WorldWideScience

Sample records for subbituminous coal-fired power

  1. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  3. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  4. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  5. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Coal fired power stations and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.H.

    1982-12-01

    Environmental problems resulting from the use of coal in power stations were discussed in a conference in Copenhagen in August, 1982. Topics included: 1) Discussions of the adverse temperature effects of cooling tower water. The pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri has been isolated in two of eight cooling tower systems; 2) Uses of power plant ash. Dense blocks of the ash have been used to build artificial reefs with, as yet, not adverse effects on the marine community; 3) Long-range transport of particulates which bind heavy metals in the ash; and 4) The effects of acid rain. An examination of the fish status of Scandanavian lakes did not reveal a simple relationship between pH and fishlessness. It was concluded that levels of calcium and aluminum, food supply, genetically determined tolerance and ecological factors have also played a part in the fish regime of acid-affected lakes. The Norwegian attitude is that there are good grounds for thinking acid rain is a global problem implicating the discharge of nitrogen and sulfur oxides and either micropollutants. (JMT)

  7. Repowering existing coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, W.C.; Sopocy, E.M.; Pace, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Increased competition among power generating companies, changes in generating system load requirements, lower allowable plant emissions, and changes in fuel availability and cost accentuate the need to closely assess the economics and performance of older electric generating units. Generally, decisions must be made as to whether these units should be retired and replaced with new generation capacity, whether capacity should be purchased from other generation companies, or if these existing units should be repowered. These decisions usually require the evaluation of many factors including: environmental discharge limits, permitting requirements, generating load demand increases, options for increasing the benefits of using existing facilities (e.g., increasing efficiency and output), fuel cost increases, transmission requirements and access, and optional plant designs. Many of these factors need to be used in the analysis based on a range rather than one specific value to test for changes in the selection of the best option because of future uncertainties. Usually complicated analysis results because of all the factors involved. Computer products that integrate performance and financial analysis can provide substantial value by enabling the user to evaluate the applicable plant options and range of input. The SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) family of software products provides easy-to-use tools for rapid, thorough and economical evaluation of plant options. Repowering evaluation methodology typically used in the United States, technology options, and available SOAPP repowering software are reviewed in this paper. 14 figs.

  8. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  9. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges

  10. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  11. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  12. Coal-Fired Power Plants, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Approximate locations of active coal-fired power plants located in US EPA's Region 9. Emission counts from the 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) are included...

  13. Morphology and chemistry of fine particles emitted from a Canadian coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Goodarzi [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Environmental Study Group

    2006-02-01

    Particles emitted from coal-fired power plants burning subbituminous coal from Alberta, Canada were examined for total particulates (PM) and size fractions PM>10, PM10, and PM2.5. The sampling was carried out following EPA Method 201A. Three tests were performed at each station. The emitted particles were examined using SEM/EDX and gravimetric method for the determination of their sizes. The elemental composition of particles was determined using INAA and ICP-MS. The particles emitted from the stack are classified based on their morphologies and chemistries to the following: unburnt carbon, feed-coal minerals such as quartz, and by-products of the dissociation, fractionation, and contamination by minerals in coal. The emitted particles are mostly spherical and their matrices are composed of aluminosilicate minerals containing calcium. The PM>10 fraction contains small plerospheres, fragments of char, and angular quartz and feldspar particles. The PM10 fraction contains solid spheres and cenospheres, gypsum needles, and particles of char. The PM2.5 particle size fraction is mostly composed of solid spherical aluminosilicates with some surface enrichment of elements such as Ba, Ca, and Fe. The composition of emitted particles is ferrocalsialic. Most elements in the particle size fractions are Class I or II, such as Al, Ca, and Fe. Cd, Cu, Mo, and Ti were only detected in PM2.5 fraction. 42 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

  15. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  16. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  17. Mercury policy and regulations for coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallo, Manuela; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Contreras, M Luisa; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2012-05-01

    Mercury is a high-priority regulatory concern because of its persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment and evidence of its having serious adverse effects on the neurological development of children. Mercury is released into the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Coal-fired utilities are considered to be one of the largest anthropogenic mercury emission sources. The period since the late 1990s has been marked by increasing concern over mercury emissions from combustion systems to the extent that a number of national governments have either already implemented or are in the process of implementing, legislation aimed at enforcing tighter control over mercury emissions and a reduction in mercury consumption. This review examines the most important national and international policies and agreements for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired combustion systems. To provide a global perspective, this study lists the countries with the largest estimated mercury emissions and regulatory efforts to reduce them.

  18. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  19. Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations

    OpenAIRE

    Vitorović Gordana S.; Mitrović Branislava M.; Andrić Velibor Đ.; Stojanović Mirjana D.; Lazarević-Macanović Mirjana V.; Vitorović Duško P.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activi...

  20. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  1. Feasibility of a 1400 MW coal-fired power-plant in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Nunthavorakarn, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based upon the case of a planned new 1400 MW coal-fired power station in Prachuap Khiti Khan in Thailand, the paper performs a feasibility study, in which a power-plant project and a proposed technical alternative are assessed in relation to a wide range of specific and general official developme...

  2. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda L. Garnham; Kristy E. Langerman

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016). Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the hig...

  3. Mercury pollution in vegetables, grains and soils from areas surrounding coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wu, Han; Ding, Jing; Fu, Weimin; Gan, Lijun; Li, Yi

    2017-05-01

    Mercury contamination in food can pose serious health risks to consumers and coal-fired power plants have been identified as the major source of mercury emissions. To assess the current state of mercury pollution in food crops grown near coal-fired power plants, we measured the total mercury concentration in vegetables and grain crops collected from farms located near two coal-fired power plants. We found that 79% of vegetable samples and 67% of grain samples exceeded the PTWI's food safety standards. The mercury concentrations of soil samples were negatively correlated with distances from the studied coal-fired power plants, and the mercury contents in lettuce, amaranth, water spinach, cowpea and rice samples were correlated with the mercury contents in soil samples, respectively. Also, the mercury concentrations in vegetable leaves were much higher than those in roots and the mercury content of vegetable leaves decreased significantly after water rinses. Our calculation suggests that probable weekly intake of mercury for local residents, assuming all of their vegetables and grains are from their own farmland, may exceed the toxicologically tolerable values allowed, and therefore long-term consumptions of these contaminated vegetables and grains may pose serious health risks.

  4. The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

    Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL ®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.

  5. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.

  6. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  7. The Evaluation of Solar Contribution in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize various types of solar thermal energy for coupling coal-fired power plants by using the characteristics of various thermal needs of the plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will be unnecessary while the intermittent and unsteady way of power generation will be avoided. Moreover, the large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and the energy-saving aim of power plants will be realized. The contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power needs to be explored. This paper deals with the evaluation method of solar contribution based on the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of thermoeconomics with a case of 600 MW solar aided coal-fired power plant. In this study, the feasibility of the method has been carried out. The contribution of this paper is not only to determine the proportion of solar energy in overall electric power, but also to assign the individual cost components involving solar energy. Therefore, this study will supply the theoretical reference for the future research of evaluation methods and new energy resource subsidy.

  8. Life cycle assessment of coal-fired power plants and sensitivity analysis of CO2 emissions from power generation side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Zhou, Lianjie; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle assessment and environmental impacts of a 1000MW coal-fired power plant were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the operation energy consumption and pollutant emission of the power plant are the highest in all sub-process, which accounts for 93.93% of the total energy consumption and 92.20% of the total emission. Compared to other pollutant emissions from the coal-fired power plant, CO2 reached up to 99.28%. Therefore, the control of CO2 emission from the coal-fired power plants was very important. Based on the BP neural network, the amount of CO2 emission from the generation side of coal-fired power plants was calculated via carbon balance method. The results showed that unit capacity, coal quality and unit operation load had great influence on the CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants in Guangdong Province. The use of high volatile and high heat value of coal also can reduce the CO2 emissions. What’s more, under higher operation load condition, the CO2 emissions of 1 kWh electric energy was less.

  9. Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

  10. Sustainable sources of biomass for bioremediation of heavy metals in waste water derived from coal-fired power generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saunders, Richard J; Paul, Nicholas A; Hu, Yi; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-01-01

    .... We cultured three species of algae with and without nutrient addition in water that was contaminated with heavy metals from an Ash Dam associated with coal-fired power generation and tested metal...

  11. Coal-fired power plants and the causes of high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakey, J.E.; Simms, N.J. [British Coal Corporation, Coal Technology Development Div., Cheltenham, Glos (United Kingdom); Tomkings, A.B. [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The heat exchangers in all types of coal-fired power plant operate in aggressive, high temperature environments where high temperature corrosion can severely limit their service lives. The extent of this corrosion is governed by the combined effects of the operating conditions of the heat exchanger and the presence of corrosive species released from the coal during operation. This paper reviews the coal-related factors, such as ash deposition, which influence the operating environments of heat exchangers in three types of coal-fired power plant - conventional pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers and coal gasification systems. The effects on the performance of the materials used for these heat exchangers are then compared. (au) 35 refs.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of an existing coal-fired power plant for district heating/cooling application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, H.H.; Dagdas, A.; Sevilgen, S.H.; Cetin, B.; Akkaya, A.V.; Sahin, B.; Teke, I.; Gungor, C.; Atas, S. [Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-02-15

    In a conventional coal-fired power plant, which is only designed for electricity generation, 2/3 of fuel energy is wasted through stack gases and cooling water of condensers. This waste energy could be recovered by trigeneration; modifying the plants in order to meet district heating/cooling demand of the locations. In this paper, thermodynamical analysis of trigeneration conversion of a public coal-fired power plant, which is designed only for electricity generation, has been carried out. Waste heat potential and other heat extraction capabilities have been evaluated. Best effective steam extraction point for district heating/cooling systems have been identified by conducting energetic and exergetic performance analyses. Analyses results revealed that the low-pressure turbine inlet stage is the most convenient point for steam extraction for the plant analyzed.

  13. Indoor Rn-222 concentrations in the vicinity of a Turkish coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaprak, G. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Science

    1999-10-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains natural radionuclides and their products in small quantities. Therefore, depending on their concentration in the coal, a coal-fired power plant might potentially contaminate the environment. Indoor Rn-222 concentration in 100 houses located in the vicinity of Yatagan coal-fired power plant in the southwestern part of Turkey were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors. The time-integrated Rn-222 concentrations in the houses ranged from 10 to 120 Bq m{sup -3}. This corresponds to an annual effective dose equivalent ranging from 0.6 to 7/3 mSv. In 96% of the homes, an Rn-222 concentration of 100 Bq m{sup -3} (taken as the limit for future buildings, recommended by ICRP) was not exceeded.

  14. Dry cooling for coal fired power plants: the new state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souvenir, C.; Nagel, P. [SPX Cooling Technologies (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    In the first part of this paper an update is provided regarding the use of dry cooling in power plants. The evolution of the reasons leading to this technical solution, the trends in the market place, and the growth over the last 15 years are described. In the second part, the use of current advanced dry cooling technologies for coal-fired plants in China is illustrated. 34 figs.

  15. Artificial reefs: Using coal-fired power station wastes constructively for fishery enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, K J; Jensen, A.C.; Lockwood, Apm

    1991-01-01

    Large quantities of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) are produced by coal-fired power stations, some of which is currently dumped into the sea. The planned fitting of flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plant in the UK would produce comparable quantities of gypsum. While a fraction of both these wastes may be used commercially, an alternative, environmentally acceptable, use for the surplus material, the construction of artificial reefs, is being investigated. Possible leaching of heavy metal ions from ...

  16. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanić Milan N.; Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.; Gajić Boško A.; Daković Marko Z.; Dragović Snežana D.; Bačić Goran G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance) and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th). Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides wa...

  17. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  18. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda L. Garnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016. Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the highest contributors to mercury emissions in South Africa. A major factor affecting the amount of mercury emitted into the atmosphere is the type and efficiency of emission abatement equipment at a power station. Eskom employs particulate emission control technology at all its coal-fired power stations, and new power stations will also have sulphur dioxide abatement technology. A co-beneficial reduction of mercury emissions exists as a result of emission control technology. The amount of mercury emitted from each of Eskom’s coal-fired power stations is calculated, based on the amount of coal burnt and the mercury content in the coal. Emission Reduction Factors (ERF’s from two sources are taken into consideration to reflect the co-benefit received from the emission control technologies at the stations. Between 17 and 23 tons of mercury is calculated to have been emitted from Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in 2015. On completion of Eskom’s emission reduction plan, which includes fabric filter plant retrofits at two and a half stations and a flue gas desulphurisation retrofit at one power station, total mercury emissions from the fleet will potentially be reduced by 6-13% by 2026 relative to the baseline. Mercury emission reduction is perhaps currently not the most pressing air quality problem in South Africa. While the focus should then be on reducing emissions of other pollutants which have a greater impact on human health, mercury emission reduction

  19. Future CO2 emissions and electricity generation from proposed coal-fired power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Christine; Fofrich, Robert; Davis, Steven J.

    2017-04-01

    With its growing population, industrializing economy, and large coal reserves, India represents a critical unknown in global projections of future CO2 emissions. Here, we assess proposed construction of coal-fired power plants in India and evaluate their implications for future emissions and energy production in the country. As of mid-2016, 243 gigawatts (GW) of coal-fired generating capacity are under development in India, including 65 GW under construction and an additional 178 GW proposed. These under-development plants would increase the coal capacity of India's power sector by 123% and, when combined with the country's goal to produce at least 40% of its power from non-fossil sources by 2030, exceed the country's projected future electricity demand. The current proposals for new coal-fired plants could therefore either "strand" fossil energy assets (i.e., force them to retire early or else operate at very low capacity factors) and/or ensure that the goal is not met by "locking-out" new, low-carbon energy infrastructure. Similarly, future emissions from the proposed coal plants would also exceed the country's climate commitment to reduce its 2005 emissions intensity 33% to 35% by 2030, which—when combined with the commitments of all other countries—is itself not yet ambitious enough to meet the international goal of holding warming well below 2°C relative to the pre-industrial era.

  20. Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorović Gordana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 238U in the soil around the open coal mine and the coal processing installations (66.4-76.0 Bq/kg and in the soil around the coal-fired power stations (55.5-61.2 Bq/kg were not significantly higher than the average values in Serbia. The significant increase in the activity concentrations of natural radioisotopes in the samples of soil, vegetation, and animal products, was not confirmed. Food of animal origin used in human consumption is safe, i. e. not contaminated by radiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003 i br. TR34013

  1. Committed CO2 Emissions of China's Coal-fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suqin, J.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of global warming is determined by the cumulative effects of CO2 in the atmosphere. Coal-fired power plants, the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emissions, produce large amount of CO2 emissions during their lifetimes of operation (committed emissions), which thus influence the future carbon emission space under specific targets on mitigating climate change (e.g., the 2 degree warming limit relative to pre-industrial levels). Comprehensive understanding of committed CO2 emissions for coal-fired power generators is urgently needed in mitigating global climate change, especially in China, the largest global CO2emitter. We calculated China's committed CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generators installed during 1993-2013 and evaluated their impact on future emission spaces at the provincial level, by using local specific data on the newly installed capacities. The committed CO2 emissions are calculated as the product of the annual coal consumption from newly installed capacities, emission factors (CO2emissions per unit crude coal consumption) and expected lifetimes. The sensitivities about generators lifetimes and the drivers on provincial committed emissions are also analyzed. Our results show that these relatively recently installed coal-fired power generators will lead to 106 Gt of CO2 emissions over the course of their lifetimes, which is more than three times the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in 2010. More than 80% (85 Gt) of their total committed CO2 will be emitted after 2013, which are referred to as the remaining emissions. Due to the uncertainties of generators lifetime, these remaining emissions would increase by 45 Gt if the lifetimes of China's coal-fired power generators were prolonged by 15 years. Furthermore, the remaining emissions are very different among various provinces owing to local developments and policy disparities. Provinces with large amounts of secondary industry and abundant coal reserves have higher committed

  2. Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations.

  3. Report on Geothermal Power Plant Cost and Comparative Cost of Geothermal and Coal Fired Steam Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This report is to be used by Utah Power and Light Company (UP and L) in making studies of geothermal power plants. The dollars per kilowatt comparison between a geothermal plant and a UP and L coal-fired plant is to be developed. Geothermal gathering system costs and return to owner are to be developed for information.

  4. The advanced super critical 700{sup o}C pulverized coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S.; Klauke, F.; Vanstone, R.; Zeijseink, A.; Weissinger, G.; Kristensen, P.; Meier, J.; Blum, R.; Wieghardt, K. [Tech-Wise A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{sup o}C PF Power Plant'. The first phase started in 1998 based on a grant from the Commission's Thermie programme under the 4th Framework programme. The overall objective of the project is to ensure a role for coal in Europe also in future. The project's targets renewedpublic and political acceptance of coal by improving efficiency and economy of well-proven, super critical pulverised coal-fired technology. Net efficiencies of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{sup o}C. Principal efforts are based on development of creep resistant - and expensive - nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. Three benchmarks for theinvestigations have been set up: (i) the net efficiency of the demonstration plant from the present state of the art performance of 44% will be boosted into the range of 50-51% for a plant located inland with a cooling tower and 53-54% for the best seawater-cooled versions. (ii) reductions of investment cost of PF power plant by revising the overall architecture of the plant. (iii) Co-firing of up to 20% biomass with coal. The Advanced 700{sup o}C PF power plant project (or AD700) will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation and give a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Wang; Tsunemi Watanabe; Zhiwei Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much hig...

  6. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship

  7. Environmental Radiation from a Coal-fired Power Plant Using Domestically Produced Coals

    OpenAIRE

    PAO-SHU, CHANG; TIEH-CHI, CHU; YU-MING, LIN; Health Physics Division, National Tsing Hua University; Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Station Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan Kaohsiung

    1982-01-01

    Environmental samples of ditch soil, ditch water, sea water, and sands were taken from a 280-MWe coal-fired power plant with a daily coal consumption of 2800 tons. Fly and bottom ashes were also taken from the same power plant. A 30 cm^3 Ge(Li) detector coupled with a well-shielded and computer-aided multichannel analyzer was used to determine the radio-nuclides in environmental samples and ashes. Coal samples of North Taiwan with an ash to coal ratio of 1:4 were also investigated. Four major...

  8. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  9. Exergetic and Parametric Study of a Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar-aided coal-fired power plant realizes the integration of a fossil fuel (coal or gas and clean energy (solar. In this paper, a conventional 600 MW coal-fired power plant and a 600 MW solar-aided coal-fired power plant have been taken as the study case to understand the merits of solar-aided power generation (SAPG technology. The plants in the case study have been analyzed by using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics principles. The solar irradiation and load ratio have been considered in the analysis. We conclude that if the solar irradiation was 925 W/m2 and load ratio of the SAPG plant was 100%, the exergy efficiency would be 44.54% and the energy efficiency of the plant (46.35%. It was found that in the SAPG plant the largest exergy loss was from the boiler, which accounted for about 76.74% of the total loss. When the load ratio of the unit remains at 100%, and the solar irradiation varies from 500 W/m2 to 1,100 W/m2, the coal savings would be in the range of 8.6 g/kWh to 15.8 g/kWh. If the solar irradiation were kept at 925 W/m2 while the load ratio of the plant changed from 30% to 100%, the coal savings could be in the range of 11.99 g/kWh to 13.75 g/kWh.

  10. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Sreepradha; Panda, Rames Chandra; Swaminathan, Bhuvaneswari Natrajan

    2017-06-01

    The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The dependability of the process variable (temperature) on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) supported by DOE (design of experiments) are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant.

  11. CO sub 2 emissions from coal-fired and solar electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, F.; Norton, P.; Brown, D.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents estimates of the lifetime carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired, photovoltaic, and solar thermal electric power plants in the United States. These CO{sub 2} estimates are based on a net energy analysis derived from both operational systems and detailed design studies. It appears that energy conservation measures and shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources have significant long-term potential to reduce carbon dioxide production caused by energy generation and thus mitigate global warming. The implications of these results for a national energy policy are discussed. 40 refs., 8 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Impact of selected parameters on the behaviour of mercury in pulverised coal-fired power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorwarth, Harald [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Stuttgart (DE). Process Engineering Operation and Maintenance Services (TQT)

    2010-07-01

    At coal-fired thermal power stations fuel is fed to the system. With the fuel organic but also inorganic substances and trace elements like mercury are fed to the process, too. Mercury can leave the system with the bottom ash or fly ash, with gypsum or waste-water via the flue gas desulphurisation plant or with the clean gas through the stack. The behaviour of mercury in the system is influenced by a number of different parameters, the meaning and influence of which are being presented and discussed. (orig.)

  13. CO2 post-combustion capture in coal-fired power plants integrated with solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapellucci, R.; Giordano, L.; Vaccarelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the World's primary energy consumption is still based on fossil fuels, representing the largest source of global CO2 emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), such emissions must be significantly reduced in order to avoid the dramatic consequences of global warming. A potential way to achieve this ambitious goal is represented by the implementation of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies. However, the significant amount of energy required by the CCS systems still represents one the major barriers for their deployment. Focusing on post-combustion capture based on amine absorption, several interesting options have been investigated to compensate the energy losses due to solvent regeneration, also using renewable energy sources. One of the most promising is based on the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), providing a part of the energy requirement of the capture island. In this study the integration of a CSP system into a coal-fired power plant with CO2 postcombustion capture is investigated. Basically, a CSP system is used to support the heat requirement for amine regeneration, by producing saturated steam at low temperature. This allows to reduce or even eliminate the conventional steam extraction from the main power plant, affecting positively net power production and efficiency. The energy analysis of the whole system is carried out using the GateCycle software to simulate the coal-fired power plant and ChemCad platform for the CO2 capture process based on amine absorption.

  14. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  15. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, I.M. [Shell Coal International, London (United Kingdom); Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  16. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides was determined and analyzed to show the relations between the specific activities in the soil and soil properties and the most influential factors of natural radionuclide variability were identified. The radiological indices for surface soil were calculated and radiological risk assessment was performed. The measured specific activities were similar to values of background levels for Serbia. The sampling depth did not show any significant influence on specific activities of natural radionuclides. The strongest predictor of specific activities of the investigated radionuclides was soil granulometry. All parameters of radiological risk assessment were below the recommended values and adopted limits. It appears that the coal-fired power plant does not have a significant impact on the spatial and vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in the area of interest, but technologically enhanced natural radioactivity as a consequence of the plant operations was identified within the first 1.5 km from the power plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. III43009 i br. III41005

  17. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  18. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study

  19. Trace elements emission from coal-fired power stations in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J.A.; Wong-Moreno, A.; Romo-Millares, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents partial results of work currently in progress to determine trace elements emissions associated with the coal combustion from coal-fired power stations in Mexico. It shows the progress of the first year of a five-year project, supported by the Mexican Ministry of Energy with the aim of developing methods to obtain representative samples, perform reliable analysis and produce accurate quantification and classification of these emissions. A description of the sampling procedures and analysis performed to the coal, bottom ash, fly ash and total suspended particles in flue gas are given. Some results are provided and discussed as an example of the large amount of information that will be analyzed in the future to produce conclusions regarding trace elements from coal fired stations in Mexico. Elements such as Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cobalt, Selenium, Atimony, Vanadium, Barium, Strontium, Boron and Molybdenum were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Flame AAS, Hydride Generation AAS and Cold Vapor AAS. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalysis (SEM-EDX) was also used to identify some of the elements.

  20. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  1. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  2. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed-cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy-conversion power systems. The direct coal-fired MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. Emphasis is placed on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed-cycle MHD analysis. It is concluded that closed-cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open-cycle MHD. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open-cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower-cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed-cycle MHD components and systems are made.

  3. Air quality measurements in the coal-fired power plant environment of Colstrip, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwick, J.D.; Weber, D.B.; Olsen, K.B.; Garcia, S.R.

    1979-07-01

    A network of up to six air monitoring and sampling stations were operated 4 to 23 km downwind of the 700 MW coal-fired power plants at Colstrip, Montana. Continuous monitoring identified background SO/sub 2/ levels in the surrounding air at approximately 1 ppB (2.3 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/). Average air concentrations measured in 1978 throughout the network increased to about 2 ppB (4.6 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/) as a result of power plant operations. Meteorological and aerosol correlations with SO/sub 2/ concentrations helped identify and isolate the major source. The high sensitivity for SO/sub 2/ measurement provided resolution of all significant power plant plume fumigations at ground level. The magnitude of SO/sub 2/ exposures were higher than predicted in this rough terrain environment.

  4. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  5. Methodology Used in the Radiological Assessment of a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan C.; Corbacho, Jose A.; Robles, Beatriz; Baeza, Antonio; Cancio, David; Suañez, Ana M.

    2008-08-01

    A radiological assessment of the workers and the public potentially affected by the operation of the Teruel Coal-fired Power Plant (the UPT Teruel), was performed under realistic assumptions. This assessment is part of a wider study to characterize the potential radiological impact of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), in which our team, integrated by University of Extremadura and CIEMAT, is carrying out the study on coal-fired power plants sponsored by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). The study comprises the four biggest coal-fired power plants in Spain. Taking into account the working conditions and the plant specifications, six groups of workers were defined, established considering the 17 working tasks that could be of any importance for this assessment. For the public, considering that the area is barely inhabited, two different recreational scenarios were defined. Therefore, in-plant and outside measurements, needed for the assessment of each scenario, were carried out. Where experimental data were not available or measurements ranged within the natural background radiation values, modelling has been used. Every measured or estimated activity concentration in coal and other used materials or in the by-products generated in the power plant, for every radionuclide in the natural chains of 238U, 232Th and 40K, were below 0.32 Bq g-1. Those values are under the 0.5 Bq g-1 reference value for exemption and clearance of 238U, 232Th and 226Ra and the 5 Bq g-1 for 40K recommended in Europe. In the dose evaluations for six groups of workers, a maximum of 21 μSv a-1 was obtained (mainly due to the inhalation of resuspended particles). For both considered scenarios for the public, all the evaluated doses were below 4.3 μSv a-1. These results are considered negligible from a radiological point of view. In this work the models and assumptions used for the evaluation of workers and public doses, the assessment, as well as the most relevant

  6. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B. [Coal Tech Corp., Merion Station, PA (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  7. Cost analysis of a coal-fired power plant using the NPV method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Sharma, Avdhesh Kr.; Tewari, P. C.

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the impact of various factors affecting coal-fired power plant economics of 210 MW subcritical unit situated in north India for electricity generation. In this paper, the cost data of various units of thermal power plant in terms of power output capacity have been fitted using power law with the help of the data collected from a literature search. To have a realistic estimate of primary components or equipment, it is necessary to include the latest cost of these components. The cost analysis of the plant was carried out on the basis of total capital investment, operating cost and revenue. The total capital investment includes the total direct plant cost and total indirect plant cost. Total direct plant cost involves the cost of equipment (i.e. boiler, steam turbine, condenser, generator and auxiliary equipment including condensate extraction pump, feed water pump, etc.) and other costs associated with piping, electrical, civil works, direct installation cost, auxiliary services, instrumentation and controls, and site preparation. The total indirect plant cost includes the cost of engineering and set-up. The net present value method was adopted for the present study. The work presented in this paper is an endeavour to study the influence of some of the important parameters on the lifetime costs of a coal-fired power plant. For this purpose, parametric study with and without escalation rates for a period of 35 years plant life was evaluated. The results predicted that plant life, interest rate and the escalation rate were observed to be very sensitive on plant economics in comparison to other factors under study.

  8. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior

    2004-04-30

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the available data from laboratory, pilot and full-scale SCR units was reviewed, leading to hypotheses about the mechanism for mercury oxidation by SCR catalysts.

  9. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior

    2004-10-29

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  10. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much higher than that of a biomass power plant, 0.00012 US$/kWh. The external cost of coal-fired power generation is as much as 90% of the current price of electricity generated by coal, while the external cost of a biomass power plant is 1/1000 of the current price of electricity generated by biomass. In addition, for a biomass power plant, the external cost associated with SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 are particularly lower than those of a coal-fired power plant. The prospect of establishing precise estimations for external cost mechanisms and sustainable energy policies is discussed to show a possible direction for future energy schemes in China. The paper has significant value for supporting the biomass power industry and taxing or regulating coal-fired power industry to optimize the energy structure in China.

  11. The fate of trace elements at coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meij, R. (N.V. KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    After the reintroduction of coal as a fuel for power plants, KEMA started an extensive research programme on the fate of (trace) elements at coal-fired power plants. In this research programme the element concentrations of coal, bottom ash, pulverized-fuel ash (PFA, ash collected in the ESPs), fly ash (as present in the flue gases downstream of the ESP) were studied, Also, ample attention was given to minor and trace elements present in the vapour phase in the flue gases downstream of the ESP (As, B, Br, Cl, F, Hg, I, Se). An important aim in this research programme is to establish the relationship between the elements in the different streams. For this purpose mass balances were determined to obtain a good impression of the accuracy of the measurements. A total of sixteen campaigns was performed. Nowadays all large coal-fired power plants in the Netherlands are equipped with wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plants. In one campaign the fate of (trace) elements in such an installation was studied in detail. It appeared that 90% of the total particulate matter in the FGD plant was removed, but that the fly dust emitted consisted of about 40% fly ash and that gypsum was the major source. 50% of the fly dust emitted originates in evaporated droplets. In a wet FGD plant the gaseous inorganic trace elements are (partly) removed as well. The removal of these elements was measured at all FGD plants in the Netherlands. The (heavy) metals are introduced in the FGD plant partly by the flue gases, but primarily by the limestone. The gaseous elements are mainly introduced by the flue gases. The (heavy) metals leave the FGD through the following channels, in order of decreasing importance: the gypsum, the sludge, the waste-water effluent (the majority of the gaseous elements) and the flue gases (only a few gaseous elements). 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Mohsin, Muhammad [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  13. Income risk of EU coal-fired power plants after Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis M. Abadie; Jose M. Chamorro [Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants enjoy a significant advantage relative to gas plants in terms of cheaper fuel cost. This advantage may erode (or turn into disadvantage) depending on CO{sub 2} emission allowance price. Financial risks are further reinforced when the price of electricity is determined by natural gas-fired plants' marginal costs. We aim to empirically assess the risks in EU coal plants' margins up to the year 2020. Parameter values are derived from actual market data. Monte Carlo simulation allows the expected value and risk profile of coal plants' earnings to be computed. Future allowance prices may spell significant risks on utilities' balance sheets. 32 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs., 2 apps.

  14. Income risk of EU coal-fired power plants after Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Luis M. [Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, Gran Via, 30, 48009 Bilbao (Spain); Chamorro, Jose M. [University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, Av. Lehendakari Aguirre, 83,48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants enjoy a significant advantage relative to gas plants in terms of cheaper fuel cost. This advantage may erode (or turn into disadvantage) depending on CO{sub 2} emission allowance price. Financial risks are further reinforced when the price of electricity is determined by natural gas-fired plants' marginal costs. We aim to empirically assess the risks in EU coal plants' margins up to the year 2020. Parameter values are derived from actual market data. Monte Carlo simulation allows compute the expected value and risk profile of coal plants' earnings. Future allowance prices may spell significant risks on utilities' balance sheets. (author)

  15. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  16. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  17. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  18. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  19. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  20. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Novel Functionally Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings in Coal-Fired Power Plant Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project presents a detailed investigation of a novel functionally graded coating material, pyrochlore oxide, for thermal barrier coating (TBC) in gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Thermal barrier coatings are refractory materials deposited on gas turbine components, which provide thermal protection for metallic components at operating conditions. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a manufacturing process to produce the novel low thermal conductivity and high thermal stability pyrochlore oxide based coatings with improved high-temperature durability. The current standard TBC, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), has service temperatures limited to <1200°C, due to sintering and phase transition at higher temperatures. In contrast, pyrochlore oxide, e.g., lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7, LZ), has demonstrated lower thermal conductivity and better thermal stability, which are crucial to high temperature applications, such as gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has collaborated with Praxair Surface Technologies (PST), and Changwon National University in South Korea to perform the proposed research. The research findings are critical to the extension of current TBCs to a broader range of high-temperature materials and applications. Several tasks were originally proposed and accomplished, with additional new opportunities identified during the course of the project. In this report, a description of the project tasks, the main findings and conclusions are given. A list of publications and presentations resulted from this research is listed in the Appendix at the end of the report.

  2. An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

    2000-02-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system.

  3. Applications of oxygen for NOx control and CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Châtel-Pélage Fabienne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two promising combustion modification approaches applicable to pulverized coal fired boilers are presented: "Oxygen-Enriched Combustion" (OEC for NOx control and "Oxy-Combustion" (PC-OC for CO2 capture. Oxygen-enriched air rather than air is used as an oxidizer in the OEC technology. Unlike flue gas treatment technologies, OEC directly impacts the NOx formation process by significantly reducing the conversion of coal bound nitrogen to NOx. Pilot-scale and full-scale tests have shown 20 to 30% NOx reduction from an optimized staged-air baseline. In addition to the overall cost competitiveness and the reduced capital requirements, other significant advantages of the O2-enriched technology vs. existing low NOx technologies are presented. The PC-OC technology is shown as a cost-effective technology for CO2 capture from existing or new coal-fired power plants. Pure oxygen diluted in recycled flue gases is used as an oxidizer. The process has been successfully demonstrated and extensively characterized at pilot-scale level (1.5 MWt. The tests have shown substantial benefits of the PC-OC technology, in terms of NOx reduction (60-70% from air-baseline, overall plant efficiency, etc. The cost effectiveness of this capture technology compared to competitive amine scrubbing technology was investigated. The cost of CO2 avoided was around $36/ton for the new PC-OC cases, about $48/ton on a retrofit PC-OC case, which is about 25 to 40% cheaper than the amine scrubbing system. Those numbers were calculated for sub-critical units and include the cost of CO2 compression up to 80 bar. .

  4. RAM investigation of coal-fired thermal power plants: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bose

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous generation of electricity of a power plant depends on the higher availability of its components/equipments. Higher availability of the components/equipments is inherently associated with their higher reliability and maintainability. This paper investigates the reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM characteristics of a 210 MW coal-fired thermal power plant (Unit-2 from a thermal power station in eastern region of India. Critical mechanical subsystems with respect to failure frequency, reliability and maintainability are identified for taking necessary measures for enhancing availability of the power plant and the results are compared with Unit-1 of the same Power Station. Reliability-based preventive maintenance intervals (PMIs at various reliability levels of the subsystems are estimated also for performing their preventive maintenance (PM. The present paper highlights that in the Unit-2, Economizer (ECO & Furnace Wall Tube (FWT exhibits lower reliability as compared to the other subsystems and Economizer (ECO & Baffle Wall Tube (BWT demands more improvement in maintainability. Further, it has been observed that FSH followed Decreasing Failure Rate (DFR and Economizer (ECO is the most critical subsystem for both the plants. RAM analysis is very much effective in finding critical subsystems and deciding their preventive maintenance program for improving availability of the power plant as well as the power supply.

  5. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  6. The modernization potential of gas turbines in the coal-fired power industry thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of repowering the existing condensing power stations by means of  gas turbogenerators offers an important opportunity to considerably improvement of their energy efficiency. The Modernization Potential of Gas turbines in the Coal-Fired Power Industry presents the methodology, calculation procedures and tools used to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to dual-fuel gas-steam combined-cycle technologies. Both the conceptual and practical aspects of the conversion of existing coal-fired power plants is covered. Discussions of the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and possible methods are supported by chapters presenting equations of energy efficiency for the conditions of repowering a power unit by installing a gas turbogenerator in a parallel system and the results of technical calculations involving the selection heating structures of heat recovery steam generators. A methodology for analyzing thermodynamic and economic effectiveness for the selection of a structure...

  7. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  8. Pollution control technologies applied to coal-fired power plant operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Rozpondek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Burning of fossil fuels is the major source of energy in today's global economy with over one-third of the world's powergeneration derived from coal combustion. Although coal has been a reliable, abundant, and relatively inexpensive fuel source for mostof the 20th century, its future in electric power generation is under increasing pressure as environmental regulations become morestringent worldwide. Current pollution control technologies for combustion exhaust gas generally treat the release of regulatedpollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as three separate problems instead of as parts of one problem. Newand improved technologies have greatly reduced the emissions produced per ton of burning coal. The term “Clean Coal CombustionTechnology” applies generically to a range of technologies designed to greatly reduce the emissions from coal-fired power plants.The wet methods of desulfurization at present are the widest applied technology in professional energetics. This method is economicand gives good final results but a future for clean technologies is the biomass. Power from biomass is a proven commercial optionof the electricity generation in the World. An increasing number of power marketers are starting to offer environmentally friendlyelectricity, including biomass power, in response to the consumer demand and regulatory requirements.

  9. Comparative energetic and exergetic performance analyses for coal-fired thermal power plants in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, H.H.; Akkaya, A.V.; Cetin, B.; Dagdas, A.; Sevilgen, S.H.; Sahin, B.; Teke, I.; Gungor, C.; Atas, S. [Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to analyze comparatively the performance of nine thermal power plants under control governmental bodies in Turkey, from energetic and exergetic viewpoint. The considered power plants are mostly conventional reheat steam power plant fed by low quality coal. Firstly, thermodynamic models of the plants are developed based on first and second law of thermodynamics. Secondly, some energetic simulation results of the developed models are compared with the design values of the power plants in order to demonstrate the reliability. Thirdly, design point performance analyses based on energetic and exergetic performance criteria such as thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, exergy loss, exergetic performance coefficient are performed for all considered plants in order to make comprehensive evaluations. Finally, by means of these analyses, the main sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies as well as reasonable comparison of each plant to others are identified and discussed. As a result, the outcomes of this study can provide a basis used for plant performance improvement for the considered coal-fired thermal power plants.

  10. The fate and behavior of mercury in coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meij, Ruud; Vredenbregt, Leo H J; te Winkel, Henk

    2002-08-01

    For the past 22 years in the Netherlands, the behavior of Hg in coal-fired power plants has been studied extensively. Coal from all over the world is fired in Dutch power stations. First, the Hg concentrations in these coals were measured. Second, the fate of the Hg during combustion was established by performing mass balance studies. On average, 43 +/- 30% of the Hg was present in the flue gases downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP; dust collector). In individual cases, this figure can vary between 1 and 100%. Important parameters are the Cl content of the fuel and the flue gas temperature in the ESP. On average, 54 +/- 24% of the gaseous Hg was removed in the wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, which are present at all Dutch coal-power stations. In individual cases, this removal can vary between 8% (outlier) and 72%. On average, the fate of Hg entering the power station in the coal was as follows: plant, 0.04% in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.07% in fly dust (leaving the stack), and 25% as gaseous Hg in the flue gases and emitted into the air. The distribution of Hg over the streams leaving the FGD depends strongly on the installation. On average, 75% of the Hg was removed, and the final concentration of Hg in the emitted flue gases of the Dutch power stations was only -3 microg/m3(STP) at 6% O2. During co-combustion with biomass, the removal of Hg was similar to that during 100% coal firing. Speciation of Hg is a very important factor. An oxidized form (HgCl2) favors a high degree of removal. The conversion from Hg0 to HgCl2 is positively correlated with the Cl content of the fuel. A catalytic DENOX (SCR) favors the formation of oxidized Hg, and, in combination with a wet FGD, the total removal can be as high as 90%.

  11. Consequences of low operation for coal-fired power plants; Konsequenzen der Schwachlastfahrweise fuer das gesamte Kohlekraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, Wolfgang A.; Brueggendick, Hermann [STEAG Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the increasing share of renewable energy, it could be assumed that in future conventional power plants will have more frequent outages in order to compensate the volatile renewable energies and therefore contribute to the stabilisation of the transmission grid. The resulting modes of operation of coal-fired power plants will have consequences for coal handling at the plant site, furnace, turbine, and flue gas cleaning equipment. Major aspects are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  12. Benefits of coal-fired power generation with flexible CCS in a future northwest European power system with large scale wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wijk, Pieter Cornelis; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Slot, Thijs; Stienstra, Gerard; Van der Veen, Wim; Faaij, André P C

    Coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is projected as a cost-effective technology to decarbonize the power sector. Intermittent renewables could reduce its load factor and revenues, so flexible capture unit operation strategies (flexible CCS) have been suggested to

  13. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from selected U.S. coal production regions and coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.

    2016-12-01

    Coal and natural gas each fueled 33% of the total electric power generated in the United States in 2015. Combined-cycle natural-gas-fired power plants emit less than half of the carbon dioxide per unit power produced than do coal-fired power plants. However, methane emissions prior to combustion as fuel must also be accounted for in order to determine the total greenhouse gas footprint of a fuel type choice. While many studies over the past few years have focused on methane emissions associated with natural gas production and its use, relatively few studies have focused on methane emissions associated with coal production and its use in coal-fired power plants. We present airborne methane data from two studies to quantify emissions from coal production regions in Alabama and Wyoming. We additionally quantify carbon dioxide and methane emissions from several coal-fired power plants. Our top-down emission estimates are then compared to the EPA greenhouse gas inventory when possible.

  14. Natural radionuclides in waste water discharged from coal-fired power plants in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Sarap, Nataša B; Krneta Nikolić, Jelena D; Rajačić, Milica M; Pantelić, Gordana K

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the natural radioactivity levels in water around power plants, as well as in plants, coal, ash, slag and soil, and to assess the associated radiation hazard is becoming an emerging and interesting topic. This paper is focused on the results of the radioactivity analysis in waste water samples from five coal-fired power plants in Serbia (Nikola Tesla A, Nikola Tesla B, Kolubara, Morava and Kostolac), which were analyzed in the period 2003-2015. River water samples taken upstream and downstream from the power plants, drain water and overflow water were analyzed. In the water samples gamma spectrometry analysis was performed as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activity. Natural radionuclide 40 K was detected by gamma spectrometry, while the concentrations of other radionuclides, 226 Ra, 235 U and 238 U, usually were below the minimum detection activity (MDA). 232 Th and artificial radionuclide 137 Cs were not detected in these samples. Gross alpha and beta activities were determined by the α/β low level proportional counter Thermo Eberline FHT 770 T. In the analyzed samples, gross alpha activity ranged from MDA to 0.47 Bq L - 1 , while the gross beta activity ranged from MDA to 1.55 Bq L - 1 .

  15. Direct energy balance based active disturbance rejection control for coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Hua, Qingsong; Li, Donghai; Pan, Lei; Xue, Yali; Lee, Kwang Y

    2017-09-01

    The conventional direct energy balance (DEB) based PI control can fulfill the fundamental tracking requirements of the coal-fired power plant. However, it is challenging to deal with the cases when the coal quality variation is present. To this end, this paper introduces the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) to the DEB structure, where the coal quality variation is deemed as a kind of unknown disturbance that can be estimated and mitigated promptly. Firstly, the nonlinearity of a recent power plant model is analyzed based on the gap metric, which provides guidance on how to set the pressure set-point in line with the power demand. Secondly, the approximate decoupling effect of the DEB structure is analyzed based on the relative gain analysis in frequency domain. Finally, the synthesis of the DEB based ADRC control system is carried out based on multi-objective optimization. The optimized ADRC results show that the integrated absolute error (IAE) indices of the tracking performances in both loops can be simultaneously improved, in comparison with the DEB based PI control and H∞ control system. The regulation performance in the presence of the coal quality variation is significantly improved under the ADRC control scheme. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed strategy is shown comparable with the H∞ control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior

    2004-07-30

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a review of the available data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts from small, laboratory-scale experiments, pilot-scale slipstream reactors and full-scale power plants was carried out. Data from small-scale reactors obtained with both simulated flue gas and actual coal combustion flue gas demonstrated the importance of temperature, ammonia, space velocity and chlorine on mercury oxidation across SCR catalyst. SCR catalysts are, under certain circumstances, capable of driving mercury speciation toward the gas-phase equilibrium values at SCR temperatures. Evidence suggests that mercury does not always reach equilibrium at the outlet. There may be other factors that become apparent as more data become available.

  17. The radiological impact from airborne routine discharges of a modern coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevaert, Th; Sweeck, L; Vanmarcke, H

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the radiological impact from the airborne routine discharges of a modern coal-fired power plant at Langerlo (Belgium) is evaluated. Therefore, the natural radioactivity contents of the coal and the fly-ash discharged were measured. With a bi-Gaussian plume model the maximum annual values of the 226Ra concentration in the air (4.5 nBq/m3) and of the total deposition (1.5 mBq/m2) were calculated. The transfer of the radionuclides from air and soil to the biospheric media, exposing man, were modelled and the annual, individual, effective dose to the critical group, after an assumed life span of the power plant of 70 years, was evaluated at 0.05 microSv/y. This is several orders of magnitude lower than the annual doses for most power plants reported in the literature. The flue gas purification system, extended with a denitrification unit and a desulphurisation unit, was found to be the basis for this low impact.

  18. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Isotopic Variations of Mercury Emitted by Coal Fired Power Plant Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, S. N.; Odom, L.; Landing, W.

    2010-12-01

    Emission of mercury from the burning of coal is considered one of the important anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury. Along with current measurements of the isotopic composition of atmospheric mercury being conducted in our laboratory, we have analyzed mercury emitted from a coal fired power plant. Previously Biswas and others (2008) had reported variations in the isotopic composition of mercury in a number of samples of coal deposits. Since the combustion of coal is expected to release virtually all of its mercury, we anticipated comparable isotopc patterns in coal and total emmited mercury. The emitted mercury exists in various physical and chemical forms, each possessing distinct properties that affect atmospheric transport, and sampling methods. Flue gas has been sampled in the stack of a coal fired electric power plant. The Ontario Hydro method was used to trap mercury in flue gases. The method uses oxidant solutions (KCl, H2O2-HNO3 and KMnO4-H2SO4) in its sampling train. This method is the modification of EPA method 29 with the use of KCl in the sampling train. Hg (II) is captured in the KCl impingers, while Hg (0) is captured in H2O2-HNO3 and KMnO4-H2SO4 impingers that oxidize elemental to Hg (ll) (EPA Draft, 1999). In addition gaseous reactive mercury was sampled downwind in large volume rain samples. Mercury (Hg+2) in sample solutions was reduced with SnCl2, and the generated Hg(0) vapor carried by Ar gas into the source of a NEPTUNE ICPMS-MC. Isotope ratios were measured by standard-sample bracketing and reported as permil deviations from the SRM NIST-3133 values. The measurement shows a small range of values of odd isotopes for mass independent fractionation which is negligible, However it displays the wide range of mass dependent fractionation (δ198 Hg -1.239 to 2.294). We found that samples in KCl impingers are light isotope enriched and depleted in heavy isotopes, while in KMnO4 impingers these are reverse.

  1. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shindell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2 and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low-sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogenaities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by

  2. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Draft quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal-Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. A crucial aspect of the authors design is the integration of the gas turbine requirements with the HITAF output and steam cycle requirements. In order to take full advantage of modern highly efficient aeroderivative gas turbines they have carried out a large number of cycle calculations to optimize their commercial plant designs for both greenfield and repowering applications.

  3. The Potential of CO2 Capture and Storage Technology in South Africa’s Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin O. Yoro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global atmospheric concentration of anthropogenic gases, such as carbon dioxide, has increased substantially over the past few decades due to the high level of industrialization and urbanization that is occurring in developing countries, like South Africa. This has escalated the challenges of global warming. In South Africa, carbon capture and storage (CCS from coal-fired power plants is attracting increasing attention as an alternative approach towards the mitigation of carbon dioxide emission. Therefore, innovative strategies and process optimization of CCS systems is essential in order to improve the process efficiency of this technology in South Africa. This review assesses the potential of CCS as an alternative approach to reducing the amount CO2 emitted from the South African coal-fired power plants. It examines the various CCS processes that could be used for capturing the emitted CO2. Finally, it proposes the use of new adsorbents that could be incorporated towards the improvement of CCS technology.

  4. A systematic approach to assessing measurement uncertainty for CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Claas; Esbensen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    on extensive empirical sampling experiments, a fully comprehensive uncertainty estimate procedure has been devised. Even though uncertainties increased (indeed one particular factor is substantially higher, the so-called “emission factor”), the revised CO2 emission budget for the case plant complies......An augmented measurement uncertainty approach for CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants with a focus on the often forgotten contributions from sampling errors occurring over the entire fuel-to-emission pathway is presented. Current methods for CO2 emission determination are evaluated in detail......, from which a general matrix scheme is developed that includes all factors and stages needed for total CO2 determination, which is applied to the monitoring plan of a representative medium-sized coal-fired power plant. In particular sampling involved significant potential errors, as identified...

  5. Development and implementation of bottom ash crushing system in Submerged Scrapper Conveyor (SSC for Coal-fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Ismail Firas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Submerged Scrapper Conveyor (SSC in coal-fired power plant is to handle the by-product of bottom ash. However, soot-blowing will be performed sometimes, in order to remove slag formed at the boiler furnace wall. Thence, this lead to a sudden loading of large amount of slags and bottom ash at SSC after soot-blowing, causing SSC conveying system to jam and conveying chain breakage. In this paper, a new SSC design with additional crushing system is proposed. By implementing the new design proposed, it is expected to improve the overall current performances, and to reduce the trip issue of SSC in coal-fired power plant. The new 3D model of SSC is designed, and stress-strain simulation of the model is analysed by using software of PTC Creo Parametric. Final cost and safety factor analysis of model is made to prove its validation.

  6. [Accumulation and health risks of heavy metals in vegetables around a typical coal-fired power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiali; Zhang, Xinwei; Tang, Zhenwu

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the impacts of heavy metals from coal-fired power plant on the safety of the surrounding vegetables. Accumulation and distribution characteristics of six metals in the vegetables around a typical coal-fired power plant were investigated and the human risks were assessed using health risk assessment model. In the ten kinds of vegetables, the standard-exceeding rates of Cu were 17.4%, 14.3% and 14.3% in leaf, leguminous and solanaceous fruit vegetables, respectively. In leaf vegetables, the standard-exceeding rates of Hg and Cr were 21.7%, 17.4%, respectively. Heavy metals in the other vegetables were below the food safety standards of China. The non-carcinogenic risk value from exposure to vegetable Cu was 1.09 for children, but those from other five metals were less than 1.0 for both adults and children. However, the health risk levels of multiclass metals in the vegetables were 2.18 and 3.00, for adults and children, respectively. Around the coal-fired power plant, the metal levels in the vegetables were relatively lower, indicating there was no serious vegetable pollution from the power plant. There are on no obvious health hazards from exposure to vegetable metals, excluding Cu. But the risk of multiclass metals in the vegetables should be of great concern.

  7. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Narcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. a.; Corbacho, J. a.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Narcea coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  8. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  9. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  10. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  11. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorneloe, Susan A; Kosson, David S; Sanchez, Florence; Garrabrants, Andrew C; Helms, Gregory

    2010-10-01

    Changes in emissions control at U.S. coal-fired power plants will shift metals content from the flue gas to the air pollution control (APC) residues. To determine the potential fate of metals that are captured through use of enhanced APC practices, the leaching behavior of 73 APC residues was characterized following the approach of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework. Materials were tested over pH conditions and liquid-solid ratios expected during management via land disposal or beneficial use. Leachate concentrations for most metals were highly variable over a range of coal rank, facility configurations, and APC residue types. Liquid-solid partitioning (equilibrium) as a function of pH showed significantly different leaching behavior for similar residue types and facility configurations. Within a facility, the leaching behavior of blended residues was shown to follow one of four characteristic patterns. Variability in metals leaching was greater than the variability in totals concentrations by several orders of magnitude, inferring that total content is not predictive of leaching behavior. The complex leaching behavior and lack of correlation to total contents indicates that release evaluation under likely field conditions is a better descriptor of environmental performance than totals content or linear partitioning approaches.

  12. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard), coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustor; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  13. Novel catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in electrostatic precipitators of coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoruiko, Andrey; Balzhinimaev, Bair; Vanag, Sergey; Goncharov, Vladimir; Lopatin, Sergey; Zykov, Alexander; Anichkov, Sergey; Zhukov, Yurii; Yankilevich, Vassily; Proskokov, Nikolay; Hutson, Nick

    2010-08-01

    One of the most important environmental protection problems for coal-fired power plants is prevention of atmospheric pollution of flying ash. The ash particles are typically removed from flue gases by means of electrostatic precipitators, for which the efficiency may be significantly increased by lowering the resistance of fly ash, which may be achieved by controlled addition of microamounts of sulfur trioxide (SO3) into the flue gases. This paper describes the novel technology for production of SO3 by sulfur dioxide (SO2) oxidation using the combined catalytic system consisting of conventional vanadium catalyst and novel platinum catalyst on the base of silicazirconia glass-fiber supports. This combination provides highly efficient SO, oxidation in a wide temperature range with achievement of high SO, conversion. The performed pilot tests have demonstrated reliable and stable operation, excellent resistance of the novel catalytic system to deactivation, and high overall efficiency of the proposed process. The scale of the plant was equivalent to the commercial prototype; therefore, no further scale-up of the oxidation process is required.

  14. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  15. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  16. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  17. Burden of Disease from Rising Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplitz, Shannon N; Jacob, Daniel J; Sulprizio, Melissa P; Myllyvirta, Lauri; Reid, Colleen

    2017-02-07

    Southeast Asia has a very high population density and is on a fast track to economic development, with most of the growth in electricity demand currently projected to be met by coal. From a detailed analysis of coal-fired power plants presently planned or under construction in Southeast Asia, we project in a business-as-usual scenario that emissions from coal in the region will triple to 2.6 Tg a-1 SO2 and 2.6 Tg a-1 NOx by 2030, with the largest increases occurring in Indonesia and Vietnam. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model show large resulting increases in surface air pollution, up to 11 μg m-3 for annual mean fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in northern Vietnam and up to 15 ppb for seasonal maximum 1 h ozone in Indonesia. We estimate 19 880 (11 400-28 400) excess deaths per year from Southeast Asian coal emissions at present, increasing to 69 660 (40 080-126 710) by 2030. 9000 of these excess deaths in 2030 are in China. As Chinese emissions from coal decline in coming decades, transboundary pollution influence from rising coal emissions in Southeast Asia may become an increasing issue.

  18. Distributions of 210Pb around a uraniferous coal-fired power plant in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğur, A; Ozden, B; Yener, G; Saç, M M; Kurucu, Y; Altinbaş, U; Bolca, M

    2009-02-01

    In the present study the spatial and the vertical distributions of 210Pb were investigated in the soils around a uranifereous coal fired power plant (CPP) in Yatagan Basin, in Western Turkey. The variation of 226Ra activity along the soil profiles was studied to assess the unsupported 210Pb distribution in the same samples. 226Ra was measured by gamma spectroscopy and 210Pb activities were determined from 210Po activities using radiochemical deposition and alpha spectroscopy. The total 210Pb activity concentrations in bulk core samples varied in the range of 38-250 Bq kg(-1) in the study sites and of 22-78 Bq kg(-1) in reference site. In the sectioned cores sampled from the study areas the ranges for activity concentrations of 226Ra, total 210Pb and unsupported 210Pb are 24-77; 39-344 and 4-313 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Corresponding ranges for reference site are 37-39; 39-122 and 1-83 Bq kg(-1).

  19. Mercury Emission Ratios from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Southeastern United States during NOMADSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jesse L; Gratz, Lynne E; Jaffe, Daniel A; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M; Knapp, David J; Stechman, Daniel M; Stell, Meghan; Weinheimer, Andrew J; Cantrell, Christopher A; Mauldin, Roy L

    2015-09-01

    We use measurements made onboard the National Science Foundation's C-130 research aircraft during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) experiment to examine total Hg (THg) emission ratios (EmRs) for six coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the southeastern U.S. We compare observed enhancement ratios (ERs) with EmRs calculated using Hg emissions data from two inventories: the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). For four CFPPs, our measured ERs are strongly correlated with EmRs based on the 2011 NEI (r(2) = 0.97), although the inventory data exhibit a -39% low bias. Our measurements agree best (to within ±32%) with the NEI Hg data when the latter were derived from on-site emissions measurements. Conversely, the NEI underestimates by approximately 1 order of magnitude the ERs we measured for one previously untested CFPP. Measured ERs are uncorrelated with values based on the 2013 TRI, which also tends to be biased low. Our results suggest that the Hg inventories can be improved by targeting CFPPs for which the NEI- and TRI-based EmRs have significant disagreements. We recommend that future versions of the Hg inventories should provide greater traceability and uncertainty estimates.

  20. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  1. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-04-01

    This is the sixth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79863, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period January 1, 1989 to March 31, 1989. Efforts this past quarter focused primarily on the preparation of a computer User's Guide for the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). Drafts of the first two chapters are now complete. These chapters constitute the bulk of this quarterly report. Drafts of the remaining chapters are in preparation, and will appear in a future report this year. We also have been working closely with DOE/PETC to define the computer configuration to be transferred to PETC as a contract deliverable. That process is now complete and the equipment is on order. Delivery of the IECM to PETC is expected during the next calendar quarter. Finally, we are continuing our efforts to develop and refine a number of clean coal technology process models. These efforts will be summarized and reported at a future date.

  2. Analysis of natural radioactivity in Yatağan coal - fired power plant in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıkulaç, Aydan; Turhan, Şeref; Gümüş, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    Use of the coal in order to generate electricity increases the exposure of people to radiation. In this paper, the activity concentrations of nuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in samples of coal and bottom ash from the Yatagan Coal-Fired thermal power plant determined using gamma ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in the coal were found to be 37.2±2.8 Bqkg-1, 51.8±3.4 Bqkg-1 and 166.7±11.1 Bqkg-1, respectively. Whereas in the bottom ashes, the concentrations of the corresponding radionuclides were found to be 62.2±5.6 Bqkg-1, 87.4±5.9 Bqkg-1 and 221.0 ±12.5 Bqkg-1, respectively. The findings show that bottom ashes show higher activity concentrations of related radionuclide to coal samples. The absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor air DROUT and annual effective dose rate (AED) from coal were calculated to define radıologıcal rısk. The average findings of annual effective doses were detected as 68.6±5.1 μSvy-1 and 110.3±11.2 μSvy-1, respectively.

  3. Reduction of particulate emission in two coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguer, X.

    1998-07-01

    Escucha and Cercs are two coal-fired power stations, each with a capacity of 160MW, which belong to FECSA. They came into operation in 1970 and 1971. Their boilers are of the once-through type and both have similar configurations. The power station at Cercs uses a mixture of local lignite, rich in calcium, together with 40% of South African coal, while that of Escucha uses local lignite, the ashes of which are predominantly silicon and aluminium oxides, together with 20% of South African coal. A change in quality of the lignite over the years has produced two consequences; on one hand, the characteristics of the ash have changed in that the resistivity of the fly ash produced at present is much higher than when the power stations were designed. On the other hand, the temperature of the gases at the boiler outlet has increased and reaches values of up to 200 C, which has also led to an increase in resistivity. These two facts have produced, as a consequence, a significant increase in the emission of particulate matter. In order to reduce the emission of particulate matter, two strategies were implanted at both power stations; a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases and a reduction of the resistivity of the fly ash. A reduction of flue gas temperature was achieved by modifying the last three tube banks of the boiler by adding another 2,500 m{sup 2} of heat exchanging surface. As a result, the temperature of the flue gases decreased to a value of 140 C, which in turn produced a notable effect on the resistivity of the ash. Furthermore, an increase in the performance of the boiler has been obtained as well as a significant reduction in the quantity of water injected into the reheater, which has also produced an increase in the performance of the power stations.

  4. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  5. 700-MW coal fired sliding pressure operation boiler with improving operational characteristics. ; Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, J.; Kiyama, K. (Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    In response to requirements of improvements of efficiency and operability to provide demand control and environmental preservation in coal fired boilers, Babcock-Hitachi has endeavored to develop a large capacity coal fired boiler. As a result, Babcock-Hitachi has installed a 700MW supercritical sliding pressure operation coal fired once through boiler at the Hekinan Thermal Power Station Unit No.2 of Chubu Electric Power Co. For this coal fired boiler, spiral water wall construction was adopted to stabilize the furnace outlet water temperature via uniform heat absorption at the furnace. A three-stage spray-type attemperator was also applied to the main steam temperature control to improve load controllability and to correspond to a fluctuation of heat absorption at the furnace and the convection pass zone. Moreover, gas recirculation system, parallel gas damper, and intermediate spray attemperator were used to control the reheat steam temperature. The present article describes design summary and results of trial operation of this large capacity coal fired boiler. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: The TERESA field results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Lawrence, Joy E.; Rohr, Annette C.; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H2SO4 aerosol from oxidation of SO2; (3) H2SO4 aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH3; (4) neutralized H2SO4 with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O3; and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 μg/m3 with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH3 with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO2 to NOx (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H2SO4 + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed. PMID:20462390

  7. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  8. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-10-31

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

  9. Mechanism and kinetics of uranium adsorption onto soil around coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasim, Nurzulaifa Shaheera Erne Mohd; Ariffin, Nik Azlin Nik; Mohammed, Noradila; Ayob, Syafina

    2017-11-01

    Coal is the largest source of energy in Malaysia providing approximately 80 % of all entire power needs. The combustion of coal concentrates a high content of heavy metals and radioactive elements in the ashes and sludge. Hazardous emissions from coal combustion were deposited into the soil and most likely transported into the groundwater system. The presence of radioactive materials in the ground water system can cause a wide range of environmental impacts and adverse health effects like cancer, impairment of neurological function and cardiovascular disease. However, the soil has a natural capability in adsorption of radioactive materials. Thus, this study was evaluated the adsorption capacity of Uranium onto the soil samples collected nearby the coal-fired power plants. In the batch experiment, parameters that were set constant include pH, the amount of soil and contact time. Various initial concentrations of radionuclides elements in the range of 2 mg/L - 10 mg/L were used. The equilibrium adsorption data was analyzed by the Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherms. Then, the influences of solution pH, contact time and temperature on the adsorption process were investigated. The kinetics of radioactive materials was discussed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equation. Thus, the data from this study could provide information about the potentiality of soil in sorption of radioactive materials that can be leached into groundwater. Besides that, this study could also be used as baseline data for future reference in the development of adsorption modeling in the calculation of distribution coefficient.

  10. Unit-based emission inventory and uncertainty assessment of coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghong; Sun, Yangyang; Wu, Xuecheng; Zhang, Yongxin; Zheng, Chenghang; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2014-12-01

    A unit-based emission inventory of coal-fired power plants in China was developed which contains unit capacity, coal consumption, emission control technology and geographical location. Estimated total emissions of SO2, NOx, particulate matter (PM) and PM2.5 in 2011 were 7251 kt, 8067 kt, 1433 kt and 622 kt, respectively. Units larger than 300 MW consumed 75% coal, while emitting 46% SO2, 58% NOx, 55% PM and 63.2% PM2.5. Emission comparisons between key regions such as the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and Shandong Province showed a general downward trend from 2005 to 2011, mainly because of the growing application ratio of desulphurisation, LNBs, denitration and dust-removal facilities. The uncertainties at unit level of SO2, NOx, PM and PM2.5 were estimated to be -10.1% ∼ +5.4%, -2.1% ∼ +4.6%, -5.7% ∼ +6.9% and -4.3% ∼ +6.5%, respectively. Meanwhile sector-based Monte Carlo simulation was conducted for better understanding of the uncertainties. Unit-based simulation yielded narrowed estimates of uncertainties, possibly caused by the neglected diversity of emission characteristics in sector-based simulation. The large number of plants narrowed unit-based uncertainties as large uncertainties were found in provinces with a small number of power plants, such as Qinghai. However, sector-based uncertainty analysis well depends on detailed source classification, because small NOx uncertainties were found in Shandong due to the detailed classification of NOx emission factors. The main uncertainty sources are discussed in the sensitivity analysis, which identifies specific needs in data investigation and field measures to improve them. Though unit-based Monte Carlo greatly narrowed uncertainties, the possibility of underestimated uncertainties at unit level cannot be ignored as the correlation of emission factors between units in the same source category was neglected.

  11. Review of the coal-fired, over-supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Shvarts, A. L.; Somova, E. V.; Verbovetskii, E. Kh.; Avrutskii, G. D.; Ermakova, S. V.; Kalugin, R. N.; Lazarev, M. V.

    2017-02-01

    The article presents a review of developments of modern high-capacity coal-fired over-supercritical (OSC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) steam power plants and their implementation. The basic engineering solutions are reported that ensure the reliability, economic performance, and low atmospheric pollution levels. The net efficiency of the power plants is increased by optimizing the heat balance, improving the primary and auxiliary equipment, and, which is the main thing, by increasing the throttle conditions. As a result of the enhanced efficiency, emissions of hazardous substances into the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, the "greenhouse" gas, are reduced. To date, the exhaust steam conditions in the world power industry are p 0 ≈ 30 MPa and t 0 = 610/620°C. The efficiency of such power plants reaches 47%. The OSC plants are being operated in Germany, Denmark, Japan, China, and Korea; pilot plants are being developed in Russia. Currently, a project of a power plant for the ultra-supercritical steam conditions p 0 ≈ 35 MPa and t 0 = 700/720°C with efficiency of approximately 50% is being studied in the EU within the framework of the Thermie AD700 program, project AD 700PF. Investigations in this field have also been launched in the United States, Japan, and China. Engineering solutions are also being sought in Russia by the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Research Institute (VTI) and the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. The stated steam parameter level necessitates application of new materials, namely, nickel-base alloys. Taking into consideration high costs of nickel-base alloys and the absence in Russia of technologies for their production and manufacture of products from these materials for steam-turbine power plants, the development of power plants for steam parameters of 32 MPa and 650/650°C should be considered to be the first stage in creating the USC plants as, to achieve the above parameters, no expensive alloys are require. To develop and

  12. China's coal-fired power plants impose pressure on water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Junguo; Tang, Yu; Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Coal is the dominant fuel for electricity generation around the world. This type of electricity generation uses large amounts of water, increasing pressure on water resources. This calls for an in-depth investigation in the water-energy nexus of coal-fired electricity generation. In China,

  13. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation are reported. A user's manual for a two-dimensional MHD generator code and performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater are given. The feedwater cooled Brayton cycle is discussed as well as the application of closed cycle MHD in an industrial cogeneration environment. Preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger and plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants are also discussed.

  14. Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2005 through August 2005. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. This report highlights new data on road dust, vegetative detritus and motor vehicle emissions. For example, the results show significant differences in the composition in urban and rural road dust. A comparison of the organic of the fine particulate matter in the tunnel with the ambient provides clear evidence of the significant contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient PM. The source profiles developed from this work are being used by the source-receptor modeling activities. The report presents results on the spatial distribution of PMF-factors. The results can be grouped into three different categories: regional sources, local sources, or potentially both regional and local sources. Examples of the regional sources are the sulfate and selenium PMF-factors which most likely-represent coal fired power plants. Examples of local sources are the specialty steel and lead factors. There is reasonable correspondence between these apportionments and data from the EPA TRI and AIRS emission inventories. Detailed comparisons between PMCAMx predictions and measurements by the STN and IMPROVE measurements in the Eastern US are presented. Comparisons were made for the major aerosol components and PM{sub 2.5} mass in July 2001, October 2001, January 2002, and April 2002. The results are encouraging with average fraction biases for most species less than 0.25. The improvement of the model performance during the last two years was mainly due to the comparison of the model predictions with the continuous measurements in the Pittsburgh Supersite. Major improvements have included the descriptions: of ammonia emissions (CMU inventory), night time nitrate chemistry, EC emissions and their diurnal

  15. Atmospheric emissions and pollution from the coal-fired thermal power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja

    2014-08-01

    In India, of the 210 GW electricity generation capacity, 66% is derived from coal, with planned additions of 76 GW and 93 GW during the 12th and the 13th five year plans, respectively. Atmospheric emissions from the coal-fired power plants are responsible for a large burden on human health. In 2010-11, 111 plants with an installed capacity of 121 GW, consumed 503 million tons of coal, and generated an estimated 580 ktons of particulates with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2100 ktons of sulfur dioxides, 2000 ktons of nitrogen oxides, 1100 ktons of carbon monoxide, 100 ktons of volatile organic compounds, and 665 million tons of carbon dioxide. These emissions resulted in an estimated 80,000 to 115,000 premature deaths and 20.0 million asthma cases from exposure to PM2.5 pollution, which cost the public and the government an estimated INR 16,000 to 23,000 crores (USD 3.2 to 4.6 billion). The emissions were estimated for the individual plants and the atmospheric modeling was conducted using CAMx chemical transport model, coupled with plume rise functions and hourly meteorology. The analysis shows that aggressive pollution control regulations such as mandating flue gas desulfurization, introduction and tightening of emission standards for all criteria pollutants, and updating procedures for environment impact assessments, are imperative for regional clean air and to reduce health impacts. For example, a mandate for installation of flue gas desulfurization systems for the operational 111 plants could reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by 30-40% by eliminating the formation of the secondary sulfates and nitrates.

  16. Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York Tsuo

    2000-12-31

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The detail of syngas cooler design is given in this report. The final construction work of the CFB pyrolyzer pilot plant has started during this quarter. No experimental testing was performed during this quarter. The proposed test matrix for the future CFB pyrolyzer tests is given in this report. Besides testing various fuels, bed temperature will be the primary test parameter.

  17. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  18. Fabric filter technology for utility coal-fired power plants. Part I. Utility baghouse design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.C.; Smith, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers discussing the experience of electric utilities in applying baghouse technology for the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The series presents new data obtained in research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on reverse-gas and shake/deflate cleaned baghouses, and specifically addresses a number of unresolved issues in the design and operation of these units. The authors explain baghouse design and operation, and include discussions of utility boiler operation, fly ash characterization, and filtration mechanisms. 19 references.

  19. The impact of three recent coal-fired power plant closings on Pittsburgh air quality: A natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marie C; Belle, Jessica H; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Relative to the rest of the United States, the region of southwestern Pennsylvania, including metropolitan Pittsburgh, experiences high ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which is known to be associated with adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health impacts. This study evaluates whether the closing of three coal-fired power plants within the southwestern Pennsylvania region resulted in a significant decrease in PM2.5 concentration. Both PM2.5 data obtained from EPA ground stations in the study region and aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites were used to investigate regional air quality from January 2011 through December 2014. The impact of the plant closings on PM2.5 concentration and AOD was evaluated using a series of generalized additive models. The model results show that monthly fuel consumption of the Elrama plant, which closed in October of 2012, and monthly fuel consumption of both the Mitchell and Hatfield's Ferry plants, which closed in October of 2013, were significant predictors of both PM2.5 concentration and AOD at EPA ground stations in the study region, after controlling for multiple meteorological factors and long-term, region-wide air quality improvements. The model's power to predict PM2.5 concentration increased from an adjusted R(2) of 0.61 to 0.68 after excluding data from ground stations with higher uncertainty due to recent increases in unconventional natural gas extraction activities. After preliminary analyses of mean PM2.5 concentration and AOD showed a downward trend following each power plant shutdown, results from a series of generalized additive models confirmed that the activity of the three plants that closed, measured by monthly fuel consumption, was highly significant in predicting both AOD and PM2.5 at 12 EPA ground stations; further research on PM2.5 emissions from unconventional

  20. The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Stewart

    2008-03-12

    The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be

  1. Benefit-cost framework for analysis of trace element emissions from coal-fired power plants. [103 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The major conclusions of this report may be summarized in the following four points: (1) It is probable that atmospheric emissions of trace elements from Southwestern coal-fired power plants will not cause major problems over the next 20 years. But monitoring for trace element build-up (especially mercury, selenium, and arsenic) in the mountains of southern Colorado, Navajo Reservoir, and other local hot spots would be an important and desirable step. (2) It appears that damage from trace elements in disposed ash is more likely than damage from atmospheric trace element emissions. But whether damage from disposed ash will actually occur is highly uncertain. We recommend that additional research be conducted on the entire range of issues surrounding ash disposal. (3) In the area of legislation and regulation, there may be some need for review of regulations concerning trace element atmospheric emissions. Present regulation of ash disposal is very likely to need revision and extension. (4) Future research on the environmental problems of coal-fired power plants should place emphasis on atmospheric emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides; consequent problems of acid precipitation also need exploration. Environmental research on coal-fired power plants does not need to exclude other problems. But issues surrounding sulfur emissions, nitrogen emissions, sulfate transformations, and acid precipitation appear to merit major emphasis. Perhaps the most important aspect of the preceding list of conclusions is that more questions are raised than are answered. As work on the subject proceeded, it became apparent that an important task was to point future research in the right direction.

  2. Dose assessment around the Yatagan coal-fired power plant due to gross alpha-radioactivity levels in flying ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buke, T. [Mugla University, Mugla (Turkey). Faculty of Science & Letters, Dept. of Physics

    2003-07-01

    The gross alpha-radioactivity levels in ash wastes from the Yatagan coal-fired power plant have been measured, and radiation dose calculations have been carried out, by the computer code CAP88-PC, around the plant environment by using the maximum measured gross alpha-activity in the flying ash samples as a radioactive source. The results obtained from the calculations are under the dose limits of International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) and have not any risk for public health around the plant environment.

  3. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been canceled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO2 emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO2 reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies.

  4. Efficient air pollution regulation of coal-fired power in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Therese

    This dissertation evaluates monetary external costs of electricity generation in the People's Republic of China and implications for efficient pollution control policy. It presents an integrated assessment of environmental damages of air emissions of a representative new coal-fired plant in urban areas of north and south China. The simulation evaluates the nature and magnitude of damages in China, transboundary effects in Japan and Korea, and global greenhouse gas warming impacts. The valuation is used to identify efficient abatement policy for Chinese plants over time; evaluate benefits of differentiated policies; and consider the importance of dynamic policy. Potential annual damages of operating a 600-MW power plant without controls in China today would be 43-45 million (U.S. 1995). Annual local damages of 37-40 million far exceed transboundary or greenhouse gas damages (1.4 million and $4.6 million respectively). The largest component of damages is the risk of human mortality and chronic morbidity from long-term exposure to fine particles. Efficient pollution control minimizes the sum of abatement costs and residual unabated damages. Because monetary damages reflect sufferers' willingness to pay to avoid environmental risks, the choice of efficient controls is fundamentally tied to societal values and preferences. The optimal path for Chinese abatement moves from modest dispersion measures at present to combined dispersion and emission controls approaching those of current-day United States, by 2050. The inclusion of transboundary and greenhouse damages does not substantively alter local policies. Welfare benefits are gained by differentiating abatement policy by pollutant, meteorological parameters, and by population density. An analysis of optimal one-time investment in abatement for a plant in a growing economy suggests that some investment is optimal at all incomes but no single level of abatement is suitable for all economies. Forward-looking policy

  5. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Yang, Linjun; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-10-09

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. Studies have affirmed that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in a coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve the efficiency of Hg oxidized and removed in APCDs. Because Hg(2+) can be easily removed in ACPDs and WFGD wastewater in power plants is enriched with chlorine ions, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  6. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity

  7. Comparative analysis of gas and coal-fired power generation in ultra-low emission condition using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Liu, Guicai; Liu, Zhichao; Yu, Zhaosheng; Guo, Shaode; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    Energy consumption and pollutant emission of natural gas combined cycle power-generation (NGCC), liquefied natural gas combined cycle power-generation (LNGCC), natural gas combined heat and power generation (CHP) and ultra-supercritical power generation with ultra-low gas emission (USC) were analyzed using life cycle assessment method, pointing out the development opportunity and superiority of gas power generation in the period of coal-fired unit ultra-low emission transformation. The results show that CO2 emission followed the order: USC>LNGCC>NGCC>CHP the resource depletion coefficient of coal-fired power generation was lower than that of gas power generation, and the coal-fired power generation should be the main part of power generation in China; based on sensitivity analysis, improving the generating efficiency or shortening the transportation distance could effectively improve energy saving and emission reduction, especially for the coal-fired units, and improving the generating efficiency had a great significance for achieving the ultra-low gas emission.

  8. Viability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration Retrofits for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants under an Emission Trading Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2016-12-06

    Using data on the coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) in Texas we assess the economic feasibility of retrofitting existing units with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in order to comply with the Clean Power Plan's rate-based emission standards under an emission trading scheme. CCS with 90% capture is shown to be more economically attractive for a range of existing units than purchasing emission rate credits (ERCs) from a trading market at an average credit price above $28 per MWh under the final state standard and $35 per MWh under the final national standard. The breakeven ERC trading prices would decrease significantly if the captured CO 2 were sold for use in enhanced oil recovery, making CCS retrofits viable at lower trading prices. The combination of ERC trading and CO 2 use can greatly reinforce economic incentives and market demands for CCS and hence accelerate large-scale deployment, even under scenarios with high retrofit costs. Comparing the levelized costs of electricity generation between CCS retrofits and new renewable plants under the ERC trading scheme, retrofitting coal-fired EGUs with CCS may be significantly cheaper than new solar plants under some market conditions.

  9. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power. Environmental Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the co-fired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in ...

  10. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  11. Impairment of soil health due to fly ash-fugitive dust deposition from coal-fired thermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, R; Nayak, A K; Shukla, A K; Rao, K S; Gautam, Priyanka; Lal, B; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Panda, B B; Kumar, A; Bhattacharyya, P; Bardhan, G; Gupta, S; Patra, D K

    2015-11-01

    Thermal power stations apart from being source of energy supply are causing soil pollution leading to its degradation in fertility and contamination. Fine particle and trace element emissions from energy production in coal-fired thermal power plants are associated with significant adverse effects on human, animal, and soil health. Contamination of soil with cadmium, nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, chromium, and zinc can be a primary route of human exposure to these potentially toxic elements. The environmental evaluation of surrounding soil of thermal power plants in Odisha may serve a model study to get the insight into hazards they are causing. The study investigates the impact of fly ash-fugitive dust (FAFD) deposition from coal-fired thermal power plant emissions on soil properties including trace element concentration, pH, and soil enzymatic activities. Higher FAFD deposition was found in the close proximity of power plants, which led to high pH and greater accumulation of heavy metals. Among the three power plants, in the vicinity of NALCO, higher concentrations of soil organic carbon and nitrogen was observed whereas, higher phosphorus content was recorded in the proximity of NTPC. Multivariate statistical analysis of different variables and their association indicated that FAFD deposition and soil properties were influenced by the source of emissions and distance from source of emission. Pollution in soil profiles and high risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging interpolation. The concentrations of chromium and arsenic were higher in the soil where FAFD deposition was more. Observance of relatively high concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead, nickel, and arsenic and a low concentration of enzymatic activity in proximity to the emission source indicated a possible link with anthropogenic emissions.

  12. Ozone monitoring instrument observations of interannual increases in SO2 emissions from Indian coal-fired power plants during 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A

    2013-12-17

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71% during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year(-1) produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R = 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and annual average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by >60% during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  13. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  14. As, Hg, and Se flue gas sampling in a coal-fired power plant and their fate during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose R. Otero-Rey; Jose M. Lopez-Vilarino; Jorge Moreda-Pineiro; Elia Alonso-Rodriguez; Soledad Muniategui-Lorenzo; Purificacion Lopez-Mahia; Dario Prada-Rodriguez [University of A Coruna, A Coruna (Spain). Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences

    2003-11-15

    As, Hg, and Se are the most volatile elements in the flue gas from a coal-fired power plant. Significant amounts of these elements cause an undesired direct gaseous emission, which leads to a serious environmental health risk. The main focus of this study is to evaluate the possibility of simultaneous sampling of these volatile elements using an accurate official method for Hg (the most volatile element). A study of As, Hg, and Se emissions from a 1400 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) was carried out for the combustion of a mixture of two types of coal. Simultaneous sampling of coal, bottom ash, fly ash, flue gas, and particles associated with the gas phase has been performed. Flue gas has been sampled by the Ontario Hydro Method Sampling Train, an ASTM method for Hg speciation. This sampling method was tested for As and Se sampling. As and Se determinations have been performed by HG-AAS, and Hg has been determined by CV-AAS. The results were used to examine the following: overall mass balances, relative distribution of these elements in the coal-fired power plant; As, Hg, and Se concentrations in coal and combustion residues; and predominant oxidation state for Hg in flue gas. The mass balances obtained for As, Hg, and Se were satisfactory in all cases; nevertheless, relative enrichment values in fly ash for As and Se were low; therefore, we concluded that As sampling in flue gas can be conducted by application of the Ontario Hydro Method; nevertheless Se released in the gas phase is not completely collected by this sampling train. Application of this sampling method allowed for performance of Hg speciation. The results indicated that Hg(II) was the predominant species in flue gas. It has also been proved that 24%, more than 99.8%, and 90% for As, Hg, and Se in the stack emissions, respectively, were in the gaseous phase. 42 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric mercury concentrations emitted from a coal-fired power plant in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gilberto Fuentes; Álvarez, Humberto Bravo; Echeverría, Rodolfo Sosa; de Alba, Sergio Rosas; Rueda, Víctor Magaña; Dosantos, Ernesto Caetano; Cruz, Gustavo Vázquez

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury in the environment as a result of the consumption of fossil fuels, such as coal used in electricity generation, has gained increased attention worldwide because of its toxicity, atmospheric persistence, and bioaccumulation. Determining or predicting the concentration of this pollutant in ambient air is essential for determining sensitive areas requiring health protection. This study investigated the spatiotemporal variability of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations and its dry deposition surrounding the Presidente Plutarco Elías Calles (CETEPEC) coal-fired power plant, located on Mexico's Pacific coast. The CALPUFF dispersion model was applied on the basis of the daily consumption of coal during 2013 for each generating unit in the power plant and considering the local scale. The established 300-ng/m 3 annual average risk factor considered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (U.S. DHHS) and Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) must not be exceeded to meet satisfactory air quality levels. An area of 65 × 60 km was evaluated, and the results show that the risk level for mercury vapor was not exceeded because the annual average concentration was 2.8 ng/m 3 . Although the predicted risk level was not exceeded, continuous monitoring studies of GEM and of particulates in the atmosphere, soil, and water may be necessary to identify the concentration of this pollutant, specifically that resulting from coal-fired power plants operated in environmental areas of interest in Mexico. The dry mercury deposition was low in the study area; according to the CALPUFF model, the annual average was 1.40E-2 ng/m 2 /sec. These results represent a starting point for Mexico's government to implement the Minamata Convention on Mercury, which Mexico signed in 2013. The obtained concentrations of mercury from a bigger coal-fired plant in Mexico, through the application of the CALPUFF dispersion model by the mercury emissions, are below the

  16. Nucleation and growth of sulfate aerosol in coal-fired power plant plumes: sensitivity to background aerosol and meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Stevens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New-particle formation in the plumes of coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic sulfur sources may be an important source of particles in the atmosphere. It remains unclear, however, how best to reproduce this formation in global and regional aerosol models with grid-box lengths that are 10s of kilometers and larger. The predictive power of these models is thus limited by the resultant uncertainties in aerosol size distributions. In this paper, we focus on sub-grid sulfate aerosol processes within coal-fired power plant plumes: the sub-grid oxidation of SO2 with condensation of H2SO4 onto newly-formed and pre-existing particles. We have developed a modeling framework with aerosol microphysics in the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM, a Large-Eddy Simulation/Cloud-Resolving Model (LES/CRM. The model is evaluated against aircraft observations of new-particle formation in two different power-plant plumes and reproduces the major features of the observations. We show how the downwind plume aerosols can be greatly modified by both meteorological and background aerosol conditions. In general, new-particle formation and growth is greatly reduced during polluted conditions due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface area for H2SO4 condensation and particle coagulation. The new-particle formation and growth rates are also a strong function of the amount of sunlight and NOx since both control OH concentrations. The results of this study highlight the importance for improved sub-grid particle formation schemes in regional and global aerosol models.

  17. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/wet FGD system. Final report, Volume 2 of 2 - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This volume contains the appendices for a coal-fired power plant toxic emissions study. Included are Process data log sheets from Coal Creek, Auditing information, Sampling protocol, Field sampling data sheets, Quality assurance/quality control, Analytical protocol, and Uncertainty analyses.

  18. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and Phase III. Quarter progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Work is presented on the development of a coal-fired high performance power generation system by the year 2000. This report describes the design of the air heater, duct heater, system controls, slag viscosity, and design of a quench zone.

  19. Environmental co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement in coal-fired power sector: A case study of Henan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Lei; Yue, H.; Zhang, Ruiqin; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    The coal-fired power sector is one of the major contributors to environmental problems and has great potential of air pollution abatement. This study employs Energy Conservation Supply Curves (ECSCs) combined with pollutant surcharge and health benefits to evaluate the environmental co-benefits of

  20. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain

  1. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

  2. Oxy-fuel Combustion and Integrated Pollutant Removal as Retrofit Technologies for Removing CO2 from Coal Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.B.; Summers, C.A.; Gerdemann, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    One third of the US installed capacity is coal-fired, producing 49.7% of net electric generation in 20051. Any approach to curbing CO2 production must consider the installed capacity and provide a mechanism for preserving this resource while meeting CO2 reduction goals. One promising approach to both new generation and retrofit is oxy-fuel combustion. Using oxygen instead of air as the oxidizer in a boiler provides a concentrated CO2 combustion product for processing into a sequestration-ready fluid.... Post-combustion carbon capture and oxy-fuel combustion paired with a compression capture technology such as IPR are both candidates for retrofitting pc combustion plants to meet carbon emission limits. This paper will focus on oxy-fuel combustion as applied to existing coal power plants.

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE UTILIZATION OF THE FLY ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Poernomo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study of the utilization of the fly ash from coal-fired power plant for immobilizing simulated radioactive waste has been done. The objective of this research was to study characteristics of pozzolanic material of the fly ash from coal-fired power plant as substitute of compactor material for immobilizing simulated radioactive waste. The experiment was carried out by mixing of the compactor materials such as (cement + lime, (cement + fly ash, (cement + fly ash + lime, (fly ash + lime with Na2SO4 225 g/L and KCl 4.6 g/L as simulation of evaporator concentrate according to reference waste form no. 1 on characterization of low and medium-level radioactive waste forms in the EUR 9423-EN. Each mixture of compactor materials solidified for 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days. Solidified result was monolith, and then its compressive strength, water absorption, and porosity were tested. The experiment result showed that the best of the compactor materials on the immobilizing simulated radioactive waste was cement of 30% (wt, fly ash of 20% (wt, and lime of 20% (wt with compressive strength of monolith of 1512.7 N/cm2. The condenser substance on the weight ratio of fly ash/lime of 20/50 - 60/10 % (wt as pozzolanic substance could be used for immobilizing simulated radioactive waste by compressive strength of monoliths of 345 - 610.4 N/cm2. Minimum compressive strength of monolith from radioactive waste cementation according to IAEA is 320 N/cm2, hence compressive strength of monoliths from this experiment can be expressed enough well.

  4. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five locations--Delaware River Basin (Philadelphia), Michigan/Great Lakes (Detroit), Ohio River Valley (Indianapolis), South (Atlanta), and Southwest (Yuma)--were modeled using an ASPEN simulator model. The model evaluated the performance and energy penalty for hypothetical 400-MW coal-fired plants that were retrofitted from using once-through cooling systems to wet- and dry-recirculating systems. The modeling was initially done to simulate the hottest time of the year using temperature input values that are exceeded only 1 percent of the time between June through September at each modeled location. These are the same temperature inputs commonly used by cooling tower designers to ensure that towers perform properly under most climatic conditions.

  5. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  6. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  7. Study of the Radiological Impact of the Coal Fired Power Plants on the Environment. The As Pontes coal-fired Power Plant; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de las centrales termicas de carbon sobre sus entornos. Unidad de produccion termica de As Pontes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.

    2009-07-01

    As part of the Study carried out to determine the radiological impact of the four main Spanish coal-fired power plants, the Study on the As Pontes Coal-Fired Coal Power Plant was finalized. In the Report containing the study are included every measurement performed, as well as the modelling and evaluations carried out in order to assess the radiological impact. The general conclusion obtained is that under a radiological point of view, the impact of this installation on the public and the environment is very small. Also the radiological impact on the workers of the installation was assessed, obtaining too very small increases over the natural background. (Author) 61 refs.

  8. Mathematical optimization techniques for managing selective catalytic reduction for a fleet of coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis Pena, Antonio Alejandro

    Major commercial electricity generation is done by burning fossil fuels out of which coal-fired power plants produce a substantial quantity of electricity worldwide. The United States has large reserves of coal, and it is cheaply available, making it a good choice for the generation of electricity on a large scale. However, one major problem associated with using coal for combustion is that it produces a group of pollutants known as nitrogen oxides (NO x). NOx are strong oxidizers and contribute to ozone formation and respiratory illness. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the quantity of NOx emitted to the atmosphere in the United States. One technique coal-fired power plants use to reduce NOx emissions is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SCR uses layers of catalyst that need to be added or changed to maintain the required performance. Power plants do add or change catalyst layers during temporary shutdowns, but it is expensive. However, many companies do not have only one power plant, but instead they can have a fleet of coal-fired power plants. A fleet of power plants can use EPA cap and trade programs to have an outlet NOx emission below the allowances for the fleet. For that reason, the main aim of this research is to develop an SCR management mathematical optimization methods that, with a given set of scheduled outages for a fleet of power plants, minimizes the total cost of the entire fleet of power plants and also maintain outlet NO x below the desired target for the entire fleet. We use a multi commodity network flow problem (MCFP) that creates edges that represent all the SCR catalyst layers for each plant. This MCFP is relaxed because it does not consider average daily NOx constraint, and it is solved by a binary integer program. After that, we add the average daily NOx constraint to the model with a schedule elimination constraint (MCFPwSEC). The MCFPwSEC eliminates, one by one, the solutions that do not satisfy the average daily

  9. Biotic and physico-chemical conditions in a cooling reservoir of a coal-fired power plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Cholla Lake is a cooling reservoir for the coal fired Cholla electrical generating plant. The lake provides recreational fishing and water contact recreation. The...

  10. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schivley, Greg; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Marriott, Joe; Hawkins, Troy R; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-07-07

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the cofired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in unintended increases in impacts to air and water quality and human health. This study provides a unique analysis of the potential environmental impact reductions from upgrading existing subcritical pulverized coal power plants to increase their efficiency, improving environmental controls, cofiring biomass, and exporting steam for industrial use. The climate impacts are examined in both a traditional-100 year GWP-method and a time series analysis that accounts for emission and uptake timing over the life of the power plant. Compared to fleet average pulverized bed boilers (33% efficiency), we find that circulating fluidized bed boilers (39% efficiency) may provide GHG reductions of about 13% when using 100% coal and reductions of about 20-37% when cofiring with 30% biomass. Additional greenhouse gas reductions from combined heat and power are minimal if the steam coproduct displaces steam from an efficient natural gas boiler. These upgrades and cofiring biomass can also reduce other life cycle impacts, although there may be increased impacts to water quality (eutrophication) when using biomass from an intensely cultivated source. Climate change impacts are sensitive to the timing of emissions and carbon sequestration as well as the time horizon over which impacts are considered, particularly for long growth woody biomass.

  11. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  12. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; HILLAMO, RISTO; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment rela...

  13. Development of self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ corrosion monitoring of coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Naing Naing; Crowe, Edward; Liu, Xingbo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor technology is needed to provide in situ corrosion information for optimal predictive maintenance to ensure a high level of operational effectiveness under the harsh conditions present in coal-fired power generation systems. This research highlights the effectiveness of our novel high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ coal ash hot corrosion monitoring in combination with the application of wireless communication and an energy harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG). This self-powered sensor demonstrates the successful wireless transmission of both corrosion potential and corrosion current signals to a simulated control room environment. Copyright © 2014 ISA. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of flue gas cleaning technologies in coal-fired power plants on the CCN distribution and cloud properties in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, M.; Vogel, B.; Junkermann, W.; Brachert, L.; Schaber, K.

    2013-05-01

    Gas-cleaning technologies used in modern coal-fired power plants cause an unintended nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol droplets during the cleaning process. As a result, high concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol droplets are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of these emissions on the atmospheric aerosol distribution, on the cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, and consequently on cloud properties is investigated. Therefore, a sophisticated modeling framework is used combining regional simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution and its impact on cloud properties with detailed process simulations of the nucleation during the cleaning process inside the power plant. Furthermore, the simulated aerosol size distributions downwind of the coal-fired power plants are compared with airborne aerosol measurements performed inside the plumes.

  15. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Q.; Tong, D.; Zheng, B.; Li, M.; Huo, H.; He, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop a high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335, and 442 % for SO2, NOx, and CO2, respectively, and decreased by 23 and 27 % for PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. Driven by the accelerated economic growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in a dramatic growth in emissions. The growth trend of emissions has been effectively curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of the power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination of temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  16. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.; Zheng, B.; He, K.B. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Zhang, Q. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling; Tong, D.; Li, M. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Huo, H. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Energy, Environment and Economy

    2015-07-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop a high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335, and 442 % for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, and decreased by 23 and 27 % for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} respectively. Driven by the accelerated economic growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in a dramatic growth in emissions. The growth trend of emissions has been effectively curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of the power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination of temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  17. Establishment of a database of emission factors for atmospheric pollutants from Chinese coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, S.X.; Nielsen, C.P.; Li, X.H.; Hao, J.M. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering & Applied Science

    2010-04-15

    Field measurements and data investigations were conducted for developing an emission factor database for inventories of atmospheric pollutants from Chinese coal-fired power plants. Gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) of different size fractions were measured using a gas analyzer and an electric low-pressure impactor (ELPI), respectively, for ten units in eight coal-fired power plants. Combining results of field tests and literature surveys, emission factors with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by boiler type, fuel quality and emission control devices using bootstrap and Monte Carlo simulations. The emission factor of uncontrolled SO{sub 2} from pulverized combustion (PC) boilers burning bituminous or anthracite coal was estimated to be 18.0S kg t{sup -1} with a 95% CI of 17.25-18.5S. NOX emission factors for pulverized-coal boilers ranged from 4.0 to 11.2 kg t{sup -1}, with uncertainties of 14-45% for different unit types. The emission factors of uncontrolled PM2.5, PM10, and total PM emitted by PC boilers were estimated to be 0.4A where A is the percentage ash content of coal, 1.5A and 6.9A kg t{sup -1}, respectively, with 95% CIs of 03A-0.5A, 1.1A-1.9A and 5.8A-7.9A. The analogous PM values for emissions with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) controls were 0.032A (95% CI: 0.021A-0.046A), 0.065A (0.039A-0.092A) and 0.094A (0.0656A-0.132A) kg t{sup -1}, and 0.0147A (0.0092-0.0225A), 0.0210A (0.0129A-0.0317A), and 0.0231A (0.0142A-0.0348A) for those with both ESP and wet flue-gas desulfurization. SO{sub 2} and NOx emission factors for Chinese power plants were smaller than those of US EPA AP-42 database, due mainly to lower heating values of coals in China. PM emission factors for units with ESP, however, were generally larger than AP-42 values, because of poorer removal efficiencies of Chinese dust collectors.

  18. Establishment of a database of emission factors for atmospheric pollutants from Chinese coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Shuxiao; Nielsen, Chris P.; Li, Xinghua; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Field measurements and data investigations were conducted for developing an emission factor database for inventories of atmospheric pollutants from Chinese coal-fired power plants. Gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) of different size fractions were measured using a gas analyzer and an electric low-pressure impactor (ELPI), respectively, for ten units in eight coal-fired power plants across the country. Combining results of field tests and literature surveys, emission factors with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by boiler type, fuel quality, and emission control devices using bootstrap and Monte Carlo simulations. The emission factor of uncontrolled SO 2 from pulverized combustion (PC) boilers burning bituminous or anthracite coal was estimated to be 18.0S kg t -1 (i.e., 18.0 × the percentage sulfur content of coal, S) with a 95% CI of 17.2S-18.5S. NO X emission factors for pulverized-coal boilers ranged from 4.0 to 11.2 kg t -1, with uncertainties of 14-45% for different unit types. The emission factors of uncontrolled PM 2.5, PM 10, and total PM emitted by PC boilers were estimated to be 0.4A (where A is the percentage ash content of coal), 1.5A and 6.9A kg t -1, respectively, with 95% CIs of 0.3A-0.5A, 1.1A-1.9A and 5.8A-7.9A. The analogous PM values for emissions with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) controls were 0.032A (95% CI: 0.021A-0.046A), 0.065A (0.039A-0.092A) and 0.094A (0.0656A-0.132A) kg t -1, and 0.0147A (0.0092-0.0225A), 0.0210A (0.0129A-0.0317A), and 0.0231A (0.0142A-0.0348A) for those with both ESP and wet flue-gas desulfurization (wet-FGD). SO 2 and NO X emission factors for Chinese power plants were smaller than those of U.S. EPA AP-42 database, due mainly to lower heating values of coals in China. PM emission factors for units with ESP, however, were generally larger than AP-42 values, because of poorer removal efficiencies of Chinese dust collectors. For units with advanced emission control technologies, more field

  19. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Gretchen Loeffler; Wright, Meredith S; Hopkins, William A; Meyer, Judy L

    2009-07-01

    Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have elevated trace element concentrations in their tissues, but this relationship and its potential consequences are unclear for lotic organisms. To explore these patterns in a lotic environment, we transplanted Corbicula fluminea from a reference stream to a stream receiving CFPP discharge. We assessed trace element accumulation and glutathione concentration in clam tissue, shell growth, and condition index at five sites along a contamination gradient. Clams at the most upstream and contaminated site had the highest growth rate, condition index, glutathione concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic (7.85+/-0.25 microg/g [dry mass]), selenium (17.75+/-0.80 microg/g), and cadmium (7.28+/-0.34 microg/g). Mercury concentrations declined from 4.33+/-0.83 to 0.81+/-0.11 microg/g [dry mass] in clams transplanted into the selenium-rich environment nearest the power plant, but this effect was not as evident at less impacted, downstream sites. Even though dilution of trace elements within modest distances from the power plant reduced bioaccumulation potential in clams, long-term loading of trace elements to downstream depositional regions (e.g., slow moving, silty areas) is likely significant.

  20. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, G.L.; Wright, M.S.; Hopkins, W.A.; Meyer, J.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have elevated trace element concentrations in their tissues, but this relationship and its potential consequences are unclear for lotic organisms. To explore these patterns in a lotic environment, we transplanted Corbicula fluminea from a reference stream to a stream receiving CFPP discharge. We assessed trace element accumulation and glutathione concentration in clam tissue, shell growth, and condition index at five sites along a contamination gradient. Clams at the most upstream and contaminated site had the highest growth rate, condition index, glutathione concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic (7.85 {+-} 0.25 {mu} g/g (dry mass)), selenium (17.75 {+-} 0.80 {mu} g/g), and cadmium (7.28 {+-} 0.34 {mu} g/g). Mercury concentrations declined from 4.33 {+-} 0.83 to 0.81 {+-} 0.11 {mu} g/g (dry mass) in clams transplanted into the selenium-rich environment nearest the power plant, but this effect was not as evident at less impacted, downstream sites. Even though dilution of trace elements within modest distances from the power plant reduced bioaccumulation potential in clams, long-term loading of trace elements to downstream depositional regions (e.g., slow moving, silty areas) is likely significant.

  1. Influence of the Sostanj coal-fired thermal power plant on mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in Lake Velenje, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik; Horvat; Mandic; Logar

    2000-10-02

    Lake Velenje is located in one of the most polluted regions in Slovenia, the Salek Valley. The major source of pollution in the valley is the coal-fired thermal power plant in Sostanj (STPP, capacity 775 MW). It has five separate units. All units have electrostatic precipitators for fly ash removal. Unit 4 also has installed a wet flue gas desulfurisation system (FGD system). Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured in lignite, slag and ash samples from the STPP. In flue gas, different mercury species (THg, MeHg, Hg2+, Hg0) were determined separately for unit 4 and unit 5 which use different flue gas cleaning technology. Mercury and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in lake water at different depths, in inflow water, outflow water, rain, snow and lake sediments in order to establish the influence of the power plant on the lake. Most mercury emitted from the power plant is in the elemental form. The ratio between oxidised and elemental Hg depends on the flue gas cleaning technology. Mass balance calculations have been performed for the STPP. The results show that the major sources of mercury in Lake Velenje are wet deposition and lake inflows. Total and MeHg concentrations in the water column are very low and can be compared to other non-contaminated freshwater lakes in the world.

  2. The adsorption behavior of mercury on the hematite (1-102) surface from coal-fired power plant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J. E.; Jew, A. D.; Rupp, E.; Aboud, S.; Brown, G. E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg). Worldwide, 475 tons of Hg are released from coal-burning processes annually, comprising 24% of total anthropogenic Hg emissions. Because of the high toxicity of Hg species, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a standard on Hg and air toxic pollutants (Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, MATS) for new and existing coal-fired power plants in order to eliminate Hg in flue gas prior to release through the stack. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior, speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials, such as fly ash or metal oxides, in the flue gas stream. In this study, theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with experiments to investigate the adsorption behavior of oxidized Hg on hematite (α-Fe2O3), an important mineral component of fly ash which readily sorbes Hg from flue gas. For DFT calculation, the two α-Fe2O3 (1-102) surfaces modeled consisted of two different surface terminations: (1) M2-clean, which corresponds to the oxygen-terminated surface with the first layer of cations removed and with no hydroxyl groups and (2) M2-OH2-OH, which has bihydroxylated top oxygen atoms and a second layer of hydroxylated oxygen atoms. These surface terminations were selected because both surfaces are highly stable in the temperature range of flue gases. The most probable adsorption sites of Hg, Cl and HgCl on the two α-Fe2O3 surface terminations were suggested based on calculated adsorption energies. Additionally, Bader charge and projected density of states (PDOS) analyses were conducted to characterize the oxidation state of adsorbates and their bonding interactions with the surfaces. Results indicate that oxidized Hg physically adsorbs on the M2-clean surface with a binding energy of -0.103 eV and that

  3. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Jeannine [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2013-08-31

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO2 removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO2 capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO2 produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO2 produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  4. Natural radioactivity of ground waters and soil in the vicinity of the ash repository of the coal-fired power plant. Nikola Tesla A in Obrenovac, Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, Z.; Madic, M.; Vukovic, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-11-01

    Radioactivity of U, Th and {sup 40}K has been investigated in the vicinity of the ash repository of coal-fired Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac (Yugoslavia). Using alpha and gamma spectrometry, luminescence spectrophotometry, it was found that the ash repository is a source of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series; and these radionuclides were found in the ground water up to a distance of several hundred metres. The influence of the repository on the soil radioactivity was minimal.

  5. Fabric filter technology for utility coal-fired power plants. Part II. Application of baghouse technology in the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.C.; Smith, W.B.

    1984-02-01

    This, the second in a series of papers, discusses the experience of electric utilities in applying baghouse technology for the collection of particulate matter at coal-fired electric power generating plants. The history of baghouse technology in the US is traced, and past and present research and development to build a data base for the technology in application in the electric utility industry is described.

  6. The local impact of a coal-fired power plant on inorganic mercury and methyl-mercury distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohang; Meng, Bo; Zhang, Chao; Feng, Xinbin; Gu, Chunhao; Guo, Jianyang; Bishop, Kevin; Xu, Zhidong; Zhang, Sensen; Qiu, Guangle

    2017-04-01

    Emission from coal-fired power plants is one of the major anthropogenic sources of mercury (Hg) in the environment, because emitted Hg can be quickly deposited nearby the source, attention is paid to the effects of coal-burning facilities on levels of toxic methyl-mercury (MeHg) in biota near such sources. Since rice is an agricultural crop that can bio-accumulate MeHg, the potential effects of a large Hg-emitting coal-fired power plant in Hunan Province, China on both inorganic Hg (Hg(II)) and MeHg distributions in rice was investigated. Relatively high MeHg (up to 3.8 μg kg-1) and Hg(II) (up to 22 μg kg-1) concentrations were observed in rice samples collected adjacent to the plant, suggesting a potential impact of Hg emission from the coal fired power plant on the accumulation of Hg in rice in the area. Concentrations of MeHg in rice were positively correlated with soil MeHg, soil S, and gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) in ambient air. Soil MeHg was the most important factor controlling MeHg concentrations in rice. The methylation of Hg in soils may be controlled by factors such as the chemical speciation of inorganic Hg, soil S, and ambient GEM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelin; Orndorff, William; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated, which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coal-fired power plants. Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils. Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants, and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum, simulating rainfall irrigations, soils, and plants types. Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils, the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere, and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves). Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports. Some plants, such as tall fescue, were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil. Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application. However, mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates. Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  8. Sustainable sources of biomass for bioremediation of heavy metals in waste water derived from coal-fired power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Richard J; Paul, Nicholas A; Hu, Yi; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals using dried algal biomass has been extensively described but rarely implemented. We contend this is because available algal biomass is a valuable product with a ready market. Therefore, we considered an alternative and practical approach to algal bioremediation in which algae were cultured directly in the waste water stream. We cultured three species of algae with and without nutrient addition in water that was contaminated with heavy metals from an Ash Dam associated with coal-fired power generation and tested metal uptake and bioremediation potential. All species achieved high concentrations of heavy metals (to 8% dry mass). Two key elements, V and As, reached concentrations in the biomass of 1543 mg.kg(-1) DW and 137 mg.kg(-1) DW. Growth rates were reduced by more than half in neat Ash Dam water than when nutrients were supplied in excess. Growth rate and bioconcentration were positively correlated for most elements, but some elements (e.g. Cd, Zn) were concentrated more when growth rates were lower, indicating the potential to tailor bioremediation depending on the pollutant. The cosmopolitan nature of the macroalgae studied, and their ability to grow and concentrate a suite of heavy metals from industrial wastes, highlights a clear benefit in the practical application of waste water bioremediation.

  9. Leaching characteristics of metals in fly ash from coal-fired power plant by sequential extraction procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.G. [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China). School of Environmental Science & Engineering

    2009-04-15

    A modified sequential extraction procedure was developed and applied to characterize the species of metals in fly ash. Two fly ash samples were collected from a coal-fired thermal power plant located in the north of China. A sample was collected from the conventional pulverized coal (PC) combustor and another from the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. After extraction by the proposed sequential extraction procedure, the elements in the fly ash samples were divided into a water-extractable fraction (F1), an acid-soluble fraction (F2), a reducible fraction (F3), an oxidizable fraction (F4) and a residual fraction (F5). Except for Cu, V, Cd in the PC sample and V, Zn in the CFB sample, most of the other metals were present in the residual fraction (F5), which was very difficult to release into the environment. The fraction distribution patterns in the two samples were also compared. The results indicated that the distribution of metals in different fractions in fly ash samples were probably impacted by different combustion processes.

  10. Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate-control technologies in coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    Under contract to Argonne National Laboratory, Midwest Research Institute has derived models to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate-control systems for coal-fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate-emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold-side electrostatic precipitators, (2) hot-side electrostatic precipitators, (3) reverse-flow baghouses, (4) shake baghouses, and (5) wet scrubbers. A steam-generator performance model has been developed, and the output from this model has been used as input for the control-device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters then have been used as inputs to the cost models. Suitable guideline values have been provided for independent variables wherever necessary, and three case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the subject models. The control-equipment models aggregate the following cost items: (1) first costs (capital investment), (2) total, first-year annualized costs, and (3) integrated cost of ownership and operation over any selected plant lifetime. Although the models have been programmed for rapid computation, the algorithms can be solved with a hand calculator.

  11. Zinc Isotope Variability in Three Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Predictive Model for Determining Isotopic Fractionation during Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Gonzalez, R; Weiss, D

    2015-10-20

    The zinc (Zn) isotope compositions of feed materials and combustion byproducts were investigated in three different coal-fired power plants, and the results were used to develop a generalized model that can account for Zn isotopic fractionation during coal combustion. The isotope signatures in the coal (δ(66)ZnIRMM) ranged between +0.73 and +1.18‰, values that fall well within those previously determined for peat (+0.6 ±2.0‰). We therefore propose that the speciation of Zn in peat determines the isotope fingerprint in coal. All of the bottom ashes collected in these power plants were isotopically depleted in the heavy isotopes relative to the coals, with δ(66)ZnIRMM values ranging between +0.26‰ and +0.64‰. This suggests that the heavy isotopes, possibly associated with the organic matter of the coal, may be preferentially released into the vapor phase. The fly ash in all of these power plants was, in contrast, enriched in the heavy isotopes relative to coal. The signatures in the fly ash can be accounted for using a simple unidirectional fractionation model with isotope fractionation factors (αsolid-vapor) ranging between 1.0003 and 1.0007, and we suggest that condensation is the controlling process. The model proposed allows, once the isotope composition of the feed coal is known, the constraining of the Zn signatures in the byproducts. This will now enable the integration of Zn isotopes as a quantitative tool for the source apportionment of this metal from coal combustion in the atmosphere.

  12. Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Jayaraman, Ambalavanan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Dietz, Steven [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2016-03-03

    In this project TDA Research, Inc (TDA) has developed a new post combustion carbon capture technology based on a vacuum swing adsorption system that uses a steam purge and demonstrated its technical feasibility and economic viability in laboratory-scale tests and tests in actual coal derived flue gas. TDA uses an advanced physical adsorbent to selectively remove CO2 from the flue gas. The sorbent exhibits a much higher affinity for CO2 than N2, H2O or O2, enabling effective CO2 separation from the flue gas. We also carried out a detailed process design and analysis of the new system as part of both sub-critical and super-critical pulverized coal fired power plants. The new technology uses a low cost, high capacity adsorbent that selectively removes CO2 in the presence of moisture at the flue gas temperature without a need for significant cooling of the flue gas or moisture removal. The sorbent is based on a TDA proprietary mesoporous carbon that consists of surface functionalized groups that remove CO2 via physical adsorption. The high surface area and favorable porosity of the sorbent also provides a unique platform to introduce additional functionality, such as active groups to remove trace metals (e.g., Hg, As). In collaboration with the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California, Irvine (UCI), TDA developed system simulation models using Aspen PlusTM simulation software to assess the economic viability of TDA’s VSA-based post-combustion carbon capture technology. The levelized cost of electricity including the TS&M costs for CO2 is calculated as $116.71/MWh and $113.76/MWh for TDA system integrated with sub-critical and super-critical pulverized coal fired power plants; much lower than the $153.03/MWhand $147.44/MWh calculated for the corresponding amine based systems. The cost of CO2 captured for TDA’s VSA based system is $38

  13. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle MHD power generation are reported. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) user's manual for 2-dimensional MHD generator code (2DEM); (B) performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater; (C) the feedwater cooled Brayton cycle; (D) application of CCMHD in an industrial cogeneration environment; (E) preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger; and (F) plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants. (WHK)

  14. Drivers of biomass co-firing in U.S. coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Substantial knowledge has been generated in the U.S. about the resource base for forest and other residue-derived biomass for bioenergy including co-firing in power plants. However, a lack of understanding regarding power plant-level operations and manager perceptions of drivers of biomass co-firing remains. This study gathered information from U.S. power plant...

  15. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  16. Design and construction of coal unloading pier for Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station; Tachibanawan sekitan karyoku hatsudensho yotan sanbashi no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, K.; Sudo, T. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station located at Kokatsu Island in Tachibana Bay, Anan City, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan is a power station with a power output 2.8 million kW constructed jointly by Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. and Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. Civil works were started in March, 1995. Construction works are carried out for the operation start of No.1 Unit of Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. and Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. in July, 2000 and for the operation start of No.2 Unit of Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. in January, 2001. This paper describes an outline of design and construction of a coal unloading pier for the Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station. For the design calculation, loads of unloaders which have a weight over 1,000 tons per unit are dominant on the pier. To endure the horizontal force during earthquake, steel pipe piles with a diameter 1,600 mm were used for the foundation, and RC girder slabs were used for the superstructure. This is called a straight pile-type pier structure. To avoid corrosion of steel piles, FRP cover and polyethylene coating were adopted depending on the place. Electric anticorrosion was adopted in the sea water and sea soil. Placing works of a total of 541 steel pipe piles including 300 piles with a diameter 1,600 mm were successfully completed for 12 months. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. An automatic pilot to take off coal fired power plants performance; Un pilote automatique pour faire decoller les performances des centrales au charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falinower, C.M.; Maurin, S.; Ambos, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Dept. de Controle-Commande des Centrales; Dewasmes, M. [Electricite de France, 76 - Le Havre (France). Dept. Ressources Humaines et Financieres

    1999-10-01

    Realizing an automatic pilot for the electric power of fossil fuel plants constitutes a basic measure in order to optimise the production: better availability, increased flexibility for the network, less stress for the plant equipment. Such an automatic pilot has been successfully installed at Le Havre. I coal fired power plant with a better dispatch and load following, a better control for the steam pressure and temperatures. Instrumentation and Control renewal with DCS as well as the use of modern and efficient technics from control theory have led to these promising results. (authors)

  18. Reassessing the Efficiency Penalty from Carbon Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2015-10-20

    This paper examines thermal efficiency penalties and greenhouse gas as well as other pollutant emissions associated with pulverized coal (PC) power plants equipped with postcombustion CO2 capture for carbon sequestration. We find that, depending on the source of heat used to meet the steam requirements in the capture unit, retrofitting a PC power plant that maintains its gross power output (compared to a PC power plant without a capture unit) can cause a drop in plant thermal efficiency of 11.3-22.9%-points. This estimate for efficiency penalty is significantly higher than literature values and corresponds to an increase of about 5.3-7.7 US¢/kWh in the levelized cost of electricity (COE) over the 8.4 US¢/kWh COE value for PC plants without CO2 capture. The results follow from the inclusion of mass and energy feedbacks in PC power plants with CO2 capture into previous analyses, as well as including potential quality considerations for safe and reliable transportation and sequestration of CO2. We conclude that PC power plants with CO2 capture are likely to remain less competitive than natural gas combined cycle (without CO2 capture) and on-shore wind power plants, both from a levelized and marginal COE point of view.

  19. Enrichment of naturally occurring radionuclides and trace elements in Yatagan and Yenikoy coal-fired thermal power plants, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Banu; Guler, Erkan; Vaasma, Taavi; Horvath, Maria; Kiisk, Madis; Kovacs, Tibor

    2017-09-29

    Coal, residues and waste produced by the combustion of the coal contain naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 40 K and trace elements such as Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn. In this work, coal and its combustion residues collected from Yatagan and Yenikoy coal fired thermal power plants (CPPs) in Turkey were studied to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides and trace elements, and their enrichments factors to better understand the radionuclide concentration processes within the combustion system. In addition, the utilization of coal fly ash as a secondary raw material in building industry was also studied in terms of radiological aspects. Fly ash samples were taken at different stages along the emission control system of the thermal power plants. Activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides were determined with Canberra Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector BE3830-P and ORTEC Soloist PIPS type semiconductor detector. The particle size distribution and trace elements contents were determined in various ash fractions by the laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). From the obtained data, natural radionuclides tend to condense on fly ash with and the activity concentrations increase as the temperature drop in CPPs. Measured 210 Pb and 210 Po concentration varied between 186 ± 20-1153 ± 44 Bq kg -1 , and 56 ± 5-1174 ± 45 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The highest 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in fly ash taken from the temporary storage point as 1153 ± 44 Bq kg -1 and 1174 ± 45 Bq kg -1 , respectively. There were significant differences in the activity concentrations of some natural radionuclide and trace elements (Pb and Zn) contents in ash fractions among the sampling point inside both of the plants (ANOVA, p electrostatic precipitators for both of the power plants. The enrichment factors for Zn follow a similar

  20. The distribution and sea-air transfer of volatile mercury in waste post-desulfurization seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lumin; Lin, Shanshan; Feng, Lifeng; Huang, Shuyuan; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-09-01

    The waste seawater discharged in coastal areas from coal-fired power plants equipped with a seawater desulfurization system might carry pollutants such as mercury from the flue gas into the adjacent seas. However, only very limited impact studies have been carried out. Taking a typical plant in Xiamen as an example, the present study targeted the distribution and sea-air transfer flux of volatile mercury in seawater, in order to trace the fate of the discharged mercury other than into the sediments. Samples from 28 sampling sites were collected in the sea area around two discharge outlets of the plant, daily and seasonally. Total mercury, dissolved gaseous mercury and dissolved total mercury in the seawater, as well as gaseous elemental mercury above the sea surface, were investigated. Mean concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury and gaseous elemental mercury in the area were 183 and 4.48 ng m(-3) in summer and 116 and 3.92 ng m(-3) in winter, which were significantly higher than those at a reference site. Based on the flux calculation, the transfer of volatile mercury was from the sea surface into the atmosphere, and more than 4.4 kg mercury, accounting for at least 2.2 % of the total discharge amount of the coal-fired power plant in the sampling area (1 km(2)), was emitted to the air annually. This study strongly suggested that besides being deposited into the sediment and diluted with seawater, emission into the atmosphere was an important fate for the mercury from the waste seawater from coal-fired power plants.

  1. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  2. Modes of Occurrence of Fluorine by Extraction and SEM Method in a Coal-Fired Power Plant from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an extraction method and environmental scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed to reveal the changes in the occurrence mode of fluorine in a coal-fired power plant in Inner Mongolia, China. The different occurrence states of fluorine during coal combustion and emission show that fluorine in coal mainly assumes insoluble inorganic mineral forms. The results illustrate that the three typical occurrence modes in coal are CaF2, MgF2 and AlF3. The fluorine in fly ash can be captured by an electrostatic precipitator (EPS or a bag filter. In contrast, the gaseous fluorine content in flue gas is only in the range of several parts per million; thus, it cannot be used in this study. The occurrence mode of fluorine in bottom ash and slag is inorganic villiaumite (e.g., soluble NaF, KF and insoluble CaF2 which is difficult to break down even at high temperatures. The occurrence mode of fluorine with the highest content in fly ash is physically adsorbed fluorine along the direction of the flue gas flow. The insoluble inorganic mineral fluoride content in fly ash is also high, but the gradually increasing fluorine content in fly ash is mainly caused by physical adsorption. Fluorine in the coal-fired power plant discharges mostly as solid products; however, very little fluorine emitted into the environment as gas products (HF, SiF4 cannot be captured. The parameters used in this study may provide useful references in developing a monitoring and control system for fluorine in coal-fired power plants.

  3. How clean is clean? Incremental versus radical technological change in coal-fired power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rennings, Klaus; Markewitz, Peter; Vögele, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    In the discussion on innovations for sustainable development, radical innovations are frequently called for in order that the transformation of society to a system perceived as sustainable can succeed. The reason given for this is the greater environmental efficiency of these innovations. This hypothesis is, however, not supported by empirical evidence. Against the background of a globally increasing use of coal-burning power plants and the environmental impacts to be expected, the hypothesis...

  4. Process optimisation in coal-fired power stations; Prozessoptimierung in Kohlekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, E.

    2004-07-01

    Profitable operation of a power plants requires reconciliation of different goals, i.e. high efficiency, high flexibility, high availability, and low emissions. Optimisation of operation therefore is a time-variable compromise depending on market conditions and load requirements. This is why process optimisation is a difficult task requiring efficient I and C and IT systems which are well matched and integrated. Siemens produces a wide spectrum of such systems for all functions connected with process guidance. (orig.)

  5. Solutions to the problem of waste deposition at a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Janez; Dejanovic, Boris; Tuma, Matija

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact on the environment of the combined operation of a power plant and a coal mine located in Velenje, Slovenia. The consequences of intensive deep underground mining are the sinking of the surface and the filling up of the emerging hollows with water. As far as the various consequences of coal combustion are concerned, only the harmful effects of the surface deposition of ash and slag are discussed, with the poisoning of the lake and the river water being considered the most harmful. The integrated system of waste treatment at the power plant is presented. The idea of the system is to use the waste materials such as ash, slag, gypsum, contaminated water, etc. as the building materials or to apply them in the process of improving the ash dump and the environment. The system needs to be closed as much as possible, so that the waste cannot influence the surroundings of the dump. The physical and chemical properties of the waste materials from the power plant, the results of ecological measurements and the impact of the ecological damage are presented. In addition, we present: a description of the applied methods; the activities and the technical measures; the obtained results and the difficulties; and the problems that need to be overcome in order to normalise the ecological conditions.

  6. The necessity of distinguishing weak and strong disposability among undesirable outputs in DEA: Environmental performance of Chinese coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Hongliang, E-mail: h.yang.03@cantab.ne [Asia Development Bank, 6 ADB Avenue, Metro Manila 1550 (Philippines); Pollitt, Michael, E-mail: m.pollitt@jbs.cam.ac.u [Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1AG (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Different from previous efficiency researches, which normally assume a uniform disposability for all undesirable outputs in a production process, this paper proposes a model that distinguishes weak and strong disposability assumptions among various undesirable outputs based on their respective technical features. The paper illustrates the approach using a research sample covering 582 base-load Chinese coal-fired power plants in 2002. The final results show that imposing the technically correct disposability features on undesirable outputs makes a significant difference to the final efficiency evaluation. This suggests the necessity of properly distinguishing disposability features among undesirable outputs in a production process in efficiency models.

  7. The necessity of distinguishing weak and strong disposability among undesirable outputs in DEA. Environmental performance of Chinese coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hongliang [Asia Development Bank, 6 ADB Avenue, Metro Manila 1550 (Philippines); Pollitt, Michael [Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1AG (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Different from previous efficiency researches, which normally assume a uniform disposability for all undesirable outputs in a production process, this paper proposes a model that distinguishes weak and strong disposability assumptions among various undesirable outputs based on their respective technical features. The paper illustrates the approach using a research sample covering 582 base-load Chinese coal-fired power plants in 2002. The final results show that imposing the technically correct disposability features on undesirable outputs makes a significant difference to the final efficiency evaluation. This suggests the necessity of properly distinguishing disposability features among undesirable outputs in a production process in efficiency models. (author)

  8. The necessity of distinguishing weak and strong disposability among undesirable outputs in DEA: environmental performance of Chinese coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongliang Yang; Michael Pollitt [Asia Development Bank, Manila (Philippines)

    2010-08-15

    Different from previous efficiency researches, which normally assume a uniform disposability for all undesirable outputs in a production process, this paper proposes a model that distinguishes weak and strong disposability assumptions among various undesirable outputs based on their respective technical features. The paper illustrates the approach using a research sample covering 582 base-load Chinese coal-fired power plants in 2002. The final results show that imposing the technically correct disposability features on undesirable outputs makes a significant difference to the evaluation of final efficiency. This suggests the necessity of properly distinguishing disposability features among undesirable outputs in a production process in efficiency models. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Possibilities of creating a pure coal-fired power industry based on nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyryanov, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    A concept of distributed multigeneration during combustion of homogenized solid fuels with the addition of oxygen-enriched (to 30-50%) air is proposed. To implement this concept, application of medium-temperature δ-Bi2O3/Ag-nanocermet-based membranes is suggested under low pressures and sweeping of oxygen by the cleaned exit gas or the air. The primary product of the multigeneration is microsphere materials. The heat, the AC and the DC electric energy, the cleaned exit gases with a high CO2 content, and volatile elements adsorbed by the filters are the secondary products. To completely clean the exit gases, which is necessary to implement the distributed multigeneration, an array of successive passive plants is proposed. A thermoelectric module based on a BiTeSb-skutterudite nanocomposite is effective in generation of the DC electric energy at microthermoelectric power plants.

  10. Unusual speciation and retention of Hg at a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Patricia; Maroto-Valer, M; Ayora, Carlos; Perry, Ron; Rallo, Manuela; Font, Oriol; Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier

    2012-07-17

    An unusual and different speciation of Hg in the outgoing gaseous stream of the flue gas desulfurization (OUT-FGD) system was revealed at two Spanish power plants (PP1 and PP2) equipped with a forced oxidation wet FGD system with water recirculation to the scrubber. At PP1 and PP2, a high proportion of Hg escapes from the electrostatic precipitator in gaseous form, Hg(2+) (75-86%) being the species that enters the FGD. At PP1 Hg(0) (71%) was the prevalent Hg OUT-FGD species, whereas at PP2 Hg(2+) was the prevalent Hg OUT-FGD species in 2007 (66%) and 2008 (87%). The unusual speciation of gaseous Hg OUT-FGD and the different Hg retentions between 2007 and 2008 at PP2 were attributable to the evaporation of HgCl(2) particles from the aqueous phase of gypsum slurry in the OUT-FGD gas and the Al additive used at PP2, respectively. The Al additive induced the retention of Hg as HgS in the 2007 FGD gypsum, thus reducing gaseous emissions of Hg in the OUT-FGD gas.

  11. Release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems; Freisetzung und Einbindung von Alkalimetallverbindungen in kohlebefeuerten Kombikraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Coal fired combined cycle power systems will be a sufficient way to increase the efficiency of coal combustion. However, combined cycle power systems require a reliable hot gas cleanup. Especially alkali metals, such as sodium and potassium, can lead to hot corrosion of the gas turbine blading if they condensate as sulphates. The actual work deals with the release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems. The influence of coal composition, temperature and pressure on the release of alkali species in coal combustion was investigated and the relevant release mechanisms identified. Alumosilicate sorbents have been found that reduce the alkali concentration in the hot flue gas of the Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion 2{sup nd} Generation (CPFBC 2{sup nd} Gen.) at 750 C to values sufficient for use in a gas turbine. Accordingly, alumosilicate sorbents working at 1400 C have been found for the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC). The sorption mechanisms have been identified. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to upscale the results of the laboratory experiments to conditions prevailing in power systems. According to these calculations, there is no risk of hot corrosion in both processes. Furthermore, thermodynamic calculations were performed to investigate the behaviour of alkali metals in an IGCC with integrated hot gas cleanup and H{sub 2} membrane for CO{sub 2} sequestration. (orig.)

  12. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  13. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  14. Large-scale biodiesel production using flue gas from coal-fired power plants with Nannochloropsis microalgal biomass in open raceway ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baohua; Sun, Faqiang; Yang, Miao; Lu, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Pan, Kehou

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a biofuel source has raised broad interest. Highly effective and economically feasible biomass generating techniques are essential to realize such potential. Flue gas from coal-fired power plants may serve as an inexpensive carbon source for microalgal culture, and it may also facilitate improvement of the environment once the gas is fixed in biomass. In this study, three strains of the genus Nannochloropsis (4-38, KA2 and 75B1) survived this type of culture and bloomed using flue gas from coal-fired power plants in 8000-L open raceway ponds. Lower temperatures and solar irradiation reduced the biomass yield and lipid productivities of these strains. Strain 4-38 performed better than the other two as it contained higher amounts of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, which are used for biodiesel production. Further optimization of the application of flue gas to microalgal culture should be undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Self-ignited, naturally occurring coal fires and fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and unmined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world (Stracher, 2007) and pose multiple threats to the global environment because they emit greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) - as well as mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO), and other toxic substances (fig. 1). The contribution of coal fires to the global pool of atmospheric CO2 is little known but potentially significant. For China, the world's largest coal producer, it is estimated that anywhere between 10 million and 200 million metric tons (Mt) of coal reserves (about 0.5 to 10 percent of production) is consumed annually by coal fires or made inaccessible owing to fires that hinder mining operations (Rosema and others, 1999; Voigt and others, 2004). At this proportion of production, coal amounts lost to coal fires worldwide would be two to three times that for China. Assuming this coal has mercury concentrations similar to those in U.S. coals, a preliminary estimate of annual Hg emissions from coal fires worldwide is comparable in magnitude to the 48 tons of annual Hg emissions from all U.S. coal-fired power-generating stations combined (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002). In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States - Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of

  16. Impacts of nuclear plant shutdown on coal-fired power generation and infant health in the Tennessee Valley in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severnini, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 generated deep public anxiety and uncertainty about the future of nuclear energy. However, differently to fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants produce virtually no greenhouse gas emissions or air pollutants during power generation. Here we show the effect on air pollution and infant health in the context of the temporary closure of nuclear plants by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the 1980s. After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission intensified inspections throughout the nation, leading to the shutdown of two large nuclear power plants in the TVA area. In response to that shutdown, electricity generation shifted one to one to coal-fired power plants within TVA, increasing particle pollution in counties where they were located. Consequently, infant health may have deteriorated in the most affected places, indicating deleterious effects to public health.

  17. A simplified approach to analyze the effectiveness of NO2 and SO2 emission reduction of coal-fired power plant from OMI retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Wu, Lixin; Zhou, Yuan; Li, Ding

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal combustion, which is oxidized quickly in the atmosphere resulting in secondary aerosol formation and acid deposition, are the main resource causing China's regional fog-haze pollution. Extensive literature has estimated quantitatively the lifetimes and emissions of NO2 and SO2 for large point sources such as coal-fired power plants and cities using satellite measurements. However, rare of these methods is suitable for sources located in a heterogeneously polluted background. In this work, we present a simplified emission effective radius extraction model for point source to study the NO2 and SO2 reduction trend in China with complex polluted sources. First, to find out the time range during which actual emissions could be derived from satellite observations, the spatial distribution characteristics of mean daily, monthly, seasonal and annual concentration of OMI NO2 and SO2 around a single power plant were analyzed and compared. Then, a 100 km × 100 km geographical grid with a 1 km step was established around the source and the mean concentration of all satellite pixels covered in each grid point is calculated by the area weight pixel-averaging approach. The emission effective radius is defined by the concentration gradient values near the power plant. Finally, the developed model is employed to investigate the characteristic and evolution of NO2 and SO2 emissions and verify the effectiveness of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices applied in coal-fired power plants during the period of 10 years from 2006 to 2015. It can be observed that the the spatial distribution pattern of NO2 and SO2 concentration in the vicinity of large coal-burning source was not only affected by the emission of coal-burning itself, but also closely related to the process of pollutant transmission and diffusion caused by meteorological factors in different seasons. Our proposed

  18. The effect of coal-fired power plant NOX, SO2 and particulate control technologies on aerosol nucleation and growth in source plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, C. L.; Stevens, R. G.; Brock, C. A.; Makar, P. A.; Pierce, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Nucleation and growth in coal-fired power-plant plumes can greatly contribute to particle number concentrations in plumes near source regions. The changing emissions rates of SO2, NOX and primary ash particulates due to pollution-control technologies over recent decades may have a significant affect on aerosol formation and growth in the plumes, with ultimate implications for climate and human health. We use the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM) Large-Eddy simulation model with the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm to model the nucleation and growth in the plume of coal-fired units for a range of test cases with varying emissions to simulate the implementation of clean technologies. These cases include representations of emissions at the W.A. Parish power plant near Houston Texas in 1997, 2000, 2006 and 2010. For Parish during this time period, NOX emissions were reduced by about a factor of 10 due to the addition of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology, leading to a predicted increase in OH concentrations by about a factor of 10, while SO2 emissions have decreased by only 20-30%. Based on and tested against the TexAQS2000 and TexAQS2006 field campaigns, this case study predicted an increase in OH leading to faster production of H2SO4 in the plume, and increased nucleation and growth even though SO2 emissions had decreased as well. Thus for this case study, controlling NOX more strongly than SO2 may lead to increased nucleation and growth in power-plant plumes. Finally, we calculated how particle formation and growth may have changed for about 200 power plants in the US and Canada between 1997 and 2010 for the meteorological and chemical background conditions of the Parish cases.

  19. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  20. The hybrid MPC-MINLP algorithm for optimal operation of coal-fired power plants with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda Abdul Manaf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm that combines model predictive control (MPC with MINLP optimization and demonstrates its application for coal-fired power plants retrofitted with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC plant. The objective function of the optimization algorithm works at a primary level to maximize plant economic revenue while considering an optimal carbon capture profile. At a secondary level, the MPC algorithm is used to control the performance of the PCC plant. Two techno-economic scenarios based on fixed (capture rate is constant and flexible (capture rate is variable operation modes are developed using actual electricity prices (2011 with fixed carbon prices ($AUD 5, 25, 50/tonne-CO2 for 24 h periods. Results show that fixed operation mode can bring about a ratio of net operating revenue deficit at an average of 6% against the superior flexible operation mode.

  1. Lichens and mosses for correlation between trace elements and Po-210 in the areas near coal-fired power plant at Yatagan, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, A.; Ozden, B.; Sac, M.M.; Yener, G.; Altinbas, U.; Kurucu, Y.; Bolca, M. [Ege University Institute of Nuclear Science, Izmir (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    The lichens Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia pyxidata and the mosses Grimmia pulvinata, Hypnum cupressiforme were analyzed for Pb, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometry over a wide area around a coal-fired power plant located in Yatagan. The results were compared with the Po-210 concentrations previously measured in the same samples. Correlations between Po-210 and trace elements for different moss and lichen species of the same localization and for different localizations for the same species were also studied. In general trace element concentrations do not show significant differences from site to site for all species except Mn in Hypnum cupressiforme and Po-210 in Grimmia pulvinata. To discuss the Pb-210 level and sources in indicator plants analyzed, also radium contents of surface soil at each sampling station was measured and compared with the average values for similar soil types in the literature.

  2. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report, [June 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  3. Sulfur-bearing coatings on fly ash from a coal-fired power plant: Composition, origin, and influence on ash alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, N.S.; Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Johnson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Fly ash samples collected from two locations in the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant differ markedly with respect to the abundance of thin (???0.1 ??m) sulfur-rich surface coatings that are observable by scanning electron microscopy. The coatings, tentatively identified as an aluminum-potassium-sulfate phase, probably form upon reaction between condensed sulfuric acid aerosols and glass surfaces, and are preferentially concentrated on ash exposed to exhaust stream gases for longer. The coatings are highly soluble and if sufficiently abundant, can impart an acidic pH to solutions initially in contact with ash. These observations suggest that proposals for ash use and predictions of ash behavior during disposal should consider the transient, acid-generating potential of some ash fractions and the possible effects on initial ash leachability and alteration. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Natural Radium Isotopes in Particulate and Dissolved Phases of Seawater and Rainwater at the West Coast Peninsular Malaysia Caused by Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration levels of natural radium isotopes such as 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in the atmospheric samples including rainwater, total suspended solids (TSSrw and marine environment samples collected around the Kapar coal-fired power plant from September 2006 to February 2008. Activity concentration of 228Ra and 226Ra in rainwater showed the higher concentrations compared to the seawater. The mean activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in rainwater at Kapar were 20.45±4.50 mBq/L and 74.82±25.38 mBq/L, respectively. Meanwhile the levels in total suspended solids (TSSrw of rainwater showed 226.99±52.57 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 439.92±186.17 Bq/kg for 228Ra. The measurements of radium isotopes concentration in rainwater at coal-fired power plant in Kapar are found in relation to their sources and application as tracers in lower atmosphere. The mean value of pH in rainwater during this study is pH 5.51 slightly acidic as lowest value for the standard of clean rainwater. Radium in seawater also strong adsorption onto total suspended solids with the distribution coefficient, Kd values of 228Ra and 226Ra ranged from 0.054 × 104 to 163.90 × 104 L/g and between 0.49 × 104 to 191.54 × 104 L/g, respectively.

  5. Study on emission of hazardous trace elements in a 350 MW coal-fired power plant. Part 2. arsenic, chromium, barium, manganese, lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shilin; Duan, Yufeng; Chen, Lei; Li, Yaning; Yao, Ting; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Meng; Lu, Jianhong

    2017-07-01

    Hazardous Trace elements (HTEs) emitted from coal combustion has raised widespread concern. Studies on the emission characteristics of five HTEs, namely arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) at three different loads (100%, 83%, 71% output) and different coal types were performed on a 350 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with SCR, ESP + FF, and WFGD. HTEs in the flue gas at the inlet/outlet of each air pollution control device (APCD) were sampled simultaneously based on US EPA Method 29. During flue gas HTEs sampling, coal, bottom ash, fly ash captured by ESP + FF, fresh desulfurization slurry, desulfurization wastewater were also collected. Results show that mass balance rate for the system and each APCD is in an acceptable range. The five studied HTEs mainly distribute in bottom and ESP + FF ash. ESP + FF have high removal efficiency of 99.75-99.95%. WFGD can remove part of HTEs further. Total removal rate across the APCDs ranges from 99.84 to 99.99%. Concentration of HTEs emitted to atmosphere is within the extremely low scope of 0.11-4.93 μg/m3. Emission factor of the five studied HTEs is 0.04-1.54 g/1012J. Content of As, Pb, Ba, Cr in solid samples follows the order of ESP + FF ash > bottom ash > gypsum. More focus should be placed on Mn in desulfuration wastewater, content of which is more than the standard value. This work is meaningful for the prediction and removal of HTEs emitted from coal-fired power plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking sources to early effects by profiling urine metabolome of residents living near oil refineries and coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Hsin Sally; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2017-05-01

    This study aims at identifying metabolic changes linking external exposure to industrial air toxics with oxidative stress biomarkers. We classified 252 study subjects as 111 high vs. 141 low exposure subjects by the distance from their homes to the two main emission sources, oil refineries and coal-fired power plants. We estimated individual's external exposure to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by dispersion and kriging models, respectively. We measured urinary levels of heavy metals and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as biomarkers of internal exposure, and 8-OHdG, HNE-MA, 8-isoPGF 2α , and 8-NO 2 Gua as biomarkers of early health effects. We used two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify urine metabolomics. We applied "meet-in-the-middle" approach to identify potential metabolites as putative intermediate biomarkers linking multiple air toxics exposures to oxidative stress with plausible exposures-related pathways. High exposure subjects showed elevated ambient concentrations of vanadium and PAHs, increased urine concentrations of 1-OHP, vanadium, nickel, copper, arsenic, strontium, cadmium, mercury, and thallium, and higher urine concentrations of all four urine oxidative stress biomarkers compared to low exposure subjects. We identified a profile of putative intermediate biomarkers that were associated with both exposures and oxidative stress biomarkers in participants. Urine metabolomics identified age-dependent biological pathways, including tryptophan metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism in children subjects (aged 9-11), and glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism in elderly subjects (aged>55), that could associate multiple exposures with oxidative stress. By profiling urine biomarkers and metabolomics in children and elderly residents living near a petrochemical complex, we can link their internal exposure to oxidative stress biomarkers through biological pathways associated with common complex

  7. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  8. Mercury isotope signatures of seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Peng, Jingji; Yuan, Dongxing; Lu, Bingyan; Lin, Kunning; Huang, Shuyuan

    2016-07-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (SFGD) systems are commonly used to remove acidic SO2 from the flue gas with alkaline seawater in many coastal coal-fired power plants in China. However, large amount of mercury (Hg) originated from coal is also transferred into seawater during the desulfurization (De-SO2) process. This research investigated Hg isotopes in seawater discharged from a coastal plant equipped with a SFGD system for the first time. Suspended particles of inorganic minerals, carbon residuals and sulfides are enriched in heavy Hg isotopes during the De-SO2 process. δ(202)Hg of particulate mercury (PHg) gradually decreased from -0.30‰ to -1.53‰ in study sea area as the distance from the point of discharge increased. The results revealed that physical mixing of contaminated De-SO2 seawater and uncontaminated fresh seawater caused a change in isotopic composition of PHg isotopes in the discharging area; and suggested that both De-SO2 seawater and local background contributed to PHg. The impacted sea area predicted with isotopic tracing technique was much larger than that resulted from a simple comparison of pollutant concentration. It was the first attempt to apply mercury isotopic composition signatures with two-component mixing model to trace the mercury pollution and its influence in seawater. The results could be beneficial to the coal-fired plants with SFGD systems to assess and control Hg pollution in sea area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Site Characterization for CO2 Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Peter E. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Pashin, Jack [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Carlson, Eric [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Goodliffe, Andrew [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); McIntyre-Redden, Marcella [Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mann, Steven D. [Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Thompson, Mason [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable for

  10. The effect of coal-fired power-plant SO2 and NOx control technologies on aerosol nucleation in the source plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Knipping

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleation in coal-fired power-plant plumes can greatly contribute to particle number concentrations near source regions. The changing emissions rates of SO2 and NOx due to pollution-control technologies over recent decades may have had a significant effect on aerosol formation and growth in the plumes with ultimate implications for climate and human health. We use the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM large-eddy simulation model with the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS microphysics algorithm to model the nucleation in plumes of coal-fired plants. We test a range of cases with varying emissions to simulate the implementation of emissions-control technologies between 1997 and 2010. We start by simulating the W. A. Parish power plant (near Houston, TX during this time period, when NOx emissions were reduced by ~90% and SO2 emissions decreased by ~30%. Increases in plume OH (due to the reduced NOx produced enhanced SO2 oxidation and an order-of-magnitude increase in particle nucleation in the plume despite the reduction in SO2 emissions. These results suggest that NOx emissions could strongly regulate particle nucleation and growth in power-plant plumes. Next, we test a range of cases with varying emissions to simulate the implementation of SO2 and NOx emissions-control technologies. Particle formation generally increases with SO2 emission, while NOx shows two different regimes: increasing particle formation with increasing NOx under low-NOx emissions and decreasing particle formation with increasing NOx under high-NOx emissions. Next, we compare model results with airborne measurements made in the W. A. Parish power-plant plume in 2000 and 2006, confirming the importance of NOx emissions on new particle formation and highlighting the substantial effect of background aerosol loadings on this process (the more polluted background of the 2006 case caused more than an order-of-magnitude reduction in particle formation in the plume compared to

  11. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish R. [Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to

  12. Opportunity for offshore wind to reduce future demand for coal-fired power plants in China with consequent savings in emissions of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Chen, Xinyu; Kang, Chongqing

    2014-12-16

    Although capacity credits for wind power have been embodied in power systems in the U.S. and Europe, the current planning framework for electricity in China continues to treat wind power as a nondispatchable source with zero contribution to firm capacity. This study adopts a rigorous reliability model for the electric power system evaluating capacity credits that should be recognized for offshore wind resources supplying power demands for Jiangsu, China. Jiangsu is an economic hub located in the Yangtze River delta accounting for 10% of the total electricity consumed in China. Demand for electricity in Jiangsu is projected to increase from 331 TWh in 2009 to 800 TWh by 2030. Given a wind penetration level of 60% for the future additional Jiangsu power supply, wind resources distributed along the offshore region of five coastal provinces in China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Fujian) should merit a capacity credit of 12.9%, the fraction of installed wind capacity that should be recognized to displace coal-fired systems without violating the reliability standard. In the high-coal-price scenario, with 60% wind penetration, reductions in CO2 emissions relative to a business as usual reference could be as large as 200.2 million tons of CO2 or 51.8% of the potential addition, with a cost for emissions avoided of $29.0 per ton.

  13. Natural radionuclide emission from coal-fired power plants in the southwestern of Turkey and the population exposure to external radiation in their vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of radionuclide emission on the environment from Yatagan, Yenikoy and Kemerkoy coal-fired power plants which are located in southwestern Anatolia of Turkey, the concentrations of natural radionuclides such as (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples, have been measured, as well as the concentration of the same radionuclides in surface soils. The dose rate arises from the total radioactivity content of soil that the people living by the power plants are exposed to be assessed additionally. The average activity concentrations of (226)Ra for Yatagan CPP is 80 ± 22 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 56 to 131 Bq kg(-1), for Yenikoy CPP is 138 ± 20 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 115 to 189 Bq kg(-1), for Kemerkoy CPP is 238 ± 80 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 134 to 356 Bq kg(-1) in coal; average activity concentrations of (226)Ra in fly ash and in bottom ash for above-mentioned power plants are 334 ± 60 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 291 to 481 Bq kg(-1), 461 ± 33 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 398 to 511 Bq kg(-1), 815 ± 254 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 316 to 1260 Bq kg(-1), 276 ± 51 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 222 to 349 Bq kg(-1), 285 ± 69 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 213 to 409 Bq kg(-1), 743 ± 234 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 366 to 1098 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radionuclides activity concentrations of surface soil in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants are 32 ± 9 Bq kg(-1) (18-53 Bq kg(-1)) for (226)Ra, 37 ± 16 Bq kg(-1) (17-89 Bq kg(-1)) for (232)Th, 455 ± 165 Bq kg(-1) (203-794 Bq kg(-1)) for (40)K relevant to Yatagan CPP; 42 ± 30 Bq kg(-1) (9-168 Bq kg(-1)) for (226)Ra, 32 ± 14 Bq kg(-1) (6-74 Bq kg(-1)) for (232)Th, 365 ± 151 Bq kg(-1) (117-937 Bq kg(-1)) for (40)K relevant to Yenikoy and Kemerkoy CPP. As a result, average dose rates in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants have been calculated to be 56 ± 16 nGy h(-1) ranging from 30 to 100 nGy h(-1) for Yatagan CPP, 54 ± 22 nGy h(-1) ranging from 15 to 126 nGy h(-1) for Yenikoy and Kemerkoy CPP. To

  14. CFD study of NO{sub x} production in coal-fired power plant; CFD-Simulationen der NO{sub x}-Produktion in Kohlenstaubbefeuerten Brennkammern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heierle, Y.; Leithner, R.; Mueller, H. [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Institut fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik; Askarova, A.S. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-07-01

    The main purpose of the present work is to study different possibilities to improve the performance of the coal-fired furnace. Different influences which lead to decrease in pollutant emissions have been analyzed. (orig.)

  15. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  16. An Improved Flexible Solar Thermal Energy Integration Process for Enhancing the Coal-Based Energy Efficiency and NOx Removal Effectiveness in Coal-Fired Power Plants under Different Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An improved flexible solar-aided power generation system (SAPG for enhancing both selective catalytic reduction (SCR de-NOx efficiency and coal-based energy efficiency of coal-fired power plants is proposed. In the proposed concept, the solar energy injection point is changed for different power plant loads, bringing about different benefits for coal-fired power generation. For partial/low load, solar energy is beneficially used to increase the flue gas temperature to guarantee the SCR de-NOx effectiveness as well as increase the boiler energy input by reheating the combustion air. For high power load, solar energy is used for saving steam bleeds from turbines by heating the feed water. A case study for a typical 1000 MW coal-fired power plant using the proposed concept has been performed and the results showed that, the SCR de-NOx efficiency of proposed SAPG could increase by 3.1% and 7.9% under medium load and low load conditions, respectively, as compared with the reference plant. The standard coal consumption rate of the proposed SAPG could decrease by 2.68 g/kWh, 4.05 g/kWh and 6.31 g/kWh for high, medium and low loads, respectively, with 0.040 USD/kWh of solar generated electricity cost. The proposed concept opens up a novel solar energy integration pattern in coal-fired power plants to improve the pollutant removal effectiveness and decrease the coal consumption of the power plant.

  17. Large Pilot Scale Testing of Linde/BASF Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology at the Abbott Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Kevin C. [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2017-08-18

    The work summarized in this report is the first step towards a project that will re-train and create jobs for personnel in the coal industry and continue regional economic development to benefit regions impacted by previous downturns. The larger project is aimed at capturing ~300 tons/day (272 metric tonnes/day) CO2 at a 90% capture rate from existing coal- fired boilers at the Abbott Power Plant on the campus of University of Illinois (UI). It will employ the Linde-BASF novel amine-based advanced CO2 capture technology, which has already shown the potential to be cost-effective, energy efficient and compact at the 0.5-1.5 MWe pilot scales. The overall objective of the project is to design and install a scaled-up system of nominal 15 MWe size, integrate it with the Abbott Power Plant flue gas, steam and other utility systems, and demonstrate the viability of continuous operation under realistic conditions with high efficiency and capacity. The project will also begin to build a workforce that understands how to operate and maintain the capture plants by including students from regional community colleges and universities in the operation and evaluation of the capture system. This project will also lay the groundwork for follow-on projects that pilot utilization of the captured CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The net impact will be to demonstrate a replicable means to (1) use a standardized procedure to evaluate power plants for their ability to be retrofitted with a pilot capture unit; (2) design and construct reliable capture systems based on the Linde-BASF technology; (3) operate and maintain these systems; (4) implement training programs with local community colleges and universities to establish a workforce to operate and maintain the systems; and (5) prepare to evaluate at the large pilot scale level various methods to utilize the resulting captured CO2. Towards the larger project goal, the UI-led team, together

  18. Dust removal in power plant. Practical experiences with textile filter media in the flue gas purification coal-fired plants; Entstaubung von Kraftwerken. Praxiserfahrungen mit textilen Filtermedien in der Rauchgasreinigung von kohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnig, Joachim [BWF Envirotec, Offingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Beside carbon dioxide, coal-fired power plants also produce particle emissions which have to be removed by filtering units from the flue gas. In the Federal Republic of Germany, this is enabled by means of electrostatic filters. In South Africa, the bag filter is the preferential method of dust removal. In the People's Republic of China, already large power plants with bag filters are dedusted. With regard to the cost structure, no significant differences between bag filters and electrostatic filters appear. Suitable measures can prevent the destruction of bag filters by an excess temperature in the case of disturbances of operation. Bag filters offer a higher efficiency of separation with fine dust and very fine dust. Using a professional conception of a filter plant, an operation of bag filters for the dedusting of coal-fired power plants is possible without problems. A service life of several years can be achieved.

  19. Passive airborne remote sensing and plume model inversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plants measured by the MAMAP/CarbonMapper instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John [Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen (Germany); Tretner, Andreas; Sachs, Torsten; Erzinger, Joerg [Helmholtz Centre, Potsdam (Germany). GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences

    2010-07-01

    MAMAP/CarbonMapper is an airborne passive remote sensing instrument designed for measuring columns of methane and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) below the aircraft. Retrieval precision of the measured column relative to background is typically 2% or better. Its ground pixel size is about 25m x 35m for an aircraft altitude of 1000 m and a ground speed of 200 km/h. In 2007 measurement campaigns at the coal-fired power plants Jaenschwalde and Schwarze Pumpe operated by Vattenfall Europe were performed. The column parameters for CO{sub 2} have been retrieved with a modified version of SCIAMACHY's WFM-DOAS algorithm. To invert for the CO{sub 2} emission rates of the power plants a gaussian plume model approach has been chosen. The results are compared to a simple Gaussian Integral method approach and to the CO{sub 2} emission rates directly derived from power generation as stated by Vattenfall.

  20. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  2. Analysis of Co-Effects on Air Pollutants and CO2 Emissions Generated by End-of-Pipe Measures of Pollution Control in China’s Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available China is now facing great challenges resulting from climate change and air pollution, driven by the processes of industrialization and urbanization. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions produced by the coal-fired power industry represent approximately 70% of the total emissions in China’s industrial sector. In this study, 39 coal-fired power plants built in China between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed in regards to the co-effects oncarbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions generated directly and indirectly by end-of-pipe measures of pollution control. After completing the quantitative analysis with input data from 83units of power plants, we found that co-effects were positive only for air pollutant reductions through the implementation of desulfurization, denitrification, and dedusting measures, but co-effects were negative for carbon dioxide production because of the corresponding electricity use and chemical reactions that led to the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. We also performed an assessment of the synergistic coefficients to better understand the degree of co-effects. It will be important for researchers to take a comprehensive view of China’s coal-fired power plants and look for solutions that can maximize positive co-effects and achieve overall co-benefits of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants.

  3. Radioactivity measurements in soils surrounding four coal-fired power plants in Serbia by gamma-ray spectrometry and estimated dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Ivana Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of spatial distribution of activity concentration of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs radionuclides in the surface soil samples (n = 42 collected in the vicinity of four coal-fired power plants in Serbia is presented. Radioactivity measurements in soils performed by gamma-ray spectrometry showed values [Bqkg-1] in the range: 15-117 for 238U, 21-115 for 226Ra, 33-65 for 210Pb, 20-69 for 232Th, 324-736 for 40K, and 2-59 for 137Cs. Surface soil radio-activity that could have resulted from deposition of radionuclides from airborne discharges or resuspension of ash from disposal sites showed no enhanced levels. It was found that variation of soil textural properties, pH values, and carbonate content influenced activity levels of natural radionuclides while radiocesium activities were associated with soil organic matter content. Modification of some soil properties was observed in the immediate vicinity (<1 km of power plants where the soil was more alkaline with coarser particles (0.2-0.05 mm and carbonates accumulated. Calculated average values of the absorbed gamma dose rate and annual external effective dose originating from the terrestrial radionuclides were 69.4 nGy/h and 0.085 mSv, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 4007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  4. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40{sup K}, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  5. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Velilla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Velilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. c.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. a.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238U, 235U, 232Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Velilla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  6. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  7. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  8. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Anllares; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Anllares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Anllares coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  9. Recent history of sediment metal contamination in Lake Macquarie, Australia, and an assessment of ash handling procedure effectiveness in mitigating metal contamination from coal-fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Larissa; Maher, William; Potts, Jaimie; Gruber, Bernd; Batley, Graeme; Taylor, Anne; Chariton, Anthony; Krikowa, Frank; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-08-15

    This study assessed historical changes in metal concentrations in sediments of southern Lake Macquarie resulting from the activities of coal-fired power stations, using a multi-proxy approach which combines (210)Pb, (137)Cs and metal concentrations in sediment cores. Metal concentrations in the lake were on average, Zn: 67 mg/kg, Cu: 15 mg/kg, As: 8 mg/kg, Se: 2mg/kg, Cd: 1.5 mg/kg, Pb: 8 mg/kg with a maximum of Zn: 280 mg/kg, Cu: 80 mg/kg, As: 21 mg/kg, Se: 5 mg/kg, Cd: 4 mg/kg, Pb: 48 mg/kg. The ratios of measured concentrations in sediment cores to their sediment guidelines were Cd 1.8, As 1.0, Cu 0.5, Pb 0.2 and Zn 0.2, with the highest concern being for cadmium. Of special interest was assessment of the effects of changes in ash handling procedures by the Vales Point power station on the metal concentrations in the sediments. Comparing sediment layers before and after ash handling procedures were implemented, zinc concentrations have decreased 10%, arsenic 37%, selenium 20%, cadmium 38% and lead 14%. An analysis of contaminant depth profiles showed that, after implementation of new ash handling procedures in 1995, selenium and cadmium, the main contaminants in Australian black coal had decreased significantly in this estuary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  11. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Abono; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Abono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the {sup 4}0K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Abono coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  12. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Meirama; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Meirama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Meirama coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  13. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Lada; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Lada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Lada coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  14. Optimized Solvent for Energy-Efficient, Environmentally-Friendly Capture of CO{sub 2} at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, G. A.; Rimpf, L. M.

    2014-04-30

    The overall goal of this project, as originally proposed, was to optimize the formulation of a novel solvent as a critical enabler for the cost-effective, energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly capture of CO{sub 2} at coal-fired utility plants. Aqueous blends of concentrated piperazine (PZ) with other compounds had been shown to exhibit high rates of CO{sub 2} absorption, low regeneration energy, and other desirable performance characteristics during an earlier 5-year development program conducted by B&W. The specific objective of this project was to identify PZ-based solvent formulations that globally optimize the performance of coal-fired power plants equipped with CO{sub 2} scrubbing systems. While previous solvent development studies have tended to focus on energy consumption and absorber size, important issues to be sure, the current work seeks to explore, understand, and optimize solvent formulation across the full gamut of issues related to commercial application of the technology: capital and operating costs, operability, reliability, environmental, health and safety (EH&S), etc. Work on the project was intended to be performed under four budget periods. The objective of the work in the first budget period has been to identify several candidate formulations of a concentrated PZ-based solvent for detailed characterization and evaluation. Work in the second budget period would generate reliable and comprehensive property and performance data for the identified formulations. Work in the third budget period would quantify the expected performance of the selected formulations in a commercial CO{sub 2} scrubbing process. Finally, work in the fourth budget period would provide a final technology feasibility study and a preliminary technology EH&S assessment. Due to other business priorities, however, B&W has requested that this project be terminated at the end of the first budget period. This document therefore serves as the final report for this project. It

  15. Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Shaoliang; Feng, Qiyan; Hou, Huping; Chen, Fu

    2016-09-02

    This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09-3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

  16. A novel oxidative method for the absorption of Hg(0) from flue gas of coal fired power plants using task specific ionic liquid scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Zach; Sachs, Tatyana; Chidambaram, Mandan; Sasson, Yoel

    2013-01-15

    A simple continuous process is described for the removal of mercury from gas streams (such as flue gas of a coal fired power stations) using imidazolium based Task Specific Ionic Liquids [TSILs] with the general structure ([RMIM][XI(2)(-)]) where X=Cl, Br or I. The latter are formed by blending dialkylimidazolium halide salts with iodine. When applied in a gas/liquid scrubber, these salts were shown to absorb >99% of elemental mercury originally present in a gas stream in concentration of 75-400 ppb. The mercury abatement is attained by oxidating the mercury to HgI(2) which is bound as a stable IL complex ([RMIM(+)][XHgI(2)(-)]. The novel absorption system exhibits a remarkable mercury concentration factor of seven orders of magnitude. The final solution obtained contains up to 50% (w/w) mercury in the IL. Upon exposure to sodium formate, directly added to the saturated IL at 45 °C, reduced metallic mercury swiftly precipitated from the solution and could be quantitatively separated and collected. The free IL could be fully recycled. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  18. Measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of associated radiation hazards in soil around Baoji second coal-fired thermal power plant, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinwei; Li, Xiaoxue; Yun, Pujun; Luo, Dacheng; Wang, Lijun; Ren, Chunhui; Chen, Cancan

    2012-01-01

    Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil around Baoji Second coal-fired thermal power plant of China were determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil were found to be 40.3 ± 3.5, 59.6 ± 3.1 and 751.2 ± 12.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which are all higher than the corresponding average values in Shaanxi, Chinese and world soil. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the air absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose (E), the external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) were evaluated and compared with the internationally reported or reference values. All the soil samples have Ra(eq) lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) and H(ex) and H(in) less than unity. The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate is ∼86.6 ± 3.4 nGy h(-1) and the corresponding outdoor annual effective dose is 0.106 ± 0.004 mSv, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y(-1)) for outdoor's annual effective dose.

  19. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  20. Primary measures for the reduction of SO[sub 2] emissions from the brown coal fired power plants of Southern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannakopoulos, D.; Kakaras, E.; Papageorgiou, N. (NTUA, Athens (Greece). Thermal Engineering Section)

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model concerning the computational simulation of SO[sub 2] reduction, with the dry additives method, inside brown coal fired furnaces is presented. The method has been applied for the case of the particular operating conditions of the Megalopolis I Thermal Power Plant furnace. The applied procedure consists of 3-D computational simulation of the brown coal combustion and the investigation of the dry additives particle trajectories along the furnace combined with the Shrinking core and the Pore tree models for the SO[sub 2] retention. The performance of the models is evaluated under varying residence time, particle's diameter, number and position of the injection location in the boiler. Advantage of this method is the fact that each one of the aforementioned models is applied for each particle position obtaining in this way realistic values of the governing variables such as SO[sub 2] concentration, flue gas temperature, H[sub 2]O and CO[sub 2] pressures. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Influence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installations on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Fajardo, Oscar A; Deng, Jianguo; Duan, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies have been widely used to control the emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs). Field measurements of emission characteristics of four conventional CFPPs indicated a significant increase in particulate ionic species, increasing PM2.5 emission with FGD and SCR installations. The mean concentrations of PM2.5 from all CFPPs tested were 3.79 ± 1.37 mg/m(3) and 5.02 ± 1.73 mg/m(3) at the FGD inlet and outlet, respectively, and the corresponding contributions of ionic species were 19.1 ± 7.7% and 38.2 ± 7.8%, respectively. The FGD was found to enhance the conversion of NH3 slip from the SCR to NH4(+) in the PM2.5, together with the conversion of SO2 to SO4(2-), and increased the primary NH4(+) and SO4(2-) aerosol emissions by approximately 18.9 and 4.2 times, respectively. This adverse effect should be considered when updating the emission inventory of CFPPs and should draw the attention of policy-makers for future air pollution control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  3. Biomonitoring of Po-210 and Pb-210 using lichens and mosses around a uraniferous coal-fired power plant in western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, A.; Ozden, B.; Sac, M.M.; Yener, G. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Science

    2003-05-01

    Studies were realized over a wide area around the coal-fired power plant (CPP) located at Yatagan , Gokova, Turkey, to evaluate the possible increase of natural radioactivity level due to the operation of the plant. The lichens Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia pyxidata and the mosses Grimmia pulvinata, Hypnum cupressiforme were investigated for potential use as bioindicators for Po-210 and Pb-210 deposition. The maximum Po-210 and Pb-210 activities were observed around the hill close to ash stacks. The capture efficiency was the highest in one of the moss species, G. pulvinata with the activity concentration ranges of 600 {+-} 19 - 1228 {+-} 36 and 446 {+-} 15 - 650 {+-} 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for Po-210 and Pb-210, respectively. Soil samples were also collected and analysed in order to investigate any possible contamination in soil profiles due to CPPs and to determine unsupported Pb-210 flux. The Pb-210 and Ra-226 concentrations in uncultivated soil profiles varied between 58 {+-} 2 and 258 {+-} 6 Bq kg{sup -1}, 50 {+-} 5 and 58 {+-} 5 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The unsupported Pb-210 inventory in the core was calculated to be 3312 Bq m{sup 2}. The corresponding annual Pb-210 flux of 103 Bq m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} is high with compare to estimates of the atmospheric flux given in literature for the same region.

  4. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800[degrees]F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400[degrees]F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

  5. Total mercury flux and offshore transport via submarine groundwater discharge and coal-fired power plant in the Jiulong River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jigang; Liu, Qian; Chen, Jinmin; Chen, Hongzhe; Lin, Hui; Sun, Xiuwu

    2018-02-01

    A mass balance of total mercury (Hg T , dissolved+particulate) is constructed for China's Jiulong River estuary based on measured Hg T concentrations in the surface water, sediment, porewater, and groundwater for May, August, and November 2009, combined with data from the literature. The Hg T mass budget results show that the dominant source (39-55%) is desulfurized seawater discharged from the Songyu coal-fired power plant. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)-derived Hg T flux into the estuary is equivalent to 8-58% of the Hg T input from the Jiulong River, which is remarkable when compared with SGD-derived Hg T fluxes reported in coastal systems worldwide. Hence, SGD is a significant pathway for the transport of Hg T into the Jiulong River estuary. The primary Hg T sinks is export to the Taiwan Strait (53-88%), which has important environmental implications on the Hg cycling and marine ecosystems in marginal seas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emission characterization and δ(13)C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jiamei; Liu, Guijian

    2016-11-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM2.5-10), intermediate (PM1-2.5) and fine (PM1) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM1-2.5 and PM1. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, gasification and combustion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving growth rate of microalgae in a 1191m(2) raceway pond to fix CO2 from flue gas in a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Yang, Zongbo; Huang, Yun; Huang, Lei; Hu, Lizuo; Xu, Donghua; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-08-01

    CO2 fixation between microalgal biomass and culture solution and the weight ratio of biomass consumption at nighttime to biomass growth at daytime were compared in an open raceway pond aerated with flue gas from a coal-fired power plant. Average daytime sunlight intensity and solution temperature were optimized to improve microalgal growth rate and to enhance the efficiency of CO2 fixation. When the average daytime solution temperature increased from 12 to 26°C, the rate of biomass consumption due to microalgal respiration at nighttime increased from 6.0 to 7.9g/m(2)/d, which was approximately 25% of the biomass growth rate at daytime. Furthermore, when the average daytime sunlight intensity increased from 39,900 to 88,300lux, CO2 fixation rate in the microalgal biomass increased from 18.4 to 40.7g/m(2)/d, which was approximately 1/3 of CO2 removal rate from flue gas by the microalgal culture system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report, [January 1, 1989--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-04-01

    This is the sixth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79863, entitled ``Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.`` This report summarizes accomplishments during the period January 1, 1989 to March 31, 1989. Efforts this past quarter focused primarily on the preparation of a computer User`s Guide for the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). Drafts of the first two chapters are now complete. These chapters constitute the bulk of this quarterly report. Drafts of the remaining chapters are in preparation, and will appear in a future report this year. We also have been working closely with DOE/PETC to define the computer configuration to be transferred to PETC as a contract deliverable. That process is now complete and the equipment is on order. Delivery of the IECM to PETC is expected during the next calendar quarter. Finally, we are continuing our efforts to develop and refine a number of clean coal technology process models. These efforts will be summarized and reported at a future date.

  9. Mercury concentrations in water resources potentially impacted by coal-fired power stations and artisanal gold mining in Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chavon R; Leaner, Joy J; Nel, Jaco M; Somerset, Vernon S

    2010-09-01

    Total mercury (TotHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in various environmental compartments collected from water resources of three Water Management Areas (WMAs) - viz. Olifants, Upper Vaal and Inkomati WMAs, potentially impacted by major anthropogenic mercury (Hg) sources (i.e coal-fired power stations and artisanal gold mining activities). Aqueous TotHg concentrations were found to be elevated above the global average (5.0 ng/L) in 38% of all aqueous samples, while aqueous MeHg concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (0.02 ng/L) to 2.73 +/- 0.10 ng/L. Total Hg concentrations in surface sediment (0-4 cm) ranged from 0.75 +/- 0.01 to 358.23 +/- 76.83 ng/g wet weight (ww). Methylmercury accounted for, on average, 24% of TotHg concentrations in sediment. Methylmercury concentrations were not correlated with TotHg concentrations or organic content in sediment. The concentration of MeHg in invertebrates and fish were highest in the Inkomati WMA and, furthermore, measured just below the US EPA guideline for MeHg in fish.

  10. Conversion of the lignite-fired power stations of the upper Austrian power station company to bituminous coal-firing; Umruestung der Braunkohle-Kraftwerke der Oberoesterreichischen Kraftwerke AG auf Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenbrunner, M.; Madlsperger, G [Oberoesterreichische Kraftwerke AG (OKA), Linz (Austria). Abt. Kraftwerkserrichtung; Pfeffer, S. [Oberoesterreichische Kraftwerke AG (OKA), St. Pantaleon (Austria). Kraftwerk Riedersbach; Steiner, H. [Oberoesterreichische Kraftwerke AG (OKA), Timelkam (Austria). Kraftwerk Timelkam

    1998-08-01

    The Upper Austrian Power Station Company operates coal-fired power stations at the Riedersbach and Timelkam sites. Because the adjacent supply sources of the original main fules of lignite had been shut down for economic reasons, the necessity to convert to bituminous coal-firing resulted. This paper quotes characteristic data for the lignite and bituminous coal used in the Upper Austrian Power Stations. It describes the conversion measures taken at each individual Upper Austrian coalfired power station, in which special arrangements and burner designs are represented. The reduction in fuel costs through the utilisation of bituminous coal available at world market prices was advantageous. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Oberoesterreichischen Kraftwerke betreiben an den Standorten Riedersbach und Timelkam kohlebefeuerte Kraftwerke. Weil die nahe gelegenen Foerderstaetten des urspruenglichen Hauptbrennstoffes Braunkohle aus Wirtschaftlichkeitsgruenden eingestellt wurden, ergab sich die Notwendigkeit des Umbaues auf Steinkohlefeuerung. Charakteristische Daten der in den OKA-Kohlekraftwerken eingesetzten Braun- und Steinkohle werden angegeben. Die Umbaumassnahmen jedes einzelnen OKA-Kohlekraftwerkes werden erlaeutert, wobei insbesondere Dispositionen und Brennerausfuehrungen dargestellt werden. Vorteilhaft war die Reduktion der Brennstoffkosten durch den Einsatz der zu Weltmarktpreisen erhaeltlichen Steinkohle. (orig.)

  11. Study on emission of hazardous trace elements in a 350 MW coal-fired power plant. Part 1. Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shilin; Duan, Yufeng; Chen, Lei; Li, Yaning; Yao, Ting; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Meng; Lu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Hazardous trace elements (HTEs), especially mercury, emitted from coal-fired power plants had caused widespread concern worldwide. Field test on mercury emissions at three different loads (100%, 85%, 68% output) using different types of coal was conducted in a 350 MW pulverized coal combustion power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitator and fabric filter (ESP + FF), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The Ontario Hydro Method was used for simultaneous flue gas mercury sampling for mercury at the inlet and outlet of each of the air pollutant control device (APCD). Results showed that mercury mass balance rates of the system or each APCD were in the range of 70%-130%. Mercury was mainly distributed in the flue gas, followed by ESP + FF ash, WFGD wastewater, and slag. Oxidized mercury (Hg 2+ ) was the main form of mercury form in the flue gas emitted to the atmosphere, which accounted for 57.64%-61.87% of total mercury. SCR was favorable for elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) removal, with oxidation efficiency of 50.13%-67.68%. ESP + FF had high particle-bound mercury (Hg p ) capture efficiency, at 99.95%-99.97%. Overall removal efficiency of mercury by the existing APCDs was 58.78%-73.32%. Addition of halogens or oxidants for Hg 0 conversion, and inhibitors for Hg 0 re-emission, plus the installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) was a good way to improve the overall removal efficiency of mercury in the power plants. Mercury emission factor determined in this study was from 0.92 to 1.17 g/10 12 J. Mercury concentration in the emitted flue gas was much less than the regulatory limit of 30 μg/m 3 . Contamination of mercury in desulfurization wastewater should be given enough focus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Chiu, John H. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Edberg, Carl D. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Thibeault, Paul R. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Turek, David G. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration

  13. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  14. THE LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK. PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OF MARCH 2003 - MARCH 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.D.MORRIS,S.M.

    2003-05-01

    This report presents a follow-up to previous assessments of the health risks of mercury that BNL performed for the Department of Energy. Methylmercury is an organic form of mercury that has been implicated as the form of mercury that impacts human health. A comprehensive risk assessment report was prepared (Lipfert et al., 1994) that led to several journal articles and conference presentations (Lipfert et al. 1994, 1995, 1996). In 2001, a risk assessment of mercury exposure from fish consumption was performed for 3 regions of the U.S (Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest) identified by the EPA as regions of higher impact from coal emissions (Sullivan, 2001). The risk assessment addressed the effects of in utero exposure to children through consumption of fish by their mothers. Two population groups (general population and subsistence fishers) were considered. Three mercury levels were considered in the analysis, current conditions based on measured data, and hypothetical reductions in Hg levels due to a 50% and 90% reduction in mercury emissions from coal fired power plants. The findings of the analysis suggested that a 90% reduction in coal-fired emissions would lead to a small reduction in risk to the general population (population risk reduction on the order of 10{sup -5}) and that the population risk is born by less than 1% of the population (i.e. high end fish consumers). The study conducted in 2001 focused on the health impacts arising from regional deposition patterns as determined by measured data and modeling. Health impacts were assessed on a regional scale accounting for potential percent reductions in mercury emissions from coal. However, quantitative assessment of local deposition near actual power plants has not been attempted. Generic assessments have been performed, but these are not representative of any single power plant. In this study, general background information on the mercury cycle, mercury emissions from coal plants, and risk assessment are

  15. Fireside corrosion of nickel base alloys in future 700 C coal fired power plants; Rauchgasseitige Korrosion von Nickelbasislegierungen fuer zukuenftige 700 C-Dampfkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettschwager, Frank

    2011-09-27

    Coal is still the most important energy source in Germany. In 2009 it produced 42.9 % of the overall German electrical power. Coal is available world-wide in large quantities and can be delivered economically. One of the possible ways to reduce CO{sub 2} pollution is the increase of efficiency of coal fired power plants, which requires steam conditions of up to 700 C - 730 C and 350 bar. Because many German power units will reach the end of their technical lifespan in a few years or the following decade, one will have the possibility to build up modern types of power plants with increased efficiency of more than 50 %. Some international standards (European Pressure Equipment Directive or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) require 100 000 hour creep rupture strength of 100 MPa at 750 C. Therefore, nickel base alloys are in the focus of material qualification processes. Nickel base alloys are well investigated due to their hot corrosion behaviour. It is known that sodium sulphate may generate hot corrosion on those alloys at temperatures above its melting point of 884 C. On nickel base alloys an eutectic mixture of nickel sulphate and sodium sulphate with a melting point of 671 C can be generated, which leads to accelerated corrosion. This work examines, whether the high amount of sulphur and alkali metals will induce hot corrosion at the estimated working temperature on devices manufactured from nickel base alloy. Two synthetic coal ash deposits, according to the chemical composition of hard coal and lignite, and typical flue gases with and without sulphur dioxide were blended of pure agents. The reactions of the deposits with heater tubes' materials and synthetic flue gases are examined in the temperature range from 650 C to 800 C and different time ranges up to 2000 hours. The corroded specimen are examined with SEM/EDX to identify relevant corrosion products and determine the corrosivity of deposited compounds. Deposits increase the corrosion rate of

  16. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mylläri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2 and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200–300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  17. ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION/USE ON AN EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility and the economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration/use technologies for retrofitting an existing pulverized coal-fired power plant. To accomplish this objective three alternative CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration systems will be evaluated to identify their impact on an existing boiler, associated boiler auxiliary components, overall plant operation and performance and power plant cost, including the cost of electricity. The three retrofit technologies that will be evaluated are as follows: (1) Coal combustion in air, followed by CO{sub 2} separation from flue gas with Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global's commercial MEA-based absorption/stripping process. (2) Coal combustion in an O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment with CO{sub 2} recycle. (3) Coal combustion in air with oxygen removal and CO{sub 2} captured by tertiary amines In support of this objective and execution of the evaluation of the three retrofit technologies a literature survey was conducted. It is presented in an ''annotated'' form, consistent with the following five sections: (1) Coal Combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Media; (2) Oxygen Separation Technologies; (3) Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Separation Technologies; (4) Potential Utilization of CO{sub 2}; and (5) CO{sub 2} Sequestration. The objective of the literature search was to determine if the three retrofit technologies proposed for this project continue to be sound choices. Additionally, a review of the literature would afford the opportunity to determine if other researchers have made significant progress in developing similar process technologies and, in that context, to revisit the current state-of-the-art. Results from this literature survey are summarized in the report.

  18. Conversion of coal-fired power plants to cogeneration and combined-cycle thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    This book covers methodology, calculation procedures and tools to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to cogeneration and combined-cycle forms. It examines the optimum selection of the structure of heat exchangers in a 370 MW power block.

  19. Natural stable isotopic compositions of mercury in aerosols and wet precipitations around a coal-fired power plant in Xiamen, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuyuan; Sun, Lumin; Zhou, Tingjin; Yuan, Dongxing; Du, Bing; Sun, Xiuwu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, samples of 18 wet precipitations (WPs) and 38 aerosols were collected around a coal-fired power plant (CFPP) located in Xiamen, southeast China, which was equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system. Total particulate mercury (TPM) in aerosol samples, and total mercury (WP-TM), dissolved mercury (WP-DM) and particulate mercury (WP-PM) in WP samples were analyzed for the natural isotopic compositions of mercury. For the first time, both mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass independent fractionation of odd (odd-MIF) and even (even-MIF) isotopes of WP-DM and WP-PM were reported and discussed. Both WP-TM and TPM displayed negative MDF and slightly positive even-MIF. Negative odd-MIF was observed in TPM and WP-PM, whereas positive odd-MIF was observed in WP-TM and WP-DM. It was found that the mercury budget in WP-PM samples was mainly controlled by atmospheric particles. Potential sources of mercury in samples were identified via analysis of mercury isotopic signatures and meteorological data with the NOAA HYSPLIT model. The results showed that TPM and WP-PM in solid samples were homologous and the isotopic compositions of WP-TM depended on those of WP-DM. The ratios of Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg resulting from photochemical reactions and positive Δ200Hg values (from -0.06‰ to 0.27‰) in all samples indicated that the mercury coming from local emission of the CFPP together with long-distance transportation were the two main contributing sources.

  20. Biomonitoring of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, Emel, E-mail: emel.sert@mail.ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ugur, Aysun, E-mail: aysun.ugur@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozden, Banu, E-mail: banu.ozden@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sac, Mueslim Murat, E-mail: muslum.murat.sac@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Camgoez, Berkay, E-mail: berkay.camgoz@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 {+-} 7-593 {+-} 21 and 97 {+-} 5-364 {+-} 13 Bq kg{sup -1}, for mosses the ranges for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb are 124 {+-} 5-1125 {+-} 38 and 113 {+-} 4-490 {+-} 17 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. {sup 210}Po concentrations were found higher than {sup 210}Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: > Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. > The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. > Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. > Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  1. The potential leaching and mobilization of trace elements from FGD-gypsum of a coal-fired power plant under water re-circulation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Patricia; Castro, Iria; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes; Querol, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Experimental and geochemical modelling studies were carried out to identify mineral and solid phases containing major, minor, and trace elements and the mechanism of the retention of these elements in Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD)-gypsum samples from a coal-fired power plant under filtered water recirculation to the scrubber and forced oxidation conditions. The role of the pH and related environmental factors on the mobility of Li, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Mo, and U from FGD-gypsums for a comprehensive assessment of element leaching behaviour were also carried out. Results show that the extraction rate of the studied elements generally increases with decreasing the pH value of the FGD-gypsum leachates. The increase of the mobility of elements such as U, Se, and As in the FGD-gypsum entails the modification of their aqueous speciation in the leachates; UO2SO4, H2Se, and HAsO2 are the aqueous complexes with the highest activities under acidic conditions. The speciation of Zn, Li, and Ni is not affected in spite of pH changes; these elements occur as free cations and associated to SO4(2) in the FGD-gypsum leachates. The mobility of Cu and Mo decreases by decreasing the pH of the FGD-gypsum leachates, which might be associated to the precipitation of CuSe2 and MoSe2, respectively. Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry of the solid phase combined with geochemical modelling of the aqueous phase has proved useful in understanding the mobility and geochemical behaviour of elements and their partitioning into FGD-gypsum samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Design and Feasibility Assessment of a Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in the Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Bilonick; Daniel Connell; Evelyn Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Myoung Kim

    2006-12-20

    Eighty-nine (89) percent of the electricity supplied in the 35-county Pittsburgh region (comprising parts of the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) is generated by coal-fired power plants making this an ideal region in which to study the effects of the fine airborne particulates designated as PM{sub 2.5} emitted by the combustion of coal. This report demonstrates that during the period from 1999-2006 (1) sufficient and extensive exposure data, in particular samples of speciated PM{sub 2.5} components from 1999 to 2003, and including gaseous co-pollutants and weather have been collected, (2) sufficient and extensive mortality, morbidity, and related health outcomes data are readily available, and (3) the relationship between health effects and fine particulates can most likely be satisfactorily characterized using a combination of sophisticated statistical methodologies including latent variable modeling (LVM) and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GLARMA) time series analysis. This report provides detailed information on the available exposure data and the available health outcomes data for the construction of a comprehensive database suitable for analysis, illustrates the application of various statistical methods to characterize the relationship between health effects and exposure, and provides a road map for conducting the proposed study. In addition, a detailed work plan for conducting the study is provided and includes a list of tasks and an estimated budget. A substantial portion of the total study cost is attributed to the cost of analyzing a large number of archived PM{sub 2.5} filters. Analysis of a representative sample of the filters supports the reliability of this invaluable but as-yet untapped resource. These filters hold the key to having sufficient data on the components of PM{sub 2.5} but have a limited shelf life. If the archived filters are not analyzed promptly the important and costly information they

  3. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  4. PSNH's Northern Wood power project repowers coal-fired plant with new fluidized-bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2007-08-15

    The Northern Wood Power project permanently replaced a 50-MW coal-burning boiler (Unit 5) at Public Service of New Hampshire's Schiller station with a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed wood-burning boiler of the same capacity. The project, completed in December 2006, reduced emissions and expanded the local market for low-grade wood. For planning and executing the multiyear, $75 million project at no cost to its ratepayers, PSNH wins Power's 2007 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshoot par excellence. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Coal-fired plants worst point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvingson, P.

    2007-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants dominate the twenty worst emitters, not only of carbon dioxide but also of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, in the 25 'old' EU member countries. Seven plants are among the 25 worst on all three lists. They are Belchatow, Rybnik and Kozience in Poland, Cottam and Longannet in the UK, Puentes in Spain and Taranto in Italy. All data refer to 2004. German plants are among the worst in respect of carbon dioxide - nine of the 25 biggest point sources are in Germany. Topping the list for sulphur dioxide is the coal-fired Puentes power plant in the northwest of Spain. Second highest as regards sulphur dioxide is the Megalopolis A (I, II, III) complex on the Peloponnesian peninsula in Greece. Close by is Megalopolis B (IV), also on the worst 25 list. All are fired with lignite from local deposits. British plants account for nine of the 25 worst emitters of nitrogen oxides. Figures from tables reproduced in the article are from the European Pollutant Emission Register, EPER which covers 11,500 industrial facilities in the EU25 and Norway and has recently been updated with 2004 figures. 3 tabs., 1 photo.

  6. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation (rehabilitation of 300MW coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in China); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku ni okeru 300MW sekitan karyoku hatsudensho rihabiri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies are made on the feasibility of the above project which aims at energy efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction at thermoelectric power plants. Opinions and comments are collected by hearing, and on-site surveys are conducted at Shandong Province Zouxian Power Plant, Anhui Province Luohe Power Plant, and Henan Province Yaomeng Power Plant. The conclusion reached is outlined below. In view of the current and future demand for electricity in China and of the network to be constructed, it is believed that the rehabilitation is a pressing task for improvement on efficiency and reliability at 300MW coal-fired power plants. As for air pollution, NOx and dust in addition to greenhouse gas will be reduced under the project. There will be 3-4% improvement in boiler efficiency and approximately 4% improvement in turbine efficiency, and, in this connection, there will be CO2 emission reduction of 140,400-154,900 tons/year per unit in case of 300MW coal-fired power plants. As for cost efficiency, it is inferred that investment will achieve an adequate result, with the number of years required for investment retrieval taken into consideration. (NEDO)

  7. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Survey on CO{sub 2} reduction at coal fired thermal power plants in Russia; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Roshia sekitan karyoku hatsudensho CO{sub 2} sakugen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia was selected as a candidate for the joint project implementation based on COP3, and coal fired thermal power plants in the country were surveyed. From among power plants having generation capacity of 200 GW, 600 thermal power plants account for 70%. Two-third of them are using natural gas as fuel, with the remaining plants using coal, which are noticeably overaged, having facility renewal as a pressing problem. Therefore, they can be the good targets for reducing carbon dioxide emission by modernizing the facilities. Promising projects with large cost effect of CO2 reduction were extracted in the Far Eastern and Siberian regions, where weight of coal fired thermal power plants is high. These projects include five plants including Amursk No. 1 and Kabarovsk No. 1 in the Far Eastern region, and five plants including Irkutsk Nos. 6, 10 and 11 in the Siberian region. From among 48 projects proposed to Japan by RAOEES 'ROSSII' in 1998, nine projects were surveyed individually as the objects of case study. Based on the survey and the consultation with the counterpart, draft proposals were prepared for each power plant, and CO2 reduction effect was evaluated. The Dogobuzh, Cherpet and Troitsk power plants were identified as having a promising potential. (NEDO)

  8. Assessment of Solid Sorbent Systems for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glier, Justin C.

    In an effort to lower future CO2 emissions, a wide range of technologies are being developed to scrub CO2 from the flue gases of fossil fuel-based electric power and industrial plants. This thesis models one of several early-stage post-combustion CO2 capture technologies, solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process, and presents performance and cost estimates of this system on pulverized coal power plants. The spreadsheet-based software package Microsoft Excel was used in conjunction with AspenPlus modelling results and the Integrated Environmental Control Model to develop performance and cost estimates for the solid sorbent-based CO2 capture technology. A reduced order model also was created to facilitate comparisons among multiple design scenarios. Assumptions about plant financing and utilization, as well as uncertainties in heat transfer and material design that affect heat exchanger and reactor design were found to produce a wide range of cost estimates for solid sorbent-based systems. With uncertainties included, costs for a supercritical power plant with solid sorbent-based CO2 capture ranged from 167 to 533 per megawatt hour for a first-of-a-kind installation (with all costs in constant 2011 US dollars) based on a 90% confidence interval. The median cost was 209/MWh. Post-combustion solid sorbent-based CO2 capture technology is then evaluated in terms of the potential cost for a mature system based on historic experience as technologies are improved with sequential iterations of the currently available system. The range costs for a supercritical power plant with solid sorbent-based CO2 capture was found to be 118 to 189 per megawatt hour with a nominal value of 163 per megawatt hour given the expected range of technological improvement in the capital and operating costs and efficiency of the power plant after 100 GW of cumulative worldwide experience. These results suggest that the solid sorbent-based system will not be competitive with currently available

  9. An integrated simulation and optimization approach for managing human health risks of atmospheric pollutants by coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C; Cai, X H; Cai, Y P; Guo, H C; Sun, W; Tan, Q; Huang, G H

    2014-06-01

    This research developed a simulation-aided nonlinear programming model (SNPM). This model incorporated the consideration of pollutant dispersion modeling, and the management of coal blending and the related human health risks within a general modeling framework In SNPM, the simulation effort (i.e., California puff [CALPUFF]) was used to forecast the fate of air pollutants for quantifying the health risk under various conditions, while the optimization studies were to identify the optimal coal blending strategies from a number of alternatives. To solve the model, a surrogate-based indirect search approach was proposed, where the support vector regression (SVR) was used to create a set of easy-to-use and rapid-response surrogates for identifying the function relationships between coal-blending operating conditions and health risks. Through replacing the CALPUFF and the corresponding hazard quotient equation with the surrogates, the computation efficiency could be improved. The developed SNPM was applied to minimize the human health risk associated with air pollutants discharged from Gaojing and Shijingshan power plants in the west of Beijing. Solution results indicated that it could be used for reducing the health risk of the public in the vicinity of the two power plants, identifying desired coal blending strategies for decision makers, and considering a proper balance between coal purchase cost and human health risk. A simulation-aided nonlinear programming model (SNPM) is developed. It integrates the advantages of CALPUFF and nonlinear programming model. To solve the model, a surrogate-based indirect search approach based on the combination of support vector regression and genetic algorithm is proposed. SNPM is applied to reduce the health risk caused by air pollutants discharged from Gaojing and Shijingshan power plants in the west of Beijing. Solution results indicate that it is useful for generating coal blending schemes, reducing the health risk of the public

  10. Optimization and reconstruction technology of SCR flue gas denitrification ultra low emission in coal fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhao

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from thermal power plant increased year by year in China. A large number of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions caused by the growing environmental problems have been widely attached importance to people. SCR denitrification technology has the advantages of cleanliness and high efficiency. At present, it has been the major technology to control NOx emission because of its high denitrification efficiency, reliable operation, no by-products and simple structure of the device. The denitrification efficiency can be stabilized at 70%. In this paper, three different denitrification methods are compared. The factors influencing the denitrification efficiency, the system arrangement and the key factors of the denitrification system are discussed in detail. And the numerical simulation of how to use this calculation software in the SCR reactor flue, baffle, reactor, spray ammonia grille and spray ammonia, mixer, etc. are reviewed, as well as the effect of system operation control on the deoxidation performance.

  11. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  12. Development of an Integrated Air Quality Management System for the Large-Capacity Coal-fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wuk Hee; Kim, Yung Bae; Chun, Sung Nam; Kim, Hyun Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kil Choo; Ghim, Young Sung; Shim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of this study was to construct an integrated air pollution monitoring network(APMN) at the Boryong Thermal Power Plant site. For siting the air pollution monitoring stations(APMS) and determining appropriate numbers of them, four different approaches were applied : extensive field survey, meteorological data analysis dispersion modelling and wind tunnel experiment. After analyzing those results obtained from such different disciplines, 9 APMS sites were selected and facilities of ambient air pollution and meteorological measurements were installed at each site. In addition to the 9 APMS, a doppler meter(SODAR, sound detection and ranging) was installed in order to continuously monitor the wind direction and speed upto 1500 meter from the ground. Ambient air pollution and meteorological data and source emission data were transmitted to the central computer and processed by the computer. Many obstacles such as difficulties of negotiating with the local people who own the lands for APMS installation and getting the land use permits from the local government, delay of import and installation of TMS facilities, and frequent malfunctions of many accessory devices during APMS construction and test operation, particularly in the data transmission and data acquisition system part, had made the construction work quite longer than the period it was planned at the planning stage of this project. However, all the hurdles were finally overcome and after several months test period the system seems to work as originally planned. In the presenting report, these all efforts devoted for constructing and test operating the advanced APMN system were described and the manuals and guidelines of APMN construction and operation were included. (author). 43 figs.

  13. Emission characterization and δ{sup 13}C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China); Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Hong [Anhui Department of Environmental Protection, Anhui Academy of Environmental Science, Hefei 230071 (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1} compared with PM{sub 2.5–10}. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM{sub 2.5–10}), intermediate (PM{sub 1–2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 1}) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1}. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high

  14. Application of paste backfill in underground coal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C.; Masniyom, M. [Technische Univ., Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Coal fires are common in most coalfields around the world, and most particularly in China. The main countries affected by coal fires include China, India, the United States, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa. The fires cause sinkholes; large-scale subsidence; air pollution in the form of greenhouse gases; global warming; loss of mining productivity; contamination of drinking water; damage of flora and fauna; and a high safety risk. Therefore, protecting the economically valuable coal resources and the environment is of significant national and international importance. This paper discussed the use of paste backfill in the Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply to prevent coal fires. The study investigated backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. The paper presented the results of laboratory tests that were conducted on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures, with particular attention to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials such as fly ash from power plants. The characteristics of backfill materials, grain size analysis, and chemical composition of backfill were also identified. It was concluded that backfilling voids enhance the stability of the mine, thereby improving safety for the workforce. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

    2012-03-15

    Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Operating results of 700MW coal fired supercritical once-through steam generator for Hekinan power station No.3 boiler, Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc. with elevated reheat steam temperature of 596{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S.; Ozawa, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Kuwahara, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Indutries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration test results of the 700 MW coal fired supercritical once-through steam generator for Hekinan Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. were reported which generator is featured by highest reheat steam temperature of 596{degree}C among commercial boilers. On static characteristics, both gross and net thermal efficiencies were higher than the design values in a load range of 30-100%, and higher by nearly 1% than those under conventional steam conditions. The metal temperature distribution of each portion was desirable, and the reheater could be well regulated below 610{degree}C lower than the design value (619{degree}C) without arrival on the alarm setting (650{degree}C). The load change of 5%/min in a high load zone and 3%/min in a low one was allowable for each coal type keeping stable steam temperature. Unburned carbon contents in fly ash was less than 2%, while NOx emission was less than 150 ppm at a boiler outlet. In addition, the unit start characteristics equivalent to those of oil fired boilers were obtained proving the possible boiler technology at 596{degree}C in reheater steam temperature. 7 figs.

  17. Hot Corrosion Studies in Coal Fired Boiler Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Subhash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hot corrosion behaviour of the bare and D-gun coated superfer 800H exposed to low temperature super-heater zone of the coal fired boiler of Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Power Plant, Bathinda, Punjab, India. The specimens were hanged in the platen super-heater of coal fired boiler where the gas temperature was around 900 °C ±10 °C. Hot corrosion experiments were performed for 10 cycles, each cycle consisting of 100 hours exposure followed by 1 hour cooling at ambient temperature. Weight change measurements were done at the end of each cycle. The weight change data used for predicting hot corrosion behaviour of the coated alloys after the total exposure of 1000 hours. The different phases and their distribution in the hot corroded specimens were analysed with the help of FE-SEM/EDS and X-ray mapping.

  18. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (conversion of old coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in Poland into combined cycle plants); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Poland sekitan karyoku hatsudensho (kyushiki) combined cycle eno tenkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A project is discussed for modernization for energy efficiency enhancement and greenhouse gas reduction. The most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas in Poland is to totally replace the existing coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants. Under this project, however, natural gas-fired power generation and integrated coal/brown coal gasification combined cycle power generation are both subjected to study. This is because the power plant modernization project is closely related to the fate of coal/brown coal industries which constitute the important industrial department of Poland. As for the earning rate of the project in case of natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation, the rate will be 13.2% even at the Kaweczyn station which is the highest in earning rate, and this fails to satisfy the project conditions. If integrated coal/brown gasification combined cycle power generation is chosen, the rate will be still lower. When the cost for greenhouse gas reduction is taken up, the Konin station exhibits the lowest of 9 dollars/tCO2, and the others 15-17 dollars/tCO2. When coal gas combined cycle is employed, the cost will be 3-4 times higher. (NEDO)

  19. Coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic topping cycle for retrofit of steam power plants. [Two-phase working fluid composed of coal combustion products and liquid copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E. S.; Herman, H.; Petrick, M.; Boom, R. W.; Carlson, L.; Cohen, D.; Dubey, G.; Grammel, S. J.; Schreiner, F.; Snyder, B. K.; Zinneman, T.

    1980-12-01

    The application of the new, coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal MHD (OC-LMMHD) energy-conversion system to the retrofit of an existing, oil- or gas-fired conventional steam power plant is evaluated. The criteria used to evaluate the retrofit are the new plant efficiency and the cost benefit relative to other options, i.e., continuing to burn oil, a conventional retrofit to burn coal (if possible), and an over-the-fence gasifier for boilers that cannot burn coal directly. The OC-LMMHD cycle and the existing steam plant used in the study are discussed, and a detailed description of the retrofit plant is presented. The latter includes plant drawings, description of the coupling of the OC-LMMHD topping cycle and the steam boiler, drawings and descriptions of the major components in the retrofit plant, and costs. The unique capability of the OC-LMMHD cycle to control the pollutants normally associated with burning coal is discussed. The net plant output powers and efficiencies are calculated, with allowances for the required auxiliary powers and component inefficiencies, and a plant lifetime economic analysis performed by an architect/engineer. The efficiency and cost results are compared with the values for the other options.

  20. Coal-fired Power Plants with Flexible Amine-based CCS and Co-located Wind Power: Environmental, Economic and Reliability Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Rubenka

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies provide a means to significantly reduce carbon emissions from the existing fleet of fossil-fired plants, and hence can facilitate a gradual transition from conventional to more sustainable sources of electric power. This is especially relevant for coal plants that have a CO2 emission rate that is roughly two times higher than that of natural gas plants. Of the different kinds of CCS technology available, post-combustion amine based CCS is the best developed and hence more suitable for retrofitting an existing coal plant. The high costs from operating CCS could be reduced by enabling flexible operation through amine storage or allowing partial capture of CO2 during high electricity prices. This flexibility is also found to improve the power plant's ramp capability, enabling it to offset the intermittency of renewable power sources. This thesis proposes a solution to problems associated with two promising technologies for decarbonizing the electric power system: the high costs of the energy penalty of CCS, and the intermittency and non-dispatchability of wind power. It explores the economic and technical feasibility of a hybrid system consisting of a coal plant retrofitted with a post-combustion-amine based CCS system equipped with the option to perform partial capture or amine storage, and a co-located wind farm. A techno-economic assessment of the performance of the hybrid system is carried out both from the perspective of the stakeholders (utility owners, investors, etc.) as well as that of the power system operator. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 3, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R & D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

  2. Durability of concrete containing fly ashes (type C concrete) for a coal-fired power plant at the Bay of Tachibana; Tachibanawan sekitan karyoku hatsudensho shinsetsu koji de saiyoshita flyash C shu cement wo mochiita concrete no taikyusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagimoto, H.; Kawasaki, M.; Saito, F. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    Described herein are the assessment results of type C concrete (substituted by 25% of fly ashes) used in the works to build a new coal-fired power plant at the Bay of Tachibana. The concrete contains a higher content of fly ashes than the ordinary one containing fly ashes, and expected to show higher durability. Increasing fly ash content reduces a quantity of water required to secure a given slump. Bleeding is reduced in the presence of fly ashes. Fly ashes tend to decrease initial strength of concrete, but little affect time needed before concrete attains a strength to allow frame releasing. Elongation in the long term can be expected as fly ash content increases. Resistance of concrete to salt increases with fly ash content. Durability of concrete is sufficient in the presence of fly ashes in terms of resistance to freezing and melting. Fly ashes tend to improve, although slightly, resistance to drying shrinkage, and significantly control the alkali-aggregate reactions. Increasing fly ash content increases their effects on various concrete properties affected by fly ashes. 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Development of a Field Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat Recovery and Use Technology Designed to Improve Efficiency and Reduce Water Usage Rates for a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Russell [Southern Company Services, Incorporated, Birmingham, AL (United States); Dombrowski, K. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Bernau, M. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Morett, D. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Maxson, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hume, S. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Coal-based power generation systems provide reliable, low-cost power to the domestic energy sector. These systems consume large amounts of fuel and water to produce electricity and are the target of pending regulations that may require reductions in water use and improvements in thermal efficiency. While efficiency of coal-based generation has improved over time, coal power plants often do not utilize the low-grade heat contained in the flue gas and require large volumes of water for the steam cycle make-up, environmental controls, and for process cooling and heating. Low-grade heat recovery is particularly challenging for coal-fired applications, due in large part to the condensation of acid as the flue gas cools and the resulting potential corrosion of the heat recovery materials. Such systems have also not been of significant interest as recent investments on coal power plants have primarily been for environmental controls due to more stringent regulations. Also, in many regions, fuel cost is still a pass-through to the consumer, reducing the motivation for efficiency improvements. Therefore, a commercial system combining low-grade heat-recovery technologies and associated end uses to cost effectively improve efficiency and/or reduce water consumption has not yet been widely applied. However, pressures from potential new regulations and from water shortages may drive new interest, particularly in the U.S. In an effort to address this issue, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to identify and promote technologies to achieve this goal.

  5. Economic comparison of fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators for particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, P. M.; Chapman, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The uncertainties and associated costs involved in selecting and designing a particulate control device to meet California's air emission regulations are considered. The basic operating principles of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters are discussed, and design parameters are identified. The size and resulting cost of the control device as a function of design parameters is illustrated by a case study for an 800 MW coal-fired fired utility boiler burning a typical southwestern subbituminous coal. The cost of selecting an undersized particulate control device is compared with the cost of selecting an oversized device.

  6. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  7. Mercury removal from coal-fired flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Y. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Resource and Environmental Engineering; Hong, Y.; Yang, X.; Hu, P. [CPI Yuanda Environmental-Protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China)

    2008-07-01

    China's effort to control air pollution from its coal-fired power plants to protect the environment was discussed. Mercury (Hg) is one of the most volatile elements of heavy metals in coal. Hg pollution and its impact on human health and the environment is of significant concern, due to the acute toxicity, bio-accumulation and persistency in the atmosphere. This paper presented the current state of mercury removal technologies for coal-fired power plant flue gases. The paper first discussed existing forms of mercury, followed by 3 pollution control technologies, notably the adsorbent method; chemical precipitation; and chemical oxidation. The adsorbent method is a common method to treat pollution by using a porous solid substance for sorption, which includes physical adsorption and chemical adsorption. Types of adsorbents that were presented included active carbon and fly ash. The chemical precipitation method makes chemical agents react with mercury to form precipitation, thus removing mercury. The primary methods presented in this paper were the potassium iodide solution washing method; the mercury removal by chlorination process; and the sodium sulfide method. Chemical oxidation and other methods were also defined and explained along with a discussion of technology prospects. 4 refs.

  8. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  9. Development of technical solutions on a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, A. L.; Verbovetsky, E. Kh.; Somova, E. V.; Smolin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Development of a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with advanced ultra-supercritical steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C is presented. The main technical solutions providing the reliability, profitability, and low emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere are given. The fuel is the black coal of (Taldinskoye field, Kuznetsk basin). The gross efficiency of the boiler is 94%. The U-shaped configuration of a boiler is chosen, which allows the reduction of the capital expenditure for steam turbine piping made of expensive nickel alloys. The horizontal connection flue of the boiler, where the primary and reheat steam screens are located, is equipped with two cold funnels. The upper section of the convection shaft is separated with a vertical screen wall into two parallel "split tail" flues, which allows one to control the reheat steam temperature by redistributing the flue gas between the gas flues. The URS screens are two-stage with a lifting motion of the medium and a partial bypassing of the first stage. The lower radiant section is two-stage. To reduce the temperature of screen walls at the fire chamber outlet, the lowering motion of the working medium and combustion gases is used. The hydrodynamics of the screens with the lowering motion of the medium for preventing the aperiodic instability in the start regimes is analyzed. Besides the stepwise combustion of coal dust providing the improved environmental parameters, the boiler plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, an ash collector (an electric filter combined with a filter bag), and a desulphurization device.

  10. Who is affected more by air pollution - sick or healthy? Some evidence from a health survey of schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Northern Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogev-Baggio, T.; Bibi, H.; Dubnov, J.; Or-Hen, K.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A. [University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Natural Resources & Environmental Management

    2010-03-15

    A cohort of 1181 schoolchildren, residing near a major coal-fired power plant in the Hadera district of Israel, were subdivided into three health status groups: (a) healthy children, (b) children experiencing chest symptoms, and (c) children with asthma or spastic bronchitis. Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) were performed twice (in 1996 and 1999) and analyzed in conjunction with air pollution estimates at the children's places of residence and several potential confounders - height, age, gender, parental education, passive smoking, housing density, length of residence in the study area and proximity to the main road. A significant negative association was found between changes in PFT results and individual exposure estimates to air pollution, controlled for socio-demographic characteristics of children and their living conditions. A sensitivity analysis revealed a decrease in the Forced Expiratory Volume during the First Second (FEV1) of about 19.6% for children with chest symptoms, 11.8% for healthy children, and approximately 7.9% for children diagnosed with asthma. Results of a sensitivity test for the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) were found to be similar. Exposure to air pollution appeared to have had the greatest effect on children with chest symptoms. This phenomenon may be explained by the fact that this untreated symptomatic group might experience the most severe insult on their respiratory system as a result of exposure to ambient air pollution, which is reflected by a considerable reduction in their FEV1 and FVC. Since asthmatic children have lower baseline and slower growth rates, their PFT change may be affected less by exposure to air pollution, reflecting a well known relationship between pulmonary function change and height growth, according to which age-specific height is very similar for preadolescent children, but shifts upward with age during the growth spurt.

  11. New training simulators of state-of-the-art coal fired power plants at KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V.; Neue Schulungssimulatoren moderner Kohlekraftwerke bei der KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeck, Martin; Fehse, Klaus; Nacke, Heinrich [Kraftwerksschule e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    For more than 20 years, KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (KWS - PowerTech Training Center) operates training simulators for fossil-fired power plants at its Essen headquarters. In the course of the construction of the new 800 MW and 1100 MW high-efficiency power plants with hypercritical steam generators, a growing demand for - even multilingual - training of operator personnel from such plants at simulators is arising. Thus, new training simulators are being erected. (orig.)

  12. PM{sub 1}0 characteristics emitted from the coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Y.G. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Resources and Environmental Science]|[CPI Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China); Sui, J.C.; Liu, Q.C. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Resources and Environmental Science; Liu, X.W.; Xu, M.H. [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu, Y. [CPI Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China)

    2008-07-01

    Coal consumption is expected to increase rapidly in China with increased generating capacity. Coal-fired power plants produce fine fly ash consisting of particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM{sub 1}0) is known to be hazardous to human health because it can penetrate deep into the lung. It also possesses several trace metal compounds originally bound in the coal. PM emission control is of primary importance in order to minimize the emission of fly ash from coal-fired power plants into the atmosphere. This paper described the characteristics of PM{sub 1}0 emitted from four boilers in two coal-fired power plants in China. It provided a detailed description of the coal-fired boilers and discussed the PM sample collection. It also discussed the analysis of the mass size distribution, formation mechanism, emission characteristics, penetration and chemical composition of PM{sub 1}0. Measurements of the characteristics of PM were performed at the inlet and outlet of the electrostatic precipitators (ESP) of four boilers. It was concluded that, in all cases, the mass size distribution of PM{sub 1}0 was typically bimodal. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Risk assessment of mortality for all-cause, ischemic heart disease, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer due to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Pei-Hsuan; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hu, Suh-Woan; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Tsai, Jeng-Lin; Tang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Guan-Jie; Ku, Kai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    Based on recent understanding of PM2.5 health-related problems from fossil-fueled power plants emission inventories collected in Taiwan, we have determined the loss of life expectancy (LLE) and the lifetime (75-year) risks for PM2.5 health-related mortalities as attributed to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant; the Taichung Power Plant (TCP), with an installed nominal electrical capacity of 5780 MW in 2013. Five plausible scenarios (combinations of emission controls, fuel switch, and relocation) and two risk factors were considered. It is estimated that the lifetime (75-y) risk for all-cause mortality was 0.3%-0.6% for males and 0.2%-0.4% for females, and LLE at 84 days in 1997 for the 23 million residents of Taiwan. The risk has been reduced to one-fourth at 0.05%-0.10% for males and 0.03%-0.06% for females, and LLE at 15 days in 2007, which was mainly attributed to the installation of desulfurization and de-NOx equipment. Moreover, additional improvements can be expected if we can relocate the power plant to a downwind site on Taiwan, and convert the fuel source from coal to natural gas. The risk can be significantly reduced further to one-fiftieth at 0.001%-0.002% for males and 0.001% for females, and LLE at 0.3 days. Nonetheless, it is still an order higher than the commonly accepted elevated-cancer risk at 0.0001% (10-6), indicating that the PM2.5 health-related risk for operating such a world-class power plant is not negligible. In addition, this study finds that a better-chosen site (involving moving the plant to the leeward side of Taiwan) can reduce the risk significantly as opposed to solely transitioning the fuel source to natural gas. Note that the fuel cost of using natural gas (0.11 USD/kWh in 2013) in Taiwan is about twice the price of using coal fuel (0.05 USD/kWh in 2013).

  14. The use of air-bottoming cycle as a heat source for the carbon dioxide capture installation of a coal-fired power unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chmielniak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian; Czaja, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    .... Gas-air systems, referred to as the air bottoming cycle (ABC), are composed of a gas turbine powered by natural gas, air compressor and air turbine coupled to the system by means of a heat exchanger...

  15. Experience gained from automation of starting operations in a 200-MW two-boiler single-turbine power unit equipped with once-through coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. N.; Ginzburg, L. N.; Gorskii, E. R.; Romanchuk, I. F.; Rul'Kovskii, V. F.; Rul'Kovskii, A. V.

    2011-10-01

    Results obtained from a large set of investigations, search for, and perfection of the technology for starting 200-MW two-boiler single-turbine power units from different thermal states are presented. An algorithm for automated starting of the boiler shell from its hot state is given as an example.

  16. An integrative approach for determination of air pollution and its health effects in a coal fired power plant area by passive sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükaçıl Artun, Gülzade; Polat, Narin; Yay, Ozan Devrim; Özden Üzmez, Özlem; Arı, Akif; Tuna Tuygun, Gizem; Elbir, Tolga; Altuğ, Hicran; Dumanoğlu, Yetkin; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Dawood, Abdallah; Odabasi, Mustafa; Gaga, Eftade O.

    2017-02-01

    Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at several locations in Kütahya, a severely polluted city and also characterized as a thermal power plant city, in Turkey. Two-week extensive passive sampling campaigns were carried out in summer and winter at 108 sampling sites that were classified into three main groups as urban, rural and industrial. Spatial and seasonal distributions of the measured pollutants were evaluated employing Geographical Information System techniques. All pollutant concentrations showed an increasing pattern in winter, except for ozone. The concentrations of VOCs were substantially higher particularly at sampling sites with high traffic and population densities. Power plants were noted as important sources for VOCs since high concentrations were measured especially around the power plants. Highest NO2 levels were observed in the city center while there was a general decrease in the concentration levels far away from the city center. Considerably higher SO2 levels were observed in the settlements where local coal is used for residential heating. Seasonal variations in SO2 concentrations were quite low around the thermal power plants indicating their important effect on atmospheric levels. A basic population exposure assessment was conducted for two largest settlements of the province (Kütahya city center and Tavşanlı) by combining population density maps with pollutant distribution maps of NO2 and SO2. Exposure to NO2 and SO2 were assessed separately according to a classification made for different degrees of exposure. Cancer risks associated with inhalation of benzene were also estimated. Higher risk values were obtained from the sampling sites with higher population densities, especially in winter. Risk values estimated for 95 sampling sites were higher than EPA's acceptable risk value (1 × 10-6).

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  18. Study into the status of co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and household refuse in coal-fired power stations. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Stand der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm, Hausmuell und Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, H.; Scheurer, W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen; Seifert, H.; Richers, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer technische Chemie - Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    2000-03-01

    The co-combustion of wastes in power stations is an additional option for the thermal treatment of certain waste materials and thus for complying with the specifications of the German TA-Siedlungsabfall (technical directive on disposal of municipal solid waste). The present investigation compiles the status of knowledge about co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and selected waste materials in coal-fired power stations. The results are meant to provide extensive assistance to evaluate the processes and thus to contribute to sort out uncertainties, both on the part of power plant operators and of the authorities. Based on the information acquired, the report shall point out the gaps in knowledge, the further need for research and development and the need for action conerning the authorities. By enquiries at disposal enterprises, power station operators as well as authorities, the literature work was completed and a comprehensive view of the current situation in Germany elaborated. The report points out the legal conditions of co-combustion and supplementary fuel potentials, presents the process engineering of co-combustion, and examines the obstacles encountered during the technical conversion, the environmental questions, and the potential for co-combustion of the above materials in existing power stations. The electrical power sector is subject to strong changes due to the liberalisation of the energy market. The pressure on costs has increased and the periods available for planning are shorter. On the one hand, this arouses an increased interest in co-combustion of waste materials because of possible additional payments for the wastes. On the other hand, however, initiatives in this respect are counteracted by high investments costs necessary for the introduction of co-combustion with the existing high environmental standards. What is more, the competitive situation reduces the exchange of experience between the power station operators. Co-combustion of sewage

  19. Application of paste technology to mitigate the dust emissions from handling of fly and bottom ash at coal fired power plant : CGTEE in Candiota, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Marques, M.E. [Golder Associates Peru, Lima (Peru); Lima, H. [Golder Associates Brazil, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mandl, B.; Francoeur, R.; Palkovits, F. [Golder Paste Technology Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Blois, R. [Companhia de Geracao Termica de Energia Electrica, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a method developed to reduce dust emissions generated in a fly ash handling procedure used at a thermal power plant located in the south of Brazil. The fly ash is collected in dry form at several locations in the plant and pneumatically conveyed to storage silos, where it is moistened with water in a mixer, loaded into dump trucks and deposited in a disposal area near a surface coal mine. The new solution created low density fly ash slurry in localized mixing tanks within the power plant. The low density slurry is pumped to an ash conditioning plant where the slurry is then mixed with the bottom ash, dewatered, and densified. The densified slurry is then pumped to an adjacent coal mine disposal site in order to be used as backfill in mined areas. The proposed method will significantly reduce dust emissions both inside and outside the plant, and will substantially reduce truck traffic at the mine. The method will reduce the environmental impacts associated with fly ash dust emissions in the region. 8 figs.

  20. Minnesota Power Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  1. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (DInSAR) technique has been utilized to monitor subsurface coal fires in the Jharia coalfield. Results showed that majority of the coal fire-related subsidence were concentrated on the eastern and western boundaries of the coalfield. The magnitude of ...

  2. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  3. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  4. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  5. Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

    1996-10-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  6. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Che Abd Rahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Methods Concentration of Po210 was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. Results The activities of Po210 in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql-1 whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg-1. The ranges of Po210 activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg-1 dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus, 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg-1 dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg-1 dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa. The variation of Po210 in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday-1person-1 and 249.30 μSvyr-1 respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po210 in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po210 can be absorbed in the internal organs. The

  7. Stable isotope composition of mercury forms in flue gases from a typical coal-fired power plant, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shunlin, E-mail: tangshunlin@hpu.edu.cn [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, 454000 (China); Feng, Chaohui [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, 454000 (China); Feng, Xinbin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Zhu, Jianming [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, 454000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100086 (China); Sun, Ruoyu, E-mail: ruoyu.sun@tju.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Fan, Huipeng; Wang, Lina; Li, Ruiyang; Mao, Tonghua [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, 454000 (China); Zhou, Ting [State Key Laboratory of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The first speciated Hg isotope ratios in coal combustion flue gases are presented. • Significant Hg isotope kinetic MDF was observed during Hg forms transformation. • Emitted gaseous Hg highly enriches in heavy Hg isotopes relative to feed coal. - Abstract: Mercury forms emitted from coal combustion via air pollution control devices are speculated to carry different Hg isotope signatures. Yet, their Hg isotope composition is still not reported. Here, we present the first onsite Hg isotope data for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) of flue gases from a typical lignite-fired power plant (CFPP). Significant mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and insignificant mass independent fractionation (MIF) are observed between feed coal and coal combustion products. As compared to feed coal (δ{sup 202}Hg = −2.04 ± 0.25‰), bottom ash, GEM and GOM in flue gases before and after wet flue gas desulfurization system significantly enrich heavy Hg isotopes by 0.7–2.6‰ in δ{sup 202}Hg, while fly ash, desulfurization gypsum and waste water show slight but insignificant enrichment of light Hg isotopes. GEM is significantly enriched heavy Hg isotopes compared to GOM and Hg in fly ash. Our observations verify the previous speculation on Hg isotope fractionation mechanism in CFPPs, and suggest a kinetically-controlled mass dependent Hg isotope fractionation during transformation of Hg forms in flue gases. Finally, our data are compared to Hg isotope compositions of atmospheric Hg pools, suggesting that coal combustion Hg emission is likely an important atmospheric Hg contributor.

  8. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    through the system without requiring any equipment or process changes. (10) Although the above attempt failed, the plant is still interested in producing briquettes. (11) An economic analysis of investing in a production facility manufacturing such briquettes was conducted to determine the economic viability of the project. Such a project is estimated to have an internal rate of return of 14% and net present value of about $400,000. (12) An engineering independent study class (4 students) is now working on selecting a site near the power plant and determining the layout of the future plant that will produce briquettes.

  9. Reduction of particulate emission in two coal-fired power plants; Reduccion de la Emisiones de Particulas Solidas en Centrales Termicas de Carbon Existentes Mediante Acondicionamiento Integral (Fisico y Quimico) de Gases de Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Escucha and Cercs are two coal-fired power stations, each with a capacity of 160MW, which belong to FECSA. Tehy came into operation in 1970 and 1971. Their boilers are of the once-through type and both have similar configurations, although they use different types of coal. The power station at Cercs uses a mixture of local lignite, rich in calcium, together with 40% of South African coal, while that of Escucha uses local lignite, the ashes of which are predominantly silicon and aluminium oxides, together with 20% of South African coal. At both power stations, the local lignite has changes during the life of the power stations and presently its quality is clearly inferior th that when the power stations were designed. This change in quality has produced two consequences, on one hand, the characteristics of the ash have changed in that the resistivity of the fly ash produced at present is much higher than when the power stations were designed. On the other hand, the temperature of the gases at the boiler outlet has increased and reaches values of up to 200 degree centigree, which has also led to an increase in resistivity. These two facts have produced, as a consequence, a significant increase in the emission of particulate matter. In order to reduce the emission of particulate matter, two stategies were implantes at both power stations; a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases and a reduction of the resistivity of the fly ash. This was an innovative approach to the problem, as generally either one or the other of these strategies is employed but rarely both of them at the same time. A reduction of flue gas temperature was achieved by modifying the last three tube banks of the boiler by adding another 2500 m``2 of heat exchanging surface. As a result, the temperature of the flue gases decreased to a value of 140 degree centigree, which in turn produced a notable effect on the resistivity of the ash. Furthermore, an increase in the performance of the boiler

  10. Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} separation in coal-fired power plants. An investigation of the process of chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} with potassium carbonate and piperazine; Post-Combustion CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung in Kohlekraftwerken. Untersuchung eines Prozesses zur chemischen Absorption von CO{sub 2} mit Kaliumkarbonat und Piperazin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oexmann, Jochen; Kather, Alfons [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    2008-07-01

    In the separation process of carbon dioxide after the combustion process, the CO2 will be separated from the flue gases of coal-fired power stations by means of absorption in a chemical solvent. Potassium carbonate frequently is used as a solvent in the separation of carbon dioxide during the processing of natural gas. The improvement of the separation efficiency with potassium carbonate requires an activation by means of an amine. In the contribution under consideration, the authors use piperazine as an amine. Up to now, suitable simulations of the total process are missing in order to compare the potential of the system K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/piperazine as a solvent for the separation of carbon dioxide in a coal-fired power station with the potential of other solvents. Under this aspect, the authors report on the influence of the composition of the solvent, the pressure of the desorber as well as the separation rate on the specific heat requirement of the reboilers as well as on the specific power demand of the integrated total process.

  11. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  12. Evaluation of deformation and subsidence of improved ground by sand drain associated with reclamation. Properties of landfill ground during site construction works ad Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station and their measurement results; Umetate ni tomonau sand drain kairyo jiban no henkei chinka hyoka. Tachibanawan hatsudensho shikichi zosei koji ni okeru umetate jiban no bussei to keisoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suesawa, H.; Iwahara, H.; Nakahiro, M. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    This paper describes properties of landfill ground during site construction works at Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station. Measurement results of displacement and subsidence of the ground are also illustrated. For the reclamation works, three-stage landfill was conducted after the placement of sand drain. The displacement and subsidence were measured. Compaction subsidence was sufficiently accelerated without large displacement or sliding of soft soil marine sediments. Stable landfill ground with a small residual subsidence could be constructed. Since the residual subsidence of consolidated ground was small, negative friction could be neglected for the design of foundation piles. Foundation cost for structures on the constructed ground could be reduced. For the soft soil ground improved by sand drain, the total cost for accelerated compaction subsidence and consolidation for structures in the stage of design can be reduced by accurately evaluating the compaction subsidence with landfill and the residual subsidence after landfill. 9 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Construction of pumping site using the fly ash-gypsum-cement deep mixing method for a new coal-fired power plant at the Bay of Tachibana; Tachibanawan karyoku hatsudensho shinsetsu koji flyash wo riyoshita shinso kongo shori koho ni yoru pump jo no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, K.; Kurisaki, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    Fly ashes exhausted from coal-fired power plants are used for a new coal-fired power plant at the Bay of Tachibana, where the fly ash-gypsum-cement deep mixing (FGC-DM) method is used to construct the base and soil-stopping walls for the pumps that circulate cooling water to the steam condensers. This paper outlines the design and application of the soil improvement method in which a total of 2,945 piles of modified concrete are placed, together with the background for adopting the method. These piles extend a total length of 45,000m. The concrete used for the soil-stopping wall, that for the pumping site and excavated section contains 100, 150 and 58kg/m{sup 3} of cement, and 50, 75 and 29kg/m{sup 3} of fly ashes, quantities of the slurries, 80% in water/powder ratio, being 200, 299 and 116l/m3, respectively. After the FGC-DM works were completed, a total of 15 check bores were drilled to confirm soil strength. Monoaxial strength is 2,260kN/m{sup 2} in the reclaimed site, and 2,310kN/m{sup 2} in the clay site. Strength of the reclaimed site fluctuates to a limited extent, because it is filled with soil uniformly throughout the worked area, and is on a level with the one observed by the on-the-site compounding test. On the other hand, strength of the clay site is higher than that observed by the tests. 4 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Operating results of 700MW coal fired supercritical once-through steam generator for Hekinan power station No. 3 boiler, Chubu Electric Power Co. , Inc. with elevated reheat steam temperature: 596[degree]C. Chubu denryoku kabushiki kaisha Hekinan karyoku hatsudensho 3 go boiler (koon sainetsu joki ondo: 596[degree]C) no shiunten jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimoto, R.; Ozawa, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Kuwahara, M. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    The IHI-FW 700 MW coal fired supercritical variable pressure once-through reheat type steam generator at Hekinan Power Station No. 3 boiler of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. started commercial operation in April 1993. This paper describes an outline of the operating results of commissioning stage, focusing on the evaluation of elevated reheat steam temperature. The boiler was the first to achieve reheat steam temperature of 596 centigrade in Japan. The evaporation of boiler is 2,250 t/h at the maximum continuous load. The boiler has advanced special merits, such as cyclic operation, environmental technology to achieve low NOx emissions, high efficiency plant due to the elevated steam temperature, etc. During commissioning, these special merits were confirmed to be satisfactory. The plant efficiencies at the generating end and the sending end were higher than those as designed. In addition, the steam temperature characteristics as designed were obtained. The metal temperature distribution of the reheater was lower than that as designed. 7 figs.

  15. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  16. Performance improvement in thermal power plants. ; Design of 700MW coal-fired boiler with elevated reheat steam temperature for Hekinan No. 3 unit, Chubu Electric Power Co. Ltd. Karyoku hatsudensho no seino kojo taisaku. ; Chubu denryoku (kabu) Hekinan karyoku hatsudensho 3 go unit muke koon sainetsu joki ondo (596 degree C)saiyo boiler no keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, M.; Kajigaya, I.; Umaki, H.; Kunihiro, T. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-15

    The 700 MW coal fired super critical boiler with elevated reheat steam temperature for variable pressure operation was outlined which is under development for the Hekinan No. 3 unit, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. Its steam temperature was designed to be 596{degree}C at a reheater outlet and 593{degree}C at an intermediate pressure turbine inlet in the range from 35 to 100% of maximum continuous evaporation. For such high temperature steam conditions, the arrangement of reheater heating surfaces was optimized by examining both static and dynamic characteristics. Tubing materials for the reheater outlet were carefully selected in consideration of coal ash corrosion and steam side oxidation, and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was widely adopted for high temperature parts. The seam-welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel pipe was, in particular, adopted for hot reheat pipes, and the bending fabricability and weldability of such steel plate were tested extensively on a full-scale mock-up model to ensure a plant reliability. 1 ref., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  18. Improvement of cyclic operation on pulverized coal fired boilers by applying wide range burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Kiga, Takashi; Koyata, Kazuo

    1999-07-01

    There are recently urgent requirements to operate pulverized coal fired power plants as well as oil fired units cyclically or at low loads. In order to cope with this, wide range burners (WRB) were jointly developed to obtain a high turndown operation by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). In accordance with the results of various fundamental researches, including combustion tests with a tunnel furnace of 12 MW[thermal], it was confirmed the stability of the flame and the combustion characteristics at low loads as well as that of ordinary burners. The WRB have been applied to the new actual boilers that are Saijo Power Station NO. 2 unit of Sikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Nanao-Ota Power Station NO. 2 unit of Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. and Miike Power Station NO. 1 unit of Miike Thermal Power Co., Ltd.. The results of the trial operation have shown that the minimum burner load was below half of that of conventional burners, and accordingly the pulverized coal firing minimum load could be reduced. This paper explains about the cyclic operation of their boilers and the improvement effect by applying WRBs.

  19. acme: The Amendable Coal-Fire Modeling Exercise. A C++ Class Library for the Numerical Simulation of Coal-Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.

    2017-04-01

    At LIAG, we use numerical models to develop and enhance understanding of coupled transport processes and to predict the dynamics of the system under consideration. Topics include geothermal heat utilization, subrosion processes, and spontaneous underground coal fires. Although the details make it inconvenient if not impossible to apply a single code implementation to all systems, their investigations go along similar paths: They all depend on the solution of coupled transport equations. We thus saw a need for a modular code system with open access for the various communities to maximize the shared synergistic effects. To this purpose we develop the oops! ( open object-oriented parallel solutions) - toolkit, a C++ class library for the numerical solution of mathematical models of coupled thermal, hydraulic and chemical processes. This is used to develop problem-specific libraries like acme( amendable coal-fire modeling exercise), a class library for the numerical simulation of coal-fires and applications like kobra (Kohlebrand, german for coal-fire), a numerical simulation code for standard coal-fire models. Basic principle of the oops!-code system is the provision of data types for the description of space and time dependent data fields, description of terms of partial differential equations (pde), their discretisation and solving methods. Coupling of different processes, described by their particular pde is modeled by an automatic timescale-ordered operator-splitting technique. acme is a derived coal-fire specific application library, depending on oops!. If specific functionalities of general interest are implemented and have been tested they will be assimilated into the main oops!-library. Interfaces to external pre- and post-processing tools are easily implemented. Thus a construction kit which can be arbitrarily amended is formed. With the kobra-application constructed with acme we study the processes and propagation of shallow coal seam fires in particular in

  20. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mal infrared images are frequently utilized to detect coal fire regions based on surface tem- perature anomalies ... 2011). Satellite- based thermal images are not sufficient for detec- tion of deeper thermal anomalies (Zhang 1998). .... '0' means unacceptable reading. The value of X=0 causes Y=0, but not vice versa. Different ...

  1. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  2. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Project for converting Russian Federation's Amursk coal-fired power plant into natural gas-fired power plant; 1998 nendo Roshia renpo AMURSK sekitandaki hatsudensho tennen gas nenryo tenkan keikaku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A study is made about the application of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures adopted by the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to a coal-fired power plant of Amursk, Russian Federation, for conversion of its fuel to natural gas. An only 40km-long pipeline will enable the plant to receive natural gas. A 200MW-class combined cycle plant will be added. Only 2 of the 9 existing boilers will be modified for use as backups. Since the price of electricity or heat is quite low, the facilities as they are will not fulfill the cost-performance goal. If the power rate is slightly hiked or the construction cost is reduced by 20%, however, the expected goal will be achieved. Fuel conversion and improved thermal efficiency will result in a 980,000-ton per year reduction in CO2, and a cumulative CO2 reduction of 24,230,000 tons will realize by the end of the plant service life of 25 years. The rate of the cumulative reduction against the invested capital will be 0.115 tons of CO2 per one US dollar. As for the term of works, 1 year and 8 months (January 2000-August 2001) will be necessary for preparation, and 2 years and 7 months (September 2001-March 2004) for the construction, a total of 4 years and 3 months. The reduced discharge of smoke and dust and SOx will greatly improve on the environment. (NEDO)

  3. Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities. PMID:24083143

  4. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested.

  5. Assessment on the Benefits from Energy Structure Optimization and Coal-fired Emission Control in Beijing: 1998-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Y.; He, K.; Zhang, Q.; Hong, C.

    2016-12-01

    Coal has long been an important energy type of Beijing's energy consumption. Since 1998, to improve urban air quality, Beijing has vigorously promoted the structure optimization of energy consumption. Primary measures included the implementation of strict emission standards for coal-fired power plant boilers, subsidized replacement and after-treatment retrofit of coal-fired boilers, the mandatory application of low-sulfur coal, and the accelerated use of natural gas, imported electricity and other clean energy. This work attempts to assess the emission reduction benefits on measures of three sectors, including replacing with clean energy and application of end-of-pipe control technologies in power plants, comprehensive control on coal-fired boilers and residential heating renovation. This study employs the model of Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) to quantify emission reductions from upfront measures. These control measures have effectively reduced local emissions of major air pollutants in Beijing. The total emissions of PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NOX from power plants in Beijing are estimated to have reduced 14.5 kt, 23.7 kt, 45.0 kt and 7.6 kt from 1998 to 2013, representing reductions of 86%, 87%, 85% and 16%, respectively. Totally, 14.3 kt, 24.0 kt, 136 kt and 48.7kt of PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NOX emissions have been mitigated due to the comprehensive control measures on coal-fired boilers from 1998 to 2013. Residential heating renovation projects by replacing coal with electricity in Beijing's conventional old house areas contribute to emission reductions of 630 t, 870 t, 2070 t and 790 t for PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NOX, respectively.

  6. Operation results of the advanced FGD system for 1000 MW coal fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, K.; Aiso, K.; Yoshioka, T.; Mori, A.; Nishimura, M.; Katsube, T. (Electric Power Development Co., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    The flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plant for No. 1 unit of Matsuura Thermal Power Station of Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. (EPDC), 1,000 MW, the largest coal fired boiler in Japan began its commercial operation in June, 1990 as the latest plant which applied a variety of new technologies for effective flue gas treatment burning various imported coals and has been operating successfully since then. This plant integrated the functions of dust removal, SO[sub 2] removal and oxidation in a single absorber whereby not only simplification of facility but also improvement of SO[sub 2] removal reaction were achieved and is the first coal fired plant in Japan in which such a system has been adopted. Support systems for operating the plant and reducing management relating to maintenance and supervision of plant operation by computer have been introduced. The adoption of these systems has greatly contributed to achieving optimum operation using multitype coals and has improved the responsiveness to load swings. Operation results have confirmed that high reliability of the FGD plant as well as the performance of SO[sub 2] removal without problems markedly differ from conventional FGD plant. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Selection and adaptation of microalgae to growth in 100% unfiltered coal-fired flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Mughal, Tahira Aziz; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations. After a rapid decline in biodiversity over the first few months, community profiling revealed Desmodesmus spp. as the dominant microalgae. To the authors' knowledge this work is the first to demonstrate that up 100% unfiltered flue gas from coal-fired power generation can be used for algae cultivation. Implementation of serial passages over a range of photobioreactors may contribute towards the development of microalgal-mediated carbon capture and sequestration processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  9. Application of the 2910 by-law to coal-fired heating plants; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the impact of the new French regulation about medium power thermal equipments on small coal-fired combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) in particular concerning the limit values of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and dust emissions. (J.S.)

  10. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  11. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  12. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  13. Design and implementation of the monitoring system for underground coal fires in Xinjiang region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-bo, Dang; Jia-chun, Wu; Yue-xing, Liu; Yuan, Chang; Bin, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal fire (UCF) is serious in Xinjiang region of China. In order to deal with this problem efficiently, a UCF monitoring System, which is based on the use of wireless communication technology and remote sensing images, was designed and implemented by Xinjiang Coal Fire Fighting Bureau. This system consists of three parts, i.e., the data collecting unit, the data processing unit and the data output unit. For the data collecting unit, temperature sensors and gas sensors were put together on the sites with depth of 1.5 meter from the surface of coal fire zone. Information on these sites' temperature and gas was transferred immediately to the data processing unit. The processing unit was developed by coding based on GIS software. Generally, the processed datum were saved in the computer by table format, which can be displayed on the screen as the curve. Remote sensing image for each coal fire was saved in this system as the background for each monitoring site. From the monitoring data, the changes of the coal fires were displayed directly. And it provides a solid basis for analyzing the status of coal combustion of coal fire, the gas emission and possible dominant direction of coal fire propagation, which is helpful for making-decision of coal fire extinction.

  14. [Monitoring method of underground coal fire based on night thermal infrared remote sensing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Guo; Wu, Jian-Jun; Gu, Lei; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Chen

    2011-02-01

    Land surface temperature is higher in the zones of underground coal fire than in their surroundings areas. It is possible to monitor the coal fire and the heat anomalies using the remote sensing technology of thermal infrared. By taking the coal fire of Wuda in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as an example, the monitoring methods of underground coal fire were explored based on different seasons night ASTER thermal infrared images. By employing the TES-ADE algorithm and threshold segmentation method, land surface temperature was retrieved and coal fire areas were extracted. Finally the seasonal variation of surface temperature, the surface temperature differences between night and day, and the change and distribution of coal fire area were analyzed. The results showed that (1) it is effective to retrieve land surface temperature and to avoid the interference of sand, bare land and building based on the remote sensing of thermal infrared at night; (2) it is best time to extract the coal fire areas based on the winter night images of thermal infrared; (3) it is effective to monitor the change and distribution of coal fire areas based on the winter night images of thermal infrared.

  15. Power generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Breeze

    2005-07-01

    Contents: Introduction to electricity generation; Environmental considerations; Coal-fired power plants - Types of coal; Traditional coal-burning power plant technology; Emission control for traditional coal-burning plants; Advanced coal-burning power plant technology; Environmental effects of coal combustion; Financial risks associated with coal-fired power generation; The cost of coal-fired electricity generation; Gas turbines and combined cycle power plants; Combined heat and power; Piston-engine-based power plants; Fuel cells; Hydropower; Tidal power; Storage technologies; Wind power; Geothermal power; Solar power; Ocean power; Biomass-based power generation; Power from waste; Nuclear power.

  16. Environmentally Friendly Replacement of Mature 200 MW Coal-Fired Power Blocks with 2 Boilers Working on One 500 MW Class Steam Turbine Generator (2on1 Unit Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeszczak, Jan; Grela, Łukasz; Achter, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The paper covers problems of the owners of a fleet of long-operated conventional power plants that are going to be decommissioned soon in result of failing to achieve new admissible emissions levels or exceeding pressure elements design lifetime. Energoprojekt-Katowice SA, Siemens AG and Rafako SA presents their joint concept of the solution which is a 2on1 concept - replacing two unit by two ultra-supercritical boilers feeding one turbine. Polish market has been taken as an example.

  17. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  19. Crónica de un conflicto anunciado: Tres centrales termoeléctricas a carbón en un hotspot de biodiversidad de importancia mundial Chronicle of a foretold conflict: Three coal-fired power plants in a biodiversity hotspot of global significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. FRANCISCO CÁRCAMO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la demanda energética chilena en los últimos años ha promovido la creación de una gran cantidad de proyectos de generación eléctrica. La posible instalación de tres centrales termoeléctricas a carbón al norte de la Región de Coquimbo y en las inmediaciones de áreas definidas como claves para la conservación y manejo de la biodiversidad marina (e.g., reservas marinas, áreas de manejo y explotación de recursos bentónicos y terrestre (e.g., reserva nacional, sitios prioritarios, ha generado conflictos sociales y controversias sobre su ubicación y compatibilidad con los usos propuestos para el área. El presente comentario plantea el conflicto que se origina entre la necesidad de cubrir los requerimientos energéticos de Chile y la implementación de iniciativas de conservación y manejo de recursos naturales. Se describe la importancia y relevancia ecológica y económica del área de posible instalación de las termoeléctricas y se revisan los principales impactos reportados para este tipo de tecnología sobre la salud humana y ecosistémica. Finalmente, se proponen enfoques y herramientas que pueden asistir en la toma de decisiones y en la resolución de conflictos.In recent years, Chilean increasing energy needs have promoted the creation of many initiatives to generate electricity. The possible installation of three coal-fired power plants in the coastal area north of the Region of Coquimbo and close to areas identified as key to the conservation and management of marine (e.g., marine reserves, management and exploitation areas for benthic resources and terrestrial (e.g., national reserve, priority sites biodiversity, has generated social conflicts and raised concerns about the location and compatibility with others proposed uses for the area. This commentary proposes the conflict that arises between the need to cope with Chile's energy needs and the implementation of conservation and management of natural

  20. Recent coal-fire and land-use status of Jharia Coalfield, India from satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha, T.R.; Guha, A.; Kumar, K.V.; Kamaraju, M.V.V.; Raju, E.V.R. [NRSC, Hyderabad (India). Geoscience Division

    2010-07-01

    The Jharia Coalfield (JCF) in India is known for its high grade coal and associated coal fires. Before it can be exploited, valuable coal reserves are destroyed in the sub-surface due to fire. The combined act of fire and subsidence has endangered the environmental safety of the JCF, although several methods have been adopted to control the coal fires. Coal fire is a dynamic phenomenon, hence, its location and extent changes with time. To control the coal fires effectively, the status of the fires and the landscape must be assessed periodically. In this study, the thermal band in Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data (daytime) of 29 March 2003 and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data (night-time) of 9 October 2006 are used to delineate the coal-fire areas. The kinetic temperature of the coal fire-affected areas is calculated from Landsat-7 ETM+ data using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-derived emissivity model, and from band 13 of ASTER data with a fixed emissivity value. The study showed that the eastern part of the JCF is more affected by coal fires than the western part. The affected collieries in the eastern part are Kusunda, Lodna, Bararee, Gonudih and Ena. Among all collieries, Kusunda is the most affected by coal fires (29% of the area) and showed a 0.56 km2 increase in fire area from the year 2003 to 2006. During this period, a total increase in coal-fire area of 0.51 km{sup 2} occurs in the JCF. The land-use map prepared from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite-P6 Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor (LISS)-III data showed that 6.9% of the area in the JCF is occupied by mining-related activities, which indicates its vulnerability to environmental degradation.

  1. Study on the radiological Impact of Coal Fired Power Plants; Estudio del impacto radiologico de las centrales termicas de carbon sobre sus entornos. Unidad de produccion termica de litoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Vasco, J.; Guillen, J.

    2008-07-01

    The study is part of the goal set forth in Title VII of the European Basic Safety Standards and the Spanish regulations on radiation protection related to work activities that may involve a significant increase in exposure of workers and the public to natural radiation. Coal contains small quantities of radionuclides in the series of uranium, thorium and potassium which in the industrial process can lead to radiological exposure. This work presents the measurements and evaluations conducted in one of the power plants object of study: The Unidad Termica de Produccion de Litoral in the Almeria Province. The maximum dose assessed for workers are in the order of 0.14 mSv per year and in the order of 0.05 mSv per year for the public in the realistic scenarios considered. These values are well below the 1mSv per year reference levels, recommended in Europe to have some interest from the radiation protection point of view. (Author) 52 refs.

  2. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant. Topical report, Seed Regeneration System Study 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The objective of this topical report is to document continuing seed regeneration system application studies and the definition of will system integration requirements for the Scholz MHD retrofit plant design. MHD power plants require the addition of a seeding material in the form of potassium to enhance the ionization of the high temperature combustion gas in the MHD channel. This process has an added environmental advantage compared to other types of coal-fired power plants in that the potassium combines with the naturally occurring sulfur in the coal to form a potassium sulfate flyash (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) which can be removed from the process by appropriate particulate control equipment. Up to 100% of the Sulfur in the coal can be removed by this process thereby providing environmentally clean power plant operation that is better than required by present and anticipated future New Source Performance Standards (NSPS).

  3. Liquefaction of sub-bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1986-01-01

    Sub-bituminous coal is directly liquefied in two stages by use of a liquefaction solvent containing insoluble material as well as 850.degree. F.+ material and 850.degree. F.- material derived from the second stage, and controlled temperature and conversion in the second stage. The process is in hydrogen balance.

  4. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-07-30

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. WE Energies has over 3,700 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the WE Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, WE Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  5. Results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.; Kreidenweis, S.; Theodore, L.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers. The survey consisted of a comprehensive questionnaire suitable to statistical interpretation and computer analysis.

  6. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  7. Integrated gasification combined cycle and the capture of CO{sub 2}: a solution for the mitigation of the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal fired power plants at large scale in the short term?; O ciclo combinado com gaseificacao integrada e a captura de CO{sub 2}: uma solucao para mitigar as emissoes de CO{sub 2} em termeletricas a carvao em larga escala no curto prazo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2010-03-15

    The power sector of many big economies still relies heavily on coal fired plants and emits huge amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is an innovative technology which holds advantages over current conventional coal technologies, including higher efficiency, pathway to carbon capture and storage (CCS) and higher product and fuel flexibility. The most critical obstacles for commercialization of IGCC technology are higher costs, lower reliability, and little operating experiences. The present work aims to analyze the maturity and the costs of the IGCC technology, with and without CCS, in order to evaluate its potential to be introduced in the generation fleet at big scale in the short term and, hence, its potential to guarantee the possibility to use coal in the power sector without compromising the effort to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The focus of the analysis of the technical viability concentrates strongly on the gasification process, since it the most critical process for the operation of the plant. The cost analysis contains three steps: a revision of cost estimates in scientific literature, a revision of reported cost for actually planned projects and a cost simulation that aims to analyze the influences of assumptions regarding the additional technology risk of IGCC plants. (author)

  8. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  9. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  10. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO

  11. Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3).

  12. Exergy diagnosis of coal fired CHP plant with application of neural and regression modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanek Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of the processes, that proceed in energetic machines and devices, in many cases are very complicated. In such cases, the exact analytical models should be equipped with the auxiliary empirical models that describe those parameters which are difficult to model in a theoretical way. Regression or neural models identified basing on measurements are rather simple and are characterized by relatively short computation time. For this reason they can be effectively applied for simulation and optimization of steering and regulation processes, as well as, for control and thermal diagnosis of operation (eq. power plants or CHP plants. In the paper regression and neural models of thermal processes developed for systems of operation control of thermal plants are presented. Theoretical-empirical model of processes proceeding in coal fired CHP plant have been applied. Simulative calculations basing on these models have been carried out. Results of simulative calculations have been used for the exergetic evaluation of considered power plant. The diagnosis procedure let to investigate the formation of exergy costs in interconnected components of the system of CHP, as well as, investigate the influence of defects in operation of components on exergy losses and on the exergetic cost in other components. [Acknowledgment. The paper has been prepared within the RECENT project (REsearch Center for Energy and New Technologies supported by 7th Framework Programme, Theme 4, Capacities.

  13. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  14. Conversion of coal-fired bottom ash to fuel and construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Huseyin; Aksoy, Derya Oz; Ucar, Reyhan; Koca, Sabiha

    2017-07-01

    In this study, solid wastes taken from Seyitomer coal-fired power plant bottom ashes were subjected to experimental research to obtain a carbon-rich fraction. The possible recycling opportunities of remaining inorganic fraction in the cement and concrete industry was also investigated. Flotation technique was used to separate unburned carbon from inorganic bottom ashes. Collector type, collector, dispersant and frother amounts, and pulp density are the most important variables in the flotation technique. A number of flotation collectors were tested in the experiments including new era flotation reactives. Optimum collector, dispersant and frother dosages as well as optimum pulp density were also determined. After experimental work, an inorganic fraction was obtained, which included 5.41% unburned carbon with 81.56% weight yield. These properties meets the industrial specifications for the cement and concrete industry. The carbon content of the concentrate fraction, obtained in the same experiment, was enhanced to 49.82%. This fraction accounts for 18.44% of the total amount and can be mixed to the power plant fuel. Therefore total amount of the solid waste can possibly be recycled according to experimental results.

  15. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  16. Geographic information technology monitoring and mapping of coal fires in Ukraine, according to the space survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivnyak, G.; Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    Coal fires are a significant problem around the world, particularly in China, India, and the United States. Coal fires burn thousands of tons of coal reserves and lead to serious problems for the environment, degradation and destruction of landscape, and harm public health. Technology, such as spectrology analysis of signatures with high temperature activity can be used to calculate vegetation algorithms and soil indexes, and multispectral survey data in the thermal channels of scanners. This paper presented the perspectives of technology development in coal fires and the approach to the detection, monitoring, and quantitative estimation of coal fires by the instruments using geographic information systems. Specifically, the paper considered the use of coal fire fragment monitoring technology from data of a diachronous survey obtained by Landsat satellites, to classify dangerous coal waste banks of the Donbass Mine located in Ukraine. The paper provided a description of the study area and discussed the detection technology of temperature-active waste banks. It was concluded that geoinformation technology provides an opportunity to effectively mark mining dumps, in particular, waste banks in multispectrum space images made by Landsat satellites. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Removal of Mn(II) from the acid mine wastewaters using coal fired bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahidin, M.; Sulaiman, T. N.; Muslim, A.; Gani, A.

    2017-06-01

    Acid mine wastewater (AMW), the wastewater from mining activities which has low pH about 3-5 and contains hazardous heavy metals such as Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, etc. Those heavy metals pollution is of prime concern from the environmental view point. Among the heavy metals, Mn occupies the third position in the AMW from one the iron ore mining company in Aceh, Indonesia. In this study, the possibility use of bottom ash from coal fired boiler of steam power plants for the removal of Mn(II) in AMW has been investigated. Experimental has been conducted as follows. Activation of bottom ash was done both by physical and chemical treatments through heating at 270 °C and washing with NaOH activator 0.5 and 1 M. Adsorption test contains two parts observation; preliminary and primary experiments. Preliminary study is addressed to select the best condition of three independent variables i.e.: pH of AMW (3 & 7), bottom ash particle size (40, 60 & 100 mesh) and initial Mn(II) concentrations (100 & 600 mg/l). AMW used was synthetics wastewater. It was found that the best value for NaOH is 1 M, pH is 7, particle size is 100 meshes and initial Mn(II) concentration is 600 mg/l from the adsorption efficiency point of view. The maximum adsorption capacity (q e) is 63.7 mg/g with the efficiency of 85%.

  18. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Anbo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  19. MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R.C. Baucum, W.E.

    1980-05-30

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Research and Development Laboratory. Although slowed by incessant rain during several days, work on the CFFF Bid Packages progressed to nearly 100 percent completion, excluding later punchlist items. On the quench system, the cyclone separator was delivered to UTSI, and under Downstream Components, the secondary combustor was received and the radiant slagging furnace was emplaced at the CFFF. Water quality analysis of Woods Reservoir provided the expected favorable results, quite similar to last year's. Generator experiments describing local current distribution are reported along with behavior under conditions of imposed leakage. Also, during the Quarter, the shelter for the cold flow modeling facility was constructed and circuits installation begun. A jet turbine combustor was tested for use as a vitiation burner. Samples taken from the exhaust duct, besides other applications, show that the refractories used are performing well in alleviating heat loss while exhibiting acceptable degredation. A new resistive power take-off network was designed and implemented.

  20. Simple Normalization of Multi-Temporal Thermal IR Data and Applied Research, on the Monitoring of Typical Coal Fires in Northern China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Yunhao; Li, Jing; Gong, Adou; Kuenzer, Claudia; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2005-01-01

    .... Investigations showed that there were 104 coal fires in Northern China. About 100-200 million tons of coal is being lost because of coal fires each year, accounting for one-fifth of national annual coal production...

  1. Experimental study of the self-potential anomaly caused by coal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Yunxiang; Song, Wujun

    2017-10-01

    Self-potential method has been used to detect coal fires for decades. However, the origin of self-potential anomaly relating to coal fires is still unclear. In this paper, we first analyze three possible sources of self-potential anomaly that relating to coal fires, i.e., the thermoelectric potential, the redox potential and the streaming potential, among which the streaming potential is negligible. Then, an experimental system is designed to research the above-mentioned three possible sources, in which six experiments are conducted finally. The results verify the existence of the thermoelectric potential and the redox potential. The self-potential that measured on the surface increases with the increase of temperature of the heat source, but decreases dramatically with the increase of its buried depth. Furthermore, the redox potential reduces the total self-potential values on the surface.

  2. Fast and safe gas detection from underground coal fire by drone fly over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnington, Lucila; Nakagawa, Masami

    2017-10-01

    Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion. It is estimated that these fires generate as much as 3% of the world's annual carbon dioxide emissions and consume as much as 5% of its minable coal. Considering the magnitude of environmental impact and economic loss caused by burning underground coal seams, we have developed a new, safe, reliable surface measurement of coal fire gases to assess the nature of underground coal fires. We use a drone mounted with gas sensors. Drone collected gas concentration data provides a safe alternative for evaluating the rank of a burning coal seam. In this study, a new method of determining coal rank by gas ratios is developed. Coal rank is valuable for defining parameters of a coal seam such as burn temperature, burn rate, and volume of burning seam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Study on Spreading Direction of Coal-fire Based with TIR Remote Sensing in Wuda Coalfield from 2000 to 2006, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, H.-Y.; Jiang, X.-G.; Song, X.-F.; Ni, Z.-Y.; Gao, C.-X.; Zhang, Y.-Z.; Liu, L.

    2014-03-01

    Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal producing countries. Coal fires could not only lead to a huge loss of non-renewable energy resources, but it also can cause many environmental problems such as GHG emission, land subsidence and increment of surface temperature. So it is very important to monitor the dynamic changes of coal fires. As far as large scale coal field, remote sensing provided researchers with a new and useful technique for coal fire detection. This paper developed a research over coal fire spreading direction using a multi-temporal TIR remote sensing approach. The results successfully showed that the direction of coal fire spreading and predicted the coal fire direction of development on a regional scale or on a whole coal field scale, and a quantitative analysis of coal fires was made in the research. The results showed that the coal fires had an average annual increase of 0.5 million square meters from 1999 to 2006, and the TIR remote sensing proved to be an available tool for coal fire mapping and prediction of coal fire development.

  4. Reductive pyrolysis study of biodesulfurized subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Marinov; L. Gonsalvesha; M. Stefanova; Y. Yueeriem; A.G. Dumanli; N. Kolankaya; M. Sam; R. Carleer; G. Reggers; J. Yperman [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    Biodesulfurization is one of the perspective methods for production of friendly fuels. Reductive pyrolysis in mode of atmospheric pressure temperature programmed reduction (AP-TPR) combined with varied detection systems gave us possibility to obtain more satisfactory explanation of biodesulfurization effects. AP-TPR coupled 'on-line' and 'off-line' with potentiometry, mass spectrometry and GC/MS analysis with inner sulfur standards for quantification were applied. Subbituminous coal from 'Pirin' basin, Bulgaria was treated by three different types of microorganisms with maximal desulfurization effect for total (26%) and organic sulfur (13%). Namely, two types white rot fungi - 'Trametes Versicolor', 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' and one mixed bacterial culture were used. Improved sulfur balance determination was registered. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  6. Design and operation experience with baghouse dust collectors for pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers: Sunbury Station, Holtwood Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.H. (Wheelabrator-Frye Inc., Pittsburgh); Reisinger, A.A.; Wagner, N.H.

    1976-01-01

    A fabric filter on a coal-fired boiler is an effective method of meeting today's stringent air pollution requirements, especially for high-resistivity dusts or where sulfur-content of coal varies widely. (PCS)

  7. Historical costs of coal-fired electricity and implications for the future

    OpenAIRE

    McNerney, James; Farmer, J. Doyne; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2010-01-01

    We study the costs of coal-fired electricity in the United States between 1882 and 2006 by decomposing it in terms of the price of coal, transportation costs, energy density, thermal efficiency, plant construction cost, interest rate, capacity factor, and operations and maintenance cost. The dominant determinants of costs have been the price of coal and plant construction cost. The price of coal appears to fluctuate more or less randomly while the construction cost follows long-term trends, d...

  8. Electrical Resistivity Tomography for coal fire mapping over Jharia coal field, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S. K.; Kumar, S.; Bharti, A. K.; Pathak, V. K.; Kumar, R.

    2016-12-01

    Over the decades, coal fires are serious global concern posing grievous hazards to the valuable energy resources, local environments and human life. The coal seam and coal mine fires may be initiated due to improper mining activities, exothermic reactions, lighting, forest fire and other anthropic activities, which burn the coal and may continue underground for decades. The burning of concealed coal seams is a complex process involving numerous ill-defined parameters. Generally, the coal exhibits resistivity of 100 to 500Ωm at normal temperature conditions. During the pyrolysis process, at temperatures greater than 6500C coal became a good conductor with a resistivity of approximately 1 Ωm. The present study deals with the mapping of coal fire over Jharia coal field, India using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). A state-of-the-art 61-channel 64 electrode FlashRES-Universal ERT data acquisition system has been used for data acquisition in the field. The ERT data have been collected using Gradient array and processed in FlashRES Universal survey data checking program for removing noisy data. Then, filtered output data have been inverted using a 2.5D resistivity inversion program. Low resistivity anomalies over 80m-125m and 320m-390m along the profile are inferred to be active coal fire in seam- XVI at a depth of 25m -35m(Figure 1). High resistivity anomaly over 445m - 510m at a depth of 25m -35m has been delineated, due to void associated with complete combustion of seam- XVI coal, followed by char and ash formation resulting from the coal seam fire. Results prove the efficacy of the ERT study comprising Gradient array for coal fire mapping over, Jharia coal field, India.

  9. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  10. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  11. Reducing the cost of post combustion capture technology for pulverized coal power plants by flexible operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kler, R.C.F. de; Verbaan, M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    Currently the low carbon prices, low Spreads and regulatory uncertainties hampers the business cases for coal-fired power plants with post-combustion capture (PCC) in Europe. Improvement of the business case of coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture requires a different approach in

  12. Reducing the cost of Post Combustion Capture technology for Pulverized Coal Power Plants by flexible operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kler, R.C.F.; Verbaan, M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    Currently the low carbon prices, low Spreads and regulatory uncertainties hampers the business cases for coal-fired power plants with post-combustion capture (PCC) in Europe. Improvement of the business case of coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture requires a different approach in

  13. Long-term energy and climate implications of carbon capture and storage deployment strategies in the US coal-fired electricity fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric

    2012-09-04

    To understand the long-term energy and climate implications of different implementation strategies for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the US coal-fired electricity fleet, we integrate three analytical elements: scenario projection of energy supply systems, temporally explicit life cycle modeling, and time-dependent calculation of radiative forcing. Assuming continued large-scale use of coal for electricity generation, we find that aggressive implementation of CCS could reduce cumulative greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O) from the US coal-fired power fleet through 2100 by 37-58%. Cumulative radiative forcing through 2100 would be reduced by only 24-46%, due to the front-loaded time profile of the emissions and the long atmospheric residence time of CO(2). The efficiency of energy conversion and carbon capture technologies strongly affects the amount of primary energy used but has little effect on greenhouse gas emissions or radiative forcing. Delaying implementation of CCS deployment significantly increases long-term radiative forcing. This study highlights the time-dynamic nature of potential climate benefits and energy costs of different CCS deployment pathways and identifies opportunities and constraints of successful CCS implementation.

  14. Analysis of radioactivity concentration in naturally occurring radioactive materials used in coal-fired plants in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Geom; Kim, Si Young; Ji, Seung Woo; Park, Il; Kim, Min Jun; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Coals and coal ashes, raw materials and by-products, in coal-fired power plants contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). They may give rise to internal exposure to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing radioactive materials. It is necessary to characterize radioactivity concentrations of the materials for assessment of radiation dose to the workers. The objective of the present study was to analyze radioactivity concentrations of coals and by-products at four coal-fired plants in Korea. High purity germanium detector was employed for analysis of uranium series, thorium series, and potassium 40 in the materials. Radioactivity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K were 2⁓53 Bq kg{sup -1}, 3⁓64 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 14⁓431 Bq kg{sup -1} respectively in coal samples. For coal ashes, the radioactivity concentrations were 77⁓133 Bq kg{sup -1}, 77⁓105 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 252⁓372 Bq kg{sup -1} in fly ash samples and 54⁓91 Bq kg{sup -1}, 46⁓83 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 205⁓462 Bq kg{sup -1} in bottom ash samples. For flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, the radioactivity concentrations were 3⁓5 Bq kg{sup -1}, 2⁓3 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 22⁓47 Bq kg{sup -1}. Radioactivity was enhanced in coal ash compared with coal due to combustion of organic matters in the coal. Radioactivity enhancement factors for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K were 2.1⁓11.3, 2.0⁓13.1, and 1.4⁓7.4 for fly ash and 2.0⁓9.2, 2.0⁓10.0, 1.9⁓7.7 for bottom ash. The database established in this study can be used as basic data for internal dose assessment of workers at coal-fred power plants. In addition, the findings can be used as a basic data for development of safety standard and guide of Natural Radiation Safety Management Act.

  15. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  16. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  17. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.

  18. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-07-28

    This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. CFD modeling studies of RRI in a full scale utility boiler have been performed that provide further insight into the NOx reduction process that occurs if the furnace is not adequately staged. In situ reactivity data indicate thus far that titania sulfates under SCR conditions but there is no indication of vanadia sulfation in agreement with some, but not most literature results. Additional analysis and advanced diagnostics are under way to confirm this result and determine its accuracy. Construction of a catalyst characterization reactor system is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. Shakedown testing of the SCR field reactor was completed at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. The CEM system has been ordered. Talks continued with American Electric Power about hosting a demonstration at their Rockport plant.

  19. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    a 0.6 MW slipstream from coal-fired boiler; full- scale operation at oil refinery in Japan. Operated in France at gas30-MW level on flue gas...small alumina pellets which are held by wire screens in a specially designed fixed-bed reactor. As the flue gas passes through the acceptance reactors...Lithium Oxide (Uzfl) Sodium Oxide (HajO) Potassium Oxide — (K20) Magnesium Oxide ~(Mgo) Alumina Oxide " (A1203) Silica Oxide ’ (Si02

  20. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shig [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  1. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2005-06-30

    This is the twentieth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At the beginning of this quarter, the corrosion probes were removed from Gavin Station. Data analysis and preparation of the final report continued this quarter. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ FTIR lab, and includes the first results from tests run on samples cut from the commercial plate catalysts. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was removed from the plant, where the total exposure time on flue gas was 350 hours. A computational framework for SCR deactivation was added to the SCR model.

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  3. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  4. Expected ozone benefits of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Timothy; Bull, Emily; Canty, Timothy; He, Hao; Zalewsky, Eric; Woodman, Michael; Aburn, George; Ehrman, Sheryl; Dickerson, Russell R

    2017-03-01

    On hot summer days in the eastern United States, electricity demand rises, mainly because of increased use of air conditioning. Power plants must provide this additional energy, emitting additional pollutants when meteorological conditions are primed for poor air quality. To evaluate the impact of summertime NO x emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units (EGUs) on surface ozone formation, we performed a series of sensitivity modeling forecast scenarios utilizing EPA 2018 version 6.0 emissions (2011 base year) and CMAQ v5.0.2. Coal-fired EGU NO x emissions were adjusted to match the lowest NO x rates observed during the ozone seasons (April 1-October 31) of 2005-2012 (Scenario A), where ozone decreased by 3-4 ppb in affected areas. When compared to the highest emissions rates during the same time period (Scenario B), ozone increased ∼4-7 ppb. NO x emission rates adjusted to match the observed rates from 2011 (Scenario C) increased ozone by ∼4-5 ppb. Finally in Scenario D, the impact of additional NO x reductions was determined by assuming installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls on all units lacking postcombustion controls; this decreased ozone by an additional 2-4 ppb relative to Scenario A. Following the announcement of a stricter 8-hour ozone standard, this analysis outlines a strategy that would help bring coastal areas in the mid-Atlantic region closer to attainment, and would also provide profound benefits for upwind states where most of the regional EGU NO x originates, even if additional capital investments are not made (Scenario A). With the 8-hr maximum ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) decreasing from 75 to 70 ppb, modeling results indicate that use of postcombustion controls on coal-fired power plants in 2018 could help keep regions in attainment. By operating already existing nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal devices to their full potential, ozone could be significantly curtailed, achieving ozone

  5. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  6. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  7. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-10-24

    This is the ninth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Various subsystems of BYU's Catalyst Characterization System (CCS) were upgraded this quarter. Work on the CCS hardware and software will continue in the coming quarter. A preliminary test matrix of poisoning experiments in the CCS has been drafted that will explore the effects of at least three poisons: sodium, potassium and calcium. During this quarter, we attempted to resolve discrepancies in previous in situ measurements of catalyst sulfation. Modifications were made to the XPS analysis procedure that allowed analyses of uncrushed samples. Although the XPS and FTIR results are now more consistent in that both indicate that the surface is sulfating (unlike the results reported last quarter), they disagree with respect to which species sulfates. The CEM system for the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor arrived this quarter. Minor modifications to the reactor and control system were completed. The reactor will be shipped to AEP Rockport plant next quarter for shakedown and installation. In a parallel effort, we have proposed to make mercury oxidation measurements across the catalysts at the start of the field test. Pending approval from DOE, we will begin the mercury measurements next quarter.

  8. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-09-30

    This is the thirteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. The corrosion probe task is proceeding: Two plant visits were made to prepare for field testing and shakedown tests for the probes were conducted at the University of Utah''s L1500 furnace. Corrosion probes will be installed at the Gavin Plant site in the next quarter. Laboratory studies of SCR catalyst continued this quarter. FTIR studies of catalyst sulfation and of adsorption of NH3 and NO were continued at BYU. NO activities have been measured for a number of samples of BYU catalyst and insights have been gained from the results. Plans are being detailed to test monolith and plate catalysts exposed in the field. In this quarter, the catalysts in the slipstream reactor at AEP's Rockport plant were exposed to the dusty flue gas for 1695 hours. Thus the cumulative catalyst exposure to flue gas rose from 980 hours last quarter to 2677 hours in this quarter. Loss of catalyst activity was noted between April (when the catalysts were fresh) and August. Further analysis of activity data will be needed.

  9. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  10. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-06-30

    This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE CHEMICAL FORMS OF MERCURY AND OTHER TARGET POLLUTANTS IN COAL-FIRED BOILER FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence J. McManus, Ph.D.

    1999-06-30

    Since approximately 55% of the electrical power produced in the U. S. is generated by coal-based power utility plants, there is serious concern about the massive amounts of coal combustion products emitted into the atmosphere annually. Furthermore, Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) requires the measurement and inventory of a possible 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from any stationary source producing more than 10 tons per year of any one pollutant or more than 25 tons per year of total pollutants. Although power utilities are not presently included on the list of source categories, the CAAA requires the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to carry out a study of emissions from electricity generation using fossil fuels. Since many of these HAPs are known to be present in coal derived flue gas, coal-fired electric power utilities may be subject to regulation following these studies if Congress considers it necessary. In a cooperative effort with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) initiated such a study in 1991. DOE-FETC commissioned five primary contractors to conduct emission studies at eight different coal-fired electric utilities. The eight sites represented a cross section of feed coal type, boiler designs, and particulate and gaseous pollutant control technologies. The major goal of these studies was to determine the sampling and analytical methodologies that could be used efficiently to perform these emission tests while producing representative and reliable emission data. The successful methodology could then be recommended to the EPA for use in compliance testing in the event the regulation of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants is implemented. A secondary purpose of the testing was to determine the effectiveness of the control technologies in reducing target hazardous air pollutants. Advanced Technology Systems, Inc

  12. Application of the decree 2910 for coal fired boilers; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie, Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French decree 2910 concerning the classification of all combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on 2 to 20 MW coal-fired boilers, are discussed, with emphasis on their pollutant emissions (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes). The compositions of several coals is presented and the various types of coal-fired boilers adapted to the new decree are presented: automatic boilers, dense fluidized bed boilers, vibrating and chain grids with fume tubes and water tubes

  13. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  14. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  15. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  16. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  17. Current and advanced NO/sub x/-control technology for coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A NOx-control-technology assessment study of coal-fired industrial boilers was conducted to examine the effectiveness of combustion-modification methods, including low excess air, staged combustion, and burner modifications. Boiler types considered included overfed and underfed stokers, spreader stokers, pulverized-coal and coal-fired cyclone units. Significant variations in NOx emissions occur with boiler type, firing method, and coal type; a relative comparison of emission-control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. Baseline (as-found) emissions from grate-fired stokers were shown to be in the range of 200 to 300 ppM. Similarly, as-found emissions from suspension-fired units were quite low (350 to 600 ppM) as compared to comparably designed utility-sized units. Low excess air was shown to be the most effective method on existing units, reducing emissions by approximately 10%. Evaluation of staged combustion and burner modification, however, were limited due to current boiler designs. Major hardware modification/design and implementation are necessary before the potential of these techniques can be fully evaluated. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion-modification program, including energy considerations, incremental capital and operating costs, corrosion, secondary pollutants, and retrofit potential.

  18. ECONOMIC IMPACTS RESULTING FROM CO-FIRING BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES COAL-FIRED PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    English, Burton C.; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Menard, R. Jamey; Walsh, Marie E.; Torre Ugarte, Daniel de la; Brandt, Craig; Van Dyke, Jim; Hadley, Stanton

    2004-01-01

    Economic impacts of using biomass in Southeast United States coal-fired plants are estimated using a county-level biomass database; ORCED, a dynamic electricity distribution model that estimates feedstock value; ORIBAS, a GIS model that estimates feedstock transportation costs; and IMPLAN, an input-output model that determines the impacts of co-firing on economic activity.

  19. CFD analysis of temperature imbalance in superheater/reheater region of tangentially coal-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, A. F.; Hasini, H.; Fadhil, S. S. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow, velocity and temperature distribution in a 700 MW tangentially coal-fired boiler operating in Malaysia. The main objective of the analysis is to gain insights on the occurrences in the boiler so as to understand the inherent steam temperature imbalance problem. The results show that the root cause of the problem comes from the residual swirl in the horizontal pass. The deflection of the residual swirl due to the sudden reduction and expansion of the flow cross-sectional area causes velocity deviation between the left and right side of the boiler. This consequently results in flue gas temperature imbalance which has often caused tube leaks in the superheater/reheater region. Therefore, eliminating the residual swirl or restraining it from being diverted might help to alleviate the problem.

  20. Technologies of monitoring, alerting and controlling for coal fires in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun; Xiao, Yang; Luo, Zhen-Min; Zhang, Yan-Ni; Zheng, Xue-Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Coalfield fire has become a global disaster, especially in China, which lost a large number of coal resources every year, and caused serious destruction of ecological environment. Coalfield fire area has become urgent to solve the problem for the complex, combustion long-time, wide range, fire source hidden, and controlling difficultly in the formed evolution process. At present, surface coal fire areas prospecting technology mainly have visible light on surface, surface radar remote sensing technology, air ground integration technology. Detecting hidden fire source technology are infrared thermal imaging technology, method of radon-test. The technologies of monitoring and early warning for fire areas with ad-hoc, intelligent monitoring for infrared thermal imaging real time networks are applied. The idea of district controlling as "prevention-control-extinguishing" is established and in-site applications, which the technologies and equipment of fire prevention and extinguishment include the inorganic filling plugging, liquid carbon dioxide, and series of colloidal materials.

  1. Proposed finding of no significant impact for the Sakakawea Medical Center coal-fired heating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy (the Department) has prepared an environmental assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0949) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposed action at the Sakakawea Medical Center (the Center) in Hazen, North Dakota. The proposed action would replace the existing No. 2 fuel oil-fired boilers supplemented by electric reheat with a new coal-fired hot water heating plant, using funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-0949, the Department has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended. Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (Finding).

  2. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  3. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  4. Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution (NAICS 2211)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for electrical utilities, including coal-fired power plants. Includes links to NESHAPs for RICE, stationary combustion engines, fossil fuel waste, cooling water, effluent guidelines. Find information on the MATS rule.

  5. Possibilities for Wind- and Small Hydro Power in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Due to a fast growing economy and population, China’s electricity requirement vastly increases. To reduce social and environmental impact, a shift from mainly coal fired power generation towards renewable electricity options is a possible solution. The re

  6. Detection of Coal Fires: A Case Study Conducted on Indian Coal Seams Using Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    India produces majority of its electricity from coal but a huge quantity of coal burns every day due to coal fires and also poses a threat to the environment as severe pollutants. In the present study we had demonstrated the usage of Neural Network based approach with an integrated Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) inversion technique. The Self Potential (SP) data set is used for the early detection of coal fires. The study was conducted over the East Basuria colliery, Jharia Coal Field, Jharkhand, India. The causative source was modelled as an inclined sheet like anomaly and the synthetic data was generated. Neural Network scheme consists of an input layer, hidden layers and an output layer. The input layer corresponds to the SP data and the output layer is the estimated depth of the coal fire. A synthetic dataset was modelled with some of the known parameters such as depth, conductivity, inclination angle, half width etc. associated with causative body and gives a very low misfit error of 0.0032%. Therefore, the method was found accurate in predicting the depth of the source body. The technique was applied to the real data set and the model was trained until a very good correlation of determination `R2' value of 0.98 is obtained. The depth of the source body was found to be 12.34m with a misfit error percentage of 0.242%. The inversion results were compared with the lithologs obtained from a nearby well which corresponds to the L3 coal seam. The depth of the coal fire had exactly matched with the half width of the anomaly which suggests that the fire is widely spread. The inclination angle of the anomaly was 135.510 which resembles the development of the geometrically complex fracture planes. These fractures may be developed due to anisotropic weakness of the ground which acts as passage for the air. As a result coal fires spreads along these fracture planes. The results obtained from the Neural Network was compared with PSO inversion results and were found in

  7. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Using ASTER Thermal Infrared Data, Part I: Methodology and Decadal Change Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaomin Du; Daiyong Cao; Deepak Mishra; Sergio Bernardes; Thomas R Jordan; Marguerite Madden

    2015-01-01

      Coal fires that are induced by natural spontaneous combustion or result from human activities occurring on the surface and in underground coal seams destroy coal resources and cause serious environmental degradation...

  8. The Norochcholai power plant project (Sri Lanka): an example of sustainable economic development by utilisation of seawater for power island and emission control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrea, E.; Zimmermann, H. [Poeyry Energy, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The paper describes how the Norochcholai project will meet Sri Lanka's energy expansion programme by realising a 3 3 300 MW coal-fired power island using solely seawater for the power plant processes and auxiliary needs. The strategic project development approach towards a coal-fired power plant is outlined, followed by an overview of the core processes utilising seawater: desalination, demineralisation, on-site hypochlorite production and chlorination, seawater flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) and waste water management. (orig.)

  9. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2003-10-31

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a

  10. MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

  11. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction - Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-30

    the project proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex, Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. The micronized coal fired boiler would (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emission, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil.

  12. How to address data gaps in life cycle inventories: a case study on estimating CO2 emissions from coal-fired electricity plants on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Zoran J N; Venkatesh, Aranya; Hauck, Mara; Schipper, Aafke M; Karuppiah, Ramkumar; Laurenzi, Ian J; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-05-06

    One of the major challenges in life cycle assessment (LCA) is the availability and quality of data used to develop models and to make appropriate recommendations. Approximations and assumptions are often made if appropriate data are not readily available. However, these proxies may introduce uncertainty into the results. A regression model framework may be employed to assess missing data in LCAs of products and processes. In this study, we develop such a regression-based framework to estimate CO2 emission factors associated with coal power plants in the absence of reported data. Our framework hypothesizes that emissions from coal power plants can be explained by plant-specific factors (predictors) that include steam pressure, total capacity, plant age, fuel type, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of the resident nations of those plants. Using reported emission data for 444 plants worldwide, plant level CO2 emission factors were fitted to the selected predictors by a multiple linear regression model and a local linear regression model. The validated models were then applied to 764 coal power plants worldwide, for which no reported data were available. Cumulatively, available reported data and our predictions together account for 74% of the total world's coal-fired power generation capacity.

  13. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of coal-fired utility boilers: An engineering tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efim Korytnyi; Roman Saveliev; Miron Perelman; Boris Chudnovsky; Ezra Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop an engineering tool by which the combustion behavior of coals in coal-fired utility boilers can be predicted. We presented in this paper that computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes can successfully predict performance of - and emission from - full-scale pulverized-coal utility boilers of various types, provided that the model parameters required for the simulation are properly chosen and validated. For that purpose we developed a methodology combining measurements in a 50 kW pilot-scale test facility with CFD simulations using the same CFD code configured for both test and full-scale furnaces. In this method model parameters of the coal processes are extracted and validated. This paper presents the importance of the validation of the model parameters which are used in CFD codes. Our results show very good fit of CFD simulations with various parameters measured in a test furnace and several types of utility boilers. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of the present methodology as an effective tool for optimization coal burning in full-scale utility boilers. 41 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Preparation and Stability of Inorganic Solidified Foam for Preventing Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic solidified foam (ISF is a novel material for preventing coal fires. This paper presents the preparation process and working principle of main installations. Besides, aqueous foam with expansion ratio of 28 and 30 min drainage rate of 13% was prepared. Stability of foam fluid was studied in terms of stability coefficient, by varying water-slurry ratio, fly ash replacement ratio of cement, and aqueous foam volume alternatively. Light microscope was utilized to analyze the dynamic change of bubble wall of foam fluid and stability principle was proposed. In order to further enhance the stability of ISF, different dosage of calcium fluoroaluminate was added to ISF specimens whose stability coefficient was tested and change of hydration products was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The outcomes indicated that calcium fluoroaluminate could enhance the stability coefficient of ISF and compact hydration products formed in cell wall of ISF; naturally, the stability principle of ISF was proved right. Based on above-mentioned experimental contents, ISF with stability coefficient of 95% and foam expansion ratio of 5 was prepared, which could sufficiently satisfy field process requirements on plugging air leakage and thermal insulation.

  16. Experimental study of acoustic agglomeration of coal-fired fly ash particles at low frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.Z.; Zhang, G.X.; Zhou, J.H.; Wang, J.; Zhao, W.D.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Zhejiang (China)

    2009-07-15

    This paper presents an experimental study of acoustic agglomeration of coal-fired fly ash particles in travelling sound waves. The ranges of variation of the main physical parameters are as follows: acoustic frequency, f = 700-3000 Hz; sound pressure level (SPL), SPL = 130-147 dB; residence time, t = 3-7 s; aerosol number concentration, N{sub 0} = 1.0 x 10{sup 5}-3.7 x 10{sup 5}/cm{sup 3}. A 68.4% decrease in total number concentration is gained under an SPL of 147 dB and a frequency of 1400 Hz. Aggregates larger than 10 {mu}m are observed in scanning electron microscopy photographs. The results show that the effect of sound waves is very sensitive to the frequency change, which means that orthokinetic interaction governs the process. There exists an optimum frequency for a given particle size distribution, which decreases slightly as SPL increases. The influences of SPL, residence time and initial total number concentration are also studied.

  17. Mathematical modelling of flue gas tempered flames produced from pulverised coal fired with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breussin, A.; Weber, R.; Kamp, W.L. van de

    1997-10-01

    The combustion of pulverised coal in conventional utility boilers contributes significantly to global CO{sub 2} emissions. Because atmospheric air is used as the combustion medium, the exhaust gases of conventional pulverised coal fired utility boilers contain approximately 15 % CO{sub 2}. This relatively low concentration makes separating and recovering CO{sub 2} a very energy-intensive process. This process can be simplified if N{sub 2} is eliminated from the comburent before combustion by firing the pulverised coal with pure oxygen. However, this concept will result in very high flames temperatures. Flue gas recirculation can be used to moderate the flame temperature, whilst generating a flue gas with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 95 %. In this presentation, both experimental and modelling work will be described. The former deals with identifying the issues related to the combustion of pulverised coal in simulated turbine exhaust gas, particularly with respect to stability, burnout and pollutant emissions. The second part of this presentation describes mathematical modelling of type 2 as well as type 1 swirling pulverised coal flames. Future work will concentrate on high CO{sub 2} levels environments. (orig.)

  18. Retrofitting of municipal coal fired heating plant with integrated biomass gasification gas turbine based cogeneration block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Jacek [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Thermal Technologies, Knarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    Biomass has a significant potential for reduction of both CO{sub 2} emission and consumption of fossil fuels in energy production sector. On the other hand the successful implementation of biomass into regional energy systems is strongly influenced by many political, economic and technical factors. The best effects can be obtained if a proper choice of biomass plant technology has been made. The objective of this work is the analysis and discussion of technical and economic benefits of retrofitting an existing coal-fired municipal heating plant with integrated biomass gasification cogeneration block. The project leads to both local and global reduction of emission and fossil fuels consumption. An investment decision is however dependent on economic profitability, which is also examined in this work. Four design alternatives were proposed and modeled with using Cycle-Tempo simulation software. An annual mass and energy balance of the plant was calculated and economic analysis was performed. The results indicate a great energy and emission savings potential. An effective financial support, that results from local renewable energy promotion policy, can make an economic performance of the project attractive. The best technical solution for the retrofitting the analyzed heating plant was the combined cycle integrated with gasification of biomass with steam. (author)

  19. Peak Oil and Coal Fires: How Scientific Fact Becomes Debatable Political Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    Political consensus in the United States cannot be more different from a scientific consensus. The latter situation allows for resolution of problems large and small based on recognized facts and procedures. Once a compelling problem is recognized the scientific community is able to marshal resources to examine that phenomenon. Political consensus however allows for the unending reconsideration of problems in the political arena depending on the outcome of elections and the intensity and sustained length of citizen interest. Serious problems can be trivialized by election campaign rhetoric, or can fail to rise to the level of aggregation necessary to be considered. Coal fires are an example of the latter while OCS exploration and production is an example of the former. Peak oil is a problem that will be avoided until there is a crisis. With current scientific evidence mounting that an important tipping point is approaching, and that societal collapse is a probable outcome of maintaining the status quo, it is vitally important to understand the structural limitations of government decisions. Long standing consensus in the legislature is transferred to the bureaucracy, which can maintain a policy position long after its electoral support has vanished. A legislature and executive experiencing thin electoral margins (51-54% of the vote or seats) produces a different sort of political environment than what is possible with safe margins (>60%). Supermajorities with veto proof margins (>65%) are rare, but not unknown (e.g. 1935-37; 1965-67) and allow for revolutionary policy innovation.

  20. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  1. Results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.; Kreidenweis, S.; Theodore, L.

    1983-04-01

    In 1979, the results of an operation and maintenance fabric filter survey conducted by APAC were presented. In view of the potential usefulness of such information, Manhattan college was requested by APAC to follow up the initial survey with another improved version. To maximize the usefulness and insure a greater degree of validity to the conclusions, it was decided to limit the participants to users of coal-fired boilers only. A more comprehensive questionaire and one more suitable to computer interpretation than that used in the first study was developed and employed. In this paper, the results of an analysis of these data are presented. Some of the conclusions and opinions of the authors include: (1) Bag life may well be greater than the 2-3 yr reported in the literature, a fact that could reduce projected operating costs for proposed units. (2) Abrasion/erosion difficulties, once a major factor for baghouse users, apparently has been resolved by the equipment manufacturers. (3) Compliance is not a problem with the baghouse. (4) Both utilities and industry would recommend a baghouse to control fly ash for other boilers. (5) O and M problems are more severe with pulse-jet than with reverse-air systems. (6) The three most prevalent O and M problems appear to be higher than design pressure drop, bag failure, and the fly ash handling system.

  2. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  3. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2005-10-01

    Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits

  4. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Based on ASTER Data—Part 2, Validation and Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The self-adaptive gradient-based thresholding (SAGBT method is a simple non-interactive coal fire detection approach involving segmentation and a threshold identification algorithm that adapts to the spatial distribution of thermal features over a landscape. SAGBT detects coal fire using multispectral thermal images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor. The method was detailed by our previous work “Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Based on ASTER Data—Part 1, Methodology”. The current study evaluates the performance of SAGBT and validates its results by using ASTER thermal infrared (TIR images and ground temperature data collected at the Wuda coalfield (China during satellite overpass. We further analyzed algorithm performance by using nighttime TIR images and images from different seasons. SAGBT-derived fires matched fire spots measured in the field with an average offset of 32.44 m and a matching rate of 70%–85%. Coal fire areas from TIR images generally agreed with coal-related anomalies from visible-near infrared (VNIR images. Further, high-temperature pixels in the ASTER image matched observed coal fire areas, including the major extreme high-temperature regions derived from field samples. Finally, coal fires detected by daytime and by nighttime images were found to have similar spatial distributions, although fires differ in shape and size. Results included the stratification of our study site into two temperature groups (high and low temperature, using a fire boundary. We conclude that SAGBT can be successfully used for coal fire detection and analysis at our study site.

  5. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant

    2014-09-30

    that would interfere with accurate measurement at U.S. hazardous air pollutant emission limits for existing coal-fired power plant units. Longer sampling times employed during this test program did appear to improve comparative results for these metals. Although the sorbent contribution to the sample was reduced through improved trap design, additional research is still needed to explore lower-background materials before the MEST-M application can be considered as a potential alternative method for all of the trace metals. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Electric Power Research Institute, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute, Southern Illinois Power Company, and the Center for Air Toxic Metals Affiliates Program.

  6. Conceptual design of closed Brayton cycle for coal-fired power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives to be realized in developing a closed cycle gas turbine are (1) to exploit high temperature gas turbine technology while maintaining a working fluid which is free from combustion gas contamination, (2) to achieve compact turbo-equipment designs through pressurization of the working fluid, and (3) to obtain relatively simple cycle configurations. The technical/economic performance of a specific closed cycle gas turbine system was evaluated through the development of a conceptual plant and system design. This energy conversion system is designed for electric utility service and to utilize coal directly in an environmentally acceptable manner.

  7. Compliance Testing of the Clear AFS Power Plant, Coal-Fired Boiler 1 Clear AFS, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    radio or televi- than 20 percent woodwaste as fuel; Juneau is a wood smoke control area. sion stating that burning-is-not permitted -) greater than...for wood smoke control areas identi-over a period of three hours, except IS (B) kiln, 0.15 kilograms of particulate fled in 18 AAC 50.021(d) AAC 00n0...to state. Copies will be sent to the officials smoke control areas - 260 micrograms be affected. The notice will include a sum- and agencies identified

  8. Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Retrofit Issues for Coal Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have been published on carbon capture technology as an independent island. In contrast, this evaluation considered the impact on the existing plant and the potential improvements to ease the retrofit of a carbon capture process. This paper will provide insight i...

  9. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-04-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of September 2003 through February 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include chemical fractionation of the organic fraction to quantify the ratio of organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC). The average OM/OC ratio for the 31 samples analyzed so far is 1.89, ranging between 1.62 and 2.53, which is consistent with expectations for an atmospherically processed regional aerosol. Analysis of the single particle data reveals that a on a particles in Pittsburgh consist of complex mixture of primary and secondary components. Approximately 79% of all particles measured with the instrument containing some form of carbon, with Carbonaceous Ammonium Nitrate (54.43%) being the dominant particle class. PMCAMx predictions were compared with data from more than 50 sites of the STN network located throughout the Eastern United States for the July 2001 period. OC and sulfate concentrations predicted by PMCAMx are within {+-}30% of the observed concentration at most of these sites. Spherical Aluminum Silicate particle concentrations (SAS) were used to estimate the contribution of primary coal emissions to fine particle levels at the central monitoring site. Primary emissions from coal combustion contribute on average 0.44 {+-} 0.3 {micro}g/m{sup 3} to PM{sub 2.5} at the site or 1.4 {+-} 1.3% of the total PM{sub 2.5} mass. Chemical mass balance analysis was performed to apportion the primary organic aerosol. About 70% of the primary OC emissions are from vehicular sources, with the gasoline contribution being on average three times greater than the diesel emissions in the summer.

  10. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2003-11-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2003 through August 2003. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Major accomplishments included: Development of an emission profile for an integrated coke production facility and simulations using PMCAMx for a two week period during July 2001. The emissions from the coke facility are dominated by carbonaceous compounds. Forty seven percent of the organic carbon mass was identified on a compound level basis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the dominant organic compound class in the coke emissions. Initial comparisons with the data collected in Pittsburgh suggest good agreement between the model predictions and observations. Single particle composition data appear useful for identifying primary sources. An example of this unique approach is illustrated using the Fe and Ce particle class with appear associated with steel production.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF NONCARBON SORBENTS FOR HG0 REMOVAL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noncarbon materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups, such as amine, amide, thiol, and urea; and active additives, such as elemental sulfur, sodium sulfide, and sodium polysulfide...

  12. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  13. Formation and emission of fine particles from two coal-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.T.; Livbjerg, H.; Fogh, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    , before the desulfurisation plant, and in the stack. The following sampling techniques are used: scanning mobility particle sizer, low pressure cascade impactor, dichotomous PM2.5 sampler, and total particle filter. The so-called multi-platform method used in this work Proves useful for gaining insight...... are in the PM2.5 range. The emitted particles primarily stern from the coal ash with a minor contribution of particles of entrained, dried-out droplets of scrubber slurry. The large emitted particles are compact, almost-spherical single particles originating from the ash mineral inclusions in the coal...

  14. Technical and economical optimisation potential for FGD plants in coal-fired power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, Christian; Brueggendick, Hermann [Evonik Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany). Dept. Plant and Process Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Evonic Steag's flue gas desulphurisation plants (FGD) are being operated differently in the Ruhr area and Saarland. While the Ruhrgebiet FGDs run with quicklime, the Saar plants use limestone. The higher CO{sub 2} emissions caused by quicklime might have to be taken into economic consideration if the lime industry will be involved into the European CO{sub 2} emission trading scheme as of 2013. Therefore, it is asked whether it was worth for the Ruhrgebiet plants to switch from quicklime to limestone as sorbent in FGD and whether such a step would be technically feasible. (orig.)

  15. Class and Home Problems: Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants Using Calcium Looping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Niranjani; Phalak, Nihar; Fan, Liang-Shih; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Calcium looping is based on the simple premise of the reversible reaction between CO[subscript 2] and CaO. This reaction can be used for separation of CO2 from a mixture of gases; most notably the technology finds applications in CO[subscript 2] removal from gas streams in fossil fuel-based energy systems. This article gives a brief overview of…

  16. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MWe combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (FUTAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. The Cycle Optimization effort under Task 2 outlines the evolution of our designs. The basic combined cycle approach now includes exhaust gas recirculation to quench the flue gas before it enters the convective air heater. By selecting the quench gas from a downstream location it will be clean enough and cool enough (ca. 300F) to be driven by a commercially available fan and still minimize the volume of the convective air heater. Further modeling studies on the long axial flame, under Task 3, have demonstrated that this configuration is capable of providing the necessary energy flux to the radiant air panels. This flame with its controlled mixing constrains the combustion to take place in a fuel rich environment, thus minimizing the NO{sub x} production. Recent calculations indicate that the NO{sub x} produced is low enough that the SNCR section can further reduce it to within the DOE goal of 0. 15 lbs/MBTU of fuel input. Also under Task 3 the air heater design optimization continued.

  17. Physical and Chemical Character of Fly Ash of Coal Fired Power Plant in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triwulan; Priadana, K. A.; Ekaputri, J. J.; Bayuaji, R.

    2017-11-01

    Quality of fly ash is varying widely in the field, it depends on the combustion process and the quality of the basic ingredients, namely coal. It will affect the physical and mechanical properties of the concrete mixtures used. This study used 12 samples of fly ash. The physical and chemical properties and finesse modulus were analyzed. The fly ash was mixed with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) with the proportion of 20% fly ash and 80% OPC. The specimens were form with mortar dimension of 5cm x 5 cm. The test was affected by the correlation of fly ash fineness modulus to compressive strength, correlation density of fly ash to compressive strength, and correlation of carbon content to the compressive strength.

  18. Dissolution kinetics of magnesium hydroxide for CO2 separation from coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Hari Krishna; Lee, Joo-Youp; Li, Xin; Liu, Zhouyang; Keener, Tim C

    2013-04-15

    The dissolution of magnesium hydroxide in water for the release of magnesium and hydroxyl ions into the solution to maintain suitable alkalinity is a crucial step in the Mg(OH)2-based CO2 absorption process. In this study, the rate of dissolution of Mg(OH)2 was investigated under different operating conditions using a pH stat apparatus. The dissolution process was modeled using a shrinking core model and the overall Mg(OH)2 dissolution process was found to be controlled by the surface chemical reaction of Mg(OH)2 with H(+) ions. Under the chemical reaction control regime, the dissolution of Mg(OH)2 in alkaline conditions was found not to follow a first-order reaction, and the fractional order of reaction was estimated to lie between 0.20 and 0.31. This suggests that the dissolution reaction is a non-elementary reaction, consisting of a sequence of elementary reactions, via most likely forming a surface magnesium complex. The true activation energy value of 76 ± 11 kJ/gmol was found to be almost twice as much as the observed activation energy value of 42 ± 6 kJ/gmol determined at pH 8.6, and was comparable with the previously reported values. The particle sizes predicted from the intrinsic kinetics determined from the model were in good agreement with the experimentally measured particle sizes during the dissolution process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  20. Coal fires, industrial emissions and motor vehicles as sources of environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, P J; Waller, R E

    1976-01-01

    One of the most widely studied carcinogenic agents in the environment is the polycyclic hydrocarbon, benzo(a) pyrene. As a component of soot from the inefficient combustion of coal, its association with cancer can be traced back 200 years, but its possible relevance to lung cancer as a widely distributed air relevance to lung cancer as a widely distributed air pollutant has been investigated only during the past 25 years. Domestic coal fires have been shown to be important sources, and smaller amounts come from industrial sources and from motor vehicles. There is evidence now that the concentration of benzo (a) pyrene in large towns in Britain has decreased by a factor of about ten during the last few decades, as a result of changing heating methods and smoke control. In view of the overwhelming effect of cigarette smoking, it is difficult to determine whether the benzo(a)pyrene content of the air has had any importnat effect on the development of lung cancer, but careful analysis of trends in mortality may now throw some light on this. Among other materials with carcinogenic properties that may be dispersed into the general air, asbestos is the one that has been investigated most thoroughly. The association between exposure to asbestos and the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma of the pleura has been clearly demonstrated among people occupationally exposed to the dust, but as far as the general public is concerned, any risk may be limited to the immediate vicinity of major sources. These and other hazards demonstrated among occupational gropus serve as a warning however to maintain careful scutiny of urban air pollutants in relation to the acetiology of cancer.

  1. Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundelach, Volker

    2010-05-01

    Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is a possible geophysical method to get detailed information about the structure of the soil. Mining activities and the burning coal are leaving voids which collapse or still exist as dangerous areas. With GPR it is possible to detect voids and clefts. Crevices are potential paths for oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. The knowledge of these structures would help to extinguish the fire. The heat of the burning coal changes the permittivity and the conductivity of the rock. This affects the radar signal and makes it possible to separate burning zones from intact zones. Monitoring of the burning zones helps to find optimal solutions for fire extinguishing strategies. Several field campaigns were made in China. One campaign was in the province Xinjiang with a 50 MHz system from Mala on a steep dipping coal seam. Other campaigns were in the Inner Mongolia with 40 MHz to 200 MHz antennae from GSSI on shallow dipping coal seams. The experiences from these measurements will be shown. The surveys were collected in rough terrain. The data from the unshielded antennae contained a lot of effects coming through the air. The limits of detecting crevices with GPR will be demonstrated. Some parts of the measurements over burning coal were influenced by strong anomalies of the magnetization. Modeling of the radar signal helps at the interpretation. Parts of the interpretation from the surveys can be validated by the outcrop of the investigated structures. A spatial visualization of the results is the basis for discussions.

  2. Estimation of Scale Deposition in the Water Walls of an Operating Indian Coal Fired Boiler: Predictive Modeling Approach Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Amrita; Das, Suchandan Kumar; Srivastava, Prem Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Application of computational intelligence for predicting industrial processes has been in extensive use in various industrial sectors including power sector industry. An ANN model using multi-layer perceptron philosophy has been proposed in this paper to predict the deposition behaviors of oxide scale on waterwall tubes of a coal fired boiler. The input parameters comprises of boiler water chemistry and associated operating parameters, such as, pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, specific conductivity, iron and dissolved oxygen concentration of the feed water and local heat flux on boiler tube. An efficient gradient based network optimization algorithm has been employed to minimize neural predictions errors. Effects of heat flux, iron content, pH and the concentrations of total dissolved solids in feed water and other operating variables on the scale deposition behavior have been studied. It has been observed that heat flux, iron content and pH of the feed water have a relatively prime influence on the rate of oxide scale deposition in water walls of an Indian boiler. Reasonably good agreement between ANN model predictions and the measured values of oxide scale deposition rate has been observed which is corroborated by the regression fit between these values.

  3. Final design of a superconducting MHD magnet for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S T; Turner, L R; Genens, L; Pelczarski, W; Hoffman, J; Gonczy, J; Ludwig, H; Niemann, R C; Mataya, K; Kraft, E

    1979-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system (SCMS) consisting of the superconducting magnet, magnet cryostat, a helium refrigerator/liquefier facility, a helium gas-handling system, apparatus for cryogenic transfer and storage, a magnet power supply, a integrated instrumentation and control system including a computer for magnet operation, data acquisition, system status and diagnosis, and magnet protection is described. The complete system will be tested at Argonne and installed at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in 1981. The coil configuration is the US SCMS type circular saddle. The coil wil be assembled on the magnet tube with spiral banding. The bore tube will be about 6.3 cm thick (in the thickest section) and the banding will be strong enough for coil assembly but too weak to transmit the 30,180 kgf/cm maximum burst force to the bore tube. Fifteen ring girders will be used as the superstructure to contain the force. The decentering force of about 0.2177 x 10/sup 6/ kgf will be taken up by end flanges and bore tubes.

  4. A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation with Humidity Swing Direct Air Capture of CO2 versus MEA-Based Postcombustion Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Meinrenken, Christoph J; Kleijn, René; Sprecher, Benjamin; Lackner, Klaus S; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2017-01-17

    Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive. Comparing energy requirements of HS-DAC and MEA-PCC, we find that the parasitic load of HS-DAC is less than twice that of MEA-PCC (60-72 kJ/mol versus 33-46 kJ/mol, respectively). We also compare other environmental impacts as a function of net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation: To achieve the same 73% mitigation as MEA-PCC, HS-DAC would increase nine other environmental impacts by on average 38%, whereas MEA-PCC would increase them by 31%. Powering distributed HS-DAC with photovoltaics (instead of coal) while including recapture of all background GHG, reduces this increase to 18%, hypothetically enabling coal-based electricity with net-zero life-cycle GHG. We conclude that, in suitable geographies, HS-DAC can complement MEA-PCC to enable CO2 capture independent of time and location of emissions and recapture background GHG from fossil-based electricity beyond flue stack emissions.

  5. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for delineation of concealed coal fire in East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coal field, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Priyam, Piyush; Bharti, Abhay Kumar; Kumar, Rajwardhan

    2017-06-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of subsurface coal fires of East Basuria colliery in Jharia coal field, India using tilt derivative and downward continuation of magnetic data. Magnetic data processing methods such as diurnal correction, noise removal, reduction to pole, tilt derivative and downward continuation have been used to process the data and for the interpretation of results on the basis of magnetic properties of overlying materials which change with the temperature variation above or below the Curie temperature. Most of the magnetic anomalies are associated with coal fire and non-