourteen men with KS were consecutively recruited to unilateral subcapsular orchiectomy. Testicular tissue was dissected mechanically...

  10. A Nonpalpable Nodule in Ectopic Axillary Breast Tissue: Consider Phyllodes Tumor

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    Eva Ruvalcaba-Limón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign and malignant pathology can develop in ectopic axillary breast tissue, such as fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumors, and breast cancer. We present a rare case of an asymptomatic 43-year-old woman with an axillary nodule which was identified during screening mammography within ectopic axillary breast tissue, initially considered as a suspicious lymph node. Radiologic studies were considered as Breast Imaging-Reporting Data System (BI-RADS 4. A hyperdense, lobular, and well-circumscribed nodule was identified in mammogram while the nodule by ultrasound (US was hypoechoic with indistinct microlobular margins, without vascularity by Doppler, and measuring 1.26×1 cm. Core-needle biopsy reported a fibroepithelial neoplasm. The patient was submitted to local wide-needle excision located in intraoperative radiography of the surgical specimen and margin evaluation. Final histopathological study reported a 1.8×1.2 cm benign phyllodes tumor, with irregular, pushing, and clear wide margins within normal ectopic breast tissue. The patient without surgical complications continued annual screening without recurrence during a follow-up that took place 24 months later.

  11. Mathematical modeling of intraperitoneal drug delivery: simulation of drug distribution in a single tumor nodule.

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    Steuperaert, Margo; Falvo D'Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Debbaut, Charlotte; De Wever, Olivier; Vanhove, Christian; Ceelen, Wim; Segers, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    The intraperitoneal (IP) administration of chemotherapy is an alternative treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis, allowing for higher intratumor concentrations of the cytotoxic agent compared to intravenous administration. Nevertheless, drug penetration depths are still limited to a few millimeters. It is thus necessary to better understand the limiting factors behind this poor penetration in order to improve IP chemotherapy delivery. By developing a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for drug penetration in a tumor nodule, we investigated the impact of a number of key parameters on the drug transport and penetration depth during IP chemotherapy. Overall, smaller tumors showed better penetration than larger ones, which could be attributed to the lower IFP in smaller tumors. Furthermore, the model demonstrated large improvements in penetration depth by subjecting the tumor nodules to vascular normalization therapy, and illustrated the importance of the drug that is used for therapy. Explicitly modeling the necrotic core had a limited effect on the simulated penetration. Similarly, the penetration depth remained virtually constant when the Darcy permeability of the tissue changed. Our findings illustrate that the developed parametrical CFD model is a powerful tool providing more insight in the drug transport and penetration during IP chemotherapy.

  12. Multiple brain tumor nodule resections under direct visualization of a neuronavigated endoscope.

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    Di, X

    2007-08-01

    With neuronavigation-assistance, endoscopic neurosurgery has a variety of advantages for brain tumor resection. However, intraoperative neuronavigation has to be operated by frequently alternating a neuronavigation wand and moving the microscope back-and-forth on the surgical field while the microscope is being used for surgery, except when using stereo overlays in the operating microscope aligned to the operative scene. In our practice, our surgical endoscope was used as a sole optical device and was also calibrated as a virtual wand targeting to tumor nodules while the operation was being performed under its simultaneous visualization. This paper gives a brief description and technical report of applications of image-guided endoscopy in two cases with multiple tumor nodules. A 0-degree, 4-mm rigid endoscopes (DCI; Storz and Co., Tuttlingen, Germany) and Voyager SX navigation system by Z-KAT (Marconi, USA) were used for both cases, a 32-year-old woman with multiple hemangioblastomas and a 46-year-old man with two recurrent astrocytomas. The endoscope has a digital video output, which was registered with reference calibration for rendered image-guided stereoscopic views. The neuronavigation screen was formatted to provide axial, coronal, and sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrating the location and trajectory of the endoscope's tip. Endoscope angles of 0 degrees and 30 degrees were used interchangeably during surgery. For both posterior fossa tumors, an entry point on the skull was identified using "virtual endoscopy" to visualize the intracranial anatomy and lesions. A 3-cm linear skin incision for both cases was made at the entry point guided by the endoscope's video output and a 3-dimensional (3-D) rendered image on the navigation system. Three tumor nodules in the first patient, and two nodules in the second, were removed directly under navigated-endoscopic visualization on one monitor with 3D imaging-guidance images on the other side-by-side. The

  13. An Obscure Case of Hepatic Subcapsular Hematoma

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    Albert Ndzengue

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous liver bleeding is often reported in preeclampsia. It is otherwise rare and has been linked to gross anatomical lesions and coagulopathy. We report a case of subcapsular hematoma of the liver without any apparent lesion and in the absence of coagulopathy. A 41-year-old male, paraplegic for 16 years, presented to the emergency department 3 days after sudden onset of right upper quadrant and shoulder pain. He had been on vitamins and 5,000 units subcutaneous heparin 12-hourly at the nursing home for the last month. He was in no distress, afebrile, with stable vitals. Physical examination showed a diverting colostomy, tender hepatomegaly and sacral decubiti. A fecal occult blood test was negative. There was spastic paraplegia below the level of T12. Two days after admission, the patient was afebrile and hemodynamically stable. PTT, PT, liver profile, BUN and creatinine were all normal, however his hemoglobin had dropped from 11.3 to 7.6 g/dl. An abdominal CT scan revealed an isolated 9.0 × 1.8 cm subcapsular hematoma. The patient received blood transfusion in the intensive care unit and was discharged 7 days later. In conclusion, spontaneous liver hemorrhage occurs in the nonobstetrical population in the setting of gross anatomical lesions or coagulopathy. This is the first report of an isolated subcapsular liver hematoma.

  14. Microscopic endometrial perivascular epithelioid cell nodules: a case report with the earliest presentation of a uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor

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    Fang Chia-Lang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC tumors (PEComas are a family of related mesenchymal tumors composed of PECs which co-express melanocytic and smooth muscle markers. Although their distinctive histologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and genetic features have been clearly demonstrated, their histogenesis and normal counterpart remain largely unknown. Precursor lesions of PEComas have rarely been reported. We herein describe a tuberous sclerosis patient with microscopic PEC nodules in the endometrium of adenomyosis, pelvic endometriosis, an ovarian endometriotic cyst, and the endometrium of the uterine cavity. The nodules showed a mixture of spindle-shaped and epithelioid cells concentrically arranged around small arteries. The cells exhibited uniform nuclei, light eosinophilic cytoplasm, and immunoreactivity with HMB-45 and CD10. Some nodules revealed continuity with a PEComa in the myometrium. These findings support microscopic endometrial PEC nodules possibly being precursor lesions of uterine PEComas. The wide distribution of the nodules in the pelvis may be related to the multicentricity of PEComas in tuberous sclerosis patients. Owing to the immunoreactivity with CD10, microscopic endometrial PEC nodules may be misinterpreted as endothelial stromal cells unless melanocytic markers are stained. To the best of our knowledge, this is a case with the earliest manifestation of PEC lesions occurring in the endometrium. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9658280017862643

  15. Histopathology of Subcapsular Cataract in a Patient with Atopic Dermatitis.

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    Shu, Daisy Yao; Ong, Keith; Lovicu, Frank J

    2017-02-01

    To report the histopathological features of anterior subcapsular cataract associated with atopic dermatitis. A 29-year-old man with atopic dermatitis presented with bilateral anterior subcapsular cataract. After routine cataract surgery, the anterior subcapsular cataractous tissue was obtained as an anterior capsulorhexis flap and prepared as a wholemount for histological analysis. The wholemount consisted of a well-demarcated central grayish-white plaque surrounded by transparent capsule, corroborating the slit-lamp biomicroscopic appearance. Higher magnification of the plaque revealed a fibrous and amorphous mass, most likely extracellular matrix owing to the presence of irregularly arranged bundled strands of fibrils, typical of collagen. Lens epithelial cells at the plaque were densely packed and myofibroblast-like and immunoreactive for alpha-smooth muscle actin. In contrast, lens epithelial cells more distant from the plaque retained their regular cuboidal arrangement and regular spacing, and were not labeled for alpha-smooth muscle actin, similar to lens epithelial cells obtained from a non-cataractous case. The presence of alpha-smooth muscle actin-reactive elongated cells at the plaque suggests that the cuboidal lens epithelial cells making up the anterior subcapsular cataract have transdifferentiated into spindle-shaped myofibroblastic cells that produce and deposit aberrant extracellular matrix. This transdifferentiation process, more commonly known as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, contributes to a fibrotic response leading to the development of human anterior subcapsular cataract.

  16. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the liver coexisting with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor

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    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Moraes Neto, Francisco Alves; Agaimy, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) develop other neoplasms, either synchronously or metachronously. In this report we describe coexistence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor and a hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) in a 51-year-old woman...... with no evidence of tuberous sclerosis. A subcapsular hepatic nodule (0.8 cm in diameter) was found during surgery for symptomatic gastric neoplasm (15 cm in diameter) arising from the lesser curvature. Both tumors revealed histomorphological and immunohistochemical features confirming a diagnosis of a small...... incidental hepatic PEComa and a high risky extramural gastric GIST, respectively. The patient remained disease-free 25 mo after surgery with no evidence of tumor recurrence or new neoplasms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PEComa in a patient with GIST. Hepatic lesions detected synchronously...

  17. Subcapsular liver haematoma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation by untrained personnel.

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    Monsuez, Jean-Jacques; Charniot, Jean-Christophe; Veilhan, Luc Antoine; Mougué, Ferdinand; Bellin, Marie-France; Boissonnas, Alain

    2007-05-01

    Although early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with increased survival of sudden cardiac arrest victims, it may also result in miscellaneous injuries. A 25-year-old inebriated man rescued from drowning in a swimming pool was apnoeic and pulseless after being pulled out of the water. Successful CPR was provided by untrained bystanders, including abdominal thrusts thought to remove water from the airways and chest compressions to provide haemodynamic support. As the patient progressively improved during his subsequent hospital stay, he complained of right upper abdominal and thoracic pain. A computed tomographic scan showed a 11 cm subcapsular haematoma contiguous to the right hepatic lobe. A favourable outcome was obtained after conservative, non-operative treatment. Subcapsular haematoma of the liver is a potentially life threatening complication that warrants consideration in survivors of cardiac arrest who have received closed chest compression and/or abdominal thrusts.

  18. Hematoma hepático subcapsular en el puerperio

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    Carazo H,Belén; Romero C,Manuel Ángel; Puebla M,Cristina; Sanz M,Amelia; Rojas P,Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    El hematoma hepático subcapsular es una complicación infrecuente y grave durante la gestación o el período puerperal. Esta patología generalmente se relaciona con preeclampsia o síndrome de HELLP. Su diagnóstico debe confirmarse por tomografía axial computarizada. La precocidad del diagnóstico y tratamiento es importante para evitar la ruptura del hematoma.

  19. Elimination of a Viscumin-Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles Conjugate from the Tumor Nodule in Mice.

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    Maltseva, D V; Nikulin, S V; Sergeeva, N S; Tonevitskaya, S A; Sakharov, D A

    2017-10-01

    External magnetic field is characterized by low toxicity and existence of magnetic properties, which contributes to an interest in the development of products from ferromagnetic nanoparticles (FNP) for antitumor therapy. Previously we synthesized a conjugate of ferromagnetic magnetite nanoparticles and viscumin (mistletoe lectin I, MLI), which exhibits the antitumor activity. Studying the pharmacological properties of this conjugate (FNP-MLI) was directed to the evaluation of FNP-MLI elimination after intratumor injection in mice. The elimination rate of FNP-MLI was much lower than that of native plant MLI. The presence of FNP-MLI was not accompanied by undesired changes in the tumor tissue. The use of a FNP-MLI conjugate allowed us to prolong the time of MLI presence in tissues without increasing the dose of exogenous lectin. These features contribute to the prolongation of an immunomodulatory effect of MLI.

  20. Subcapsular Hematoma Causing Anuria After Renal Graft Trauma.

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    Sedigh, Omidreza; Lasaponara, Fedele; Dalmasso, Ettore; Gai, Massimo; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Bosio, Andrea; Pasquale, Giovanni; Lillaz, Beatrice; Biancone, Luigi; Frea, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    A 67-year-old man presented to the emergency department 22 hours after a trauma to his kidney graft. He was asymptomatic during the first 10 hours, then he became anuric. His serum creatinine level was 2.73 mg/dL (baseline, 0.7 mg/dL), and his hemoglobin concentration was 13.1 g/dL. Computer tomography showed a 4-cm subcapsular hematoma without active bleeding. He underwent urgent decompression of the hematoma, and we did not find any active bleeding or parenchymal laceration. Urinary output had already recovered by the end of surgery without early or late complications. In conclusion, subcapsular hematoma, complicating a traumatic event on a kidney graft, can lead to a progressive parenchymal compression resulting in anuria. So, although in the absence of anemia, such events require urgent surgical decompression. Symptoms cannot be immediate, so all the graft trauma should be investigated with early ultrasound. Little is known in the case of major renal trauma but mildly symptomatic. Probably surgical exploration is better than observation to prevent possible early and late complications such as organ rejection or a Page kidney.

  1. Comparison of the clinicopathologic features of solitary and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma and the utility of testing an additional tumor nodule for BRAFV600E in multifocal cases

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    Tan J

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective review of the tumor focality and BRAFV600E mutational status of all thyroidectomy cases diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC between 1/2010 and 7/2013 was performed. A total of 122 cases were included in this study consisting of 65 solitary cases and 57 multifocal cases with a total of 209 tumor nodules. In the multifocal tumors with absent BRAFV600E mutation in the dominant nodule, an additional tumor focus was submitted for testing. The clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were then compared and analyzed. Significant association with BRAFV600E mutation was driven by previously established unfavorable histologic features such as usual variant, capsular invasion, lymphovascular invasion, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis. We did not establish this association with tumor multifocality in this study. Although more cases of mPTC (multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma had BRAFV600E mutation in comparison with the solitary cases (56 vs 44%, we did not find a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.0689. Furthermore, at least one of the unfavorable histologic features was also noted in three out of the five multifocal cases with discordant mutations in the two largest nodules. The heterogeneity of BRAFV600E mutational status in mPTC is evident in this study and although it seems prudent to further test additional foci, it appears that in most cases there are already histologic features that support a more aggressive behavior. Selective testing based on histomorphology may be a more practical approach in these cases.

  2. Thyroid Nodules

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    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource New Mobile App DOWNLOAD Thyroid Nodules September 2017 Download PDFs English Espanol Hindi ... Resources Mayo Clinic American Thyroid Association What are thyroid nodules and who is at risk? A thyroid ...

  3. Thyroid nodule

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    ... nodules are not always found, but can include: Hashimoto's disease Lack of iodine in the diet ... nodules are sometimes found in people who have Hashimoto's disease. This may cause symptoms of an underactive ...

  4. Ruptured subcapsular liver haematoma following mechanically-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

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    Joseph, John R; Freundlich, Robert Edward; Abir, Mahshid

    2016-02-02

    A 64-year-old man with a history of ascending aortic surgery and pulmonary embolus presented with shortness of breath. He rapidly decompensated, prompting intubation, after which he lost pulses. Manual resuscitation was initiated immediately, with subsequent use of a LUCAS-2 mechanical compression device. The patient was given bolus thrombolytic therapy and regained pulses after 7 min of CPR. Compressions were reinitiated with the LUCAS-2 twice more during resuscitation over the subsequent hour for brief episodes of PEA. After confirmation of massive pulmonary embolism on CT, the patient underwent interventional radiology-guided ultrasonic catheter placement with local thrombolytic therapy and experienced immediate improvement in oxygenation. He later developed abdominal compartment syndrome, despite cessation of thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy. Bedside exploratory abdominal laparotomy revealed a ruptured subcapsular haematoma of the liver. The patient's haemodynamics improved following surgery and he was extubated 11 days postarrest with intact neurological function. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Manganese nodules

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    Hein, James R.; Harff, Jan; Petersen, Sven; Thiede, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Figure 1) has been known since the late 1800s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of 1873–1876. However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater. Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Economic interest in Mn nodules began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when John Mero finished his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, which was published in the journal Economic Geology (Mero, 1962) and later as a book (Mero, 1965). By the mid-1970s, large consortia had formed to search for and mine Mn nodules that occur between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones (CCZ) in the NE Pacific (Figure 2). This is still the area considered of greatest economic potential in the global ocean because of high nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and Mn contents and the dense distribution of nodules in the area. While the mining of nodules was fully expected to begin in the late 1970s or early 1980s, this never occurred due to a downturn in the price of metals on the global market. Since then, many research cruises have been undertaken to study the CCZ nodules, and now 15 contracts for exploration sites have been given or are pending by the International Seabed Authority (ISA). Many books and science journal articles have been published summarizing the early work (e.g., Baturin, 1988; Halbach et al., 1988), and research has continued to the present day (e.g., ISA, 1999; ISA, 2010). Although the initial attraction for nodules was their high Ni, Cu, and Mn contents, subsequent work has shown that nodules host large quantities of other critical metals needed for high-tech, green-tech, and energy applications (Hein et al., 2013; Hein and Koschinsky, 2014).

  6. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Ground-Glass Opacity Nodules Using Open-Source Software for Quantifying Tumor Heterogeneity.

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    Li, Ming; Narayan, Vivek; Gill, Ritu R; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Barile, Maria F; Gao, Feng; Bueno, Raphael; Jayender, Jagadeesan

    2017-12-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop quantitative imaging biomarkers obtained from high-resolution CTs for classifying ground-glass nodules (GGNs) into atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC); to evaluate the utility of contrast enhancement for differential diagnosis; and to develop and validate a support vector machine (SVM) to predict the GGN type. The heterogeneity of 248 GGNs was quantified using custom software. Statistical analysis with a univariate Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate metrics for significant differences among the four GGN groups. The heterogeneity metrics were used to train a SVM to learn and predict the lesion type. Fifty of 57 and 51 of 57 heterogeneity metrics showed statistically significant differences among the four GGN groups on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans, respectively. The SVM predicted lesion type with greater accuracy than did three expert radiologists. The accuracy of classifying the GGNs into the four groups on the basis of the SVM algorithm was 70.9%, whereas the accuracy of the radiologists was 39.6%. The accuracy of SVM in classifying the AIS and MIA nodules was 73.1%, and the accuracy of the radiologists was 35.7%. For indolent versus invasive lesions, the accuracy of the SVM was 88.1%, and the accuracy of the radiologists was 60.8%. We found that contrast enhancement does not significantly improve the differential diagnosis of GGNs. Compared with the GGN classification done by the three radiologists, the SVM trained regarding all the heterogeneity metrics showed significantly higher accuracy in classifying the lesions into the four groups, differentiating between AIS and MIA and between indolent and invasive lesions. Contrast enhancement did not improve the differential diagnosis of GGNs.

  7. Ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the liver due to pre‑eclampsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the liver (RSHL) can mimic ruptured interstitial pregnancy because each of these conditions occasionally presents at the same gestational period and both do manifest hemodynamic instability. The similarities between the two conditions pose a diagnostic challenge, especially in an ...

  8. Influence of Pulmonary Nodules on Chest Computed Tomography and Risk of Recurrence in Stage IV Wilms Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkland, Robert S. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Nanda, Ronica H., E-mail: rhazari@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Alazraki, Adina [Department of Radiology, Aflac Cancer Center at Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Chest computed tomography (CT) is currently accepted as the main modality for initial disease staging and response assessment in Wilms tumor (WT). However, there is great variability in the number and size of lung metastases at the time of diagnosis and after induction chemotherapy. There is a lack of clinical evidence as to how this variability in tumor burden affects choice of therapy and disease outcome. This study sought to evaluate a previously proposed lung metastases risk stratification system based on CT findings and clinical outcomes in stage IV WT patients. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five pediatric patients with a diagnosis of stage IV WT with evaluable pre- and postdiagnosis CT scans between 1997 and 2012 were included in the analysis. Patients were divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories based on the size and number of pulmonary metastases before and after 6 weeks of chemotherapy. Association of the lung risk groups with lung recurrence-free survival and overall survival at each time point was analyzed with relevant covariates. Results: Risk group distribution both at diagnosis and after induction chemotherapy was not influenced by tumor histology. Initial risk grouping suggested an association with disease-free survival at 5 years (P=.074); however, the most significant correlation was with postinduction chemotherapy disease status (P=.027). In patients with an intermediate or high burden of disease after 6 weeks of chemotherapy, despite receiving whole-lung and boost irradiation, survival outcomes were poorer. Conclusions: Pulmonary tumor burden in stage IV WT on chest CT can predict disease outcome. Patients with intermediate- or low-risk disease, especially after induction therapy, have a higher risk for recurrence. After prospective validation, this method may become a valuable tool in adaptation of therapy to improve outcome.

  9. Transient Occlusion of Bilateral Internal Iliac Arteries Facilitates Bloodless Operative Field in Subcapsular Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral resection of the prostate is the gold standard of surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Nevertheless, open subcapsular prostatectomy is still performed for large BPH. While enucleation of prostatic adenoma is being performed, unneglectable bleeding can occur and surgeons need to rush to remove adenomas, often using fingers and in a blinded fashion. The blood supply to the prostatic capsule and adenoma can be reduced to a marked extent in subcapsular prostatectomy if the bilateral internal iliac arteries are transiently occluded. Thus, a bloodless operative field is reasonably acquired during enucleation of adenoma, which would, otherwise, be a cause for concern to surgeons due to bleeding. It is not always applicable, but it could be an option if the estimated volume of BPH is more than 100 mL. In two cases, bilateral internal iliac arteries were occluded with Bulldog clamps, and then adenomas of 159 and 97 g were enucleated.

  10. Type 1 Interferons and NK Cells Limit Murine Cytomegalovirus Escape from the Lymph Node Subcapsular Sinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley; Lawler, Clara; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish chronic, systemic infections. Peripheral infection spreads via lymph nodes, which are also a focus of host defence. Thus, this is a point at which systemic infection spread might be restricted. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSM) captured murine CMV (MCMV) from the afferent lymph and poorly supported its replication. Blocking the type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor (IFNAR) increased MCMV infection of SSM and of the fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) lining the subcapsular sinus, and accelerated viral spread to the spleen. Little splenic virus derived from SSM, arguing that they mainly induce an anti-viral state in the otherwise susceptible FRC. NK cells also limited infection, killing infected FRC and causing tissue damage. They acted independently of IFN-I, as IFNAR blockade increased NK cell recruitment, and NK cell depletion increased infection in IFNAR-blocked mice. Thus SSM restricted MCMV infection primarily though IFN-I, with NK cells providing a second line of defence. The capacity of innate immunity to restrict MCMV escape from the subcapsular sinus suggested that enhancing its recruitment might improve infection control. PMID:27926941

  11. Nódulo umbilical metastático (nódulo da Irmã Maria José: um sinal de alerta para tumoração maligna intra-abdominal - relato de caso Sister Mary Joseph's nodule: a warning sign for intra-abdominal malignant tumors. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Soares Fogaça

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available O nódulo da "Irmã Maria José" é tumor metastático que acomete a cicatriz umbilical e pode ser a primeira evidência de neoplasia intra-abdominal disseminada. Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com o nódulo da "Irmã Maria José" no qual o diagnóstico do tumor primário só foi possível por meio dos testes imuno-histoquímicos da lesão biopsiada da pele.The umbilical metastatic tumoral nodule, Sister Mary Joseph's nodule, is a rare clinical sign indicative of disseminated intra-abdominal tumor, and may be the first evidence of malignancy. The authors report a case of a patient with umbilical metastatic nodule in whom the diagnosis of the primary tumor was possible by immunohistochemistry of the lesion biopsy.

  12. Intravital and whole-organ imaging reveals capture of melanoma-derived antigen by lymph node subcapsular macrophages leading to widespread deposition on follicular dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalli, Federica; Proulx, Steven T; Schwendener, Reto; Detmar, Michael; Schlapbach, Christoph; Stein, Jens V

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant antigens expressed by tumor cells, such as in melanoma, are often associated with humoral immune responses, which may in turn influence tumor progression. Despite recent data showing the central role of adaptive immune responses on cancer spread or control, it remains poorly understood where and how tumor-derived antigen (TDA) induces a humoral immune response in tumor-bearing hosts. Based on our observation of TDA accumulation in B cell areas of lymph nodes (LNs) from melanoma patients, we developed a pre-metastatic B16.F10 melanoma model expressing a fluorescent fusion protein, tandem dimer tomato, as a surrogate TDA. Using intravital two-photon microscopy (2PM) and whole-mount 3D LN imaging of tumor-draining LNs in immunocompetent mice, we report an unexpectedly widespread accumulation of TDA on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which were dynamically scanned by circulating B cells. Furthermore, 2PM imaging identified macrophages located in the subcapsular sinus of tumor-draining LNs to capture subcellular TDA-containing particles arriving in afferent lymph. As a consequence, depletion of macrophages or genetic ablation of B cells and FDCs resulted in dramatically reduced TDA capture in tumor-draining LNs. In sum, we identified a major pathway for the induction of humoral responses in a melanoma model, which may be exploitable to manipulate anti-TDA antibody production during cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Hyper-responsiveness of adrenal gland to vasopressin resulting in enhanced plasma cortisol in patients with adrenal nodule(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sawako; Uchida, Daigaku; Koide, Hisashi; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Noguchi, Yoshihiko; Saito, Yasushi; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2008-10-01

    Hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin has been demonstrated in ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH) and some adrenal adenomas with Cushing's syndrome (CS). However, the clinical significance of hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin has not been investigated systematically in adrenal nodule(s). The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence of hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin (vasopressin responder) and their clinical characteristics in terms of hormonal secretion using vasopressin-loading test in the patients with adrenal nodule(s) except pheochromocytomas. A vasopressin-loading test was performed on 61 consecutive patients with adrenal nodules (CS: 33, aldosterone-producing adenoma: 10, non-functional tumor: 18). Vasopressin responders were observed in 36.1% of adrenal nodule(s), 42.4% of CS and 28.5% of non-CS. In responders with CS, eight patients had bilateral nodules that were diagnosed as AIMAH, and the remaining six patients had a unilateral nodule. These patients had lower plasma cortisol than non-responders at both morning (Pcortisol was frequently observed among patients with adrenal nodule(s). The vasopressin responders among the patients with adrenal nodule(s) frequently had CS with low autonomous cortisol secretion.

  14. HELLP Syndrome Complicated with Postpartum Subcapsular Ruptured Liver Hematoma and Purtscher-Like Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cernea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purtscher's retinopathy is usually associated with trauma, acute pancreatitis, vasculitis, lupus, and bone fractures. It was rarely described postpartum in patients with preeclampsia as well as associated with HELLP syndrome. We present a case of a multiparous patient aged 44 with severe preeclampsia and postpartum HELLP syndrome complicated with Purtscher-like retinopathy and large ruptured subcapsular liver hematoma that required emergency abdominal surgery after premature delivery of a dead fetus. Postsurgical outcome was favorable regarding both liver function and visual acuity.

  15. Benign rheumatoid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy P

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid nodules occur usually in advanced seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, signifying poor prognosis. However rarely rheumatoid nodules can be encountered in patients with no antecedent evidence of arthritis. Herein a case of an arthritic benign rheumatoid nodules is described.

  16. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  17. Quantitative analysis of CT attenuation distribution patterns of nodule components for pathologic categorization of lung nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the feasibility of classifying pathologic invasive nodules and pre-invasive or benign nodules by quantitative analysis of the CT attenuation distribution patterns and other radiomic features of lung nodule components. We developed a new 3D adaptive multi-component Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method to segment the solid and non-solid nodule components and the surrounding lung parenchymal region. Features were extracted to characterize the size, shape, and the CT attenuation distribution of the entire nodule as well as the individual regions. With permission of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) project, a data set containing the baseline low dose CT scans of 53 cases with known pathologic tumor type categorization was obtained. The 53 cases contain 45 invasive nodules (group 1) and 42 pre-invasive nodules (group 2). A logistic regression model (LRM) was built using leave-one-case-out resampling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for classification of group 1 and group 2, using the pathologic categorization as ground truth. With 4 selected features, the LRM achieved a test area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.877+/-0.036. The results demonstrated that the pathologic invasiveness of lung adenocarcinomas could be categorized according to the CT attenuation distribution patterns of the nodule components manifested on LDCT images.

  18. Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonists are Superior to Subcapsular Orchiectomy in Lowering Testosterone Levels of Men with Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter Busch; Kistorp, Caroline; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    levels between patients undergoing subcapsular orchiectomy and patients treated with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist triptorelin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial we included 58 consecutive hormone naïve men diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer at Herlev...

  19. Small Nodules Localization on CT Images of Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, E. V.; Kharuzhyk, S. A.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Kovalev, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) lung cancer remains the leading cause of death of men among all malignant tumors [1, 2]. One of the reasons of such a statistics is the fact that the lung cancer is hardly diagnosed on the yearly stages when it is almost asymptomatic. The purpose of this paper is to present a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) software developed for assistance of early detection of nodules in CT lung images including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) as well as multiple nodules. The efficiency of nodule localization was intended to be as high as the level of the best practice. The software developed supports several functions including lungs segmentation, selection of nodule candidates and nodule candidates filtering.

  20. CT and MRI findings of cirrhosis-related benign nodules with ischaemia or infarction after variceal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.K., E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.co [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Jeon Ju (Korea, Republic of); Park, G.; Kim, C.S.; Han, Y.M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Jeon Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of cirrhosis-related benign nodules with ischaemia or infarction. Materials and methods: Sixteen consecutive patients (14 men and two women) who had been diagnosed with cirrhosis-related benign nodules with ischaemia or infarction after variceal bleeding based on the results of dynamic CT (n = 15) and MRI (n = 8) were included in this study. Five patients had histopathological confirmation via liver transplantation (n = 2) and percutaneous biopsy (n = 3). Images were analyzed for the enhancement pattern, signal intensities, location, and configuration of the lesions. Results: Most of the lesions were depicted as multifocal discrete or clustered nodules with some irregular patchy areas (size range 3-28 mm). They were predominantly found in subcapsular area or caudate lobe. Most nodular lesions were seen as hypoattenuating (hypointense) nodules with rim enhancement during dynamic CT or MRI. On T2-weighted images, nodular lesions were predominantly seen as target appearing hyperintense nodules. On follow-up images (range 2-24 months), most of the lesions disappeared or decreased in size. Conclusion: CT and MRI can be used to demonstrate characteristic findings of cirrhosis-related benign nodules with ischaemia or infarction. Rapid resolution of the nodules at follow-up imaging can also be helpful for diagnosing these lesions.

  1. Nodule on the scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Tarun; Singh, Varinder; Singh, Jasbir

    2011-01-01

    A 39-year-old Sikh businessman of Asian origin was referred to us with complaints of a painless scrotal lesion that had enlarged over a 2-year period and was causing him discomfort. There was no history of trauma, inflammation, or infection, and no significant urologic history. Physical examination revealed a 2x2 cm skin-colored nodule of rubbery consistency on the left side of the scrotum (Figure 1), which was separate from the testicles or epididymis. There was no inguinal lymphadenopathy. Scrotal ultrasonography demonstrated that the testicles and epididymis were normal. The scrotal mass and surrounding skin were surgically resected using a vertical elliptical incision and sent for histopathology. Histologic examination was consistent with leiomyoma. The epidermis was normal with a prominent proliferation of intertwined smooth muscle fibers with interlacing collagen bundles in the dermis. At higher magnification, the cells were spindle-shaped with eosinophilic cytoplasm and long nuclei. These interweaving bundles of cells surrounded the vessels and the pilosebaceous apparatus. There was no evidence of atypia and the mitotic index was low (Figure 2 and Figure 3). Some normal dartoic muscle fibers were seen in the periphery of the tumor. The patient's postoperative recovery was uneventful. On follow-up visit 10 days later, he did not have any complications, and the sutures were removed. At his last visit 6 months after the procedure, he was still asymptomatic and did not have any recurrence.

  2. Basal membrane complex architecture is disrupted during posterior subcapsular cataract formation in Royal College of Surgeons rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies detailing the development of posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC) in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats have shown that aberrant fiber-end migration underlies the structural compromise. This investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of select basal membrane complex (BMC) components and to assess the intravitreal levels of specific cytokines during PSC formation. Methods Lenses from 52 RCS dystrophic rats (RCS/Lav) and 28 genetically matched control animals (RCS-rdy+/Lav) from 2 to 8 weeks old were used. After enucleation, vitreous was collected for eventual cytokine level analyses; lenses were then removed and processed for immunocytochemical localization of actin, cadherin, β integrin, vinculin, and cell nuclei. Results At 2–3 weeks postnatal, dystrophic lenses showed normal BMC distribution of actin, cadherin, and vinculin; however β integrin distribution was altered as compared to controls. By 4–6 weeks of age, F-actin was visible as bright foci arranged in a “rosette” pattern around fiber-end profiles. Concurrently, vinculin was rearranged into a diffuse pattern within the BMC. Cadherin delineated the fiber ends in dystrophic lenses until 5 weeks postnatal, after which it displayed diffuse cytoplasmic staining with more definitive labeling at the BMC periphery. β integrin was initially distributed as punctuate spots at 2–3 weeks postnatal; however, by 4–6 weeks it was co-localized with F-actin around the periphery of fiber ends. The distribution of F-actin, cadherin, and β integrin components did not undergo further changes after 6 weeks of age; however, vinculin was present predominantly at the periphery of the BMC in 7–8-week-old dystrophic lenses. Intravitreal cytokine levels were assessed for interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interferon (IFN)-γ. Levels of IL-1α, IL-4, TNF, and IFN-γ demonstrated a similar pattern, with concentrations increasing from 2 to 6

  3. Successful Hemostasis with Recombinant Activated Factor VII in a Patient with Massive Hepatic Subcapsular Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Lee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant activated coagulation factor VII (rFVIIa is known to be effective in the management of acquired deficiencies of factor VII and platelet function defects. But recently, rFVIIa has been successfully used to treat ongoing bleeding in disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC condition. The patient reported here was suspected to be suffering from toxic hepatitis on admission. After percutaneous liver biopsy, bleeding occurred and did not stop even after right hepatic artery embolization. The patient developed a severe hemorrhage that resulted in hypovolemic shock, hemoperitoneum, and a massive subcapsular hematoma. The patient then developed DIC due to massive transfusion, as well as acute liver necrosis. The patient was given 400 μg/kg of rFVIIa. Recombinant factor VIIa was administered in an attempt to control the bleeding. This stabilized the hemoglobin levels of the patient. The patient gradually recovered in 4 months. In conclusion, this case suggests that rFVIIa can be successfully used for the hemostasis of uncontrolled bleeding in DIC.

  4. Nodulation and Rhizobium Population in Root Nodules of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nodulation and rhizobium population in root nodules of 5- year old Leucaena leucocephala; Gliricidia sepium and Acacia mangium were assessed. Nodules of these tree legumes were quantified in terms of their numbers, lateral and vertical distribution while the rhizobium population in cultured nodules was counted as ...

  5. Elaboration of an algorithm for preserving a projective skin flap above the tumor when planning subcutaneous mastectomy from an aesthetically acceptable area in patients with breast nodule cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Khamitov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indications for the conservation of the skin flap over the tumor for potential offset of the operational access in aesthetically acceptable zone in patients with primary nodular breast cancer are discussed in the article. The survey results of 203 patients (T1–2N0–3M0 are analyzed. The study revealed that the risk factors affecting the skin flap involvement are the presence of the skin flattening as well as topographic and anatomical characteristics: tumor < 3 cm, located at a depth of < 0.46 ± 0.2 cm, tumor ≥ 3 cm located at a depth of < 1.66 cm. Based on the data the algorithm for immediate breast reconstruction from aesthetically acceptable zone for surgical oncologist is compiled.

  6. Lenticular fibroxanthomatous nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok J; Ling, Jun X; Aaberg, Thomas M; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2003-02-01

    To describe two patients with unique lenticular nodular proliferations. Observational case reports. The clinical histories and pathologic findings of two patients with lenticular nodular proliferations were reviewed. One patient with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous and another patient with trauma developed lenticular nodular proliferations. The nodules were vascularized collections of foamy histiocytes, multinucleated cells, lens capsule, and lens epithelium that had undergone fibrous metaplasia. The lesions were classified as lenticular fibroxanthomatous nodules. A lenticular fibroxanthomatous nodule is a unique clinicopathologic entity that should be differentiated from Soemmerring ring, Elschnig pearl, and other simulating entities such as juvenile xanthogranuloma.

  7. Large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of renal calculi in a spina bifida patient: lessons we learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Subramanian Vaidyanathan,1 Azi Samsudin,2 Gurpreet Singh,3 Peter L Hughes,4 Bakul M Soni,1 Fahed Selmi1 1Regional Spinal Injuries Center, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK; 2Department of Urology, Whiston Hospital, Prescot, UK; 3Department of Urology, 4Department of Radiology, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK Introduction: Paraplegic patients are at greater risk of developing complications following ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of urine infection associated with neuropathic bladder, difficulties in access due to altered anatomy of urinary bladder and urethra, spinal curvature, spasticity, and contractures. We report the occurrence of large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopy and discuss lessons we learn from this case.Case report: A 48-year-old male patient with spina bifida underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy and ureteric stenting for left ureteric stone and staghorn calculus with hydronephrosis; laser lithotripsy was repeated after 3 months; both procedures were performed by a senior urologist and did not result in any complications. Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy was performed 5 months later by a urological trainee; it was difficult to negotiate the scope as vision became poor because of bleeding (as a result of the procedure. Postoperatively, hematuria persisted; temperature was 39°C. Cefuroxime was given intravenously followed by gentamicin for 5 days; hematuria subsided gradually; he was discharged home. Ten days later, this patient developed temperature, the urine culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin was given orally. Computed tomography (CT of the urinary tract, performed 4 weeks after ureteroscopy, revealed a 9×7 cm subcapsular collection on the left kidney compressing underlying parenchyma. Percutaneous drainage was not feasible because of severe curvature of spine. Isotope renogram revealed deterioration in left renal function from 30

  8. Laparoscopic finding of a hepatic subcapsular spider-like telangiectasis sign in biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Meng; Tang, Shao-Tao; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xi; Yang, De-Hua; Xiong, Meng; Li, Shuai; Cao, Guo-Qing; Wang, Yong

    2017-10-21

    To assess the diagnostic value of a laparoscopic finding of a hepatic subcapsular spider-like telangiectasis (HSST) sign in biliary atresia. A retrospective study was conducted first and then a validation set was used to investigate the value of an HSST sign in predicting biliary atresia (BA). In the retrospective study, laparoscopic images of the liver surface were reviewed in 126 patients with infantile cholestasis (72 BA patients and 54 non-BA cholestasis patients) and a control group of 38 patients with non-hepatic conditions. Analysis was first made by two observers separately and finally, a consensus conclusion was achieved. Then, the diagnostic value of the HSST sign was validated in an independent cohort including 45 BA and 45 non-BA patients. In the retrospective investigation, an amplified HSST sign was found in all BA patients, while we were unable to detect the HSST sign in 98.1% of the 54 non-BA patients. There was no HSST sign in any of the control subjects. In the first review, the sensitivity and specificity from one reviewer were 100% and 98.1%, respectively, and the results from the other reviewer were both 100%. The consensus sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 98.1%, respectively. The HSST sign was defined as being composed of several enlarged tortuous spider-like vascular plexuses with two to eight branches distributed on all over the liver surface, which presented as either a concentrated type or a dispersed type. In the independent validation group, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the HSST sign were 100%, 97.8%, 97.8% and 100%, respectively. The HSST sign is characteristic in BA, and laparoscopic exploration for the HSST sign is valuable in the diagnosis of BA.

  9. Catarata subcapsular posterior em pacientes com pênfigo e penfigóide tratados com corticoterapia oral Posterior subcapsular cataract in patients with pemphigus and pemphigoid using oral corticosteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Reggiani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O tratamento mais utilizado para pacientes com dermatoses bolhosas crônicas é a corticoterapia oral, muitas vezes em altas doses e por períodos prolongados. Como efeitos colaterais dessa terapêutica, freqüentemente ocorrem: hipertensão arterial, diabete, osteoporose, infecções e distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos. A catarata subcapsular posterior é raramente citada na literatura como efeito colateral da corticoterapia em pacientes com doenças bolhosas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de catarata subcapsular posterior como efeito colateral da corticoterapia oral. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo incluindo 49 pacientes com dermatoses bolhosas crônicas em uso de corticoterapia acompanhados entre janeiro de 1987 e dezembro de 1997 no ambulatório de Dermatoses Bolhosas do Departamento de Dermatologia da Unifesp/EPM e regularmente submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica em busca de catarata cortisônica. RESULTADOS: No período de 1987 a 1997, 49 pacientes foram avaliados, tendo apresentado prevalência de catarata subcapsular posterior como efeito colateral da corticoterapia oral de 28,57%. CONCLUSÕES: 1 a prevalência de catarata foi de 28,57%; 2 o tempo médio de tratamento até o surgimento de catarata foi de 45,71 meses; 3 a média da dose máxima de corticosteróide utilizada pelos pacientes foi de 78,57mg/dia.BACKGROUND: Oral corticosteroid is the treatment most used for patients with chronic bullous dermatosis, often at high dosages and over long periods of time. Arterial hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, infections and hydro-electrolytic disturbances frequently occur as side effects of this therapy. Posterior subcapsular cataract is rarely mentioned in the literature as a side effect of corticosteroid in patients with bullous diseases. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of posterior subcapsular cataract as a side effect of oral corticosteroid. METHODS: A retrospective study: 49 patients with chronic

  10. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Dobrinja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms. Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status, as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis.

  11. Benign Papules and Nodules of Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Gürel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the more common benign oral papules and nodules of oral mucosa with emphasis on their etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment. These lesions include mucocele, traumatic fibroma, epulis, pyogenic granuloma, oral papilloma, oral warts, lymphangioma, hemangioma, lipoma, oral nevi and some soft tissue benign tumors. These benign lesions must be separated clinically and histologically from precancerous and malign neoplastic lesions. Accurate clinico-pathological diagnosis is mandatory to insure appropriate therapy.

  12. Nodules size: An important factor in nodule mining?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    A study of about 850 different sized nodules from 234 sites in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) showed a clear inverse relationship between size and grade of nodules. Among the different sized nodules, only the small (less than 2 cm) and medium (2...

  13. The probability of malignancy in small pulmonary nodules coexisting with potentially operable lung cancer detected by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yue; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Hiyama, Atsuto; Miura, Goji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Emoto, Takuya; Kawamura, Takeo; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, 755-8505, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the probability of malignancy in one or two small nodules 1 cm or less coexisting with potentially operable lung cancer (coexisting small nodules). The preoperative helical CT scans of 223 patients with lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The probability of malignancy of coexisting small nodules was evaluated based on nodule size, location, and clinical stage of the primary lung cancers. Seventy-one coexisting small nodules were found on conventional CT in 58 (26%) of 223 patients, and 14 (6%) patients had malignant nodules. Eighteen (25%) of such nodules were malignant. The probability of malignancy was not significantly different between two groups of nodules larger and smaller than 0.5 cm (p=0.1). The probability of malignancy of such nodules within primary tumor lobe was significantly higher than that in the other lobes (p<0.01). Metastatic nodules were significantly fewer in clinical stage-IA patients than in the patients with the other stage (p<0.01); however, four (57%) of seven synchronous lung cancers were located in the non-primary tumor lobes in the clinical stage-I patients. Malignant coexisting small nodules are not infrequent, and such nodules in the non-primary tumor lobes should be carefully diagnosed. (orig.)

  14. Size, number, and distribution of thyroid nodules and the risk of malignancy in radiation-exposed patients who underwent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Dan V; Schneider, Arthur B

    2008-06-01

    The chance that a thyroid nodule is malignant is higher when there is a history of childhood radiation exposure. The objective of the study was to determine how the size of a thyroid nodule, the number of nodules, and the distribution of nodules influence the risk of cancer in irradiated patients. From a cohort of 4296 radiation-exposed people, we studied the 1059 that underwent thyroid surgery. DESIGN AND OUTCOMES: We studied the association between the size, number, distribution, and rank order of thyroid nodules and the chance of malignancy. There were 612 malignant nodules in 358 patients and 2037 benign ones in 930 patients. There was no change in the risk that a nodule was malignant with increasing size (odds ratio 0.91/cm, P = 0.11) among the 1709 nodules that were 0.5 cm or greater. A solitary nodule had a similar likelihood of being malignant as a nodule that was one of several (18.8 vs. 17.3%), whereas patients with multiple nodules were more likely to have thyroid cancer than those with solitary nodules [30.7 vs. 18.7%; risk ratio 1.64 (1.27-2.13)]. Aspirating only the largest nodule would have missed 111 of the cancers (42%), whereas aspirating the two largest nodules would have missed 45 of the cases (17%), although none would have been 10 mm or greater. In radiation-exposed patients, the following conclusions were made: 1) the likelihood that a nodule is malignant is independent of nodule number and size; 2) the likelihood of cancer is increased if more than one nodule is present; 3) evaluating the two largest nodules by fine-needle aspiration would have resulted in a significant number of cases being missed but none with large cancers; and 4) more than half of the patients with thyroid cancer had multifocal tumors.

  15. Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by or linked with viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Most anal cancers (human papillomavirus) Some ...

  16. The solitary pulmonary nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A W K; Moss, H A; Robertson, R J H

    2003-01-01

    The solitary pulmonary nodule will be found increasingly by the use of newer imaging techniques, including computed tomography (CT) screening. The aim must be to have an approach that avoids unnecessary surgery or biopsy with their attendant risks. Plain films characterisation, CT assessment, including densitometry and enhancement, and growth patterns are discussed and evaluated. The use of Bayes theorem to guide these assessment strategies is also described.

  17. How to Differentiate Borderline Hepatic Nodules in Hepatocarcinogenesis: Emphasis on Imaging Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Byung Ihn; Lee, Eun Sun; Park, Sung Bin; Lee, Jong Beum

    2017-06-01

    Rapid advances in liver imaging have improved the evaluation of hepatocarcinogenesis and early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this situation, detection of early-stage HCC in its development is important for the improvement of patient survival and optimal treatment strategies. Because early HCCs are considered precursors of progressed HCC, precise differentiation between a dysplastic nodule (DN), especially a high-grade DN, and early HCC is important. In clinical practice, these nodules are frequently called "borderline hepatic nodules." This article discusses radiological and pathological characteristics of these borderline hepatic nodules and offers an understanding of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis by focusing on the descriptions of the imaging changes in the progression of DN and early HCC. Detection and accurate diagnosis of borderline hepatic nodules are still a challenge with contrast enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI with extracellular contrast agents. However, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI may be useful for improving the diagnosis of these borderline nodules. Since there is a net effect of incomplete neoangiogenesis and decreased portal venous flow in the early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis, borderline hepatic nodules commonly show iso- or hypovascularity. Therefore, precise differentiation of these nodules remains a challenging issue. In MRI using hepatobiliary contrast agents, signal intensity of HCCs on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) is regarded as a potential imaging biomarker. Borderline hepatic nodules are seen as nonhypervascular and hypointense nodules on the HBP, which is important for predicting tumor behavior and determining appropriate therapeutic strategies.

  18. The Effect of Indigenous Root-Nodulating Bacteria on Nodulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was initiated to isolate and characterize indigenous rhizobia nodulating faba bean, and evaluate symbiotic characteristics between the crop and the rhizobia in major faba bean producing areas in Tigray highlands. Field crops were also surveyed for nodulation in selected sites of seven (7) faba bean growing ...

  19. [Clinical role of BRAF V600E mutation testing in thyroid nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hanfeng; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Ting; Guo, Huiqin; Liu, Wensheng; Yan, Dangui; Xu, Zhengang; Tang, Pingzhang

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical role of BRAF V600E mutation testing in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) of thyroid nodules. This study included 83 nodules in 80 patients who underwent FNA from March 2013 to September 2013. Cytological specimens were collected and BRAF exon 15 was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing and analysis were performed. Diagnostic performances of cytology and cytology with BRAF V600E mutation analysis were compared according to postoperative pathological diagnosis. The relation of BRAF V600E mutation with clinical factors including sex and age of patients, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, multifocality, and AJCC stage were analyzed. Of 83 nodules, 33 nodules were clinically observed, and 48 nodules underwent surgery, and suggestions of surgery were refused in 2 nodules. Among 48 nodules with surgery, BRAF V600E mutation was found in 25 nodules with histologic confirmation of papillary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy, 13 of the 25 nodules were cytologically diagnosed as carcinoma and 12 were indeterminate. Among the 23 BRAF V600E negative noodles, 5 were cytologically diagnosed as carcinoma, 2 were benign, and 16 were indeterminate; 15 nodules were histologic confirmation of papillary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy, 1 nodule was medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 7 nodules were benign. Biomolecular analysis significantly increased cytology sensitivity for papillary thyroid carcinoma from 43.9% to 73.2% (P DNA sequencing showed that the presence of BRAF V600E mutation was 62.5% in 40 thyroid papillary nodules. There were 16 BRAF-positive nodules (80.0%) among 20 papillary thyroid nodules with extrathyroidal extension, however there were 9 BRAF-negative nodules (45.0%) among 20 papillary thyroid nodules without extrathyroidal extension. Univariate analysis indicated the BRAF V600E mutation was associated with extrathyroidal extension (χ² = 5.227, P = 0.022), but not with sex, age, tumor size, lymph node metastasis

  20. Cervical Paraganglioma Mimicking Thyroid Nodule: A Rare Clinical Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. When it is located in the neck, it is commonly misdiagnosed as other thyroid neoplasms. Case Report. We report a case of cervical paraganglioma in a 55-year-old female. Patient was admitted to our clinic with goiter and neck pain. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 20 mm solitary, heterogeneous nodule located in the upper pole of left thyroid lobe. Fine needle aspiration cytology was nondiagnostic. She underwent left lobectomy and histopathology showed paraganglioma. Discussion. Cervical paragangliomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.

  1. Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometrial stromal nodules are rare. They represent less than a quarter of endometrial stromal tumors. Clement and Scully described as variants of endometrial stromal nodules two types of tumor ressembling ovarian sex cord tumors. Type I is tumor that resembles focally an ovarian sex cord tumor which can be ...

  2. Hydrogenase in actinorhizal root nodules and root nodule homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D R; Arp, D J; Burris, R H

    1980-04-01

    Hydrogenases were measured in intact actinorhizal root nodules and from disrupted nodules of Alnus glutinosa, Alnus rhombifolia, Alnus rubra, and Myrica pensylvanica. Whole nodules took up H2 in an O2-dependent reaction. Endophyte preparations oxidized H2 through the oxyhydrogen reaction, but rates were enhanced when hydrogen uptake was coupled to artificial electron acceptors. Oxygen inhibited artifical acceptor-dependent H2 uptake. The hydrogenase system from M. pensylvanica had a different pattern of coupling to various electron acceptors than the hydrogenase systems from the alders; only the bayberry system evolved H2 from reduced viologen dyes.

  3. Multiple pulmonary rheumatoid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Sargin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of 45-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, who was admitted to our rheumatology department with exacerbation of the disease. The patient’s disease activity score (DAS 28 was 6.9. Physical examination revealed changes in the lung auscultation as a rough breathing sound at the middle and lower lobe of the right lung. Chest X-ray revealed multiple nodular densities in both lungs. Lung biopsy was performed for the diagnosis and revealed necrotizing granulomas with central fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells. Such a histopathological picture is typical for rheumatoid nodules. Finally the patient was treated with rituximab, with significant improvement.

  4. Automatic detection of solitary pulmonary nodules using swarm intelligence optimized neural networks on CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil E. Nithila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung Cancer is one of the most dangerous diseases that cause a large number of deaths. Early detection and analysis will be the only remedy. Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD plays a key role in the early detection and diagnosis of lung cancer. This paper develops a CAD system that focus on new heuristic search algorithm to optimize the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN in characterizing nodule from non-nodules. The proposed CAD system consists of four main stages: (i image acquisition (ii lesion detection, (iii texture feature extraction and (iv tumor characterization using a classifier. The optimization mechanism employs Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO with new inertia weight for NN in order to investigate the classification rate of these algorithms in reducing the problems of trapping in local minima and the slow convergence rate of current evolutionary learning algorithms. The experiments were conducted on CT images to classify into nodule and non-nodule from the tumor region of interest. The performance of the CAD system was evaluated for the texture characterized images taken from LIDC-IDRI and SPIE-AAPM databases. Due to improved inertia weight used in Particle Swarm (PS the CAD achieves highest classification accuracy of 98% for solid nodules, 99.5% for part solid nodules and 97.2% for non solid nodules respectively. The experimental results suggest that the developed CAD system has great potential and promise in the automatic diagnosis of tumors of lung.

  5. Pediatric thyroid nodules and malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatana, Kris R; Zimmerman, Donald

    2015-02-01

    Proper management of pediatric thyroid nodules is crucial to achieving good outcomes. It is important to obtain a thorough history, including prior radiation exposure and family history of thyroid cancer and any symptoms of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. A complete physical examination with special attention to the thyroid gland and any cervical lymphadenopathy is important. Nodules between 5 and 10 mm with risk factors (clinical or sonographic) and all nodules greater than 10 mm should undergo a fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A comprehensive center of pediatric specialists is the best environment for treatment of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Radiological evaluation of incidental pulmonary nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosch, H.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Since the widespread use of computed tomography (CT), the detection of pulmonary nodules has considerably increased and has become part of the daily clinical routine. In the evaluation of pulmonary nodules, malignant nodules have to be differentiated from benign pulmonary nodules with a high level

  7. Hydatid hepatic cysts rupture into the biliary tract, the peritoneal cavity, the thoracic cavity and the hepatic subcapsular space: specific computed tomography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, P; Tavernaraki, K; Charalampopoulos, G; Constantinidis, F; Petroulakis, A; Drossos, Ch

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to demonstrate the role of computed tomography in the diagnosis of hepatic hydatid cyst rupture based on specific imaging findings and to propose combinations of the imaging findings diagnostic for specific types of rupture. Eleven patients were studied with computed tomography of the abdomen, with 4-8 mm slice thickness, after the oral administration of contrast material and intravenous contrast material in 6 cases. Based on a combination of imaging findings the types of hepatic hydatid cyst rupture were: intrabiliary rupture in 7 patients, intraperitoneal rupture in 1 patient, intrathoracic rupture in 1 patient, hepatic subcapsular rupture in 2 patients. Structural deformity of the cyst was present in all cases, combined with: dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (intrabiliary rupture); intraperitoneal fluid collections with diffuse haziness and stranding of the mesenteric fat (intraperitoneal rupture); an inhomogeneous lesion in the thorax with ipsilateral pleural effusion (intrathoracic rupture); a hydatid cyst located peripherally, with discontinuity of its adjacent to the hepatic capsule wall and subcapsular fluid collection (subcapsular rupture). The imaging findings were surgically and pathologically confirmed. Using combinations of specific imaging findings we correctly diagnosed the type of hepatic hydatid cyst rupture in all cases.

  8. [Genetic resources of nodule bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantseva, M L

    2009-09-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) form highly specific symbiosis with leguminous plants. The efficiency of accumulation of biological nitrogen depends on molecular-genetic interaction between the host plant and rhizobia. Genetic characteristics of microsymbiotic strains are crucial in developing highly productive and stress-resistant symbiotic pairs: rhizobium strain-host plant cultivar (species). The present review considers the issue of studying genetic resources of nodule bacteria to identify genes and their blocks, responsible for the ability of rhizobia to form highly effective symbiosis in various agroecological conditions. The main approaches to investigation of intraspecific and interspecific genetic and genomic diversity of nodule bacteria are considered, from MLEE analysis to the recent methods of genomic DNA analysis using biochips. The data are presented showing that gene centers of host plants are centers of genetic diversification of nodule bacteria, because the intraspecific polymorphism of genetic markers of the core and the accessory rhizobial genomes is extremely high in them. Genotypic features of trapped and nodule subpopulations of alfalfa nodule bacteria are discussed. A survey of literature showed that the genomes of natural strains in alfalfa gene centers exhibit significant differences in genes involved in control of metabolism, replication, recombination, and the formation of defense response (hsd genes). Natural populations of rhizobia are regarded as a huge gene pool serving as a source of evolutionary innovations.

  9. [Multiple ground-glass opacities nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, D; Gazaille, V; Allou, N; Fernandez, C; André, V; André, M

    2017-06-01

    Ground-glass opacities nodules are frequently detected with the advances of radiological imaging. These can be preinvasive lesions such as atypical adenomatous hyperplasia but also invasive lesions. It leads to question in patients with lung cancer about treatment strategy and follow up. We report the case of a 72 years-old woman followed for a lung adenocarcinoma with an EGFR mutation of the right upper lobe stage IIb. The CT scan shows multiple pure ground-glass opacities in the same lobe of the primitive tumor but also in the other lobe. On the piece of lobectomy, histopathology of two ground-glass opacities showed atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Ground-glass opacities nodules could be found in patients with an operable lung cancer. These can be multiple and match with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia but also carcinomas lesions. The radiological surveillance is still the standard. The strategy for surgical resection has to be defined especially in case of multiple lesions which can require repeated surgical resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Evaluating Lung Nodules on Chest CT: the Current Status and Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    As the detection and characterization of lung nodules are of paramount importance in thoracic radiology, various tools for making a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) have been developed to improve the diagnostic performance of radiologists in clinical practice. Numerous studies over the years have shown that the CAD system can effectively help readers identify more nodules. Moreover, nodule malignancy and the response of malignant lung tumors to treatment can also be assessed using nodule volumetry. CAD also has the potential to objectively analyze the morphology of nodules and enhance the workflow during the assessment of follow-up studies. Therefore, understanding the current status and limitations of CAD for evaluating lung nodules is essential to effectively apply CAD in clinical practice. PMID:21430930

  11. Initial comparative response to peak pions and x-rays of normal skin and underlying tissue surrounding superficial metastatic nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligerman, M.M.; West, G.; Dicello, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Given the limitations of available material and methods for measuring skin response, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the development and healing of skin reaction to pions in this experiment is 1.43. This is based on data obtained from a patient with malignant melanoma, in whom multiple skin nodules and the surrounding normal skin were randomized into three dose levels for pions and x rays. The RBE for skin reaction was obtained while the skin tumor nodules appeared to regress at least as rapidly with pion therapy as with x rays. Without benefit of adequate observation of time required for nodule regrowth, any estimate of tumor RBE is speculative.

  12. Vocal Cord Nodules, Polyps, and Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in three forms; nodules, polyps, and cysts. Vocal Cord Nodules (also called Singer's Nodes, Screamer's Nodes) Vocal ... when overuse of the area is stopped. Vocal Cord Polyp A vocal cord polyp typically occurs only ...

  13. Corticosteroid injections reduce size of rheumatoid nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, H.; Baan, H.; Haagsma, C.J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2006-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic rheumatoid nodules are frequently surgically treated. Injection with steroids might be an alternative treatment. Patients and methods: To determine whether injection with triamcinolon acetonide reduces the size of rheumatoid nodules, we randomized twenty patients with

  14. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of malignant hepatic tumors: post-ablation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Bin; Rhim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsoo; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Seo, Heung Suk; Lee, Seung Ro [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate post-ablation syndrome after radiofrequency thermal ablation of malignant hepatic tumors. Forty-two patients with primary (n=3D29) or secondary (n=3D13) hepatic tumors underwent radiofrequency thermal ablation. A total of 65 nodules ranging in size from 1.1 to 5.0 (mean, 3.1) cm were treated percutaneously using a 50W RF generator with 15G expandable needle electrodes. We retrospectively evaluated the spectrum of post-ablation syndrome including pain, fever ({>=}3D 38 deg C), nausea, vomiting, right shoulder pain, and chest discomfort according to frequency, intensity and duration, and the findings were correlated with tumor location and number of ablations. We also evaluated changes in pre-/post-ablation serum aminotransferase (ALT/AST) and prothrombin time, and correlated these findings with the number of ablations. Post-ablation syndrome was noted in 29 of 42 patients (69.0%), and most symptoms improved with conservative treatment. The most important of these were abdominal plan (n=3D20, 47.6%), fever (n=3D8, 19.0%), and nausea (n=3D7, 16.7%), and four of 42 (9.5%) patients complained of severe pain. The abdominal pain lasted from 3 hours to 5.5 days (mean; 20.4 hours), the fever from 6 hours to 5 days (mean; 63.0 hours). And the nausea from 1 hours to 4 days (mean; 21.0 hours). Other symptoms were right shoulder pain (n=3D6, 14.3%), chest discomfort (n=3D3, 7.1%), and headache (n=3D3, 7.1%). Seventeen of 20 patients (85%) with abdominal pain had subcapsular tumor of the liver. There was significant correlation between pain, location of the tumor, and a number of ablations. After ablation, ALT/AST was elevated more than two-fold in 52.6%/73.7% of patients, respectively but there was no significant correlation with the number of ablation. Post-ablation syndrome is a frequent and tolerable post-procedural process after radiofrequency thermal ablation. The spectrum of this syndrome provides a useful guideline for the post-ablation management. (author)

  15. Image reporting and characterization system for ultrasound features of thyroid nodules: multicentric Korean retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin Young; Jung, Inkyung; Baek, Jung Hwan; Baek, Seon Mi; Choi, Nami; Choi, Yoon Jung; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Ji-hoon; Kim, Kyu Sun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Joon Hyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Moon, Won-Jin; Park, Jeong Seon; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Shin, Jung Hee; Son, Eun Ju; Sung, Jin Yong; Na, Dong Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to develop and validate a simple diagnostic prediction model by using ultrasound (US) features of thyroid nodules obtained from multicenter retrospective data. Patient data were collected from 20 different institutions and the data included 2000 thyroid nodules from 1796 patients. For developing a diagnostic prediction model to estimate the malignant risk of thyroid nodules using suspicious malignant US features, we developed a training model in a subset of 1402 nodules from 1260 patients. Several suspicious malignant US features were evaluated to create the prediction model using a scoring tool. The scores for such US features were estimated by calculating odds ratios, and the risk score of malignancy for each thyroid nodule was defined as the sum of these individual scores. Later, we verified the usefulness of developed scoring system by applying into the remaining 598 nodules from 536 patients. Among 2000 tumors, 1268 were benign and 732 were malignant. In our multiple regression analysis models, the following US features were statistically significant for malignant nodules when using the training data set: hypoechogenicity, marked hypoechogenicity, non-parallel orientation, microlobulated or spiculated margin, ill-defined margins, and microcalcifications. The malignancy rate was 7.3% in thyroid nodules that did not have suspicious-malignant features on US. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.867, which shows that the US risk score help predict thyroid malignancy well. In the test data set, the malignancy rates were 6.2% in thyroid nodules without malignant features on US. Area under the ROC curve of the test set was 0.872 when using the prediction model. The predictor model using suspicious malignant US features may be helpful in risk stratification of thyroid nodules.

  16. A threshold value in Shear Wave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules: A reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrieres, J.-B., E-mail: jbveyrieres@hotmail.fr [Département d’imagerie médicale, Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées St Anne, Bd Saint Anne, BP 20545 Toulon cedex (France); Albarel, F., E-mail: frederique.albarel@ap-hm.fr [Département médical d’endocrinologie et des pathologies métaboliques, Hôpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Lombard, J. Vaillant, E-mail: Josiane.vaillant@ap-hm.fr [Département d’imagerie médicale, Hôpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Berbis, J., E-mail: Julie.berbis@ap-hm.fr [Département de santé publique, Université de Médecine, 27, Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Sebag, F., E-mail: frederic.sebag@ap-hm.fr [Département de chirurgie des pathologies endocriniennes et métaboliques, Hôpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); and others

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To evaluate hability of a threshold value in ShearWave™ elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules while studying its pertinence in association with morphological signs. Equipment and methods: 148 patients (110 women and 38 men; 52.5 y.o. 15.8) referred for surgery of thyroid nodules underwent standard ultrasound as well as elastography. Characteristics of the morphological signs and maximum elastographic index were calculated in relation to histology. Association of morphological signs alone and then of elastography was also evaluated. One hundred and fifty one nodules were studied on a double-blind basis. Results: 297 nodules were studied. Thirty-five cancers were detected (11.6%). Elastographic index was higher in malignant nodules (115 kPa 60.4) than in benign nodules (41 kPa 25.8) (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Cut off value of 66 kPa was the best to discriminate malignant nodules with a sensitivity of 80% (CI 95%, 62.5; 90.9) and a specificity of 90.5% (CI 95%, 86.1; 93.6) (p = 0.0001). Association of elastography and morphological ultrasound signs presented a sensitivity of 97% (CI 95%, 83.3; 99.8) and a negative predictive value of 99.5% (CI 95%, 95.6; 99.9). Interobserver reproducibility proved to be excellent with an interclass correlation of 0.97 (CI 95%, 0.96; 0.98) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The 66 kPa threshold in Shear Wave elastography is the best ultrasound sign to rule out malignant thyroid nodules. The method is simple, quantitative, reproducible and usable in the study of nodules larger than 3 cm. Progress must still be made in the study of calcified nodules and follicular tumors.

  17. Identifying and Localizing of the In-depth Pulmonary Nodules Using Electrical Bio-Impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbani, Rasool; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam

    2017-12-18

    Intraoperative localization of small and in-depth pulmonary nodules particularly during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), is one of the main challenges for Thoracic surgeons. Failure to determine the location of nodules may lead to a large incision in the normal lung tissue or the conversion of the minimally invasive surgery to an open thoracotomy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of electrical bio-impedance measurement to precisely determine the position of in-depth pulmonary nodules and tumors, which are not visible during thoracoscopic surgeries or even are not palpable during open thoracic surgeries. With this regard, a suitable bio-impedance sensor similar to a biopsy forceps has been designed in order to measure the lung tissue bio-impedance. Using the available data on the electrical properties recorded from lung tissue during inhalation and exhalation, combined with the tumor modeling in COMSOL software, the effect of different parameters including the size and depth of tumor and the relative difference of electrical properties between healthy and tumoral tissue has been assessed. Furthermore, the geometric characteristics of the proposed sensor are considered. The results generally verify that larger size of nodules results in an easier distinguishing process. Additionally, it is worthy to note that applying a larger geometrically sensor is essential to detect the small and in-depth nodules.

  18. Weightlifter's Nodule: A New Variant of Athlete's Nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jamie; Campanelli, Carmen; Lee, Jason B

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old high school football player presented to our dermatology clinic complaining of two asymptomatic lumps on the upper part of his back. The first lump was noticed on the right side of the upper aspect of his back following a weightlifting session. The second lump appeared on the left side of the upper part of his back several weeks later. The patient's personal and family medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination revealed an ill-defined, firm, mobile subcutaneous nodule measuring approximately 3 cm on the right upper part of the back and a similar but smaller nodule on the left upper portion of the back (Figure 1). The location of the lesions corresponded to the areas of maximal pressure produced by a squat bar that he uses frequently during weightlifting (Figure 2). Histologic analysis of the right lesion revealed a markedly expanded dermis caused by a striking increase in the number of collagen bundles that were relatively normal in thickness, accompanied by a subtle increase in the number of fibroblasts (Figure 3). In some foci, fibroplasia along with increased deposition of mucin further contributed to the expansion of the dermis (Figure 3). Although the process spanned the entire dermis, it was more pronounced in the deep reticular dermis, particularly near the subcutis as collagen bundles were arranged in a more haphazard array in this region. Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain revealed diminished and fragmented elastic fibers within some of the involved areas. This reactive fibrosis can be seen in athlete's nodules as a result of repetitive blunt pressure. We proposed a diagnosis of weightlifter's nodule to further classify these lesions and the patient was instructed to discontinue associated weightlifting activities.

  19. Radiophonosurgery of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Sameh M

    2009-12-01

    To describe the current support in the literature for radiophonosurgery in cases of vocal fold nodules. Radiophonosurgery is a recent innovation in the field of laryngeal surgery. It is emerging as a reliable and practical method for treating benign superficial vocal fold lesions that is increasingly becoming popular. It induces an excellent subjective and objective improvement in voice parameters. Histologically, it produces unremarkable lateral thermal damage and char penetration, which is quite crucial in a functional surgery such as in phonosurgery. Well designed probes are still lacking in the market. Radiophonosurgery provides a new approach for patients with vocal fold nodules. It combines the advantages of both cold knife and laser phonosurgery and is easy, well tolerated, precise and effective with excellent tactile and hemostatic properties.

  20. Strategy for polymetallic nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    in industrializing their economies. Of the known mineral reselVcs these countries have nearly 50% of the nickel resclVcs, over 50% ofcopper reselVcs, 75% ofcobalt reserves, and aboul 25% of manganese reserves, and are major suppliers to the world markets... of these minerals. These counlries face the comhined effect oflosl markets and reduced price levels broughlabout by deep seabed nodule production. They depend on revenue earned from mineral exports more than do developed nations and have less flexibility...

  1. Feature fusion for lung nodule classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Amal A; Ali, Asem; Elshazly, Salwa; Farag, Aly A

    2017-06-16

    This article examines feature-based nodule description for the purpose of nodule classification in chest computed tomography scanning. Three features based on (i) Gabor filter, (ii) multi-resolution local binary pattern (LBP) texture features and (iii) signed distance fused with LBP which generates a combinational shape and texture feature are utilized to provide feature descriptors of malignant and benign nodules and non-nodule regions of interest. Support vector machines (SVMs) and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classifiers in serial and two-tier cascade frameworks are optimized and analyzed for optimal classification results of nodules. A total of 1191 nodule and non-nodule samples from the Lung Image Data Consortium database is used for analysis. Classification using SVM and kNN classifiers is examined. The classification results from the two-tier cascade SVM using Gabor features showed overall better results for identifying non-nodules, malignant and benign nodules with average area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUC-ROC) curves of 0.99 and average f1-score of 0.975 over the two tiers. In the results, higher overall AUCs and f1-scores were obtained for the non-nodules cases using any of the three features, showing the greatest distinguishability over nodules (benign/malignant). SVM and kNN classifiers were used for benign, malignant and non-nodule classification, where Gabor proved to be the most effective of the features for classification. The cascaded framework showed the greatest distinguishability between benign and malignant nodules.

  2. Does artificial ascites induce the heat-sink phenomenon during percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area?: an in vivo experimental study using a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the heat-sink phenomenon induced by artificial ascites on the size of the ablation zone during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area in an in vivo rabbit model. A total of 21 percutaneous rabbit liver RF ablations were performed with and without artificial ascites (5% dextrose aqueous solution). The rabbits were divided into three groups: a) control group (C, n = 7); b) room temperature ascites group (R, n = 7); and c) warmed ascites group (W, n = 7). The tip of a 1 cm, internally cooled electrode was placed on the subcapsular region of the hepatic dome via ultrasound guidance, and ablation was continued for 6 min. Changes in temperature of the ascites were monitored during the ablation. The size of the ablation zones of the excised livers and immediate complications rates were compared statistically between the groups (Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, linear-by-linear association, p = 0.05). One rabbit from the "W" group expired during the procedure. In all groups, the ascites temperatures approached their respective body temperatures as the ablations continued; however, a significant difference in ascites temperature was found between groups "W" and "R" throughout the procedures (39.2+/-0.4 degrees C in group W and 33.4+/-4.3 degrees C in group R at 6 min, p = 0.003). No significant difference was found between the size of the ablation zones (782.4+/-237.3 mL in group C, 1,172.0+/-468.9 mL in group R, and 1,030.6+/-665.1 mL in group W, p = 0.170) for the excised liver specimens. Diaphragmatic injury was identified in three of seven cases (42.9%) upon visual inspection of group "C" rabbits (p = 0.030). Artificial ascites are not likely to cause a significant heat-sink phenomenon in the percutaneous RF ablation of the hepatic subcapsular region.

  3. The value of virtual touch tissue image (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng-Juan, E-mail: 148126008@qq.com; Han, Ruo-Ling, E-mail: 13832191660@163.com; Zhao, Xin-Ming, E-mail: 18531117263@163.com

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • All nodules in the research were confirmed by histopathology. • The classification method of VTI was easy to learn. • VTQ could provide quantitative elasticity measurements for thyroid nodules. • VTI classification could provide semi-quantitative elasticity analysis. • The area ratio could show invasive extent of malignant tumor. - Abstract: Objectives: To explore the value of virtual touch tissue image (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods: One-hundred and seven patients with 113 thyroid nodules were performed conventional ultrasound and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography. The stiffness of the nodules on virtual touch tissue image (VTI) was graded, and the area ratios (AR) of nodules on VTI images versus on B-mode images were calculated. Shear wave velocity (SWV) within the thyroid nodules were measured using virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) technique. The pathological diagnosis as the gold standard draws the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) to find the cut-off point of VTI grades, AR and SWV to predict thyroid cancer. Results: The difference in VTI grades of malignant and benign nodules was statistically significant (P < 0.05), as well as in AR and SWV. There was no significant difference in the AR of nodules or the SWV of nodules in benign group or in malignant group. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of VTI grades, AR, and SWV in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules were calculated. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy among the three methods. Conclusion: VTI grades, AR of nodules on VTI images versus on B-mode images and SWV within the nodules can help the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.

  4. [Temperament of children with vocal fold nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Youhua; Wang, Zhinan; Xu, Zhongqiang; Chen, Ping; Hao, Lili

    2009-11-01

    To examine the temperament of children with vocal fold nodules. To compare the temperament dimension and temperamental types of 42 children with vocal fold nodules with 46 vocally normal children, using Chinese children's Temperament Problem Screening system (CCTPSs). The children with vocal fold nodules differed significantly from the comparison group in their temperament dimension's adaptability, intensity of reaction, mood value, persistency and temperamental types. There are more difficult and slow-to-warm-up children in patients with vocal fold nodules than vocally normal children.

  5. Buried nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    studied here. The buried nodules are elliptical, elongated, rounded, sub rounded, irregular and polynucleated. Majority of these nodules are approx. 2 cm in diameter and have both smooth and rough surface texture. Manganese and Fe content of nodules from...

  6. Shear Wave Elastography in Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Cytology: Results of a Prospective Bicentric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Stéphane; Ciappuccini, Renaud; Pellot-Barakat, Claire; Monpeyssen, Hervé; Michels, Jean-Jacques; Tissier, Frédérique; Blanchard, David; Menegaux, Fabrice; de Raucourt, Dominique; Lefort, Muriel; Reznik, Yves; Rouxel, Agnès; Heutte, Natacha; Brenac, Frédérique; Leconte, Alexandra; Buffet, Camille; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Leenhardt, Laurence

    2017-11-01

    The clinical management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (IC) remains challenging. The role of shear wave elastography (SWE) in this setting is controversial. The aim of the study was to assess the performances of SWE in terms of prediction of malignancy, reproducibility, and combined analysis with ultrasound (US) examination in thyroid nodules with IC. This prospective study was conducted in two referral centers. Eligible patients had a thyroid nodule ≥15 mm with IC (Bethesda class III-V) for which surgery had been recommended. Patients underwent a standardized US evaluation combined with a SWE exam followed by surgery. SWE parameters included mean (meanEI; kPa) and max (maxEI) elasticity values, and ratio (meanEI nodule/parenchyma). One hundred and thirty-one nodules (median size 30 mm) in 131 patients were studied. IC was class III in 28%, class IV in 64%, and class V in 8% of cases. After surgery, 21 (16%) nodules were malignant, including nine papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), six follicular thyroid cancers, five poorly differentiated carcinomas, and one large B-cell lymphoma. SWE parameters were similar in benign and malignant nodules, including meanEI (20.2 vs. 19.6 kPa), maxEI (34.3 vs. 32.5 kPa), and ratio (1.57 vs. 1.38). In malignant nodules, meanEI, maxEI, and ratio were higher in the classic PTC variants (n = 4) than in the other PTC variants (n = 5; p < 0.02) and in non-PTC tumors (n = 12; p < 0.005). Intra- and inter-observer coefficients of variations for meanEI in nodules were 23% and 26%, respectively. The French Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System score, the American Thyroid Association US classification, and the EU-Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System were not associated with malignancy. Despite high elasticity values in classic PTC variants, conventional SWE indexes failed to discriminate between benign and malignant tumors in thyroid nodules with IC.

  7. Unique Juxtaposition of Onchocerca Nodule and Tumoural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 45-year-old Igbo man presented with a subcutaneous nodule in the lateral aspect of his left thigh. Following its excision, the lesion turned out on microscopy to be due to the unique juxtaposition of onchocerca nodule and tumoural calcinosis. Such selectivity in disease localization is deemed to be worthy of documentation ...

  8. Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Orlo H.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with thyroid nodules must be treated selectively because these nodules develop far more frequently than does thyroid cancer. A thorough clinical history, family history and history of radiation, as well as an accurate physical examination, are very important in determining whether surgical treatment is indicated. Thyroid function tests, a radioactive isotope scan, a thyroid echogram and fine-needle biopsy are also useful.

  9. Treasures from the deep ( Metallic nodules).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.

    1980-01-01

    The composition, distribution, metric growth rates and variations in sea-floor metallic nodules are outlined and discussed The considerable age, slow accretion and relationship to underlying sediments are problems of origin which are yet to be solved and some speculative answers are discussed. Mining of the nodules is reviewed and its related difficulties mentioned.-D.A.Lewis

  10. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  11. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... benign thyroid nodule. None of the patients had uptake on a radionuclide scan. Patients underwent one ILP session. A needle was positioned in the thyroid nodule with US guidance, and the laser fiber was placed in the lumen of the needle. Patients were treated for 287-1,200 seconds with an output power...... of 1-3 W. ILP was performed with continuous US guidance and terminated when the echogenic changes were stationary. Thyroid nodule volume and thyroid function were evaluated before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. During the same period, 15 untreated patients (control group) were followed up...

  12. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: Nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, < or = 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) values at the initial session were > 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  13. Approach and management of thyroid nodule. A literature review = Nódulo tiroideo, enfoque y manejo. Revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-González, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid nodules are commonly found, and their incidence is increasing. The main objective during the evaluation of these nodules is to determine if they are benign or malignant. Materials and methods: We made a narrative review of the literature by searching Ovid, Medline and Lilacs from 1950 to 2010. Results: Most thyroid nodules are benign, but in 4% to 8% of cases they may be malignant, hence the importance of appropriate study and management. Nodules larger than 1 cm should undergo fine needle aspirate; however, the clinical features of the patient and the characteristics of the nodule on ultrasound assessment should always be taken into account. The following are risk factors associated with the presence of thyroid nodules: age over 45 years, female gender and smoking. The measurement of tumor markers in the initial study of patients with thyroid nodule is not recommended.Conclusion: Ultrasound and thyroid fine needle aspirate are the most important diagnostic methods in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, because they enable to make changes in therapeutic decisions thus decreasing the number of unnecessary thyroidectomies. Treatment and prognosis of thyroid nodules will depend on the patient´s risk factors and the cytological and pathological findings.

  14. Possibilities of nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules treatment by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the current principles, autonomous functional thyroid nodules are treated by surgery or by radioiodin therapy. Ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection into solid tumors of the soft tissues was a starting point in attempts to treat the thyroid nodules by the same method. The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of percutaneous injection in treating solitary, nontoxic, autonomous thyroid nodules of up to 15 mL volume. Methods. In 25 patients with solitary nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules diagnosed by tehnetium-99m scanning as an intensive area having a complete supremacy in the paranodal tissue, an ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection was applied. The procedure was carried out repeatedly once a week until the reduction in nodule size to 50% of the initial size was achieved. Results. An average size of the nodule before curing was 9.68 ± 5.01 mL. An average quantity of the injected ethanol was 9.52 ± 5.08 mL, ie 1.06 ± 0.48 mL/mg of the tissue. The regression of the nodule size in the successfully (Δvol% u = - 57.09 ± 13.75%, p < 0.001 and partly successfully cured (Δvol du = -48.45 ± 14.35%, p < 0.05 was statistically significant compared to the size before the treatment. After ceasing ethanol injection, 18 months later, a further size regression (Δvol% = -79.20 ± 9.89% compared to the initial one (p < 0.001 was noticed. Soon, after the procedure was finished, a statistically significant concentration increase of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH was noticed compared to the initial values (0.18 ± 0.16 vs 0.34 ± 0.31 mU/L, p < 0.01. According to the given criteria, in two female patients satisfactory results were not achieved, but, a year later, in one of them the nodule was not seen by repeated scintigram. The number and frequency of side effects were insignificant. Conclusion. Repeated percutaneous ethanol injections into nontoxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules result in

  15. Multiple infarcted regenerative nodules in liver cirrhosis after decompensation of cirrhosis: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müllhaupt Beat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Liver cirrhosis is a common disease with many known complications. Cirrhosis represents a clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic liver disease to hepatic decompensation. Manifestations of hepatic decompensation include variceal bleeding, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are reports about infarcted regenerative nodules in cirrhotic livers after gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Case presentation We report three Caucasian patients (one female and two male patients; ages: 52, 54 and 60 years with decompensated liver cirrhosis, who showed newly infarcted regenerative nodules at necropsy. Two of them suffered from gastric variceal bleeding. Histopathology showed extensive infarction in all three cases. Hemorrhage and inflammatory changes were also observed around the infarcted regenerative nodules. Conclusion These patients showed focal liver lesions, to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cirrhotic livers. Infarcted regenerative nodules may be underdiagnosed in patients with decompensation of cirrhosis. In order to differentiate these lesions from malignant tumors, serial imaging seems to be helpful. However, the main differential diagnosis should be an abscess. It is important to know the wide spectrum of image appearances of these lesions. Hypotension can lead to a reduction of portal and arterial liver flow. Since variceal bleeding or septic shock can induce hypotension - as observed in our patients - we conclude that this leads to infarction of such nodules.

  16. Fast lung nodule detection in chest CT images using cylindrical nodule-enhancement filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Atsushi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Existing computer-aided detection schemes for lung nodule detection require a large number of calculations and tens of minutes per case; there is a large gap between image acquisition time and nodule detection time. In this study, we propose a fast detection scheme of lung nodule in chest CT images using cylindrical nodule-enhancement filter with the aim of improving the workflow for diagnosis in CT examinations. Proposed detection scheme involves segmentation of the lung region, preprocessing, nodule enhancement, further segmentation, and false-positive (FP) reduction. As a nodule enhancement, our method employs a cylindrical shape filter to reduce the number of calculations. False positives (FPs) in nodule candidates are reduced using support vector machine and seven types of characteristic parameters. The detection performance and speed were evaluated experimentally using Lung Image Database Consortium publicly available image database. A 5-fold cross-validation result demonstrates that our method correctly detects 80 % of nodules with 4.2 FPs per case, and detection speed of proposed method is also 4-36 times faster than existing methods. Detection performance and speed indicate that our method may be useful for fast detection of lung nodules in CT images.

  17. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    We report here the occurrence of, to date, the largest (21 x 10 x 8 mm) phillipsite crystal forming the nucleus of a diagenetically formed ferromanganese nodule from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Assuming an average rate of ferromanganese...

  18. Polymetallic nodule resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Jauhari, P.

    nodules. These contain, beside iron and manganese, copper, nickle and cobalt in economically feasible quantities. India has already got a mine site registered in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. As the land resources of strategic metals are declining...

  19. Nodule bottom backscattering study using multibeam echosounder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Raju, Y; Nair, R.R.

    A study is carried out to observe the angular dependence of backscattering strength at nodule area where grab sample and photographic data is available. Theoretical study along with the experimentally observed data shows that the backscattering...

  20. Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular biology and genomics. Mariana Obertello, Mame Oureye SY, Laurent Laplaze, Carole Santi, Sergio Svistoonoff, Florence Auguy, Didier Bogusz, Claudine Franche ...

  1. Clinical practice: vocal nodules in dysphonic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Branco, Anete; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Gramuglia, Andrea Cristina Jóia

    2013-09-01

    Common among children, vocal symptoms are a cause of concern for parents who seek elucidation of their diagnosis and treatment. Vocal nodules are the major cause of dysphonias in children and are related to vocal abuse. We conducted a literature review considering clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, and histological aspects of vocal nodules, as well as diagnostic methods, highlighting the main studies addressing this issue. The controversial points of treatments were also discussed.

  2. Atypical Localized Rheumatoid Nodule: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KORHAN BARIS BAYRAM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid nodules can be seen in about 30% of patiens with rheumatoid arthritis. They are occasionally localized subcutaneous, but they can rarely seen in visceral organs. Their appearance can be confused with many clinical conditions when they have atypical localizations. To exclude the presence of a malignancy, these lesions should always be investigated. We aimed to discuss a patient with rheumatoid nodule localized in close neighborhood of hyoid bone, presumed as malignancy.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Lupin Root Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, William A.; Christeller, John T.; Sutton, William D.

    1979-01-01

    Labeling studies using detached lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) nodules showed that over times of less than 3 minutes, label from [3,4-14C]glucose was incorporated into amino acids, predominantly aspartic acid, to a much greater extent than into organic acids. Only a slight preferential incorporation was observed with [1-14C]- and [6-14C]glucose, while with [U-14C]-glucose more label was incorporated into organic acids than into amino acids at all labeling times. These results are consistent with a scheme whereby the “carbon skeletons” for amino acid synthesis are provided by the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase reaction. A comparison of 14CO2 release from nodules supplied with [1-14C]- and [6-14C]glucose indicated that the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway accounted for less than 6% of glucose metabolism. Several enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways were assayed in vitro using the 12,000g supernatant fraction from nodule homogenates. In all cases, the specific activities were adequate to account for the calculated in vivo fluxes. Three out of four diverse treatments that inhibited nodule nitrogen fixation also inhibited nodule CO2 fixation, and in the case of the fourth treatment, replacement of N2 with He, it was shown that the normal entry of label from exogenous 14CO2 into the nodule amino acid pool was strongly inhibited. PMID:16660746

  4. Pulmonary nodule classification with deep residual networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibali, Aiden; He, Zhen; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2017-10-01

    PURPOSE  : Lung cancer has the highest death rate among all cancers in the USA. In this work we focus on improving the ability of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems to predict the malignancy of nodules from cropped CT images of lung nodules. We evaluate the effectiveness of very deep convolutional neural networks at the task of expert-level lung nodule malignancy classification. Using the state-of-the-art ResNet architecture as our basis, we explore the effect of curriculum learning, transfer learning, and varying network depth on the accuracy of malignancy classification. Due to a lack of public datasets with standardized problem definitions and train/test splits, studies in this area tend to not compare directly against other existing work. This makes it hard to know the relative improvement in the new solution. In contrast, we directly compare our system against two state-of-the-art deep learning systems for nodule classification on the LIDC/IDRI dataset using the same experimental setup and data set. The results show that our system achieves the highest performance in terms of all metrics measured including sensitivity, specificity, precision, AUROC, and accuracy. The proposed method of combining deep residual learning, curriculum learning, and transfer learning translates to high nodule classification accuracy. This reveals a promising new direction for effective pulmonary nodule CAD systems that mirrors the success of recent deep learning advances in other image-based application domains.

  5. Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as metastatic skin nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC metastasizes most commonly to the lungs and non-cranial bones. Skull and skin are uncommon sites and usually manifest well after the diagnosis of primary malignancy. Metastasis to skull and skin as the presenting feature of FTC is infrequently reported in the literature. Case presentation: A 65-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of thyroid nodule presented with the complaint of rapidly growing skull nodules which had been present for 3 years but were stable previously. She denied any fevers, chills, history of trauma, or weight loss. She denied any history of smoking or head and neck irradiation. On physical examination, she had two non-tender gray cystic lesions – one on her left temporal region and the other on the right parietal region. Biopsy was consistent with metastatic FTC. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated 7.1×3.8 cm and 3.7×4.5 cm fairly homogeneous, enhancing, relatively well-defined masses centered in the posterior and left anterior lateral calvarium with intracranial and extracranial extensions but without any vasogenic edema or mass effect on the brain. Thyroid ultrasound showed numerous nodules in both lobes. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Histopathological studies of the thyroid gland revealed a well-differentiated FTC in the left lobe. Then she underwent resection of the tumor in multiple stages. She did not have any recurrence of the FTC or metastases during the follow-up period and will be receiving radioactive iodine treatment. Conclusion: Bone and lung are the common sites of metastasis from FTC, but involvement of skull or skin is unusual, particularly as the presenting feature. Metastases from FTC should be in the differential of patients with new osteolytic hypervascular skull lesions or cutaneous lesions in head and neck area.

  6. Automatic two-step detection of pulmonary nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejší, Martin; Kybic, Jan

    2007-03-01

    We present a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to detect small-size (from 2mm to around 10mm) pulmonary nodules from helical CT scans. A pulmonary nodule is a small, round (parenchymal nodule) or worm (juxta-pleural) shaped lesion in the lungs. Both have greater radio density than lungs parenchyma. Lung nodules may indicate a lung cancer and its detection in early stage improves survival rate of patients. CT is considered to be the most accurate imaging modality for detection of nodules. However, the large amount of data per examination makes the interpretation difficult. This leads to omission of nodules by human radiologist. CAD system presented is designed to help lower the number of omissions. Our system uses two different schemes to locate juxtapleural nodules and parenchymal nodules. For juxtapleural nodules, morphological closing and thresholding is used to find nodule candidates. To locate non-pleural nodule candidates, 3D blob detector uses multiscale filtration. Ellipsoid model is fitted on nodules. To define which of the nodule candidates are in fact nodules, an additional classification step is applied. Linear and multi-threshold classifiers are used. System was tested on 18 cases (4853 slices) with total sensitivity of 96%, with about 12 false positives/slice. The classification step reduces number of false positives to 9 per slice without significantly decreasing sensitivity (89,6%).

  7. Case Experience of Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: From an Ex Vivo Animal Study to an Initial Ablation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsang Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is a minimally invasive technique, used with ultrasound or computed tomography guidance, which can produce tissue coagulation necrosis in various kinds of tumors in the human body. In the past 10 years, numerous studies about RFA in benign thyroid nodules have been published. Reviewing these studies, we noticed that the effectiveness of ablation was higher when it was performed with the “moving-shot technique” via an internally cooled electrode. A consensus statement published from the Korean Society of Radiology also suggested the moving-shot technique as a standard ablation procedure for benign thyroid nodule ablation in Korea. In Taiwan, most symptomatic benign nodules are currently treated with surgical removal. RFA for mass lesions is primarily performed for the treatment of metastatic hepatic tumors. In our case, we have attempted to introduce RFA for benign thyroid nodules in Taiwan. Because endocrinologists in Taiwan were not familiar with this technique, we adopted a stepwise approach in learning how to perform RFA. We conducted ex vivo animal ablation exercises to gain experience in setting the radiofrequency generator for the right ablation mode and appropriate power output. The thyroid nodule volume reduction rate after 1 year of follow up was approximately 50% in this case. The most important thing we learned from this trial is that we confirmed the safety of thyroid nodule ablation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study of RFA of a thyroid nodule in Taiwan.

  8. [Malignant tumors of thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhliarová, B; Bugová, G; Hajtman, A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing. The aim of this work was to determine risk factors, diagnostic methods and extent of surgical treatment of malignant goiter. The authors retrospectively analyzed patients who were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Comenius University, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Teaching Hospital in Martin, Slovakia, from the January 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2013, for thyroid disease. The incidence, risk factors of malignant thyroid tumors, indication for surgery and its complications were evaluated. A total of 1,620 adult patients were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of ENT, Head and Neck Surgery, CU JMF, UH in Martin, Slovakia, between 2006- 2013. Malignant tumors were identified in 238 patients (15%). Microcarcinoma (incidentally detected malignant tumor 1 cm) occurred in 78 cases (5%). Malignant thyroid tumor was more common in younger patients (p = 0.002). Newly created and larger nodules positively correlated with the occurrence of malignancy (p = 0.003, p = 0.041, resp.). Gender, family history of thyroid disorder, previous radiation therapy, and previous malignancy did not affect the incidence of malignant tumor of thyroid gland. High sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid nodule was observed using aspiration cytology (75%, 97%, resp.) and intraoperative histopathological examination (88%, 100%, resp.). Malignant tumor of thyroid gland is more common in younger patients with newly developed nodule. The risk factors of malignancy increase with the size of the thyroid nodule. Aspiration cytology and peroperative histopathology have high sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid tumor; therefore, they should be a standard method in the dia-gnosis of nodular goiter. The method of choice in the treatment of thyroid malignancy is total thyroidectomy.

  9. Laryngeal ultrasound and pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Devore, Danielle; Hollas, Sarah; Jones, Jeremy; Tran, Brandon

    2017-03-01

    The term vocal fold nodules refers to bilateral thickening of the membranous folds with minimal impairment of the vibratory properties of the mucosa. Nodules are thought to be related to repetitive mechanical stress, associated with voice use patterns. Diagnosis is typically made in the office via either rigid or flexible laryngeal stroboscopy. Depending on the individual child, obtaining an optimal view of the larynx can be difficult if not impossible. Recent advances in high-frequency ultrasonography allows for transcervical examination of laryngeal structures. The goal of this project was to determine if laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in dysphonic children. Prospective case-control study in which the patient acted as his or her own control. Forty-six pediatric patients were recruited for participation in this study; the mean age was 4.8 years. Twenty-three did not have any vocal fold lesions and 23 had a diagnosis of vocal fold nodules on laryngeal stroboscopy. Recorded LUSs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the nodule status. There was substantial inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.89) between the two radiologists regarding the presence of nodules. There was also substantial agreement (κ = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1) between LUS and laryngeal stroboscopy. Sensitivity of LUS was 100% (95% CI: 85%-100%) and specificity was 87% (95% CI: 66%-97%). LUS can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in children with substantial agreement with laryngeal stroboscopy. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:676-678, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. The calcified lung nodule: What does it mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present a pictorial essay emphasizing the various patterns of calcification in pulmonary nodules (PN to aid diagnosis and to discuss the differential diagnosis and the pathogenesis where it is known. The imaging evaluation of PN is based on clinical history, size, distribution and the gross appearance of the nodule as well as feasibility of obtaining a tissue diagnosis. Imaging is instrumental in the management of PN and one should strive not only to identify small malignant tumors with high survival rates but to spare patients with benign PN from undergoing unnecessary surgery. The review emphasizes how to achieve these goals. One of the most reliable imaging features of a benign lesion is a benign pattern of calcification and periodic follow-up with computed tomography showing no growth for 2 years. Calcification in PN is generally considered as a pointer toward a possible benign disease. However, as we show here, calcification in PN as a criterion to determine benign nature is fallacious and can be misleading. The differential considerations of a calcified lesion include calcified granuloma, hamartoma, carcinoid, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and lung metastases or a primary bronchogenic carcinoma among others. We describe and illustrate different patterns of calcification as seen in PN on imaging.

  11. Sonographic scoring of solid thyroid nodules: effects of nodule size and suspicious cervical lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Ozlem; Akpinar, Meltem; Turk, Bilge; Ucak, Irmak; Ozel, Alper; Kayaoglu, Semra; Uslu Coskun, Berna

    Ultrasound is the most frequently used imaging method to evaluate thyroid nodules. Sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules which are concerning for malignancy are important to define the need for fine needle aspiration biopsy or open surgery. To evaluate malignancy risk of solid thyroid nodules through sonographic scoring. The effects of nodule size ≥2cm and associated pathologic cervical lymph node in scoring were examined in addition to generally excepted suspicious features. Medical data of 123 patients underwent thyroid surgery were reviewed, and 89 patients (58 females, 31 males) were included in the study. The presence and absence of each suspicious sonographic feature of thyroid nodules were scored as 1 and 0, respectively. Total ultrasound score was obtained by adding the positive ultrasound findings. Differently from the literature, nodule size ≥2cm and associated pathologic cervical node were added in scoring criteria. The diagnostic performance of nodule characteristics for malignancy and the effect of total US score to discriminate malignant and benign disease were calculated. A significant relationship was found between malignancy and hypoechogenity, border irregularity, intranodular vascularity, and microcalcification (p<0.05). Pathologic cervical node was observed predominantly in association with malignant nodules. Positive predictive value of suspicious cervical node for malignancy was 67%, similar to microcalcification. Nodule size ≥2cm was not distinctive for diagnosis of malignancy. The number of suspicious sonographic features obtained with receiver operating characteristic analysis to discriminate between malignant and benign disease was three. Sonographic scoring of thyroid nodules is an effective method for predicting malignancy. The authors suggest including associated pathologic node in the scoring criteria. Further studies with larger cohorts will provide more evidence about its importance in sonographic scoring. Copyright

  12. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahui Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing.

  13. Late-Onset Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma into a Hot Thyroid Nodule: An Uncommon Finding Not to Be Overlooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Foppiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 74-year-old man with a four-year history of right nephrectomy for clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. On ultrasound (US, a 5 cm solid isohypoechoic nodule with intranodular vascularization was found in the left thyroid lobe. The nodule was deemed autonomous on T99mc thyroid scan. Methimazole was started and serum thyroid hormone levels quickly normalized; euthyroidism was maintained with a very low dosage of antithyroid drug. Over time, compressive symptoms and local pain occurred and US revealed growth of the nodule. Total thyroidectomy was performed and the combined histological and immunohistochemical evaluation deemed the nodule compatible with metastasis of CCRC; on 2-year follow-up, no tumor relapse was ascertained. In patients with a history of cancer, a thyroid nodule, even if hyperfunctioning, must be suspected of being a metastasis and investigated. Hot nodules, which are largely benign, may be vulnerable to metastatic colonization owing to their rich vascularization. In these cases, surgery may be curative.

  14. Image segmentation using joint spatial-intensity-shape features: application to CT lung nodule segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xujiong; Siddique, Musib; Douiri, Abdel; Beddoe, Gareth; Slabaugh, Greg

    2009-02-01

    Automatic segmentation of medical images is a challenging problem due to the complexity and variability of human anatomy, poor contrast of the object being segmented, and noise resulting from the image acquisition process. This paper presents a novel feature-guided method for the segmentation of 3D medical lesions. The proposed algorithm combines 1) a volumetric shape feature (shape index) based on high-order partial derivatives; 2) mean shift clustering in a joint spatial-intensity-shape (JSIS) feature space; and 3) a modified expectation-maximization (MEM) algorithm on the mean shift mode map to merge the neighboring regions (modes). In such a scenario, the volumetric shape feature is integrated into the process of the segmentation algorithm. The joint spatial-intensity-shape features provide rich information for the segmentation of the anatomic structures or lesions (tumors). The proposed method has been evaluated on a clinical dataset of thoracic CT scans that contains 68 nodules. A volume overlap ratio between each segmented nodule and the ground truth annotation is calculated. Using the proposed method, the mean overlap ratio over all the nodules is 0.80. On visual inspection and using a quantitative evaluation, the experimental results demonstrate the potential of the proposed method. It can properly segment a variety of nodules including juxta-vascular and juxta-pleural nodules, which are challenging for conventional methods due to the high similarity of intensities between the nodules and their adjacent tissues. This approach could also be applied to lesion segmentation in other anatomies, such as polyps in the colon.

  15. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy for keratoconus nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsahn, Ahmed F; Rapuano, Christopher J; Antunes, Victor A; Abdalla, Yasmine F; Cohen, Elisabeth J

    2009-02-01

    To report the outcomes of contact lens-intolerant patients with keratoconus (KCN) with subepithelial nodules treated with excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). The charts of all contact lens-intolerant patients with KCN who underwent excimer laser PTK for subepithelial nodules were identified using a computer database and were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity and method of correction, surgical treatment, epithelial healing, complications, and KCN nodule recurrence were all analyzed. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with a minimum follow-up of 3 months were reviewed. Mean follow-up time was 23.1 months (SD +/- 42.5 months, range 3-143 months). In 9 eyes, the epithelial defect healed by postoperative day 3 and all eyes healed by postoperative day 6. There was no infection or corneal melting in any of the eyes. After PTK, 11 patients were refit successfully with rigid gas-permeable contact lenses and 4 wore glasses. Three patients had a recurrence of the KCN nodule at 3, 8, and 23 months postoperatively. One of them had a repeat PTK 23 months after the initial surgery, improving to 20/40 with contact lenses at 55 months postoperatively. Another patient decided to have a penetrating keratoplasty, and the third patient is considering repeat PTK or penetrating keratoplasty. PTK effectively removed KCN nodules without recurrences in most patients and can be a successful modality to improve contact lens tolerance and delay or avoid more invasive surgery.

  16. Crowdsourcing the nodulation gene network discovery environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-26

    The Legumes (Fabaceae) are an economically and ecologically important group of plant species with the conspicuous capacity for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules, specialized plant organs containing symbiotic microbes. With the aim of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to nodulation, many efforts are underway to identify nodulation-related genes and determine how these genes interact with each other. In order to accurately and efficiently reconstruct nodulation gene network, a crowdsourcing platform, CrowdNodNet, was created. The platform implements the jQuery and vis.js JavaScript libraries, so that users are able to interactively visualize and edit the gene network, and easily access the information about the network, e.g. gene lists, gene interactions and gene functional annotations. In addition, all the gene information is written on MediaWiki pages, enabling users to edit and contribute to the network curation. Utilizing the continuously updated, collaboratively written, and community-reviewed Wikipedia model, the platform could, in a short time, become a comprehensive knowledge base of nodulation-related pathways. The platform could also be used for other biological processes, and thus has great potential for integrating and advancing our understanding of the functional genomics and systems biology of any process for any species. The platform is available at http://crowd.bioops.info/ , and the source code can be openly accessed at https://github.com/bioops/crowdnodnet under MIT License.

  17. Primary Cutaneous CD30 +Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Report of a single large scalp nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Parulkar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 93-year -old Caucasian female presented with a 2-month history of a single frontal scalp nodule. The lesion was non-tender however had grown rapidly and was eroded with intermittent bleeding. There were no other skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, or hepatosplenomegaly. Past medical history was significant for breast cancer and review of systems was unremarkable. Physical exam revealed a 10cm x12cm exophytic, fungating, and malodorous tumor of the right frontal scalp (Fig. 1.

  18. CEUS: An essential component in a multimodality approach to small nodules in patients at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung, E-mail: Hyun-Jung.jang@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Kim, Tae Kyoung, E-mail: Taekyoung.Kim@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Burns, Peter N, E-mail: burns@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Imaging Research, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto ON M4 N 3M5 (Canada); Wilson, Stephanie R, E-mail: Stephanie.wilson@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, 1403 29 Street NW, Calgary, AB T2R 1M5 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • CEUS resolves hypervascular pseudolesions, frequent on CT and MR, from vascular shunts. • US has the advantage of showing a baseline nodule for characterization. • CEUS shows excellent sensitivity to contrast agents, providing superior arterial phase sensitivity. • Real-time CEUS performance shows optimally perfusion patterns of benign tumor nodules. • CEUS performed at surveillance detection of nodules is efficient and effective. - Abstract: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) plays an essential role in the evaluation of small nodules in livers at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and offers unique advantages over CT/MRI. These include the sensitive depiction of arterial hypervascularity of HCC, better demonstration of rapid washout for non-HCC malignancy as well as of very late washout of HCC. Visualization of early vascular filling patterns for benign hypervascular lesions is of indisputable value. A frequently uncounted benefit of CEUS includes the value of its performance following nodule detection at ultrasound surveillance, including one-stop exclusion of typical benignancy, preclusion of arterial pseudolesions shown on CT/MR, and the avoidance of miscorrelation of a nodule on surveillance and subsequent diagnostic imaging. Therefore, CEUS can effectively be used in the diagnostic algorithm for new liver nodules detected during HCC surveillance. Despite the fact that CEUS is actively used as a major diagnostic test for HCC in Asia, Europe, and Canada with increasing demands in clinical practice, CEUS is not included in the diagnostic tests for HCC in some major practice guidelines. In this manuscript, we focus on small nodules in patients at high-risk for HCC, and review some of the unique advantages of CEUS that contribute to lesion characterization and subsequent patient management, showing why CEUS should be an essential component of the diagnostic algorithm for HCC.

  19. Root developmental programs shape the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Henk J; Xiao, Ting Ting; Kulikova, Olga; Wan, Xi; Bisseling, Ton; Scheres, Ben; Heidstra, Renze

    2015-09-01

    Nodules on the roots of legume plants host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Several lines of evidence indicate that nodules are evolutionarily related to roots. We determined whether developmental control of the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem bears resemblance to that in root meristems through analyses of root meristem-expressed PLETHORA genes. In nodules, MtPLETHORA 1 and 2 are preferentially expressed in cells positioned at the periphery of the meristem abutting nodule vascular bundles. Their expression overlaps with an auxin response maximum and MtWOX5, which is a marker for the root quiescent center. Strikingly, the cells in the central part of the nodule meristem have a high level of cytokinin and display MtPLETHORA 3 and 4 gene expression. Nodule-specific knockdown of MtPLETHORA genes results in a reduced number of nodules and/or in nodules in which meristem activity has ceased. Our nodule gene expression map indicates that the nodule meristem is composed of two distinct domains in which different MtPLETHORA gene subsets are expressed. Our mutant studies show that MtPLETHORA genes function redundantly in nodule meristem maintenance. This indicates that Rhizobium has recruited root developmental programs for nodule formation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Seabed topography and distribution of manganese nodules in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Kodagali, V.N.

    The relationship between seabed topography and distribution of nodules, recovery of free fall grab samplers, nodule size and chemical composition of manganese nodules in the Central Indian Ocean have been studied. Nodule abundance was greater (4...

  1. Deep-ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts and nodules may provide a future resource for a large variety of metals, including many that are essential for emerging high- and green-technology applications. A brief review of nodules and crusts provides a setting for a discussion on the latest (past 10 years) research related to the geochemistry of sequestration of metals from seawater. Special attention is given to cobalt, nickel, titanium, rare earth elements and yttrium, bismuth, platinum, tungsten, tantalum, hafnium, tellurium, molybdenum, niobium, zirconium, and lithium. Sequestration from seawater by sorption, surface oxidation, substitution, and precipitation of discrete phases is discussed. Mechanisms of metal enrichment reflect modes of formation of the crusts and nodules, such as hydrogenetic (from seawater), diagenetic (from porewaters), and mixed diagenetic–hydrogenetic processes.

  2. Compliance with guidelines for thyroid nodule evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangpricha, V; Hariram, S D; Chipkin, S R

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether guidelines recommended by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) for assessment of a solitary thyroid nodule have been applied in clinical practice. We retrospectively examined the pattern of testing in patients with solitary thyroid nodules at our institution during a 2-year period. We also attempted to determine whether consultation with an endocrinologist affected the workup. Patients who underwent a thyroid scan, ultrasonography, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, or a thyroid surgical procedure for investigation of a solitary thyroid nodule between Jan. 1, 1996, and Dec. 31, 1997, were included in the study. Test results were reviewed for these patients. Patients were categorized into two groups, those with and those without a consultation with an endocrinologist. Inclusion criteria were met by 89 patients, 65% of whom had an FNA biopsy in their evaluation (the sole test in only 9%). A thyroid scan was done in 90% of patients, and an ultrasound study was done in 25%. Patients seen by an endocrinologist were more likely to undergo FNA biopsy than those who were not (82% versus 29%; PAACE guidelines for evaluation of thyroid nodules have not yet been fully implemented. Although a third of all study patients with a solitary thyroid nodule did not have an FNA biopsy, endocrine referral increased the rate of performance of this procedure. Thyroid scans seem to be overutilized; the high number with normal findings suggests that nuclear imaging studies are done to confirm physical findings. Early referral to an endocrinologist may be a more cost-effective workup of a possible thyroid nodule.

  3. The Indian Ocean nodule field: Geology and resource potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.; Iyer, S.D.

    the nodules and crusts are presented. The nodules and crusts are exhaustively described and their genesis in terms of variables such as source material, local and regional tectonic activities, and mid-plate secondary volcanisms are examined. A value...

  4. Ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Pattan, J.N.

    the highest contents of Mn, Cu, and Ni, while those from hilltops have the lowest concentrations of these metals. There exists an inverse relationship between nodule abundance and their grade. Nodules are associated with practically all types of sediment...

  5. Relation between grade and abundance of manganese nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, M.

    Data from more than 1000 locations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) where both bulk nodule chemistry and abundance were determined and utilized to study the relationship between grade and abundance of manganese nodule deposits. Grade...

  6. Grade distributions in manganese nodules of Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, M.

    Data concerning to geological setting physical characteristics and bulk chemical composition of the nodules sampled from CIOB were stored in the Computer Data Bank of this Institute. Bulk chemical composition of nodules, in which grade is expressed...

  7. Enhanced nodulation and nodule development by nolR mutants of Sinorhizobium medicae on specific Medicago host genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Masayuki; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The nolR gene encodes a negatively acting, transcriptional regulatory protein of core Nod-factor biosynthetic genes in the sinorhizobia. Although previous reports showed that nolR modulates Nod-factor production and enhances nodulation speed of Sinorhizobium meliloti on alfalfa, there have been no reports for the symbiotic function of this gene in the S. medicae-Medicago truncatula symbiosis. Here, we constructed an nolR mutant of S. medicae WSM419 and evaluated mutant and wild-type strains for their nodulation ability, competitiveness, host specificity, and density-dependent nodulation phenotypes. When the mutant was inoculated at low and medium population densities, it showed enhanced nodule formation during the initial stages of nodulation. Results of quantitative competitive nodulation assays indicated that an nolR mutant had 2.3-fold greater competitiveness for nodulation on M. truncatula 'A17' than did the wild-type strain. Moreover, the nodulation phenotype of the nolR mutant differed among Medicago genotypes and showed significantly enhanced nodule development on M. tricycla. Taken together, these results indicated that mutation of nolR in S. medicae positively influenced nodule initiation, competitive nodulation, and nodule development at later nodulation stages. This may allow nolR mutants of S. medicae to have a selective advantage under field conditions.

  8. High-intensity focused ultrasound for thyroid nodule ablation: the evidence to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovatcheva RD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Roussanka D Kovatcheva,1 Katja Zaletel,2 1Department of Thyroid and Metabolic Bone Disorders, Clinical Center of Endocrinology, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Abstract: Thyroid nodules are common in occurrence and most of them are benign in nature. Some of these nodules are to be treated as they continue to grow or cause undesirable symptoms. Recently, several minimally invasive thermal ablation techniques have been introduced to overcome the complications of traditional methods such as surgery. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is the latest advance in treatment modalities, which is a noninvasive procedure that permits localized target destruction without affecting the surrounding tissues. HIFU is currently used in the treatment of various solid malignant and benign tumors. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to the literature, principles, and advances of HIFU therapy of benign thyroid nodules, as well as to provide a discussion on its efficacy, complications, and future. Keywords: thyroid nodule, high-intensity focused ultrasound, ultrasound guidance, ablation techniques

  9. Root nodule organogenesis : molecular characterization of the zonation central tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    Legume plants form root nodules by interacting with the soil bacterium, Rhizobium. In these nodules bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia which is used by the host plants as nitrogen source. Therefore symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules

  10. Compact-Morphology-based poly-metallic Nodule Delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoening, Timm; Jones, Daniel O B; Greinert, Jens

    2017-10-17

    Poly-metallic nodules are a marine resource considered for deep sea mining. Assessing nodule abundance is of interest for mining companies and to monitor potential environmental impact. Optical seafloor imaging allows quantifying poly-metallic nodule abundance at spatial scales from centimetres to square kilometres. Towed cameras and diving robots acquire high-resolution imagery that allow detecting individual nodules and measure their sizes. Spatial abundance statistics can be computed from these size measurements, providing e.g. seafloor coverage in percent and the nodule size distribution. Detecting nodules requires segmentation of nodule pixels from pixels showing sediment background. Semi-supervised pattern recognition has been proposed to automate this task. Existing nodule segmentation algorithms employ machine learning that trains a classifier to segment the nodules in a high-dimensional feature space. Here, a rapid nodule segmentation algorithm is presented. It omits computation-intense feature-based classification and employs image processing only. It exploits a nodule compactness heuristic to delineate individual nodules. Complex machine learning methods are avoided to keep the algorithm simple and fast. The algorithm has successfully been applied to different image datasets. These data sets were acquired by different cameras, camera platforms and in varying illumination conditions. Their successful analysis shows the broad applicability of the proposed method.

  11. Incidental Adrenal Nodules and Masses: The Imaging Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Willatt, J.; Chong, S.; Ruma, J. A.; Kuriakose, J.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal nodules are detected with increasing frequency. The National Institute of Health (NIH), American College of Radiology (ACR), and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AACE/AAES) have produced guidelines for the management of incidental adrenal nodules. This review provides a summary of the consensus radiologic approach to these nodules.

  12. Incidental Adrenal Nodules and Masses: The Imaging Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Willatt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal nodules are detected with increasing frequency. The National Institute of Health (NIH, American College of Radiology (ACR, and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AACE/AAES have produced guidelines for the management of incidental adrenal nodules. This review provides a summary of the consensus radiologic approach to these nodules.

  13. 3D pulmonary nodules detection using fast marching segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary nodule detection is an important step in lung cancer detection because nodules are the alert signal of lung cancer. The early detection of them can hence increase the patient's survival rates. This paper proposes an automated computer aided diagnosis system for detection of pulmonary nodules based on three ...

  14. Effectiveness of native Rhizobium on nodulation and growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the symbiotic effectiveness of native Rhizobium isolated strains on number of nodule, weight, and morphological properties of dry bean. To realize this purpose, fresh and healthy root nodules were collected from major dry bean-growing districts of Konya, Turkey. These nodules ...

  15. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Ussatjuk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches...

  16. Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    several symbiotic promoters from legumes is also discussed. ... Key words: Nitrogen-fixation, actinorhizal nodules, Frankia, Casuarina, symbiotic gene. ..... Nonsymbiotic hemoglobins are widespread and have been identified in both symbiotic and non symbiotic plants (Bogusz et al.,. 1988; Taylor et al., 1994; Trevaskis et al., ...

  17. Les nodules thyroidiens: Aspects epidemiologiques, cliniques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroidectomy practised in all the patients has been dominated by a unilateral lobo-isthmectomia (55.96%). Immediate post-operative effect have been simples in 94.05% of cases and complicated in 5.95% of cases. Thyroid nodules are frequent in TOGO and affect in 90.46% of cases women. It is an ailment of the young ...

  18. Vocal Nodules: Their Cause and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    Provides knowledge about the workings of the vocal apparatus, the scientific basis of certain vocal problems, and what to do to overcome those problems. Specifically discusses the occurrence of nodules on the vocal cords and how to treat them, a subject of interest to both singers and nonsingers. (Editor/RK)

  19. Voice therapy and vocal nodules in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This review considers recent and significant information pertinent to voice therapy for vocal nodules. Available evidence suggests that voice therapy directed to excessive, hyperfunctional and maladaptive vocal practices can be effective in improving voice quality and reducing size/extent of pathology. However, there is also a growing literature suggesting that behavioral approaches may not be sufficient to permanently heal tissue changes in some patients, regardless of compliance with treatment aims, due to lasting structural damage in the vocal fold cover. This evidence underscores the need for early identification and education in individuals at risk for nodules. The relationship between vocal nodules and excessive, phonotraumatic voice use is well established. Voice therapy typically consists of education regarding vocal fold mechanics and etiological factors, as well as modification of specific vocal practices that either cause, exacerbate or result from inappropriate voice production. Therapy can be effective in improving voice quality and tissue health but does not necessarily result in complete resolution of pathology. It should always be considered as a part of the treatment regimen for patients with vocal nodules.

  20. Vocal fold nodules: morphological and immunohistochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Defaveri, Julio; Custódio Domingues, Maria Aparecida; de Albuquerque E Silva, Rafael; Fabro, Alexandre

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of vocal fold nodules. The study design was prospective and retrospective. For the histological study, we reviewed 15 slides from the surgical cases of vocal fold nodules, in which we analyzed epithelium, basal membrane (bm), and lamina propria. For the transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies, five new cases on vocal fold nodules were included. Immunohistochemistry study was carried out in the 15 specimens, using antifibronectin, antilaminin, and anticollagen IV antibodies. The main histological alterations were epithelial hyperplasia (73.33%), basement membrane thickening (86.66%), edema, and fibrosis (93.33%). SEM--reduction in mucous lacing and increase in the desquamating cells, without epithelial erosion. TEM--hyperplasia of the epithelium, enlargement of the intercellular junctions, which was filled by fluid, subepithelial thickening of the lamina reticularis, and break points in the basal membrane. Immunohistochemistry--we identified greater immunoexpression of fibronectin on the basal membrane, on the lamina propria, and around the vessels. Antilaminin and anticollagen IV antibodies showed higher pigmentation on the endothelium of the vessels than that on the basal membrane. In vocal fold nodules, combined assessment using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry can reveal important morphological details useful in characterizing these lesions. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHOD...

  2. A rapid method of ferromanganese nodule mounting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, R.

    stirred vigorously. The mixture is then transferred to the cast (s) within which the air-dried ferromanganese nodules and crusts are kept. Plastic container,. even simple hard paper box may be used as casts depending upon the size and shape of the sample...

  3. Early nodulins in root nodule development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.

    1990-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between bacteria of the genus Rhizobium and leguminous plants leads to the formation of root nodules, which are specific nitrogen-fixing organs on the roots of plants. Bacteria enter the root by infection threads, and concomitantly cell

  4. Histoplasmosis presenting with solitary pulmonary nodule: Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-04

    Aug 4, 2014 ... acid–Schiff (PAS) revealed numerous uniform oval 1‑ to. 5‑μm PAS‑stained organisms, morphologically consistent with H. capsulatum [Figure 2]. Serological tests and culture. Histoplasmosis presenting with solitary pulmonary nodule: Two cases mimicking pulmonary metastases. C Ye, G Zhang, J Wang1, ...

  5. Littoral cell angioma mimicking hepatic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Liang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Littoral cell angioma is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen that was described by Falk et al. in 1991. Because of the limited number, untypical imaging manifestations, and lack of knowledge on this tumor type, these tumors are often misdiagnosed. In most cases, the tumor presents with multiple small hypoattenuating nodules in the spleen with delayed enhancement. However, solitary littoral cell angiomas have not been well described. We present the CT features of an unusual littoral cell angioma mimicking hepatic tumor.

  6. Expression of nodule-specific genes in alfalfa root nodules blocked at an early stage of development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickstein, R.; Bisseling, T.; Reinhold, V.N.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    To help dissect the molecular basis of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, we used in vitro translation and Northern blot analysis of nodule RNA to examine alfalfa-specific genes (nodulins) expressed in two types of developmentally defective root nodules elicited by Rhizobium meliloti. Fix- nodules were

  7. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jordan B. [Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Department of Radiology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maya, Carolina [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce R. [University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  8. Effectiveness of steroid injections for bamboo nodules: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tada, Yasuhiro; Okano, Wataru; Tani, Akiko; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Vocal nodules are generally caused by vocal abuse, and conservative treatments such as voice therapy have been advocated as a first-choice treatment for vocal nodules. Reports of vocal fold lesions related to autoimmune diseases, such as bamboo nodules, are rare in the literature. Here we report a very rare case of bamboo nodules in a 30-year-old woman treated by steroid injection into the vocal folds by videoendoscopic laryngeal surgery in an outpatient setting. She was successfully treated without further recurrence. This report indicates that a steroid injection into bamboo nodules might be a useful treatment option, especially in patients who have not shown any improvement after conservative treatments.

  9. Uranium in Pacific Deep-Sea Sediments and Manganese Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Pluger, W. L.; Friedrich, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water...... to the flow. Economically important nodule deposits from the nodule belt and the Peru Basin have generally low U contents, between 3 and 5 ppm. Insignificant resources of U of about 4 × 105 in the Pacific manganese nodules are estimated....

  10. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... of the soybean plants, in a manner analogous to that recently described for Lupinus albus. This Lb-NO complex is present at lower concentrations in older nodules, and is almost completely absent from senescent nodules. Exposure of young and mature nodules to oxidant stress, in the form of hydrogen peroxide...

  11. Dysplastic hepatic nodules: Radiological abnormalities and histopathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouedraogo, Nina Astrid, E-mail: ninawed@hotmail.com [Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Danjoux-de-Volontat, Marie, E-mail: danjoux.m@chu-toulouse.fr [Service d' Anatomie et de Cytologie pathologique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Auriol, Julien, E-mail: auriol.j@chu-toulouse.fr [Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Peron, Jean-Marie, E-mail: peron.jm@chu-toulouse.fr [Service de Gastroenterologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Rousseau, Herve, E-mail: rousseau.h@chu-toulouse.fr [Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Otal, Philippe, E-mail: otal.p@chu-toulouse.fr [Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-08-15

    Pathological studies of explanted cirrhotic livers have made it possible to define precisely the principal morphological characteristics of the transitional stages of the regenerative nodule to dysplastic nodule to hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to examine the imaging features of histologically proven dysplastic nodules and to compare them with their histopathological features. A large majority (63%) of the dysplastic nodules in our series was hypervascular and 16% had the classic appearance of hepatocellular carcinoma. Even if the management of a high-grade dysplastic nodule differs little from that of a hepatocellular carcinoma, it is important to remember that not all hypervascular nodules in a cirrhotic liver are necessarily a hepatocellular carcinoma or a high-grade dysplastic nodule.

  12. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, Steven G.; Bauer, Andrew J.; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M.; Dinauer, Catherine A.; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D.; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T.; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B.; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. Methods: A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Results: These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. Conclusions: In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the

  13. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gary L; Waguespack, Steven G; Bauer, Andrew J; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M; Dinauer, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-07-01

    Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in

  14. Computer-aided characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) using structural 3D, texture, and functional dynamic contrast features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Shah, Sumit; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Brown, Matthew S.; Aberle, Denise R.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of integrating nodule 3D morphological features, texture features and functional dynamic contrast-enhanced features in differentiating between benign and malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). In this study, 42 cases with solitary lung nodules were examined in this study. The dynamic CT helical scans were acquired image at five time intervals: prior to contrast injection (baseline) and then at 45, 90, 180, 300 seconds after administrating the contrast agent. The nodule boundaries were contoured by radiologists on all series. Using these boundaries, several types of nodule features were computed, including: 3D morphology and Shape Index of the nodule contrast intensity surface; Dynamic contrast related features; 3D texture features. AdaBoost was performed to select the best features. Logistic Regression Analysis (LRA) and AdaBoost were used to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of features in each feature category. The performance when integrating all feature types was also evaluated. For 42 patients, when using only six SI and 3D structural features, the accuracy of AdaBoost was 81.4%, with accuracies of AdaBoost using functional contrast related features (include 8 features) and texture features(include 18 features) were 65.1% and 69.1% respectively. After combining all types' features together, the overall accuracy was improved to over 88%. In conclusion: Combining 3D structural, textural and functional contrast features can provide a more comprehensive examination of the SPNs by coupling dynamic CT scan techniques with image processing to quantify multiple properties that relate to tumor geometry and tumor angiogenesis. This integration may assist radiologists in characterizing SPNs more accurately.

  15. The Clinical and Pathological Presentation of Thyroid Nodules in Children and the Comparison with Adult Population: Experience of a Single Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Solymosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and pathological presentation of thyroid nodules among younger and adult patients was compared in an iodine-deficient (ID region. Data of 3,010 consecutive patients younger than 20 years and 3,010 patients older than 20 years were compared. The proportion of nodular goiters (22.8% versus 39.3%, the ratio of surgically treated nodules (33.2% versus 15.2%, and the proportion of malignant nodules (4.3% versus 2.1% among diseased patients differed significantly between the two groups (younger versus adult. Nine papillary and 1 medullary carcinoma were found among children, while 15 papillary, 2 follicular, 1 insular, 1 anaplastic, and 1 medullary carcinomas occurred among adults. The ratio of follicular adenoma to hyperplastic nodules (3 : 1 to 1 : 1.67, the proportion of follicular variant (77.8% versus 26.7%, T4 tumors (77.8% versus 33.3%, and tumors with lymph node metastasis (88.9% versus 66.7% were significantly higher among younger papillary carcinoma patients. No malignancies occurred among spongiform and central type cysts. Similarly to iodine-sufficient regions, more nodules are malignant and carcinomas have a clinically more aggressive presentation in children in comparison with adult patients in ID. Taking the significantly greater proportion of adenomas and the lack of follicular carcinoma into account, a conservative approach has to be considered in follicular tumors among children.

  16. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    the two hormones require further investigation. In order to improve understanding in these areas we aimed to develop and characterise hormone and cell division markers in Lotus japonicus. Using the extensive genetic resources available in L. japonicus, these markers may then be used to develop a more...... comprehensive understanding of specific gene functions. The markers may also be used for identification of particular cell populations, such as early nodule primordia, and used for their isolation and transcriptome profiling. We optimised a robust DII-based auxin accumulation sensor and used this sensor...... together with the transcriptional read-out of DR5 to monitor auxin dynamics during nodulation in L. japonicus. We observed that during infection, auxin accumulates specifically in infected root hairs. Using chemical inhibitors of auxin biosynthesis, we confirmed the requirement for auxin biosynthesis...

  17. Isolated Rheumatoid Nodules: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 27-year-old male with multiple nonpainful soft tissue masses over several metacarpals, bilateral elbows, the left wrist, and both knees since the age of 4. Physical exam was significant for firm, nonmobile, nodular growths over the extensor surfaces of bilateral elbows and knees and on the 2nd and 5th metacarpal phalangeal joints. Laboratory studies revealed an unremarkable rheumatoid factor, negative ANA screening and normal joint radiographs. Differential diagnosis included subcutaneous granuloma annulare (SGA, seronegative rheumatoid nodule, and calcinosis cutis. Biopsy is the only method to distinguish benign rheumatoid nodules from SGA. This case illustrates the importance of biopsy in diagnosis, an awareness of the potential complications, and the need for good follow-up.

  18. Relationship between voice quality and vocal nodule size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul K; Engel, Samuel H; Choi, Sukgi S

    2008-11-01

    To determine the effect of vocal nodule size on voice in pediatric patients. Vocal nodules were graded according to a validated grading scale by three pediatric otolaryngologists. Patients evaluated from 2003 to 2007 with a diagnosis of vocal nodules were included. Forty patients (21 female) with a mean age of 7.5 years were identified. Vocal nodules were rated as grade 1 (17 patients), grade 2 (15 patients), and grade 3 (8 patients). Pitch range was reduced in patients with larger nodules (P = 0.001). There was no statistical association between nodule grade and fundamental frequency abnormality, perturbation, shimmer, decreased respiratory support, air loss, or significant muscle tension. Voice characteristics in patients with vocal nodules were evaluated. Other than pitch reduction, objective and subjective voice measurements are not statistically different in varying vocal nodule sizes; however, many of the measures did show a trend towards significance. Vocal rehabilitation is complex in children with nodules and may not directly correlate with vocal nodule size.

  19. Microbial communities associated with ferromanganese nodules and the surrounding sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin John Tully

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation and maintenance of deep-sea ferromanganese/polymetallic nodules still remains a mystery 140 years after their discovery. The wealth of rare metals concentrated in these nodules has spurred global interest in exploring the mining potential of these resources. The prevailing theory of abiotic formation has been called into question and the role of microbial metabolisms in nodule development is now an area of active research. To understand the community structure of microbes associated with nodules and their surrounding sediment, we performed targeted sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene from three nodules collected from the central South Pacific. Results have shown that the microbial communities of the nodules are significantly distinct from the communities in the surrounding sediments, and that the interiors of the nodules harbor communities different from the exterior. This suggests not only differences in potential metabolisms between the nodule and sediment communities, but also differences in the dominant metabolisms of interior and exterior communities. We identified several operational taxonomic units (OTUs unique to both the nodule and sediment environments. The identified OTUs were assigned putative taxonomic identifications, including two OTUs only found associated with the nodules, which were assigned to the α-Proteobacteria. Finally, we explored the diversity of the most assigned taxonomic group, the Thaumarchaea MG-1, which revealed novel OTUs compared to previous research from the region and suggests a potential role as a source of fixed carbon for ammonia oxidizing archaea in the environment.

  20. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ...

  1. Therapeutic Antibodies Targeting CSF1 Impede Macrophage Recruitment in a Xenograft Model of Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenosynovial giant cell tumor is a neoplastic disease of joints that can cause severe morbidity. Recurrences are common following local therapy, and no effective medical therapy currently exists. Recent work has demonstrated that all cases overexpress macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1, usually as a consequence of an activating gene translocation, resulting in an influx of macrophages that form the bulk of the tumor. New anti-CSF1 drugs have been developed; however there are no preclinical models suitable for evaluation of drug benefits in this disease. In this paper, we describe a novel renal subcapsular xenograft model of tenosynovial giant cell tumor. Using this model, we demonstrate that an anti-CSF1 monoclonal antibody significantly inhibits host macrophage infiltration into this tumor. The results from this model support clinical trials of equivalent humanized agents and anti-CSF1R small molecule drugs in cases of tenosynovial giant cell tumor refractory to conventional local therapy.

  2. Diagnosis and Management of Small Thyroid Nodules: A Comparative Study with Six Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To investigate the diagnostic performances of six guidelines used to assess thyroid nodules and to determine whether any of these guidelines identify cancers of aggressive form in this population. Materials and Methods From March 2007 to February 2010, 4696 thyroid nodules that were 1-2 cm in 4585 patients were diagnosed as benign or malignant on the basis of cytopathologic results. Ultrasonographic examinations of the thyroid nodules were retrospectively reviewed and categorized according to the categories defined by six previously published guidelines for thyroid nodules. Diagnostic performances of each guideline for diagnosing thyroid cancer were calculated and compared by using the generalized estimating equation method for logistic regression. Multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze predictors for distant metastasis and recurrence and persistence in patients with small thyroid cancer. Results Of the 4696 thyroid nodules, 3652 (77.8%) were benign and 1044 (22.2%) were malignant. Followed were 873 patients who were diagnosed with small thyroid cancer, of whom 12 had distant metastasis and 66 had recurrence or persistence of disease. Specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy were highest with criteria developed by Kim et al (83.1%, 59.6%, and 84.0%, respectively), while sensitivity and negative predictive value were highest with Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System developed by Kwak et al (98.8% and 98.6%, respectively; P guidelines did not show significant association with distant metastasis or recurrence or persistence (P > .05), but the study power was low to detect a difference. Conclusion With its high specificity and accuracy, criteria from Kim et al may be an effective guideline to use in the management of small thyroid nodules. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  3. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  4. A thyroid nodule classification method based on TI-RADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yang; Peng, Bo; Chen, Qin

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System(TI-RADS) is a valuable tool for differentiating the benign and the malignant thyroid nodules. In clinic, doctors can determine the extent of being benign or malignant in terms of different classes by using TI-RADS. Classification represents the degree of malignancy of thyroid nodules. TI-RADS as a classification standard can be used to guide the ultrasonic doctor to examine thyroid nodules more accurately and reliably. In this paper, we aim to classify the thyroid nodules with the help of TI-RADS. To this end, four ultrasound signs, i.e., cystic and solid, echo pattern, boundary feature and calcification of thyroid nodules are extracted and converted into feature vectors. Then semi-supervised fuzzy C-means ensemble (SS-FCME) model is applied to obtain the classification results. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can help doctors diagnose the thyroid nodules effectively.

  5. Prevalence of gingival fibrous nodule in South Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth H Srivathsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Gingival fibrous nodule is considered a normal variant of oral mucosa. So far no studies have been done to determine the prevalence and other characteristics of this entity. Hence, this study was taken up to study the prevalence of gingival fibrous nodule is south Indians. Materials and Methods: This clinical study consisted of 4642 adult subjects who were examined for the presence of gingival fibrous nodules. The age range of the subjects was 10-89 years. The study consisted of 2818 males and 1824 females. Results: One hundred and forty-five gingival fibrous nodules were identified in 128 individuals with a prevalence of 2.75%. They were predominant in males, in the mandibular anterior region. Multiple gingival fibrous nodules were more common than solitary form. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the prevalence of gingival fibrous nodules in south Indians.

  6. Indian exploration for polymetallic nodules in the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.

    and associated soft sediments from the Central Indian Basin. Current Science. Vol. 79: 517-521. Banerjee, R. (2004) Manganese nodules – a possible source for precious metals. Current Science. Vol. 87: 278-279. Jauhari, P.; Kodagali, V.N.; Sankar, S.J. (2001... of the world, future exploration necessitates a closer view at the seafloor and the subbottom using remotely operated vehicles. Exploitation of the nodules involves broad industrial development, and extracting many more metals that nodules can offer...

  7. Visceral larval migrans masquerading as metastatic disease in a toddler with Wilms tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Andrew; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Bula, Melania L. [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Blatt, Julie [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2006-03-15

    A 22-month-old girl with a renal mass had multiple small pulmonary nodules on CT at her initial presentation. After biopsy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, a Wilms tumor was resected and the pulmonary nodules were shown to have regressed on CT. Follow-up imaging 4 months after initial diagnosis demonstrated multiple new liver lesions and new pulmonary nodules with peripheral eosinophilia. Lung biopsy revealed granuloma formation with prominent eosinophils. The serum antibody titers for Toxocara canis were elevated. This case illustrates that toxocariasis should be considered as a rare differential diagnostic possibility for multiple liver lesions and multifocal peripheral pulmonary opacities in young children with Wilms tumor. (orig.)

  8. Sister Mary Joseph's nodule as a presenting sign of internal malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodiuk-Gad, Roni; Ziv, Michael; Loven, David; Schafer, Jan; Shani-Adir, Ayelet; Dyachenko, Pavel; Rozenman, Dganit

    2006-01-01

    CASE 1: A 64-year-old, otherwise healthy woman was referred to the surgery clinic for a presumed umbilical hernia. On physical examination, a cutaneous nodule was noted on the umbilical region and the patient was referred to the dermatology clinic. The patient was reexamined and an erythematous nodule was observed in the umbilicus measuring 2.5 cm in diameter. The patient denied pain, change in bowel habits, or weight loss. There were no other abdominal masses, no sign of ascites, and no regional lymphadenopathy. A skin biopsy from the nodule showed mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, and negative for cytokeratin (CK)7 and CK20. These results were consistent with a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule and led to the diagnosis of an occult colon carcinoma. The patient had no risk factors for colorectal carcinoma. The patient underwent surgery in another hospital, and died 3 months after the initial diagnosis of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule. CASE 2: A 73-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology clinic for evaluation of a painful, ulcerated, 3-cm lesion in the umbilicus (Figure 1). She was otherwise asymptomatic. A skin biopsy showed neoplastic glandular cells infiltrating among collagen bundles (Figure 2). Stainings for mucin and for CK7 were positive, while staining for CK20 was negative. An abdominopelvic CT scan demonstrated a 3.5-cm space-occupying lesion in the liver. Results of gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest computed tomographic (CT) scan, and mammography were normal. Serum levels of the tumor-associated protein CA125 were elevated to 164 units, while those of CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were within normal range. A gynecologic examination and a transvaginal ultrasound were normal. The patient had no personal or family history of any malignancy or any risk factors for developing a carcinoma. The patient was scheduled for a palliative resection of the umbilical nodule, combined with a laparoscopic

  9. The histogenesis of regenerative nodules in human liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wey-Ran; Lim, Siew-Na; McDonald, Stuart A C; Graham, Trevor; Wright, Victoria L; Peplow, Claire L; Humphries, Adam; Kocher, Hemant M; Wright, Nicholas A; Dhillon, Amar P; Alison, Malcolm R

    2010-03-01

    Here, we investigate the clonality and cells of origin of regenerative nodules in human liver cirrhosis using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations as markers of clonal expansion. Mutated cells are identified phenotypically by deficiency in the entirely mtDNA encoded cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) enzyme by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nodules were classified as either CCO-deficient or CCO-positive, and among 526 nodules from 10 cases, 18% were homogeneously CCO-deficient, whereas only 3% had a mixed phenotype. From frozen sections, hepatocytes were laser-capture microdissected from several sites within individual CCO-deficient nodules. Mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction sequencing of the entire mtDNA genome. In all cases except for one, the nodules were monoclonal in nature, possessing up to four common mutations in all hepatocytes in a given nodule. Moreover, the identification of identical mutations in hepatic progenitor cells abutting CCO-deficient nodules proves that nodules can have their origins from such cells. These data support a novel pathway for the monoclonal derivation of human cirrhotic regenerative nodules from hepatic progenitor cells.

  10. A grading scale for pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul K; Feldman, Henry A; Nuss, Roger C

    2007-02-01

    To design a grading scale for vocal fold nodules in pediatric patients. We conducted a prospective study in which a grading scale for vocal nodule size and contour based on static fiberoptic images of pediatric larynges was developed to achieve the scale presented here. Twenty-eight health care professionals each rated 28 images of pediatric vocal fold nodules. The intraclass correlation for nodule size was strong (0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.87). The kappa statistic for nodule contour was mild (0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.37). Agreement between experienced and other raters found no significant difference for the nodule size or contour grade of a given image. A grading scale for pediatric vocal fold nodules is presented. Interrater reliability for nodule size is high and can be reliably used by health care professionals with varying levels of experience. A validated grading scale facilitates objective analysis of outcomes when studying and following patients with vocal nodules.

  11. Manganese nodules as a possible source of precious metals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.

    - nese nodules 8,9 , it is est i mated that at the present market value, more than Rs 750 bil - lion worth precious metal s (e.g. Pt, Pd, Ag), may be present in the entire nodule resources in the Ce n tral Indian Basin (CIB), covering an area... was calculated by multipl y ing the mean elemental concen tration (on dry basis) in nodules with the nodule tonnage and the prevailing inte r national market rate. A comparison o f the conce n tration of a few precious metals in the manganese depo - sits...

  12. Subsolid pulmonary nodules: imaging evaluation and strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Myrna C B; Sabloff, Bradley; Naidich, David P

    2012-07-01

    Given the higher rate of malignancy of subsolid pulmonary nodules and the considerably lower growth rate of ground-glass nodules (GGNs), dedicated standardized guidelines for management of these nodules have been proposed, including long-term low-dose computed tomography (CT) follow-up (≥3 years). Physicians must be familiar with the strategic management of subsolid pulmonary nodules, and should be able to identify imaging features that suggest invasive adenocarcinoma requiring a more aggressive management. Low-dose CT screening studies for early detection of lung cancer have increased our knowledge of pulmonary nodules, and in particular our understanding of the strong although imperfect correlation of the subsolid pulmonary nodules, including pure GGNs and part-solid nodules, with the spectrum of preinvasive to invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Serial CT imaging has shown stepwise progression in a subset of these nodules, characterized by increase in size and density of pure GGNs and development of a solid component, the latter usually indicating invasive adenocarcinoma. There is close correlation between the CT features of subsolid nodules (SSNs) and the spectrum of lung adenocarcinoma. Standardized guidelines are suggested for management of SSNs.

  13. Large elbow nodules in a patient with rheumatoid nodulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Frikha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid nodulosis is an uncommon pathology considered as a particular variant of rheumatoid arthritis associated with subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules, palindromic rheumatism, and mild or no systemic manifest­ation, usually with positive rheumatoid factor and radiological subchondral bone cysts. We describe a 58-year-old man with the diagnosis of seropositive but nondestructive, nondeforming rheumatoid arthritis, who exhibits multiple subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules associated with episodes of intermittent arthralgias and subchondral cystic lesions of the small bones of the hands and feet. Large nodules were surgically removed from the two elbows. They were histologically typical of rheumatoid nodules. All these findings were consistent with the diagnosis of rheumatoid nodulosis.

  14. Constrictive Pericarditis and Rheumatoid Nodules with Severe Aortic Incompetence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beattie, Rory; Booth, Karen; Herron, Brian; Sheppard, Mary N; Parissis, Haralambos

    2014-01-01

    The case of a female patient presenting with constrictive rheumatoid pericarditis and aortic incompetence secondary to valvular rheumatoid nodules is described along with a review of the literature...

  15. Constrictive pericarditis and rheumatoid nodules with severe aortic incompetence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beattie, Rory; Booth, Karen; Herron, Brian; Sheppard, Mary N; Parissis, Haralambos

    2014-01-01

    The case of a female patient presenting with constrictive rheumatoid pericarditis and aortic incompetence secondary to valvular rheumatoid nodules is described along with a review of the literature...

  16. Detection of preoperative wilms tumor rupture with CT: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Geetika; Naranjo, Arlene; Hoffer, Fredric; Mullen, Elizabeth; Geller, James; Gratias, Eric J; Ehrlich, Peter F; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Rosen, Nancy; Grundy, Paul; Dome, Jeffrey S

    2013-02-01

    To retrospectively determine the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) in identifying the presence or absence of preoperative Wilms tumor rupture. The cohort was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children's Oncology Group. The study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA. Written informed consent was obtained before enrollment. The diagnosis of Wilms tumor rupture was established by central review of notes from surgery and/or pathologic examination. Seventy Wilms tumor cases with rupture were matched to 70 Wilms tumor controls without rupture according to age and tumor weight (within 6 months and 50 g, respectively). CT scans were independently reviewed by two radiologists, and the following CT findings were assessed: poorly circumscribed mass, perinephric fat stranding, peritumoral fat planes obscured, retroperitoneal fluid (subcapsular vs extracapsular), ascites beyond the cul-de-sac, peritoneal implants, ipsilateral pleural effusion, and intratumoral hemorrhage. All fluids were classified as hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic by using a cutoff of 30 HU. The relationship between CT findings and rupture was assessed with logistic regression models. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting Wilms tumor rupture were 54% (36 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 1 and 70% (47 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 2. Interobserver agreement was substantial (ĸ = 0.76). All imaging signs tested, except peritoneal implants, intratumoral hemorrhage, and subcapsular fluid, showed a significant association with rupture (P ≤ .02). The attenuation of ascitic fluid did not have a significant correlation with rupture (P = .9990). Ascites beyond the cul-de-sac was the single best indicator of rupture for both reviewers, followed by perinephric fat stranding and retroperitoneal fluid for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively (P < .01). CT has moderate specificity but

  17. Primary thyroid paraganglioma presenting with double thyroid nodule: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erem, Cihangir; Kocak, Mustafa; Nuhoglu, İrfan; Cobanoglu, Umit; Ucuncu, Ozge; Okatan, Burcu Kemal

    2009-12-01

    Paragangliomas (PGs) are exceptionally rare tumors. Only 24 cases have previously been reported. Both preoperative and postoperative differential diagnosis is very difficult. Due to interesting nature in diagnosis and differential diagnosis, we describe the case 58-year-old euthyroid woman with a thyroid PG. The patient had presented with euthyroid multinodular goiter to a secondary hospital. The patient was treated with right lobectomy, isthmectomy, and left partial lobectomy without any imaging procedures. No complication had been developed during and following the operation. Initial pathological examination suggested medullar thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in a nodule of 4.5 cm in diameter on right thyroid lobe and a nodule of 2.5 cm in diameter on the left thyroid lobe without amyloid stroma and referred to our third-stage hospital. Repeated pathological examination involving immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor was stained positively to neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein. No immunoreactivity was detected against thyroglobulin, calcitonin, parathormone, carcino-embryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor-1, and cytokeratin. A diagnosis of thyroid PG was finally made. Laboratory analyses and imaging procedures excluded any neck or extracervical tissues metastasis or multiple endocrine neoplasia. In conclusion, thyroid PG is an elusive tumor. We present this interesting nature thyroid PG case to highlight importance of careful evaluation of clinical and pathological findings to correctly identify paragangliomas which anatomically mimic MTCs. This report is the first case of thyroid PG presenting with multinodular goiter in the literature.

  18. SU-F-R-22: Malignancy Classification for Small Pulmonary Nodules with Radiomics and Logistic Regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W; Tu, S [Chang Gung University, Kwei-shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We conducted a retrospective study of Radiomics research for classifying malignancy of small pulmonary nodules. A machine learning algorithm of logistic regression and open research platform of Radiomics, IBEX (Imaging Biomarker Explorer), were used to evaluate the classification accuracy. Methods: The training set included 100 CT image series from cancer patients with small pulmonary nodules where the average diameter is 1.10 cm. These patients registered at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and received a CT-guided operation of lung cancer lobectomy. The specimens were classified by experienced pathologists with a B (benign) or M (malignant). CT images with slice thickness of 0.625 mm were acquired from a GE BrightSpeed 16 scanner. The study was formally approved by our institutional internal review board. Nodules were delineated and 374 feature parameters were extracted from IBEX. We first used the t-test and p-value criteria to study which feature can differentiate between group B and M. Then we implemented a logistic regression algorithm to perform nodule malignancy classification. 10-fold cross-validation and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were used to evaluate the classification accuracy. Finally hierarchical clustering analysis, Spearman rank correlation coefficient, and clustering heat map were used to further study correlation characteristics among different features. Results: 238 features were found differentiable between group B and M based on whether their statistical p-values were less than 0.05. A forward search algorithm was used to select an optimal combination of features for the best classification and 9 features were identified. Our study found the best accuracy of classifying malignancy was 0.79±0.01 with the 10-fold cross-validation. The area under the ROC curve was 0.81±0.02. Conclusion: Benign nodules may be treated as a malignant tumor in low-dose CT and patients may undergo unnecessary surgeries or treatments. Our

  19. Postmenopausal bleeding and vaginal nodules as the first presenting sign of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, O; Antico, F; Mancuso, A; Salimbeni, V; Nicotina, P A

    2005-01-01

    Vaginal submucosal nodules were observed in a 67-year-old woman, with ultrasonographic features of an advanced uterine neoplasm. On biopsy, light microscopy suggested that the lesions might be metastatic foci from an extragenital cancer, with a prevalent tubular growth pattern. Parallel immunohistochemical reactions revealed a diffuse, strong CA 19-9 positivity in both the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Subsequently, high serum levels of such tumor marker were also found, and an extragenital cancer was suspected of pancreatic or biliary origin. A mass in the gallbladder fossa was then detected by computed tomography and a primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was confirmed on ultrasound-guided biopsy.

  20. Graphite nodule count and size distribution in thin-walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count as these ar......Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count...... as these are inclusions and micro porosities that do not influence the solidification morphology. If there are many small graphite nodules as in thin walled castings only 3D nodule count calculated by FDM will give reliable results. 2D nodule count and 3D nodule count calculated by simple equations will give too low...

  1. Evidence for the formation of different-sized nodules by different accretionary processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    Studies on different-sized polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin reveal that chemical composition is largely related to the nodule diameter which show systematic decrease in Mn, Cu, and Ni content with increase in nodule size...

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Coskun, Sonay; Ogur, Erkin [Firat University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Dagli, A.F. [Firat University, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Ozkan, Yusuf; Sahpaz, Fatih [Firat University, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the diagnostic role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differentiating of malignant and benign thyroid nodules by using fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology criteria as a reference standard. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the normal-looking thyroid parenchyma were also evaluated both in normal patients and in patients with nodules. Between March 2007 and February 2008, 76 consecutive patients with ultrasound-diagnosed thyroid nodules and 20 healthy subjects underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging by using single-shot spin echo, echo planar imaging. A total of 93 nodules were included in the study using the following b factors 100, 200, and 300 mm{sup 2}/s. ADC values of thyroid nodules and normal area in all subjects were calculated and compared using suitable statistical analysis. Mean ADC values for malignant and benign nodules were 0.96{+-}0.65 x 10{sup -3} and 3.06{+-}0.71 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. for b-300 factor, 0.56{+-}0.43 x 10{sup -3} and 1.80{+-}0.60 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for b-200, and 0.30{+-}0.20 x 10{sup -3} and 1.15{+-}0.43 x 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s, for b-300, respectively. Mean ADC values of malignant nodules were lower than benign nodules. There were significant differences in ADC values between benign and malignant nodules. ADC values among normal-appearing thyroid parenchyma of patients and normal-appearing thyroid parenchyma of healthy subjects were insignificant at all b factors. Benign nodules have higher ADC values than malignant ones. DWI may be helpful in differentiating malign and benign thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  3. VATS intraoperative tattooing to facilitate solitary pulmonary nodule resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS has become routine and widely accepted for the removal of solitary pulmonary nodules of unknown etiology. Thoracosopic techniques continue to evolve with better instruments, robotic applications, and increased patient acceptance and awareness. Several techniques have been described to localize peripheral pulmonary nodules, including pre-operative CT-guided tattooing with methylene blue, CT scan guided spiral/hook wire placement, and transthoracic ultrasound. As pulmonary surgeons well know, the lung and visceral pleura may appear featureless on top of a pulmonary nodule. Case description This paper presents a rapid, direct and inexpensive approach to peripheral lung lesion resection by marking the lung parenchyma on top of the nodule using direct methylene blue injection. Methods In two patients with peripherally located lung nodules (n = 3 scheduled for VATS, we used direct methylene blue injection for intraoperative localization of the pulmonary nodule. Our technique was the following: After finger palpation of the lung, a spinal 25 gauge needle was inserted through an existing port and 0.1 ml of methylene blue was used to tattoo the pleura perpendicular to the localized nodule. The methylene blue tattoo immediately marks the lung surface over the nodule. The surgeon avoids repeated finger palpation, while lining up stapler, graspers and camera, because of the visible tattoo. Our technique eliminates regrasping and repalpating the lung once again to identify a non marked lesion. Results Three lung nodules were resected in two patients. Once each lesion was palpated it was marked, and the area was resected with security of accurate localization. All lung nodules were resected in totality with normal lung parenchymal margins. Our technique added about one minute to the operative time. The two patients were discharged home on the second postoperative day, with no morbidity. Conclusion

  4. Comparison of muscle-to-nodule and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Which one should we use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Ramazan, E-mail: raydin1984@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Samsun Education and Research Hospital, Samsun (Turkey); Elmali, Muzaffer, E-mail: muzafel@yahoo.com.tr [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Polat, Ahmet Veysel, E-mail: veyselp@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Danaci, Murat, E-mail: danacim55@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Akpolat, Ilkser, E-mail: ilkserakpolat@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of muscle-to-nodule strain ratio (MNSR) in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to see if there was a difference between MNSR and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios (PNSR) in diagnosis. Methods: A total of 106 consecutive patients (88 women and 18 men; age range 19–79 years) with thyroid nodules were prospectively examined using ultrasound and sonoelastography before the fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The mean MNSR and PNSR were calculated for each nodule and the elasticity score was determined according to four-point scoring system. Results: According to the four-point scoring system, 44 of the 83 benign nodules had a score of one or two while 22 of the 23 malignant nodules had a score of three or four (p < 0.001). Using ROC analysis, the best cutoff point for MNSR 1.85 and for PNSR 3.14 was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity for the MNSR were 95.6%, 92.8%, respectively; for the PNSR were 95.6%, 93.4%, respectively, when the best cutoff points were used (p < 0.001). The κ value for the PNSR and MNSR methods was 0.87, which indicated an almost perfect agreement (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sonoelastography has a high diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. There was no significant difference between MNSR and PNSR in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Therefore, we think that MNSR could safely be used in situations where PNSR could not be used.

  5. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects passed down ...

  6. A cytokinin receptor homologue is induced during root nodule organogenesis and senescence in Lupinus albus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coba de la Peña, Teodoro; Cárcamo, Claudia B; Almonacid, Luis; Zaballos, Angel; Lucas, M Mercedes; Balomenos, Dimitrios; Pueyo, José J

    2008-02-01

    Here we report the isolation of a new cytokinin receptor homologue, LaHK1, from lupin (Lupinus albus) root nodules. LaHK1 transcript accumulation was detected in different plant organs, and expression was analyzed throughout nodule development. We observed notably higher expression in nodule primordia and young nodules compared to the root or to mature nodules. We also detected elevated transcript accumulation in naturally senescent nodules and in senescent nodules subjected to foliar dark stress. The results could be an indication of a putative role of this cytokinin receptor homologue in nodule development, from morphogenesis through senescence.

  7. Isolation and selection of Bradyrhizobium from the root nodules of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted from 2004 to 2005 to isolate and select Bradyrhizobium from the root nodules of indigo plants (Indigofera tinctoria L.). For isolation of Bradyrhizobium, root nodules were collected from indigo plants. Fourteen Bradyrhizobium isolates were identified depending on colony, morphological and ...

  8. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be

  9. Shoot-derived cytokinins systemically regulate root nodulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasaki, Takema; Suzaki, Takuya; Soyano, Takashi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    ...) that translocates to roots and blocks further nodule development. Here we show that, CLE-RS1/2-HAR1 signalling activates the production of shoot-derived cytokinins, which have an SDI-like capacity to systemically suppress nodulation...

  10. Pediatric vocal nodules: correlation with perceptual voice analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul K; Woodnorth, Geralyn Harvey; Glynn, Amy; Nuss, Roger C

    2005-07-01

    To present the epidemiology and correlation with perceptual analysis of vocal nodules in pediatric patients. Retrospective review of patients seen in a tertiary care pediatric hospital's voice center from 1996 to 2003. Six hundred and forty-six patients were evaluated with videostroboscopic examinations and perceptual analysis of voice characteristics by speech pathologists. Appropriate treatment was based on the pathology identified. Two hundred and fifty-four patients (40%) with an average age of 7.7 years (range 0.1-19.3 years) were identified as having vocal nodules. Of these, 72% were male. Six patients (2%) were under the age of 7 months. Nodules were most commonly found in males, aged 3-10 years old. Evidence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease was found in one-quarter of patients; hyperfunction of the larynx was seen in three-fourths. Hyperfunction of the larynx correlates with the size of vocal nodules. Distortion of the vocal fold mucosal wave was not present. Perceptual analysis revealed positive correlation of the severity of hoarseness, breathiness, straining and aphonia with the size of vocal nodules. The epidemiology and correlation with perceptual voice analysis in pediatric patients with vocal nodules is presented. Hyperfunction of the larynx correlates with nodule size, while the presence of reflux disease does not. The severity of hoarseness, breathiness, straining and aphonia correlates with the size of vocal nodules.

  11. Fat augmentation following microsurgical removal of the vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Ming-Wang; Chen, Yen-Yu; Pai, Lu; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2002-08-01

    Autogenous fat augmentation has been used as a treatment for glottic insufficiency. However, no information is available on the effectiveness of fat injection in patients with vocal nodules or recurrent vocal nodules after surgery. The retrospective study reviews the efficiency of fat injection after surgery in patients with vocal nodules (n = 18) and recurrent vocal nodules (n = 5). The perceptual acoustic, phonatory function, and video laryngostroboscopic data were evaluated before and after surgery in 23 patients. Mean follow-up time was 7.5 months. Nineteen patients had excellent results. Two patients had improvement, and no change was observed in two patients. Phonatory function showed significant improvement in shimmer, harmonic-to-noiseratio (P vocal fold edge, amplitude of vocal fold vibration, and excursion of the mucosal wave (P vocal nodules than in nonrecurrent vocal nodules. Fat injection is an effective autogenous implant and may be considered as an option in management of patients with vocal nodules after surgery. Recurrence of nodules is a problem, but the procedure may be repeated.

  12. Cold nodule thyroid — A 5 year retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sajithkumar, V. I.; Rathore, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    FNAC and histopathological reports of 50 patients with cold nodule thyroid who underwent surgery during the last 5 years were analysed. FNAC showed malignancy in 12% of cases whereas histopathological examination in 16% of cases. In this study an attempt has been made to find out the role of frozen section in cold nodule thyroid.

  13. Differentiation of thyroid nodules using diffusion-weighted MRI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lamiss Mohamed Abd el Aziz

    2014-10-19

    Oct 19, 2014 ... Diffusion weighted MRI;. ADC mapping. Abstract Background: Thyroid nodule evaluation is usually done using a fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of diffusion weighted imaging to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Sixty-one ...

  14. Nodulation potential of four Trifolium repens cultivars under field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Trifolium repens (white clover) cultivars were evaluated under field conditions to determine the potential of these cultivars to sucessfully develop Rhizobium-associated root nodules. Nodulation of T. repens is often poor, because of suboptimal environmental conditions or absence of host-specific rhizobia. The cultivars ...

  15. Internal microfeatures of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.

    whereas nodules from the abyssal plains show prominent, well-developed columnar structures. Features such as botryoids and fractures filled with Fe and Mn oxides are more common in the nodules of abyssal plains whereas the clay content and clastic grains...

  16. Geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B; Khadge, N.H.; Desa, J.A.E.

    ( 4 cm) which have high Fe and moisture and low todorokite contents are formed mainly by hydrogenesis. (3) The mixing model indicates shifting of the smaller nodules (formed close to the CCD) to deep-sea regions and mixing with larger nodules formed...

  17. [Guideline thyroid cancer including diagnostics of the nodule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, T.P.; Heide, L.J. de; Janssen, M; Nederveen, F.H. Van; Lugt, A. van der; Vriens, M.R.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    - Thyroid cancer is comparatively rare. Thyroid nodules, on the other hand, are frequently diagnosed as a result of increasing use of diagnostic imaging.- Cytological investigation of small nodules that have been found by chance often reveals micropapillary carcinoma that is probably not clinically

  18. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology: Descriptive study that included the information contained in 262 medical records of teachers diagnosed with dysphonia in occupational health consultations at the institutions that provide health services in Bogotá, Colombia from March 2009 to March 2012. The presence of laryngeal nodules was based on the findings of a nasofibrolaryngoscopy procedure. Results: Nodules were found in 67 teachers, which corresponded to a rate of 25.5%, being apparently (highest observed rates associated primarily with the following variables: females, ages from 45 to 54 years, bilateral nodules, and teaching position (preschool and physical education. Of the teachers with nodules, 76.1% had fewer than five doctor's appointments, and 75% had more than 90 days of sick leave. Conclusion: A high percentage of teachers have vocal nodules associated with dysphonia. This may be apparently related to different variables such as sex, type of nodule, area and teaching position. Was observed only a statistically significant association among presence of nodules and age (p=0.018. In addition this disorder generates a large number of incapacities and employee absenteeism.

  19. Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Abbas Ali; Kaya, Cafer; Kılıç, Fevzi Balkan Mehmet; Ersoy, Reyhan; Çakır, Bekir

    2014-12-01

    The frequency of thyroid nodules accompanying Graves' disease and the risk of thyroid cancer in presence of accompanying nodules are controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of thyroid nodules and the risk of thyroid cancer in patients operated because of graves' disease. Five hundred and twenty-six patients in whom thyroidectomy was performed because of Graves' disease between 2006 and 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients who had received radioactive iodine treatment and external irradiation treatment in the neck region and who had had thyroid surgery previously were not included in the study. While accompanying thyroid nodule was present in 177 (33.6%) of 526 Graves' patients, thyroid nodule was absent in 349 (66.4%) patients. Forty-two (8%) patients had thyroid cancer. The rate of thyroid cancer was 5.4% (n = 19) in the Graves' patients who had no nodule, whereas it was 13% (n = 23) in the patients who had nodule. The risk of thyroid cancer increased significantly in presence of nodule (p = 0.003). Three patients had recurrence. No patient had distant metastasis. No patient died during the follow-up period. Especially Graves' patients who have been decided to be followed up should be evaluated carefully during the follow-up in terms of thyroid cancer which may accompany.

  20. effect of exogenous application of rhizopine on lucerne root nodulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Rhizopine, 3-0 -methyl scyllo-inosamine was applied to the roots of luceme seedling inoculated with either rhizopine synthesizing Sinorhizobium meliloti strain L530 or the non-rhizopine synthesizing strain Rm 1021. There was an initial delay in nodule formation. A significant increase in the number of nodules formed in ...

  1. Bilateral multiple pulmonary tuberculous nodules mimicking metastatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariyuerek, Macit O.; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay E-mail: mkarcaal@hacettepe.edu.tr; Demirkazik, Figen B.; Akay, Hadi; Gedikoglu, Gokhan; Emri, Salih

    2002-10-01

    We present CT findings of a young woman who has bilateral pulmonary nodules mimicking metastases. Clinical presentation with active multiple pulmonary macronodules without cavitation responsive to treatment is an atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis. We reviewed the causes of multiple pulmonary nodules, role of radiological findings in differential diagnosis and parenchymal manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in this report.

  2. Germination, growth and nodulation of Trigonella foenum graecum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two saline tolerant indigenous rhizobia strains were isolated from the root nodules of fenugreek grown in two different soils. The two rhizobial strains were tested for their ability to grow under high salt stress and then assessed for their ability to nodulate fenugreek grown under different salt stress levels. We have found that ...

  3. A case of cyclist's nodule in a female patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ere are few reported cases of cyclist's nodule in females. e condition has thus lent itself to synonyms such as third, supernumerary or accessory testicle. We report the imaging ndings of a perineal nodule in a 29-year-old female patient who is a known cyclist, and discuss the differential diagnosis. S Afr J SM 2014 ...

  4. Is genetic selection for skin nodule traits of ostriches feasible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary genetic parameters for nodule traits of ostrich skins were estimated to examine whether genetic improvement of skin quality is feasible. Average nodule size and density per dmยฒ were determined on five localities on each of 439 ostrich skins. An animal model with random animal and skin permanent ...

  5. Ovarian serous cystadenoma associated with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, E. J.; Kwon, H. J.; Shim, S. I.

    1996-01-01

    We Describe a case of ovarian serous cystadenoma having Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, well differentiated, in the cystic septum. Well differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor coexisting with other tumor, including serous tumor, has not yet been described. In all cases of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous components or other tumors, the androblastomatous components are intermediately or poorly differentiated. The present case revealed a well differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor arising in a septum of serous cystadenoma, as a circumscribed nodule. With these findings, we discuss the possibility of this Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, considered a mural nodule, which is well established in cystic common epithelial tumors of the ovary. PMID:8703377

  6. [Jinsangsanjie capsule for treating vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sulin; Li, Yuncheng; Wang, Yanjun; Kong, Weijia

    2012-08-01

    To investigate therapeutic effects of Jinsangsanjie capsule on vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules. Seventy-five patients with vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules were treated by taking Jinsangsanjie capsule orally. After the therapeutic course, they were all followed up for 1 month. The effective rate of vocal nodule group was 93.8%, the effective rate of vocal fold polyp group was 89.7%, the effective rate of vocal nodule with acute congestion group was 100%, the effective rate of vocal fold polyp with acute congestion group was 100%, and the effective rate of hypertrophy of vocal cords with chronic congestion group was 66.7%. Jinsangsanjie capsule has definite efficacy for treatment of vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules and deserved to be recommended.

  7. The etiology of vocal fold nodules in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkos, Petros D; McCormick, Maxwell

    2009-12-01

    To review the recent literature on the etiology and pathophysiology of vocal fold nodules in adults. Research regarding the etiology of vocal nodules over the past 2 years supports previous thinking regarding the central role of voice misuse, overuse, and phonatory trauma. Advanced modeling techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms by which this may occur such as vibration-induced rise in capillary pressures and varying fluid dynamics in the layered vocal fold structure. Contributory roles of personality traits, reflux, and allergy have also been hypothesized. Current research supports long-held beliefs that phonatory trauma is a central cause of vocal fold nodule formation. Innovative basic science research has unraveled mechanisms of traumatic damage and clinical research continues to identify crucial lifestyle behavior and contributing comorbid conditions that play a role in the pathogenesis of vocal fold nodules. The multifactorial etiology of vocal fold nodules requires a comprehensive history to identify contributing factors and a multidisciplinary approach to optimize treatment outcome.

  8. Colon Carcinoma with Unusual Metastasis to the Esophagus Manifesting as Multiple Nodules and Dysphagia: Management with Systemic Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj G. Vashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present here the rare clinical case of a 44-year-old gentleman with metastasis from colon carcinoma to the esophagus presenting with multiple nodules and dysphagia, which was successfully managed with systemic chemotherapy. The patient presented at our institution with 3-month history of dysphagia almost 4 years after being operated for stage III carcinoma in the sigmoid colon. Endoscopic findings showed multiple nodules at the gastroesophageal junction and mid esophagus. Histological features and immunostains confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic colon carcinoma. Because of evidence of extensive metastatic disease in the spine and liver requiring systemic therapy, the patient was treated with chemotherapy with irinotecan and cetuximab, with subsequent improvement in tumor markers, liver metastasis and symptoms of dysphagia. Even though repeat endoscopy showed no improvement in esophageal nodules, the overall response to chemotherapy was positive. In conclusion, we present a very rare, previously unreported case of metastases from colon cancer to the esophagus presenting as non-obstructive nodules and dysphagia that responded to systemic chemotherapy.

  9. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity is not a marker for neoplastic transformation of esophageal nodules in canine spirocercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukorera, Varaidzo; van der Merwe, Liesel L; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Dvir, Eran

    2011-09-01

    Spirocerca lupi is a nematode of Canidae that matures within the esophageal wall to form fibroblastic nodules with potential for malignant transformation. Diagnosis is based on histopathologic examination, but false-negative results may be obtained from samples collected by endoscopy. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, frequently increased in hepatobiliary disease, is also increased in a variety of neoplastic conditions in dogs, including appendicular osteosarcoma, and has also been reported to be increased in dogs with spirocercosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum ALP activity as a marker for malignant transformation of esophageal nodules in S. lupi-infected dogs. In this retrospective study, medical records of dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis from 1991 to 2008 were reviewed, and serum ALP activity determined at presentation was compared between dogs with nonneoplastic and neoplastic nodules. Owing to use of multiple analyzers, ratios of ALP activity to the upper reference interval for ALP were calculated and compared. Median ALP activity ratios were 0.65 (0.07-4.00) and 0.86 (0.10-3.40) for dogs with nonneoplastic (n=88) and neoplastic (n=32) nodules, respectively, with no significant difference (P=.18) and substantial overlap between groups. Tumors included osteosarcoma (15 dogs), fibrosarcoma (15 dogs), and anaplastic sarcoma (2 dogs); there was no difference in ALP activity between the dogs with osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma. ALP is a poor marker of malignant transformation in canine spirocercosis. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. [Manifestation of Dupuytren nodules following fracture of the distal radius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelhaus, Alice; Wendt, M; Mielsch, N; Gradl, G; Mittlmeier, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of post-traumatic development of Dupuytren nodules in distal radius fractures treated operatively. In 2 prospective randomised studies for operative treatment of distal radius fractures, the formation of Dupuytren nodules was registered. One of the exclusion criteria was a pre-existing Dupuytren's disease at the date of trauma. In addition to the notification of the development of Dupuytren nodules, signs of a complex regional pain syndrome were registered as well as the wrist function, level of pain and grip strength. The Castaing and the Gartland and Werley scores were assessed. The clinical outcomes of patients with and without Dupuytren nodules were compared. 239 of 275 (87%) of the patients could be examined 1 year after the operation, consisting of 32 men and 207 women with a median age of 64.2 years. The patients with Dupuytren nodules were re-evaluated after 16-60 months (median 41.8) for progression of the disease. 21 patients (8.7%) developed changes of the palmar aponeurosis. In 20 patients nodules were stated, one patient showed a cord at the fourth ray of the injured hand. 19 out of 21 patients were female (90.5%). At re-evaluation after 41.8 months (16-60) progression could not be noted nor could similar changes be seen on the contralateral side. Patients with Dupuytren nodules were not handicapped in their hand function. 3 patients (14.3%) revealed a positive family history for Dupuytren's disease. Abuse of alcohol or diabetes was not present in any of the patients with Dupuytren nodules, 7 (33%) were smokers. The occurrence of Dupyutren nodules can be triggered by a trauma or operation. It may be speculated that these nodules are an entity of their own as no progression of the contracture could be seen during the follow-up period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with a "Nodule-in-Nodule" Appearance: Long-Term Follow-up and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul; Song, Kyoung Doo; Lee, Min Woo; Cha, Dong Ik; Ha, Sang Yun; Ahn, Joong Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a "nodule-in-nodule" (NIN) appearance has unique histological characteristics as an early HCC. We assessed long-term therapeutic outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in HCC patients considering this appearance. Our Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study, and the requirement for written informed consent was waived. Between May 2006 and April 2012, a total of 572 patients underwent RFA for single HCC as a first-line treatment. Patients were divided into a NIN HCC group (n = 22) and a non-NIN HCC group (n = 550), according to the NIN feature on pretreatment imaging studies. Local tumor progression (LTP) and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared. Prognostic factors for LTP and DFS were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The cumulative LTP rates were 4.6 and 4.6% at 3 and 5 years, respectively, in the NIN HCC group, and 15.9 and 20.5% in the non-NIN HCC group, with borderline statistical significance (p = 0.085). The corresponding DFS rates were 53.8 and 37.7% in the NIN HCC group and 44.0 and 31.7% in the non-NIN HCC group, with no significant difference (p = 0.318). Although on multivariate analysis only tumor size was a significant prognostic factor for LTP, there was a trend bordering on the significance for the NIN feature [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.19; p = 0.099]. However, it was not a significant factor for DFS (HR = 0.18; p = 0.682). The NIN appearance, a rare (4%, 22/550) but unique feature of early HCC, may be a favorable prognostic factor for RFA in terms of local tumor control.

  12. Predictive factors for malignancy in incidental pulmonary nodules detected in breast cancer patients at baseline CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mark M.; Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J. [University of Pennsylvania, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly encountered at staging CTs in patients with extrathoracic malignancies, but their significance on a per-patient basis remains uncertain. We undertook a retrospective analysis of pulmonary nodules identified in patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer from 2010 - 2015, evaluating nodules present at a baseline CT (i.e. prevalent nodules). We reviewed 211 patients with 248 individual nodules. The rate of malignancy in prevalent nodules is low, approximately 13 %. Variables associated with metastasis include pleural studding, hilar lymphadenopathy and the presence of extrapulmonary metastasis, as well as number of nodules, nodule size and nodule shape. Using a combination of these factors, we have developed an evidence-based multivariate decision tree to predict which nodules are malignant in these patients, which is 91 % accurate and 100 % sensitive for metastasis. We propose a simplified clinical prediction algorithm to guide radiologists and oncologists in managing patients with breast cancer and incidental pulmonary nodules. (orig.)

  13. [Prediction of occult carcinoma in contralateral nodules for unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hanfeng; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Dangui; Xu, Zhengang

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the risks for occult carcinoma in contralateral nodules for unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma. The study included 157 consecutive cases of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma with benign nodules in the contralateral lobe identified by preoperative ultrasound or fine-needle aspiration from January 2011 to December 2013. The patients received total thyroidectomies and neck lymph node dissections. The frequency and predictive factors for contralateral occult carcinoma in these patients were analyzed. A total of 68 patients (43.3%) had occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the contralateral lobe and the maximum diameter of contralateral occult papillary carcinoma ranged from 0.1 to 1.2 cm, including ≤ 0.5 cm in 56 patients, 0.5-1.0 cm in 9 patients and >1.0 cm in 3 patients respectively. In univariate analysis, occult carcinoma in the contralateral lobe was associated with patient age (χ(2) = 7.266, P = 0.007) and pathologically multifocality in the ipsilateral lobe (χ(2) = 5.090, P = 0.024), but not with family history, tumor size, thyroid function, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, perithyroidal invasion, multifocality in the ipsilateral lobe, clinically or pathologically node-negative neck. In multivariate Logistic an analysis, age (OR = 1.054, P = 0.001) and multifocality in the ipsilateral lobe on final pathology (OR = 2.443, P = 0.021) were independent predictive factors for contralateral occult papillary thyroid carcinoma. Occult carcinoma is common in the contralateral "benign" nodules in patients with unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma especially in young patients or the cases with multifocal tumors.

  14. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kai-Lung Hua,1 Che-Hao Hsu,1 Shintami Chusnul Hidayati,1 Wen-Huang Cheng,2 Yu-Jen Chen3 1Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 2Research Center for Information Technology Innovation, Academia Sinica, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. Keywords: nodule classification, deep learning, deep belief network, convolutional neural network

  15. SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression in mural nodules of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasunori; Aishima, Shinichi; Shindo, Koji; Fujino, Minoru; Mizuuchi, Yusuke; Hattori, Masami; Miyazaki, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Masao; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-07-01

    In intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), the presence of a mural nodule showing a papillary or nodular proliferation of tumor cells in the dilated pancreatic duct is an indication for resection of IPMN. Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1, known as glucose transporter type 1 (SLC2A1/GLUT1) mediates cellular glucose uptake in many carcinomas and is correlated with increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake. We examined SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression in the mural nodules of 180 IPMN specimens to distinguish malignant/benign tumors. A mural nodule was detected in 80 (44.4%) of the IPMNs, and was detected in 18.6% (13/70) of the IPMN-low (dysplasia) specimens, 36.1% (13/36) of the IPMN-int, 93.3% (28/30) of the IPMN-high, and 59.1% (26/44) of the IPMN-inv (with an associated invasive carcinoma) specimens. The sensitivity for detecting mural nodules was 81.7% by endoscopic ultrasonography, 70% by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and 54% by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression in the mural nodules was recognized in the basal and basolateral cytomembrane of tumor cells and was expressed in 15.4% (2/13) of the IPMN-low, 15.4% (2/13) of the IPMN-int, 71.4% (20/28) of the IPMN-high and 84.6% (22/26) of the IPMN-inv groups. The SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression was significantly higher in the IPMN-high and IPMN-inv mural nodules than in those of the IPMN-low and IPMN-int groups. Our findings suggest that SLC2A1/GLUT1 is expressed late in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence during carcinogenesis in IPMN, and SLC2A1/GLUT1 act as therapeutic target for malignant IPMN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Abnormal Root and Nodule Vasculature in R50 (sym16), a Pea Nodulation Mutant which Accumulates Cytokinins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Alicia N.; Morse, Andrew P.; Guinel, Frédérique C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims R50 (sym16) is a pea nodulation mutant with fewer and shorter lateral roots (LR), fewer nodules and high levels of cytokinins (CK). Because a link exists between CK imbalance and abnormal vasculature, the vasculature of the primary root (PR) and LR of R50 was studied and it was compared with that of the wild-type ‘Sparkle’. Also nodule vasculature was investigated to correlate R50 low nodulation phenotype with CK accumulation. Methods PR and first-order LR were hand-sectioned transversely in different locations and at different ages. Vascular poles were counted and root and stele diameters measured. To evaluate LR primordia number, roots were cleared. Nodules obtained from inoculated plants were either fixed and sectioned or cleared; numbers of vascular strands and of tracheary elements in the strands were counted. Key Results ‘Sparkle’ PR is triarch, whereas that of R50 can be triarch, tetrarch or pentarch. Furthermore, as the R50 roots developed, supernumerary vascular strands appeared but, as they aged, the new growth of more roots displayed the triarch pattern. LR vasculature differed from that of PR: whereas ‘Sparkle’ LR had three or four poles, those of R50 had two or three. No differences in PR or PR stele diameters existed between the two lines. Whereas ‘Sparkle’ nodules had two vascular strands, most R50 nodules possessed three; however, because R50 nodules were variable in size, their vasculature was highly diverse in terms of strand length. A strong correlation was found between nodule length and number of tracheary elements in strands. Conclusions R50 displays an additional number of vascular poles in its PR, a smaller number of vascular poles in its first-order LR and an altered vasculature in its nodules. It appears that these three characteristics are linked to the high levels of CKs that the mutant accumulates over its development. PMID:17383989

  17. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain.

  18. Cosmic dust in modern ferromanganese nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriev, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    This work is about the identification of modern cosmic dust that had survived heating during its high-velocity passage through the Earth's atmosphere from 3He isotope concentrations in marine (Gulf of Finland) ferromanganese nodules (FMNs). The measured bulk composition of helium includes components of various origins, enabling the determination of the age (1800 years) of the shallow-water Baltic FMNs and the average time of exposure (8 × 107 years) of cosmic dust particles during their existence in space. The concentration of cosmic dust per gram of FMN material is found to be 0.036 μg. The contribution of solar-wind helium to the Earth's atmospheric helium is found to be small. The experiments are conducted by the stepheating method in vacuo with the subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of the helium released from the samples.

  19. Fusobacterium necrophorum presenting as isolated lung nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sonti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium necrophorum causes Lemierre's syndrome - a dramatic and distinct condition beginning with pharyngitis before proceeding to internal jugular vein septic thrombophlebitis and respiratory tract infection in otherwise healthy individuals. It is rare, but by far the most common pathway to parenchymal lung disease with this organism. Here we describe we a 34 year old healthy lady who was nontoxic without any antecedent illness who presented with lung nodules due to fusobacterium necrophorum as the sole manifestation of disease. Leading diagnostic consideration prior to culture data was pulmonary vasculitis. Identifying her disease process was a somewhat chance occurrence, and it began to resolve prior to antibiotic therapy. Though it would be difficult to recommend keen awareness of this organism given its rarity, it is important to consider that its scope may be broader than traditionally considered.

  20. Metastatic liver tumor from cystic ovarian carcinomas. CT and MRI appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Ogata, Ichiro; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Abe, Yasuko; Urata, Joji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-08-01

    The initial and follow-up CT and MRI images of ten patients with hepatic metastases from ovarian tumors were retrospectively analyzed to establish their features and sequential changes in appearance. Ten patients with hepatic metastasis from ovarian tumors received initial and follow-up CT and MRI examinations. Six patients were followed up every two to three weeks before surgical tumor resection. Both CT and MR images were analyzed by two radiologists. A total of fourteen lesions were detected by CT and MRI in 10 patients. All 14 lesions were demonstrated as areas of marked hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI. Eleven cyst-like tumors were demonstrated as round or oval low density lesions on CT and as areas of hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging. Three lesions were shown as solid masses with slightly low attenuation at the initial CT examination and slightly low or iso-intensity areas on T1-weighted imaging, and these lesions showed early peripheral globular enhancement and delayed enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging. Cystic formation was observed two to three weeks later after initial study in all the 3 solid lesions. Rapid subcapsular effusion, which showed obvious enhancement on delayed Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging, was observed in two patients. The hepatic metastatic tumor from cystic ovarian carcinoma may manifest as a well-defined cystic lesion or as a solid mass, and the solid mass shows delayed enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging. Furthermore, rapid cystic formation and rapid subcapsular extension is frequently seen. (author)

  1. Characterization of solid pulmonary nodules using three-dimensional features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapatnakul, Artit C.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.; Cham, Matthew D.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2007-03-01

    With the development of high-resolution, multirow-detector CT scanners, the prospects for diagnosing and treating lung cancer at an early stage are much improved. However, it is often difficult to determine whether a nodule, especially a small nodule, is malignant from a single CT scan. We developed a computer-aided diagnostic algorithm to distinguish benign from malignant solid nodules based on features that can be extracted from a single CT scan. Our method uses 3D geometric and densitometric moment analysis of a segmented nodule image and surface curvature from a polygonal surface model of the nodule. After excluding features directly related to size, we computed a total of 28 features. Prior to classification, the number of features was reduced through stepwise feature selection. The features are used by two classifiers, k-nearest-neighbors (k-NN) and logistic regression. We used 48 malignant nodules whose status was determined by biopsy or resection, and 55 benign nodules determined to be clinically stable through two years of no change or biopsy. The k-NN classifier achieved a sensitivity of 0.81 with a specificity of 0.76, while the logistic regression classifier achieved a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.80.

  2. Frequency of Thyroid Nodules among Patients with Colonic Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Colonic polyps and thyroid nodules are common diseases and their frequency increases with age. In the literature, there is no study investigating the coexistence of colonic polyps and thyroid nodules. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate thyroid nodule prevalence in patients with colonic polyps. Material and Methods. Sixty-six patients with colonic polyps and 146 patients without colonic polyps enrolled into the study. Age and sex matched control group was composed from patients without colonic polyps. Colonoscopic examinations, thyroid ultrasonographies were performed in all patients, and TSH were measured. Results. Male/female ratio in polyp and control groups were 40/26 versus 68/78, respectively (P=0.058. Mean ages were similar in both groups (53.3±11.4 versus, 51.8±11.4, P=0.373. Thyroid nodule was detected in 44 (66.7% patients with polyps and in 61 (41.8% controls (P=0.001. Patients with adenomatous polyps had 5 or more thyroid nodules compared to patients with hyperplastic polyps (P=0.03. Thyroid nodules were more prevalent among patients aged 50 or older compared to 50 years or less (P=0.023. Conclusion. Thyroid nodules were detected more common in patients with colonic polyps. Further studies are needed to clarify this coexistence.

  3. Transcription Reprogramming during Root Nodule Development in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Sandra; Verdenaud, Marion; Ott, Thomas; Letort, Sébastien; de Billy, Françoise; Niebel, Andreas; Gouzy, Jérôme; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Gamas, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Many genes which are associated with root nodule development and activity in the model legume Medicago truncatula have been described. However information on precise stages of activation of these genes and their corresponding transcriptional regulators is often lacking. Whether these regulators are shared with other plant developmental programs also remains an open question. Here detailed microarray analyses have been used to study the transcriptome of root nodules induced by either wild type or mutant strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti. In this way we have defined eight major activation patterns in nodules and identified associated potential regulatory genes. We have shown that transcription reprogramming during consecutive stages of nodule differentiation occurs in four major phases, respectively associated with (i) early signalling events and/or bacterial infection; plant cell differentiation that is either (ii) independent or (iii) dependent on bacteroid differentiation; (iv) nitrogen fixation. Differential expression of several genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis was observed in early symbiotic nodule zones, suggesting that cytokinin levels are actively controlled in this region. Taking advantage of databases recently developed for M. truncatula, we identified a small subset of gene expression regulators that were exclusively or predominantly expressed in nodules, whereas most other regulators were also activated under other conditions, and notably in response to abiotic or biotic stresses. We found evidence suggesting the activation of the jasmonate pathway in both wild type and mutant nodules, thus raising questions about the role of jasmonate during nodule development. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyse the expression of a series of nodule regulator and marker genes at early symbiotic stages in roots and allowed us to distinguish several early stages of gene expression activation or repression. PMID:21304580

  4. True vocal fold nodules: the role of differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduk, Melda; McWhorter, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The present article aims to discuss the current reviews and the literature published regarding the differential diagnosis of vocal fold nodules with emphasis on diagnosis and nomenclature. Benign lesions of the vocal folds, including nodules, continue to challenge practitioners in nomenclature uniformity and even histologic diagnosis. Utilization of molecular techniques is helping to better understand Reinke's space and to better differentiate these lesions. This more accurate diagnosis may help guide appropriate treatment indicating behavioral versus surgical therapy. Further study with the application of new technology in the laboratory and clinic will continue to refine our differential diagnosis and understanding of vocal fold nodules.

  5. Molecular diagnostics for thyroid nodules: the current state of affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Sann Yu; Hodak, Steven P

    2014-06-01

    Molecular diagnostics offers great promise for the evaluation of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Numerous molecular genetic and immunohistochemical tests have been developed that may be performed on thyroid specimens obtained during standard fine-needle aspiration, some of which may greatly improve diagnostic yield. A sound understanding of the diagnostic performance of these tests, and how they can enhance clinical practice, is important. This article reviews the diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical and molecular testing for the clinical assessment of thyroid nodules, and makes recommendations about how these tests can be integrated into clinical practice for patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Biker's nodule"--perineal nodular induration of the cyclist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P; Utermann, S; Kahle, B; Hartschuh, W

    2000-10-01

    The "biker's nodule" is a rarely appearing perineal nodular induration of the cyclist. Repeated microtrauma to the subcutaneous fatty tissue or collageneous tissue, caused by pressure or vibration which the bicycle's saddle exerts on the perineal region, leads to collagenous degeneration, myxoid alteration and pseudocyst formation. Because of the painful subcutaneous nodules the patient is often forced to reduce or even give up his training. Therapy of the "biker's nodule" consists in avoiding the pathogenetic factors, i.e. giving up training for a temporary period of time and reducing pressure on the perineal region. Intralesional injection of either hyaluronidase or corticosteroids may also be helpful.

  7. Automatic detection of subsolid pulmonary nodules in thoracic computed tomography images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Colin; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Twellmann, Thorsten; Scholten, Ernst Th.; de Jong, Pim A.; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J.; Prokop, Mathias; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; van Ginneken, Bram

    Subsolid pulmonary nodules occur less often than solid pulmonary nodules, but show a much higher malignancy rate. Therefore, accurate detection of this type of pulmonary nodules is crucial. In this work, a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for subsolid nodules in computed tomography images is

  8. Internal constitution of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    to their elongation. Denser nodules show low attenuation. Density and P-wave velocity in nodules increase significantly on saturation with water. Nodule density is related directly to nodule size, P-wave velocity and Mn/Fe ratio; and inversely to water content...

  9. Genetic variation in nodule size at different sites on the skins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    Abstract. Nodule size is an important indicator of leather quality in the ostrich leather trade. The present study investigated genetic variation in nodule size at five sites on the skin, namely the neck, back, upper leg, flank and butt. Nodule size increased with an increased chronological age at all sites. Estimates of h² for nodule.

  10. Genetic variation in nodule size at different sites on the skins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nodule size is an important indicator of leather quality in the ostrich leather trade. The present study investigated genetic variation in nodule size at five sites on the skin, namely the neck, back, upper leg, flank and butt. Nodule size increased with an increased chronological age at all sites. Estimates of h² for nodule size ...

  11. Danish Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating ‘Afghanistan’ pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    A wild pea (Pisum sativum L.) native to Afghanistan normally known to be resisant to nodulation with European strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was nodulated early and effectively in field soil in Denmark. Isolates from nodules formed effective nodules abundantly on 'Afghanistan' on reinfection...... pattern with Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from a modern pea variety cultivated in the same field....

  12. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz; Carlos Eduardo Pinzón; José Rafael Tovar Cuevas; Adriana Fajardo Hoyos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology...

  13. Malignancy risk estimation of pulmonary nodules in screening CTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Riel, Sarah J; Ciompi, Francesco; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare human observers to a mathematically derived computer model for differentiation between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules detected on baseline screening computed tomography (CT) scans. METHODS: A case-cohort study design was chosen. The study group consisted of 300 chest CT...... scans from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST). It included all scans with proven malignancies (n = 62) and two subsets of randomly selected baseline scans with benign nodules of all sizes (n = 120) and matched in size to the cancers, respectively (n = 118). Eleven observers and the computer...... model (PanCan) assigned a malignancy probability score to each nodule. Performances were expressed by area under the ROC curve (AUC). Performance differences were tested using the Dorfman, Berbaum and Metz method. Seven observers assessed morphological nodule characteristics using a predefined list...

  14. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    This commentary highlights the activities of massive exploration programme for manganese nodule deposits in the Central Indian Basin located 5 km below the ocean surface and India's claim for mine site development and registration with UNCLOS...

  15. Composition of ferromanganese nodules from Riga Bay (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, G. N.; Dubinchuk, V. T.

    2009-02-01

    An average sample of ferromanganese nodules from Riga Bay was investigated by analytical electron microscopy coupled with atomic absorption, neutron activation, and ICP-MS methods. It is established that the nodules consist of colloform and poorly crystallized Fe and Mn hydroxides with an admixture of dispersed inclusions of better crystallized particles allowing revealing their mineralogical nature by the microdiffraction method. The major mineral phases are ferroxigite and Fe-vernadite with subordinate magnetite, asbolane, and todorokite. The chemical composition of the nodules is dominated by iron followed by cobalt and lead, while nickel, molybdenum, and tungsten associate with the manganese phase. The concentration of several minor elements in the Riga Bay nodules is slightly lower as compared with their average values for the entire Baltic Sea; some elements such as silver, bismuth, cadmium, niobium, tin, and thallium were never analyzed before.

  16. Fluid inclusion geobarometry from ejected Mt. Somma-Vesuvius nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Roedder, E.; Cortini, M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions from seven cumulate and three 'skarn' nodules collected from the pyroclastics of three non-Plinian eruptive episodes are presented. -J.A.Z.

  17. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ferromanganese Nodule Analysis File - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) compiled data on the geochemistry of marine ferromanganese nodules, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  18. Positron emission tomography of incidentally detected small pulmonary nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, B M; Mortensen, J; Dirksen, A

    2004-01-01

    from an ongoing 4-year placebo controlled intervention study of the effect of inhaled steroids in 300 smokers with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The participants received yearly CT scans of the chest. Patients with a negative chest radiograph at the time of inclusion......The aim of this study was to assess the value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging of small pulmonary nodules incidentally detected by spiral computed tomography (CT) in a high-risk population. Ten patients (five females, five males, aged 54-72 years) were recruited......, but with pulmonary nodules indeterminate for malignancy detected by conventional spiral CT on a subsequent scan, were referred for FDG PET. Histological diagnoses were sought for all nodules with FDG uptake or where CT showed that they had grown. Ten patients had pulmonary nodules indeterminate for malignancy...

  19. Isolation and selection of Bradyrhizobium from the root nodules of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makmal Sains Rumpai

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... biofertilizer for providing greater stability in production .... Nodulation test by Leonard Bottle Jar Assembly (LBJA) was conducted in the Soil ... seedlings were placed in a tray filled with water and the roots were examined for ...

  20. Initial results of India's environmental impact assessment of nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    The Indian Deepsea Experiment (INDEX) was intiated in 1995, with the objective of predicting the environmental impact of nodule mining, in the Central Indian Basin. More than 20 scientists and technical staff of the National Institute...

  1. A classification of pulmonary nodules by CT scan

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomi, M

    2012-01-01

    This Image Report aims to briefly describe, giving some imaging examples, the radiological definition of the features of lung nodules as commonly used by radiologists. We hope thus to improve communication and mutual understanding between radiologists and clinicians.

  2. An ancillary CT finding of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Jun; Rho, Ji Young; Kwon, Ah Young [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor is extremely rare. A few reports have presented typical CT findings such as well-defined, variable—sized, heterogeneously or homogenously well-enhanced intrapulmonary nodules. We report herein a rare case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor that showed typical clinical and CT features, and we also provide an ancillary CT finding that shows a distinguishable tubular vascular structure within the nodule. The tubular vascular structure was conjoined to the proximal pulmonary vein. In this study, we highlight an ancillary CT finding reported for the first time for the diagnosis of a patient with intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor.

  3. Asparagine Biosynthesis in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Root Nodules 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid direct conversion of exogenously supplied [14C]aspartate to [14C] asparagine and to tricarboxylic cycle acids was observed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) nodules. Aspartate aminotransferase activity readily converted carbon from exogenously applied [14C]aspartate into the tricarboxylic acid cycle with subsequent conversion to the organic acids malate, succinate, and fumarate. Aminooxyacetate, an inhibitor of aminotransferase activity, reduced the flow of carbon from [14C]aspartate into tricarboxylic cycle acids and decreased 14CO2 evolution by 99%. Concurrently, maximum conversion of aspartate to asparagine was observed in aminooxyacetate treated nodules (30 nanomoles asparagine per gram fresh weight per hour. Metabolism of [14C]aspartate and distribution of nodulefixed 14CO2 suggest that two pools of aspartate occur in alfalfa nodules: (a) one involved in asparagine biosynthesis, and (b) another supplying a malate/aspartate shuttle. Conversion of [14C]aspartate to [14C]asparagine was not inhibited by methionine sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor, or azaserine, a glutmate synthetase, inhibitor. The data did not indicate that asparagine biosynthesis in alfalfa nodules has an absolute requirement for glutamine. Radioactivity in the xylem sap, derived from nodule 14CO2 fixation, was markedly decreased by treating nodulated roots with aminooxyacetate, methionine sulfoximine, and azaserine. Inhibitors decreased the [14C]aspartate and [14]asparagine content of xylem sap by greater than 80% and reduced the total amino nitrogen content of xylem sap (including nonradiolabeled amino acids) by 50 to 80%. Asparagine biosynthesis in alfalfa nodules and transport in xylem sap are dependent upon continued aminotransferase activity and an uninterrupted assimilation of ammonia via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway. Continued assimilation of ammonia apparently appears crucial to continued root nodule CO2 fixation in alfalfa. PMID:16665039

  4. Pulmonary Nodules with Cutaneous Manifestations: A Case Report and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiles T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules is large and includes congenital and inherited disorders, malignancy, infectious etiologies, noninfectious granulomatous and inflammatory conditions,among many others. Diagnostic evaluation is aided by attention to extrapulmonary symptoms and features. We herein describe an unusual case of multiple pulmonary nodules attributed to cysticercosis and present a discussion of pathophysiologic changes related to medications and highlight the diagnostic value of extrapulmonary cutaneous features.

  5. Calcified Vocal Cord Nodule – A Unique Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sundarapandian, S.; Suresh, Revathy V

    2014-01-01

    Vocal cord nodules are benign neoplastic lesions which occur due to submucosal oedema and haemorrhage, leading to fibrosis and hyalinization. Calcification in vocal cord nodules has not been reported so far in literature. It is thought to be a laryngeal counterpart of idiopathic calcinosis cutis. Here, we are reporting a case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with a change in voice, which had a duration of one month. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a globular, yellowish white, se...

  6. Pulmonary necrobiotic nodules: a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Warwick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article reports the case of a 22-yr-old female with new onset Crohn's colitis, anterior uveitis and multiple pulmonary nodules which, on histological examination, were necrobiotic nodules. This is a rare but recognised pulmonary extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease and only the fourth reported case. The present case report is followed by a brief review of the relevant literature.

  7. Clinical diagnosis and histological analysis of vocal nodules and polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Raquel Buzelin; Behlau, Mara; Nunes, Mauricio Buzelin; Paulino, Juliana Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies emphasize the importance of the clinical-histology correlation in laryngeal pathologies. To compare the ENT diagnosis with the pathology diagnosis one of 132 surgical specimens, from 119 patients with vocal nodules and polyps. Retrospective study. We investigated the paraffin blocks corresponding to the lesions of the operated patients. We made new histology cross-sections, totaling 396 new slides, divided into three groups: hematoxylin and eosin, Gomori trichrome and PAS. We analyzed the following histological parameters: epithelium, lamina propria, basement membrane, vascular changes. We compared the laryngological and pathological diagnoses, and we did the statistical analysis, checking the predominant histological aspects in each lesion. There was an agreement between the clinical and pathological diagnoses in 123 (93.18%) of 132 lesions analyzed (42.42% nodules and 50.76% polyps). In the histological parameters we found: epithelial changes such as nodules hyperplasia (82.14%) and polyp atrophy (31.34%). Lamina propria: edema in polyps (71.43%), fibrosis in the nodules (57.14%). Basement membrane: thickened nodules (100%), thin/no change in polyps (100%). There was a predominance of vascular changes in the polyps. We found a high correlation between the ENT diagnosis and the pathology report. Histopathologically, the nodules presented with predominantly epithelial changes, lamina propria and basement membrane fibrosis, while the polyps by changes strictly on the lamina propria and vascular aspects.

  8. Augmentation after microsurgical removal of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Ming-Wang; Lee, Jin-Chin

    2009-12-01

    Innovative otolaryngologists, speech language pathologists, and voice scientists have continued to move forward in understanding the etiology and treatment of vocal nodules. The present article reviews the publications with respect to the advances in this area. There is support for the notion that there is a positive relationship between vocal nodules and the presence of a posterior glottic chink (PGC). Generalized tension in all the laryngeal muscle is often associated with the PGC due to persistent posterior cricoarytenoid muscle pull during phonation. This phenomenon leads to secondary mucosal change with formation of vocal nodules. Fat augmentation after microsurgical removal of vocal nodules can reduce both the occurrence of a PGC and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle activity and subsequently decrease vocal nodule recurrence. Therefore, the treatment efficiency and protocol are direct and fast. Finally, long-term outcomes studies have demonstrated improvements in vocal disability with both objective and subjective evaluation. Fat augmentation is an effective autogenous implant which may be considered in the management of patients after microsurgical removal of nodules.

  9. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaelling, M.T.; Tisell, L.E.; Carlsson, S.; Hansson, G.; Lundberg, L.M.; Oden, A.

    1986-09-15

    A total of 444 persons were examined for the presence of thyroid nodules on average of 43 years after having been treated with x-rays for cervical tuberculous adenitis. Of this total, 101 subjects had undergone surgery for thyroid nodules: 25 for carcinoma (6%) and 76 for benign nodules (17%). Carcinoma occurred with the same frequency in multinodular and uninodular glands. Because of the uneven age distribution in the current series, it could not be decided whether there was a higher susceptibility of the young thyroid to the induction of thyroid carcinoma or benign nodules. The dosage range for the whole series was 0.40 to 50.90 Gy (40-5090 rad). There was a positive correlation between the absorbed radiation dose and the probability of developing benign and malignant thyroid nodules, even after doses of 20 Gy or more. The risk of developing thyroid carcinoma was equal for men and women, while the female-to-male ratio for benign nodules was 2.9:1, indicating that risk factors associated with females are of less importance in irradiated than in nonirradiated populations. The median latency for carcinoma was 40 years, suggesting that the increased risk of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation remains for the rest of the patient's life.

  10. Shoot-derived cytokinins systemically regulate root nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takema; Suzaki, Takuya; Soyano, Takashi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-09-19

    Legumes establish symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules to obtain nitrogen. Legumes control nodule number through long-distance communication between roots and shoots, maintaining the proper symbiotic balance. Rhizobial infection triggers the production of mobile CLE-RS1/2 peptides in Lotus japonicus roots; the perception of the signal by receptor kinase HAR1 in shoots presumably induces the production of an unidentified shoot-derived inhibitor (SDI) that translocates to roots and blocks further nodule development. Here we show that, CLE-RS1/2-HAR1 signalling activates the production of shoot-derived cytokinins, which have an SDI-like capacity to systemically suppress nodulation. In addition, we show that LjIPT3 is involved in nodulation-related cytokinin production in shoots. The expression of LjIPT3 is activated in an HAR1-dependent manner. We further demonstrate shoot-to-root long-distance transport of cytokinin in L. japonicus seedlings. These findings add essential components to our understanding of how legumes control nodulation to balance nutritional requirements and energy status.

  11. Perceptual and acoustic parameters of vocal nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramuglia, Andréa Cristina Joia; Tavares, Elaine L M; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Martins, Regina H G

    2014-02-01

    Vocal nodules constitute the major cause of dysphonia during childhood. Auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses have been used to differentiate vocal nodules from normal voice in children. To study the value of auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses in assessments of children with nodules. Diagnostic test study. A comparative study was carried out including 100 children with videolaryngoscopic diagnosis of vocal nodules (nodule group-NG); and 100 children without vocal symptoms and with normal videolaryngoscopic exams (control group-CG). The age range of both groups was between 4 and 11 years. All children underwent auditory-perceptual vocal analyses (GRBASI scale); maximum phonation time and s/z ratio were calculated, and acoustic vocal analysis (MDVP software) were carried out. There was no difference in the values of maximum phonation time and s/z ratio between groups. Auditory-perceptual analysis indicated greater compromising of voice parameters for NG, compared to CG: G (79 versus 24), R (53 versus 3), B (67 versus 23) and S (35 versus 1). The values of acoustic parameters jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI were higher for NG for CG. The parameter f0 did not differ between groups. Compromising of auditory-perceptual (G, R, B and S) and acoustic vocal parameters (jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI) was greater for children with nodules than for those of the control group, which makes them important methods for assessing child dysphonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Usefulness of semiquantitative elastography in predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Uliaque, C; Pardo Berdún, F J; Laborda Herrero, R; Pérez Lórenz, C

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively review the diagnostic capacity of semiquantitative elastography in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We analyzed 314 thyroid nodules in 295 consecutive patients referred to the endocrinology department for cytological study, studying all by conventional ultrasonography, elastography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Using a semiquantitative elastography system that portrays tissue stiffness through a color map, we designed our own classification system for thyroid nodules based on their characteristics on elastography. We classified nodules into three groups: predominantly soft, predominantly stiff, and mosaic patterned. We used logistic regression analysis to investigate the relation between elastography and thyroid cancer. We obtained a definite diagnosis of malignancy after surgery in 19 nodules, of which on elastography 8 had the mosaic pattern, 6 were predominantly stiff, and 5 were predominantly soft. We found no significant association between the pattern on elastography and the probability of malignancy in any of the models. According to our study, la probability of malignancy in a thyroid nodule is not related to the findings at elastography. Therefore, semiquantitative elastography as used in this study cannot obviate FNAC. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Auto Diagnostics of Lung Nodules Using Minimal Characteristics Extraction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Peña

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided detection (CAD systems provide useful tools and an advantageous process to physicians aiming to detect lung nodules. This paper develops a method composed of four processes for lung nodule detection. The first step employs image acquisition and pre-processing techniques to isolate the lungs from the rest of the body. The second stage involves the segmentation process using a 2D algorithm to affect every layer of a scan eliminating non-informative structures inside the lungs, and a 3D blob algorithm associated with a connectivity algorithm to select possible nodule shape candidates. The combinations of these algorithms efficiently eliminate the high rates of false positives. The third process extracts eight minimal representative characteristics of the possible candidates. The final step utilizes a support vector machine for classifying the possible candidates into nodules and non-nodules depending on their features. As the objective is to find nodules bigger than 4mm, the proposed approach demonstrated quite encouraging results. Among 65 computer tomography (CT scans, 94.23% of sensitivity and 84.75% in specificity were obtained. The accuracy of these two results was 89.19% taking into consideration that 45 scans were used for testing and 20 for training. The rate of false positives was 0.2 per scan.

  14. Nodulation and mycorrhization of transgenic soybean after glyphosate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Bradyrhizobium spp with in relation to glyphosate can be influenced by the concentration of the herbicide. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two formulations of glyphosate, in two application periods, on nodulation and mycorrhization in a soybean of variety RR P98Y11, using greenhouse, in pots with capacity of 4 L with savanna soils. Six treatments were utilized using Roundup Ultra and Roundup Original with one and two applications, witness without herbicide and witness only with mineral nitrogen, in a completely randomized design. Four evaluations were done, every 15 days, to determine the plant height, shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, nodule dry weigh and mycorrhizae. It was observed an increase on the number of nodules, with the use of Roundup Ultra until 15 days after the first application. After this period, the witness only with inoculants showed a larger number of nodules. Roundup Ultra had positive influences on the dry weight of nodules, regardless the number of applications. There was no influence of glyphosate formulation considering the mycorrhizal colonization.

  15. Uranium-throium isotopes and transition metal fluxes in two oriented manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin: implications for nodule turnover

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    -76 71 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Letter Section Uranium-thorium isotopes and transition metal fluxes in two oriented manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin: implications for nodule turnover V.K. Banakar National Institute... of Oceanography, Dona Paula, 403 004 Goa, India (Revision accepted May 7, 1990 ) ABSTRACT Banakar, V.K., 1990. Uranium-thorium isotopes and transition metal fluxes in two oriented manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin: implications for nodule...

  16. Relation between nodule size and 18F-FDG-PET SUV for malignant and benign pulmonary nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yiping

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common semiquantitative method of evaluation of pulmonary lesions using 18F-FDG PET is FDG standardized uptake value (SUV. An SUV cutoff of 2.5 or greater has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules. The goal of our study was to investigate the correlation between the size of pulmonary nodules and the SUV for benign as well as for malignant nodules. Methods Retrospectively, 173 patients were selected from 420 referrals for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. All patients selected had a positive CT and PET scans and histopathology biopsy. A linear regression equation was fitted to a scatter plot of size and SUVmax for malignant and benign nodules together. A dot diagram was created to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. Results The linear regression equations and (R2s as well as the trendlines for malignant and benign nodules demonstrated that the slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Twenty-eight nodules of group one (≤ 1.0 cm are plotted in a dot diagram using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to be 85%, 36% and 54% respectively. Similarly, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 and found to be 91%, 47%, and 79% respectively for group 2 (1.1–2.0 cm; 94%, 23%, and 76%, respectively for group 3 (2.1–3.0 cm; and 100%, 17%, and 82%,, respectively for group 4 (> 3.0 cm. The previous results of the dot diagram indicating that the sensitivity and the accuracy of the test using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 are increased with an increase in the diameter of pulmonary nodules. Conclusion The slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Although, the SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 is a useful tool in the evaluation of large pulmonary nodules (> 1.0 cm, it has no or minimal value in the evaluation of small

  17. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong [College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Qian [Hebei Geological Laboratory, Baoding 071000, China and Multi-disciplinary Research Center, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yang, Ying [Hebei University Affiliated Hospital, Baoding 071002 (China); Xie, Hongzhi, E-mail: gulixu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang [Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking 100005 (China); Gu, Lixu, E-mail: gulixu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn [Multi-disciplinary Research Center, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China and School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  18. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu

    2015-03-01

    Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan-Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Evaluation shows that the authors' method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  19. Shear Wave Elastography in Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Cytology: Results of a Prospective Bicentric Study : SWE in indeterminate thyroid nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Bardet, Stéphane; Ciappuccini, Renaud; Pellot‐barakat, Claire; Monpeyssen, Hervé; Michels, Jean‐jacques; Tissier, Frédérique; Blanchard, David; Menegaux, Fabrice; De Raucourt, Dominique; Lefort, Muriel; Reznik, Yves; Rouxel, Agnes; Heutte, Natacha; Brenac, Frédérique; Leconte, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND:The clinical management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (IC) remains challenging. The role of shear wave elastography (SWE) in this setting is controversial. The aim of the study was to assess the performances of SWE in terms of prediction of malignancy, reproducibility, and combined analysis with ultrasound (US) examination in thyroid nodules with IC.METHODS:This prospective study was conducted in two referral centers. Eligible patients had a...

  20. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  1. Characteristics of phonatory function in singers and nonsingers with vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E; Heaton, James T; Stadelman-Cohen, Tara K; Braden, Maia N; Jetté, Marie E; Hillman, Robert E

    2011-11-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if there were significant differences between singers and nonsingers in the morphology of vocal nodules and the associated impact on vocal function. Participants were 10 professionally trained singers with nodules, eight nonsingers with nodules, and 10 individuals with healthy normal voice (controls). Surface electromyography (sEMG) from three anterior neck locations and acoustic rise times for vowels /a/ and /i/ were measured in all the participants. In individuals with nodules, dB SPL/cm H(2)O, glottal airflow, and nodule location and size were also measured. There were no significant differences between singers and nonsingers with nodules in terms of airflow, dB SPL/cm H(2)O, nodule size, or nodule location. In nonsingers with nodules, airflow and nodule size were significantly correlated, but were not significantly correlated in singers. Vowel rise times and sEMG during vocal tasks did not differentiate among nodule and control groups. Sternocleidomastoid sEMG during initiation of the vowel /a/ was statistically significantly stronger in nonsingers with nodules relative to singers with nodules and controls. Nodule morphology did not differ between singers and nonsingers, although some behavioral aspects of phonation differed between the groups. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of phonatory function in singers and non-singers with vocal fold nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E.; Heaton, James T.; Stadelman-Cohen, Tara K.; Braden, Maia N.; Jetté, Marie E.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to determine if there were significant differences between singers and non-singers in the morphology of vocal nodules and associated impact on vocal function. Method Participants were 10 professionally trained singers with nodules, 8 non-singers with nodules, and 10 individuals with healthy normal voice (controls). Surface electromyography (sEMG) from three anterior neck locations and acoustic rise times for vowels /a/ and /i/ were measured in all participants. In individuals with nodules, dB SPL / cm H2O, glottal airflow, and nodule location and size were also measured. Results There were no significant differences between singers and non-singers with nodules in terms of airflow, dB SPL / cm H2O, nodule size, or nodule location. In non-singers with nodules, airflow and nodule size were significantly correlated, but were not significantly correlated in singers. Vowel rise times and sEMG during vocal tasks did not differentiate among nodule and control groups. Sternocleidomastoid sEMG during initiation of the vowel /a/ was statistically significantly stronger in non-singers with nodules relative to singers with nodules and controls. Conclusions Nodule morphology did not differ between singers and non-singers, although some behavioral aspects of phonation differed between the groups. PMID:21216129

  3. CAD System for Pulmonary Nodule Detection Using Gabor Filtering and Template Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Nitta, Norihisa; Tsudagawa, Masaru

    This paper aims at developing a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system used for the detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography (CT) images. These lung nodules include both solid nodules and Ground Glass Opacity (GGO) nodules. In our scheme, we apply Gabor filter on the CT image in order to enhance the detection process. After this we perform some morphological operations including threshold process and labeling to extract all the objects inside the lung area. Then, some feature analysis is used to examine these objects to decide which of them are likely to be potential cancer candidates. Following the feature examination, a template matching between the potential cancer candidates and some Gaussian reference models is performed to determine the similarity between them. The algorithm was applied on 715 slices containing 25 GGO nodules and 82 solid nodules and achieved detection sensitivity of 92% for GGO nodules and 95% for solid nodules with False Positive (FP) rate of 0.75 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 2.32 FP/slice for solid nodules. Finally, we used an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to reduce the number of FP findings. After using ANN, we were able to reduce the FP rate to 0.25 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 1.62 FP/slice for solid nodules but at the expense of detection sensitivity, which became 84 % for GGO nodules and 91% for solid nodules.

  4. Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is an important imaging modality. Physicians, surgeons, and oncologists prefer CT scan for diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some nodules are missed in CT scan. Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung segmentation, potential nodules identification, features extraction from the potential nodules, and classification of the nodules. In this paper, we are presenting an automatic method for detection and segmentation of lung nodules from CT scan for subsequent features extraction and classification. Contribution of the work is the detection and segmentation of small sized nodules, low and high contrast nodules, nodules attached with vasculature, nodules attached to pleura membrane, and nodules in close vicinity of the diaphragm and lung wall in one-go. The particular techniques of the method are multistep threshold for the nodule detection and shape index threshold for false positive reduction. We used 60 CT scans of “Lung Image Database Consortium-Image Database Resource Initiative” taken by GE medical systems LightSpeed16 scanner as dataset and correctly detected 92% nodules. The results are reproducible.

  5. Spinal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - spinal cord ... tissue) Myeloma (blood cancer that starts in the plasma cells of the bone marrow) A small number of spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Tumors that start in spinal tissue are ...

  6. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  7. Gamma proteobacteria can nodulate legumes of the genus Hedysarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhizia, Yacine; Benhizia, Hayet; Benguedouar, Ammar; Muresu, Rosella; Giacomini, Alessio; Squartini, Andrea

    2004-08-01

    The bacteria hosted in the root nodules of the three Mediterranean wild legume species Hedysarum carnosum, Hedysarum spinosissimum subsp. capitatum, and Hedysarum pallidum, growing in native stands in different habitats in Algeria were isolated. Bacteria were recovered on yeast-mannitol-agar or on minimal media from a total of 52 nodules. Isolates were analyzed by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) using the enzyme CfoI, and further sorted by RAPD fingerprinting. A total of ten different types were found and their amplified 16S rDNA was sequenced and compared to databases. The BLAST alignment indicates that all the species whose sequences share 98 to 100% identity to the bacteria found in these nodules belong to the class Gammaproteobacteria and include Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter kobei, Enterobacter cloacae, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Escherichia vulneris, and Pseudomonas sp. No evidence of any rhizobial-like sequence was found even upon amplifying from the bulk of microbial cells obtained from the squashed nodules, suggesting that the exclusive occupants of the nodules formed by the three plants tested are members of the orders Enterobacteriales or Pseudomonadales. This is the first report of Gammaproteobacteria associated with legume nodules. Despite the presence of the related crop plant Hedysarum coronarium, specifically nodulated by Rhizobium sullae, these three Hedysarum species demonstrate to have undergone a separate path in terms of endophytic interactions with bacteria. An hypothesis to account for differences between the symbiotic relationships engaged by man-managed legumes, and those found in plants whose ecology is independent from human action, is discussed.

  8. Cooled microwave ablation of thyroid nodules: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkusuz, Yücel [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); Mader, Oscar Maximilian, E-mail: info@dzta.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); Kromen, Wolfgang [Department of Neuro Radiology University Hospital (Germany); Happel, Christian [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); German Centre for Thermoablation of Thyroid Nodules, University Hospital, Frankfurt (Germany); Ahmad, Shadi [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Agaplesion Elisabethenstift, Darmstadt (Germany); Gröner, Daniel; Koca, Mithat; Mader, Alexander [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); Grünwald, Frank; Korkusuz, Hüdayi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); German Centre for Thermoablation of Thyroid Nodules, University Hospital, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • cMWA is a safe and effective treatment for thyroid nodules. • Ultrasound imaging allows guidance during microwave ablation. • Pain level during cMWA treatment is reduced in comparison to RFA. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate if internally cooled microwave ablation (cMWA) is a safe and effective method for treatment of benign and malign thyroid nodules. Methods: 9 patients with 11 symptomatic cold benign thyroid nodules and 1 recurrent thyroid carcinoma ranging in volume from 9.1 to 197 ml (mean size 52 ±  57 ml) were treated with cMWA. The mean age of the patients was 59 years. Pain during the treatment was measured on a 10-point scale. Side effects revealed by ultrasound or patients’ complaints were documented. Periablative efficacy was measured 24 h after cMWA as change (Δ) in serum thyreoglobulin (Tg). Nodule elasticity was measured on a 4-point scale, blood circulation and echogenicity on a 3-point scale. Results: All patients tolerated cMWA well. Median pain intensity averaged 2.1 ± 0.8 (range: 1–3). Postablative hematoma was observed in all cases. In no cases ablation led to hoarseness, superficial burns, nodule ruptures, vagal reactions or dysphagia. cMWA lead to a significant decrease of blood circulation, nodule echogenicity and a significant increase of elasticity (Δ  =  1.1  ±  0.33; 0.8  ±  0.4 and 1.1  ±  0.6 points)(p < 0.05). An average increase of 4495 ng/ml Tg was measured (p < 0.05). Conclusions: cMWA is an effective and secure method for treatment of thyroid nodules.

  9. A case of atypical chronic subdural hematoma: a spontaneous rupture of dural lymphoma nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Lucia; Clément, Renaud; Visseaux, Guillaume; Bord, Eric; Le Gall, Francois; Rodat, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    In forensic medicine, a chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) usually results from trauma, sometimes minimal for elderly people. The case reported here is a forensic medical description of an atypical chronic subdural hematoma. A woman aged of 40-year-old died following a coma. The autopsy and histological analyses revealed the hemorrhagic disintegration of a lymphoid nodule, a metastasis from generalized lymphoma. The combination of chronic symptomatic SDH and a tumor of the dura mater have been described, but are very rare. The possibility of trauma, even minimal, has never been excluded in these cases. In fact, the clinical picture of these patients suggested a significant movement of the brain within the cranial cavity due to the physiological decrease in brain volume. In the reported case, this particular process was excluded since the spontaneous hemorrhagic effusion produced by the meningeal lymphoid nodule was the cause of the chronic SDH. This pathophysiological explanation was possible because the entire brain and meninges were removed for histological analysis. Trauma, even minimal trauma, is not always involved in the formation of a chronic SDH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Two adjacent nodules on the leg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.D. de; Bovenschen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Poroma is a rare benign neoplasm (derived from the intraepidermal part of the eccrine or apocrine duct), which may clinically mimic malignant tumors such as (amelanotic) malignant melanoma and porocarcinoma. Histopathological examination is the key to the correct diagnosis, which is illustrated in

  11. Nódulo de tiroides Thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Elena Turcios Tristá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha incrementado la frecuencia diagnóstica del nódulo de tiroides. Un adecuado método clínico y algunos exámenes complementarios, serán los factores a tener en cuenta para definir la naturaleza de la lesión y su funcionalidad. En la actualidad se adicionan nuevos elementos en los estudios por imagen que ayudan a predecir, en alguna medida, el riesgo de malignidad de estas lesiones, y se trata de que el resultado citológico sea más uniforme y orientador. Las conductas se adecuan al tipo de enfermedad tiroidea y a sus riesgos, pero es imprescindible la unión de las especialidades que tienen que ver con la enfermedad nodular tiroidea, para unificar criterios que favorezcan un adecuado y eficiente proceso diagnóstico-terapéutico, que reduzcan los riesgos y los costos que implica la adopción de conductas inadecuadas e innecesarias.In the last few years, the frequency of diagnosis of the thyroid nodule has increased. A correct clinical method and some supplementary tests are the factors to be taken into account to define the nature of lesion and functionality. At present, new elements are added to the imaging studies, which help to predict somehow the risk of malignancy of these lesions, and it is intended to reach a more uniform and guiding cytological result. The behaviors should adapt to the type of thyroid disease and to the risks, but the combination of those specialties that have to do with the nodular thyroid disease is indispensable in order to uniform criteria favoring adequate and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic processes, and reducing the risks and costs of the adoption of inadequate and unnecessary behaviors.

  12. Algorithm Variability in the Estimation of Lung Nodule Volume From Phantom CT Scans: Results of the QIBA 3A Public Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athelogou, Maria; Kim, Hyun J; Dima, Alden; Obuchowski, Nancy; Peskin, Adele; Gavrielides, Marios A; Petrick, Nicholas; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Colditz Colditz, Dirk; Beaumont, Hubert; Oubel, Estanislao; Tan, Yongqiang; Zhao, Binsheng; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Moltz, Jan Hendrik; Orieux, Guillaume; Gillies, Robert J; Gu, Yuhua; Mantri, Ninad; Goldmacher, Gregory; Zhang, Luduan; Vega, Emilio; Bloom, Michael; Jarecha, Rudresh; Soza, Grzegorz; Tietjen, Christian; Takeguchi, Tomoyuki; Yamagata, Hitoshi; Peterson, Sam; Masoud, Osama; Buckler, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Quantifying changes in lung tumor volume is important for diagnosis, therapy planning, and evaluation of response to therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of multiple algorithms on a reference data set. The study was organized by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA). The study was organized as a public challenge. Computed tomography scans of synthetic lung tumors in an anthropomorphic phantom were acquired by the Food and Drug Administration. Tumors varied in size, shape, and radiodensity. Participants applied their own semi-automated volume estimation algorithms that either did not allow or allowed post-segmentation correction (type 1 or 2, respectively). Statistical analysis of accuracy (percent bias) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility) was conducted across algorithms, as well as across nodule characteristics, slice thickness, and algorithm type. Eighty-four percent of volume measurements of QIBA-compliant tumors were within 15% of the true volume, ranging from 66% to 93% across algorithms, compared to 61% of volume measurements for all tumors (ranging from 37% to 84%). Algorithm type did not affect bias substantially; however, it was an important factor in measurement precision. Algorithm precision was notably better as tumor size increased, worse for irregularly shaped tumors, and on the average better for type 1 algorithms. Over all nodules meeting the QIBA Profile, precision, as measured by the repeatability coefficient, was 9.0% compared to 18.4% overall. The results achieved in this study, using a heterogeneous set of measurement algorithms, support QIBA quantitative performance claims in terms of volume measurement repeatability for nodules meeting the QIBA Profile criteria. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SU-E-J-134: Motion Modeling of Non-Small Cell Lung Nodules Based on Respiratory Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratore, D; Hartl, B; Chan, P; Neicu, T; Li, S

    2012-06-01

    To quantify the movements of non-small cell lung nodules using 4D cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) that is automatically registered with planning CT, and to develop a mathematical model to predict the motion trajectory. Modeling the tumor motion may reduce the PTV and ultimately increase the therapeutic ratio. Absolute coordinates of the lung nodules in 15 patients were quantified for each phase of 4D-CBCT scans using auto-registration methods. Assuming respiration follows an elliptical pattern spatially in the lung, these coordinates were fitted to trigonometric functions in each x-y-z direction. Adjusting for phase dependence, the motion could be compared quantitatively for inter-fractional and intra-patient variations to determine if this model is universally applicable and has predictive value. Examination of over 36 sets of 4D-CBCT data shows acceptable agreement (elliptical model for both individual scans and over the course of treatment. Some inter-fractional variations in amplitude and cycling periods indicate the need to remodel as patients' conditions change. The intra-patient variations are significant and strongly dependent on the patient lung volume and tumor location, thus individual modeling of tumor motion is expected. The model indicates good agreement and clinical relevance with non-small cell lung nodule motion, and it appears to be potentially relevant over the course of treatment. Most re-acquired 4D-CBCT images inter-fractionally were within the baseline spatial resolution of the auto- registration technique. However, if remodeling is necessary inter-fractionally, this model still has the potential for significant motion margin reduction over the course of treatment. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Natural history of large regenerative nodules and dysplastic nodules in liver cirrhosis: 28-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsunenobu; Kondo, Fukuo; Ebara, Masaaki; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Okabe, Shinichiro; Sunaga, Masahiko; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Ogasawara, Sadayuki; Shinozaki, Yusuke; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Kanai, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Takashi; Nakatani, Yukio; Fukusato, Toshio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-04-01

    Some follow-up studies of large regenerative nodules (LRNs) and dysplastic nodules (DNs) were reported previously. However, the pre-malignant potentiality of LRNs has remained controversial up to now. No LRNs showed malignant transformation in our previous study. We aimed to evaluate the pre-malignant potentiality of LRNs and DNs with a greater number of cases and longer follow-up periods. From 1982 to 2005, 1,500 consecutive nodular lesions up to 2 cm in diameter were subjected to US guided thin-needle biopsy in cirrhotic patients at Chiba University Hospital. Of these lesions, 68 LRNs in 60 cases and 20 DNs in 22 cases were followed up for more than 6 months without any anti-cancer therapy. The last US examination was in 2010. The total study period was 28 years. We analyzed the histological findings and the clinical data of all cases retrospectively. The outcome of the lesions was examined. The mean follow-up period was 38.9 (16-119) months in LRNs and 31.9 (6-101 months) in DNs. Rate of nodule enlargement was higher in DNs (8/24 nodules, 33%) than LRNs (11/68 nodules, 16 %), (p = 0.0743, not significant). Rate of malignant transformation was also higher in DNs (10/24 nodules, 42%) than LRNs (9/68 nodules, 13%), (p = 0.0040, significant). The rate of disappearance in images was similar between LRNs and DNs. We should recognize LRN as low risk pre-malignant lesions whereas DNs as high risk lesions.

  15. A neural network approach to lung nodule segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaoxiu; Menon, Prahlad G.

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging is a sensitive and specific lung cancer screening tool for the high-risk population and shown to be promising for detection of lung cancer. This study proposes an automatic methodology for detecting and segmenting lung nodules from CT images. The proposed methods begin with thorax segmentation, lung extraction and reconstruction of the original shape of the parenchyma using morphology operations. Next, a multi-scale hessian-based vesselness filter is applied to extract lung vasculature in lung. The lung vasculature mask is subtracted from the lung region segmentation mask to extract 3D regions representing candidate pulmonary nodules. Finally, the remaining structures are classified as nodules through shape and intensity features which are together used to train an artificial neural network. Up to 75% sensitivity and 98% specificity was achieved for detection of lung nodules in our testing dataset, with an overall accuracy of 97.62%+/-0.72% using 11 selected features as input to the neural network classifier, based on 4-fold cross-validation studies. Receiver operator characteristics for identifying nodules revealed an area under curve of 0.9476.

  16. Multicellular contractility contributes to the emergence of mesothelioma nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirok, Andras

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) nodules arise from the mesothelial lining of the pleural cavity by a poorly understood mechanism. We demonstrate that macroscopic multicellular aggregates, reminiscent of the MPM nodules found in patients, develop when MPM cell lines are cultured at high cell densities for several weeks. Surprisingly, the nodule-like aggregates do not arise by excessive local cell proliferation, but by myosin II-driven cell contractility. Contractile nodules contain prominent actin cables that can span several cells. Several features of the in vitro MPM nodule development can be explained by a computational model that assumes uniform and steady intercellular contractile forces within a monolayer of cells, and a mechanical load-dependent lifetime of cell-cell contacts. The model behaves as a self-tensioned Maxwell fluid and exhibits an instability that leads to pattern formation. Altogether, our findings suggest that inhibition of the actomyosin system may provide a hitherto not utilized therapeutic approach to affect MPM growth. NIH R01-GM102801.

  17. Symbiotic leghemoglobins are crucial for nitrogen fixation in legume root nodules but not for general plant growth and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Thomas; van Dongen, Joost T; Günther, Catrin

    2005-01-01

    fixation (SNF). In legumes, SNF occurs in specialized organs, called nodules, which contain millions of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, called bacteroids. The induction of nodule-specific plant genes, including those encoding symbiotic leghemoglobins (Lb), accompanies nodule development. Leghemoglobins...

  18. Thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy: which nodules should be considered for repeat biopsy or surgery rather than follow-up?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Na Lae; Chang, Hang Seok; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Jun [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Mi Ri [Dept. of Radiology, Dongjak Kyunghee Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ah Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat ultrasonography (US)-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) according to size and the number of suspicious findings and to determine the proper management of nodules with consecutive nondiagnostic results. This retrospective study included 297 nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat FNAB that were evaluated by US over the course of at least 12 months of follow-up, a follow-up biopsy, or an operation. We compared clinical and US variables between benign and malignant nodules in thyroid nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results. The comparison of benign and malignant nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results revealed that age, marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and nonparallel shape were significantly associated with malignancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in malignant nodules revealed that microcalcifications and irregular or microlobulated margins were independently associated with malignancy. Among them, only irregular or microlobulated margins were independently significant as a predictor of malignancy in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules measuring >10 mm. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the best cutoff value for the “number of suspicious findings” between benign and malignant nodules was three in nodules of all sizes, three in nodules measuring ≤10 mm, and two in nodules measuring >10 mm. Irregular or microlobulated margins may be the most frequent US features in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules >10 mm. The presence of “two or more suspicious findings” can be used as the cutoff for distinguishing benign and malignant nodules.

  19. Molecular diagnostics of thyroid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2011-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine malignancy and its incidence is steadily increasing. Papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma are the most common types of thyroid cancer and represent those tumor types for which use of molecular markers for diagnosis and prognostication is of high clinical significance. To review the most common molecular alterations in thyroid cancer and their diagnostic and prognostic utility. PubMed (US National Library of Medicine)-available review articles, peer-reviewed original articles, and experience of the author. The most common molecular alterations in thyroid cancer include BRAF and RAS point mutations and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR γ rearrangements. These nonoverlapping genetic alterations are found in more than 70% of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. These molecular alterations can be detected in surgically resected samples and fine-needle aspiration samples from thyroid nodules and can be of significant diagnostic use. The diagnostic role of BRAF mutations has been studied most extensively, and recent studies also demonstrated a significant diagnostic utility of RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPAR γ mutations, particularly in thyroid fine-needle aspiration samples with indeterminate cytology. In addition to the diagnostic use, BRAF V600E mutation can also be used for tumor prognostication, as this mutation is associated with higher rate of tumor recurrence and tumor-related mortality. The use of these and other emerging molecular markers is expected to improve significantly the accuracy of cancer diagnosis in thyroid nodules and allow more individualized surgical and postsurgical management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  20. Changes in tumor vascularity precede microbubble contrast accumulation deficit in the process of dedifferentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi, E-mail: maru-cib@umin.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Takahashi, Masanori, E-mail: machat@aa.pial.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Ishibashi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: bashiish@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Okabe, Shinichiro, E-mail: okabeshin1966@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Masaharu, E-mail: yoshikawa@faculty.chiba-u.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu, E-mail: yokosukao@faculty.chiba-u.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To elucidate the changes in tumor vascularity and microbubble accumulation on contrast-enhanced sonograms, in relation to the dedifferentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: This prospective study enrolled 10 patients with histologically proven HCC (14.4-39.0 mm, 26.1 {+-} 7.4) showing nodule-in-nodule appearance upon contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed by harmonic imaging under a low mechanical index (0.22-0.25) during the vascular phase (agent injection to 1 min) and late phase (15 min) following the injection of Sonazoid{sup TM} (0.0075 ml/kg). Contrast enhancement in the inner and outer nodules was assessed in comparison with that in adjacent liver parenchyma as hyper-, iso-, or hypo-enhanced. Results: Vascular-phase enhancement of all 10 inner nodules was hyper-enhanced, and that of outer nodules was hyper-enhanced in 3, iso-enhanced in 2, and hypo-enhanced in 5. Late-phase enhancement of inner nodules was hypo-enhanced in 8 and iso-enhanced in 2. Furthermore, late-phase enhancement of outer nodules was iso-enhanced in the 7 lesions that showed iso- or hypo-enhancement in the vascular phase, and hypo-enhanced in the 3 with hyper-enhancement in the vascular phase. Late-phase hypo-enhancement was significantly more frequent in the nodules showing early-phase hyper-enhancement (11/13) than in the nodules showing early-phase iso- or hypo-enhancement (0/7) in both the inner and outer nodules. Conclusion: Dedifferentiation of HCC may be accompanied by changes in tumor vascularity prior to a reduction in microbubble accumulation. Observation of the vascular phase may be more useful than late-phase imaging for the early recognition of HCC dedifferentiation when using contrast-enhanced ultrasound with Sonazoid.

  1. South African Papilionoid Legumes Are Nodulated by Diverse Burkholderia with Unique Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixation Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Chrizelle W.; Venter, Stephanus N.; Law, Ian J.; Phalane, Francina L.; Steenkamp, Emma T.

    2013-01-01

    The root-nodule bacteria of legumes endemic to the Cape Floristic Region are largely understudied, even though recent reports suggest the occurrence of nodulating Burkholderia species unique to the region. In this study, we considered the diversity and evolution of nodulating Burkholderia associated with the endemic papilionoid tribes Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae. We identified distinct groups from verified rhizobial isolates by phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA housekeeping gene regions. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the nodulation and diazotrophy of these rhizobia we analysed the genes encoding NifH and NodA. The majority of these 69 isolates appeared to be unique, potentially representing novel species. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer determining the symbiotic ability of these Cape Floristic Region isolates indicate evolutionary origins distinct from those of nodulating Burkholderia from elsewhere in the world. Overall, our findings suggest that Burkholderia species associated with fynbos legumes are highly diverse and their symbiotic abilities have unique ancestries. It is therefore possible that the evolution of these bacteria is closely linked to the diversification and establishment of legumes characteristic of the Cape Floristic Region. PMID:23874611

  2. South african papilionoid legumes are nodulated by diverse burkholderia with unique nodulation and nitrogen-fixation Loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrizelle W Beukes

    Full Text Available The root-nodule bacteria of legumes endemic to the Cape Floristic Region are largely understudied, even though recent reports suggest the occurrence of nodulating Burkholderia species unique to the region. In this study, we considered the diversity and evolution of nodulating Burkholderia associated with the endemic papilionoid tribes Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae. We identified distinct groups from verified rhizobial isolates by phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA housekeeping gene regions. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the nodulation and diazotrophy of these rhizobia we analysed the genes encoding NifH and NodA. The majority of these 69 isolates appeared to be unique, potentially representing novel species. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer determining the symbiotic ability of these Cape Floristic Region isolates indicate evolutionary origins distinct from those of nodulating Burkholderia from elsewhere in the world. Overall, our findings suggest that Burkholderia species associated with fynbos legumes are highly diverse and their symbiotic abilities have unique ancestries. It is therefore possible that the evolution of these bacteria is closely linked to the diversification and establishment of legumes characteristic of the Cape Floristic Region.

  3. A Rare Case Of Solitary Pulmonary Nodule Pulmonary Actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Acat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a subacute to chronic bacterial infection caused by filamentous, gram-positive, anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that are not acid-fast. Pulmonary actinomycosis is rare, but its diagnosis is changing due to its variable presentation and the similarity in appearance to other intrapulmonary diseases. Here we report an 56-year-old woman with a solitary pulmonary nodule over the right upper lobe. Pulmonary neoplasm was highly suspected in this patient .Chest computerized tomography  (CT showed a nodule, 15*17 mm in size in the right lower lobe. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography( FDG-PET/CT scanning revealed a positive reaction in the right lower lobe lesion. She was introduced to our department. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC was performed to establish diagnosis. Histopathological examination demonstrated this patient had an Actinomyeces infection.Pulmonary actinomycosis should be kept in mind in differential diagnoses of  solitary pulmonary nodule.

  4. [Guideline thyroid cancer including diagnostics of the nodule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Thera P; de Heide, L J M Loek; Janssen, Marcel; van Nederveen, Francien H; van der Lugt, Aad; Vriens, Menno R; Smit, Johannes W A

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is comparatively rare. Thyroid nodules, on the other hand, are frequently diagnosed as a result of increasing use of diagnostic imaging. Cytological investigation of small nodules that have been found by chance often reveals micropapillary carcinoma that is probably not clinically relevant. The new guideline 'Thyroid cancer' advises that cytological investigation of these non-palpable, incidentally discovered thyroid nodules should only be performed on indication. The standard treatment for patients with papillary or follicular thyroid cancer consists of thyroidectomy followed by, if indicated, lymph-node dissection, ablation therapy with radioactive iodine and TSH-suppression. The extent of this treatment is determined on the basis of known prognostic factors and the results of initial treatment. Targeted systemic therapy is available for patients with metastatic progressive disease. There is more focus on the effects of short- and long-term treatment, in order to optimise quality of life.

  5. Lung Nodule Detection in CT Images using Neuro Fuzzy Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman Akram

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated lung cancer detection using computer aided diagnosis (CAD is an important area in clinical applications. As the manual nodule detection is very time consuming and costly so computerized systems can be helpful for this purpose. In this paper, we propose a computerized system for lung nodule detection in CT scan images. The automated system consists of two stages i.e. lung segmentation and enhancement, feature extraction and classification. The segmentation process will result in separating lung tissue from rest of the image, and only the lung tissues under examination are considered as candidate regions for detecting malignant nodules in lung portion. A feature vector for possible abnormal regions is calculated and regions are classified using neuro fuzzy classifier. It is a fully automatic system that does not require any manual intervention and experimental results show the validity of our system.

  6. Studies on zinc nodules electrodeposited from acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Rolfe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The development of morphology of electrodeposited zinc was investigated by studying the initial stages of deposition. Zinc was deposited galvanostatically from 1.0 M ZnCl2 electrolyte (0.7 < pH < 4.6) on rotating disc electrodes at current densities from 5 to 130 ma/cm2. Pine glassy carbon, Union Carbide pyrolytic graphite, Gould pyrolytic graphite, Exxon graphite loaded polymer, and platinum substrates were used. The number densities of nodules (diameter greater than 1 μm), typically encountered during incipient morphological development, were measured using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Nodule densities up to 7 x 104 nodules/mm2 were measured.

  7. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic castings...... in the thin plates (≤4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature before the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) was 15 to 20ºC lower for the eutectic than for the hypereutectic castings. This is due to nucleation of graphite...... nodules which begins at a lower temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings. The recalescence ∆Trec was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  8. What to Do with All of These Lung Nodules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caplan syndrome is a rare entity that is specific to rheumatoid arthritis and presents with multiple, well-defined necrotic nodules in patients with occupational dust exposure. The present report describes a case of Caplan syndrome involving a 71-year-old man with a known diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis who presented to the authors’ centre with a five-year history of multiple, bilateral cavitary lung nodules with mild dyspnea on exertion. He was an ex-smoker (30 pack-years and had previously worked with silica. The case highlights the clinical, radiological and pathological features of this syndrome and outlines the importance of considering a broad differential in the management of pulmonary nodules, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis presenting as a hypermetabolic lung nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, Jenny S; Niazi, Masooma; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is a rare, benign entity consisting of fibrotic thickening of the pleura and subpleural parenchyma due to elastic fiber proliferation. We present an elderly, male smoker with chronic obstructive airway disease and bilateral apical pleuropulmonary fibrotic changes. The computed tomogram of the chest showed a spiculated nodule in the left upper lobe and chronic fibrotic nodular changes in the right lung. A positron emission tomographic (PET) scan with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET showed a hypermetabolic nodule in the left upper lobe and uptake by the left axillary lymph nodes. Surgical resection of the nodule for presumptive malignancy showed fibroelastosis with reactive lymph node hyperplasia. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nodular parenchymal fibroelastosis, with increased uptake as shown on a PET scan.

  10. Hybrid detection of lung nodules on CT scan images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Tan, Yongqiang; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng, E-mail: bz2166@columbia.edu [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The diversity of lung nodules poses difficulty for the current computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes for lung nodule detection on computed tomography (CT) scan images, especially in large-scale CT screening studies. We proposed a novel CAD scheme based on a hybrid method to address the challenges of detection in diverse lung nodules. Methods: The hybrid method proposed in this paper integrates several existing and widely used algorithms in the field of nodule detection, including morphological operation, dot-enhancement based on Hessian matrix, fuzzy connectedness segmentation, local density maximum algorithm, geodesic distance map, and regression tree classification. All of the adopted algorithms were organized into tree structures with multi-nodes. Each node in the tree structure aimed to deal with one type of lung nodule. Results: The method has been evaluated on 294 CT scans from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. The CT scans were randomly divided into two independent subsets: a training set (196 scans) and a test set (98 scans). In total, the 294 CT scans contained 631 lung nodules, which were annotated by at least two radiologists participating in the LIDC project. The sensitivity and false positive per scan for the training set were 87% and 2.61%. The sensitivity and false positive per scan for the testing set were 85.2% and 3.13%. Conclusions: The proposed hybrid method yielded high performance on the evaluation dataset and exhibits advantages over existing CAD schemes. We believe that the present method would be useful for a wide variety of CT imaging protocols used in both routine diagnosis and screening studies.

  11. Mineralogy of polymetallic nodules and associated sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Todorokite is the dominant mineral phase in the nodules of the northern Central Indian Ocean Basin. These nodules are characterised by a rough surface texture, are relatively rich in Mn, Cu and Ni, and are associated with radiolarian sediments rich...

  12. Manganese nodule morphology as indicators for oceanic processes in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vineesh, T.C.; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.; Jaisankar, S.; Lekshmi, V.

    In order to understand the role of geological features in the depositional environment and the prevailing oceanic processes on the formation and characteristics of manganese nodules, a detailed morphological study of the manganese nodules...

  13. Transcription of the soybean leghemoglobin genes during nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcker, Anne; Lund, Marianne; Jensen, Erik Ø

    1984-01-01

    of the Lb(c1), Lb(c3) and Lb(a) genes while the transcription of the Lb(c2) gene is not amplified to a similar extent. All the Lb genes retain significant activity for a long period during the lifetime of a nodule. Consequently the soybean Lb genes are not regulated by a developmental gene switching...... mechanism as is the case for vertebrate globin genes. Concomitantly with the increase in Lb gene transcription some of the other nodule specific plant genes are activated. These specific changes in the activities of the Lb and nodulin genes precede the activation of the bacterial nitrogenase gene. Thus...

  14. Sister Mary Joseph nodule: it does not bode well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sister Mary Joseph, the superintendent nurse and surgical assistant of Dr. William Mayo at St Mary’s Hospital (presently Mayo Clinic, was the first to note the association of umbilical nodules with intra-abdominal malignancy. Dr. Hamilton Bailey, a British surgeon, in his classic book Physical Signs in Clinical Surgery named the lesion for Sister Mary Joseph; the palpable bulging usually firm nodule distorting and invading into the umbilicus as a manifestation of metastatic malignancy from the abdomen or the pelvis.

  15. Anatomy and ultrastructure of root nodules of Lupinus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Woźny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents anatomic structure of root nodules of lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Express and ultrastructure of cells infected by Rhizobium, The inside of cells from the infected nodule region was filled with numerous bacteria; only centrally located cell nucleus was free of bacteria. Rhizobium was present mostly in the form of "transforming bacteria" (according to the terminology by Ching et al. 1977, characterized by visible nucleoid areas, numerous ribosomes, and polyphosphate granules, although typical bacterioids with poly-β-hydroxybutyrate were also found.

  16. Transcription of the soybean leghemoglobin genes during nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcker, Anne; Ø Jensen, Erik; Marcker, Kjeld A

    1984-01-01

    During the early stages of soybean nodule development the leghemoglobin (Lb) genes are activated sequentially in the opposite order to which they are arranged in the soybean genome. At a specific stage after the initial activation of all the Lb genes, a large increment occurs in the transcription...... of the Lb(c1), Lb(c3) and Lb(a) genes while the transcription of the Lb(c2) gene is not amplified to a similar extent. All the Lb genes retain significant activity for a long period during the lifetime of a nodule. Consequently the soybean Lb genes are not regulated by a developmental gene switching...

  17. A Combination of Shape and Texture Features for Classification of Pulmonary Nodules in Lung CT Images

    OpenAIRE

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Dutta, Anirvan; Garg, Mandeep; Khandelwal,Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Classification of malignant and benign pulmonary nodules is important for further treatment plan. The present work focuses on the classification of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules using support vector machine. The pulmonary nodules are segmented using a semi-automated technique, which requires only a seed point from the end user. Several shape-based, margin-based, and texture-based features are computed to represent the pulmonary nodules. A set of relevant features is determined for th...

  18. Thyroid nodules, polymorphic variants in DNA repair and RET-related genes, and interaction with ionizing radiation exposure from nuclear tests in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Alice J; Land, Charles E; Bhatti, Parveen; Pineda, Marbin; Brenner, Alina; Carr, Zhanat; Gusev, Boris I; Zhumadilov, Zhaxibay; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, Andre; Rutter, Joni L; Ron, Elaine; Struewing, Jeffery P

    2009-01-01

    Risk factors for thyroid cancer remain largely unknown except for ionizing radiation exposure during childhood and a history of benign thyroid nodules. Because thyroid nodules are more common than thyroid cancers and are associated with thyroid cancer risk, we evaluated several polymorphisms potentially relevant to thyroid tumors and assessed interaction with ionizing radiation exposure to the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules were detected in 1998 by ultrasound screening of 2997 persons who lived near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan when they were children (1949-1962). Cases with thyroid nodules (n = 907) were frequency matched (1:1) to those without nodules by ethnicity (Kazakh or Russian), gender and age at screening. Thyroid gland radiation doses were estimated from fallout deposition patterns, residence history and diet. We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in 13 genes and assessed interaction with ionizing radiation exposure using likelihood ratio tests (LRT). Elevated thyroid nodule risks were associated with the minor alleles of RET S836S (rs1800862, P = 0.03) and GFRA1 -193C>G (rs not assigned, P = 0.05) and decreased risk with XRCC1 R194W (rs1799782, P trend = 0.03) and TGFB1 T263I (rs1800472, P = 0.009). Similar patterns of association were observed for a small number of papillary thyroid cancers (n = 25). Ionizing radiation exposure to the thyroid gland was associated with significantly increased risk of thyroid nodules (age and gender adjusted excess odds ratio/Gy = 0.30, 95% CI 0.05-0.56), with evidence for interaction by genotype found for XRCC1 R194W (LRT P value = 0.02). Polymorphisms in RET signaling, DNA repair and proliferation genes may be related to risk of thyroid nodules, consistent with some previous reports on thyroid cancer. Borderline support for gene-radiation interaction was found for a variant in XRCC1, a key base excision repair protein. Other pathways such as genes in double-strand break repair, apoptosis and genes related to

  19. Blood pool images of soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Seiichi; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Manabe, Jun; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Shimoji, Takashi; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1994-07-01

    From January 1986 through August 1992, three-phase bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or Tc-99m hydroxy methylene diphosphonate (HMDP) was performed on consecutive 152 patients with pathologically proven soft tissue tumors. The ability of blood pool scintigraphy to delineate tumors was examined in evaluable 149 patients. According to tumor histology, it showed hot spots in 28/29 for malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 16/16 for liposarcoma, 8/8 for periosteal sarcoma, 42/43 for other sarcomas, 10/11 for neurilemoma, 12/14 for desmoid, 1/4 for myxoma, 5/5 for pigmented villonodullar synovitis or giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, 7/7 for angiomas, and 9/12 for other benign tumors. Malignant tumors were shown as hot spots in 98% (94/96) and the entire tumors, including benign ones, in 93% (138/149). Blood pool scintigraphy was inferior in detecting mucous tumors and small nodules. It could not differentiate between degeneration or necrosis and cytoma that were detectable on MRI. Blood pool scintigraphy was superior in determining the outcome of preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In conclusion, blood pool scintigraphy is an essential preoperative method for providing useful information on soft tissue tumors. (N.K.).

  20. "Rounding" the Size of Pulmonary Nodules: Impact of Rounding Methods on Nodule Management, as Defined by the 2017 Fleischner Society Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Benedikt H; Nemec, Ursula; Anderson, Kevin R; Costa, Daniel B; Gangadharan, Sidhu P; VanderLaan, Paul A; Bankier, Alexander A

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of different rounding methods on size measurements of pulmonary nodules and to determine the number of nodules that change management categories as a result of rounding. For this retrospective institutional review board-approved study, we included 503 incidental pulmonary nodules (308 solid and 195 subsolid) from a data repository. Long and short axes were measured. Average diameters were calculated using four different rounding methods (method 1: no rounding; method 2: rounding only the average diameter to the closest millimeter; method 3: rounding only short and long axes; and method 4: rounding short and long axes and the average diameter to the closest millimeter). Nodules were classified for each rounding method according to the 2017 Fleischner Society guideline management categories. Measurements were compared among the four rounding methods using analysis of variance. Without rounding, the average nodule diameter was 15.67 ± 5.97 mm. This increased between 0.03  and 0.29 mm using rounding methods 2-4 (range: P < 0.001-0.017). The nodule size was more frequently rounded up (range: 52.1%-77.5%) than rounded down (range: 17.7%-42.5%) using rounding methods 2-4, as compared to no rounding. In the 308 solid nodules, up to 2.9% of the nodules changed management category, whereas none of the 195 subsolid nodules changed category. Rounding methods have a small absolute but statically significant effect on nodule size, impacting management category in less than 3% of the nodules. This suggests that, in clinical practice, any rounding method can be used for determining nodule size without substantially biasing individual nodules toward given management categories. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Balance the nodule shape and surroundings: a new multichannel image based convolutional neural network scheme on lung nodule diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Huang, Xia; Qian, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Deep learning is a trending promising method in medical image analysis area, but how to efficiently prepare the input image for the deep learning algorithms remains a challenge. In this paper, we introduced a novel artificial multichannel region of interest (ROI) generation procedure for convolutional neural networks (CNN). From LIDC database, we collected 54880 benign nodule samples and 59848 malignant nodule samples based on the radiologists' annotations. The proposed CNN consists of three pairs of convolutional layers and two fully connected layers. For each original ROI, two new ROIs were generated: one contains the segmented nodule which highlighted the nodule shape, and the other one contains the gradient of the original ROI which highlighted the textures. By combining the three channel images into a pseudo color ROI, the CNN was trained and tested on the new multichannel ROIs (multichannel ROI II). For the comparison, we generated another type of multichannel image by replacing the gradient image channel with a ROI contains whitened background region (multichannel ROI I). With the 5-fold cross validation evaluation method, the CNN using multichannel ROI II achieved the ROI based area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8823+/-0.0177, compared to the AUC of 0.8484+/-0.0204 generated by the original ROI. By calculating the average of ROI scores from one nodule, the lesion based AUC using multichannel ROI was 0.8793+/-0.0210. By comparing the convolved features maps from CNN using different types of ROIs, it can be noted that multichannel ROI II contains more accurate nodule shapes and surrounding textures.

  2. A rare case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the diaphragmatic parietal pleura with dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Yamashita, Motohiro; Sawada, Shigeki; Suehisa, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Hiroaki; Takahata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm that occurs at different sites in the body. Pleural IMT in particular is especially rare. IMTs infrequently tend to have malignancy. We report a rare case of advanced diaphragmatic parietal pleural IMT with dissemination. A 30-year-old woman complained of right upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed a large lobulated mass over the right diaphragm, but no disseminated nodules were noted. Intraoperatively, we found the primary tumor arising from the diaphragmatic parietal pleura and a dozen disseminated nodules, and we removed them completely. The histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis was IMT.

  3. Retroperitoneal malignant mesenchymoma: a case of mesenchymal mixed tumor with osteosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Chung, Hong Jun; Yoo, Won Jong; Chung, Myung Hee; Sung, Mi Sook; Lee, Hae Giu; Park, Il Young; Kim, Jeana [The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Malignant mesenchymoma is an interesting but very rare tumor in which malignant differentiation has occurred twice or more. We report a case of retroperitoneal malignant mesenchymoma consisting of osteosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and fibrosarcoma. Abdominal CT showed a large retroperitoneal mass with two separate and distinct parts, namely an area of prominent calcification and one of clearly enhancing solid components. The mass contained histologically distinct tumorous components with no histologic admixure at the interfaces. The densely calcified nodule corresponded to osteosarcoma, and the noncalcified clearly enhancing nodules to leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and fibrosarcoma.

  4. Morphological variations in the polymetallic nodules from selected stations in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.

    and relief of mammillae vary with the size of nodules. Polynucleate nodules are more abundant in larger size classes (6 cm) and in stations closer to the oceanic ridge. Density varies significantly with shape; less rounded nodules are denser than well...

  5. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  6. Detecting and Treating Thyroid Nodules and Cancer Before, During, and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... becoming pregnant. What causes thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer? The cause of most thyroid nodules is unclear. They tend to occur more often in • Women • Older adults • Those with a family history of nodules • Those whose diet lacks iodine (which ...

  7. Adherence to follow-up CT scans in patients with small pulmonary nodules, a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofie Lock; Gerner Hansen, Niels-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Adherence to follow-up CT scans in patients with small pulmonary nodules, a retrospective study The Danish National guidelines have since 2008 suggested serial follow-up CT scans at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months for nodules between 5 and 10 mm and at 12 and 24 months for nodules less than 5 mm...

  8. Disseminated transmissible venereal tumor in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Sun; Kim, Yongbaek; Kang, Min-Soo; Oh, Sang-Yeon; Cho, Doo-Youn; Shin, Nam-Shik; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2006-01-01

    Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a well-documented transplantable tumor in dogs, with no breed or sex predilection and a low metastatic rate. In this report, a 2-year-old intact female Mastiff that had numerous, rapidly growing masses throughout the subcutis mainly at the dorsal body plane, the caudal half of the ventral abdomen, and around the vulva was euthanized due to poor prognosis. Neoplastic nodules similar to those seen in the subcutis were also noted in the lung, anterior mediastinum, liver, spleen, kidney, and superficial and deep lymph nodes in both abdominal and thoracic cavities. The neoplastic nodules from the subcutis as well as metastatic foci revealed similar cytologic and histologic features, which were consistent with canine TVT. By immunohistochemical staining, the neoplastic cells were positive for lysozyme and vimentin but were negative for cytokeratin, desmin, CD3, and CD79a. The diagnosis of the TVT was further supported by the identification and analysis of long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE) from paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. This case is a rare example of TVT with multiorgan metastasis. In this case, the polymerase chain reaction technique was useful in differential diagnosis of canine round cell tumors because this technique can be applied in retrospective as well as future study.

  9. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid: Diagnosed of a rare tumor using ultrasonography, cytology, and intraoperative frozen sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Keun; Son, Eun Ju [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological and imaging features of thyroid nodules surgically diagnosed as hyaline trabecular tumor (HTT), and to assess the role of cytology and frozen sections (FS) in the diagnosis of HTT. This study included 21 thyroid nodules in 21 patients treated from August 2005 to March 2015 (mean age, 53.3 years) who were either diagnosed as HTT or had HTT suggested as a possible diagnosis based on cytology, FS, or the final pathology report. Patients' medical records were retrospectively reviewed for cytopathologic results and outcomes during the course of follow-up. Sonograms were reviewed and categorized. Twelve nodules from 12 patients were surgically confirmed as HTT. Ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) was performed on 11 nodules, of which six (54.5%) were papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or suspicious for PTC and three (27.3%) were HTT or suspicious for HTT. Intraoperative FS suggested the possibility of HTT in seven nodules, of which four (57.1%) were confirmed as HTT. US-FNA suggested the diagnosis of HTT in 10 nodules, of which three (30.0%) were confirmed as HTT. Common US features of the 12 pathologically confirmed cases of HTT were hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity (83.4%), absence of calcifications (91.7%), parallel shape (100.0%), presence of vascularity (75.0%), and probable benignity (58.3%). HTT should be included in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors with hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity and otherwise benign US features that have been diagnosed as PTC through cytology.

  10. Ovarian Endometrioid Borderline Tumor Arising From an Endometriotic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huzlinda Hussin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endometrioid borderline tumor of the ovary is defined as a solid or cystic tumor composed of crowded glands lined by atypical endometrioid type cells and lacking destructive stromal invasion and/or confluent glandular growth. In the literature, it was reported to comprise 2-19% of endometrioid tumors and 2-10% of all borderline tumors. The prognosis for ovarian endometrioid borderline tumor is excellent including that with features of intraepithelial carcinoma or microinvasion. Recurrences and metastases are extremely rare. A 34 years old Chinese lady presented with vaginal bleeding for many months. Intraoperatively, an intact right ovarian tumor measuring 55×10×10 mm was found. Cut sectioned showed a unilocular cyst with hemorrhagic fluid content and a solid tan nodule of 15 mm in diameter was found within the wall. Microscopically, the cystic ovarian tumor showed features of the endometriotic cyst and the solid nodule arising from the cyst wall showed an adenofibromatous pattern of an endometrioid borderline tumor. She also presented with disseminated endometriosis in the omentum and pelvic peritoneum. This kind of case was rarely reported for clinical reference especially on the macroscopic and microscopic features. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 58-59

  11. Diseases caused by poxvirus - orf and milker's nodules: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.C.S. Barraviera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and cattle parapoxviruses cause in human beings diseases of very similar aspect, named orf and milker's nodules, respectively. These infections are generically called farmyard pox. In the present article, we show the epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological aspects, as well as the treatment of these two viral diseases that are very similar, being differentiated only by their epidemiological aspects.

  12. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    in the Mascarene Basin off Tromelin Island. Nodule density varied from 1.23 to 10 kg/m2, and were predominantly spheroidal to subspheroidal, a majority of them falling in the 2- to 4-cm-diameter size class. Surface textures were mostly smooth, except for one...

  13. Graphite Nodule and Cell Count in Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Fraś

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model is proposed for heterogeneous nucleation on substrates whose size distribution can be described by the Weibull statistics. It is found that the nuclei density, Nnuc can be given in terms of the maximum undercooling, ΔTm by Nnuc = Ns exp(-b/ΔTm; where Ns is the density of nucleation sites in the melt and b is the nucleation coefficient (b > 0 . When nucleation occurs on all the possible substrates, the graphite nodule density, NV,n or eutectic cell density NV after solidification equals Ns. In this work, measurements of NV,n and NV values were carried out on experimental nodular and flake graphite iron castings processed under various inoculation conditions. The volumetric nodule NV,,n or graphite eutectic cell NV count, were estimated from the area nodule count, NA,n or eutectic cell count NA on polished cast iron surface sections by stereological means. In addition, maximum undercoolings, ΔTm were measured using thermal analysis. The experimental outcome indicates that volumetric nodule NV,n or graphite eutectic cell NV count can be properly described by the proposed expression NV,,n = NV = Ns exp(-b/ΔTm. Moreover, the Ns and b values were experimentally determined. In particular, the proposed model suggests that the size distribution of nucleation sites is exponential in nature.

  14. Truncated hemoglobins in actinorhizal nodules of Datisca glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, K; Jacobsen, K R; Alloisio, N; Ford Denison, R; Klein, M; Tjepkema, J D; Winzer, T; Sirrenberg, A; Guan, C; Berry, A M

    2007-11-01

    Three types of hemoglobins exist in higher plants, symbiotic, non-symbiotic, and truncated hemoglobins. Symbiotic (class II) hemoglobins play a role in oxygen supply to intracellular nitrogen-fixing symbionts in legume root nodules, and in one case ( Parasponia Sp.), a non-symbiotic (class I) hemoglobin has been recruited for this function. Here we report the induction of a host gene, dgtrHB1, encoding a truncated hemoglobin in Frankia-induced nodules of the actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata. Induction takes place specifically in cells infected by the microsymbiont, prior to the onset of bacterial nitrogen fixation. A bacterial gene (Frankia trHBO) encoding a truncated hemoglobin with O (2)-binding kinetics suitable for the facilitation of O (2) diffusion ( ) is also expressed in symbiosis. Nodule oximetry confirms the presence of a molecule that binds oxygen reversibly in D. glomerata nodules, but indicates a low overall hemoglobin concentration suggesting a local function. Frankia trHbO is likely to be responsible for this activity. The function of the D. glomerata truncated hemoglobin is unknown; a possible role in nitric oxide detoxification is suggested.

  15. Variation in nodulation and growth of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Improving biological nitrogen fixation through legume nodulating bacteria (LNB) inoculation requires knowledge on ... select acid LNB strains with high symbiotic effectiveness .... Values in a row followed by the same letter within a studied site are not significantly different at 5% level (ns: non-significant; *,.

  16. Truncated hemoglobins in actinorhizal nodules of Datisca glomerata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlowski, K.; Jacobsen, K.R.; Alloisio, N.; Denison, R.F.; Klein, M.; Tjepkema, J.D.; Winzer, T.; Sirrenberg, A.; Guan, C.; Berry, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Three types of hemoglobins exist in higher plants, symbiotic, non-symbiotic, and truncated hemoglobins. Symbiotic (class II) hemoglobins play a role in oxygen supply to intracellular nitrogen-fixing symbionts in legume root nodules, and in one case ( Parasponia Sp.), a non-symbiotic (class I)

  17. Surgical versus non-surgical interventions for vocal cord nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mette; McGlashan, Julian

    2012-06-13

    This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 2, 2001 and previously updated in 2007 and 2009.Vocal cord nodules are bilateral, benign, callous-like growths of the mid-portion of the membranous vocal folds. They are of variable size and are characterised histologically by thickening of the epithelium with a variable degree of inflammation in the underlying superficial lamina propria. They characteristically produce hoarseness, discomfort and an unstable voice when speaking or singing. To assess the effectiveness of surgery versus non-surgical interventions for vocal cord nodules. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 9 April 2012. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing any surgical intervention for vocal cord nodules with non-surgical treatment or no treatment. No suitable trials were identified. No studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There is a need for high-quality randomised controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and non-surgical treatment of vocal cord nodules.

  18. Jugular vein phlebectasia in paediatric patients with vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Sun, Chang-zhi; Zou, Hua; Luo, Ren-zhong

    2013-08-01

    Jugular vein phlebectasia (JVP) may often be overlooked in clinical practice and the management for JVP include surgery and a conservative approach. We have studied the relationship between JVP and vocal fold nodules in paediatric patients as well as the effects of treatment. Twenty-three cases of paediatric vocal fold nodules with JVP were studied. All patients received voice therapy. After 6 months of treatment, hoarseness, neck appearance (subjective evaluation) and the degree of dilation of the jugular vein detected by Doppler ultrasonography were analysed. The follow-up period was 6 to 84 months. The hoarseness disappeared or lessened noticeably after treatment for 1-4 months. The neck masses also lessened (pre vs. post: 2.58 ± 0.40 vs. 1.60 ± 0.19) after treatment for 1-4 months. The visual analogue score of the post-treatment symptoms decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment (p vocal fold nodules may be related to JVP. Voice changes may also be observed in cases of paediatric JVP. Voice therapy may offer another conservative treatment option for JVP accompanied by vocal fold nodules, and it may offer better results than simple observation of JVP.

  19. Differentiation of thyroid nodules using diffusion-weighted MRI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine MRI of neck and diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed using multiple b-values. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were done for the different b-values. Histopathological results of the thyroidectomy samples were obtained. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient values of thyroid nodules with ...

  20. Nodulation, chlorophyll content and nitrogen yield of two woody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field studies were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between 2000 and 2002 to compare the growth, nodulation, chlorophyll content and nitrogen accumulation of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit cv. 28 and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp cv. ILG50 at the ...

  1. The frequency of carcinoma in solitary thyroid nodules and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that carcinomas were not found in colloid nodules'. Recent studies have reported, however, that carcinoma may be present in from j% to 48% of. MNG removed for cosmesis4,? Nmadu et al, reporting from Nigeria, recommended that multinodular goitres should be considered as. "premalignant" conditions8. Introduction.

  2. Physiological diversity of rhizobia nodulating promiscuous soyabean in Zimbabwean soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musiyiwa, K.; Mpepereki, S.; Giller, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Rhizobial isolates were obtained from nodules of promiscuous soyabean varieties Hernon 147 and Magoye and specific Roan grown in a range of Zimbabwean soils. A total of 129 isolates authenticated as true rhizobia were characterized using growth rate, elasticity, colour, size, colony shape,

  3. The frequency of carcinoma in solitary thyroid nodules and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of all patients with goitre seen from 1988 to 1992 inclusive at the Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam was made to determine the frequency of malignancy in patients with solitary non-toxic thyroid nodule (STN) and in those with multinodular goitre (MNG). There were 60 cases of STN and 178 with ...

  4. Constrictive Pericarditis and Rheumatoid Nodules with Severe Aortic Incompetence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Karen; Herron, Brian; Sheppard, Mary N.; Parissis, Haralambos

    2014-01-01

    The case of a female patient presenting with constrictive rheumatoid pericarditis and aortic incompetence secondary to valvular rheumatoid nodules is described along with a review of the literature with the aim to highlight this rare cause of aortic insufficiency. PMID:24715913

  5. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Bel Air station, in Dakar using 15N isotope dilution technique and the non nodulating soybean (Glycine max) variety m129 as reference plant to test the compatibility of Dichlorofenthion-thiram (DCT) fungicide to the inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Paulista variety with ...

  6. Nodulation and growth response of Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A glasshouse experiment was carried out to study the effect of ammonium-N on the nodulation, growth and N-uptake of Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. inoculated with an effective Mesorhizobium (S. sesban) strain. Ammonium-N was supplied twice weekly as 100 ml of nutrient solution at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 ...

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiography: beyond nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, B. van; Hogeweg, L.E.; Prokop, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chest radiographs are the most common exam in radiology. They are essential for the management of various diseases associated with high mortality and morbidity and display a wide range of findings, many of them subtle. In this survey we identify a number of areas beyond pulmonary nodules that could

  8. Bean Nodulation Patterns in Soils of Different Texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IDepartment of Soil Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3008, Morogoro, Tanzania. 2Centro Internacion,al de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) A.A. 6713, Cali, Colombia. Abstract. This study was designed to examine the, relationship between nodulation in a bean-Rhizobium system in three soils of varying texture ...

  9. Usefulness of ultrasonography is the evaluation of thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Uliaque, Carolina; Pardo Berdún, Francisco Javier; Laborda Herrero, Ricardo; Lórenz, Carmen Pérez

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of ultrasonography (US) for differentiating between malignant and benign thyroid nodules and its usefulness in obviating unnecessary invasive procedures. From January 2012 through December 2014, a total of 321 fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) procedures were done in 302 patients selected according to the criteria recommended by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinology guidelines and the American Thyroid Association guidelines. We analyzed the following characteristics on US: location, size, morphology, contour, consistency, echostructure, echogenicity, calcifications, and vascularization. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to investigate the relationship between the US findings and thyroid cancer. The prevalence of malignancy in our study population was 5.92%. The US findings that were significantly associated with a greater probability of malignancy were microcalcifications, central vascularization, and hypoechogenicity. The US findings that were associated with a lower risk of malignancy were areas of colloid degeneration and nodule heterogeneity. Our results suggest that decisions about whether to perform FNAB should be based on the presence of suspicious US findings found with our statistic model rather than on the size of the nodule. Thus, unnecessary FNAB procedures on nodules without suspicious US characteristics can be avoided. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Giant Ulcerative Lactating Nodule of Ectopic Breast Mimicking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Lactating nodules occur in the pregnant and post partum patient and require investigation to rule out the possibility of a malignancy The aim of this paper is to ... Design and Setting: Case description, including clinical and pathological features, of a patient seen in Surgical Camp, Hoima, in September 2005.

  11. Taxonomic studies of nodulated leguminous weeds from the flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names, followed by synonyms (if any), description of the plant, flowering and fruiting period, type, local and general distribution. Nodulated leguminous plant specimens were collected, identified, preserved, mounted and deposited as voucher specimens ...

  12. validation of reports of nodules dissolution after repeated ivermectin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 78 No. 10 October 2001. VALIDATION OF REPORTS OF NODULES DISSOLUTION AFTER REPEATED IVERMECTIN TREATMENT OF ONCHOCERCIASIS IN SOUTHEASTERN. NIGERIA. С. С Ukaga, BSc, MSc, PhD, Senior Lecturer, I. N.S. Dozie, BSc, MSc. Senior Lecturer and B.E.B ...

  13. Nitrogen fixation and nodulation of soybean as affected by rhizobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the efficacy of different adhesives added to rhizobial seed inoculum on soybean nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in a screen house and under field conditions. The experiment was a 6×3 factorial arranged in Completely Randomized Design and Randomized Complete Block Design for the pot ...

  14. Nodulation pattern and biodiversity of rhizobia of some important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collection of 20 root nodule bacteria were isolated from the hitherto unexplored indigenous woody legumes from Ethiopia. Their diversity was evaluated using numerical analyses on different morphological and physiological characteristics. Most of the isolates were found to be slow-growing, sensitive to high concentration ...

  15. Development of manganese nodule resources in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    . Occurrence of megabenthic organisms (6 individuals /100 sq.m.) and their activities in nodule areas (4-12 traces/sq. m.), as well as geotechnical properties of the seafloor sediments have been evaluated. Studies on characterization of seabed from backscatter...

  16. Germination, growth and nodulation of Trigonella foenum graecum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Laboratoire Biologie des Plantes et des Microorganismes, Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences, Oujda,. Morocco. Accepted 20 March, 2009. In this work, we analyzed the effects of salinity on seed germination, growth and nodulation of fenugreek plants. The germination of fenugreek seeds was ...

  17. Constrictive Pericarditis and Rheumatoid Nodules with Severe Aortic Incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Beattie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a female patient presenting with constrictive rheumatoid pericarditis and aortic incompetence secondary to valvular rheumatoid nodules is described along with a review of the literature with the aim to highlight this rare cause of aortic insufficiency.

  18. Formation of multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Toshikawa Yoshikawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement is one of the extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and can be due to the disease itself or secondary to the medications used in order to treat it. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and developed multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide.

  19. Rheumatoid nodule of the thyrohyoid membrane: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upile Tahwinder

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid nodules are common extra-articular findings occurring in 20% of rheumatoid arthritis patients. They develop most commonly subcutaneously in pressure areas (elbows and finger joints and may occasionally affect internal organs including pleura, lungs, meninges, larynx, and in other connective tissues elsewhere in the body Case presentation We present the case of a 62-year-old male who presented with a midline neck mass. Clinically it moved on swallowing and tongue protrusion-suggesting attachment to the thyrohyoid membrane. Ultrasound examination revealed a cystic lesion in the absence of cervical lymphadenopathy in a non-smoker. The neck was explored and histological examination of the excised lesion which was attached to the thyrohyoid membrane revealed a rheumatoid nodule. Conclusion A rheumatoid nodule of the thyrohyoid membrane is very rare. The triple diagnostic scheme of clinical examination supplemented with ultrasound and guided fine needle aspiration for neck lumps remains valid in most cases. If excision is indicated we feel it should be performed in such a manner that the scar tract could easily be encompassed in a neck dissection excision should definitive histological examination be adverse. We suggest that when dealing with patients with established rheumatoid arthritis one should consider a rheumatoid nodule as a differential diagnosis for any swelling on the patient whether it be subcutaneous or deep.

  20. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    of graphite nodules which begins at a lover temperature in the eutectic than in the hypereutectic castings The recalescence (Trec) was however also larger for the eutectic casting and in the thin plates the maximum temperature after recalescence (Tmax) was the same in the eutectic and hypereutectic plates...

  1. Variation in nodulation and growth of groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nodulation of groundnut was examined under pots experiment in four location sites of the Humid-forest zone: Bertoua in the East; Ebolowa in the South; Bokito and Yaoundé in the Centre Regions of Cameroon and within each of the locations, in four land use systems (LUSs) of different levels of disturbance: mixed farming ...

  2. Environmental considerations of nodule mining in Central Indian basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Rao, A.

    fauna as well as the area of seafloor and the volume of sediment expected to be disturbed due to nodule mining. The resulting environmental implications due to large scale mining are expected to be in the form of 'plume' at the seafloor, turbidity...

  3. A new design concept for nodule mining system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    An overview is presented on the hazards associated with various types of equipment to be used for the commercial mining of nodules from the seabed. The design of a suitable mining collector and the various options available are discussed. A novel...

  4. Giant subungual glomus tumor: clinical, dermoscopy, imagiologic and surgery details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; Correia, Osvaldo; Barreiros, Hugo; Haneke, Eckart

    2016-10-15

    Glomus tumor is a rare benign vascular hamartoma derived from the modified smooth muscle cells of the glomus body. Paroxysmal pain is the leading symptom. A 78-year-old woman presented at our clinic with a 50-year history of a slow growing painful purple blue tender nodule under the right fourth finger nail. Dermoscopy and magnetic ressonance confirmed the presence of a large subungual tumor and total surgical excision was performed after partial nail plate avulsion. Histologic examination confirmed a glomus tumor. After 1 year of follow-up, the nail grew with normal shape and neither complications nor recurrence were observed.

  5. Validation of Three Scoring Risk Stratification Models for Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Su Min; Ahn, Hye Shin; Baek, Jung Hwan; Ahn, Hwa Young; Chung, Yun Jae; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Sung Bin

    2017-11-06

    To minimize potential harm from overuse of fine-needle aspiration, Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (TIRADSs) were developed for thyroid nodule risk stratification. The purpose of this study was to perform validation of three scoring risk stratification models for thyroid nodules using ultrasonography features, a web-based malignancy risk stratification system at website (http://www.gap.pe.kr/thyroidnodule.php) and those developed by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) and the American College of Radiology (ACR). Using ultrasonography images, radiologists assessed thyroid nodules according to the following criteria: internal content, echogenicity of the solid portion, shape, margin, and calcifications. 954 patients (mean age, 50.8 years; range, 13-86 years) with 1112 nodules were evaluated in our institute from January 2013 to December 2014. The discrimination ability of the three models was assessed by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Additionally, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics (calibration ability) were used to evaluate the agreement between the observed and expected number of nodules that were benign or malignant. Thyroid malignancy was present in 37.2% of nodules (414/1112). According to the 14-point web-based scoring risk stratification system, malignancy risk ranged from 4.5% to 100.0% and was positively associated with an increase in risk scores. The areas under the ROC curve of the validation set were 0.884 in the web-based, 0.891 in the KSThR, and 0.875 in the ACR scoring risk stratification models. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test indicated that the web-based scoring system showed the best-calibrated result with a p value of 0.078. The three scoring risk stratification models using the ultrasonography features of thyroid nodules to stratify malignancy risk showed acceptable predictive accuracy and similar areas under the curve. The web-based scoring system demonstrated

  6. Elevated CO2 concentration around alfalfa nodules increases N2 fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischinger, Stephanie A.; Hristozkova, Marieta; Mainassara, Zaman-Allah; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation via PEPC provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for N assimilation. The process is therefore of central importance for efficient nitrogen fixation. Nodule CO2 fixation is known to depend on external CO2 concentration. The hypothesis of the present paper was that nitrogen fixation in alfalfa plants is enhanced when the nodules are exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Therefore nodulated plants of alfalfa were grown in a hydroponic system that allowed separate aeration of the root/nodule compartment that avoided any gas leakage to the shoots. The root/nodule compartments were aerated either with a 2500 μl l−1 (+CO2) or zero μl l−1 (–CO2) CO2-containing N2/O2 gas flow (80/20, v/v). Nodule CO2 fixation, nitrogen fixation, and growth were strongly increased in the +CO2 treatment in a 3-week experimental period. More intensive CO2 and nitrogen fixation coincided with higher per plant amounts of amino acids and organic acids in the nodules. Moreover, the concentration of asparagine was increased in both the nodules and the xylem sap. Plants in the +CO2 treatment tended to develop nodules with higher %N concentration and individual activity. In a parallel experiment on plants with inefficient nodules (fix–) the +CO2 treatment remained without effect. Our data support the thesis that nodule CO2 fixation is pivotal for efficient nitrogen fixation. It is concluded that strategies which enhance nodule CO2 fixation will improve nitrogen fixation and nodule formation. Moreover, sufficient CO2 application to roots and nodules is necessary for growth and efficient nitrogen fixation in hydroponic and aeroponic growth systems. PMID:19815686

  7. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothalamic glioma; Hypothalamus - tumor ... The exact cause of hypothalamic tumors is not known. It is likely that they result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In children, ...

  8. Atypical placental site nodule (APSN) and association with malignant gestational trophoblastic disease; a clinicopathologic study of 21 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljeet; Short, Dee; Fisher, Rosemary A; Savage, Philip M; Seckl, Michael J; Sebire, Neil J

    2015-03-01

    The WHO Classification of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors classifies placental site nodule (PSN) as a benign tumor-like trophoblastic neoplasm. Cases of PSN with atypical features were described [atypical placental site nodule (APSN)] and we started registering APSN in our unit in 2005. The aim of this study is to present our initial experience with these lesions. The Trophoblastic Disease Unit database was searched to identify all patients who were either referred with, or on review were diagnosed with, APSN from September 2005 to May 2013. Case notes and the pathology findings for these patients were retrieved and reviewed. A total of 21 cases of APSN were included, 3 of which were associated with gestational trophoblastic neoplasm on follow-up or review. Malignant gestational trophoblastic disease was associated with 3/21 (14%) cases of APSN, either concurrently or developing/manifesting within 16 mo of APSN diagnosis. None of these patients had raised serum hCG levels either at presentation or follow-up. Presence of APSN should indicate a thorough clinical and radiologic investigation and follow-up if diagnosed on curettage specimens. With increased recognition of this entity and corresponding larger series with longer follow-up, more accurate patient counseling will be possible.

  9. A Rare Concurrence of Leiomyomatosis Peritonealis Disseminata, Leiomyosarcoma of the Pelvis and Leiomyomatous Nodule of the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Myint Tun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD is a rare entity that is characterized by the presence of multiple subperitoneal or peritoneal smooth muscle nodules throughout the peritoneal surface mimicking a malignant process. LPD follows a benign course in general, and it is often found incidentally during abdominal surgery. There have been reported cases of LPD with malignant degeneration although the association is uncertain. Concurrent finding of LPD and leiomyosarcoma of the pelvis is very rare that could be coincidental, malignant transformation of LPD to leiomyosarcoma, or progression of undetected primary leiomyosarcoma. There are only a few previously reported cases in the literature. Herein, we report a case of 56-year-old woman with a history of leiomyoma of uterus who presented with progressive abdominal swelling secondary to mass lesions in the pelvis. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and debulking of the tumors, and the histologic examination of the tumors revealed coexistence of LPD and leiomyosarcoma. After recovery from the operation, core needle biopsy of the superficial, residual liver mass was obtained to investigate potential liver metastasis, and the histopathologic findings are consistent with leiomyoma which represents the first simultaneous occurrence of LPD, leiomyosarcoma, and leiomyomatous nodule of the liver.

  10. Evolution of nodule stiffness might predict response to local ablative therapy: A series of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praktiknjo, Michael; Krabbe, Viktoria; Pohlmann, Alessandra; Sampels, Matthias; Jansen, Christian; Meyer, Carsten; Strassburg, Christian P; Trebicka, Jonel; Gonzalez Carmona, Maria A

    2018-01-01

    Early information on treatment response of HCC to local ablative therapy is crucial. Elastography as a non-invasive method has recently been shown to play a potential role in distinguishing between benign and malignant liver lesions. Elastography of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in early response to local ablative therapy has not been studied to date. We prospectively included a cohort of 14 patients with diagnosis of HCC who were treated with local ablative therapy (transarterial chemoembolization, TACE and/or radiofrequency ablation, RFA). We used 2D shear-wave elastography (RT 2D-SWE) to examine stiffness of HCC lesion before and 3, 30 and 90 days after local ablative therapy. Contrast-enhanced imaging after 90 days was performed to evaluate treatment response. Primary endpoint was stiffness of HCC in response to local ablative therapy. Secondary end point was tumor recurrence. Stiffness of HCC nodules and liver showed no significant difference prior to local ablative therapy. As early as three days after treatment, stiffness of responding HCC was significantly higher compared to non-responding. Higher stiffness before treatment was significantly associated with tumor recurrence. Nodule stiffness in general and RT 2D-SWE in particular could provide a useful tool for early prediction of HCC response to local ablative therapy.

  11. Synchronous pulmonary and hepatic nodules in a patient with previous bronchogenic carcinoma: the relevance of histopathological confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto; Machuca, Tiago Noguchi; Camargo, Spencer Marcantonio; Schio, Sadi Marcelo; Bello, Rodrigo Moreira

    2009-06-01

    The synchronous presentation of pulmonary and hepatic nodules in a patient with previously resected bronchogenic carcinoma raises suspicion of recurrence and mandates restaging. We present the case of a 71-year-old male with a history of lobectomy with pericardial resection and mediastinal lymphadenectomy (T3N0M0). At five years after the operation, he presented with a new pulmonary lesion. Restaging detected a synchronous nodule in the liver. Despite the strong suspicion of tumor recurrence, further investigation with a percutaneous liver biopsy revealed hepatocellular carcinoma. In order to investigate the etiology of the pulmonary lesion (hypotheses of recurrent bronchial cancer and of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma), an open lung biopsy was performed, which revealed chronic inflammatory tissue with foci of anthracosis and dystrophic calcification. The patient was submitted to a non-anatomic resection of the liver lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. This report highlights the relevance of the histopathological diagnosis in patients with a history of bronchogenic carcinoma and suspicion of tumor recurrence. Differential diagnoses and the treatment administered are discussed.

  12. Qualitative elastography can replace thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration in patients with soft thyroid nodules. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Kist, Jakob W. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Debray, Thomas P.A. [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care Utrecht (Netherlands); Keizer, Bart de [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Oostenbrugge, Timotheus J. van; Borel Rinkes, Inne H.M. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Valk, Gerlof D. [Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Vriens, Menno R., E-mail: mvriens@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    Context: Only a minority of thyroid nodules is malignant; nevertheless, many invasive diagnostic procedures are performed to distinguish between benign and malignant nodules. Qualitative ultrasound elastography is a non-invasive technique to evaluate thyroid nodules. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of qualitative elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients referred for fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Data sources: A systematic literature search (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) was performed. Study selection: Included studies reported thyroid nodule elastography color scores and the related cytologic or histologic findings in patients with a thyroid nodule referred for FNA. Data extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted study data and assessed study quality. Pooled sensitivities and specificities of different populations were calculated using a bivariate Bayesian framework. Data Synthesis: Twenty studies including thyroid nodules were analyzed. Pooled results of elastography indicate a summary sensitivity of 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79–90%) and specificity of 80% (95% CI, 73–86%). The respective pooled negative predictive and positive predictive values were 97% (95% CI, 94–98%) and 40% (95% CI, 34–48%). The pretest probability of a benign nodule was 82%. Only 3.7% of the false-negative nodules was a follicular thyroid carcinoma. A pooled negative predictive value of 99% (95% CI, 97–100%) was found when only complete soft nodules (Asteria elastography 1) were classified as benign, which included 14% of the studied population. Conclusions: Elastography has a fair specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic accuracy. Its major strength entails the detection of benignity, especially when only completely soft nodules are qualified as benign. The outcomes of our analysis show that FNA could safely be omitted in patients referred for analysis of their thyroid nodule when elastography shows it

  13. The High-Affinity Phosphate Transporter GmPT5 Regulates Phosphate Transport to Nodules and Nodulation in Soybean1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lu; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Jiang; Chen, Liyu; Sun, Zhaoan; Guo, Yongxiang; Lu, Xing; Gu, Mian; Xu, Guohua; Liao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Legume biological nitrogen (N) fixation is the most important N source in agroecosystems, but it is also a process requiring a considerable amount of phosphorus (P). Therefore, developing legume varieties with effective N2 fixation under P-limited conditions could have profound significance for improving agricultural sustainability. We show here that inoculation with effective rhizobial strains enhanced soybean (Glycine max) N2 fixation and P nutrition in the field as well as in hydroponics. Furthermore, we identified and characterized a nodule high-affinity phosphate (Pi) transporter gene, GmPT5, whose expression was elevated in response to low P. Yeast heterologous expression verified that GmPT5 was indeed a high-affinity Pi transporter. Localization of GmPT5 expression based on β-glucuronidase staining in soybean composite plants with transgenic roots and nodules showed that GmPT5 expression occurred principally in the junction area between roots and young nodules and in the nodule vascular bundles for juvenile and mature nodules, implying that GmPT5 might function in transporting Pi from the root vascular system into nodules. Overexpression or knockdown of GmPT5 in transgenic composite soybean plants altered nodulation and plant growth performance, which was partially dependent on P supply. Through both in situ and in vitro 33P uptake assays using transgenic soybean roots and nodules, we demonstrated that GmPT5 mainly functions in transporting Pi from roots to nodules, especially under P-limited conditions. We conclude that the high-affinity Pi transporter, GmPT5, controls Pi entry from roots to nodules, is critical for maintaining Pi homeostasis in nodules, and subsequently regulates soybean nodulation and growth performance. PMID:22740613

  14. Local pulmonary structure classification for computer-aided nodule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Claus; Li, Xianlin; Okada, Kazunori

    2006-03-01

    We propose a new method of classifying the local structure types, such as nodules, vessels, and junctions, in thoracic CT scans. This classification is important in the context of computer aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules. The proposed method can be used as a post-process component of any lung CAD system. In such a scenario, the classification results provide an effective means of removing false positives caused by vessels and junctions thus improving overall performance. As main advantage, the proposed solution transforms the complex problem of classifying various 3D topological structures into much simpler 2D data clustering problem, to which more generic and flexible solutions are available in literature, and which is better suited for visualization. Given a nodule candidate, first, our solution robustly fits an anisotropic Gaussian to the data. The resulting Gaussian center and spread parameters are used to affine-normalize the data domain so as to warp the fitted anisotropic ellipsoid into a fixed-size isotropic sphere. We propose an automatic method to extract a 3D spherical manifold, containing the appropriate bounding surface of the target structure. Scale selection is performed by a data driven entropy minimization approach. The manifold is analyzed for high intensity clusters, corresponding to protruding structures. Techniques involve EMclustering with automatic mode number estimation, directional statistics, and hierarchical clustering with a modified Bhattacharyya distance. The estimated number of high intensity clusters explicitly determines the type of pulmonary structures: nodule (0), attached nodule (1), vessel (2), junction (>3). We show accurate classification results for selected examples in thoracic CT scans. This local procedure is more flexible and efficient than current state of the art and will help to improve the accuracy of general lung CAD systems.

  15. Circadian clock characteristics are altered in human thyroid malignant nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannic, Tiphaine; Meyer, Patrick; Triponez, Frederic; Pusztaszeri, Marc; Le Martelot, Gwendal; Mariani, Olivia; Schmitter, Daniel; Sage, Daniel; Philippe, Jacques; Dibner, Charna

    2013-11-01

    The circadian clock represents the body's molecular time-keeping system. Recent findings revealed strong changes of clock gene expression in various types of human cancers. Due to emerging evidence on the connection between the circadian oscillator, cell cycle, and oncogenic transformation, we aimed to characterize the circadian clockwork in human benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Clock transcript levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in thyroid tissues. To provide molecular characteristics of human thyroid clockwork, primary thyrocytes established from normal or nodular thyroid tissue biopsies were subjected to in vitro synchronization with subsequent clock gene expression analysis by circadian bioluminescence reporter assay and by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression levels of the Bmal1 were up-regulated in tissue samples of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), and in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), as compared with normal thyroid and benign nodules, whereas Cry2 was down-regulated in FTC and PTC. Human thyrocytes derived from normal thyroid tissue exhibited high-amplitude circadian oscillations of Bmal1-luciferase reporter expression and endogenous clock transcripts. Thyrocytes established from FTC and PTC exhibited clock transcript oscillations similar to those of normal thyroid tissue and benign nodules (except for Per2 altered in PTC), whereas cells derived from poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma exhibited altered circadian oscillations. This is the first study demonstrating a molecular makeup of the human thyroid circadian clock. Characterization of the thyroid clock machinery alterations upon thyroid nodule malignant transformation contributes to understanding the connections between circadian clocks and oncogenic transformation. Moreover, it might help in improving the thyroid nodule preoperative diagnostics.

  16. Determining the Site of Action of Strigolactones during Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Erin L; Hugill, Cassandra; Fort, Sebastien; Samain, Eric; Cottaz, Sylvain; Davies, Noel W; Reid, James B; Foo, Eloise

    2017-09-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) influence the ability of legumes to associate with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In this study, we determine the precise stage at which SLs influence nodulation. We show that SLs promote infection thread formation, as a null SL-deficient pea (Pisum sativum) mutant forms significantly fewer infection threads than wild-type plants, and this reduction can be overcome by the application of the synthetic SL GR24. We found no evidence that SLs influence physical events in the plant before or after infection thread formation, since SL-deficient plants displayed a similar ability to induce root hair curling in response to rhizobia or Nod lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) and SL-deficient nodules appear to fix nitrogen at a similar rate to those of wild-type plants. In contrast, an SL receptor mutant displayed no decrease in infection thread formation or nodule number, suggesting that SL deficiency may influence the bacterial partner. We found that this influence of SL deficiency was not due to altered flavonoid exudation or the ability of root exudates to stimulate bacterial growth. The influence of SL deficiency on infection thread formation was accompanied by reduced expression of some early nodulation genes. Importantly, SL synthesis is down-regulated by mutations in genes of the Nod LCO signaling pathway, and this requires the downstream transcription factor NSP2 but not NIN This, together with the fact that the expression of certain SL biosynthesis genes can be elevated in response to rhizobia/Nod LCOs, suggests that Nod LCOs may induce SL biosynthesis. SLs appear to influence nodulation independently of ethylene action, as SL-deficient and ethylene-insensitive double mutant plants display essentially additive phenotypes, and we found no evidence that SLs influence ethylene synthesis or vice versa. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Giant Cell Tumor of the Thoracic Spine Presenting as a Posterior Mediastinal Tumor with Benign Pulmonary Metastases: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hun [Daegu Fatima Hospital College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Byung Hak; Bahn, Young Eun; Choi, Won Il [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Giant cell tumor of bone is a benign, but potentially aggressive lesion that can show local recurrence and metastases. We report here on a case of a 29-year-old man who presented with an incidentally found mediastinal mass. Chest radiography and computed tomography showed a huge mediastinal mass with bilateral pulmonary nodules and the diagnosis of giant cell tumor with benign pulmonary metastasis was confirmed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary thoracic spinal giant cell tumor manifesting as a huge mediastinal mass with pulmonary metastases

  18. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  19. Odontogenic Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    TAHSİNOĞLU, Melih

    2013-01-01

    DefinitionThe neoplasms that consist of the cells considered specialized for odontogenesis, and their product (dentin, enamel, cementum) are called odontogenic tumors.ClassificationTo initiate odontogenesis, epithelium is a must. Same rule holds for the odontogenic tumors: without odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic tumors cannot be, without the induction of odontogenic epithelium odontogenic mesenchyme cannot develop.

  20. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. {sup 10}Be in rhodochrosite nodules from Neogene sediments along the Galapagos Ridge, equatorial Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldahan, A., E-mail: ala.aldahan@geo.uu.s [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Morad, S. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Petroleum Geosciences, Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Possnert, G. [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sturesson, U. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); ElSaiy, A. [Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-04-15

    Microcrystalline, calcian rhodochrosite occurs as nodules around burrows in late Neogene pelagic sediments from the Galapagos Ridge in the Guatemala Basin, eastern equatorial Pacific (DSDP Leg 68; Site 503). {sup 10}Be isotope revealed that the rhodochrosite nodules have formed under growth conditions much faster than those reported for Fe-Mn nodules. The overall REE patterns of the nodules and host pelagic sediments indicate element derivation mainly from marine pore water. However, variations in the shale normalised Eu values suggest influx of hydrothermal fluids into mounds area at Galapagos, which is also evidenced by the similar minor and major element contents in the nodules and host sediments.

  2. Morphogenesis of root nodules in white clover. II. The effect of mutation in genes nod IJ of the microsymbiont upon the nodule structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Łotocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenesis of ineffective root nodules initiated on the roots of white clover 'Astra' by the Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. trifolii strains ANU261 (Tn5 insertion in nod 1 gene and ANU262 (Tn5 insertion in nod J gene was investigated. Following changes were observed, as compared to the wild-type nodulation: the exaggerated, not delayed reaction of root hairs; the delay in nodulation with the number of nodules the same as in plants inoculated with a wild strain; the formation and organization of the nodule primordium not changed in comparison with the wild-type nodules; infection threads abnormally branched and diffusing with bacteria deprived of light zone and enriched with storage material; infected cells of bacteroidal tissue abnormally strongly osmiophilic and only slightly vacuolated; symbiosomes with very narrowed peribacteroidal space, subject to premature degradation; abnormal accumulation of starch in the nodule tissues; nodule development blocked at the stage of laterally situated meristem and single nodule bundle; inhibition of divisions in the meristem and vacuolation of its cells; the appearance of single cells with colonies of saprophytic rhizobia embedded in the fibrillar matrix in the old, degraded regions of the bacteroidal tissue.

  3. Towards automatic pulmonary nodule management in lung cancer screening with deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciompi, Francesco; Chung, Kaman; van Riel, Sarah J.; Setio, Arnaud Arindra Adiyoso; Gerke, Paul K.; Jacobs, Colin; Th. Scholten, Ernst; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Wille, Mathilde M. W.; Marchianò, Alfonso; Pastorino, Ugo; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of lung cancer screening programs will produce an unprecedented amount of chest CT scans in the near future, which radiologists will have to read in order to decide on a patient follow-up strategy. According to the current guidelines, the workup of screen-detected nodules strongly relies on nodule size and nodule type. In this paper, we present a deep learning system based on multi-stream multi-scale convolutional networks, which automatically classifies all nodule types relevant for nodule workup. The system processes raw CT data containing a nodule without the need for any additional information such as nodule segmentation or nodule size and learns a representation of 3D data by analyzing an arbitrary number of 2D views of a given nodule. The deep learning system was trained with data from the Italian MILD screening trial and validated on an independent set of data from the Danish DLCST screening trial. We analyze the advantage of processing nodules at multiple scales with a multi-stream convolutional network architecture, and we show that the proposed deep learning system achieves performance at classifying nodule type that surpasses the one of classical machine learning approaches and is within the inter-observer variability among four experienced human observers. PMID:28422152

  4. Towards automatic pulmonary nodule management in lung cancer screening with deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciompi, Francesco; Chung, Kaman; van Riel, Sarah J.; Setio, Arnaud Arindra Adiyoso; Gerke, Paul K.; Jacobs, Colin; Th. Scholten, Ernst; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Wille, Mathilde M. W.; Marchianò, Alfonso; Pastorino, Ugo; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of lung cancer screening programs will produce an unprecedented amount of chest CT scans in the near future, which radiologists will have to read in order to decide on a patient follow-up strategy. According to the current guidelines, the workup of screen-detected nodules strongly relies on nodule size and nodule type. In this paper, we present a deep learning system based on multi-stream multi-scale convolutional networks, which automatically classifies all nodule types relevant for nodule workup. The system processes raw CT data containing a nodule without the need for any additional information such as nodule segmentation or nodule size and learns a representation of 3D data by analyzing an arbitrary number of 2D views of a given nodule. The deep learning system was trained with data from the Italian MILD screening trial and validated on an independent set of data from the Danish DLCST screening trial. We analyze the advantage of processing nodules at multiple scales with a multi-stream convolutional network architecture, and we show that the proposed deep learning system achieves performance at classifying nodule type that surpasses the one of classical machine learning approaches and is within the inter-observer variability among four experienced human observers.

  5. Prognosis of Thyroid Nodules in Individuals Living in the Zhitomir Region of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Naomi; Sekitani, Yui; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kozlovsky, Alexander A.; Gutevych, Oleksandr K.; Saiko, Aleksey S.; Nirova, Nina V.; Petrova, Anjela A.; Rafalskiy, Ruslan M.; Chorny, Sergey A.; Daniliuk, Valery V.; Anami, Masanobu; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Objective After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. Patients and Methods Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group) and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group) intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Results Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy), was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (PUkraine. PMID:23209797

  6. Disagreement of diameter and volume measurements for pulmonary nodule size estimation in CT lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Walter, Joan E; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Ooijen, Peter M A; De Bock, Geertruida H; de Koning, Harry J; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2017-10-22

    We studied 2240 indeterminate solid nodules (volume 50-500mm3) to determine the correlation of diameter and semi-automated volume measurements for pulmonary nodule size estimation. Intra-nodular diameter variation, defined as maximum minus minimum diameter through the nodule's center, varied by 2.8 mm (median, IQR:2.2-3.7 mm), so above the 1.5 mm cutoff for nodule growth used in Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS). Using mean or maximum axial diameter to assess nodule volume led to a substantial mean overestimation of nodule volume of 47.2% and 85.1%, respectively, compared to semi-automated volume. Thus, size of indeterminate nodules is poorly represented by diameter. Pre-results, ISRCTN63545820. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. A study of retrieval accuracy of pulmonary nodules based on external attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Mehre, Shrikant A.; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Prabhakar, Nidhi; Garg, Mandeep; Kalra, Naveen

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, retrieval accuracy of different types of pulmonary nodules is studied. The trainee radiologists could enrich their knowledge using the visual information of the retrieved nodules. In the proposed retrieval system, the pulmonary nodules are segmented using a semi-automated technique. Several 3D features are explored to improve the performance of the proposed retrieval system. A set of relevant shape and texture features is determined for efficient representation of the nodules in the feature space. The proposed CBIR system is validated on a data set of 542 nodules of Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC/IDRI). The nodules with composite rank of malignancy "1", "2" are considered as benign and "4", "5" are considered as malignant. Considering top five retrieved images, the precision of the proposed retrieval system are 84.76%, 80.75%, and 80.34% for well-circumscribed, juxta-pleural, and juxtavascular nodules, respectively.

  8. Novel expression pattern of cytosolic gln synthetase in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of the actinorhizal host, Datisca glomerata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, A.M.; Murphy, T.M.; Okubara, P.A.; Jacobsen, K.R.; Swensen, S.M.; Pawlowski, K.

    2004-01-01

    Gln synthetase (GS) is the key enzyme of primary ammonia assimilation in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of legumes and actinorhizal (Frankia-nodulated) plants. In root nodules of Datisca glomerata (Datiscaceae), transcripts hybridizing to a conserved coding region of the abundant nodule isoform,

  9. The effects of computed tomography with iterative reconstruction on solid pulmonary nodule volume quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Willemink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of iterative reconstruction (IR on pulmonary nodule volumetry with chest computed tomography (CT. METHODS: Twenty patients (12 women and 8 men, mean age 61.9, range 32-87 underwent evaluation of pulmonary nodules with a 64-slice CT-scanner. Data were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP and IR (Philips Healthcare, iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 at similar radiation dose. Volumetric nodule measurements were performed with semi-automatic software on thin slice reconstructions. Only solid pulmonary nodules were measured, no additional selection criteria were used for the nature of nodules. For intra-observer and inter-observer variability, measurements were performed once by one observer and twice by another observer. Algorithms were compared using the concordance correlation-coefficient (pc and Friedman-test, and post-hoc analysis with the Wilcoxon-signed ranks-test with Bonferroni-correction (significance-level p<0.017. RESULTS: Seventy-eight nodules were present including 56 small nodules (volume<200 mm(3, diameter<8 mm and 22 large nodules (volume≥200 mm(3, diameter≥8 mm. No significant differences in measured pulmonary nodule volumes between FBP, iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 were found in both small nodules and large nodules. FBP and iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 were correlated with pc-values of 0.98 or higher for both small and large nodules. Pc-values of intra-observer and inter-observer variability were 0.98 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of solid pulmonary nodule volume measured with standard-FBP were comparable with IR, regardless of the IR-level and no significant differences between measured volumes of both small and large solid nodules were found.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzakoun, Joseph; Bommart, Sébastien; Coste, Joël; Chassagnon, Guillaume; Lederlin, Mathieu; Boussouar, Samia; Revel, Marie-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part-solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p<0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho=0.90[0.84-0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above -671Hounsfield units (HU). The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of cases, allowing automated measurement of size and attenuation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sonographically guided fine-needle biopsy of thyroid nodules: the effects of nodule characteristics, sampling technique, and needle size on the adequacy of cytological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, B. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kocatepe, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey)]. E-mail: bumin.degirmenci@gmail.com; Haktanir, A. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kocatepe, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Albayrak, R. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kocatepe, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Acar, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kocatepe, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Sahin, D.A. [Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kocatepe, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Sahin, O. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kocatepe, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Yucel, A. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kocatepe, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Caliskan, G. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kocatepe, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules, the diameter of needle used for sampling, and sampling technique on obtaining sufficient cytological material (SCM). Materials and methods: We performed sonography-guided fine-needle biopsy (FNB) in 232 solid thyroid nodules. Size-, echogenicity, vascularity, and localization of all nodules were evaluated by Doppler sonography before the biopsy. Needles of size 20, 22, and 24 G were used for biopsy. The biopsy specimen was acquired using two different methods after localisation. In first method, the needle tip was advanced into the nodule in various positions using a to-and-fro motion whilst in the nodule, along with concurrent aspiration. In the second method, the needle was advanced vigorously using a to-and-fro motion within the nodule whilst being rotated on its axis (capillary-action technique). Results: The mean nodule size was 2.1 {+-} 1.3 cm (range 0.4-7.2 cm). SCM was acquired from 154 (66.4%) nodules by sonography-guided FNB. In 78 (33.6%) nodules, SCM could not be collected. There was no significant difference between nodules with different echogenicity and vascularity for SCM. Regarding the needle size, the lowest rate of SCM was obtained using 20 G needles (56.6%) and the highest rate of adequate material was obtained using 24 G needles (82.5%; p = 0.001). The SCM rate was 76.9% with the capillary-action technique versus 49.4% with the aspiration technique (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Selecting finer needles (24-25 G) for sonography-guided FNB of thyroid nodules and using the capillary-action technique decreased the rate of inadequate material in cytological examination.

  12. Radiological features of progressive tumoral calcinosis in chronic renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodnett, P

    2012-02-03

    We present the case of a young adult patient with chronic renal failure who developed painful subcutaneous nodules after failed renal transplant and recommencing dialysis. These nodules were juxta-articular in location and initially located over both shoulders. Radiological evaluation suggested tumoral calcinosis. The patient was placed on a strict dialysis and dietary regimen but was suboptimally compliant with same. The patient developed progressive disease with an increase in size and number of juxta-articular calcified soft-tissue masses. However, 6 months following a second renal transplant clinical and radiological follow up demonstrated marked resolution both in symptomatology and radiographic findings. We present the plain radiographic, CT and MRI findings which demonstrate the typical radiological features of tumoral calcinosis. We correlate these findings with clinical course and histological findings following surgical excision of one of these masses.

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzakoun, Joseph, E-mail: benzakoun.joseph@gmail.com [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Bommart, Sébastien, E-mail: s-bommart@chu-montpellier.fr [CHU de Montpellier, 191 avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); INSERM U 1046, 371 avenue du Doyen G. Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); Coste, Joël, E-mail: joel.coste@htd.aphp.fr [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Chassagnon, Guillaume, E-mail: gchassagnon@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Cochin, Radiologie, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Lederlin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lederlin@chu-rennes.fr [CHU de Rennes, Radiologie, 2 Rue Henri le Guilloux, 35000 Rennes (France); Université de Rennes 1, 9 Rue Jean Macé, 35000 Rennes (France); Boussouar, Samia, E-mail: samiaboussouar@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 20 Rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  14. Odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysomali, Evanthia; Leventis, Minas; Titsinides, Savas; Kyriakopoulos, Vasileios; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to analyze the frequency and distribution of odontogenic tumors in a Greek population and compare the findings with those reported in the recent literature. Records of the Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Dental School, University of Athens, with histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors (based on the World Health Organization 2005 classification) were reviewed retrospectively from January 1970 to December 2011. A total of 652 cases of odontogenic tumors were reported. Of these, 651 (99.8%) were benign and only 1 (0.2%) was malignant. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor was the most frequent lesion (52.7%), followed by odontoma (18.9%) and ameloblastoma (16.1%). The mean age of patients was 38.0 years with a wide range (2.5-92 years). Odontogenic tumors are rare lesions and appear to show a definite geographic variation. In Athens, Greece, they are presented mainly by the keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and ameloblastoma.

  15. Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) presenting as a painless cold nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, P.C.; Boer, R.O.

    1987-09-01

    A 49-yr-old woman presented with a solid, painless, nontender nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a solitary cold area in the left lobe and a slightly decreased 24-hr radioactive iodine thyroid uptake (9%). Although there were no specific clinical or biochemical signs suggesting thyroiditis needle aspiration cytology showed the presence of a subacute thyroiditis. Approximately 1 mo later the entire thyroid gland was affected leading to a completely suppressed thyroid radioiodine uptake and elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This case illustrates that in the early phase of the disease, subacute thyroiditis may present as a solitary, painless, cold nodule and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions.

  16. Bioacoustics response of small benign or malignant nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe V; Gavriloaia, Mariuca-Roxana G; Novac, Marian L

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important features of separation between benign or malignant tissues is their smooth or rough shape. This article presents a new method for early diagnosis of thyroid cancer by knowing the resonance frequencies of a certain tissue. Two types of nodules were investigated: spherical and elliptical. Their external surfaces were smooth or rough with different values of spicules. Propagation of sound through the human body was modeled by a classical partial differential equation associated with Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions. The assessments of about ten acoustic eigenfrequencies are enough to decide the type of external surfaces: smooth or rough, or whether nodule is benign or malignant. Data obtained by this method refers to the result of investigating 3D bodies smaller than 5 mm, when other medical devices such as ultrasound or CT cannot evaluate their surface shape because of their limited spatial resolution.

  17. Granulomatous Bronchiolitis with Necrobiotic Pulmonary Nodules in Chrohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old man with extensive Crohn's disease of the stomach, small and large intestine for almost a decade developed respiratory symptoms and radiological findings suggestive of pneumonia that failed to resolve with antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography scanning of his lungs showed extensive changes with cavitated parenchymal nodules. Histological evaluation of an open lung biopsy showed granulomatous bronchiolitis and pulmonary necrobiosis. Treatment with steroids and immunosuppression resulted in complete resolution of his clinical symptoms of pneumonia and abnormal computed tomography imaging changes. Granulomatous bronchiolitis and necrobiotic nodules may be a manifestation of Crohn's disease in the absence of microbial agents, including mycobacteria or fungal agents. While a multiplicity of complex pulmonary changes may occur in Crohn's disease, their clinical recognition and precise pathological definition may be particularly important if treatment with a biological agent, such as infliximab, is being considered.

  18. Cytokinin biosynthesis promotes cortical cell responses during nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Dugald Elgin; Nadzieja, Marcin; Novák, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    Legume mutants have shown the requirement for receptor-mediated cytokinin signalling in symbiotic nodule organogenesis. While the receptors are central regulators, cytokinin is also accumulated during early phases of symbiotic interaction but the pathways involved have not yet been fully resolved....... To identify the source, timing and effect of this accumulation, we followed transcript levels of the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway genes in a sliding developmental zone of Lotus japonicus roots. LjIpt2 and LjLog4 were identified as the major contributors to the first cytokinin burst. The genetic dependence...... and Nod factor (NF) responsiveness of these genes confirms that cytokinin biosynthesis is a key target of the common symbiosis pathway. Accumulation of LjIpt2 and LjLog4 transcripts occurs independent of the LjLhk1 receptor during nodulation. Together with the rapid repression of both genes by cytokinin...

  19. Cytokinins in Symbiotic Nodulation: When, Where, What For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamas, Pascal; Brault, Mathias; Jardinaud, Marie-Françoise; Frugier, Florian

    2017-09-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of early stages of the symbiotic interaction between legume plants and rhizobium bacteria. Those include the specific recognition of symbiotic partners, the initiation of bacterial infection in root hair cells, and the inception of a specific organ in the root cortex, the nodule. Increasingly complex regulatory networks have been uncovered in which cytokinin (CK) phytohormones play essential roles in different aspects of early symbiotic stages. Intriguingly, these roles can be either positive or negative, cell autonomous or non-cell autonomous, and vary, depending on time, root tissues, and possibly legume species. Recent developments on CK symbiotic functions and interconnections with other signaling pathways during nodule initiation are the focus of this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nodulation of Soybean by a Transposon-Mutant of Rhizobium fredii USDA257 Is Subject to Competitive Nodulation Blocking by Other Rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatti, P A; Pueppke, S G

    1990-11-01

    Rhizobium fredii USDA257 fails to nodulate the improved soybean [Glycine max (L.)Merr.] cultivar McCall in plastic growth pouches. Mutant 257DH4, which was derived from USDA257 by transposon mutagenesis, forms nitrogen fixing nodules under these conditions. If USDA257 is present in inocula containing the mutant, most infections are arrested prior to organization of the nodule meristem, and nodule number is reduced by 95%. The improved cultivars Essex, Harosoy, Hodgson 78, and Viçoja, as well as a supernodulating mutant of Williams, respond like McCall to inoculation with such mixtures of bacteria. Nodulation blocking on McCall can be elicited by rhizobia other than USDA257, provided that they meet two criteria: Blocking strains must themselves be able to induce cortical cells of McCall to divide, and such divisions must proceed to the stage of nodule meristem formation. Nodulation by the mutant remains sensitive to a challenge inoculation with USDA257 for only the first 6 to 12 hours after inoculation. Nodulation blocking involving mutant 257DH4 thus appears to be a rapid, generalized process.

  1. Relationship between size and geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Significance in selection of high grade nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Ambre, N.V.

    . The smaller nodules are higher in grade (Cu+Ni+Co%), Mn and Zn contents and suggest their formation at shallower depths by diagenetic process and transportation later to deeper depths. Larger nodules, in contrast, are poor in grade and higher in Fe, Co...

  2. Pulmonary nodules detected by thoracic computed tomography scan after exposure to asbestos: diagnostic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clin, Bénédicte; Luc, Amandine; Morlais, Fabrice; Paris, Chrisophe; Ameille, Jacques; Brochard, Patrick; De Girolamo, Julien; Gislard, Antoine; Laurent, François; Letourneux, Marc; Schorle, Evelyne; Launoy, Guy; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The aim of the study was to analyse the relationships between CT pulmonary nodules mentioned by radiologists and cumulative exposure to asbestos or asbestos-related pleuro-pulmonary diseases, among 5,662 asbestos-exposed subjects, and the relationships between pulmonary nodules and thoracic cancer, in order to determine whether a specific surveillance strategy according to cumulative asbestos exposure, should be adopted. Design Standardised Incidence and Mortality Ratios for lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma were calculated among patients with and without mention of pulmonary nodules, and compared via the Comparative Morbidity Figure. Results A significant over-incidence of primary lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma was observed among subjects presenting with pulmonary nodule(s) (SIR respectively 1.95 [1.22; 2.95] and 11.88 [3.20; 30.41]). However, there was no significant relationship between pulmonary nodules mentioned by radiologists and cumulative asbestos exposure or between pulmonary nodules and the presence of asbestos-related benign diseases. Conclusions This study confirms the expected excess of lung cancer in subjects presenting with pulmonary nodules in the radiologist’s diagnostic report, and shows the absence of relationship between these nodules and the level of cumulative asbestos exposure. Consequently, our study offers no argument in favour of specific surveillance modalities with regard to these nodules based on estimated cumulative asbestos exposure. PMID:22118184

  3. [Non-solid and part-solid pulmonary nodules on CT scanning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, G; Félix, L; Serra-Tosio, G; Brambilla, C; Moro-Sibilot, D; Brichon, P Y; Coulomb, M; Lantuejoul, S

    2007-12-01

    The entities of non-solid and part-solid pulmonary nodules on CT scan have been recently described. Nonsolid and part-solid pulmonary nodules account for between 2.9 and 19% of all pulmonary nodules detected in high-risk patients included in CT screening series for lung cancer. Radio-pathological correlations have shown that the aetiology could be either benign (chronic pneumonia, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, localized fibrosis) or malignant (broncholoalveolar cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, more rarely metastasis). Part-solid or non-solid nodules are more likely to be malignant than solid ones. The doubling time of non-solid nodules can be longer than part-solid ones and even longer than the doubling time of solid nodules. Patient prognosis is related to the proportion of the ground glass component. The management of these nodules requires prolonged surveillance of nodules less than 10mm in diameter and surgical excision of nodules greater than 10mm persisting on scans between 1 to 3 months after they have been discovered and anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious therapy has been administered. Nonsolid and part-solid pulmonary nodules found on CT scan warrant a specific diagnostic workup.

  4. Multiple pulmonary nodules in AIDS: usefulness of CT in distinguishing among potential causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinburgh, K J; Jasmer, R M; Huang, L; Reddy, G P; Chung, M H; Thompson, A; Halvorsen, R A; Webb, R A

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether the computed tomographic (CT) appearances of multiple pulmonary nodules in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can help differentiate the potential infectious and neoplastic causes. The thoracic CT scans obtained in 60 patients with AIDS and multiple pulmonary nodules were reviewed retrospectively by two thoracic radiologists who were blinded to clinical and pathologic data. The scans were evaluated for nodule size, distribution, and morphologic characteristics. CT findings were correlated with final diagnoses. Thirty-six (84%) of 43 patients with opportunistic infection had a predominance of nodules smaller than 1 cm in diameter, whereas 14 (82%) of 17 patients with a neoplasm had a predominance of nodules larger than 1 cm (P <.001). Of the 43 patients with opportunistic infection, 28 (65%) had a centrilobular distribution of nodules; only one (6%) of 17 patients with a neoplasm had this distribution (P <.001). Seven (88%) of eight patients with a peribronchovascular distribution had Kaposi sarcoma (P <.001). In patients with AIDS who have multiple pulmonary nodules at CT, nodule size and distribution are useful in the differentiation of potential causes. Nodules smaller than 1 cm, especially those with a centrilobular distribution, are typically infectious. Nodules larger than 1 cm are often neoplastic. A peribronchovascular distribution is suggestive of Kaposi sarcoma.

  5. Outcome of hypovascular hepatic nodules with positive uptake of gadoxetic acid in patients with cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Katsuhiro; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Morisaka, Hiroyuki [University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Chuo-City, Yamanashi (Japan); Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka-City, Saitama (Japan); Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Shintaro [University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Chuo-City, Yamanashi (Japan); Enomoto, Nobuyuki [University of Yamanashi, First Department of Internal Medicine, Yamanashi (Japan); Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki [University of Yamanashi, First Department of Surgery, Yamanashi (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the longitudinal risk to patients with cirrhosis of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developing from hypovascular hepatic nodules that show positive uptake of gadoxetic acid (hyperintensity) on hepatocyte phase images. In 69 patients, we evaluated findings from serial follow-up examinations of 633 hepatic nodules that appeared hypovascular and hyperintense on initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) until the nodules demonstrated hypervascularity and were diagnosed as hypervascular HCC. Cox analyses were performed to identify risk factors for the development of hypervascular HCCs from the nodules. The median follow-up was 663 days (range, 110 to 1215 days). Hypervascular HCCs developed in six of the 633 nodules (0.9 %) in five of the 69 patients. The only independent risk factor, the nodule's initial maximum diameter of 10 mm or larger, demonstrated a hazard ratio of 1.25. The one-year risk of hypervascular HCC developing from a nodule was 0.44 %. The risk was significantly higher for nodules of larger diameter (1.31 %) than those smaller than 10 mm (0.10 %, p < 0.01). Hypervascular HCC rarely develops from hypovascular, hyperintense hepatic nodules. We observed low risk even for nodules of 10 mm and larger diameter at initial examination. (orig.)

  6. CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE3 Maintains Cytokinin Homeostasis during Root and Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Dugald E; Heckmann, Anne B; Novák, Ondřej; Kelly, Simon; Stougaard, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Cytokinins are required for symbiotic nodule development in legumes, and cytokinin signaling responses occur locally in nodule primordia and in developing nodules. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus Ckx3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene is induced by Nod factor during the early phase of nodule initiation. At the cellular level, pCkx3::YFP reporter-gene studies revealed that the Ckx3 promoter is active during the first cortical cell divisions of the nodule primordium and in growing nodules. Cytokinin measurements in ckx3 mutants confirmed that CKX3 activity negatively regulates root cytokinin levels. Particularly, tZ and DHZ type cytokinins in both inoculated and uninoculated roots were elevated in ckx3 mutants, suggesting that these are targets for degradation by the CKX3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase. The effect of CKX3 on the positive and negative roles of cytokinin in nodule development, infection and regulation was further clarified using ckx3 insertion mutants. Phenotypic analysis indicated that ckx3 mutants have reduced nodulation, infection thread formation and root growth. We also identify a role for cytokinin in regulating nodulation and nitrogen fixation in response to nitrate as ckx3 phenotypes are exaggerated at increased nitrate levels. Together, these findings show that cytokinin accumulation is tightly regulated during nodulation in order to balance the requirement for cell divisions with negative regulatory effects of cytokinin on infection events and root development. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Pre-processing methods for nodule detection in lung CT

    OpenAIRE

    Cheran, S. C.; Delogu, P.; De Mitri, I.; De Nunzio, G; Fantacci, M. E.; Fauci, F.; Gargano, G; Torres, E. Lopez; Massafra, R.; Oliva, P.; Martinez, A. Preite; Raso, G.; Retico, A.; Stumbo, S.; Tata, A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of automatic systems in the analysis of medical images has proven to be very useful to radiologists, especially in the framework of screening programs, in which radiologists make their first diagnosis on the basis of images only, most of those corresponding to healthy patients, and have to distinguish pathological findings from non-pathological ones at an early stage. In particular, we are developing preprocessing methods to be applied for pulmonary nodule Computer Aided Detection in ...

  8. Dynamics of formation of ferromanganese nodules in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.

    Ma). Although siliceous clay and ooze floor all the sectors within the IONF (except perhaps the southernmost part of sector D), the influence of detrital sedimentation, and consequently the rate of sedimentation, increases towards north (sectors A... from 9 mm/ka in its northern part to 1 mm/ka to the south (Borole, 1993). In addition, the degree of biological productivity is also enhanced towards the north. 6 Table 2 shows the properties of ferromanganese nodules and various formative...

  9. Les pseudo nodules thyroidiens | Chahed | Journal Tunisien d'ORL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'examen cytologique fait par une personne entraînée peut être contributif au diagnostic différentiel. Cependant, le diagnostic se fait souvent après cervicotomie exploratrice. Mots clés : pseudo- nodule, thyroïde, kyste hydatique, schwannome, adénome parathyroïdien, kyste du tractus thyréoglosse, chondrosarcome ...

  10. Clinical diagnosis and histological analysis of vocal nodules and polyps

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Raquel Buzelin; Behlau, Mara [UNESP; Nunes, Mauricio Buzelin; Paulino, Juliana Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies emphasize the importance of the clinical-histology correlation in laryngeal pathologies. Objective: To compare the ENT diagnosis with the pathology diagnosis one of 132 surgical specimens, from 119 patients with vocal nodules and polyps. Method: Retrospective study. We investigated the paraffin blocks corresponding to the lesions of the operated patients. We made new histology cross-sections, totaling 396 new slides, divided into three groups: hematoxylin and eosin, Gomori tric...

  11. Sarcoidosis Nodules on the Lateral Nasal Osteotomy Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basat, Salih Onur; Ceran, Fatih; Aksan, Tolga; Ozturk, Muhammed Besir

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that manifests as noncaseating granulomas, commonly in the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes. Subcutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis that are caused by granulomas are referred to as specific for sarcoidosis, whereas other lesions are considered nonspecific. The authors present "sarcoidosis nodule formation on the lateral nasal osteotomy lines" in a sarcoidosis patient undergoing rhinoplasty surgery as a rare patient. V.

  12. Processes of formation of ferromanganese manganese nodules and crusts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B

    contain primarily 3 mineral phases viz., Mn oxides, Fe oxides and the aluminosilicates. Mn oxides tend to incorporate cations such as Ni, Cu, Zn, whereas Fe oxides mainly host anionic species of elements P, As, V, Mo, W, and more importantly cobalt... and the presence of MnO2 is attributed to the formation through hydrogenetic processes. Chemical composition As mentioned in the Introduction, manganese nodule and crust matrix has 3 major compositional phases viz., Mn-oxyhydroxides, Fe...

  13. Thyroid nodule guidelines: agreement, disagreement and need for future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paschke, Ralf; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Alexander, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews agreement, disagreement and need for future research of the thyroid nodule guidelines published by the British Thyroid Association, National Cancer Institute, American Thyroid Association and the joint, transatlantic effort of three large societies, the American Society...... of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi and the European Thyroid Association, published in 2010. Consensus exists for most topics in the various guidelines. A few areas of disagreement, such as the use of scintigraphy, are mostly due to differences in disease prevalence in different...

  14. 2009 American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, P

    2010-08-01

    The American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer, published in 2009, provide valuable recommendations based on current evidence. Inevitably, controversies and uncertainties will continue to challenge clinicians and patients. On topics where evidence is not clear-cut, judgement may be coloured by pre-existing practises and the structure of the health service in each country, so one has to be aware of the pitfalls of transferring recommendations to one's own practise.

  15. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seek Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy.

  16. Management of thyroid nodules: a clinicopathological, evidence-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Furio; Ciuoli, Cristina; Di Cairano, Giovanni; Guarino, Elisa [University of Siena, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Siena (Italy); Burroni, Luca [University of Siena, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Siena (Italy)

    2004-10-01

    Management of thyroid nodules is one of the most controversial issues in thyroidology. Different approaches derive from geographical variation in presentation, inadequate or incomplete clinical diagnosis, lack of prospective controlled studies and, frequently, the different cultural backgrounds of physicians. This review aims to offer a practical approach to the management of nodular thyroid disorders, considering the way in which the pathophysiology of the disease provides clues to the correct clinical diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  17. SUBFOVEAL NODULE IN COATS' DISEASE: Toward an Updated Classification Predicting Visual Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruich, Alejandra L; Moulin, Alexandre P; Tran, Hoai V; Matet, Alexandre; Munier, Francis L

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics and nature of subfoveal nodules in Coats' disease and the associated impact on the long-term visual outcome. Consecutive cases of Coats' disease with foveal exudation were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of a subfoveal nodule or macular fibrosis was recorded. Clinical characteristics, retinal imaging, and outcome were analyzed by comparative analysis. The histopathological description of an enucleated eye with subfoveal nodule was performed. Among 40 patients presenting unilateral Stage 2B or 3A1 Coats' disease, a subfoveal nodule was detected in 21 patients (52.5%). The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Nineteen patients (47.5%) did not present a subfoveal nodule. Three patients (15.8%) without subfoveal nodule and 21 patients (100%) with subfoveal nodule progressed to a macular fibrotic scar (P < 0.0001), and the mean time of macular fibrosis onset was 11.0 ± 2.6 months. Final visual acuity was significantly worse in patients who presented a subfoveal nodule at diagnosis (P = 0.01). Of 18 cases with subfoveal nodule who underwent fluorescein angiography, retinal-retinal anastomosis and neovascularization were detected in 13 (72.2%) and 2 eyes (11.1%), respectively. Histopathological analysis of a subfoveal nodule revealed an aggregate of proteinaceous material including fibrin, spindle cells, macrophages, and pigmented cells. The presence of a subfoveal nodule at presentation is a predictive factor for macular fibrosis development and worse visual outcome in patients with Coats' disease. These observations suggest an updated classification introducing two subcategories within Stage 2B: without subfoveal nodule (Stage 2B1) and with subfoveal nodule (Stage 2B2).

  18. Prognosis of thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hayashida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. RESULTS: Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy, was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

  19. Automated nodule location and size estimation using a multi-scale Laplacian of Gaussian filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapatnakul, Artit C; Fotin, Sergei V; Reeves, Anthony P; Biancardi, Alberto M; Yankelevitz, David F; Henschke, Claudia I

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of nodule location and size is an important pre-processing step in some nodule segmentation algorithms to determine the size and location of the region of interest. Ideally, such estimation methods will consistently find the same nodule location regardless of where the the seed point (provided either manually or by a nodule detection algorithm) is placed relative to the "true" center of the nodule, and the size should be a reasonable estimate of the true nodule size. We developed a method that estimates nodule location and size using multi-scale Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filtering. Nodule candidates near a given seed point are found by searching for blob-like regions with high filter response. The candidates are then pruned according to filter response and location, and the remaining candidates are sorted by size and the largest candidate selected. This method was compared to a previously published template-based method. The methods were evaluated on the basis of stability of the estimated nodule location to changes in the initial seed point and how well the size estimates agreed with volumes determined by a semi-automated nodule segmentation method. The LoG method exhibited better stability to changes in the seed point, with 93% of nodules having the same estimated location even when the seed point was altered, compared to only 52% of nodules for the template-based method. Both methods also showed good agreement with sizes determined by a nodule segmentation method, with an average relative size difference of 5% and -5% for the LoG and template-based methods respectively.

  20. Swimming and swarming motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Julio C; Dardanelli, Marta S; Giordano, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Motility allows populations of bacteria to rapidly reach and colonize new microniches or microhabitats. The motility of rhizobia (symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate legume roots) is an important factor determining their competitive success. We evaluated the effects of temperature, incubation time, and seed exudates on swimming and swarming motility of five strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (peanut-nodulating rhizobia). Swimming motility was increased by exudate exposure for all strains except native Pc34. In contrast, swarming motility was increased by exudate exposure for native 15A but unchanged for the other four strains. All five strains displayed the ability to differentiate into swarm cells. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that the length of the swarm cells was variable, but generally greater than that of vegetative cells. Our findings suggest the importance of differential motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobial strains during agricultural inoculation and early steps of symbiotic interaction with the host. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Micromonospora is a normal occupant of actinorhizal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Trujillo, Martha E; Normand, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Actinorhizal plants have been found in eight genera belonging to three orders (Fagales, Rosales and Cucurbitales). These all bear root nodules inhabited by bacteria identified as the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia. These nodules all have a peripheral cortex with enlarged cells filled with Frankia hyphae and vesicles. Isolation in pure culture has been notoriously difficult, due in a large part to the growth of fast-growing contaminants where, it was later found, Frankia was slow-growing. Many of these contaminants, which were later found to be Micromonospora, were obtained from Casuarina and Coriaria. Our study was aimed at determining if Micromonospora were also present in other actinorhizal plants. Nodules from Alnus glutinosa, Alnus viridis, Coriaria myrtifolia, Elaeagnus x ebbingei, Hippophae rhamnoides, Myrica gale and Morella pensylvanica were tested and were all found to contain Micromonospora isolates. These were found to belong to mainly three species: Micromonospora lupini, Micromonospora coriariae and Micromonospora saelicesensis. Micromonospora isolates were found to inhibit some Frankia strains and to be innocuous to other strains.

  2. Role of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) in the detection of pulmonary nodules on 64 row multi detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakashini, K; Babu, Satish; Rajgopal, K V; Kokila, K Raja

    2016-01-01

    To determine the overall performance of an existing CAD algorithm with thin-section computed tomography (CT) in the detection of pulmonary nodules and to evaluate detection sensitivity at a varying range of nodule density, size, and location. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 20 patients with 322 suspected nodules who underwent diagnostic chest imaging using 64-row multi-detector CT. The examinations were evaluated on reconstructed images of 1.4 mm thickness and 0.7 mm interval. Detection of pulmonary nodules, initially by a radiologist of 2 years experience (RAD) and later by CAD lung nodule software was assessed. Then, CAD nodule candidates were accepted or rejected accordingly. Detected nodules were classified based on their size, density, and location. The performance of the RAD and CAD system was compared with the gold standard that is true nodules confirmed by consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. The overall sensitivity and false-positive (FP) rate of CAD software was calculated. Of the 322 suspected nodules, 221 were classified as true nodules on the consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. Of the true nodules, the RAD detected 206 (93.2%) and 202 (91.4%) by the CAD. CAD and RAD together picked up more number of nodules than either CAD or RAD alone. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection with the CAD program was 91.4%, and FP detection per patient was 5.5%. The CAD showed comparatively higher sensitivity for nodules of size 4-10 mm (93.4%) and nodules in hilar (100%) and central (96.5%) location when compared to RAD's performance. CAD performance was high in detecting pulmonary nodules including the small size and low-density nodules. CAD even with relatively high FP rate, assists and improves RAD's performance as a second reader, especially for nodules located in the central and hilar region and for small nodules by saving RADs time.

  3. [Prediction of occult carcinoma in contralateral nodules based on the ultrasonic features of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L M; Li, Q; Zhao, B W; Lyu, J G; Xu, H S; Xu, L L; Li, S Y; Gao, L; Zhu, J

    2017-04-07

    Objective: To investigate the occurrence of occult carcinoma in contralateral lobes based on the ultrasonic features of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods: The study included 202 consecutives cases of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma with benign nodules in the contralateral lobe identified by preoperative ultrasound or fine-needle aspiration from June 2014 to December 2015. All patients received total thyroidectomies, and with postoperative pathological examination they were divided into two groups, one including 60 cases with positive occult cancer and another one consisting of 142 cases with negative occult cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the sonographic features of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma relevant to the occurrence of occult carcinoma in the contralateral nodules. Results: Univariate analysis indicated occult carcinoma in the contralateral lobes was associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(χ(2)=3.955, P=0.047), unclear border (χ(2)=4.375, P=0.036)and multifocality in the ipsilateral(χ(2)=7.375, P=0.007), but not with tumors maximum size, location, A/T, shape, internal structure, internal echo, acoustic halo, calcification, capsular invasion and blood flow signal in the lobe with carcinoma on another side. Multivariate analysis showed unclear border (OR=2.727, P=0.010) and multifocality in the ipsilateral(OR=2.807, P=0.005)of carcinoma were independent predictive factor for contralateral occult PTC. Conclusions: Unclear border and multifocality of PTC in the ipsilateral were closely relevant to the occurrence of occult carcinoma in the contralateral nodules.

  4. Sensitivity of (18)F-FDG PET in evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Farise; Tastekin, Gungor

    2015-01-01

    The solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) may be an early sign of lung cancer. Due to the difficulties of radiological imaging techniques in differentiation of benign/malignant nodules, functional imaging techniques like PET-CT are required in patients diagnosed with SPN. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the role of PET-CT in differentiation of malignant/benign SPN by some characteristic findings in PET-CT. Moreover, among the nodules with histopathologically diagnosed as benign, malignant or metastatic, the SUVmax and Hounsfield Units (HU) of PET-CT imaging were also aimed to be compared to assess the role of PET-CT in discrimination of malignant/benign SPN. Among the patients evaluated with PET-CT with the pre-diagnosis of pulmonary nodule or non-pulmonary malignancies, between July 2010 and January 2012, in Konya University Meram Medical School Nuclear Medicine Department, 241 patients (167 male, 74 female) diagnosed with pulmonary nodule were enrolled in the study. In visual evaluation of PET-CT of all patients, there was only one nodule in lung parenchyma. The diameter in cm, location as central or peripheral, regularity of borders, presence of calcification and HU and Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) values with quantitative analysis of all nodules was recorded. The histopathological evaluation of nodules was available in 91 of those 241 patients and they were also recorded. In comparison of mean SUVmax values in regards to the characteristic findings of nodules in PET-CT, the mean SUVmax value of patients was statistically significantly higher in patients with the nodule diameter ≥1 cm, centrally located nodules, or nodules with irregular borders. In malignant/benign differentiation of solitary pulmonary nodules with the diameter of higher than 1 cm, PET-CT plays an essential role; however, for the nodules smaller than 1 cm in diameter, in small, single metastatic nodules and some benign nodules with high SUVmax values, PET-CT may be

  5. Controversies in the management of cold, hot, and occult thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, D; Gharib, H

    1995-12-01

    Some aspects of thyroid nodule evaluation and management remain controversial. Radionuclide scanning provides functional information about nodules and differentiates cold from hot nodules. Although thyroid cancers are cold on scan, most cold nodules are benign. Ultrasonography visualizes the thyroid gland and nodules with remarkable clarity and provides structural information about location, number, size, and consistency of nodules. Widespread application of ultrasonography has resulted in the frequent discovery of incidental (occult) nodules in the general population. The clinical significance of these nodules remains unknown, and their management has created a dilemma for physicians. Current cost-effective evaluation of nodules does not include scanning or ultrasonography as routine frontline tests. In most centers, fine-needle aspiration biopsy has supplanted imaging studies as the routine initial procedure for differentiating benign from malignant nodules. Cytologic diagnosis is reliable and inexpensive, and it results in a better selection of patients for surgery. Limitations include false-negative diagnoses, nondiagnostic results, and indeterminate "suspicious" results. Laboratory test results are usually normal, but determination of serum thyrotropin may identify a hot nodule, and plasma calcitonin may help diagnose medullary thyroid carcinoma. Treatment of thyroid nodules is controversial. In some practices, benign colloid nodules are treated with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Recent reports cast doubt on the efficacy of this approach, and it is no longer acceptable to select patients for surgical treatment on the basis of suppressive therapy. Furthermore, suppressive levothyroxine therapy may be associated with significant bone and cardiac side effects, especially in elderly patients and postmenopausal women. Our approach is observation for most patients, and we suggest a careful risk-benefit analysis when suppression is considered. Hot (autonomous

  6. [Myxoid mesenchymal tumors of uterus: endometrial stromal and smooth muscle tumors, myxoid variant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Anne-Laure; Watkin, Emmanuel; Beurton, Daniel; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan

    2011-06-01

    Four myxoid variant of uterine mesenchymal tumors are reported. One was a low grade stromal sarcoma with infiltrative margins and the others were well circumscribed tumors corresponding to an endometrial stromal nodule and two leiomyomas. They were hypocellular neoplasms composed of stellated cells with an abundant Alcian Blue positive myxoid matrix. The myxoid nature of the neoplasms obscured their cellular nature and made the distinction between smooth muscle and endometrial stromal tumors difficult. Endometrial stromal tumors, showed very focal areas of small basophilic cells, characteristic of endometrial stroma. The diagnosis was based on the presence of a spiral arteriolar network, a CD10 positivity as well as the absence of h-caldesmon and desmin expression. The two myxoid leiomyomas showed more spindle cells and a desmin expression while h-caldesmon was negative and CD10 focally positive in both cases. Myxoid variant of endometrial stromal tumors does not necessarily exhibit the typical morphology of endometrial stroma. They may demonstrate morphological features of smooth muscle tumors in the uterus. Also, myxoid changes in uterin smooth muscle tumors may modify the classical immunoreactivity of smooth muscle markers in these tumors and make it difficult to distinguish between benign and malignant neoplasms. An immunohistochemical panel of antibodies including CD10, h-caldesmon and desmin may help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Pulmonary subsolid nodules: value of semi-automatic measurement in diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic reproducibility and nodule classification agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Chang Min; Hwang, Eui Jin; Ahn, Su Yeon; Goo, Jin Mo

    2017-12-01

    We hypothesized that semi-automatic diameter measurements would improve the accuracy and reproducibility in discriminating preinvasive lesions and minimally invasive adenocarcinomas from invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas appearing as subsolid nodules (SSNs) and increase the reproducibility in classifying SSNs. Two readers independently performed semi-automatic and manual measurements of the diameters of 102 SSNs and their solid portions. Diagnostic performance in predicting invasive adenocarcinoma based on diameters was tested using logistic regression analysis with subsequent receiver operating characteristic curves. Inter- and intrareader reproducibilities of diagnosis and SSN classification according to Fleischner's guidelines were investigated for each measurement method using Cohen's κ statistics. Semi-automatic effective diameter measurements were superior to manual average diameters for the diagnosis of invasive adenocarcinoma (AUC, 0.905-0.923 for semi-automatic measurement and 0.833-0.864 for manual measurement; pautomatic measurement (κ=0.924 for semi-automatic measurement and 0.690 for manual measurement, p=0.012). Inter-reader SSN classification reproducibility was significantly higher with semi-automatic measurement (κ=0.861 for semi-automatic measurement and 0.683 for manual measurement, p=0.022). Semi-automatic effective diameter measurement offers an opportunity to improve diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility as well as the classification reproducibility of SSNs. • Semi-automatic effective diameter measurement improves the diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary subsolid nodules. • Semi-automatic measurement increases the inter-reader agreement on the diagnosis for subsolid nodules. • Semi-automatic measurement augments the inter-reader reproducibility for the classification of subsolid nodules.

  8. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancini, A. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fioravanti, M. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Tomei, G. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Tomei, F., E-mail: francesco.tomei@uniroma1.it [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  9. Pindborg tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal; Gowri, S.; J.Dinakar

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  10. Pindborg tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT, also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  11. Pindborg tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S; Dinakar, J

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  12. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts of the body; most commonly, the lungs, liver, bone, and/or brain. About 10% are stage IV. Stage V: Cancer is found in both kidneys at diagnosis (also called bilateral tumors). About 5% are stage V. Surgery is most often used to treat Wilms tumor. For stages I through IV, a ...

  13. The efficacy of apparent diffusion coefficient value calculation in differentiation between malignant and benign thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilli, Alper; Ayaz, Umit Yasar; Cakir, Evrim; Cakal, Erman; Gultekin, Salih Sinan; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculation in differentiation between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. A prospective study was conducted in 52 patients. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar imaging was performed and b factors were taken as 0 and 400 s/mm(2). The mean ADC value for malignant thyroid nodules was 0.829±0.179×10(-3) mm(2)/s and that for benign thyroid nodules was 1.984±0.482×10(-3) mm(2)/s. The mean ADC value for malignant nodules was significantly lower than that for benign nodules (P=.0001). ADC value calculation is an effective method in differentiation of malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroid nodule and the value of tumormarkers; Der Schilddruesenknoten und der Stellenwert der Tumormarkerbestimmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerges, R.; Bockisch, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    According to common scientific opinion thyroglobulin (hTg) is not recommended as a tumor marker for clarifying the dignity of thyroid nodules, due to a strong overlap between values of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, other benign thyroid diseases with cellular lesion, i.e. nodules and overt inflammation, lead to significantly increased thyroglobulin values (values in a four-digit range and even more in very rare cases). The determination of hTg before thyroid ablation can be a useful ''screening marker'' for patients with CUP-syndrome and suspicious thyroid lesions to identify subjects suffering under DTC. Furthermore, in the case of DTC preoperatively measured hTg will help to validate and evaluate hTg values in the follow-up of these patients. hTg determination can be disturbed by methodological artefacts, in particular by interfering anti-hTg auto-antibodies. For the authentication of hTg values anti-hTg auto-antibody measurement and/or recovery testing is therefore essential although both methods have advantages and disadvantages in that respect. Calcitonin (hCt) is a relatively reliable and specific marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or neoplastic C-cell hyperplasia provided that optimal techniques and appropriate interpretation of test results are applied. The use of two-site assays with a high specificity for the monomer molecule is advised, but false-positive values can still occur, i.e. in renal insufficiency, during therapy with proton pump inhibitors, in goiters with ''physiological'' C-cell hyperplasia and in autoimmune thyroiditis. The Thyroid Section of the German Society of Endocrinology recommends hCt-screening for patients with nodular goiter although some questions regarding epidemiology, health economy and methodology are not resolved yet. Basal hCT values exceeding 100 pg/ml are highly predictive for MTC after exclusion of the reasons mentioned above

  15. Leydig cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - Leydig cell; Testicular tumor - Leydig; Testicular neoplasm ... The cause of this tumor is unknown. There are no known risk factors for this tumor. Unlike germ cell tumors of the testicles, this tumor ...

  16. Nonphotosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) roots and nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Vance, C.P.

    1987-09-01

    The dependence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root and nodule nonphotosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation on the supply of currently produced photosynthate and nodule nitrogenase activity was examined a various times after phloem-girdling and exposure of nodules to Ar:O/sub 2/. Phloem-girdling was effected 20 hours and exposure to Ar:O/sub 2/ was effected 2 to 3 hours before initiation of experiments. Nodule and root CO/sub 2/ fixation rates of phloem-girdled plants were reduced to 38 and 50%, respectively, of those of control plants. Exposure to Ar:O/sub 2/ decreased nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation rates to 45%, respiration rates to 55%, and nitrogenase activities to 51% of those of the controls. The products of nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation were exported through the xylem to the shoot mainly as amino acids within 30 to 60 minutes after exposure to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. In contrast to nodules, roots exported very little radioactivity, and most of the /sup 14/C was exported as organic acids. The nonphotosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation rate of roots and nodules averaged 26% of the gross respiration rate, i.e. the sum of net respiration and nonphotosynthetic CO/sub 2/ assimilation. Nodules fixed CO/sub 2/ at a rate 5.6 times that of roots, but since nodules comprised a small portion of root system mass, roots accounted for 76% of the nodulated roots system CO/sub 2/ fixation. The results indicate that nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation in alfalfa is associated with N assimilation.

  17. Ultrasound-detected thyroid nodules in radiation-exposed patients: changes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Dan V; Collins, Barbara J; Wilbur, Andrew; Malkin, Jane; Schneider, Arthur B

    2005-02-01

    The relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid cancer is well known, but whether all irradiated patients should have thyroid ultrasounds is unresolved. We have performed follow-up ultrasound examinations of patients in a cohort who were exposed to conventional external radiation during 1939-63 for benign conditions of the head and neck area prior to their 16th birthday. Of 54 subjects who had normal radionuclide scans in 1974-76 and were reexamined in 1996-97 by thyroid ultrasonography, 42 remained eligible and 34 agreed to participate in the present ultrasound study. After an additional 4-8 years of follow-up and using an ultrasound machine with increased resolution, we found 160 nodules (in 33 of these 34 subjects), compared with 96 nodules (in 29 of the 34 subjects) detected in the previous examination. Only four of the new nodules were > or =10 mm. Of the previously diagnosed large (> or =10 mm) nodules, four nodules in four subjects resolved; nine nodules in six subjects regressed to or =10 mm. The four new large nodules appeared in four subjects, and six small nodules increased to > or =10 mm in six other subjects. The total volume of the thyroid nodules decreased in the 13 subjects on thyroid hormone (by 0.20 cm(3)) and increased in the 21 subjects who were not (by 0.34 cm(3), p < 0.05 by unpaired t-test). In summary, thyroid nodules are extremely common in irradiated subjects. Many new ones may be observed over time, but most are small and seen because of the increased resolution of ultrasound machines. Compared to patients on no medication, nodules in patients on thyroid hormone tended to regress. Since FNA of all thyroid nodules in irradiated patients is not feasible, ultrasound is useful in identifying those lesions that are growing.

  18. Expression of nodule-specific uricase in soybean callus tissue is regulated by oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Knud; Jochimsen, Bjarne U.

    1986-01-01

    In soybean root nodules the enzyme uricase is expressed concomitantly with nodule development. The initial expression of this protein does not depend on active nitrogen fixation, as demonstrated by analysis of uricase activity in effective and ineffective root nodules. However, the maximal level of uricase activity is determined by the infecting Rhizobium japonicum strain. Sterile root cultures and callus tissue, devoid of the microsymbiont, were incubated at varying oxygen concentrations and...

  19. Diversity and nitrogen fixation efficiency of rhizobia isolated from nodules of Centrolobium paraense

    OpenAIRE

    Baraúna, Alexandre Cardoso; Silva, Krisle da; Pereira, Gilmara Maria Duarte; Kaminski, Paulo Emílio; Perin, Liamara; Zilli, Jerri Edson

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to isolate and characterize rhizobia from nodules of Centrolobium paraense and to evaluate their symbiotic efficiency. Soil samples collected from four sites of the Roraima Cerrado, Brazil, were used to cultivate C. paraense in order to obtain nodules. Isolates (178) were obtained from 334 nodules after cultivation on medium 79. Twenty-five isolates belonging to six morphological groups were authenticated using Vigna unguiculata and they were characterized by 16...

  20. 3-D Analysis of Graphite Nodules in Ductile Cast Iron Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Jespersen, Freja N.; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    Ductile cast iron samples were analysed in a Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope, FIB-SEM. The focussed ion beam was used to carefully remove layers of the graphite nodules to reveal internal structures in the nodules. The sample preparation and milling procedure for sectioning graphite...... inside the nodules, their orientation in relation to the graphite and the chemistry of the inclusions is analysed and described. Formation of the structures during solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature is discussed....

  1. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects.

  2. Correlation of vocal fold nodule size in children and perceptual assessment of voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Roger C; Ward, Jessica; Huang, Lin; Volk, Mark; Woodnorth, Geralyn Harvey

    2010-10-01

    We examined the relationship between the size of vocal fold nodules and perceptual rating of voice quality in children. We carried out an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study in a voice clinic within a tertiary-care pediatric medical center. We studied children seen between 2000 and 2009 with a primary diagnosis of vocal fold nodules as the cause of their voice disturbance. Pediatric vocal fold nodule size was rated with a published validated scale, and voice quality was rated on the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice scale. One hundred forty-five patients met the inclusion criteria. Small nodules were noted in 23% of patients, medium nodules in 39%, and large nodules in 37%. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated a statistically significant relationship (p vocal fold nodule size and rated perceptual qualities of overall severity of voice disturbance, roughness, strain, pitch, and loudness. With the exception of loudness, as vocal fold nodule size increased, the mean value of perceptual characteristics became larger. The age of the patient was a significant factor associated with the overall severity of the voice disturbance and roughness. The overall severity of a child's voice disturbance and qualities of roughness, strain, pitch, and loudness have a strong correlational relationship with pediatric vocal fold nodule size, which is suggestive of causality.

  3. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler

    2016-01-01

    correct diagnosis and optimal management. Here we present the latest advances in the radiologic imaging and pathology of GGO nodules, demonstrating that radiologic features are increasingly predictive of the pathology of GGO nodules. We review the current guidelines from the Fleischner Society......, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the British Thoracic Society. In addition, we discuss the management and follow-up of GGO nodules in the light of experience from screening trials. Minimally invasive tissue biopsies and the marking of GGO nodules for surgery are new and rapidly developing fields...

  4. Morphometric characteristics of bacteroidal tissue in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L. nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Golinowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric methods were used to analyse the bacteroidal tissue in yellow lupine nodules. Volume fraction - Vv, surface area - Sv and ratio of surface area to its volume - R, were calculated from electron micrographs for some selected cell structures in 9, 13, 15, 20, 29 and 60 day-old nodules. The rate at which bacteroid Vv increased varied in time. Between days 13 and 20 of nodule development, bacteroid Vv increased in geometrical progression. Rough endoplasmic reticulum was active in nodule development and/or protein manufacturing necessary for the functioning of the system whereas the role of mitochondria was apparently limited.

  5. A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF PULMONARY NODULES IN LUNG CT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alilou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solitary pulmonary nodules may indicate an early stage of lung cancer. Hence, the early detection of nodules is the most efficient way for saving the lives of patients. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx framework for detection of the lung nodules in computed tomography images. The four major components of the developed framework are lung segmentation, identification of candidate nodules, classification and visualization. The process starts with segmentation of lung regions from the thorax. Then, inside the segmented lung regions, candidate nodules are identified using an approach based on multiple thresholds followed by morphological opening and 3D region growing algorithm. Finally, a combination of a rule-based procedure and support vector machine classifier (SVM is utilized to classify the candidate nodules. The proposed CADx method was validated on CT images of 60 patients, containing the total of 211 nodules, selected from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC image dataset. Comparing to the other state of the art methods, the proposed framework demonstrated acceptable detection performance (Sensitivity: 0.80; Fp/Scan: 3.9. Furthermore, we visualize a range of anatomical structures including the 3D lung structure and the segmented nodules along with the Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP volume rendering method that will enable the radiologists to accurately and easily estimate the distance between the lung structures and the nodules which are frequently difficult at best to recognize from CT images.

  6. Compositional changes of surface sediments and variability of manganese nodules in the Peru Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchig, Vesna; von Stackelberg, Ulrich; Hufnagel, Heinz; Durn, Goran

    Two types of manganese nodules were observed in the Peru Basin: large botryoidal nodules in basins and small ellipsoidal nodules on slope positions. The sediment in areas with large botryoidal nodules contains a thinner and weaker oxidation zone than the sediment under small ellipsoidal nodules, indicating that diagenetic processes in the sediment, which supply manganese nodules with metals for their growth, are stronger in sediments on which large botryoidal nodules grow. Organic matter, which activates remobilization of metals, occurs mostly in the form of refractory lipidic compounds in the inner capsule of radiolaria. This material needs bacterial degradation to act as a reducing agent. Easily oxidizable organic components could not be found in the sediments. Other changes in sediment composition do not have a link to manganese nodule growth. Biogenous components (radiolarians, organogenic barite and apatite) increase towards the equatorial high-productivity zone. Authigenous clay minerals (nontronite as well as montmorillonite with high Fe +3 incorporation on positions of ochtaedral Al) increase with distance from the continent. The assessment of environmental impacts will have to take into account the regional differences in sediment composition and the small-scale variability of manganese nodules.

  7. Nodulation of Crotalaria podocarpa DC. by Methylobacterium nodulans displays very unusual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, Adeline; De Faria, Sergio Miana; Jourand, Philippe; Giraud, Eric; Dreyfus, Bernard; Rapior, Sylvie; Prin, Yves

    2011-06-01

    Crotalaria are plants of the Fabaceae family whose nodulation characteristics have been little explored despite the recent discovery of their unexpected ability to be efficiently nodulated in symbiosis with bacteria of the genus Methylobacterium. It has been shown that methylotrophy plays a key role in this unusual symbiotic system, as it is expressed within the nodule and as non-methylotroph mutants had a depleting effect on plant growth response. Within the nodule, Methylobacterium is thus able to obtain carbon both from host plant photosynthesis and from methylotrophy. In this context, the aim of the present study was to show the histological and cytological impacts of both symbiotic and methylotrophic metabolism within Crotalaria podocarpa nodules. It was established that if Crotalaria nodules are multilobed, each lobe has the morphology of indeterminate nodules but with a different anatomy; that is, without root hair infection or infection threads. In the fixation zone, bacteroids display a spherical shape and there is no uninfected cell. Crotalaria nodulation by Methylobacterium displayed some very unusual characteristics such as starch storage within bacteroid-filled cells of the fixation zone and also the complete lysis of apical nodular tissues (where bacteria have a free-living shape and express methylotrophy). This lysis could possibly reflect the bacterial degradation of plant wall pectins through bacterial pectin methyl esterases, thus producing methanol as a substrate, allowing bacterial multiplication before release from the nodule.

  8. Characterization of nodules induced by bioactive glass on cultured periodontal-ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, K; Kamada, T; Matsuyama, T; Tsukasa, N; Uehara, M; Izumi, Y; Kitano, M; Ogino, M; Sueda, T

    1995-04-01

    We previously reported that materials leached from bioactive glass (BG) and vitamin D3 induced the formation of nodules on cultured periodontal-ligament fibroblasts (PLF). In this study, we have investigated the relationship between the conditions of the materials and nodule formation, analyzed morphologically, and also studied whether the production of nodules was specific to cultured PLF. PLF and skin fibroblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of BG. The amounts of calcium, phosphate, sodium and silicon in the culture medium and the number of nodules were measured at the 55th day. The nodules were observed microscopically and analyzed using an X-ray microanalyzer. In PLF, nodules were formed regardless of the presence or absence of BG; however, they were more numerous in the presence of BG. In skin fibroblasts, nodules were not observed. The amounts of calcium and silicon were higher in the presence of BG, while the amount of phosphate was lower. The nodules appeared crystalline with a spongy structure and contained calcium and phosphorus. Our results show that the nodules were associated with PLF and precipitated by the materials (higher concentrations of calcium and silicon), and they were spongy crystal composed of calcium and phosphorus.

  9. Automated pulmonary nodule detection based on three-dimensional shape-based feature descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wook-Jin; Choi, Tae-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) can help radiologists to detect pulmonary nodules at an early stage. In pulmonary nodule CAD systems, feature extraction is very important for describing the characteristics of nodule candidates. In this paper, we propose a novel three-dimensional shape-based feature descriptor to detect pulmonary nodules in CT scans. After lung volume segmentation, nodule candidates are detected using multi-scale dot enhancement filtering in the segmented lung volume. Next, we extract feature descriptors from the detected nodule candidates, and these are refined using an iterative wall elimination method. Finally, a support vector machine-based classifier is trained to classify nodules and non-nodules. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated on Lung Image Database Consortium data. The proposed method significantly reduces the number of false positives in nodule candidates. This method achieves 97.5% sensitivity, with only 6.76 false positives per scan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Preoperative Wilms Tumor Rupture with CT: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Arlene; Hoffer, Fredric; Mullen, Elizabeth; Geller, James; Gratias, Eric J.; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Rosen, Nancy; Grundy, Paul; Dome, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) in identifying the presence or absence of preoperative Wilms tumor rupture. Materials and Methods: The cohort was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children’s Oncology Group. The study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA. Written informed consent was obtained before enrollment. The diagnosis of Wilms tumor rupture was established by central review of notes from surgery and/or pathologic examination. Seventy Wilms tumor cases with rupture were matched to 70 Wilms tumor controls without rupture according to age and tumor weight (within 6 months and 50 g, respectively). CT scans were independently reviewed by two radiologists, and the following CT findings were assessed: poorly circumscribed mass, perinephric fat stranding, peritumoral fat planes obscured, retroperitoneal fluid (subcapsular vs extracapsular), ascites beyond the cul-de-sac, peritoneal implants, ipsilateral pleural effusion, and intratumoral hemorrhage. All fluids were classified as hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic by using a cutoff of 30 HU. The relationship between CT findings and rupture was assessed with logistic regression models. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for detecting Wilms tumor rupture were 54% (36 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 1 and 70% (47 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 2. Interobserver agreement was substantial (ĸ = 0.76). All imaging signs tested, except peritoneal implants, intratumoral hemorrhage, and subcapsular fluid, showed a significant association with rupture (P ≤ .02). The attenuation of ascitic fluid did not have a significant correlation with rupture (P = .9990). Ascites beyond the cul-de-sac was the single best indicator of rupture for both reviewers, followed by perinephric fat stranding and retroperitoneal fluid for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively (P

  11. Predicting adenocarcinoma recurrence using computational texture models of nodule components in lung CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Leung, Ann N; Rubin, Daniel L

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the importance of presurgical computed tomography (CT) intensity and texture information from ground-glass opacities (GGO) and solid nodule components for the prediction of adenocarcinoma recurrence. For this study, 101 patients with surgically resected stage I adenocarcinoma were selected. During the follow-up period, 17 patients had disease recurrence with six associated cancer-related deaths. GGO and solid tumor components were delineated on presurgical CT scans by a radiologist. Computational texture models of GGO and solid regions were built using linear combinations of steerable Riesz wavelets learned with linear support vector machines (SVMs). Unlike other traditional texture attributes, the proposed texture models are designed to encode local image scales and directions that are specific to GGO and solid tissue. The responses of the locally steered models were used as texture attributes and compared to the responses of unaligned Riesz wavelets. The texture attributes were combined with CT intensities to predict tumor recurrence and patient hazard according to disease-free survival (DFS) time. Two families of predictive models were compared: LASSO and SVMs, and their survival counterparts: Cox-LASSO and survival SVMs. The best-performing predictive model of patient hazard was associated with a concordance index (C-index) of 0.81 ± 0.02 and was based on the combination of the steered models and CT intensities with survival SVMs. The same feature group and the LASSO model yielded the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.8 ± 0.01 for predicting tumor recurrence, although no statistically significant difference was found when compared to using intensity features solely. For all models, the performance was found to be significantly higher when image attributes were based on the solid components solely versus using the entire tumors (p adenocarcinoma aggressiveness is related to the intensity and morphological

  12. Predicting adenocarcinoma recurrence using computational texture models of nodule components in lung CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depeursinge, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.depeursinge@hevs.ch [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 and Business Information Systems, University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland (HES-SO), Sierre 3960 (Switzerland); Yanagawa, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Leung, Ann N.; Rubin, Daniel L. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the importance of presurgical computed tomography (CT) intensity and texture information from ground-glass opacities (GGO) and solid nodule components for the prediction of adenocarcinoma recurrence. Methods: For this study, 101 patients with surgically resected stage I adenocarcinoma were selected. During the follow-up period, 17 patients had disease recurrence with six associated cancer-related deaths. GGO and solid tumor components were delineated on presurgical CT scans by a radiologist. Computational texture models of GGO and solid regions were built using linear combinations of steerable Riesz wavelets learned with linear support vector machines (SVMs). Unlike other traditional texture attributes, the proposed texture models are designed to encode local image scales and directions that are specific to GGO and solid tissue. The responses of the locally steered models were used as texture attributes and compared to the responses of unaligned Riesz wavelets. The texture attributes were combined with CT intensities to predict tumor recurrence and patient hazard according to disease-free survival (DFS) time. Two families of predictive models were compared: LASSO and SVMs, and their survival counterparts: Cox-LASSO and survival SVMs. Results: The best-performing predictive model of patient hazard was associated with a concordance index (C-index) of 0.81 ± 0.02 and was based on the combination of the steered models and CT intensities with survival SVMs. The same feature group and the LASSO model yielded the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.8 ± 0.01 for predicting tumor recurrence, although no statistically significant difference was found when compared to using intensity features solely. For all models, the performance was found to be significantly higher when image attributes were based on the solid components solely versus using the entire tumors (p < 3.08 × 10{sup −5}). Conclusions: This study

  13. MtbHLH1, a bHLH transcription factor involved in Medicago truncatula nodule vascular patterning and nodule to plant metabolic exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godiard, Laurence; Lepage, Agnès; Moreau, Sandra; Laporte, Damien; Verdenaud, Marion; Timmers, Ton; Gamas, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at defining the role of a basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene from Medicago truncatula, MtbHLH1, whose expression is upregulated during the development of root nodules produced upon infection by rhizobia bacteria. We used MtbHLH1 promoter::GUS fusions and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses to finely characterize the MtbHLH1 expression pattern. We altered MtbHLH1 function by expressing a dominantly repressed construct (CRES-T approach) and looked for possible MtbHLH1 target genes by transcriptomics. We found that MtbHLH1 is expressed in nodule primordia cells derived from pericycle divisions, in nodule vascular bundles (VBs) and in uninfected cells of the nitrogen (N) fixation zone. MtbHLH1 is also expressed in root tips, lateral root primordia cells and root VBs, and induced upon auxin treatment. Altering MtbHLH1 function led to an unusual phenotype, with a modified patterning of nodule VB development and a reduced growth of aerial parts of the plant, even though the nodules were able to fix atmospheric N. Several putative MtbHLH1 regulated genes were identified, including an asparagine synthase and a LOB (lateral organ boundary) transcription factor. Our results suggest that the MtbHLH1 gene is involved in the control of nodule vasculature patterning and nutrient exchanges between nodules and roots. PMID:21679315

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Nodule-Associated Exiguobacterium sp. from the Root Nodules of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and Their Possible Role in Plant Growth Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Geetha; Patel, Maheshwari H.; Joshi, Sanket J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the ways to increase the competitive survivability of rhizobial biofertilizers and thus achieve better plant growth under such conditions is by modifying the rhizospheric environment or community by addition of nonrhizobial nodule-associated bacteria (NAB) that cause better nodulation and plant growth when coinoculated with rhizobia. A study was performed to investigate the most commonly associated nodule-associated bacteria and the rhizospheric microorganisms associated with the Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) plant. Isolation of nonrhizobial isolates from root nodules of Fenugreek was carried out along with the rhizospheric isolates. About 64.7% isolates obtained from Fenugreek nodules were gram-negative coccobacilli, 29.41% were gram-positive bacilli, and all rhizospheric isolates except one were gram-positive bacilli. All the isolates were characterized for their plant growth promoting (PGP) activities. Two of the NAB isolates M2N2c and B1N2b (Exiguobacterium sp.) showed maximum positive PGP features. Those NAB isolates when coinoculated with rhizobial strain—S. meliloti, showed plant growth promotion with respect to increase in plant's root and shoot length, chlorophyll content, nodulation efficiency, and nodule dry weight. PMID:22518149

  15. Phyllodes tumor: clinical, radiological and pathological correlation in 50 cases; Tumor filodes: correlacion clinica, radiologica y anatomopatologica en 50 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higueras, A.; Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A.; Garcia Revillo, J.; Cano, A. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To review the radiological features of the phyllodes tumor, correlating them with the clinical presentation, histological type and response to treatment. Fifty phyllodes tumors in 29 patients aged 16 to 59 years (mean: 41 years) were analyzed retrospectively. The series included 12 cases of recurrence, 1 of bilateral tumor and 6 of multiple tumor. Forty-five lesions were studied by mammography and 36 by ultrasound. Clinically guided fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed in 8 cases. The pathological diagnosis was obtained by means of surgical biopsy in every case (31 benign and 19 malignant). Twenty-four patients underwent postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up for a mean period of 32 months. Mammography revealed the presence of a nodule or mass in 42 cases, asymmetrical density in two and a generalized increase in density in one: Multifocal lesions were detected in six cases. The size varied widely, with masses measuring >5 cm showing a greater probability of malignancy (p<0.01). Calcifications were observed in 13% of the cases. Ultrasound revealed the presence of heterogeneous, hypoechoic nodules, with cystic areas in five tumors, all of which were malignant (p<0.01). Local recurrence was detected in 31% of the cases and bone metastases in one. The phyllodes tumor is an uncommon fibroepithelial tumor that has a potential for recurrence and distant metastasis. Mammographic and ultrasound features are similar to those of the fibroadenoma, a lesion with which it is occasionally associated. Multiple lesions are not infrequent and it can present with calcifications. The presence of cystic areas and a tumor size of >5 cm are the only radiological findings that are statistically associated with malignancy. The recurrence rate is greater in malignant tumors than in benign lesions, especially in patients treated by tumor resection. (Author) 28 refs.

  16. Multiple synchronous bronchial carcinoid tumors: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, S M; Machuca, T N; Moreira, A L S; Schio, S M; Moreira, J S; Camargo, J J P

    2009-02-01

    Peripheral bronchial carcinoids are uncommon. Their presentation as synchronous tumors is rare and limited to anecdotal cases.We report the case of a 62-year-old female with the radiological finding of multiple bilateral nodular lesions. Bilateral sequential thoracotomies were performed and all three nodules were treated by sublobar resections. Pathological examination revealed all specimens to be carcinoid tumors and subsequent investigation confirmed the lung as the primary site. A review of previous cases of multiple carcinoids is presented and the particularities of their management are discussed.

  17. Prevalence of the B Type Raf Kinase V600E Mutation in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Correlation with Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Rho, Myong Ho Kook Shin Ho; Chung, Eun Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sohn, Jin Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ji Sup [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To study the prevalence of B type Raf kinase (BRAF) mutations, and to evaluate the ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features associated with thyroid cytology of indeterminate nodules. We assessed the presence or absence of BRAF mutation in 44 specimens from patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules according to two consecutive preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology procedures. In 9 specimens, the test for BRAF mutation was not possible due to scant cellularity. DNA was extracted from the atypical cells and then analyzed for the BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing. The ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features of the patients were characterized according to their mutation status. The BRAF V600E mutation was present in 17 (48.6%) of 35 patients with indeterminate cytology results and in 17 (54.8%) of the 31 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Twenty two of 35 cytologically indeterminate nodules had calcifications, and among them 14 cases were proven to be positive for BRAF V600E mutations. Extrathyroid extension was significantly more frequent in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation (p = 0.027), while tumor size, lympho-vascular invasion, or lymph node metastasis were not associated with the mutation. Screening for BRAF V600E mutations in conjunction with cytology may increase the diagnostic accuracy for PTC with indeterminate cytology results.

  18. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-09-15

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  19. Glomus Tumor of the Neck Detected With 99mTc EDDA HYNIC-TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Neva; Bogović-Crnčić, Tatjana; Grbac-Ivanković, Svjetlana; Valković-Zujić, Petra

    2017-10-01

    A 54-year-old woman was referred to thyroid evaluation because of a lump on the left side of the neck. Ultrasound exam did not show any thyroid abnormality, but highly perfused nodule at the left common carotid artery bifurcation was found. Because of the specific location, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with Tc EDDA HYNIC-TOC was performed, starting with perfusion images and followed with SPECT/CT imaging at 2 and 4 hours. Well-perfused nodule with intensive accumulation and no other visible pathology in the body raised suspicion of a glomus tumor, consistent with MR exam performed later. Subsequent surgical removal confirmed carotid paraganglioma.

  20. Myxoid neurothekeoma: A rare soft tissue tumor of hand in a male toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafil Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurothekeomas are rare benign neoplasms, typically occurring in young patients with a remarkable predilection for the female population. Patients usually present with a small nodule in different anatomical sites, commonly involving the face and the upper limb. We report a case of a three-year-old boy, who presented with a nontender nodule on the left thumb. Surgical biopsy and immunostaining confirmed the diagnosis as myxoid neurothekeoma. The rarity of this unusual skin tumor in a toddler prompted the following report.

  1. A case of pulmonary sarcoidosis with endobronchial nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Li-Xia; Lu, De-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disorder of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by noncaseating granulomas and predominantly affects the lungs and the lymphatic system, especially intrathoracically. Diagnosis is based on the association of a compatible clinical and radiological presentation, the presence of characteristic histopathological lesions and the exclusion of other potential causes of granuloma. Although the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes are almost involved, endobronchial nodular lesions of sarcoidosis with lung involvements are rare. We report a case of sarcoidosis with lung involvements and endobronchial nodules as confirmed by bronchial biopsy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Lipogranulomatous subconjunctival nodules: a novel presentation in Blau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mariam; Hermanson, Meghan E; Enzenauer, Robert; Palestine, Alan; Lin, Clara; Meeks, Naomi; McCourt, Emily

    2017-06-01

    Blau syndrome is an early-onset granulomatous disease known to affect the skin, joints, and eyes. We report a child with diffuse rash, arthritis, and subconjunctival nodules. Biopsy of the bulbar conjunctiva revealed noncaseating lipogranulomas that lead to a diagnosis of Blau syndrome. To our knowledge, noncaseating lipogranulomas of the conjunctiva have not been reported previously as a presenting finding in Blau syndrome. Although uveitis is the classic manifestation, it is important to broaden the awareness of other ocular signs, as these variations can aid in diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonsurgical, image-guided, minimally invasive therapy for thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    therapy is recommended for recurrent benign thyroid cysts. Either ultrasound-guided laser or radiofrequency ablation can be used for symptomatic solid nodules with normal or abnormal thyroid function. Microwave ablation and high-intensity focused ultrasound are newer approaches that need further clinical......, with the focus on large-scale and preferably randomized studies, available via PubMed search in authors' files, using appropriate searches and keywords. Main Findings: In large centers with experienced hands, minimally invasive approaches appear effective and safe. At present, percutaneous ethanol injection...

  4. Bilateral afrenal nodules due to histoplasmosis in an elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Pedreira de Freitas de Carvalho

    Full Text Available We report a case history of an 84-year-old elderly male patient that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of adrenal failure and bilateral adrenal nodules detected by abdominal computed tomography. A fine needle-guided biopsy was inconclusive for achieving a final diagnosis. The patient died due to septic shock and the autopsy disclosed histoplasmosis with extensive bilateral necrosis of the adrenal glands. Although the adrenal involvement in chronic disseminated histoplasmosis has been described, there have been few reports of the infection being associated with adrenal insufficiency.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary nodules: An unexpected final diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita Prada, Pablo Antonio; Urrego Laurín, Claudia Lía; Assyaaton Bobo, Sow; Faré García, Regina; Estrada Trigueros, Graciliano; Gallardo Romero, José Manuel; Borrego Pintado, Maria Henar

    We report the case of a 50-year-old female smoker with an 11-year history of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies) receiving triple therapy. She developed pulmonary nodules diagnosed as Langerhans cell histiocytosis by lung biopsy. We found no reported cases of the coexistence of these two diseases. Smoking abstinence led to radiologic resolution without modifying the immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  6. Report of two cases of granular cell tumor, a rare tumor in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Yasak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor (GCT is a rare soft tissue neoplasm. It was first named as “granular cell myoblastoma” in 1926 by Abrikossof. GCT often manifests as a single, painless nodule that shows a slow enlargement in the cutaneous, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues. It mostly affects adults between ages 30 and 60 years, and is very rare in children. We herein report two children with GCT; the first patient with a tumor in the neck is presented due to the rare occurrence of the tumor in children. The other patient with a tumor in the leg is presented both due to the rare occurrence of the tumor in children and the relatively less common site of occurrence. Both of the patients were female. The mean tumor size was 2.5 × 2 cm. Histopathological examination of the specimens revealed benign granular cell tumor. One of the patients who had positive margin did not follow-up after the first excision of the tumor and she presented with a local recurrence in a year. Then a wide excision was performed and the defect was closed primarily. The second patient had negative margin and had no recurrence during the follow-up period. Granular cell tumor is rare in children. Although it is mostly benign, it may be malignant in approximately 2% of the cases and metastasize. The local recurrence in a year is characteristic for malignant GCT before metastasis. Positive surgical margins are associated with high recurrence rates, therefore total excision of the tumor is crucial for local recurrence. GCT should be included in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses. It should be remembered that the tumor may arise in atypical locations and there is a possibility of malignancy.

  7. A rare cutaneous tumor: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran Alli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a rare indolent cutaneous tumor which has been considered as a low-grade dermal and subcutaneous fibrohistiocytic neoplasm. DFSP expands slowly but recurs frequently leading to the general assumption that DFSP is a locally aggressive neoplasm. This low-grade/borderline tumor which is generally found on trunk and proximal extremities of adults has limited potential for metastasis. Clinical presentation is usually typical with a red-brown or skin coloured indurated plaque with multiple nodules or protuberances. Histopathology of DFSP is also characteristical which demonstrates storiform pattern of uniform spindle cells infiltrating deep into the subcutaneous fat tissue constituting honeycomb appearence. Here, we report a case of DFSP in a 50-year-old woman who presents with a twenty year history of slowly growing mass on her left femoral area.

  8. Computerized detection of lung nodules by means of "virtual dual-energy" radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Suzuki, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    Major challenges in current computer-aided detection (CADe) schemes for nodule detection in chest radiographs (CXRs) are to detect nodules that overlap with ribs and/or clavicles and to reduce the frequent false positives (FPs) caused by ribs. Detection of such nodules by a CADe scheme is very important, because radiologists are likely to miss such subtle nodules. Our purpose in this study was to develop a CADe scheme with improved sensitivity and specificity by use of "virtual dual-energy" (VDE) CXRs where ribs and clavicles are suppressed with massive-training artificial neural networks (MTANNs). To reduce rib-induced FPs and detect nodules overlapping with ribs, we incorporated the VDE technology in our CADe scheme. The VDE technology suppressed rib and clavicle opacities in CXRs while maintaining soft-tissue opacity by use of the MTANN technique that had been trained with real dual-energy imaging. Our scheme detected nodule candidates on VDE images by use of a morphologic filtering technique. Sixty morphologic and gray-level-based features were extracted from each candidate from both original and VDE CXRs. A nonlinear support vector classifier was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. A publicly available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs and 93 normal CXRs was used for testing our CADe scheme. All nodules were confirmed by computed tomography examinations, and the average size of the nodules was 17.8 mm. Thirty percent (42/140) of the nodules were rated "extremely subtle" or "very subtle" by a radiologist. The original scheme without VDE technology achieved a sensitivity of 78.6% (110/140) with 5 (1165/233) FPs per image. By use of the VDE technology, more nodules overlapping with ribs or clavicles were detected and the sensitivity was improved substantially to 85.0% (119/140) at the same FP rate in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the FP rate was reduced to 2.5 (583/233) per image at the same sensitivity level as the

  9. Tumor propagation model using generalized hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Sargent, Dustin

    2017-02-01

    Tumor tracking and progression analysis using medical images is a crucial task for physicians to provide accurate and efficient treatment plans, and monitor treatment response. Tumor progression is tracked by manual measurement of tumor growth performed by radiologists. Several methods have been proposed to automate these measurements with segmentation, but many current algorithms are confounded by attached organs and vessels. To address this problem, we present a new generalized tumor propagation model considering time-series prior images and local anatomical features using a Hierarchical Hidden Markov model (HMM) for tumor tracking. First, we apply the multi-atlas segmentation technique to identify organs/sub-organs using pre-labeled atlases. Second, we apply a semi-automatic direct 3D segmentation method to label the initial boundary between the lesion and neighboring structures. Third, we detect vessels in the ROI surrounding the lesion. Finally, we apply the propagation model with the labeled organs and vessels to accurately segment and measure the target lesion. The algorithm has been designed in a general way to be applicable to various body parts and modalities. In this paper, we evaluate the proposed algorithm on lung and lung nodule segmentation and tracking. We report the algorithm's performance by comparing the longest diameter and nodule volumes using the FDA lung Phantom data and a clinical dataset.

  10. [Utilization of nitrate by bacteroids and cytosol of nodules formed by Rhizobium leguminosarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, M; Delgado, M J; Olivares, J; Bedmar, E J

    1989-06-01

    Nitrite production by nodules and roots of pea plants (Pisum sativum L., cultivar Alaska) inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum strain 3855 has been studied. Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity of the bacteroidal and cytosolic fractions of the nodules were also determined, as well as the nitrite content of the nodules cytosol. Nitrite production by nodules and roots from plants treated with 5 mM KNO3 was higher than that of nodules and roots from plants not treated with nitrate, and regardless of the nitrate treatment, nitrite production increased with the incubation period. The presence of nitrate, propanol or both compounds in the incubation mixtures significantly increased the nitrite production by nodules and roots. Nitrite reductase activity was detected in fresh by isolated bacteroids of R. leguminosarum strain 3855, although the presence of nitrate reductase activity could not be detected both in bacteroids of nodules isolated from plants treated or not with 5 mM KNO3. After isolation, when bacteroids were incubated in a mixture with nitrate, nitrate reductase activity developed after incubation for 12 h. Consequently, there was an increase in nitrite reductase activity, which resulted in the disappearance of the nitrite previously accumulated in the incubation medium. Nitrate utilization by bacteroids was not detected until 5 h from the beginning of the incubation period. Since the presence of chloramphenicol or rifampicin in the incubation medium prevented the development of the nitrate reductase activity, such activity was induced in bacteroids. Nitrite content and nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of the cytosol from nodules of pea plants treated or not with 5 mM KNO3 varied with the buffer used for nodules homogenization. However, no nitrite was found when nodules were homogenized with ethanol, what indicates that nitrite accumulation in the cytosol occurs during the homogenization process of the

  11. Evaluation and management of pulmonary nodules: state-of-the-art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyouh, Mohamed; Vummidi, Dharshan R; Kazerooni, Ella A

    2013-11-01

    The imaging evaluation of pulmonary nodules, often incidentally detected on imaging examinations performed for other clinical reasons, is a frequently encountered clinical circumstance. With advances in imaging modalities, both the detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules continue to evolve and improve. This article will review the imaging modalities used to detect and diagnose benign and malignant pulmonary nodules, with a focus on computed tomography (CT), which continues to be the mainstay for evaluation. The authors discuss recent advances in the lung nodule management, and an algorithm for the management of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. There are set of criteria that define a benign nodule, the most important of which are the lack of temporal change for 2 years or more, and certain benign imaging criteria, including specific patterns of calcification or the presence of fat. Although some indeterminate pulmonary nodules are immediately actionable, generally those approaching 1 cm or larger in diameter, at which size the diagnostic accuracy of tools such as positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, single photon emission CT (SPECT) and biopsy techniques are sufficient to warrant their use. The majority of indeterminate pulmonary nodules are under 1 cm, for which serial CT examinations through at least 2 years for solid nodules and 3 years for ground-glass nodules, are used to demonstrate either benign biologic behavior or otherwise. The management of incidental pulmonary nodules involves a multidisciplinary approach in which radiology plays a pivotal role. Newer imaging and postprocessing techniques have made this a more accurate technique eliminating ambiguity and unnecessary follow-up.

  12. The natural history of the benign thyroid nodule: what is the appropriate follow-up strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Saad; Rapoport, Sarah; Ramirez Batlle, Haiyan; Mazzaglia, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Long-term monitoring of benign thyroid nodules is not addressed in the present American Thyroid Association guidelines. The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate nature and length of follow-up for patients with a benign thyroid nodule. A retrospective review was performed of all patients referred to single endocrine surgeon for evaluation of thyroid nodules between 2006 and 2012. The review included 263 patients who had benign fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and either underwent thyroidectomy or had at least a 1-year follow-up ultrasound. Main outcomes measures were repeat FNA and pathology results. There were 231 women and 32 men. Forty-eight patients underwent immediate thyroidectomy, with pathology showing 2 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), and 215 patients were followed with annual ultrasounds. During follow-up, 89 (41.3%) nodules underwent repeat FNA after initial biopsy. The repeat FNA cytology showed 91% benign, 7% follicular neoplasm, and 2% PTC. During follow-up, 81 (37.6%) patients underwent thyroidectomy after 3.3±2.8 years. Reasons for surgery included development of symptoms in 58 (71.6%), a non-benign repeat FNA in 8 (9.8%), or patient preference in 15 (18.5%). Surgical pathology identified 70 (86.4%) benign, 7 (8.6%) PTC, 3 (4%) follicular thyroid cancers, and 1 (1.2%) lymphoma. Median time from initial FNA to thyroidectomy in patients who had malignancy was 4.3 years. The maximum initial nodule size and average increase in nodule size did not differ between benign and malignant nodules (p=0.54 and p=0.75, respectively). Significant numbers of benign thyroid nodules enlarge more than 5 mm over 3 years, triggering repeat FNA or thyroidectomy. Larger diameter nodules and more rapidly growing nodules were not predictive of malignancy. The practice of annually obtaining ultrasound for benign thyroid nodules should be discouraged. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Pilomatrixoma - presented as hypopigmented tender nodule: Diagnosed by FNAC: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankappa P Sinhasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma (PMX is a skin appendage tumor of hair matrix origin, which usually occurs on the face or upper extremities. Although the lesion can appear at any age, it is commonly seen in children and is more common in females. Despite being better defined, pilomatricomas continue to be frequently misdiagnosed and are not usually considered in differential diagnoses, either in clinical set-up or during cytological reporting. They typically present as a superficial, firm, solitary, slow-growing, painless mass in the dermis. The overlying skin may be normal or exhibit a bluish-red discoloration or ulceration. We report an 18-year-old girl presented with tender, subcutaneous nodule with overlying skin showing atrophy and hypopigmentation. Clinically, it was diagnosed as neurofibroma and sent for FNAC. We offered precise diagnosis of pilomatrixoma on cytological examination, (where chances of wrong diagnosis are very high and it was subsequently confirmed by histopathology. We discuss the varied clinical presentations, diagnostic difficulties, and differential diagnoses of PMX.

  14. Diagnostic yield of nondiagnostic thyroid nodules is not altered by timing of repeat biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Carrie C; Nagarkatti, Sushruta S; Faquin, William C; Samir, Anthony E; Hassan, Maria C; Barbesino, Giuseppe; Ross, Douglas S; Randolph, Gregory W; Gaz, Randall D; Stephen, Antonia E; Hodin, Richard A; Daniels, Gilbert H; Parangi, Sareh

    2012-06-01

    Guidelines from the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference recommend a repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) after 3 months for thyroid nodules with a nondiagnostic (ND) result. Our aims were to assess which factors influenced their clinical management and to determine if the timing of the repeat FNAB affects the diagnostic yield. A retrospective institutional review of 298 patients from 1/2006 to 12/2007 with an ND FNAB was performed. The factors influencing the next step in management, including age, gender, history of radiation, presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and ultrasound characteristics, were evaluated. The effect of the time of the repeat FNABs on their diagnostic yield was assessed. Of the 298 patients in our cohort, 9% were referred directly for surgery, 76% had a repeat FNAB, and 15% were observed. Tumor size was the only independent variable correlated with treatment strategy after a ND FNAB. There was not a significant difference in diagnostic yields between repeat FNABs performed earlier than 3 months compared to those preformed later (p=0.58). The timing of repeat FNAB for an initial ND FNAB does not affect diagnostic yield of the repeat FNAB.

  15. Radiofrequency versus ethanol ablation for treating predominantly cystic thyroid nodules:A randomized clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beak, Jung Hwan; Ha, Eun Ju; Choi, Young Jun; Shong, Young Kee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jin Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To compare single-session radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ethanol ablation (EA) for treating predominantly cystic thyroid nodules (PCTNs). This single-blind, randomized trial was approved by the Institutional Review Board of two centers and informed consent was obtained from all patients before enrollment. Fifty patients with a single PCTN (cystic portion less than 90% and greater than 50%) were randomly assigned to be treated by either RFA (25 patients) or EA (25 patients) at two hospitals. The primary outcome was the tumor volume reduction ratio (%) at the six-month follow-up and the superiority margin was set at 13% (RFA minus EA). Analysis was performed primarily in an intention-to-treat manner. The secondary outcomes were the therapeutic success rate, improvement of symptomatic and cosmetic problems, and the number of major complications. The mean volume reduction was 87.5 ± 11.5% for RFA (n = 22) and 82.4 ± 28.6% for EA (n = 24) (p = 0.710; mean difference [95% confidence interval], 5.1% [-8.0 to 18.2]), indicating no significant difference. Regarding the secondary outcomes, therapeutic success (p = 0.490), mean symptom (p = 0.205) and cosmetic scores (p = 0.710) showed no difference. There were no major complications in either group (p > 0.99). The therapeutic efficacy of RFA is not superior to that of EA; therefore, EA might be preferable as the first-line treatment for PCTNs.

  16. Nocardia yamanashiensis in an immunocompromised patient presenting as an indurated nodule on the dorsal hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous, aerobic, gram-positive actinomycetes. Nocardiosis typically occurs in immunocompromised patients, although immunocompetent individuals can also be affected. The purpose of this case study is to review the clinical characteristics and treatments of a unique form of cutaneous nocardiosis. We retrospectively reviewed the medical literature using PubMed, searching the terms cutaneous, host, immunocompromised, Nocardia, primary, yamanashiensis. Patient reports and previous reviews of the subject were critically assessed and the salient features are presented. Cutaneous nocardiosis typically presents as pustular nodules and the lesions may progress to become abscesses, cellulitis, granulomas or keloid-like tumors. N. brasiliensis is the predominant species involved in primary cutaneous nocardiosis; other common Nocardia species involved in human disease are N. farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica, and N. nova. Only two individuals (including the patient presented here) with primary cutaneous infection by N. yamanashiensis have been described in the literature; a third clinical isolate was recovered from a lung biopsy. Nocardia yamanashiensis is a rare clinical form of primary cutaneous nocardiosis. 16S ribosomal gene sequencing, as well as Gram stain and modified Fite acid-fast stain, play a vital role in identifying this clinical variant.

  17. The value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in characterizing cirrhotic nodules with atypical enhancement on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chun; Chou, Chen-Te; Lin, Ching-Po; Chen, Yao-Li; Chen, Yung-Fang; Chen, Ran-Chou

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in characterizing atypically enhanced cirrhotic nodules detected on conventional Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images. We enrolled 61 consecutive patients with 88 atypical nodules seen on conventional Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI within a 3-month period. Using a reference standard, we determined that 58 of the nodules were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 30 were dysplastic nodules (DNs). Tumor size, signal intensity on precontrast T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted images (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI), and the enhancement patterns seen on dynamic phase and hepatocyte phase images were determined. There were significant differences between DNs and HCC in hyperintensity on T2WI, hypointensity on T1WI, hypervascularity on arterial phase images, typical HCC enhancement patterns on dynamic MR images, hypointensity on hepatocyte phase images, and hyperintensity on DWI. The sensitivity and specificity were 79.3% and 83.3% for T2WI, 50.0% and 80.0% for T1WI, 82.8% and 76.7% for DWI, 17.2% and 100% for dynamic MR imaging, 93.1% and 83.3% for hepatocyte phase imaging, and 46.8% and 100% when arterial hypervascularity was combined with hypointensity on hepatocyte-phase imaging. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced hepatocyte phase imaging is recommended for patients at high risk for HCC who present with atypical lesions on conventional Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images.

  18. A New Isolated Mediastinal Lymph Node or Small Pulmonary Nodule Arising during Breast Cancer Surveillance Following Curative Surgery: Clinical Factors That Differentiate Malignant from Benign Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yong; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Young Tae; Noh, Dong-Young; Ha, Sung Whan; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2014-07-01

    A newly isolated mediastinal lymph node (LN) or a small pulmonary nodule, which appears during breast cancer surveillance, may pose a diagnostic dilemma with regard to malignancy. We conducted this study to determine which clinical factors were useful for the differentiation of malignant lesions from benign lesions under these circumstances. We enrolled breast cancer patients who were presented with a new isolated mediastinal LN or small pulmonary nodule that arose during surveillance, and whose lesions were pathologically confirmed. Tissue diagnosis was made by mediastinoscopy, video-assisted thoracic surgery or thoracotomy. A total of 43 patients were enrolled (mediastinal LN, 13 patients; pulmonary nodule, 30 patients). Eighteen patients (41.9%) were pathologically confirmed to have a benign lesion (benign group), and 25 patients (58.1%) were confirmed to have malignant lesion (malignant group). Between the two groups, the initial tumor size (p=0.096) and N stage (p=0.749) were similar. Hormone receptor negativity was more prevalent in the malignant group (59.1% vs. 40.9%, p=0.048). The mean lesion size was larger in the malignant group than in the benign group (20.8 mm vs. 14.4 mm, p=0.024). Metastatic lesions had a significantly higher value of maximal standardized uptake (mSUV) than that of benign lesions (6.4 vs. 3.4, p=0.021). Hormone receptor status, lesion size, and mSUV on positron emission tomography are helpful in the differentiation of malignant lesions from benign lesions in breast cancer patients who were presented with a new isolated mediastinal LN or small pulmonary nodule during surveillance.

  19. Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The clinical significance of a pulmonary nodule that is detected incidentally on CT studies in children is unknown. In addition, there is limited information regarding the management of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules discovered on abdominal CT studies in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of incidental pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT studies in children. This was a retrospective study performed following institutional review board approval. Abdominal CT reports in patients younger than 18 years of age from July 2004 to June 2011 were reviewed for the terms ''nodule,'' ''nodular'' or ''mass'' in reference to the lung bases. The study population included those pediatric patients in whom pulmonary nodules were initially detected on abdominal CT studies. The largest pulmonary nodules detected on CT studies were evaluated for their features (size, shape, margin, attenuation, location, and presence of calcification and cavitation). Follow-up CT studies and clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, history of underlying malignancies and the clinical outcome of the incidental pulmonary nodules. Comparison of malignant versus benign pulmonary nodules was performed with respect to the size of the nodule, imaging features on CT, and patient history of malignancy using the Student's t-test and Fisher exact test. Youden J-index in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off size for suggesting a high risk of malignancy of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary nodules meeting inclusion criteria were detected in 62 (1.2%) of 5,234 patients. The mean age of patients with nodules was 11.2 years (range: 5 months-18 years). Thirty-one patients (50%) had follow-up CT studies and two of these patients (6%) were subsequently found to have malignant pulmonary nodules. Both of these

  20. The value of HIC1 and SIRT1 expression levels in thyroid nodule for assessing benign or malignant nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hua Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of HIC1 and SIRT1 expression levels in thyroid nodule for assessing benign or malignant nodules. Method: 70 cases of surgically removed thyroid cancer tissue samples were collected as pathology group, 70 cases of corresponding para-carcinoma tissue specimens were collected as control group, immunohistochemistry was used to detect HIC1 and SIRT1 protein expression levels, and fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of HIC1 and SIRT1 as well as OXTR, CDH1, RASSF1A, TIMP3, MMP13, S100A4, CCNG2 and MK. Results: HIC1 expression levels in thyroid carcinoma tissue of pathology group were significantly lower than those of control group while SIRT1 expression levels were significantly higher than those of control group; compared with thyroid cancer tissue with TNM I-II stage, negative ductal infiltration and negative lymph node metastasis, HIC1 expression levels significantly decreased while SIRT1 expression levels significantly increased in thyroid cancer tissue with TNM III-IV stage, positive ductal infiltration and positive lymph node metastasis; in thyroid cancer tissue with positive HIC1 expression, OXTR, CDH1, RASSF1A and TIMP3 expression levels were significantly higher than those in thyroid cancer tissue with negative HIC1 expression; in thyroid cancer tissue with positive SIRT1 expression, MMP13, S100A4, CCNG2 and MK expression levels were significantly higher than those in thyroid cancer tissue with negative SIRT1 expression. Conclusion: HIC1 expression deletion and SIRT1 expression increase in thyroid nodule tissue are associated with the occurrence and development of thyroid carcinoma, and methylation and deacetylation may be epigenetic mechanism of HIC1 and SIRT1 to regulate cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis.

  1. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reveal the vast diversity of genetic and epigenetic alterations that exist between brain tumors. This biological ... social workers, psychologists, and nurses. A supportive family environment is also helpful. Surgery GBM’s capacity to wildly ...

  2. Local treatment of solitary intrapulmonary, malignant nodules; Lokaltherapie solitaerer intrapulmonaler maligner Rundherde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, J. op den; Eichhorn, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Thoraxchirurgie, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Rieken, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Dienemann, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Thoraxchirurgie, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); TLRC-H - Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Intrapulmonary nodules generally represent an incidental finding in the roentgenogram or computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest. They are defined as single, well-circumscribed, radiographic opaque lesions that measures up to 3 cm in diameter and are surrounded completely by aerated lung. The probability of malignancy directly correlates with increasing diameter. Lesions that have a diameter of 1 cm or larger require direct evaluation. Surgery is the first option for patients with a malignant lesion, given an acceptable perioperative risk; for high-risk patients either radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) should be offered. In these cases the malignant histology has to be established beforehand or verified by radiologic proven growth. Complete surgical resection is superior to RFA and SBRT with respect to local tumor control. (orig.) [German] Intrapulmonale Rundherde stellen in der Regel einen Zufallsbefund im Roentgenbild oder Computertomogramm des Thorax dar. Sie sind definiert als relativ gut abgegrenzte Laesionen von bis zu 3 cm Durchmesser, die allseits von Lungengewebe umgeben sind. Die Wahrscheinlichkeit fuer das Vorliegen eines malignen Tumors steigt mit ihrer Groesse. Rundherde ab 1 cm Durchmesser beduerfen der aktiven Abklaerung. Zur Behandlung solitaerer maligner Tumoren steht fuer Patienten ohne nennenswert erhoehtes Operations- und Narkoserisiko der chirurgische Eingriff an erster Stelle. Patienten, die aus funktionellen Gruenden fuer einen solchen nicht geeignet sind, koennen mit Radiofrequenzablation (RFA) oder Einzeitbestrahlung (SBRT) behandelt werden. In diesen Faellen muessen vor Therapiebeginn die Malignitaet nachgewiesen oder zumindest ueber einen begrenzten Zeitraum eine Groessenzunahme der Laesion dokumentiert worden sein. In Bezug auf die lokale Tumorfreiheit ist die Operation unter den Voraussetzungen einer R0-Resektion den anderen Verfahren ueberlegen. (orig.)

  3. Effect of sediment-water interface 'boundary layer' on exposure of nodules and their abundance: a study from seabed photos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    The results obtained from seabed photos and boomerang grab samples reveal a striking similarity in distribution patterns of size classes of polymetallic nodules. Due to partial sediment cover, there is a 'fractionation' effect on nodules, which...

  4. Generation of realistic virtual nodules based on three-dimensional spatial resolution in lung computed tomography: A pilot phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Akihiro; Ohkubo, Masaki; Murao, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toru; Wada, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this feasibility study using phantoms was to propose a novel method for obtaining computer-generated realistic virtual nodules in lung computed tomography (CT). In the proposed methodology, pulmonary nodule images obtained with a CT scanner are deconvolved with the point spread function (PSF) in the scan plane and slice sensitivity profile (SSP) measured for the scanner; the resultant images are referred to as nodule-like object functions. Next, by convolving the nodule-like object function with the PSF and SSP of another (target) scanner, the virtual nodule can be generated so that it has the characteristics of the spatial resolution of the target scanner. To validate the methodology, the authors applied physical nodules of 5-, 7- and 10-mm-diameter (uniform spheres) included in a commercial CT test phantom. The nodule-like object functions were calculated from the sphere images obtained with two scanners (Scanner A and Scanner B); these functions were referred to as nodule-like object functions A and B, respectively. From these, virtual nodules were generated based on the spatial resolution of another scanner (Scanner C). By investigating the agreement of the virtual nodules generated from the nodule-like object functions A and B, the equivalence of the nodule-like object functions obtained from different scanners could be assessed. In addition, these virtual nodules were compared with the real (true) sphere images obtained with Scanner C. As a practical validation, five types of laboratory-made physical nodules with various complicated shapes and heterogeneous densities, similar to real lesions, were used. The nodule-like object functions were calculated from the images of these laboratory-made nodules obtained with Scanner A. From them, virtual nodules were generated based on the spatial resolution of Scanner C and compared with the real images of laboratory-made nodules obtained with Scanner C. Good agreement of the virtual nodules generated from

  5. Determination of nodule coverage parameters using multibeam normal incidence echo characteristics: A study in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.; Sudhakar, M.; Raju, Y.S.N.

    rather than the large/small-scale topographic variations. The study based on Poisson PDF for nodule area confirms this fact again. Agreement between the nodule distribution and the Poisson distribution parameter is clearly seen. Such a relation...

  6. Nature and distribution of manganese nodules from three sediment domains of the Central Indian Basin, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    Manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin (5 degrees-10 degrees S) vary in abundance, morphology, mineralogy, and chemistry with water depth and sediment type. Nodules from the southern region, dominatEd. by siliceous sediment, differ markedly...

  7. Randomized prospective study comparing a single radioiodine dose and a single laser therapy session in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) with radioiodine in hot thyroid nodules. DESIGN: Thirty consecutive outpatients with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism and a scintigraphically solitary hot nodule with extraglandular suppression were randomized to e...

  8. Contrast in manganese nodule distribution on either side of 79~'E fracture zone in central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    Seabed topography is one of the prime factors in controlling the distribution of manganese nodules. Study of the nodule abundance on either side of the 79~'E fracture zone in the Central Indian Basin (idenfitied from multibeam bathymetric data...

  9. Multiple macroregenerative nodules in liver cirrhosis due to Budd-Chiari syndrome. Case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Wolff, M; Pauleit, D; Fischer, H P; Pfeifer, U

    2000-01-01

    Clinical, radiological, histological and immunohistochemical methods were used to define the nature of multiple rapidly growing hepatic nodules in 2 young patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome due to myeloproliferative diseases. In one patient, the arterial hyperperfusion of large nodules was demonstrated by dynamic computed tomography and angiography. The explanted livers of these patients showed multiple well-demarcated nodules up to 3 cm in diameter on the background of liver cirrhosis resulting from chronic hepatic congestion. Histologically, these nodules covered a spectrum ranging from adenoma-like lesions to nodules resembling focal nodular hyperplasia. They consisted of essentially normal hepatocytes, and variably contained fibrous septa including neoductules and large, mostly dysmorphic arteries. Sometimes, they were located close to still patent or recanalized veins. These rapidly growing hepatic nodules are best defined as macroregenerative nodules. The knowledge of this entity may help the physician to avoid misinterpretation of such nodules as carcinomas.

  10. Variations in the functional visual field for detection of lung nodules on chest computed tomography: Impact of nodule size, distance, and local lung complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Lukas; Tall, Martin; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Ly, Donald L; Roos, Justus E; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Geoffrey D

    2017-07-01

    To explore the characteristics that impact lung nodule detection by peripheral vision when searching for lung nodules on chest CT-scans. This study was approved by the local IRB and is HIPAA compliant. A simulated primary (1°) target mass (2 × 2 × 5 cm) was embedded into 5 cm thick subvolumes (SV) extracted from three unenhanced lung MDCT scans (64 row, 1.25 mm thickness, 0.7 mm increment). One of 30 solid, secondary nodules with either 3-4 mm and 5-8 mm diameters were embedded into 192 of 207 SVs. The secondary nodule was placed at a random depth within each SV, a transverse distance of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mm, and along one of eight rays cast every 45° from the center of the 1° mass. Video recordings of transverse paging in cranio-caudal direction were created for each SV (frame rate three sections/sec). Six radiologists observed each cine-loop once while gaze-tracking hardware assured that gaze was centered on the 1° mass. Each radiologist assigned a confidence rating (0-5) to the detection of a secondary nodule and indicated its location. Detection sensitivity was analyzed relative to secondary nodule size, transverse distance, radial orientation, and lung complexity. Lung complexity was characterized by the number of particles (connected pixels) and the sum of the area of all particles above a -500 HU threshold within regions of interest around the 1° mass and secondary nodule. Using a proportional odds logistic regression model and eliminating redundant predictors, models fit individually to each reader resulted in the following decreasing order of association based on greatest reduction in Akaike Information Criterion: secondary nodule diameter (6/6 readers, P < 0.001), distance from central mass (6/6 readers, P < 0.001), lung complexity particle count (5/6 readers, P = 0.05), and lung complexity particle area (3/6 readers, P = 0.03). Substantial inter-reader differences in sensitivity to decreasing nodule diameter, distance, and complexity

  11. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  12. Size analyses and geochemistry of ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Khadge, N.H.

    Ferromanganese nodules collected during the 13th cruise of the M.V. Skandi Surveyor in 1987 cover a very large area, 71 424 km super(2) in the Central Indian Ocean. The area consists of 13 nodule types, which are grouped into six size classes...

  13. Distribution pattern and morphochemical relationships of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Miura, H.

    In the Central Indian Basin manganese nodule abundance was variable in all sediment types. Mean abundance varied from 1.5 in calcareous ooze to 10.2 kg/m sup(2) in terrigenous-siliceous ooze sediments. Nodule grade and growth rates are positively...

  14. Observer training for computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in chest radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boo, Diederick W.; van Hoorn, François; van Schuppen, Joost; Schijf, Laura; Scheerder, Maeke J.; Freling, Nicole J.; Mets, Onno; Weber, Michael; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether short-term feedback helps readers to increase their performance using computer-aided detection (CAD) for nodule detection in chest radiography. The 140 CXRs (56 with a solitary CT-proven nodules and 84 negative controls) were divided into four subsets of 35; each were read in a

  15. Effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Training farm Port Harcourt to test the effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed ... functional root nodules during both seasons and in all the cultivars ..... (1985) also indicated that long term effect of oil in soil.

  16. Geochemical trends in the sediments and manganese nodules from a part of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Jauhari, P.

    of magnitude enrichment in the nodules compared to the surrounding sediments. The positive Ce anomaly in the Nodules ( 0.25) is associated with negative Ce anomaly (0.04) in the host sediment indicating its oxidative scavenging preferentially by Fe-hydroxide...

  17. Nodulation of tree legumes and the ecology of their native rhizobial populations in tropical soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Murphy, P.J.; Osunde, A.O.; Giller, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    A legume introduced into a new area will only form nodules and fix nitrogen if compatible rhizobia are present in the soil. Using 25 (60 in the case of Sesbania sesban) soils sampled from tropical areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America, we examined the nodulation of four agroforestry tree species

  18. Maximum Phoneme Duration of /s/ and /z/ by Children with Vocal Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastatter, Michael P.; Hyman, Melvin

    1982-01-01

    The maximum phoneme duration (MPD) of /s/ and /z/ task was measured for eight male and eight female children with diagnosed vocal nodules. Found that vocal nodules do not affect MPD s/z ratio, whereas the durations of /s/ and /z/ and the variance observed across multiple productions of /z/ are affected and should be considered as diagnostically…

  19. Local steroid injection via the cricothyroid membrane in patients with a vocal nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Yeo, Jang-Ok; Choi, Jeong-Im; Jin, Hee-Jin; Kim, Jin-Pyeong; Woo, Seung-Hoon; Jin, Sung-Min

    2011-10-01

    To analyze the usefulness and safety of a steroid injection into vocal nodules via the cricothyroid membrane. Local administration of steroid directly into the larynx has been reported in many laryngeal diseases with different methods. Prospective case series at an academic tertiary care hospital. Eighty patients with vocal nodules were enrolled between December 2008 and May 2010. Triamcinolone acetonide was injected through the cricothyroid membrane with a transnasal flexible laryngoscope to patients in a sitting position. Vocal nodules were evaluated before and 2 and 4 weeks after the injection; improvement was assessed both objectively and subjectively. The nodules disappeared in 35 patients by the fourth week after the injection (44%), and 39 patients showed improvement (49%). Jitter, shimmer, maximum phonation time, and mean voice handicap index also improved significantly after the steroid injection (P nodules had recurred after 4 weeks. Four patients experienced mild vocal fold atrophy, and 2 patients showed a white plaque formation on the vocal fold that resolved spontaneously 1 to 2 months after the injection. A local steroid injection via the cricothyroid membrane is a useful and safe treatment option for vocal nodules. However, vocal nodules are caused mainly by excessive voice use; therefore, nodules can recur unless the voice use pattern changes. Further study of this treatment technique, including long-term follow-up, is needed.

  20. Classification and inter-element relationships of ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.

    within the field of "hydrogenous deposits." A finer classification reveals that there are three basically different types of nodules becoming enriched in metals by different depositional processes. Type B nodules having Mn/Fe ratio up to 2.5 show...

  1. Role of Duplex Power Doppler Ultrasound in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algin, Oktay [Ataturk Training and Research Hospital Bilkent, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Algin, Efnan [Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Gokalp, Gokhan; Ocakog, Gokhan; Erdog an, Cuneyt; Saraydaroglu, Ozlem; Ercan Tuncel, Prof [Uludag University Medical Faculty, Bursa (Turkmenistan)

    2010-12-15

    To evaluate the usage of duplex power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We prospectively examined 77 thyroid nodules in 60 patients undergoing ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each nodule was described according to size, inner structure, borders, parenchymal echogenicity, peripheral halo formation, and the presence of calcification (Bmode ultrasound findings). Vascularity as determined by PDUS imaging was defined as non-vascular, peripheral, central, or of mixed type. For each nodule, the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) values were obtained. Results of FNAB and surgical pathological examination (if available) were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to establish cut-off, sensitivity, and specificity values associated with RI-PI values. A significant relationship was observed between malignancy and irregular margins, microcalcifications, and hypoechogenicity on ultrasound examination (p < 0.05). The pattern of vascularity as determined by PDUS analysis was not a statistically significant criterion to suggest benign or malignant disease in this study (p > 0.05). The central, peripheral, and mean RI-PI values were higher in malignant nodules when compared to the other cytologies (p < 0.05). Vascularity is not a useful parameter for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. However, RI and PI values are useful in distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules

  2. Nod factor receptors form heteromeric complexes and are essential for intracellular infection in Medicago nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moling, S.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Postma, M.; Fedorova, E.E.; Hink, M.A.; Limpens, E.H.M.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Bisseling, T.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are the key signaling molecules in the legume-rhizobium nodule symbiosis. In this study, the role of the Nod factor receptors NOD FACTOR PERCEPTION (NFP) and LYSIN MOTIF RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3 (LYK3) in establishing the symbiotic interface in root nodules was investigated. It

  3. Medicago LYK3, an entry receptor in rhizobial nodulation factor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, P.; Limpens, E.H.M.; Geurts, R.; Fedorova, E.; Dolgikh, E.; Gough, C.; Bisseling, T.

    2007-01-01

    Rhizobia secrete nodulation (Nod) factors, which set in motion the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules on legume host plants. Nod factors induce several cellular responses in root hair cells within minutes, but also are essential for the formation of infection threads by which rhizobia enter

  4. Nod factor receptors form heteromeric complexes and are essential for intracellular infection in medicago nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moling, S.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Postma, M.; Fedorova, E.; Hink, M.A.; Limpens, E.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Bisseling, T.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are the key signaling molecules in the legume-rhizobium nodule symbiosis. In this study, the role of the Nod factor receptors NOD FACTOR PERCEPTION (NFP) and LYSIN MOTIF RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3 (LYK3) in establishing the symbiotic interface in root nodules was investigated. It

  5. Noninvasive Characterization of Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules Detected on Chest High-Resolution Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    ordinated in 362,880 ( factorial 9) ways. To identify the unique ordination that correlates with the virulence/malignancy of the nodule, we used...22 Surround Distribution Distribution of the 7 parenchymal exemplars (Normal, Honey comb, Reticular, Ground glass, mild low attenuation area...the distribution of honey comb, reticular and ground glass surrounding the nodule. 0.001

  6. Contextual convolutional neural networks for lung nodule classification using Gaussian-weighted average image patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeil; Lee, Hansang; Park, Minseok; Kim, Junmo

    2017-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death. To diagnose lung cancers in early stages, numerous studies and approaches have been developed for cancer screening with computed tomography (CT) imaging. In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNN) have become one of the most common and reliable techniques in computer aided detection (CADe) and diagnosis (CADx) by achieving state-of-the-art-level performances for various tasks. In this study, we propose a CNN classification system for false positive reduction of initially detected lung nodule candidates. First, image patches of lung nodule candidates are extracted from CT scans to train a CNN classifier. To reflect the volumetric contextual information of lung nodules to 2D image patch, we propose a weighted average image patch (WAIP) generation by averaging multiple slice images of lung nodule candidates. Moreover, to emphasize central slices of lung nodules, slice images are locally weighted according to Gaussian distribution and averaged to generate the 2D WAIP. With these extracted patches, 2D CNN is trained to achieve the classification of WAIPs of lung nodule candidates into positive and negative labels. We used LUNA 2016 public challenge database to validate the performance of our approach for false positive reduction in lung CT nodule classification. Experiments show our approach improves the classification accuracy of lung nodules compared to the baseline 2D CNN with patches from single slice image.

  7. Quantitative estimation of seafloor features from photographs and their application to nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    , and their lebensspuren have been presented. Digitization of the photographs shows variable nodule size (less than 1 to 10 cm), coverage (less than 1 to 75%) and abundance (less than 1 to 20 kg/m super(2)). Nodule population is inversely proportional to the coverage...

  8. Undercooling, nodule count and carbides in thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Ductile cast iron has been cast in plate thicknesses between 2 to 8 mm. The temperature has been measured during the solidification and the graphite nodule count and size distribution together with the type and amount of carbides have been analysed afterwards. Low nodule count gives higher...

  9. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography screening for lung cancer will increase the incidence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules detected and referred for diagnostic evaluation and management. GGO nodules remain a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a more systematic approach is necessary to ensure cor...

  10. Microglial nodules in early multiple sclerosis white matter are associated with degenerating axons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Metz, I.; Amor, S.; van der Valk, P.; Stadelmann, C.; Bruck, W.

    2013-01-01

    Microglial nodules in the normal-appearing white matter have been suggested as the earliest stage(s) of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion formation. Such nodules are characterized by an absence of leukocyte infiltration, astrogliosis or demyelination, and may develop into active demyelinating MS

  11. DRAFT: Russian Association of Endocrinologists Clinic Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules Diagnostic and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Eduardovich Vanushko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Russian guidelines for diagnostic of thyroid nodules gained some actual questions: necessity of ultrasound (US-screening of the thyroid cancer, indications for fine needle aspiration and exam of calcitonin, necessity of unification of US and cytopathology classification for signs of thyroid nodules

  12. The Role of Conventional Ultrasound in the Assessment of Thyroid Nodule in Erbil City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Sarbast Ismail; Hanary, Salah Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nodular thyroid disease is relatively common although thyroid cancer is rare. The aim of this study is to evaluate the advantage and reliability of conventional ultrasound in correlating sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodule with US-FNAC guided result as a diagnostic aid in thyroid nodule. Method: 111 patients were examined by…

  13. Genome Sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08, Isolated from Root Nodules of Lupinus angustifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Vega, Pablo; Normand, Philippe; Bacigalupe, Rodrigo; Pujic, Petar; Lajus, Aurelie; Vallenet, David; Carro, Lorena; Coll, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Micromonospora strains have been isolated from diverse niches, including soil, water, and marine sediments and root nodules of diverse symbiotic plants. In this work, we report the genome sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08 isolated from root nodules of the wild legume Lupinus angustifolious. PMID:22815450

  14. Organizing Pneumonia by Paragonimiasis and Coexistent Aspergilloma Manifested as a Pulmonary Irregular Nodule

    OpenAIRE

    In Jae Lee; Jinwon Seo; Dong Gyu Kim

    2011-01-01

    Organizing pneumonia by paragonimiasis and coexistent aspergilloma as a pulmonary nodule is a rare case of lung disease. Its radiographic or CT feature has not been described before in the radiologic literature. We present organizing pneumonia by paragonimiasis and coexistent aspergilloma manifested as a pulmonary irregular nodule on CT.

  15. Organizing Pneumonia by Paragonimiasis and Coexistent Aspergilloma Manifested as a Pulmonary Irregular Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jae Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizing pneumonia by paragonimiasis and coexistent aspergilloma as a pulmonary nodule is a rare case of lung disease. Its radiographic or CT feature has not been described before in the radiologic literature. We present organizing pneumonia by paragonimiasis and coexistent aspergilloma manifested as a pulmonary irregular nodule on CT.

  16. 18F-FDG PET reduces unnecessary hemithyroidectomies for thyroid nodules with inconclusive cytologic results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Pieters, G.F.F.M.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Mudde, A.H.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is inconclusive in up to 20% of patients with solitary thyroid nodules. In these cases, hemithyroidectomy is necessary, but only 20% of the nodules prove to be thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of (18)F-FDG PET to reduce the

  17. Study of root para-nodules formation in wheat (Triticum durum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    djemel

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... in the actinorhizal nodulation process (Berry et al., 1989). It is known that nodule like structures, could be induced by 2,4-D on plant roots and that they could be colonized by microorganisms (Zeman et al., 1992). Little studies were realized about the interaction between Frankia and wheat. Soil with Frankia ...

  18. Position of solitary thyroid nodules by gammagraphy; Ubicacion de nodulos tiroideos solitarios por gammagrafia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this work it is presented which it is the position more frequent of the solitary thyroid nodules. It was used the method of retrospective longitudinal observational investigation in 125 patients that went to the laboratory for realization of detection of thyroid nodules in the years 2004 and 2005 through gammagraphy. (Author)

  19. Growth rate and chemical composition of a manganese nodule from the EEZ of Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Borole, D.V.

    mhe ferro-manganese nodule collected in EEZ of Seychelles yields a growth rate of 1.5 mm/10 6Y 230Th (ex)/ and 230Th (ex)/ 232Th activity ratio methods indicating very slow growth of ferro-manganese nodules. The Mn/Fe and U/Th ratios suggest...

  20. Metabolic responses in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa exposed to the imazamox herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garijo, A; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C; Palma, F

    2014-05-01

    Alterations on growth, amino acids metabolism and some antioxidant enzyme activities as result of imazamox treatment were examined in determinate and indeterminate nodules, formed by Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa, respectively. Young seedlings of both legumes were inoculated with their respective microsymbionts and grown under controlled conditions. At vegetative growth, plants were treated with imazamox (250μM) in the nutrient solution and harvested 7days after. Imazamox was mainly accumulated in V. sativa where concentrations were more than six fold higher than those detected in P. vulgaris. Nodule dry weight and total nitrogen content were reduced by the herbicide treatment: the highest decrease of nodule biomass (50%) and nitrogen content (40%) were registered in V. sativa and P. vulgaris, respectively. The concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) did not change in neither determinate nor indeterminate nodules even though the acetohydroxyacid synthase activity decreased in root and nodules of both symbioses with the herbicide application. Based on this last result and taking into account that total free amino acids increased in roots but not in nodules of common vetch, a possible BCAA translocation from root to nodule could occur. Our results suggest that the maintenance of BCAA balance in nodule become a priority for the plant in such conditions. The involvement of activities glutathione-S-transferase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the response of the symbioses to imazamox are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.