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Sample records for subbituminous coal slurry

  1. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  2. Dissolution of subbituminous coal in tetrahydroquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, H F; Frazee, W S; Broderick, T E; Hurtubise, R J

    1986-05-01

    Two different samples of Wyodak subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were liquefied in a two dm/sup 3/ batch reactor using 1,2,3,4 tetrahydroquinoline, THQ, as a solvent. Sufficient sample was produced to determine product boiling ranges by distillation and to measure THQ distribution in the product. Product distillation showed that even at cyclohexane conversions greater than 50%, net distillate yields produced using THQ as a solvent were negative. In some cases, high boiling, coal-derived residue yields were greater than the dry coal charged to the reactor. These observations have been attributed to THQ losses resulting from dimerization of the THQ and reactions between THQ and coal derived components. 5 references.

  3. Coal reverse flotation. Part II: Cleaning of a subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.J.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. for Mining Engineering

    2006-01-15

    Reverse flotation of a subbituminous coal was investigated and it turned out that a large amount of DTAC was needed in this process. The application of the zero-conditioning time method along with the use of PAM significantly reduced DTAC consumption from over 6 kg/t down to 1.375 kg/t. Dextrin was necessary to improve the selectivity. The addition of a dispersant (tannic acid) improved further the quality of concentrate. The concentrate ash content of 16.7% at 50.4% yield was obtained for the feed ash content of 34.6%. Although this gives only about 64% combustible recovery, since the inherent ash content for this coal was determined to be 10% the room for further improvement is very limited. The best separation was obtained around a natural pH of 7.5-8.4 for this coal.

  4. Log evaluation of sub-bituminous coals in Magallanes, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltz, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    In coal exploration a drilling program is normally used for coal inquest through core analysis, with a high cost and operating time. However, in many cases, there is poor cores recovery due to operating procedures and/or formation conditions which leads to the determination of parameters non-representative of the coal seam. The cost and operating time can be minimized through the use of logs which also represent a continuous and in situ sampling. In the case of sub-bituminous coals, the analysis through logs is more complex due to the high content of clay, which masks the presence of water. This paper describes the analysis of sub-bituminous coals in Magallanes-Chile. The main coal seam components are: coal, clay, secondary quartz and water. An interpretation system using the density log, gamma ray, sonic and microlog, based on rho/sub B/-GR and rho/sub B/--Δ/sub T/ cross plots, permits to know the weight percentages of the following elements: total carbon, ash, moisture, which form the main local coal parameters. Empirical relationships permit us to obtain also the heating value and an estimate strength index to elastic-dynamic forces. The results obtained agree within 3 percent with the Laboratory cores analysis. The method is processed through a sequence of simple computer programs for IBM-360

  5. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  7. Two-stage liquefaction of a Spanish subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.T.; Fernandez, I.; Benito, A.M.; Cebolla, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.H. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A Spanish subbituminous coal has been processed in two-stage liquefaction in a non-integrated process. The first-stage coal liquefaction has been carried out in a continuous pilot plant in Germany at Clausthal Technical University at 400[degree]C, 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and anthracene oil as solvent. The second-stage coal liquefaction has been performed in continuous operation in a hydroprocessing unit at the Instituto de Carboquimica at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The total conversion for the first-stage coal liquefaction was 75.41 wt% (coal d.a.f.), being 3.79 wt% gases, 2.58 wt% primary condensate and 69.04 wt% heavy liquids. The heteroatoms removal for the second-stage liquefaction was 97-99 wt% of S, 85-87 wt% of N and 93-100 wt% of O. The hydroprocessed liquids have about 70% of compounds with boiling point below 350[degree]C, and meet the sulphur and nitrogen specifications for refinery feedstocks. Liquids from two-stage coal liquefaction have been distilled, and the naphtha, kerosene and diesel fractions obtained have been characterized. 39 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Electrochemistry of carbonaceous materials. 3. Reactivity of redox couples with coal slurries in 85% phosphoric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomat, R.; Salmaso, R.; Zecchin, S. [CNR - Istituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Padova (Italy)

    1994-02-01

    Sardinian subbituminous coal slurries were oxidized in 85% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} by metal ions (Ce{sup 4+}, V{sup 5+}, V{sup 4+}, Mn{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and the effects of metal ion concentration, coal content of slurry, coal particle size and temperature were examined. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  10. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  11. γ-ray activity in bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.E.; Giorgio, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    Specimens of three different types of coal from four different geographical locations (Montana, North Dakota, Illinois and Pennsylvania) were examined by γ-ray spectrometry. Some samples were ashed in a muffle furnace. Other samples included pulverized coal, slag and fly ash from an electric power generating station. Activity from the 232 Th and 238 U series was present in all samples. Activity varied widely depending upon the source of the coal. The results indicate a need for additional examination of activity in coal to: (1) establish more precisely the relative environmental impact of coal-fired power stations compared with nuclear ones, (2) indicate the degree of sophistication required in environmental surveillance programs involving areas where both nuclear and coal-fired power stations are operational, and (3) determine the occupational exposure risks in mining operations. (author)

  12. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  13. Interaction of organic solvent with a subbituminous coal below pyrolysis temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.; Grens, E.A.

    1978-06-01

    The interactions of a subbituminous coal with certain binary organic solvent mixtures have been studied at 250/sup 0/C. Mixtures of pyridine, quinoline, piperidine, tetrahydroquinoline, and ethylenediamine with either toluene or tetralin were contacted with coal in a successive batch, stirred reactor, the extractions being carried to near completion. Two distinct behaviors of extraction yield as a function of composition have been identified. In the majority of the solvent mixtures the extraction yield increases linearly with increasing concentration of the more active solvent. When the active solvent is ethylenediamine, however, the extraction yield increases rapidly when small concentrations of ethylenediamine are used but then levels out close to its maximum value in a 50 to 50 mix. This behavior is an indication that, except in the case of ethylenediamine, the activity of solvent mixtures is a function of bulk solution properties.

  14. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  15. The behavior of catalysts in hydrogasification of sub-bituminous coal in pressured fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shuai; Bi, Jicheng; Qu, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •CCHG in a pressured fluidized bed achieved 77.3 wt.% of CH 4 yield in 30 min. •Co-Ca and Ni-Ca triggered catalytic coal pyrolysis and char hydrogasification. •The reason for better catalytic performance of 5%Co-1%Ca was elucidated. •Sintered catalyst blocked the reactive sites and suppressed coal conversion. •Co-Ca made the catalyzed coal char rich in mesopore structures and reactive sites. -- Abstract: The catalytic hydrogasification of the sub-bituminous coal was carried out in a lab-scale pressurized fluidized bed with the Co-Ca, Ni-Ca and Fe-Ca as catalysts at 850 °C and 3 MPa. The effect of different catalysts on the characteristics of gasification products was investigated, and the behavior of the catalysts was also explored by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), etc. Experiment results showed that all the catalysts promoted the carbon conversion in the coal catalytic hydrogasification (CCHG), and the catalytic activity was in the order: 5%Co-1%Ca > 5%Ni-1%Ca > 5%Fe-1%Ca. Compared with the raw coal hydrogasification, the carbon conversion increased from 43.4 wt.% to 91.3 wt.%, and the CH 4 yield increased from 23.7 wt.% to 77.3 wt.% within 30 min after adding the 5%Co-1%Ca catalyst into the coal. Co-Ca and Ni-Ca possessed catalytic effect on both processes of pyrolysis of coal and hydrogasification of coal char in CCHG, by which the graphitization of the coal was suppressed and methane formation rate was significantly accelerated. Fe/Co/Ni-Ca could penetrate into the interior of coal during CCHG, making the catalytic production of CH 4 conduct in the pore structures. The activity difference of the catalysts was owing to the different ability of rupturing the amorphous C−C bonds in coal structure. The incomplete carbon conversion of the 5%Co-1%Ca loaded coal was due to the agglomeration of the catalyst and the blockage of the reactive sites by the sintered catalyst. This work will provide

  16. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  17. Rotary drum dryers for coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baunack, F

    1983-04-01

    The suitability, sizing and internal equipment of rotary drum dryers for high-ash coal slurries are discussed. Rotary dryers will handle also difficult slurries; by suitable drum sizes, lifter blades and chains not only high specific evaporation capacities can be achieved but also very high throughputs of up to 400 tons/h of finished product and high evaporation capacities of 60 tons/h.

  18. The effects of pretreatment and the addition of polar compounds on the production of 'HyperCoal' from subbituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kensuke Masaki; Takahiro Yoshida; Chunqi Li; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-08-01

    The effects of acid and hydrothermal pretreatments and the addition of polar compounds on the production of ashless-coal (HyperCoal) from subbituminous coals using cost-effective industrial solvents were investigated. The extraction yield of Wyodak subbituminous coal (C%, 75.0%) using crude methylnaphthalene oil (CMNO) at 360{sup o}C was increased significantly by 19% following acid pretreatment; it was 41.3% for the raw coal and 60.5% for the acid-treated coal. The addition of strongly polar compounds, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), also increased the extraction yields. For Pasir subbituminous coal (%, 73.0%) the yield increased by 10% from 54.3% for the raw coal to 64.2% when 20% NMP was added to CMNO. The highest extraction yield of 72.2% was obtained for acid-treated Wyodak coal using CMNO with 20% NMP added. The ash content in HyperCoal tended to decrease following acid pretreatment and was less than 200 ppm in some coals. Hydrothermal pretreatment had a negative effect on the thermal extraction at 360{sup o}C, but increased the yield at extraction temperatures below 200{sup o}C. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  20. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  1. Organic geochemical studies of the transformation of gymnospermous xylem during peatification and coalification to subbituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally recognized that xylem from trees that are buried in peat swamps is transformed first to huminite macerals in brown coal and then to vitrinite macerals in bituminous coal by processes collectively known as coalification. In order to understand the chemical nature of coalification of xylem and the chemical structures that eventually evolve in coal, we examined a series of gymnospermous xylem samples coalified to varying degrees. The samples included modern fresh xylem, modern degraded xylem in peat, and xylem coalified to ranks of brown coal (lignite B), lignite A, and subbituminous coal. The organic geochemical methods used in this study included solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The NMR method provided average compositional information, and the pyrolysis provided detailed molecular information. Although the samples examined include different plants of different geologic ages, they all share a common feature in that they are gymnospermous and presumably have or had a similar kind of lignin. The data obtained in this study provide enough details to allow delineation of specific coalification pathway for the xylem is microbial degradation in peat (peatification), leading to selective removal of cellulosic components. These components constitute a large fraction of the total mass of xylem, usually greater than 50%. Although cellulosic components can survive degradation under certain conditions, their loss during microbial degradation is the rule rather than exception during peatification. As these components of xylem are degraded and lost, lignin, another major component of xylem, is selectively enriched because it is more resistant to microbial degradation than the cellulosic components. Thus, lignin survives peatification in a practically unaltered state and becomes the major precursor of coalified xylem. During its transformation to brown coal and lignite A, lignin in xylem is altered

  2. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  4. Properties of sodium lignosulfonate as dispersant of coal water slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dongjie; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhou, Mingsong; Lou, Hongming

    2007-01-01

    In order to use lignosulfonates (a by-product of pulp and paper processes) as an effective dispersant of coal water slurry five purified sodium lignosulfonate (SL) samples with different molecular weights were prepared by fractionation using ultrafiltration and dialysis. The effect of SL on the apparent viscosity of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The adsorption behavior of the SL on the coal water interface has much greater effect on the viscosity of coal water slurry. The higher adsorption amount and compact adsorption film of SL on the coal surface help reduce the viscosity of CWS, and the zeta potential is also an important factor, which is influenced by the sulfonic and carboxyl group contents of the lignosulfonate molecule. Furthermore, the SL with its molecular weight ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 has both a higher adsorbed amount and zeta potential on the coal surface and the best effect on reducing the viscosity of the coal water slurry

  5. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  6. Pyrolysis and liquefaction of acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin swelled Mukah Balingian Malaysian sub-bituminous coal-The effect on coal conversion and oil yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Mohd Azlan Mohd Ishak; Khudzir Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The effect of swelling on Mukah Balingian (MB) Malaysian sub-bituminous coal macrostructure was observed by pyrolysing the swelled coal via thermogravimetry under nitrogen at ambient pressure. The DTG curves of the pyrolyzed swelled coal samples show the presence of evolution peaks at temperature ranging from 235 - 295 degree Celsius that are due to releasing of light molecular weight hydrocarbons. These peaks, however, were not present in the untreated coal, indicating some changes in the coal macrostructure has occurred in the swelled coal samples. The global pyrolysis kinetics for coal that follows the first-order decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the activation energy of the pyrolyzed untreated and swelled coal samples. The results thus far have shown that the activation energy for the acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin-swelled coal samples exhibit lower values than untreated coal, indicating less energy is required during the pyrolysis process due to the weakening of the coal-coal macromolecular interaction network. Moreover, liquefaction on the swelled coal samples that was carried out at temperatures ranging from 360 to 450 degree Celsius at 4 MPa of nitrogen pressure showed the enhancement of the coal conversion and oil yield at temperature of 420 degree Celsius, with retrogressive reaction started to dominate at higher temperature as indicated by decreased and increased in oil yield and high molecular weight pre-asphaltene, respectively. These observations suggest that the solvent swelling pre-treatment using acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin can improve the coal conversion and oil yields at less severe liquefaction condition. (author)

  7. XRD and FT–IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    extremely difficult and therefore, research on coal structure is still a ... the basis of development of spectroscopic methods. These are FTIR ... such as natural gas or imported coals to satisfy the energy requirement .... A new computer program in C++ was developed .... tool for characterization of coal and its products as it fur-.

  8. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  9. Effect of resinite on the combustion of New Zealand subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1997-09-01

    This paper shows that Oligocene resin from New Zealand`s Rotowaro coalfield displays DTA and DTG traces similar to those of other fossil resins. It modifies the thermal behaviour of low rank coal raising the peak combustion temperature and lowering its rate of combustion; this behaviour may be common among liptinite macerals. The effect is not additive and unlike other coal constituents the resinite component does not deteriorate with time.

  10. Preliminary reservoir model of enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) in a subbituminous coal seam, Huntly Coalfield, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarrouk, Sadiq J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Moore, Tim A. [Solid Energy New Zealand Ltd, PO Box. 1303, Christchurch (New Zealand)]|[Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2009-01-07

    The Huntly coalfield has significant coal deposits that contain biogenically-sourced methane. The coals are subbituminous in rank and Eocene in age and have been previously characterised with relatively low to moderate measured gas (CH{sub 4}) contents (2-4 m{sup 3}/ton). The CO{sub 2} holding capacity is relatively high (18.0 m{sup 3}/ton) compared with that of CH{sub 4} (2.6 m{sup 3}/ton) and N{sub 2} (0.7 m{sup 3}/ton) at the same pressure (4 MPa; all as received basis). The geothermal gradient is also quite high at 55 C/km. A study has been conducted which simulates enhancement of methane recovery (ECBM) from these deposits using a new version of the TOUGH2 (version 2) reservoir simulator (ECBM-TOUGH2) that can handle non-isothermal, multi-phase flows of mixtures of water, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The initial phase of the simulation is CH{sub 4} production for the first 5 years of the field history. The model indicates that methane production can be significantly improved (from less than 80% recovery to nearly 90%) through injection of CO{sub 2}. However, although an increase in the rate of CO{sub 2} injection increases the amount of CO{sub 2} sequestered, the methane recovery (because of earlier breakthrough with increasing injection rate) decreases. Modeling of pure N{sub 2} injection produced little enhanced CH{sub 4} production. The injection of a hypothetical flue gas mixture (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) also produced little increase in CH{sub 4} production. This is related to the low adsorption capacity of the Huntly coal to N{sub 2} which results in almost instantaneous breakthrough into the production well. (author)

  11. Thermogravimetric analysis of the behavior of sub-bituminous coal and cellulosic ethanol residue during co-combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, C; Barbanera, M; Bartocci, P; Fantozzi, F

    2015-06-01

    The influence of the addition of cellulosic ethanol residue (CER) on the combustion of Indonesian sub-bituminous coal was analyzed by non isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of blends ratio (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%), interaction mechanism, and heating rate (5°C/min, 10°C/min, 15°C/min, 20°C/min) on the combustion process was studied. The results show that the increase of the blending ratio allows to achieve the increase of the combustibility index from 7.49E-08 to 5.26E-07 at the blending ratio of 20%. Two types of non-isothermal kinetic analysis methods (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin) were also applied. Results indicate that the activation energy of the blends decreases with increasing the conversion rate. In particular, the blending ratio of 20% confirms to have the better combustion performance, with the average value of the activation energy equal to 41.10 kJ/mol obtained by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall model and 31.17 kJ/mol obtained by Vyazovkin model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-gasification of pine and oak biochar with sub-bituminous coal in carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagle, E; Wang, Y; Bell, D; Belmont, E

    2018-03-01

    Pine and oak biochars derived as byproducts of demonstration-scale pyrolysis, and blends of these two feedstocks with Powder River Basin coal, were gasified in a carbon dioxide environment using a modified drop tube reactor (MDTR) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The impact of gasification temperature on conversion kinetics was evaluated from the temporal evolution of major product gases in the MDTR as measured using a mass spectrometer. Random pore modeling was conducted to simulate gasification in the MDTR with favorable results. The MDTR and TGA were used to conduct gasification for assessment of non-linear additive effects in the blends. Additive analysis of the blends showed deviation from the experimental blend results, indicating inhibiting effects of co-gasifying the biochar and coal. Inhibitory effects are more significant for oak than pine and more pronounced in the TGA at lower gasification temperatures. Results are discussed in the context of feedstock and reactor type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite

  14. Preparation of coal slurries deposited in ground settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Blaschke

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the hard coal washing process, considerable quantities of coal slimes are generated. They belong to grain size classes below 1, 0 mm (with the majority of grains below 0,035 mm and are often sold in order to prepare blends for the power generation. It is assessed that in Poland about 11 mln tons of such slimes were deposited. The slimes of a low ash content can be exploited and sold. The slime of high ash content must be washed. In Poland there is one coal preparation plant for slurries. The article describes the technology and presents the results of a simplified economic analysis of exploitation of the slurries and their washing.

  15. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Putting the coal slurry pipelines to the test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauermann, H B

    1978-03-01

    This paper deals with the advantages and disadvantages of coal slurry pipelines and describes coal slurry tests undertaken in three test circuits with 100, 200 and 250 mm diameter pipes. The test results from the test circuits were used to scale-up pressure gradients to larger pipe diameters. The construction and installation of hydraulic transport pipelines is simple and requires a minimum of space. The crossing of rivers, roads, railways or any other obstacles is comparatively easy. The operation, supervision and maintenance of a pipeline is simple since any pipeline can be easily adapted for fully automatic control. For this reason manpower requirements are small resulting in only small increases in operating costs during the life of a pipeline. This is an attractive feature in any economy troubled by inflationary trends. In transporting a commodity such as coal the quantities handled are usually large and the distances are long. The profitability of hydraulic transportation systems benefits from such operating conditions. Even though the various components of a slurry transport system, such as the slurrying facilities at the mine end and the dewatering facilities at the utilization end, are complex, their reliability is high. Against the advantages, the following limitations can be visualized: It is practically impossible to transport solids other than those for which the pipeline was designed; in this regard, road and rail transportation is more versatile. The solids throughput through a pipeline cannot be economically increased beyond its design throughput. Pipelining involves the use of fluids, in most cases water, which in some instances may not be readily available.

  17. Rheology of Victorian brown coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woskoboenko, F.; Siemon, S.R.; Creasy, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    Aqueous suspensions of finely ground raw brown coal from Victoria, Australia, have been tested in a Couette viscometer to evaluate their rheological properties. Shear rates covered the range 1-800s/sup -1/ and median particles were 6-41 ..mu..m. Concentrations up to 0.6 volume fraction were examined. The results were well represented by the two parameter Bingham model. It was found that the degree of non-Newtonian behaviour, as measured by yield stress, increased as the concentration was increased or the particle size decreased. The yield stress can be directly related to the volumetric solids concentration, particle size distribution and external specific area via a single, physically meaningful parameter - the mean distance separating the particles. The power law relationship between yield stress and inter-particle distance can be used to gauge the degree of flocculation of the system. As with non-interacting particle systems, the plastic viscosity of these suspensions increases in a logarithmic fashion as the concentration increases but is independent of the absolute particle size. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Liquid CO2/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Goldstein, Harvey [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dooher, John [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO2/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO2 has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO2 is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO2 through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO2 is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO2 is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO2 slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO2 has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO2 over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO2/coal slurry properties.

  19. Formation and filtration of flocs from coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B K

    1977-06-01

    The size and size distribution of flocs are greatly influenced by the type and concentration of the flocculant coal and dirt particles behave differently in this respect. The pH and the concentration of electrolytes also influence flocculation, by changing both the surface properties of the solid material and the effectiveness of the flocculant. The relationship between the sedimentation time and the filtration rate depends on the concentration and type of flocculant. Optimum pH values for various conditions are tabulated. When an anion-active flocculant is added to a coal-dirt mixture in an alkaline medium, selective flocculation occurs; this can be used to improve the separation of slurries.

  20. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  1. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal by electron-transfer process with K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipu Borah [Pragjyotika J College, Titabar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2006-02-01

    The desulfurization reaction involving direct electron transfer from potassium ferrocyanide, K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}), successfully removed organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal. The temperature variation of desulfurization revealed that increase of temperature enhanced the level of sulfur removal. Moreover, the desulfurization reaction was found to be dependent on the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}). Gradual increase in the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration the variation was not significant. The removal of organic sulfur from unoxidized coal slightly increased with reduced particle size. Desulfurization from oxidized coals (prepared by aerial oxidation) revealed a higher level of sulfur removal in comparison to unoxidized coal. Highest desulfurization of 36.4 wt % was obtained at 90{sup o}C and 0.1 M concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) in the 100-mesh size oxidized coal prepared at 200{sup o}C. Model sulfur compound study revealed that aliphatic types of sulfur compounds are primarily responsible for desulfurization. Because of higher stability, thiophene and condensed thiophene-type of compounds perhaps remained unaffected by the electron-transfer agent. Infrared study revealed the formation of oxidized sulfur compounds (sulfoxide, sulfone, sulfonic acid, etc.) in the oxidized coals. The desulfurization reaction in different systems is well-represented by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Application of the transition state theory indicated that the desulfurization reaction proceeds with the absorption of heat (endothermic reaction) and is nonspontaneous in nature. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  3. Improvement in water-slurry circulation at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, A.K.; Fedotov, B.P.; Mitlash, V.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant (Donetskugleobogashchenie association) was put into operation in 1935. It processes 570 t/h of coal slurry with an ash content of 38.6% and produces grade T coal for coking and power generation. Coal preparation technology used is described. Shortcomings of the system cause 130 kg of high ash slurries to be recirculated per m/sup 3/ of hydrocyclone drain. Mathematical analysis of the present process and of two improved variants is presented. The analysis permits variants for clarification of the recirculated water to be developed and evaluated and the best one to be selected. The optimum variant permits the amount of thin recirculated slurry to be reduced to 48% and the amount of granular slurry to 13%. Implementation of this variant at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant will ensure annual savings of 20,000 rubles.

  4. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  5. Proceedings of the sixteenth international conference on coal and slurry technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of this conference are grouped under the following headings: Update in operating slurry pipeline systems; Environmental aspects; Materials and equipment; Indirect coal, liquefaction, Pipeline technology; Coal preparation and beneficiation; Direct coal liquefaction; Rheology characterization and formulation; Atomization and combustion; Demonstrations and evaluations; Small scale applications

  6. Revisiting Coos Bay, Oregon: A re-examination of funginite-huminite relationships in Eocene subbituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky, Lexigton (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2011-01-01

    Coal petrography has advanced significantly since Reinhardt Theissen and James Schopf pioneered the use of thin sections to examine coals from Coos Bay Oregon, and to many coal petrographers the nomenclature used in that study is irrelevant. The Schopf (1947) study was a ground-breaking examination of maceral relationships that need to be part of the working vocabulary of modern petrographers. To support this, a re-examination of the Coos Bay thin section collection was undertaken, using modern nomenclature for low-rank coals under reflected light. This particular collection was chosen in part because of the abundance of fungal material reported by Schopf. Fungal material in coal and its association with huminite/vitrinite macerals provides important information about the decompositional history of the coal and allows coal dominated by oxic processes to be differentiated from coal dominated by anoxic processes. In the Coos Bay samples, predominantly oxic intervals contain well-preserved fungi, including spores, sclerotia, and hyphae, while anoxic intervals contain no fungi. (author)

  7. Influence of coal slurry particle composition on pipeline hydraulic transportation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-an, Zhao; Ronghuan, Cai; Tieli, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Acting as a new type of energy transportation mode, the coal pipeline hydraulic transmission can reduce the energy transportation cost and the fly ash pollution of the conventional coal transportation. In this study, the effect of average velocity, particle size and pumping time on particle composition of coal particles during hydraulic conveying was investigated by ring tube test. Meanwhile, the effects of particle composition change on slurry viscosity, transmission resistance and critical sedimentation velocity were studied based on the experimental data. The experimental and theoretical analysis indicate that the alter of slurry particle composition can lead to the change of viscosity, resistance and critical velocity of slurry. Moreover, based on the previous studies, the critical velocity calculation model of coal slurry is proposed.

  8. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  9. Effect of organized assemblies. Part 4. Formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debadutta Das; Sagarika Panigrahi; Pramila K. Misra; Amalendu Nayak [Sambalpur University, Orissa (India). Centre of Studies in Surface Science and Technology

    2008-05-15

    Coal-water slurry has received considerable research nowadays due to its ability in substituting energy sources. The present work reports the formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural occurring surface active compound, saponin, extracted from the fruits of plant Sapindous laurifolia. The isolation of saponin from the plant and its surface activity has been discussed. The rheological characteristics of coal-water slurry have been investigated as a function of coal loading, ash content of coal, pH, temperature, and amount of saponin. The viscosity of the slurry and zeta potential are substantially decreased with concomitant shift of the isoelectric point of coal on adsorption of saponin to it. In the presence of 0.8% of saponin, coal-water slurry containing 64% weight fraction of coal could be achieved. The slurry is stable for a period of as long as 1 month in contrast to 4-5 h in the case of bare coal-water slurry. The results confirm the use of saponin as a suitable additive for coal-water slurry similar to the commercially available additive such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Basing on the effect of pH on the zeta potential and viscosity of slurry, a suitable mechanism for saponin-coal interaction and orientation of saponin at the coal-water interface has been proposed. 47 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Fiscal 1993 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Supply to Japan of subbituminous coal of the west of the U.S. (survey of the cost and a potentiality of the cost); 1993 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban sokushin chosa. Beikoku seibu arekiseitan no tainichi kyokyu (cost to yunyu chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Subbituminous coal of the Powder River coal field in the west of the U.S. is abundant, about 1/3 in the U.S. in reserve and about 1/4 in production. It is predicted that supply/demand of general coal will be tight from now up to the coming year of 2000 in the Pacific rim region including Japan as center, and therefore, if Japan imports in large quantity the subbituminous coal which exists abundantly and has a great potentiality of the expanding production quantity, Japan can contribute greatly to loosening the supply/demand of general coal in the Pacific rim region. However, there are some problems on the following: long inland transportation distance of more than 2000km, heavy burden of railroad fare, and coal quality, namely high water content, low calorific value, and low ash melting point of the coal being low in sulfur and ash. Accordingly, surveyed were on what level the cost of supply to Japan will be as compared with Australian coal, and whether there is a possibility of import of the subbituminous coal in large quantity at a competitive price. As to the potential import to Japan, the import of this coal will be 2.025 million tons/year at maximum in 2000 if the railroad price is reduced 20% and the blending of 30% at maximum can be realized at the Soma Kyodo Thermal Power Plant. 34 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  12. Rheology of Colombian coal-water slurry fuels: Effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, J E; Rojas, C P; Acero, G [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    Coal-water slurry fuels (CWSF`s) have been prepared and characterized in a research project in Colombia, sponsored by Colciencias and Ecocarbon, in order to evaluate the effects of the different composition variables on the behavior during preparation and pipe line transportation. The authors have previously presented details describing the characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared with five types of Colombian thermal coals and the influence of their chemical composition on the optimum particle-size distribution (PSD) required to prepare highly loaded and workable CWSF`s. The formulation and design of flow systems of suspensions with high solids content, such as the CWSF`s, require a detailed rheological knowledge of the suspension in terms of the governing parameters related to PSD, coal content, surface chemistry of the particles and dispersants used to stabilize the slurries. Important studies on these aspects have been reviewed and carried out experimentally by other authors specially devoted to the correlations between apparent viscosity, solids content and average coal particle-size. One of the targets to obtain an optimum control on the viscosity and flow properties of the CWSF`s must be based in correlating the Theological constants for the prevailing model of viscosity law to the characteristic parameters of the particle-size distribution and to the coal content in the slurry. In spite of the effect of PSD on the rheology of highly-loaded coal slurries have been long recognized as significant, the specific influence of the various PSD`s on the parameters of the Theological model continues to receive attention to further understanding in order to improve the slurry formulations for a specified purpose on preparation and hydraulic handling. This paper reports the results of an experimental technique of examining the various PSD`s on coal slurry fuel rheology, taking special attention for the effect on the parameters of the rheological model.

  13. Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

  14. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  15. An investigation on characterizing dense coal-water slurry with ultrasound: theoretical and experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, M.H.; Su, M.X.; Dong, L.L.; Shang, Z.T.; Cai, X.S. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-07-01

    Particle size distribution and concentration in particulate two-phase flow are important parameters in a wide variety of industrial areas. For the purpose of online characterization in dense coal-water slurries, ultrasonic methods have many advantages such as avoiding dilution, the capability for being used in real time, and noninvasive testing, while light-based techniques are not capable of providing information because optical methods often require the slurry to be diluted. In this article, the modified Urick equation including temperature modification, which can be used to determine the concentration by means of the measurement of ultrasonic velocity in a coal-water slurry, is evaluated on the basis of theoretical analysis and experimental study. A combination of the coupled-phase model and the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law is employed in this work, and the attenuation spectrum is measured within the frequency region from 3 to 12 MHz. Particle size distributions of the coal-water slurry at different volume fractions are obtained with the optimum regularization technique. Therefore, the ultrasonic technique presented in this work brings the possibility of using ultrasound for online measurements of dense slurries.

  16. Spray polyurea coatings as containment liners in coal slurry storage ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darden, J.W.; Loomis, R.; Roehm, F.T. [Willamette Valley Co., Eugene, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Southern California Edison (SCE) Mohave Generating Station was built in the early 1970`s in response to the shortage of oil due to the OPEC boycott. Coal/water slurry from the Black Mesa Pipeline is used to generate energy at the plant. Eight storage ponds, each about 175,000 square feet, were built in the mid to late 1970`s to insure a constant supply of slurry to feed the generating units. This paper describes the application of POLYQuik{trademark} P400 spray polyurea coating to the Marcona Pond, a coal slurry storage area at Southern California Edison`s Mohave Generating Station. The coating forms an impermeable barrier to prevent water loss and contamination of subgrade soils. The use of these coatings reduces facility downtime and liner replacement costs, offering a cost savings over the life of the pond.

  17. Comparison of litter decomposition in a natural versus coal-slurry pond reclaimed as a wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.; Middleton, B.A. [National Wetlands Research Center (USGS), Lafayette, LA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Decomposition is a key function in reclaimed wetlands, and changes in its rate have ramifications for organic-matter accumulation, nutrient cycling, and production. The purpose of this study was to compare leaf litter decomposition rates in coal-slurry ponds vs. natural wetlands on natural floodplain wetlands in Illinois, USA. The rate of decomposition was slower in the natural wetland vs. the coal pond (k = 0.0043{+-}0.0008 vs. 0.0066{+-}0.0011, respectively); the soil of the natural wetland was more acidic than the coal pond in this study (pH = 5.3 vs. 7.9, respectively). Similarly, higher organic matter levels were related to lower pH levels, and organic matter levels were seven-times higher in the natural wetland than in the coal pond. The coal slurry pond was five years old at the time of the study, while the natural oxbow wetland was older (more than 550 years). The coal-slurry pond was originally a floodplain wetland (slough); the downstream end was blocked with a stoplog structure and the oxbow filled with slurry. The pattern of decomposition for all species in the coal pond was the same as in the natural pond; Potomogeton nodosus decomposed more quickly than Phragmites australis, and both of these species decomposed more quickly than either Typha latifolia or Cyperus erythrorhizos. Depending on how open or closed the system is to outside inputs, decomposition rate regulates other functions such as production, nutrient cycling, organic-layer accumulation in the soil, and the timing and nature of delivery of detritus to the food chain.

  18. Simulated herbivory and vegetation dynamics in coal slurry ponds reclaimed as wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, M.J.; Middleton, B.A. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1999-12-01

    The biodiversity of coal slurry ponds can be inhibited at least in part, by dense stands of Phragmites australis. In this study, it is demonstrated that species richness can be increased in coal slurry ponds if the dominant species (P. Australis and Typha latifolia) are removed and that underwater herbivory simulated by cutting will kill emergents. The study was conducted in the greenhouse and the field in both flooded and drawndown conditions. In a reclaimed coal pond at Pyramid State Park, Illinois, neither P. australis nor T. Latifolia survived cutting underwater, but all of the uncut plants survived. Regrowth measured as total biomass of stems was less among flooded versus freely drained plants (0.3 and 2.6 g biomass, respectively). Cut versus uncut plants, combining freely drained and flooded, had less below-ground biomass (99.4 and 254.4 g, respectively). In an unreclaimed coal slurry pond with monospecific stands of P. Australis, plant species richness increased in cut plots as compared to uncut plots (29 vs 2 species, respectively) between March and September, 1995. This study demonstrated that species richness can be increased in coal ponds by mechanical cutting and this potentially by herbivory; however, the additional species were mostly exotics.

  19. Fiscal 1994 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Project to heighten the quality of subbituminous coal by low temperature carbonization process; 1994 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Teion kanryuho ni yoru arekiseitan no kohinshitsuka jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The low-temperature carbonization process of coal is a technology to produce high grade reformed coal corresponding to bituminous coal and coal oil corresponding to heavy oil from subbituminous coal and supply them at prices close to the present market ones. From viewpoints of diversified sources and multiple export harbors, an initial-stage survey was conducted of the whole flow from new development of undeveloped mining areas in the northwest of Sumatra, Indonesia to bringing by ships to Japan of products reformed by LFC process of the US SGI`s low-temperature carbonization technology. Clean coal prepared after mining is produceable at a little higher than $12. At processing ability of 10,000 tons/day of raw coal, production is expected of approximately 5,700 tons/day of solid products of more than 6,500 kcal/kg and approximately 1,000 tons/day of low sulfur C heavy oil class oil. The finished cost of solid products is about $25/ton, which becomes about $40/ton at the harbor price in Japan. In conclusion, the project to enhance the quality of subbituminous coal by the low-temperature carbonization is promising as a total system. 10 refs., 54 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Electrochemistry of carbonaceous materials; 2. Anodic electroactivity of coal slurries in 85% phosphoric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomat, R.; Salmaso, R.; Zecchin, S. (CNR-Instituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparative, Padova (Italy))

    1992-04-01

    Current-potential curves of suspended coal (Sulcis basin, Sardinia, Italy) in 85% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were taken on a platinum electrode at 100{degree}C. Anodic current in the potential range of 0-1.5 V versus saturated calomel electrode was due to some humic acid-type substances released by coal in the electrolyte. The leaching of organic matter increased with the lowering of the particle dimensions, and the related oxidation currents attained stable values even during slurry formation. Current-potential curves were still unchanged when coal was filtered off from the suspension. Previous washing of ground coal with diluted mineral acids, including H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, did not dissolve any significant amount of the substances responsible for the electrochemical activity of the coal sample examined. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Catalytic mechanism of sodium compounds in black liquor during gasification of coal black liquor slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Jianping; Zhou Junhu; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2008-01-01

    The coal black liquor slurry (CBLS) was composed of coal and black pulping liquor, which has plenty of sodium compounds, lignin and cellulose. The sodium compounds have a catalytic effect on the gasification process of coal black liquor slurry, while lignin and cellulose enhance the heat value. Alkali-catalyzed gasification experiments of CBLS and CWS (coal water slurry) are investigated on the thermobalance and fixed bed reactor. The residues of the gasification of CBLS and CWS are analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. It is found that many micro- and mesopores and zigzag faces exist in the surface of the CBLS coke, which play a key role in the catalytic gasification. Sodium can enhance the reaction potential, weaken the bond of C-O and improve the gasification reaction rate. XRD results show that sodium aluminum silicate and nepheline are the main crystal components of the CBLS and CWS. The C-O stretching vibration peak in the 1060 cm -1 band in the CBLS shifts to 995.65 cm -1 in the CBLS coke after partial gasification. This means that the energy of the C-O stretching vibration in the CBLS carbon matrix decreases, so the structure of the carbon matrix is more liable to react with an oxygen ion or hydroxide ion. The amplitude of the C-O stretching vibration peak is augmented step by step due to the ground-excited level jump of the C-O band

  2. Multi-element determinations of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) coal slurries using ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mujuru; R.I. McCrindle; B.M. Botha; P.P. Ndibewu [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Department of Chemistry

    2009-04-15

    A slurry nebulisation technique was applied for elemental analysis of bituminous coals SARM 18, SARM 19 and four coals from three different seams in Witbank, South Africa, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, S, Si and Ti) and trace elements (Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and Zr) in coal were determined. Various slurry preparations were evaluated using two dispersants (glycerol and Triton X-100) and by varying the concentration of dispersants, between 0.1% and 1.0% (v/v). The effect of initially solubilising the ground coal in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was investigated by varying the volume of DMF added. The effect of wet grinding with DMF was investigated. Wet grinding with DMF was shown to drastically reduce particle sizes (50.0% < 0.28 m and 90.0% < 6.17 {mu}m) as compared to dry grinding (50.0% < 5.25 {mu}m and 90.0% < 11.1 {mu}m). The reduced particle sizes and increased transport efficiency of the coal slurries led to improved analytical recoveries of elements in the reference coal, SARM 18. The best analytical recoveries for all elements were achieved using 0.1% Triton X-100 with 10.0% DMF. Results obtained by ICP-OES after wet grinding of the coal with DMF, using 0.1% Triton X-100, also gave excellent recoveries (Al, 100%; Ca, 103%; Cr, 106%; Fe, 102%; Mg, 100%; Mn, 104%; Ni, 109%; Si, 102%; Ti, 95.0%; and V, 108%). The results obtained with 10.0% DMF and 0.1% Triton X-100 were in agreement with certified values for all selected elements according to paired t-test at the 95.0% confidence level. Selected elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and V) were also analysed with X-ray fluorescence for comparison with results obtained from ICP-OES. Analysis by ICP-OES of microwave digested coal was also carried out. It is suggested that the DMF slurry technique could be used for routine analysis of bituminous coals. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Environmental indicators of the combustion of prospective coal water slurry containing petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Nyashina, Galina S; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-09-15

    Negative environmental impact of coal combustion has been known to humankind for a fairly long time. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are considered the most dangerous anthropogenic emissions. A possible solution to this problem is replacing coal dust combustion with that of coal water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Coal processing wastes and used combustible liquids (oils, sludge, resins) are promising in terms of their economic and energy yield characteristics. However, no research has yet been conducted on the environmental indicators of fuels based on CWSP. The present work contains the findings of the research of CO, CO2, NOx, SOx emissions from the combustion of coals and CWSPs produced from coal processing waste (filter cakes). It is demonstrated for the first time that the concentrations of dangerous emissions from the combustion of CWSPs (carbon oxide and dioxide), even when combustible heavy liquid fractions are added, are not worse than those of coal. As for the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is significantly lower for CWSPs combustion as compared to coals. The presented research findings illustrate the prospects of the wide use of CWSPs as a fuel that is cheap and beneficial, in terms of both energy output and ecology, as compared to coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation and filtration of flakes from coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, B K; Clement, M; Juentgen, H

    1977-06-01

    Size and size distribution of flakes are much influenced by the type and concentration of the flocculation agent. The coal particles show different behaviour to that of the dirt particles. The ph-value and the concentration of electrolytes also influence flocculation. They change the surface properties of the solid material as well as the flocculability of the flocculant.

  5. A computerized coal-water slurry transportation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljubicic, B.R.; Trostad, B. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

    1995-12-01

    Coal-water fuel (CWF) technology has been developed to the point where full-scale commercialization is just a matter of gaining sufficient market confidence in the price stability of alternate fossil fuels. In order to generalize alternative fuel cost estimates for the desired combinations of processing and/or transportation, a great deal of flexibility is required owing to the understood lack of precision in many of the newly emerging coal technologies. Previously, decisions regarding the sequential and spatial arrangement of the various process steps were made strictly on the basis of experience, simplified analysis, and intuition. Over the last decade, computer modeling has progressed from empirically based correlation to that of intricate mechanistic analysis. Nomograms, charts, tables, and many simple rules of thumb have been made obsolete by the availability of complex computer models. Given the ability to view results graphically in real or near real time, the engineer can immediately verify, from a practical standpoint, whether the initial assumptions and inputs were indeed valid. If the feasibility of a project is being determined in the context of a lack of specific data, the ability to provide a dynamic software-based solution is crucial. Furthermore, the resulting model can be used to establish preliminary operating procedures, test control logic, and train plant/process operators. Presented in this paper is a computerized model capable of estimating the delivered cost of CWF. The model uses coal-specific values, process and transport requirements, terrain factors, and input costs to determine the final operating configuration, bill of materials, and, ultimately, the capital, operating, and unit costs.

  6. Maximum solid concentrations of coal water slurries predicted by neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Yanchang; Zhou, Junhu; Liu, Jianzhong; Cen, Kefa

    2010-12-15

    The nonlinear back-propagation (BP) neural network models were developed to predict the maximum solid concentration of coal water slurry (CWS) which is a substitute for oil fuel, based on physicochemical properties of 37 typical Chinese coals. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to train five BP neural network models with different input factors. The data pretreatment method, learning rate and hidden neuron number were optimized by training models. It is found that the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI), moisture and coalification degree of parent coal are 3 indispensable factors for the prediction of CWS maximum solid concentration. Each BP neural network model gives a more accurate prediction result than the traditional polynomial regression equation. The BP neural network model with 3 input factors of HGI, moisture and oxygen/carbon ratio gives the smallest mean absolute error of 0.40%, which is much lower than that of 1.15% given by the traditional polynomial regression equation. (author)

  7. Operating a pneumatic-mechanical flotation machine for coal-slurry flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmaenok, N M; Bedran, N G; Konstantinov, V K; Kochetkov, Yu I; Sysoev, V S

    1976-01-01

    The FPM-GMO-1.6 pneumatic-mechanical flotation machine is easy to operate and regulate and maintains a high throughput at a low energy consumption. The flotation process is stable, the quality of the concentrate and tailings satisfactory, and the selectivity of separation high. The machine cannot handle coal slurries at higher throughputs because the rate of froth removal is too low across the entire flotation front. Experience on the pneumatic-mechanical flotation machine at the ''Kolosnikovskaya'' Central Washery indicates that a similar machine should be developed for a throughput of 1000 m/sup 3//hr.

  8. Determination of sulfur in coal and ash slurry by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadi, Flávio V.; Rosa, Lilian R.; Veiga, Márcia A.M.S. da, E-mail: mamsveiga@ffclrp.usp.br

    2013-10-01

    We propose a procedure for the determination of sulfur in coal slurries by high resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry. The slurry, whose concentration is 1 mg mL{sup −1}, was prepared by mixing 50 mg of the sample with 5% v/v nitric acid and 0.04% m/v Triton X-100 and was homogenized manually. It sustained good stability. The determination was performed via CS molecular absorption at 257.592 nm, and the optimized vaporization temperature was 2500 °C. The accuracy of the method was ensured by analysis of certified reference materials SRM 1632b (trace elements in coal) and SRM 1633b (coal fly ash) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, using external calibration with aqueous standards prepared in the same medium and used as slurry. We achieved good agreement with the certified reference materials within 95% confidence interval, LOD of 0.01% w/w, and RSD of 6%, which confirms the potential of the proposed method. - Highlights: • HR-CS ET MAS as a technique to determine sulfur in coal and ash • Utilization of (coal and coal fly ash) slurry as a sample preparation • Simple and fast method, which uses external calibration with aqueous standards without chemical modifier.

  9. The Development of Environmentally Friendly Technologies of Using Coals and Products of Their Enrichment in the Form of Coal Water Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murko, Vasily; Hamalainen, Veniamin

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the current state of the technology for production and combustion of fuel coal water slurries in Russia and foreign countries. Experimental and industrial facilities show the technological and economic efficiency of using this technology for disposal of wastes resulting after coal processing and enrichment. The feasibility studies of use of the technology at large Kuzbass thermal power stations are presented. The possibility of solving a serious environmental problem of reducing storage of the most toxic waste of coal enrichment in the location areas of coal washing plants and coal mining enterprises is demonstrated.

  10. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  11. The effect of the particulate phase on coal biosolubilisation mediated by Trichoderma atroviride in a slurry bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboirien, B.O.; Burton, S.G. [Bioprocess Engineering Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 (South Africa); Cowan, D. [Bioprocess Engineering Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 (South Africa); Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Belville (South Africa); Harrison, S.T.L.

    2008-02-15

    Low rank coal is currently under-utilised because of its low calorific value and high moisture and sulphur content. Its solubilisation by both bacterial and fungal cultures has been reported, the latter more commonly. Coal biosolubilisation processes have potential to convert low rank coal to either a clean, cost-effective energy source or complex aromatic compounds for biocatalytic conversion to value-added products. This can lead to an increased utilisation of low rank coal. In this study, the key variables of the slurry that affect biosolubilisation of low rank coal by Trichoderma atroviride in submerged culture were investigated. Results showed that the key operating variables that influence coal biosolubilisation in the slurry bioreactor are coal loading and particle size affecting available surface area. These factors affect the surface area available for coal biosolubilisation. The optimum coal loading occurred between 5 and 10% (w/v); an increase above this optimum led to inhibition of the fungal culture of T. atroviride (ES11) by fragmentation of the fungal mycelium. A decrease in particle size fraction led to an increase in the degree of coal solubilisation. Coal biosolubilisation was shown to increase 4-fold when particle size was decreased from 600-850 {mu}m to 150-300 {mu}m. A 28% biosolubilisation of coal of 150-300 {mu}m, characterised by a surface specific area of 2.17 cm{sup 2} g{sup -} {sup 1}, was measured as coal weight loss over 14 days at solids loading at 5%. This can be compared with a 7.8% coal weight loss at 600-850 {mu}m diameters (0.54 cm{sup 2} g{sup -} {sup 1}). Soluble phenolic compounds are not a significant product of the coal biosolubilisation process. The change in pH observed in the presence of both coal and fungi was independent of coal loading and was not directly related to the extent of coal solubilisation. While soluble intermediates were observed as total organic, further metabolism resulted in complete oxidation of a

  12. Evaluation of treated black liquor used as dispersant of concentrated coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingsong Zhou; Qian Kong; Bing Pan; Xueqing Qiu; Dongjie Yang; Hongming Lou [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering

    2010-03-15

    The paper making waste liquor is a great water pollution source and much work has been done over the years to overcome this challenge. We present here a solution of black liquor used as dispersant of coal-water slurry (abbreviated as CWS) following chemical treatment. The treated black liquor (abbreviated as TBL) is used to prepare CWS for three bituminous coals, and the factors influencing its dispersing ability and the properties of CWS are investigated. The results show that the increasing sulfonating agent and formaldehyde dosage increase the sulfonic group content while reducing the molecular weight of TBL. The comparison with a naphthalene dispersant shows that TBL has a similar or better dispersing ability, and the large quantity of sulfonic groups engrafted in lignin molecules and the markedly increase of molecular weight are considered the key reason for the excellent performance of TBL. Moreover, the change of the molecular configuration from globular to flocculent in solution observed by TEM is also considered as an important reason for the excellent dispersing effect of TBL for CWS. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals to solve problems of air pollution by coal thermal power stations and boiler plants: An introductory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades. The study focuses on wastes, such as filter cakes, oil sludge, waste industrial oils, heavy coal-tar products, resins, etc., that are produced and stored in abundance. Their deep conversion is very rare due to low economic benefit. Effective ways are necessary to recover such industrial wastes. We present the cost assessment of the changes to the heat and power generation technologies that are required from typical power plants for switching from coal, fuel oil and natural gas to CWSPs based on coal and oil processing wastes. The corresponding technological changes pay off after a short time, ranging from several months to several years. The most promising components for CWSP production have been identified, which provide payback within a year. Among these are filter cakes (coal processing wastes), which are produced as a ready-made coal-water slurry fuel (a mixture of flocculants, water, and fine coal dust). These fuels have the least impact on the environment in terms of the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as fly ash. An important conclusion of the study is that using CWSPs based on filter cakes is worthwhile both as the main fuel for thermal power stations and boiler plants and as starting fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of the efect of the coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.; Deignan, P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.

  15. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Analytical methods were finalized and all analyses completed on shake flask tests with Indiana No. 5 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. A column leaching-rotating biological contractor (RBC) unit was used to bioleach pyrite and hazardous air pollutant precursors from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Shake flask tests with Rosebud subbituminous coal were begun. In connection with upcoming slurry column reactor tests, coal was prepared and shipped to INEL, and a detailed work plan was developed for operation and sampling for the tests. A manuscript and poster was prepared for presentation at the PETC contractors conference.

  16. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Optimal operation for 3 control parameters of Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with MO-3LM-CDE algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cuiwen; Zhang, Yakun; Gu, Xingsheng [Ministry of Education, East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes

    2013-07-01

    Optimizing operation parameters for Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with the consideration of multiple objectives is a complicated nonlinear constrained problem concerning 3 BP neural networks. In this paper, multi-objective 3-layer mixed cultural differential evolution (MO-3LM-CDE) algorithms which comprise of 4 multi-objective strategies and a 3LM-CDE algorithm are firstly presented. Then they are tested in 6 benchmark functions. Finally, the MO-3LM-CDE algorithms are applied to optimize 3 control parameters of the Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier in methanol production of a real-world chemical plant. The simulation results show that multi-objective optimal results are better than the respective single-objective optimal operations.

  18. Measurement of slurry droplets in coal-fired flue gas after WFGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Cheng; Zhao, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Zheng, Cheng-Hang; Gao, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    China owns the world's largest capacity of coal-fired power units. By the end of 2012, the capacity of installed national thermal power has been 819.68 million kilowatts. The latest standard requires that newly built power plants emit SO2 in no more than 100 mg/m(3) and the emission of old ones be lower than 200 mg/m(3) while in some key areas the emission should be controlled under 50 mg/m(3). So by the end of 2012, 90% of the active coal-fired units have been equipped with flue gas desulfurization devices. Among the desulfurization methods adopted, limestone-gypsum wet flue gas desulphurization accounts for 92%, causing the problem of fine droplets in the exhaust gas after defogger, which may even form "gypsum rain." At present, sampling methods are widely used at home and abroad, such as magnesium ion tracer method, modified magnesium ion tracer method and chemical analysis. In addition, some scholars use aerodynamic methods, such as ELPI, to measure the diameter distribution and concentration. The methods mentioned above all have their own demerits, such as the inability to on-line, continuous measurements and the need of prolonged measuring time. Thus, in this paper some potential optical on-line methods are presented, such as Fraunhofer diffraction pattern analysis and wavelength-multiplexed laser extinction. Also brought up are their measuring scope and merits. These methods have already been utilized to measure small liquid droplets and their demonstrations and evaluations are as well stated. Finally, a 3D imaging method based on digital holographic microscope is proposed for in-line measurement of size and concentration of slurry droplets. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated by preliminary experimental investigation.

  19. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  20. Direct atomic spectrometric analysis by slurry atomisation: Pt. 7. Analysis of coal using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebdon, Les; Foulkes, M E; Parry, H G.M.; Tye, C T

    1988-09-01

    The application of slurry atomisation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to major, minor and trace element determination in coals has been investigated. Eight certified reference material (CRM) coals have been ground by the bottle and bead method and analysed using both rapid scan semi-quantitative analysis, employing a single rhodium internal standard, and full quantitative analysis using simple aqueous standards for calibration. The semi-quantitative mode, which determines the concentration using the mass-response curve for 68 elements against the single internal standard, produced values which were within a factor of two of the certified reference value, in most instances. The full quantitative determination gave excellent agreement with the certified reference material coals for a large number of elemental constituents. The results from the determination of 16 elements of interest are discussed including the effects of polyatomic interferents and isotope sensitivity.

  1. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Quarterly progress report for the period Sep. 15, 1986-Dec. 15, 1986. [Adsorption of gum tragacanth on coal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    The last quarterly progress report focused on the adsorption study of the polystyrene latex spheres with gum tragacanth (GT), and the adsorption mechanism was found to be hydrophobic rather than electrostatic. Also, the effect of the amount of GT adsorbed, the bulk concentration of GT, incubation time and pH on the stability factor was examined, and the results indicated that the conformation of GT on the surface of latex spheres plays an important role in the stabilization. This report presents the results of the coal-water slurries, mainly focusing on the adsorption study of GT by changing pH and ionic strength. It was found from the experiment in which the ionic strength was changed that the adsorption of GT on the coal particles is hindered by the coulombic repulsion between GT and coal. In addition, the experiment in which pH was changed also indicated that the adsorption mechanism is electrostatic in nature. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory's (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program's first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow (≤12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled

  3. Improving the stability of coal slurries. Quarterly progress report, March 15-June 15, 1986. [Sedimentation tests in the presence and absence of gum tragacanth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this report, we will describe the progress of our research in two key areas. The twin objectives of this research are: (a) to examine the effectiveness of hydrocolloids as stabilizers of coal-water slurries and (b) to gain an understanding of the mechanism of stabilization through the use of monodisperse polystyrene lattices as model systems. Sedimentation tests with ultrafine ground coal in presence and absence of gum tragacanth have been carried out. An isotherm of gum tragacanth binding to coal surface has been generated. We have also conducted rheological studies to characterize the stabilized coal-water slurries. Similar experiments with -200 mesh coal are currently under way. In the case of model system studies, the effect of article size on the gum tragacanth induced stability has been studied. Initial experiments on the effects of increased electrolyte concentration and the addition of nonsolvents like ethanol to the continuous phase have been undertaken. 9 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl in coal and coal fly ash slurries using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotopic dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, S.M.; Pozebon, D.; Curtius, A.J. [Univ. Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A method has been investigated for the determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl in coal and in coal fly ash, using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotope dilution. The slurry, 25 mg ml{sup -1}, was prepared by mixing the powdered sample (less than or equal to 36 - 45 mm) with acid solutions (nitric acid for coal and nitric and hydrofluoric acids for coal fly ash) and submitting the mixture to an ultrasonic agitation, letting it stand afterwards in a water bath at 60{sup o}C for 2 h. An ultrasonic probe was used to homogenize the slurry in the autosampler cup just before its introduction into the graphite tube. The best conditions were determined regarding analyte sensitivity, furnace temperature program, amount of modifier, acid concentration, gas flow rate and particle size. For Hg, the pyrolysis stage was omitted and a low vaporization temperature was used (450 - 1000{sup o}C); the residual matrix was eliminated in the first step of the following cycle. The modifiers used were: Pd for Cd and Tl; Au, Ir or Pd for Hg; Ir or Pd for Pb. The accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing six certified coal reference materials (SARM 20, SARM 19, BCR No. 40, BCR No. 180, BCR No. 181 and NIST 1630a) and one certified coal fly ash (NIST 1633b). With one exception (Hg in BCR No. 180), the found concentrations were typically within 95% confidence interval of the certified values, or close enough to the recommended values, as long as the samples were ground to a small enough particle size. The limits of detection were typically around 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}, 0.03 {mu}g g{sup -1}, 1 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 0.02 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl, respectively. The precision was also adequate with relative standard deviations of usually < 5%.

  5. Pressure Prediction of Coal Slurry Transportation Pipeline Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Kernel Function Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-cun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For coal slurry pipeline blockage prediction problem, through the analysis of actual scene, it is determined that the pressure prediction from each measuring point is the premise of pipeline blockage prediction. Kernel function of support vector machine is introduced into extreme learning machine, the parameters are optimized by particle swarm algorithm, and blockage prediction method based on particle swarm optimization kernel function extreme learning machine (PSOKELM is put forward. The actual test data from HuangLing coal gangue power plant are used for simulation experiments and compared with support vector machine prediction model optimized by particle swarm algorithm (PSOSVM and kernel function extreme learning machine prediction model (KELM. The results prove that mean square error (MSE for the prediction model based on PSOKELM is 0.0038 and the correlation coefficient is 0.9955, which is superior to prediction model based on PSOSVM in speed and accuracy and superior to KELM prediction model in accuracy.

  6. Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R. E.; Giammarise, A. W.; Johnson, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

  7. Fluidized Bed Gasification of Coal-Oil and Coal-Water-Oil Slurries by Oxygen –Steam and Oxygen-CO2 Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Hartman, Miloslav; Skoblia, S.; Šyc, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-26 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048; GA MŠk 7C08034 Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * coal slurries Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2012 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-82455175439&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=svoboda%2ck&sid=ikNGw6d45E-yyuMoDwlGiWn%3a420&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28svoboda%2ck%29&relpos=1&relpos=1&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(svoboda,k)

  8. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  9. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  10. Influence of the shape of soaring particle based on coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals on ignition characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the laws of stable ignition of organic coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP. The CWSP is based on the filter cake of coal and scavenge oil. The experiments are performed for individual CWSP particles soaring in a special set-up. The temperature and velocity of an oxidizer flow are varied between 500-1200 K, and 0.5-3 m/s. The dimensions (longitudinal and transverse of particles range are from 0.5 mm to 5 mm. The study indicates how the shape of a fuel particle (sphere, ellipsoid, and polyhedron influences its ignition characteristics (delay time, minimum temperature, modes, stages. Based on the experimental results, the paper explains why the surface configuration of particles influences the conditions of heat transfer with an oxidizer. The results obtained for soaring particles are compared with the results for fixed CWSP particles having different surface configurations (sphere, ellipsoid, and polyhedron. In general, the study may contribute to the expansion of the fuel resource base. The experimental data may be used for the development of the technologies of burning CWSP prepared by recycling traditional fuels. As a result of this study, several recommendations for the practical application of research results are made.

  11. Improving the stability of coal slurries. Quarterly progress report, June 15-September 15, 1986. [Adsorption of gum tragacanth on polystyrene latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Our earlier study has shown that hydrocolloids such as gum tragacanth (GT) are effective in stabilizing coal-water slurries by the steric stabilization mechanism and also possibly by electrostatic stabilization mechanism. In this study, polystyrene latex has been chosen as the model system for coal-water slurries because of its monodispersity and its well established surface properties. The studies of the effects of ionic strength and pH on adsorption isotherms indicate that the adsorption of GT is probably hydrophobic rather than electrostatic or hydrogen-bonding. The value of pK was measured to be 2.95, from which the relation between the stability factor and the degree of dissociation of GT in the solution was obtained. Combining the results from the adsorption study and the measurement of stability factor at various pH, it was found that the stability factor significantly changes with pH even with the same amount of GT adsorbed. This indicates that the steric layer thickness or the conformation of GT on the surface of latex varies with pH. Binding studies on coal-water slurries were also carried out before and after acid leach, and the results indicate that the metal oxides on the coal surface, such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/, may be responsible for the adsorption with GT. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Coal-slurry pipelines. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, August 6, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Railroad opposition to competition from coal-slurry pipelines dominated the hearing, although other concerns focused on competition for construction capital, environmental impacts, and the economic impact of duplicating rail routes. The 13 witnesses spoke for the coal, rail, and pipeline industries and for the Department of Interior. Material submitted by the Railroad Labor Executives' Association and the Slurry Transport Association follows the testimony. (DCK)

  13. Results of Study of Sulfur Oxide Reduction During Combustion of Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Through use of Sulfur Capturing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murko Vasiliy I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that an effective way of burning high sulfur coal is to burn coal-water slurry fuel (CWF prepared on its basis containing a sulfur capture agent (SCA entered in the slurry at the stage of preparation. The technique of thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions during CWF burning has been developed including burning in the presence of SCA. Using the developed calculation program, the optimal temperature conditions have been determined as required for the effective reduction of sulfur oxides in flue gases when using different types of SCA. According to the results of calculating the composition of CWF combustion products when entering various substances in the burner space as SCA it has been determined that magnesite, calcite, and dolomite are the most effective natural minerals. The analysis of calculated and experimental data proves the efficiency of SCA addition as well as validity of the obtained results.

  14. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  15. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  16. The influence of atomizer internal design and liquid physical properties on effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Meng; Duan, Yufeng [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the dependence of effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry (CWS) on atomizer internal design and fluid properties. Results demonstrate that internal design of atomizer and fluid properties directly affect the two-phase flow pattern inside the atomizer which consequently affects the spray quality. The influence of mixing chamber length on spray quality is not significant at the ALR of 0.15 except for spray 0.75 glycerol/0.248 water/0.002 xanthan mixture. The same trend also found in the effect of angle of aeration holes at ALR of 0.15. Large diameter of the inclined aeration holes shows small SMD for water. The consistency index of fluids has no effect on the spray quality and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) increases when polymer additions were added to the glycerin-water mixture. The radial profile of SMD for spray water are almost flat, however, the largest SMD can be obtained at the edge of spray for three other fluids.

  17. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  18. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Final report. [Polygalacturonic acid and gum tragacanth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1988-12-01

    Polysaccharides were found to stabilize colloidal dispersions (such as coal particles and polystyrene latex particles) even at high ionic strengths. The stability studies with various kinds of polysaccharides showed that rod-like molecules (such as poly (galacturonic acid) and gum tragacanth) are much more effective stabilizers than highly-branched molecules such as arabinogalactan. This effective stabilization with the rod-like molecules was found to result from the adsorption of polysaccharides on the particles, i.e., the steric stabilization mechanism. The stability depends significantly on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge of particles. Adsorption isotherms, the zeta potential and the conformation of adsorbed molecules (the steric layer thicknesses) were measured as a function of the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge. Photon correlation spectroscopy studies showed that the conformation of adsorbed molecules is strongly dependent on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge, suggesting that the dependence of stability on these parameters is due to the change of the conformation of the molecules adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the solution pH has a significant effect on the flocculation behavior of particles and can be modulated to bring about peptization of particles. This type of stabilization is referred to as electrosteric stabilization whereby steric stabilization is induced by changing the electrical properties of the system (the solution pH in this case). 41 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  20. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  1. Overview of slurry pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, R L

    1982-01-01

    Slurry pipelines have proven to be a technically feasible, environmentally attractive and economic method of transporting finely divided particles over long distances. A pipeline system normally consists of preparation, pipeline and utilization facilities and requires optimization of all three components taken together. A considerable amount of research work has been done to develop hydraulic design of a slurry pipeline. Equipment selection and estimation of corrosion-erosion are considered to be as important as the hydraulic design. Future applications are expected to be for the large-scale transport of coal and for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits such as iron ore and copper. Application of slurry pipelines for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits is illustrated by the Kudremukh iron concentrate slurry pipeline in India.

  2. Copyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of coal suspended in waste oil under pressure; Copirolisis e hidropirolisis a presion de mezclas de carbon y aceites pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliner, R. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1998-12-31

    The present work studies the copyrolysis of a coal suspended in a waste oil under pressure, with short contact times. The main objective is to show the technical feasibility of the copyrolysis of coal and waste material slurries, in a fluidized bed and to evaluate the efficiency of the copyrolysis to improve quality and quantity of the products in relation to those obtained from the pyrolysis of coal. The work was started with three coals: Samca (subbituminous), HT51 (high-volatile bituminous) and Figaredo (low-volatile bituminous) and four aliphatic wastes from different origins: industrial hydraulic oils (AHU), lube oils (AMU), petroleum vacuum residuum (RP) and solutions of this residuum in vacuum gas-oil, RPG.

  3. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  4. A comparison of spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the CPT of Onyeama coal and Owukpa coal is identical to each other as they are the sub-bituminous, Owukpa coal has a lower initial oxidation temperature (IOT) and maximum oxidation temperature (MOT) than those of Onyeama coal. This means that although each coal has the same rank and CPT, spontaneous ...

  5. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (research and development of solid-liquid separation process); Sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu, koeki bunriho no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among researches on solvent extraction and liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the achievements in development of a solid-liquid separation technology. In the research of operation of a centrifugal separation device, a solid-liquid separation test was performed on slurry extracted from the Australian Wandoan coal being sub-bituminous coal. The deliming rate has reached 99% equilibrium at an addition rate of 20% by weight of anti-solvent (a kind of normal paraffin, which reduces solubility of part of coal extracts and enhances removal rates of ash and solids by utilizing coagulating action of the extracts). Asphaltene among the liquefaction formed materials may be recovered nearly completely, but the recovery rate for pre-asphaltene was lower. An operation test was also carried out by using slurry extracted in a 1 t/d experimental plant. In the study on operation of a 5-l/h continuous sedimentation and separation device, a maximum effect was derived with addition of anti-solvent at 25% by weight and at a stirring rate of 700 rpm. The solid-liquid separability changes depending on the kind of slurry. The low conversion rate slurry becomes difficult of separation because its viscosity is high and the difference in density between solids and liquid is small. Furthermore, the high conversion rate slurry has become difficult of separation due to small particle size of the solids. (NEDO)

  6. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  7. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  8. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  9. Speciation of arsenic in Canadian feed-coal and combustion by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Goodarzi; F.E. Huggins [Natural Resourses Canada (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary Division

    2003-07-01

    It is important to determine the oxidation state of arsenic in coal and coal combustion products, as this is generally the single most critical factor determining the toxicity of this element towards humans. However, the same factor is also important for understanding the volatility and reactions of arsenic forms in combustion and their leachability and mobility in ash-disposal situations. In this work, XAFS spectroscopy has been used to examine the speciation of arsenic in Canadian subbituminous and bituminous feed-coals and their combustion products. The concentration of arsenic in the feed-coals varied from < 2 ppm for subbituminous to 54 ppm for bituminous coals. Significant differences were noted in how arsenic occurs in subbituminous and bituminous coals, but, although such differences might influence the initial volatility and reactions of arsenic during coal combustion, arsenic is found almost entirely in the less toxic As{sup 5+} oxidation state in combustion products from both types of coal. (Abstract only)

  10. Evaluation of the ignition behaviour of coals and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Faundez; F. Rubiera; X. Garcia; A. Arenillas; A.L. Gordon; J.J. Pis [CSIC, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain). Department of Energy and Environment

    2003-07-01

    An experimental study about ignition of coals and blends was carried out by using an entrained flow reactor (EFR) with continuous feed. Seven coals of varying rank, from subbituminous to semianthracite, were tested and evolving gases (O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO) were measured. The ignition temperature was evaluated from the evolution profiles of these gases, and correlated inversely to the reactivity of coals, as reflected by increasing values of ignition temperatures in the sequence subbituminous, high volatile bituminous, low volatile bituminous and semianthracite coals. Mechanism of ignition varied from an heterogeneous mechanism (for subbituminous, low volatile bituminous and semianthracite coals) to an homogeneous mechanism (for high volatile bituminous coal). Experiments with coal blends showed that if a low volatile bituminous coal is blended with a high volatile bituminous coal, the latter determines the value of the ignition temperature and ignition mechanism of the blend, when its percentage in the blend is 50% or higher. For blends of subbituminous and high volatile bituminous coals, the ignition mechanism of the blend is determined by the ignition mechanism of the coal with a higher content in the blend. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Ignition characteristics of coal blends in an entrained flow furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Faundez; B. Arias; F. Rubiera; A. Arenillas; X. Garcia; A.L. Gordon; J.J. Pis [Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2007-09-15

    Ignition tests were carried out on blends of three coals of different rank - subbituminous, high volatile and low volatile bituminous - in two entrained flow reactors. The ignition temperatures were determined from the gas evolution profiles (CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 2}), while the mechanism of ignition was elucidated from these profiles and corroborated by high-speed video recording. Under the experimental conditions of high carbon loading, clear interactive effects were observed for all the blends. Ignition of the lower rank coals (subbituminous, high volatile bituminous) enhanced the ignition of the higher rank coal (low volatile bituminous) in the blends. The ignition temperatures of the blends of the low rank coals (subbituminous-high volatile bituminous) were additive. However, for the rest of the blends the ignition temperatures were always closer to the lower rank coal in the blend. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Emissions characterization from a variety of coals on a pilot-scale facility_v1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The current study not only characterizes emissions from three coals (bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite), but also investigates the use of instrumentation for...

  13. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  15. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-08-23

    A slurry explosive is comprised of (1) a composition consisting of ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate; or an alkaline earth metal nitrate; or an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate; at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels; and water; (2) 0.1 to 2.0% of guar gum; (3) between 0% and 0.3% of a sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium borate; and greater than 0% but not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine; and (4) 0.02 to 2.0% of antimony potassium tartarate, antimony trioxide, antimony trisulfide or a mixture of these antimony compounds, % by wt.

  17. Export market potential for Alaskan and Western US coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.

    1992-01-01

    Major utilization trends may create opportunity for dramatic expansion of Alaska's coal exports from a huge ultra-low sulfur coal resource base. Markets are expected to open up in the Pacific Basin for sub-bituminous and bituminous steam coals from Alaska to include not only run-of-mine coals but also product streams from beneficiation technologies. Market considerations aside, deficiencies in physical infrastructure and an unresolved resource ownership issue are the principal impediments at this time to property development

  18. Report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988; 1989 nendo tanshu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988. It summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the first and second coal type committee meetings. It describes liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals in the coal type selection and investigation. In order to develop jointly by Japan and China the coal liquefaction technology, liquefaction tests have been performed on Chinese coals since fiscal 1982 by using the small continuous testing equipment (0.1 t/d) installed in the Beijing Soot and Coal Science Research Institute. The test is now in the third phase. The first sub-committee meeting reported the result on the Shenmu Simengou coal. The coal type investigation has analyzed coal samples collected from the world, classified them into brown coal, sub-bituminous coal of low coal rank, sub-bituminous coal, highly volatile bituminous coal of low coal rank, and highly volatile bituminous coal, and presented a list of candidate coals for liquefaction. Regarding the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals, the second coal type committee meeting reported the result on the Fuxin Qinghemen coal, and the result on the Tianzhu coal as revealed by using the NEDOL process BSU. The paper also presents the interim report on the research achievements in fiscal 1988 on the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals and the research achievements of the investigation and study in fiscal 1988 on the treatment technologies for coals used for coal gasification 'coal type selection and investigation'. (NEDO)

  19. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  20. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  1. Biotransformation of Spanish coals by microorganisms; Biotransformacion de Carbones Espanoles por Microorganismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    some newly isolated microorganisms could solubilized different kinds of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite). Certain fungi and bacteria could solubilized lignite when growing in a mineral medium. However, to solubilized higher rank coals (hard coal and subbituminous coal) microorganisms require a complete medium. Microorganisms, which showed higher capacity to solubilized coal, were incubated in the presence of coal (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) at the optimal conditions to get coal liquefaction/solubilization. The resultant products were analysed by IR and UV/visible spectrometry. No major differences among the original coal, solubilized/liquefied coal and residual coal were detected. However, an increase in metallic carboxylate and a decrease in OH'- carboxylic groups were observed in the liquefied lignite. Humic acids derived from original lignite residual lignite and liquefied/solubilized lignite by microorganisms were analysed. Several differences were observed in the humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite, such as an increase in the total acidity and in the proportion of the phenolic groups. Differences on the humic acid molecular weight were observed too. Several fungal and bacterial strains were able to grow using humic acids as sole carbon source. Microorganisms growing in humic acid were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Besides, the coal solubilization capacity of several fungal strains (M2, m$ and AGI) growing in different culture media was assayed. In order to get some insight into the mechanisms of the liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) by these microorganisms, some features in the culture supernatants were studied: pH values; extracellular specific proteins; enzyme activities possibly related with coal solubilization and the presence of oxalate. M2 and M4 fungal strains grown in the presence of coal produced some specific extracellular proteins

  2. Biotransformation of Spanish coals by microorganisms; Biotransformacion de Carbones Espanoles por Microorganismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    some newly isolated microorganisms could solubilized different kinds of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite). Certain fungi and bacteria could solubilized lignite when growing in a mineral medium. However, to solubilized higher rank coals (hard coal and subbituminous coal) microorganisms require a complete medium. Microorganisms, which showed higher capacity to solubilized coal, were incubated in the presence of coal (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) at the optimal conditions to get coal liquefaction/solubilization. The resultant products were analysed by IR and UV/visible spectrometry. No major differences among the original coal, solubilized/liquefied coal and residual coal were detected. However, an increase in metallic carboxylate and a decrease in OH'- carboxylic groups were observed in the liquefied lignite. Humic acids derived from original lignite residual lignite and liquefied/solubilized lignite by microorganisms were analysed. Several differences were observed in the humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite, such as an increase in the total acidity and in the proportion of the phenolic groups. Differences on the humic acid molecular weight were observed too. Several fungal and bacterial strains were able to grow using humic acids as sole carbon source. Microorganisms growing in humic acid were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Besides, the coal solubilization capacity of several fungal strains (M2, m$ and AGI) growing in different culture media was assayed. In order to get some insight into the mechanisms of the liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) by these microorganisms, some features in the culture supernatants were studied: pH values; extracellular specific proteins; enzyme activities possibly related with coal solubilization and the presence of oxalate. M2 and M4 fungal strains grown in the presence of coal produced some specific extracellular

  3. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

  4. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  5. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  6. Organic petrology of subbituminous carbonaceous shale samples from Chalaw, Kabul Province, Afghanistan: Considerations for paleoenvironment and energy resource potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C.; SanFilipo, John R. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston VA, 20192 (United States); Azizi, Gul Pacha [Afghanistan Geological Survey, Macroryan Square, Kabul (Afghanistan); Davis, Philip A. [U.S. Geological Survey, 520 N. Park Avenue, Tucson AZ, 85719 (United States); Starratt, Scott W. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 910, 345 Middlefield Rd, Menlo Park CA, 94025 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Neogene (?) subbituminous carbonaceous shale deposits from Chalaw, Afghanistan, were investigated through organic petrology techniques and standard coal analyses to determine paleoenvironment and potential for resource utilization. The Chalaw deposit, approximately 30 km southeast of Kabul, currently is exploited for brick making and domestic heating and cooking. Three multiple-bench channel samples of the mined bed at Chalaw were collected and evaluated. The presence of significant huminite (ranging from 0.2 to 59.0 vol.%, mineral-inclusive basis) is suggestive of a terrestrial lignin-rich precursor plant material. Measured reflectance values of 0.38-0.55% indicate subbituminous rank. This rank suggests burial depths of approximately 1500 m and maximum temperatures of approximately 50 C. Structured liptinite macerals generally are absent except for some fluorescing morphologies interpreted to be poorly-preserved root cork suberinite. Sponge spicule bioliths including gemmoscleres and megascleres are common. These petrographic observations, in addition to high mineral matter content (33 to > 95 vol.%), medium to high sulfur content (2.1-11.5 wt.%, dry basis; db), and the presence of common gastropod? shell fragments and an aragonite-needle chalk bed are consistent with, but not directly indicative of, a marginal marine or estuarine mangrove depositional environment. However, additional data are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and deposition in a freshwater environment cannot be ruled out at this time. Commercial-scale development and utilization of the Chalaw deposit as a thermal fuel resource may be possible using a fluidized bed combustion system which could accept the low-quality mine product currently produced. Samples examined herein contain high-ash yield (45-90 wt.%, db), high total moisture content (17-39 wt.%), low calorific value (980-6860 Btu/lb, m,mmf), and have poor agglomerating properties (FSI = 0), consistent with fuels utilized in fluidized

  7. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  8. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  9. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  10. A brief petrographic review on Nigerian coal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Abaa, S. I.; Najime, T.; Suh, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    The coal resources of Nigeria are located mainly within the Benue Trough. In the lower Benue, subbituminous coals occur within the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation. High - volatile bituminous coals are found within the Turonian - Santonian Awgu Formation in the middle Benue while the upper Benue contains lignites and sub-bituminous coals in the Maastrichtian Gombe Sandstone Formation. Maceral analyses show that himinite dominates in the petrographic composition of the lower and upper Benue Trough coals with vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 0.30 to 0.63% Rm. In coals from the middle Benue, vitrinite macerals predominate and Rm values range from 0.74 to 1.25%. The present review suggests that the sub-bituminous coals in the lower and upper Benue are optimum for combustion and sub-optimum for liquefaction; while the high-volatile bituminous coals in the middle Benue, apart form being optimum for liquefaction, are the most suitable as raw material for coke making (carbonization) in steel manufacture

  11. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  13. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  14. Ignition behaviour of different rank coals in an entrained flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Faundez; A. Arenillas; F. Rubiera; X. Garcia; A.L. Gordon; J.J. Pis [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

    2005-12-01

    An experimental study to determine the temperature and mechanism of coal ignition was carried out by using an entrained flow reactor (EFR) at relatively high coal feed rates (0.5 g min{sup -1}). Seven coals ranging in rank from subbituminous to semianthracite, were tested and the evolved gases (O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO) were measured continuously. The ignition temperature was evaluated from the gas evolution profiles, and it was found to be inversely correlated to the reactivity of the coal, as reflected by the increasing values of the ignition temperature in the sequence: subbituminous, high volatile bituminous, low volatile bituminous and semianthracite coals. The mechanism of ignition varied from a heterogeneous mechanism for subbituminous, low volatile bituminous and semianthracite coals, to a homogeneous mechanism for high volatile bituminous coals. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was also used to evaluate coal ignition behaviour. Both methods, TGA and EFR, were in agreement as regards the mechanism of coal ignition. From the SEM micrographs of the coal particles retrieved from the cyclone, it was possible to observe the external appearance of the particles before, during and after ignition. The micrographs confirmed the mechanism deduced from the gas profiles. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  16. Flash hydropyrolysis of coal using a small scale of free fall reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Morozumi, F. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1998-07-01

    A small scale of high-pressure free fall reactor was developed for the flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Taiheiyo coal (a Japanese subbituminous coal) was pyrolysed under a high hydrogen pressure without difficulty by use of this reactor. The effect of gas atmosphere, residence time, pressure, and temperature on the product yield was examined in detail. A flash hydropyrolysis reaction model was developed based on the experimental data, and its validity was examined. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988; 1989 nendo tanshu iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a report on the coal type committee meetings in fiscal 1988. It summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the first and second coal type committee meetings. It describes liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals in the coal type selection and investigation. In order to develop jointly by Japan and China the coal liquefaction technology, liquefaction tests have been performed on Chinese coals since fiscal 1982 by using the small continuous testing equipment (0.1 t/d) installed in the Beijing Soot and Coal Science Research Institute. The test is now in the third phase. The first sub-committee meeting reported the result on the Shenmu Simengou coal. The coal type investigation has analyzed coal samples collected from the world, classified them into brown coal, sub-bituminous coal of low coal rank, sub-bituminous coal, highly volatile bituminous coal of low coal rank, and highly volatile bituminous coal, and presented a list of candidate coals for liquefaction. Regarding the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals, the second coal type committee meeting reported the result on the Fuxin Qinghemen coal, and the result on the Tianzhu coal as revealed by using the NEDOL process BSU. The paper also presents the interim report on the research achievements in fiscal 1988 on the liquefaction performance tests on Chinese coals and the research achievements of the investigation and study in fiscal 1988 on the treatment technologies for coals used for coal gasification 'coal type selection and investigation'. (NEDO)

  18. Environmental Policy Induced Input Substitution? The Case of Coking and Steam Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Lange

    2007-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 initiated a tradable permit program for emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants. The effect of this enlightened policy on the coal industry was a large increase in consumption of low-sulfur bituminous and subbituminous coals. Low-sulfur bituminous coal is most attractive to coal-fired power plants as they have higher heat content and require less alteration to the boiler to burn as effectively the coal previously in use. However, low-sulfur bituminou...

  19. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  20. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Characterising the combustion behaviour of New Zealand coals by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-31

    Thirty-three New Zealand coals were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) to evaluate the techniques` applicability to New Zealand coals. Generally, New Zealand sub-bituminous coals have lower burnout temperatures than bituminous coals. However, local and regional differences occur, where some sub-bituminous coals show both higher and lower char burnout temperatures than may be otherwise expected from their rank and T{sub 6} values (the peak temperature where the rate of weight loss of the sample is the greatest). There is a sizeable variations in the char burnout temperature (T{sub 8}) (465 to 636{degree}C) in coals with volatile matter contents above 40%, whereas coals with lower volatile contents have T{sub 8} values around 646{degree}C. The temperature of char burnout gives a better indication of combustion efficiency than rank or volatile matter content alone. Industrial operators could use this technique to provide an indication of burnout performance before a coal is purchased, assisting evaluation of the coal`s suitability for a particular usage. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Study on standard coal preparation plant for coking coal in Jharia Coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiewski, J; Sarkar, G G

    1975-10-01

    The proposed standardization of coal preparation plant will be based on three standard types of crushing station, a standard jig washery or cyclone washery, and three standard types of slurry water treatment section. Some large installations, and some existing washeries after modification, may incorporate heavy media baths for coarse coal and jigs for slack coal, where coal is easy or moderately easy to wash. Flow sheets are given for the standard types of crushing plant, washery, and slurry water circuit. The storage of raw coal and saleable products is briefly discussed.

  3. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  4. Slurry walls and slurry trenches - construction quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, R.J.; Good, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Slurry (panel) walls and slurry trenches have become conventional methods for construction of deep underground structures, interceptor trenches and hydraulic (cutoff) barriers. More recently polymers mixed with water are used to stabilize the excavation instead of bentonite slurry. Slurry walls are typically excavated in short panel segments, 2 to 7 m (7 to 23 ft) long, and backfilled with structural materials; whereas slurry trenches are fairly continuous excavations with concurrent backfilling of blended soils, or cement-bentonite mixtures. Slurry trench techniques have also been used to construct interceptor trenches. Currently no national standards exist for the design and/or construction of slurry walls/trenches. Government agencies, private consultants, contractors and trade groups have published specifications for construction of slurry walls/trenches. These specifications vary in complexity and quality of standards. Some place excessive emphasis on the preparation and control of bentonite or polymer slurry used for excavation, with insufficient emphasis placed on quality control of bottom cleaning, tremie concrete, backfill placement or requirements for the finished product. This has led to numerous quality problems, particularly with regard to identification of key depths, bottom sediments and proper backfill placement. This paper will discuss the inspection of slurry wall/trench construction process, identifying those areas which require special scrutiny. New approaches to inspection of slurry stabilized excavations are discussed

  5. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  6. Demonstration of the Viability and Evaluation of Production Costs for Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamshad, Kourosh [Coaltek Incorporated, Tucker, GA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project was split into four main areas, first to identify the best combination of coal and biomass, second, create and test lab quantity of preferred combinations, Third, create a sizeable quantity for larger scale handling and consuming analysis and fourth, to provide analysis for a commercial scale production capacity. Samples of coal and biomass were collected. Five coals, representing the three major coal ranks, were collected including one bituminous, two sub-bituminous, and two lignite samples. In addition, three square bales (~50 lbs/bale) each of corn Stover and switch grass were collected with one bale of each sample processed through a hammer mill to approximately -5 mesh. A third sample of sawdust was collected once experimentation began at the University of Kentucky. Multiple combinations of coal and biomass; coal, biomass, with biomass binder, were tested until a formulation was identified that could meet the requirement criteria. Based on the results of the binderless briquetting evaluations, the CS/Sub-bit combinations was selected for extended evaluation at a 10% biomass addition rate while the WS/Bitum combination was selected for extended evaluation at a 30% biomass-addition rate. With the final results of the selection process complete, the CoalTek continuous production pilot plant in Tucker GA was outfitted with the specialized blending equipment and two 1/4 ton production runs of biomass and binder subbituminous coal briquettes were completed. These briquettes were later used for a calorific test burn at the University of North Dakota. The first formulation included subbituminous coal, corn stover and a corn starch binder the second formulation included subbituminous coal, wheat stover and corn starch binder.

  7. Thermal behaviour and microanalysis of coal subbituminus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heriyanti; Prendika, W.; Ashyar, R.; Sutrisno

    2018-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is used to study the thermal behaviour of sub-bituminous coal. The DSC experiment was performed in air atmosphere up to 125 °C at a heating rate of 25 °C min1. The DSC curve showed that the distinct transitional stages in the coal samples studied. Thermal heating temperature intervals, peak and dissociation energy of the coal samples were also determined. The XRD analysis was used to evaluate the diffraction pattern and crystal structure of the compounds in the coal sample at various temperatures (25-350 °C). The XRD analysis of various temperatures obtained compounds from the coal sample, dominated by quartz (SiO2) and corundum (Al2O3). The increase in temperature of the thermal treatment showed a better crystal formation.

  8. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1987. Surveys on coal selection and coal types (Surveys on coal resources for liquefaction); 1987 nendo tanshu sentei chosa tanshu chosa seika hokokusho. Ekikayo sekitan shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The survey purpose is to identify availability of coal resources for liquefaction in major coal producing countries in the Pacific basin area. Therefore, collection is carried out on such data as coal existing conditions, coal qualities, production quantities, and infrastructures on coal mines being operated and projects under development or investigation. Coal samples are collected in wide range and exhaustively unbiased to particular coal fields and mines to acquire data to perform selection and evaluation of coals that can be fed to coal liquefying plants. The present survey was intended to acquire fundamental data for the liquefying coal selection, such as coal existing conditions, natures, and infrastructures for the coal resources, taking up as the survey object countries the State of Alaska, U.S.A. and Indonesia. The coal types as the object of the survey are mainly sub-bituminous coal, and additionally brown coal and partly bituminous coal. The amount of coal deposit as the subject of the investigation is 100 million tons or more as the verified reserve. The subject areas cover coal mines in the State of Alaska, U.S.A. (Northern Alaska, Nenana, Beluga, and Matanuska coal fields), and Indonesia (the Sumatra and Kalimantan islands). The survey items are made up of 14 items (see the coal mine survey tables in JN0040851). (NEDO)

  9. System and method for slurry handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Raymond Douglas; Oppenheim, Judith Pauline

    2015-12-29

    A system includes a slurry depressurizing system that includes a liquid expansion system configured to continuously receive a slurry at a first pressure and continuously discharge the slurry at a second pressure. For example, the slurry depressurizing system may include an expansion turbine to expand the slurry from the first pressure to the second pressure.

  10. Investigation on characterization of Ereen coal deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jargalmaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ereen coal deposit is located 360 km west from Ulaanbaatar and 95 km from Bulgan town. The coal reserve of this deposit is approximately 345.2 million tons. The Ereen coal is used directly for the Erdenet power plant for producing of electricity and heat. The utilization of this coal for gas and liquid product using gasification and pyrolysis is now being considered. The proximate and ultimate analysis show that the Ereen coal is low rank D mark hard coal, which corresponds to subbituminous coal. The SEM images of initial coal sample have compact solid pieces. The SEM image of carbonized and activated carbon samples are hard material with high developed macro porosity structure. The SEM images of hard residue after thermal dissolution in autoclave characterizes hard pieces with micro porous structure in comparison with activated carbon sample. The results of the thermal dissolution of Ereen coal in tetralin with constant weight ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at the 450ºC show that 38% of liquid product can be obtained by thermal decomposition of the COM (coal organic matter.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 18-21

  11. Relationships between coal-quality and organic-geochemical parameters: A case study of the Hafik coal deposits (Sivas Basin, Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erik, N. Yalcin; Sancar, S. [Cumhuriyet University, Department of Geological Engineering, Sivas (Turkey)

    2010-09-01

    This study provides coal-quality, organic-petrographic and organic-geochemical data on Tertiary subbituminous coal of the Hafik area, northwestern part of the Sivas Basin, Turkey. Coal-petrological studies along with proximate and ultimate analyses were undertaken to determine the organic-petrographic characteristics of the Hafik coals. Huminite reflectances were found to be between 0.38 and 0.48% (corresponding to an organic-material-rich and coal layers), values characteristic of low maturity. This parameter shows a good correlation with calorific values (average 21,060 kJ/kg) and average T{sub max} (422 C) mineral-matter diagenesis, indicating immaturity. The studied coals and organic material underwent only low-grade transformation, a consequence of low lithostatic pressure. Therefore, the Hafik coals are actually subbituminous in rank. Rock-Eval analysis results show types II/III and III kerogens. The organic fraction of the coals is mostly comprised of humic-group macerals (gelinites), with small percentages derived from the inertinite and liptinite groups. In this study, organic-petrographic, organic-geochemical and coal quality data were compared. The Hafik deposit is a high-ash, high-sulfur coal. The mineral matter of the coals is comprised mainly of calcite and clay minerals. (author)

  12. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  13. Test installation for studying erosion-corrosion of metals for coal washing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoey, G. R.; Dingley, W.; Wiles, C. T.

    1979-02-15

    A test installation was constructed for investigating erosion-corrosion of metals by coal-water slurries. Erosion-corrosion tests of mild steel panels were conducted using slurries of alundum, quartz, washed coal and coal refuse. Wear rates were found to depend on type of abrasive, particle size and water conductivity and were reduced by cathodic protection and inhibitors. Cathodic protection of mild steel in coal slurries containing sulphate ion reduced wear by 90% and 86% for stationary and rotating panels, respectively. This study has demonstrated that the successful application of corrosion control techniques would reduce metal wastage in coal washing plants. The test installation is considered suitable for developing the techniques.

  14. Piston membrane pumps for slurries transport; Kolbenmembranpumpen fuer den Schlammtransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechmann, F. [Abel GmbH und Co. KG, Buechen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    As raw materials prices are rising, ore and coal mines in remote parts of the world have become profitable. Local infrastructures in these regions are not comparable with Europe. There are no rods or railways, and pipelines must be constructed parallel to rivers through deserts, mountains and rainforests. As a rule, pipelines do not follow favourable geological conditions but are constructed along the shortest possible rout to the nearest port or the nearest processing plant. Slurries are transported by pumping. (orig.)

  15. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  16. Steam coal processing technology: handling, high-order processing, COM, meth-coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, H.; Onodera, J.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: various handling techologies (overland and marine transport, storage, water removal, drying, comminution and sizing); various coal processing technologies (gravity concentration, magnetic separation, multi-stage flotation, liquid-phase pelletizing, chemical processing); production methods for coal-oil mixtures (COM), their physical properties, stability, storage, transport, advantages, plus recent trends in research and development; production of coal-methanol slurry (meth-coal), its stability, storage, transport, utilization and environmental problems, plus latest trends in research and development. (In Japanese)

  17. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  18. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  19. Greenhouse gas emission factor development for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eui-Chan; Myeong, Soojeong; Sa, Jae-Whan; Kim, Jinsu; Jeong, Jae-Hak

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas emissions is essential for developing an appropriate strategy to mitigate global warming. This study examined the characteristics of greenhouse gas emission from power plants, a major greenhouse gas source in Korea. The power plants examined use bituminous coal, anthracite, and sub-bituminous coal as fuel. The CO 2 concentration from power plants was measured using GC-FID with methanizer. The amount of carbon, hydrogen, and calorific values in the input fuel was measured using an elemental analyzer and calorimeter. For fuel analysis, CO 2 emission factors for anthracite, bituminous coal, and sub-bituminous coal were 108.9, 88.4, and 97.9 Mg/kJ, respectively. The emission factors developed in this study were compared with those for IPCC. The results showed that CO 2 emission was 10.8% higher for anthracite, 5.5% lower for bituminous coal, and 1.9% higher for sub-bituminous coal than the IPCC figures.

  20. Hydroseeding on anthracite coal-mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Ross Writer

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of the performance of selected species of legumes, grasses, and trees hydroseeded on anthracite coal-mine spoils in a slurry of lime, fertilizer, and mulch. Hydroseeding failed on coal-breaker refuse, but was partially successful on strip-mine spoils.

  1. Rheology of oil sands slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

  2. Liquefaction of Warukin Formation Coal, Barito Basin, South Kalimantan on Low Pressure and Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Nursanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on the quality of coal in Warukin Formation has been conducted in coal outcrops located on Tabalong area, particularly in 3 coal seams, namely Wara 120 which consists of low rank coal (lignite. Meanwhile, coals in seam Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 are medium rank coal (sub-bituminous. Coal liquefaction is conducted in an autoclave on low pressure and temperature. Pressure during the process is 14 psi and temperature is 120oC. Catalyst used are alumina, hydrogen donor NaOH and water solvent. Liquefaction is conducted in three times variables of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. This process shows following yield : Wara seam 120: 25.37% - 51.27%; Tutupan seam 210: 3.02%-15.45% and seam Paringin 712:1.99%-11.95%. The average result of yield shows that coals in seam Wara has higher yield conversion than coals in seam Tutupan and Paringin.

  3. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available gasifiers. Fluidised bed Entrained flow Coal particle size 0.5 mm – 5 mm 0 – 0.5 mm Coal moisture Dry Dry/slurry Coal type Non-caking coals Any coal Ash in coal < 60% < 30% Gasification agents Air/steam/oxygen Steam/oxygen Gasification... properties important for fluidised bed gasification are: square4 Coal reactivity in atmospheres of CO2 and H2O square4 Caking index and free swelling index (FSI) square4 Ash fusion temperature (AFT) 5.1 Coal reactivity The gasifcation reactions (1...

  4. Surface chemical problems in coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Miller, K. J.; Deurbrouck, A. W.

    1981-02-01

    As the use of coal increases and more fine material is produced by mining and processing, the need for improved methods of coal beneficiation increases. While flotation techniques can help meet these needs, the technique is beset with many problems. These problems involve surface chemical and interfacial properties of the coal-mineral-water slurry systems used in coal flotation. The problems associated with coal flotation include non-selectivity, inefficient reagent utilization, and excessive variablity of results. These problems can be broadely classified as a lack of predictability. The present knowledge of coal flotation is not sufficient, in terms of surface chemical parameters, to allow prediction of the flotation response of a given coal. In this paper, some of the surface chemical properties of coal and coal minerals that need to be defined will be discussed in terms of the problems noted above and their impact on coal cleaning.

  5. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  6. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  7. Microbial diversity of western Canadian subsurface coal beds and methanogenic coal enrichment cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Tara J.; Foght, Julia M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Budwill, Karen [Carbon and Energy Management, Alberta Innovates-Technology Futures, 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-05-01

    Coalbed methane is an unconventional fuel source associated with certain coal seams. Biogenic methane can comprise a significant portion of the gas found in coal seams, yet the role of microbes in methanogenesis in situ is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to detect and identify major bacterial and archaeal species associated with coal sampled from sub-bituminous methane-producing coal beds in western Canada, and to examine the potential for methane biogenesis from coal. Enrichment cultures of coal samples were established to determine how nutrient amendment influenced the microbial community and methane production in the laboratory. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed using DNA extracted and amplified from uncultured coal samples and from methanogenic coal enrichment cultures. Libraries were screened using restriction fragment length polymorphism, and representative clones were sequenced. Most (> 50%) of the bacterial sequences amplified from uncultured coal samples were affiliated with Proteobacteria that exhibit nitrate reduction, nitrogen fixation and/or hydrogen utilization activities, including Pseudomonas, Thauera and Acidovorax spp., whereas enrichment cultures were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and/or Lactobacillales. Archaeal 16S rRNA genes could not be amplified from uncultured coal, suggesting that methanogens are present in coal below the detection levels of our methods. However, enrichment cultures established with coal inocula produced significant volumes of methane and the archaeal clone libraries were dominated by sequences closely affiliated with Methanosarcina spp. Enrichment cultures incubated with coal plus organic nutrients produced more methane than either nutrient or coal supplements alone, implying that competent methanogenic consortia exist in coal beds but that nutrient limitations restrict their activity in situ. This report adds to the scant literature on coal bed microbiology and suggests how microbes may be

  8. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  9. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  10. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  11. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  12. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL; Oras, John [Des Plaines, IL; Son, HyunJin [Naperville, IL

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  13. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.; Anderson, M.S.; Van Essen, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses

  14. Rheology of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, I.D.; Martin, H.D.; McLain, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The rheological properties of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry were determined. This nonradioactive slurry simulates the radioactive tetraphenylborate precipitate generated at the Savannah River Plant by the In-Tank Precipitation Process. The data obtained in this study was applied in the design of slurry pumps, transfer pumps, transfer lines, and vessel agitation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and other High Level Waste treatment projects. The precipitate slurry behaves as a Bingham plastic. The yield stress is directly proportional to the concentration of insoluble solids over the range of concentrations studied. The consistency is also a linear function of insoluble solids over the same concentration range. Neither the yield stress nor the consistency was observed to be affected by the presence of the soluble solids. Temperature effects on flow properties of the slurry were also examined: the yield stress is inversely proportional to temperature, but the consistency of the slurry is independent of temperature. No significant time-dependent effects were found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 1. Coal composition by prompt neutron activation analysis: basic experiments. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, G.; Bozorganesh, H.; Elias, E.; Gozani, T.; Maung, T.; Orphan, V.

    1979-01-01

    Using californium-252 as a source of exciting neutrons, prompt gamma photons emitted by elemental nuclei in the coal have been measured using several detectors, including sodium--iodide and germanium--lithium. Several coal types, including bituminous, subbituminous lignite and anthracite were crushed to various top sizes and analyzed carefully be traditional ASTM wet chemistry techniques at two or three different laboratories. The elements (sulfur, hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, silicon, iron, calcium, sodium, nitrogen, and chlorine) were determined by prompt neutron activations and the quantities compared with those of the wet chemical analyses

  16. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  17. Aspects of combustion behaviour of coals from some New Zealand lignite-coal regions determined by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1997-08-25

    The papers describes how thermogravimetric analysis of five Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic New Zealand lignites demonstrate that their combustion behaviour is distinct from that of subbituminous coals and may be characterised by peak temperature of 377-416{degree}C, maximum rate of combustion of 25-31 wt% min{sup -1}, and temperature of char burnout 421-497{degree}C. These parameters reflect variation in thermal behaviour associated with both the organic and inorganic constituents of the coal. The information obtained is additional to that provided by proximate analysis; the latter is insufficient to predict the combustion behaviour of the coals relative to one another. A post-combustion thermal event is seen among the lignites as in other low-rank coals combusting below 600{degree}C, which appears to be related to the organic sulphur content of the coal.

  18. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  19. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  20. Potential markets for thermal coal in Canada 1978-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This paper evaluates thermal coal demand by industrial consumers such as cement plants and pulp and paper plants and, on a provincial basis, by thermal electric generating plants. Transportation costs to the identified market locations from four representative coal supply areas in Canada are estimated and used to calculate net-back figures attainable at coal mine sites. Transportation methods considered are rail, ship, truck, intermodal terminals, coal slurry pipeline, and electric transmission from mine-mouth.

  1. Clean coal technology challenges for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2001-01-01

    China is rich in coal reserves and also the largest coal producer and consumer in the world. Coal constitutes over 70% of the total energy consumption, some 86% of coal production is burned directly, which causes serious air pollution problems. However, based on China's specific energy structure, coal utilisation will remain the dominant means of energy usage and clean coal technology must be the way forward if the environmental problems are to be resolved. This article discusses China's Clean Coal Technology Program, its implementation, including the clean coal technologies being developed and introduced, with reference to the key R & D institutes for each of the coal-using sectors. The article is an edited version of the 2000 Robens Coal Science Lecture, delivered in London in October 2000. The China Coal Technology Program for the 9th Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) was approved in 1997. The technologies included in the Program considered in this article are in: coal washing and grading, coal briquette, coal water slurry; circulating fluidised bed technology; pressurised fluidised bed combined cycle; integrated gasification combined cycle; coal gasification, coal liquefaction and flue gas desulfurisation. 4 tabs.

  2. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Influence of CO Conversion on Selectivities H2/CO Usage Ratios and Catalyst Stability for a 0.27 percent Ru 25 percent Co/Al2O3 using a Slurry Phase Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W Ma; G Jacobs; Y Ji; T Bhatelia; D Bukur; S Khalid; B Davis

    2011-12-31

    The effect of CO conversion on hydrocarbon selectivities (i.e., CH{sub 4}, C{sub 5+}, olefin and paraffin), H{sub 2}/CO usage ratios, CO{sub 2} selectivity, and catalyst stability over a wide range of CO conversion (12-94%) on 0.27%Ru-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied under the conditions of 220 C, 1.5 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio of 2.1 and gas space velocities of 0.3-15 NL/g-cat/h in a 1-L continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Catalyst samples were withdrawn from the CSTR at different CO conversion levels, and Co phases (Co, CoO) in the slurry samples were characterized by XANES, and in the case of the fresh catalysts, EXAFS as well. Ru was responsible for increasing the extent of Co reduction, thus boosting the active site density. At 1%Ru loading, EXAFS indicates that coordination of Ru at the atomic level was virtually solely with Co. It was found that the selectivities to CH{sub 4}, C{sub 5+}, and CO{sub 2} on the Co catalyst are functions of CO conversion. At high CO conversions, i.e. above 80%, CH{sub 4} selectivity experienced a change in the trend, and began to increase, and CO{sub 2} selectivity experienced a rapid increase. H{sub 2}/CO usage ratio and olefin content were found to decrease with increasing CO conversion in the range of 12-94%. The observed results are consistent with water reoxidation of Co during FTS at high conversion. XANES spectroscopy of used catalyst samples displayed spectra consistent with the presence of more CoO at higher CO conversion levels.

  3. Advanced computational model for three-phase slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2001-10-01

    In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the

  4. Advanced computational model for three-phase slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2000-11-01

    In the first year of the project, solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Progress was also made in analyzing the gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is being developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian particle tracking procedure to analyze the particle motions. Progress was also made in developing a rate dependent thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows in a state of turbulent motion. The new model includes the effect of phasic interactions and leads to anisotropic effective phasic stress tensors. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The formulation of a thermodynamically consistent model for chemically active multiphase solid-fluid flows in a turbulent state of motion was also initiated. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also to establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and

  5. Trends and outlook of coal energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal Abidin Husin (Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Fuel and Materials Management Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Current energy policy in Malaysia is directed towards development of natural gas resources although there is a strategy to diversify energy sources to gas, hydro, coal and oil. By the year 2000, however, coal could emerge as a major energy source. The author advocates the need for a policy direction for the coal industry - for exploration, mine planning, mixing methods, transport and regulations to ensure occupational health and safety. Malaysia has abundant coal resources but most are in Sarawak and Sabah whereas the bulk of energy demand is in the Peninsula Malaysia. A table defines known coal resources in Malaysia and a map shows their location. To ensure successful development of the coal industry, technologies must be developed to meet environmental requirements and global market competition. Several emerging technologies are mentioned: production of process-derived fuel and coal-derived liquid from sub-bituminous coal, coal liquefaction, manufacture of coal water mixture, coal beneficiation, and fluidised bed combustion. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  7. Development of upgraded brown coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, N.; Sugita, S.; Deguchi, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Makino, E. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Coal and Energy Project Department

    2004-07-01

    Half of the world's coal resources are so-called low rank coal (LRC) such as lignite, subbituminous coal. Utilization of such coal is limited due to low heat value and high propensity of spontaneous combustion. Since some of LRCs have advantages as clean coal, i.e. low ash and low sulfur content, LRC can be the excellent feedstock for power generation and metallurgy depending on the upgrading technology. The UBC (upgraded brown coal) process introduced here converts LRC to solid fuel with high heat value and less propensity of self-heating. Various world coals, such as Australian, Indonesian and USA LRC, were tested using the Autoclave and Bench Scale Unit, and the process application to LRC of wide range is proven. The R & D activities of the UBC process are introduced including a demonstration project with a 5 ton/day test plant in progress in Indonesia, expecting near future commercialisation in order to utilize abundant LRC of clean properties. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 8. Continuous nuclear assay of coal (CONAC). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarias, J.; Irminger, P.; Dodson, W.

    1979-01-01

    Using californium-252 as a source of exciting neutrons, prompt gamma photons emitted by elemental nuclei in the coal have been measured using several detectors, including sodium-iodide and germanium-lithium. Several coal types, including bituminous, subbituminous lignite and anthracite were crushed to various top sizes and analyzed carefully by traditional ASTM wet chemistry techniques at two or three different laboratories. The elements (sulfur, hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, silicon, iron, calcium, sodium, nitrogen, and chlorine) were determined by prompt neutron activations and the quantities compared with those of the wet chemical analyses. Since satisfactory correlation has been obtained at bench-scale level using 100 to 200 kG samples, an apparatus has been designed to analyze a coal stream of up to 50 ton/hour, at an electric power generating station

  9. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha D.

    2016-01-01

    sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71......% in spring and autumn experiments, and by 44% in the summer experiment. Regression models were used to investigate sources and controls of NH3 emissions. There was a strong relationship between NH3 emissions and ventilation rate during spring and autumn, but less so during summer where ventilation rates were...

  10. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  11. Characterization of Activated Carbon from Coal and Its Application as Adsorbent on Mine Acid Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hardianti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracite and Sub-bituminous as activated carbon raw material had been utilized especially in mining field as adsorbent of dangerous heavy metal compound resulted in mining activity. Carbon from coal was activated physically and chemically in various temperature and particle sizes. Characterization was carried out in order to determine the adsorbent specification produced hence can be used and applied accordingly. Proximate and ultimate analysis concluded anthracite has fixed carbon 88.91% while sub-bituminous 49.05%. NaOH was used in chemical activation while heated at 400-500°C whereas physical activation was conducted at 800-1000°C. Activated carbon has high activity in adsorbing indicated by high iodine number resulted from analysis. SEM-EDS result confirmed that activated carbon made from coal has the quality in accordance to SNI and can be used as adsorbent in acid water treatment.

  12. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  13. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  14. It's sensible to mix your own slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1990-05-01

    Slurry explosives have not made the gains in the market expected of them, possibly due to the extra handling required at the mine site. One Peabody Coal Co. mine has built its own inexpensive setup that blends emulsions with Anfo to the desired ratio before loading the blend into Anfo trucks. Another mine is using a salvaged cement mixer to mix up its own batches of water gels, which are then mixed with Anfo. Both approaches result in blends that can be specialized for different areas of a mine to expand drill patterns, increase fragmentation and gain additional movements for blast casting. 2 figs.

  15. Coal-related research, organic chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Coal chemistry research topics included: H exchange at 400 0 C, breaking C-C bonds in coal, molecular weight estimation using small-angle neutron scattering, 13 C NMR spectra of coals, and tunneling during H/D isotope effects. Studies of coal conversion chemistry included thermolysis of bibenzyl and 1-naphthol, heating of coals in phenol, advanced indirect liquefaction based on Koelbel slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor, and plasma oxidation of coal minerals. Reactions of PAHs in molten SbCl 3 , a hydrocracking catalyst, were studied. Finally, heterogeneous catalysis (desulfurization etc.) was studied using Cu, Au, and Ni surfaces. 7 figures, 6 tables

  16. Automated cost modeling for coal combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on cost information developed at AMAX R and D Center for coal-water slurry production implemented in an automated spreadsheet (Lotus 123) for personal computer use. The spreadsheet format allows the user toe valuate impacts of various process options, coal feedstock characteristics, fuel characteristics, plant location sites, and plant sizes on fuel cost. Model flexibility reduces time and labor required to determine fuel costs and provides a basis to compare fuels manufactured by different processes. The model input includes coal characteristics, plant flowsheet definition, plant size, and market location. Based on these inputs, selected unit operations are chosen for coal processing

  17. Characterization of products from pyrolysis of coal with the addition of polyethylene terephthalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Bičáková, Olga; Sýkorová, Ivana; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Melegy, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 154, DEC 15 (2016), 123-131 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : pyrolysis * sub-bituminous coal * polyethylene terephthalate * coke Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2016

  18. Characterization of Activated Carbon from Coal and Its Application as Adsorbent on Mine Acid Water Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Hardianti; Susila Arita Rachman; Harminuke E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Anthracite and Sub-bituminous as activated carbon raw material had been utilized especially in mining field as adsorbent of dangerous heavy metal compound resulted in mining activity. Carbon from coal was activated physically and chemically in various temperature and particle sizes. Characterization was carried out in order to determine the adsorbent specification produced hence can be used and applied accordingly. Proximate and ultimate analysis concluded anthracite has fixed carbon 88.91% w...

  19. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  20. Coal-water fuels - a clean coal solution for Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubicic, B.; Willson, W.; Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Stajner, K.; Popovic, R.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe currently faces great economic and environmental problems. Among these problems is energy provision. Coal reserves are large but cause pollution while oil and gas need to be used for export. Formal 'clean coal technologies' are simply too expensive to be implemented on a large scale in the current economic crisis. The promised western investment and technological help has simply not taken place, western Europe must help eastern Europe with coal technology. The cheapest such technology is coal-water fuel slurry. It can substitute for oil, but research has not been carried out because of low oil prices. Coal-water fuel is one of the best methods of exploiting low rank coal. Many eastern European low rank coals have a low sulfur content, and thus make a good basis for a clean fuel. Italy and Russia are involved in such a venture, the slurry being transported in a pipeline. This technology would enable Russia to exploit Arctic coal reserves, thus freeing oil and gas for export. In Serbia the exploitation of sub-Danube lignite deposits with dredging mining produced a slurry. This led to the use and development of hot water drying, which enabled the removal of many of the salts which cause problems in pulverized fuel combustion. The system is economic, the fuel safer to transport then oil, either by rail or in pipelines. Many eastern European oil facilities could switch. 24 refs

  1. Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan C.

    1977-03-08

    A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

  2. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  3. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  4. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  5. 57Fe NGR studies on three-stage hydroliquefaction of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamond, M.; Bacaud, R.; Bussiere, P.; Charcosset, H.; Nickel-Pepin-Donat, B.

    1990-01-01

    Iron Moessbauer spectroscopy has been performed on liquefaction residues of two different French coals. In a three-stage liquefaction of high volatile bituminous coal (Freyming), without an added catalyst, the coal pyrite is not entirely converted into pyrrhotites, whereas in the presence of an added catalyst, coal pyrite is totally transformed into more dispersed pyrrhotites than those from the sample without an added catalyst; furthermore, the whole added catalyst precursor is reduced into pyrrhotites. In the case of liquefaction of subbituminous coal (Gardanne), full conversion of coal pyrite into pyrrhotites (even without an added catalyst) occurs. In addition, in the presence of the added catalyst, besides pyrrhotites, FeS is evidenced. When molybdenum-iron oxide is added as a catalyst precursor, no mixed Fe-Mo phase is detected. (orig.)

  6. Petrographic properties of major coal seams in Turkey and their formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprak, Selami [Mineral Research and Exploration Directorate (MTA), 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-06-01

    Most types of coal in Turkey are generally low in rank: lignite, and subbituminous. Most of the coal was formed during the Miocene, Eocene, and Pliocene ages. There are only a few thin Jurassic-age coal occurrences in Turkey. Pennsylvanian age bituminous coal is found on the Black Sea coast. General implications of the petrographic properties of Turkey's coal seams and coal deposits have not yet been taken into consideration comparatively or as a whole. For this study, about 190 channel samples were collected from different locales. The composite profile samples of the seams were taken into considerations. The content and depositional properties as well as some chemical and physical properties of the main coal seams are compared. All coal samples tend to have similar coal petrographic properties and were deposited in intermontane lacustrine basins. Later, they were affected by faulting and post-depositional volcanic activity. As a result, there are variations in the properties and rank of the coal samples. The most abundant coal maceral group is huminite and the most abundant maceral is gelinite. The liptinite and inertinite contents of the coal are low and the maceral contents of the coals show great similarity. The depositional environments of the all coals are lacustrine dominated. (author)

  7. FY 1981 Report on the results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of techniques for liquefaction of coal (Development of extraction type liquefaction plant using brown coal-based solvent and researches on milling at high temperature in oil); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, kattankei yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koon yuchu funsai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This program is aimed at establishment of the techniques for milling of brown coal treated by primary dehydration and slurry adjustment, and secondary hydration plant, as part of the project for developing the techniques for liquefaction of brown coal. Brown coal (Australian Yallourn coal) treated by primary dehydration, solvents (creosote and decrystallized anthracene), and catalysts are used as the stock samples, to investigate the coal characteristics with respect to milling crushability, dehydration and liquefaction reactivity, and the slurries are prepared by changing coal charge rate, solvent and preparation temperature, to collect the data regarding, e.g., coal concentration, coal particle size, moisture level and liquefaction reactivity. It is found that milling crushability tends to decrease as coal charge rate or solvent/coal ratio increases whether creosote or decrystallized anthracene is used as the solvent. Milling crushability is unaffected by slurry preparation temperature. Content of residual moisture in the slurry decreases to 1% or less, when slurry preparation temperature is increased to 100 degrees C or higher. Liquefaction reactivity of the slurry shows slight dependence on slurry preparation temperature, when it is increased to 180 degrees C. (NEDO)

  8. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  9. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  10. Comparison of Australasian tertiary coals based on resolution- enhanced solid-state /sup 13/C NMR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R H; Davenport, S J

    1986-04-01

    /sup 13/C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize 32 low-rank coals from New Zealand and Australia. A combination of high magnetic field (4.7 T) and resolution enhancement was used to extract spectral details beyond those seen in published spectra of coals of similar rank. Signal heights were used to characterize organic functional distributions. The spectra showed close similarities between Australian brown coals and low-rank New Zealand subbituminous coals, particularly those mined in the North Island. The spectra of New Zealand lignites all showed stronger signals from cellulose, methoxyl groups and phenols. Almost all of the New Zealand coals showed a relatively strong signal from polymethylene chains, compared with the Australian brown coals. This led to a prediction of higher alkene yields from pyrolysis of the New Zealand coals. Variations in phenolic substitution patterns were attributed to variations in the relative proportions of tannins and lignins in the depositional environments.

  11. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  12. Paleocene coal deposits of the Wilcox group, central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; SanFilipo, John R.; Schultz, Adam C.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    Coal deposits in the Wilcox Group of central Texas have been regarded as the richest coal resources in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Although minable coal beds appear to be less numerous and generally higher in sulfur content (1 percent average, as-received basis; table 1) than Wilcox coal deposits in the Northeast Texas and Louisiana Sabine assessment areas (0.5 and 0.6 percent sulfur, respectively; table 1), net coal thickness in coal zones in central Texas is up to 32 ft thick and more persistent along strike (up to 15 mi) at or near the surface than coals of any other Gulf Coast assessment area. The rank of the coal beds in central Texas is generally lignite (table 1), but some coal ranks as great as subbituminous C have been reported (Mukhopadhyay, 1989). The outcrop of the Wilcox Group in central Texas strikes northeast, extends for approximately 140 mi between the Trinity and Colorado Rivers, and covers parts of Bastrop, Falls, Freestone, Lee, Leon, Limestone, Milam, Navarro, Robertson, and Williamson Counties (Figure 1). Three formations, in ascending order, the Hooper, Simsboro, and Calvert Bluff, are recognized in central Texas (Figure 2). The Wilcox Group is underlain conformably by the Midway Group, a mudstone-dominated marine sequence, and is overlain and scoured locally by the Carrizo Sand, a fluvial unit at the base of the Claiborne Group.

  13. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  14. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    There are two mechanisms by which heavy settling particles may be suspended in a horizontal slurry flow: (1) by particle-particle interactions (e.g. Bagnold dispersive stresses) and (2) by particle-fluid interactions (e.g. entrainment of the particles by turbulent eddies.) The purpose of this investigation is to determine to what extent each fluidization mechanism is active and the effect of the fluidization mechanism on the global properties of the slurry. The technique employs the understanding that the particles entrained in the turbulence of the fluid will appear as an increased hydrostatic head across the channel. This may be directly measured and can be related to the fraction of the mass of particles that are supported by fluid-particle forces. (The rest must therefore be supported by particle-particle forces.) 17 refs., 26 figs.

  15. Influence of Operating Conditions and Coal Properties on NOx and N2O Emissions in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Subbituminous Coals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 83, 7-8 (2004), s. 1095-1103 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : NOx and N2O emissions * combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.368, year: 2004

  16. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  17. Characterization and supply of coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed, particulary in slurry fuel preparation and particle size distribution.

  18. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  19. An assessment of chemical properties and hardgrove grindability index of punjab coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.; Iqbal, M.M.; Hassan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the delamination of chemical properties and hardgrove grindability index (HGI) of coal samples collected from three different coal fields of Punjab; Eastern Salt Range, Central Salt Range and Makerwal coal fields. The chemical properties of Punjab coal reveal that most of the Punjab coal belongs to sub-bituminous category except coal of Tunnel C section of Makerwal Collieries and Iqbal Mineral coal mine of Dalwal, which are high volatile bituminous and lignite, respectively. The results of the research show that the HGI values of Punjab coal vary from 57 to 92. The eastern salt range coals are found to be the softest coals among that of three coal fields. It was further observed that the HGI values of the Punjab coal decrease with increasing moisture content, fixed carbon and sulphur contents, while it has a positive relation with volatile matter, ash content and gross calorific value. It was concluded that moisture content at its lower range has negligible effect on HGI of the Punjab coal. (author)

  20. Coal gold agglomeration: an innovative approach to the recovery of gold in environmentally sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, N.C.; Hughes-Narborough, C.; Willey, G. [Davy (Stockton) Ltd., Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Coal Gold Agglomeration (CGA) was developed by BP Minerals and involves the selective recovery of oleophilic gold particles from an aqueous slurry into coal-oil agglomerates. These agglomerates are allowed to build up to a high gold loading and are then separated from the slurry. The loaded agglomerates are burned and the gold is finally recovered from the ash residue by dissolution and precipitation or by direct smelting. 6 figs.

  1. Effect of mineral matter on coal self-heating rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Basil Beamish; Ahmet Arisoy [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Adiabatic self-heating tests have been conducted on subbituminous coal cores from the same seam profile, which cover a mineral matter content range of 11.2-71.1%. In all cases the heat release rate does not conform to an Arrhenius kinetic model, but can best be described by a third order polynomial. Assessment of the theoretical heat sink effect of the mineral matter in each of the tests reveals that the coal is less reactive than predicted using a simple energy conservation equation. There is an additional effect of the mineral matter in these cases that cannot be explained by heat sink alone. The disseminated mineral matter in the coal is therefore inhibiting the oxidation reaction due to physicochemical effects. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  3. Thermogravimetric analytical procedures for determining reactivities of chars from New Zealand coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, K.J.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1997-10-22

    This paper describes how tightly constrained thermogravimetric experimental procedures (particle size {lt} 212 {mu}m, sample mass 15.5 mg, CO{sub 2} reactant gas, near isothermal conditions) allow the reactivity of chars from high volatile New Zealand coals to be determined to a repeatability of {+-}0.07 h{sup -1} at 900{degree}C and {+-}0.5 h{sup -1} at 1100{degree}C. The procedure also provides proximate analyses information and affords a quick ({lt} 90 min) comparison between different coal types as well as indicating likely operating conditions and problems associated with a particular coal or blend. A clear difference is evident between reactivities of differing New Zealand coal ranks. Between 900 and 1100{degree}C, bituminous coals increase thirtyfold in reactivity compared with fourfold for subbituminous, with the latter being three to five times greater in reactivity at higher temperature.

  4. Physicochemical Characterization and Thermal Decomposition of Garin Maiganga Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the newly discovered Garin Maiganga (GMG coal from Nigeria. The physicochemical characterization comprised of elemental, proximate, calorific value, and classification (rank analyses. Thermal analysis was examined using combined Thermogravimetric (TG and Derivative Thermogravimetric analyses (DTG. Hence, the coal was heated from 30°C to 1000°C at 20°C/min under inert conditions to examine its thermal degradation behaviour and temperature profile characteristics (TPC. The results indicated that the GMG coal fuel properties consist of low Ash, Nitrogen, and Sulphur content. Moisture content was > 5%, Volatile Matter > 50%, Fixed Carbon > 22%, and Heating Value (HHV 23.74 MJ/kg. Based on its fuel properties, the GMG coal can be classified as a Sub-Bituminous B, non-agglomerating low rank coal (LRC. The GMG coal TPCs – onset, peak, and offset temperatures – were 382.70°C, 454.60°C, and 527.80°C, respectively. The DTG profile revealed four (4 endothermic peaks corresponding to loss of moisture (drying, volatile matter (devolatization, and coke formation. The residual mass Rm was 50.16%, which indicates that higher temperatures above 1000°C are required for the complete pyrolytic decomposition of the GMG coal. In conclusion, the results indicate that the GMG coal is potentially suitable for future utilization in electric power generation and the manufacture of cement and steel.

  5. Biosolubilization gamma irradiate ion result coal by mould trichoderma sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingkan Aditiawati; Dea Indriani Astuti; Irawan Sugoro; Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2011-01-01

    Biosolubilization of coal is process of converting solid coal to liquid fuel/chemicals by mean of microorganism. The aim of this research was to study the effect of gamma rays irradiation with varian doses of irradiation into solubilization of subbituminous coal by Trichoderma sp. The dosage used was 5, 10, and 20 kGy and unirradiated coal as control. The method was submerged culture in MSS+ medium and incubated at room temperature and agitated at 150 rpm for 21 th days. The parameters observed were colonization, pH and biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and GC/MS analysis for the best treatment. The results showed that coal biosolubilization could be increased by gamma irradiation. The mould could growth well in medium containing irradiated coal and the medium of pH was decreased after incubation. The biosolubilization was increased but the irradiation dosage of coal didn't affect significantly. The best dose was 20 kGy with product biosolubilization similar to gasoline and solar. Based on the result, the pre-treatment of gamma irradiation on coal has potency to increased biosolubilization. (author)

  6. FY 2000 survey of the geological structure overseas, etc. Japan-China joint coal exploration - Yu Xian project; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa - futai shiryoshu. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This data book summarized the proceedings and the technical report of the management committee on the Japan-China geological structure survey based on the consultation concluded between NEDO and China's bureau of coal field geology and a report meeting on the Yu Xian project. In the exploration, conducted were the boring survey of 10 boreholes, seismic survey of 2D (71 traverse lines, 180.105km) and 3D (1.5km{sup 2}), VSP (6 holes (345 shots)) and the low velocity band survey (2,072 shots). The geological structure of the area presented the syncline structure with a gentle line associated with foldings and a number of faults and was classified into the medium class or the class of a little complication in the Chinese standard. The number of the faults confirmed in this exploration totaled 57. Coal reserves by coal seam were 157.22 million tons at No. 5 seam and 102.57 million tons at No. 1 seam. The total amount of the two seams was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The coal quality of Nos. 1 and 5 was brown coal - flame coal in the Chinese classification, and subbituminous coal B - subbituminous coal C in the ASTM classification. The coal, however, cannot be used for process raw coal. There is a technical potentiality of the fixed bed pressurized gasification. (NEDO)

  7. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  8. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  9. The application of the coal grain analysis method to coal liberation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Adair, B. [CSIRO Earth Science & Resource Engineering Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Emerging coal markets such as the use of coal for conversion to liquid fuels and its use in fuels cells and as coal water slurries in diesel engines require coal products with different coal quality specifications than those applicable to traditional coal markets of coke making and conventional power generation. As well as quantifying coals in terms of their chemical and physical properties, detailed knowledge of the mineral inclusions within the coal particles is required to identify coals that are suited to economically produce the low-ash value coals required for these markets. After mining and processing, some particles can consist of essentially pure components of a single maceral or mineral phase whilst others are composite particles that are comprised of varying amounts of macerals and minerals. The proportion of particles that are present as pure components or as composites will be a function of the characteristics of the coal and the particle size. In general, it is considered that size reduction will result in liberation and hence increased yield. The amount of liberation that occurs during crushing or grinding a coal is however coal specific. Particle characterization information provided by an optical microscopic-imaging method, Coal Grain Analysis, was used to identify coals that might benefit from additional crushing to improve recovery of clean coal by new density separation techniques and by flotation. As expected, the results of these studies suggest that the degree of liberation that is obtained is coal specific, and, hence, yield improvements are also coal specific. Hence a quantitative method of investigating this issue is required.

  10. Comparison and analysis of organic components of biogas slurry from eichhornia crassipes solms and corn straw biogas slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Liu, Z. H.; Min, J.; Cui, Y.; Gao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Biogas slurry is one of anaerobic fermentations, and biomass fermentation biogas slurries with different compositions are different. This paper mainly presents through the anaerobic fermentation of Eichhornia crassipes solms biogas slurry and biogas slurry of corn straw, the organic components of two kinds of biogas slurry after extraction were compared by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acid and protein of two kinds of biogas slurry organic components, and analyzes the result of comparison.

  11. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.S.; Schobert, H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world's annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world's 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century

  12. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  13. The use of slurry sampling for the determination of manganese and copper in various samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokman, Nilgun

    2007-01-01

    Manganese and copper in multivitamin-mineral supplements and standard reference materials were determined by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Slurries were prepared in an aqueous solution containing Triton X-100. The effects of different parameters such as ratio of solid to liquid phase volume, total slurry volume and addition of Triton X-100 as a dispersant on the analytical results were investigated. The graphite furnace programs were optimized for slurry sampling depending on the analytes and their concentrations in the samples. The linear calibration method with aqueous standard solutions was used for the quantification. At optimum experimental conditions, R.S.D. values were below 5%. The analytes were determined in the limits of 95% confidence level with respect to certified values in coal and soil standard reference materials and to those found by wet-digestion in multivitamin-mineral supplements. Detection limits (3δ) for Mn and Cu were 0.10 μg L -1 and 1.82 μg L -1 for 10 μL coal standard reference material slurry, respectively

  14. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, S S A; Hasini, H; Shuaib, N H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential 'ring-like' region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  15. Development of zero conditioning procedure for coal reverse flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Patil; J.S. Laskowski [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

    2008-04-15

    The zero conditioning method was developed to facilitate the flotation of gangue minerals in the reverse coal flotation process. Batch and continuous methods were developed to maintain the zero conditioning principle during reverse flotation. Batch zero conditioning was achieved by adding the required amount of DTAB in one step, as soon as the air was introduced into the system. The continuous zero conditioning method involves uninterrupted addition of DTAB through a specially built sparger in the form of aerosol during the flotation experiment. This produces active bubbles that carry collector. The addition of DTAB in the form of aerosol during reverse flotation proved to be better in reducing the ash of a sub-bituminous (LS-26) coal from 34.7% to 22.9% with a froth product (gangue) yield of 36.8% without any depressant. In the presence of coal depressant (dextrin, 0.5 kg/t), the ash content of LS-26 coal was reduced from 34.7% to 16.5% at a clean coal yield of 55%, whereas the conventional (forward) flotation with fuel oil provided a clean coal containing 16.5% ash with only 29.2% yield. These results prove that flotation of gangue minerals is very much improved by maintaining zero conditioning time conditions in a coal reverse flotation process.

  16. Slagging in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devir, G.P.; Pohl, J.H.; Creelman, R.A. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technique to evaluate the severity of slagging of a coal in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler. There are few data in the literature on the nature of in-situ boiler slags, their rate of growth and/or their strength properties relevant to sootblowing. The latter is thought to be of more concern to boiler operators and gives rise to the significance of selecting suitable strength tests. As well as standardised methods for characterising pulverised coal performance in a boiler, several novel and less popular techniques are discussed in detail. A suite of three sub-bituminous coals from the Callide Coalfields, Biloela (600 km north of Brisbane), has been selected for slagging tests in the 350 MW{sub e} units of Callide 'B' power station. Disposable air-cooled mild steel slagging probes have been constructed to simulate the conditions for deposit formation in the boiler region. To date, tests for one of these coals has been completed and preliminary results are presented. Once testing for the remaining coals has been completed, it is anticipated that the differences exhibited in deposit growth and strength may be correlated with typical variations in physical and chemical properties of the pulverised coal.

  17. Application of computer graphics to generate coal resources of the Cache coal bed, Recluse geologic model area, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G.B.; Crowley, S.S.; Carey, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low-sulfur subbituminous coal resources have been calculated, using both manual and computer methods, for the Cache coal bed in the Recluse Model Area, which covers the White Tail Butte, Pitch Draw, Recluse, and Homestead Draw SW 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Campbell County, Wyoming. Approximately 275 coal thickness measurements obtained from drill hole data are evenly distributed throughout the area. The Cache coal and associated beds are in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. The depth from the surface to the Cache bed ranges from 269 to 1,257 feet. The thickness of the coal is as much as 31 feet, but in places the Cache coal bed is absent. Comparisons between hand-drawn and computer-generated isopach maps show minimal differences. Total coal resources calculated by computer show the bed to contain 2,316 million short tons or about 6.7 percent more than the hand-calculated figure of 2,160 million short tons.

  18. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  19. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions

  20. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined

  1. Development of a dry-feed system for a coal-fired gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothrock, J.W. Jr.; Smith, C.F.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the reported of the reported work is to develop a dry coal feed system that provides smooth, controllable flow of coal solids into the high pressure combustor of the engine and all test rigs. The system must start quickly and easily, run continuously with automatic transfer of coal from low pressure hoppers to the high pressure delivery system, and offer at least a 3:1 smooth turn-down ratio. cost of the equipment must be minimized to maintain the economic attractiveness of the whole system. Before the current contract started some work was done with dry powder coal. For safety and convenience reasons, coal water slurry was selected as the fuel for all work on the program. Much of the experimental work, including running the Allison 501-KM engine was done with coal slurry. Recent economic analysis led to a change to powdered coal.

  2. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gregory J

    1997-05-12

    Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

  3. Biogas slurry utilization in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asser, C. [Ministry of Mines and Energy, Accra (Ghana)

    1999-07-01

    The biogas Technology Programme developed for villages remote from the national grid relies solely on cow-dung and human waste as raw materials for electricity generation. The technology helps control deforestation and desertification and reduces the long hours spent looking for fuelwood for cooking and the health risk that smoke from fuelwood poses. Rural electricity generation also supplies pipe-borne water, community toilets and organic fertilizer for farmers. The slurry, which is the by-product of the biogas, is an odourless, pathogen free organic fertilizer that is high in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. It is useful for crop production, fish farming and mushroom cultivation. Farmers now realize that energy can be extracted from cowdung, human waste, agricultural residue and other biomass resources and the biomass can still maintain its function as good organic manure. (author)

  4. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  5. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  6. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  7. Kinetic Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Pyrolysis Using Thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Chaudharib, Kiran [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Turtonb, Richard [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2013-10-29

    The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

  8. Enhancing the Properties of Coal Briquette Using Spear Grass (Imperata Cylindrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaora Stellamaris OGBUAGU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been carried out on utilizing agricultural wastes (spear grass to enhance the properties of coal briquette. The proximate analysis of the plant material was carried out alongside with a sample of coal (sub-bituminous coal. Briquettes of different compositions were produced by blending the plant material with the coal at various concentrations: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 100%, using cassava starch as a binder and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 as desulfurizing agent. The properties of the briquettes were compared. It was found that the ignition, burning rate and reduction in smoke emission showed improvement with increase in biomass concentration. Compressive strength and cooking efficiency (water boiling time and specific fuel consumption showed initial improvement and rendered to decrease with briquette containing 30% biomass.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...... of technologies) having the largest potential for reducing the overall environmental impacts....

  10. Non-aqueous slurries used as thickeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, J C

    1982-04-07

    A non-aqueous slurry is described that is suitable for use as a thickener or viscosifier in oil or gas drilling, fracturing, flow diversion completion or workover fluids. The slurry comprises a water-soluble cellulose ether polymer, a water-insoluble liquid hydrocarbon, a non-ionic surfactant having an HLB of from 7 to 14, and an organo modified clay. There also is described a process for thickening or viscosifying a drilling, fracturing, flow diversion, completion or workover fluid. The use of the slurry prevents bumping during addition to aqueous fluids. (27 claims)

  11. Clean utilization of low-rank coals for low-cost power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondreal, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the unique utilization problems of low-rank coals, the ten US steam electric plants having the lowest operating cost in 1990 were all fueled on either lignite or subbituminous coal. Ash deposition problems, which have been a major barrier to sustaining high load on US boilers burning high-sodium low-rank coals, have been substantially reduced by improvements in coal selection, boiler design, on-line cleaning, operating conditions, and additives. Advantages of low-rank coals in advanced systems are their noncaking behavior when heated, their high reactivity allowing more complete reaction at lower temperatures, and the low sulfur content of selected deposits. The principal barrier issues are the high-temperature behavior of ash and volatile alkali derived from the coal-bound sodium found in some low-rank coals. Successful upgrading of low-rank coals requires that the product be both stable and suitable for end use in conventional and advanced systems. Coal-water fuel produced by hydrothermal processing of high-moisture low-rank coal meets these criteria, whereas most dry products from drying or carbonizing in hot gas tend to create dust and spontaneous ignition problems unless coated, agglomerated, briquetted, or afforded special handling

  12. Investigation on characterization and liquefaction of coals from Tavan tolgoi deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Purevsuren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of proximate, ultimate, petrographic and IR analysis results have been confirmed that the Tavan tolgoi coal is a high-rank G mark stone coal. The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of coal ash show that the Tavan tolgoi coal is a subbituminous coal. The ash of Tavan tolgoi coal has an acidic character. The results of pyrolysis of Tavan tolgoi coal at different heating temperatures show that a maximum yield - 5.0% of liquid product can be obtained at 700°C. The results of thermal dissolution of Tavan tolgoi coal in tetralin with constant mass ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at 450°C show that 50.0% of liquid product can be obtained after thermal decomposition of the COM (coal organic matter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.191 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p12-19

  13. Fiscal 1993 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Survey of the general situation of Thai coal; 1993 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Thai sekitan sogo jijo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper reported the energy situation in Thailand, the present and future status of coal supply/demand, the present situation of environmental policy and air pollution prevention policy and problems concerning coal and the measures for solution, and a possibility of Japan`s cooperation. In Thailand, the total coal supply amount in 1992 is 16.079 million tons, which is 9.1% of all the primary energy supply amount. The country produces only a few amount of anthracite and subbituminous coal beside brown coal. The domestic coal equals brown coal, the production of which was 15.335 million tons in 1992, 13.9% of all the primary energy demand. Concerning brown coal, 79.7% of all the brown coal supply are for electric power use, and others for industrial use such as the cement industry. The remaining reserve in developed areas is 151.4 billion tons, and the proven reserve in undeveloped areas 756 million tons. The demand for import coal was 11.25 million tons in 1996, and is expected to be 201.73 million tons in 2000. The paper pointed out some problems arising from coal production and spread of coal utilization, and described measures to solve the problems and fields where there are possibilities of Japan`s cooperation. 36 refs., 44 figs., 73 tabs.

  14. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  15. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  16. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Coal fired steam generation for heavy oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, K.

    1992-01-01

    In Alberta, some 21,000 m 3 /d of heavy oil and bitumen are produced by in-situ recovery methods involving steam injection. The steam generation requirement is met by standardized natural-gas-fired steam generators. While gas is in plentiful supply in Alberta and therefore competitively priced, significant gas price increases could occur in the future. A 1985 study investigating the alternatives to natural gas as a fuel for steam generation concluded that coal was the most economic alternative, as reserves of subbituminous coal are not only abundant in Alberta but also located relatively close to heavy oil and bitumen production areas. The environmental performance of coal is critical to its acceptance as an alternate fuel to natural gas, and proposed steam generator designs which could burn Alberta coal and control emissions satisfactorily are assessed. Considerations for ash removal, sulfur dioxide sorption, nitrogen oxides control, and particulate emission capture are also presented. A multi-stage slagging type of coal-fired combustor has been developed which is suitable for application with oilfield steam generators and is being commissioned for a demonstration project at the Cold Lake deposit. An economic study showed that the use of coal for steam generation in heavy oil in-situ projects in the Peace River and Cold Lake areas would be economic, compared to natural gas, at fuel price projections and design/cost premises for a project timing in the mid-1990s. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Use of flyash and biogas slurry for improving wheat yield and physical properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R N; Pathak, H; Das, D K; Tomar, R K

    2005-08-01

    This study explores the potential use of by-products of energy production, i.e., (i) flyash from coal-powered electricity generation and (ii) biogas slurry from agricultural waste treatment, as nutrient sources in agriculture. These residues are available in large amounts and their disposal is a major concern for the environment. As both residues contain considerable amounts of plant nutrients, their use as soil amendment may offer a promising win-win opportunity to improve crop production and, at the same time, preventing adverse environmental impacts of waste disposal. Effect of flyash and biogas slurry on soil physical properties and growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was studied in a field experiment. Leaf area index, root length density and grain yield of wheat were higher in plots amended with flyash or biogas slurry compared to unamended plots. Both types of amendments reduced bulk density, and increased saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture retention capacity of soil. The study showed that flyash and biogas slurry should be used as soil amendments for obtaining short-term and long-term benefits in terms of production increments and soil amelioration.

  19. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    Because of a change in underground mining methods that caused a considerable increase in the amount of fine sizes in the raw coal, Sahara Coal Co. designed and constructed a unique and simple fine coal system at their Harrisburg, IL prep plant. Before the new system was built, the overload of the fine coal circuit created a cost crunch due to loss of salable coal to slurry ponds, slurry pond cleaning costs, and operating and maintenance costs--each and every one excessive. Motivated by these problems, Sahara designed a prototype system to dewater the minus 28 mesh refuse. The success of the idea permitted fine refuse to be loaded onto the coarse refuse belt. Sahara also realized a large reduction in pond cleaning costs. After a period of testing, an expanded version of the refuse system was installed to dewater and dry the 28 mesh X 0 clean coal. Clean coal output increased about 30 tph. Cost savings justified the expenditures for the refuse and clean coal systems. These benefits, combined with increased coal sales revenue, paid back the project costs in less than a year.

  20. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  1. The differences between soil grouting with cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingting; Sui, Haitong; Yang, Honglu

    2018-01-01

    Cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry are the most widely applied for soil grouting reinforcement project. The viscosity change of cement slurry is negligible during grouting period and presumed to be time-independent while the viscosity of cement-water glass slurry increases with time quickly and is presumed to be time-dependent. Due to the significantly rheology differences between them, the grouting quality and the increasing characteristics of grouting parameters may be different, such as grouting pressure, grouting surrounding rock pressure, i.e., the change of surrounding rock pressure deduced by grouting pressure. Those are main factors for grouting design. In this paper, a large-scale 3D grouting simulation device was developed to simulate the surrounding curtain grouting for a tunnel. Two series of surrounding curtain grouting experiments under different geo-stress of 100 kPa, 150 kPa and 200 kPa were performed. The overload test on tunnel was performed to evaluate grouting effect of all surrounding curtain grouting experiments. In the present results, before 240 seconds, the grouting pressure increases slowly for both slurries; after 240 seconds the increase rate of grouting pressure for cement-water glass slurry increases quickly while that for cement slurry remains roughly constant. The increasing trend of grouting pressure for cement-water glass is similar to its viscosity. The setting time of cement-water glass slurry obtained from laboratory test is less than that in practical grouting where grout slurry solidifies in soil. The grouting effect of cement-water glass slurry is better than that of cement slurry and the grouting quality decreases with initial pressure.

  2. Utilization technology on slurried ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Yoshio; Yasuda, Minoru; Furuki, Yasuhiko [The Coal Mining Research Centre, Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1987-08-01

    Three research results of the utilization technology on slurried ash were reported. As for the utilization as the fly ash quick setting (FQS) backfill grout for tail void in shield works of tunneling, grout blending was simplified, the blended solution of cement, clay, additives and water was stabilized, and a favorable workability and long term durability were obtained. As for the utilization as the material of a SMW (soil mixing wall) method for continuous walls in long shaft digging, a fly ash-gypsum-cement (FGC) stabilizer showed an excellent workability and remarkably high water-tightness as compared with conventional cement bentonite. As for the utilization as the material of an injection method of overlay mats in foundation works of light weight structures on the sea bed mud foundation, since a FGC concrete weight in water was remarkably light as 0.7t/m{sup 3}, no both large mold form strength and vibration compacting were required. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  4. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo1 7, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In China, there are bottle-necks of the coal transportation capacity in the major inter-regional routes. The Chinese Government`s eighth and ninth five-year plans intend to increase the capacity. In the 9% growth case, the planned railway transport capacity will be critical. Measures are considered, as to promotion of coal dressing, transport as electric power, construction of nuclear power plants and hydraulic power plants, and construction of coal water slurry pipe lines. Japan`s coal policy includes the structural adjustment of coal mining industry, and a new policy for coal in the total energy policy. To secure the stable overseas coal supply, NEDO has a leading part in overseas coal resources development. Coal demand and supply, mining technology, mine safety, coal preparation and processing technology, and comprehensive coal utilization technology including clean coal technology in Japan are described. At present, Thailand is progressing with the seventh plan, and the development of domestic energy emphasize lignite, natural gas, and oil. Thai import demand for high-quality coal is to be increasing. Japan`s cooperation is considered to be effective for the environmental problems. 12 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  6. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do; Lee, Hyun Seop

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  7. Conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 slurry in the lithium slurry battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Caimei; Chen, Yongchong; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Lithium slurry battery is a new type of energy storage technique which uses the slurry of solid active materials, conductive additions and liquid electrolyte as the electrode. The proportion of conductive addition and the active material has significant influence on the conductivity and electrochemical performance of the slurry electrode. In the present work, slurries with different volume ratios of LiFePO4 (LFP) and Ketjenblack (KB) were investigated by the electrochemical workstation and charge-discharge testing system (vs. Li/Li+). Results show that the conductivity of the slurry increases linearly with the addition of KB, and the measured specific capacity of the slurry reaches its theoretical value when the volume ratio of KB to LFP is around 0.2. Based on this ratio, a slurry battery with higher loading of LFP (19.1 wt.% in the slurry) was tested, and a specific capacity of 165 mAh/g at 0.2 mA/cm2 and 102 mAh/g at 5 mA/cm2 was obtained for LFP.

  8. Thermal processing of Khoot coal and characterization of obtained solid and liquid products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Batbileg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On 21st January 2015, the abstract of this paper was replaced with the correct abstract.The coal of Khoot deposit have been investigated and determined the technical characteristics, elemental and petrographical maceral compositions. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, petrographic and IR analysis results have been confirmed that the Khoot coal is a sub-bituminous coal. The hard residue after pyrolysis have been activated by heated water steam and determined the iodine and methylene blue adsorption of initial coal and activated carbon samples from pyrolysis hard residue. The porosity structure of initial coal, activated carbon of pyrolysis hard residue and hard residue after thermolysis (thermal dissolution have been determined by SEM analysis. The liquid tar product of thermolysis of Khoot coal was investigated by FTIR, 13C and 1H NMR spectrometric analysis. The results of thermolysis of Khoot coal in tetralin with constant mass ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at 450°C show that 60.8% of liquid product can be obtained after thermolysis of the coal organic mass.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.326 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p66-72

  9. Examination of flame length for burning pulverized coal in laminar flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Dong; Kim, Gyu Bo; Chang, Young June; Song, Ju Hun; Jeon, Chung Hwan [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Because there has been a recent increase in the use of low calorific coal compared to standard coal, it is crucial to control the char flame length governing the burning life-time of coal in a coal-fired utility boiler. The main objective of this study is to develop a simplified model that can theoretically predict the flame length for burning coal in a laboratory-scale entrained laminar flow reactor (LFR) system. The char burning behavior was experimentally observed when sub-bituminous pulverized coal was fed into the LFR under burning conditions similar to those in a real boiler: a heating rate of 1000 K/s, an oxygen molar fraction of 7.7 %, and reacting flue gas temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2000 K. By using the theoretical model developed in this study, the effect of particle size on the coal flame length was exclusively addressed. In this model, the effect of particle mass was eliminated to compare with the experimental result performed under a constant mass feeding of coal. Overall, the computed results for the coal flame length were in good agreement with the experimental data, particularly when the external oxygen diffusion effect was considered in the model

  10. Examination of flame length for burning pulverized coal in laminar flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Dong; Kim, Gyu Bo; Chang, Young June; Song, Ju Hun; Jeon, Chung Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Because there has been a recent increase in the use of low calorific coal compared to standard coal, it is crucial to control the char flame length governing the burning life-time of coal in a coal-fired utility boiler. The main objective of this study is to develop a simplified model that can theoretically predict the flame length for burning coal in a laboratory-scale entrained laminar flow reactor (LFR) system. The char burning behavior was experimentally observed when sub-bituminous pulverized coal was fed into the LFR under burning conditions similar to those in a real boiler: a heating rate of 1000 K/s, an oxygen molar fraction of 7.7 %, and reacting flue gas temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2000 K. By using the theoretical model developed in this study, the effect of particle size on the coal flame length was exclusively addressed. In this model, the effect of particle mass was eliminated to compare with the experimental result performed under a constant mass feeding of coal. Overall, the computed results for the coal flame length were in good agreement with the experimental data, particularly when the external oxygen diffusion effect was considered in the model

  11. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  12. The ENDESA group in Spanish coal mining. El Grupo ENDESA en la mineria espanola del carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The ENDESA group, the largest producer of coal and electricity in Spain, plays an important role in the energy sector within the sub-divisions of coal and electricity. ENDESA, the principal company within the group, was created in 1944 with the immediate objective of constructing the Compostilla I thermal power station in Ponferrada (Leon), in order to make use of the high quality coal in the Bierzo coalfield, for which, at that time, there was no demand. Later, in 1972, ENDESA acquired the brown lignite deposit of As Pontes (La Coruna) for opencast working and the sub-bituminous coal deep mines of Andorra (Teruel). The two thermal power stations were constructed on the mine sites to use the coal extracted. ENCASUR with deposits in Penarroya (Cordoba) and Puertollano (Ciudad Real) and GESA, through its subsidiary LIGNITOS SA in Mallorca, make up the coal mining activities of the ENDESA group. The role of the ENDESA group is defined by its production levels (41% of the national level), its purchases of indigenous coal (30% of the non-ENDESA group total) and of imported coal (61% of the total imported for use in power stations). In total, this means that the ENDESA group represents 51% of the Spanish coal market. 54 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Application of nuclear techniques for analysis of Vietnamese coal and embedding rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Dac Bang; Pham Van Duong; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Le Tien Quan; Nguyen Manh Hung; Nguyen Thi Hong; Vu Hoang Lam

    1995-01-01

    In the paper the result of elemental analysis by Nuclear Techniques of Coal and Embedded rocks samples from Vietnamese Quang Ninh and Thai Nguyen basins were presented. Methods used were: Neutron activation Analysis at Dalat Reactor, low counting with HP-Ge and NaJ detectors and X-ray fluorescent analysis with planar Si (Si) detector. Mean concentrations of 19 elements in coal and 9 in rocks were determined. Correlation between concentrations of elements were found. It appears that the correlation between ash content and U, K, Th, concentrations was poor for Quang Ninh antracitecoal. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0,63 for ash range 0-40%. Content of Th in anthracite Quang Ninh coal was much higher than reported in literature for subbituminous, bituminous and lignite coals, while Thai Nguyen fat coal contains considerable amount of Cu, Pb, Zn. Obtained data were useful for evaluation of potential hazard for environment from using coal as fuel for coal fired power plants, for estimation of possibility of using nuclear technique in coal industry in Vietnam. They could be used also for geochemical investigations. The simple of-line coal ash gauge basing on attenuation of soft gamma radiation from Fe-55 was also described. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  14. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  15. Relations between flash pyrolysis reactivity and oil/gas products from coals of different rank; Sekitankado no kotonaru shushu no sekitan no flash pyrolysis hannosei to gas oyobi eki seiseibutsu no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, T.; Kishino, M.; Sakanishi, K.; Korai, Y.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    Curie point flash pyrolysis (FP) reactivity was studied experimentally using three kinds of coals with different coal ranks such as Yallourn brown coal, Tanitoharum sub-bituminous coal and Wandoan sub-bituminous coal. Experiment was performed using a curie point pyrolyzer in carrier gas of 20ml/min in gas flow rate at 450, 590 and 740{degree}C for 5sec. The experimental results were as follows. Each gas component obviously increased at 450-590{degree}C, however, C4-C6 gases drastically decreased at 590-740{degree}C accompanying reduction of the whole gas quantity. All of each polar component remarkably increased at 450-590{degree}C. Yallourn brown coal with high Owt%, in particular, contained a large amount of alkyl-hydroxybenzene group. The amount of cresol of all of three coal specimens also increased at 740{degree}C. It was thus suggested that this is coal constituent molecules derived from cutting of methylene-ether bridged bond by higher-temperature FP. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The utilization of forward osmosis for coal tailings dewatering

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of dewatering coal tailings slurry by forward osmosis (FO) membrane process was investigated in this research. A prototype cell was designed and used for the dewatering tests. A cellulosic FO membrane (Hydration Technology Innovations, LLC, Albany, OR) was used fo...

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Metals in Coal with Low-Resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The setup including low-resolution spectrometer with the charge-coupled device (CCD) detector, continuum radiation source and filter furnace (FF) atomizer was employed for direct simultaneous determination of Al, Fe, Mg, Cu and Mn in coal slurry. In the FF, sample vapour entered absorption volume by filtering through ...

  18. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  19. FY 1981 Report on the results of Sunshine Project. Coal energy; 1981 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Sekitan energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This report presents the results of (researches on solvolysis liquefaction mechanisms and reaction promotion with oil- and coal-based solvents), conducted as part of the research and development project for coal liquefaction techniques. The FY 1981 program includes researches on (1) the effects of liquefaction reaction conditions on liquefaction yield and production of light products for coal species of low degree of carbonization, including brown coal, (2) the effects of pretreatment of coal on its liquefaction reactivity, and (3) up-grading of the solvolysis coal liquid (SCL). For the item (1), HA240 (hydrogenated Ashland's A240) is used to investigate its liquefaction capacity for various coal species of low degree of carbonization, including brown coal. For the item (2), the effects of pretreatment in a hot water bath with reflux was investigated for sub-bituminous coal in the FY 1980. In the FY 1981, various pretreatment methods are attempted for enhancing liquefaction reactivity of brown coal. As a result, it is found that ash content of brown coal is decreased to one-third of the initial level, when it is treated in a diluted hydrochloric acid bath with reflux. For the item (3), SCL hydrogenated by Birch reduction (B-SCL, 1) is compared with H-SCL with respect to properties, structures and thermal crackability, to discuss the items required for the catalyst to be used in the second stage by clarifying effectiveness of the catalyst. (NEDO)

  20. Trace element affinities in two high-Ge coals from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Li; Xinguo Zhuang; Xavier Querol [China University of Geosciences, Wuhan (China). Faculty of Earth Resources

    2011-01-15

    The Lincang (Yunnan Province, Southwest China) and Wulantuga (Inner Mongolia, Northeast China) coal deposits are known because of the high-Ge content. These coals have also a high concentration of a number of other elements. To determine the mode of occurrence of the enriched elements in both coals, six density fractions from {lt} 1.43 to {gt} 2.8 g/cm{sup 3} were obtained from two representative samples using heavy-liquids. A number of peculiar geochemical patterns characterize these high-Ge coals. Thus, the results of the chemical analysis of these density fractions showed that both coals (very distant and of a different geological age) are highly enriched (compared with the usual worldwide coal concentration ranges) in Ge, As, Sb, W, Be, and Tl. This may be due to similar geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids influencing the Earth Crust in these regions of China. Moreover, Wulantuga coal (Early Cretaceous subbituminous coal) is also enriched in Ca, Mg, and Na, and Lincang coal (Neogene subbituminous coal) in K, Rb, Nb, Mo, Sn, Cs, and U. A group of elements consisting of Ge, W, B, Nb, and Sb mostly occur with an organic affinity in both coals. Additionally, Be, U, and Mo (and partially Mn and Zn) in Lincang, and Na and Mg in Wulantuga occur also with a major organic affinity. Both coals have sulfide-arsenide mineral assemblages (Fe, S, As, Sn, and Pb, and in addition to Tl, Ta, and Cs in the Lincang coal). The occurrence of Al, P, Li, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, and Zr in both coals, and Ba in Lincang, are associated with the mineral assemblage of silico-aluminates and minor heavy minerals. Furthermore, P, Na, Li, Sc, Ti, Ga, Rb, Zr, Cr, Ba, Th, and LREE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Gd) in Lincang are associated with mineral assemblages of phosphates and minor heavy minerals. The two later mineral assemblages are derived from the occurrence of detrital minerals. 34 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  2. Characterization and supply of coal-based fuels. Quarterly report, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed, particulary in slurry fuel preparation and particle size distribution.

  3. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  4. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  5. Fast and safe gas detection from underground coal fire by drone fly over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnington, Lucila; Nakagawa, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion. It is estimated that these fires generate as much as 3% of the world's annual carbon dioxide emissions and consume as much as 5% of its minable coal. Considering the magnitude of environmental impact and economic loss caused by burning underground coal seams, we have developed a new, safe, reliable surface measurement of coal fire gases to assess the nature of underground coal fires. We use a drone mounted with gas sensors. Drone collected gas concentration data provides a safe alternative for evaluating the rank of a burning coal seam. In this study, a new method of determining coal rank by gas ratios is developed. Coal rank is valuable for defining parameters of a coal seam such as burn temperature, burn rate, and volume of burning seam. - Graphical abstract: Concluding Figure for Gas Ratios: Plotted points and ranges of adjusted literature data. Stars represent bituminous and subbituminous coal types; Ovals represent lignite. - Highlights: • Recognize underground coal fire as a potential source of energy. • Developed a creative, safe, reliable and fast gas detection method. • Developed a concept of gas ratio measurement method that can provide more accurate description of underground burning coal resource.

  6. Rheological properties of defense waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  8. Assessment of Coal Geology, Resources, and Reserves in the Gillette Coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    The Gillette coalfield, within the Powder River Basin in east-central Wyoming, is the most prolific coalfield in the United States. In 2006, production from the coalfield totaled over 431 million short tons of coal, which represented over 37 percent of the Nation's total yearly production. The Anderson and Canyon coal beds in the Gillette coalfield contain some of the largest deposits of low-sulfur subbituminous coal in the world. By utilizing the abundance of new data from recent coalbed methane development in the Powder River Basin, this study represents the most comprehensive evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coalfield to date. Eleven coal beds were evaluated to determine the in-place coal resources. Six of the eleven coal beds were evaluated for reserve potential given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining. These restrictions included the presence of railroads, a Federal interstate highway, cities, a gas plant, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as thickness of overburden, thickness of coal beds, and areas of burned coal were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Gillette coalfield for all eleven coal beds assessed, and no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 201 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 164 billion short tons (81 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is the portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined for a stripping ratio of 10:1 or less. After mining and processing losses were subtracted, a total of 77 billion short tons of coal were calculated (48 percent of the original coal resource). Coal reserves are the portion of the recoverable coal that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic

  9. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  10. Technology for beneficiation of non-coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    This article outlines the need for efficient non-coking coal beneficiation plants in India to cope with mass production from opencast coal mines. The existing use of magnetite in heavy medium separation processes is expensive and not very efficient in respect to removing shales from opencast lump coals. Instead a new technique is proposed using a ROMJIG washing plant developed in the Federal Republic of Germany. This provides a very efficient, low cost washing system for the coals and allows the continued integration with the coal blending plants. This simplified technology allows for flexible working hours to meet demand and will allow new developments to continue including fuel slurry pipelines, automated testing of coals and new pulverized boiler fuels.

  11. The production of activated carbon from nigerian mineral coal via steam activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwosu, F.O.; Owolabi, B.I.O.; Adebowale, O.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from Okpara sub-bituminous coal and Ogwashi brown lignite coal of Nigeria through steam activation at 900 degree C and 960 degree C each for 30 min and 60 min. Okpara and Ogwashi precursor coals had carbon content of 67.41 and 64.47%, respectively, whereas the bulk density and the ash content were 0.59 - 0.68 g/mL and 2.56-9.91%, respectively. The former exhibited up to 901.0 mg/g iodine number and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area of 604 m/sup 2/g while the latter, iodine number of 998.0 mg/g and 669 m/sup 2/g BET surface area. Both showed adequate porosity indicative of their potential for utilization for commercial production of active carbons. (author)

  12. Relationship between ash content and R{sub 70} self-heating rate of Callide Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B. Basil; Blazak, Darren G. [School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2005-10-17

    Borecore samples from the Trap Gully pit at Callide have been assessed using the R{sub 70} self-heating test. The highest R{sub 70} self-heating rate value was 16.22 {sup o}C/h, which is consistent with the subbituminous rank of the coal. R{sub 70} decreases significantly with increasing mineral matter content, as defined by the ash content of the coal. This effect is due to the mineral matter in the coal acting as a heat sink. A trendline equation has been fitted to the borecore data from the Trap Gully pit: R{sub 70}=0.0029xash{sup 2}-0.4889xash+20.644, where all parameters are on a dry-basis. This relationship can be used to model the self-heating hazard of the pit, both vertically and laterally. (author)

  13. Kinetics of coal combustion: Part 3, Mechanisms and kinetics of char combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavalas, G. R.; Flagan, R. C. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA)

    1988-09-01

    This report summarizes a three-year research program aimed at developing this level of understanding of char combustion through a combination of detailed analysis of chars as produced during devolatilization and as they evolve during oxidation, and theoretical studies of the porous microstructures and of pore diffusion and reaction within the coal particles. A small number of coals have been studied in detail, namely a HVA bituminous (PSOC 1451), a sub-bituminous (PSOC 1488), and a lignite (PSOC 1443). Chars have been generated from size-classified samples of these coals by pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere in a drop tube furnace. The chars were then characterized both chemically and physically. Subsequent oxidation studies were performed on these chars. 42 refs., 54 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  15. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  16. Heavy cement slurries; Pastas pesadas de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Avelar da; Conceicao, Antonio C. Farias [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao; Marins, Carlos Cesar Silva [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Revestimento e Cimentacao

    1990-12-31

    When going deeper in a high pressure well, the only way to successfully cement your casing or linear is through the use of heavy cement slurry. In 1987 PETROBRAS geologists presented to the Drilling Department a series of deep, hot and high pressure wells to be drilled. The Casing and Cement Division of this department then started a program to face this new challenge. This paper introduces the first part of this program and shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. We present the slurry formulations tested in laboratory, the difficulties found in mixing them in the field, rheology measurements, API free water and API fluid loss from both laboratory and field samples. (author) 3 tabs.

  17. Physico-chemical principles of slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiber, C.O.

    1984-12-01

    Spectacular accidents have occurred in mining with products considered non-explosive. In view of the disastrous consequences of these accidents, the old 'Anfo' idea has been revived (= ammonium nitrate and fuel oil). Experiments in wet wells have led to the development of a new type of non-explosive blasting agents, i.e. the so-called slurries. Detonation of these slurries is divided into an energy release process and an energy conversion process. The basic mechanisms are described with a view to practical problems, e.g. detonation control, temperature dependence of the blasting characteristics, pressure dependence of the ignition process, critical diameter, slurry state problems, and sensitivity.

  18. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  19. Formation of N{sub 2} during the fixed-bed pyrolysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiheng; Ohtsuka, Yasuo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Furimsky, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Research on the fate of the nitrogen in coal during pyrolysis has attracted increased attention, since it is related with the NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O emissions during subsequent combustion. It has been reported that coal nitrogen is initially released as tar, which is then converted to HCN and NH{sub 3} through secondary decomposition reactions. However, little attention to N{sub 2} has been paid so far. We have recently found that N{sub 2} is the dominant product in slow heating rate pyrolysis of a subbituminous coal, and that the finely dispersed iron catalyst promotes drastically the formation of N{sub 2} from a brown coal. If coal nitrogen can be removed efficiently as N{sub 2} during pyrolysis, this method would contribute to the reduction of the NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O emissions, since such pollutants originate mostly from coal nitrogen. Therefore the present study aims at making clear the influence of coal type, pyrolysis conditions, demineralization, and iron catalyst on the formation of N{sub 2} during the fix-bed pyrolysis of several coals with different ranks.

  20. Production of low ash coal by thermal extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Kim, S.; Woo, K.J.; Jeong, S.K.; Rhim, Y.J.; Lee, S.H. [Korean Institute for Energy Research, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Clean Coal Technological Research Center

    2008-07-15

    Present study was conducted for the purpose of producing low ash coal from LRC (low rank coals) such as lignite and sub-bituminous coal through thermal extraction using polar solvent. Extraction from bituminous coal was also investigated for comparison. NMP as a polar solvent was used. The ratio of coal to solvent was adjusted as 1:10. Experimental conditions were established which include the extraction temperature of 200-430{sup o}C, initial applied pressure of 1-20 bar and extraction time of 0.5-2 hr were used. Extraction yield and ash content of extracted and residual coal were measured. The extraction yield increased with the increase of extraction temperature, and the ash content of extracted coal decreased below 0.4% at 400{sup o}C from the raw coal samples that have the ash contents of 4-6%. According to the analysis of experiments results, fixed carbon and calorific value increased, and H/C and O/C decreased.

  1. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  2. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, Gregory D.; Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration

  3. Study on the degradation of chitosan slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Martini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we measured the degradation rate of different chitosan slurries. Several parameters were monitored such as temperature (25 °C, 37 °C, 50 °C; chitosan concentration (1% and 2% (w/V; and polymer molecular weight. The samples were tested in dynamic sweep test mode. This test is able to provide a reliable estimation of viscosity variations of the slurries; in turn, these variations could be related to degradation rate of the system in the considered conditions. The resulting information is particularly important especially in applications in which there is a close relationship between physical properties and molecular structure.

  4. Effect of hydrothermal dewatering on the slurryability of brown coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yujie; Liu Jianzhong; Wang Ruikun; Zhou Junhu; Cen Kefa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Brown coals are upgraded by hydrothermal dewatering. ► The moisture content and oxygen functional groups decrease during the process. ► The point of zero charge and the contact angle rise as the temperature increases. ► The products were highly hydrophobic. ► The improvement on slurryability of solid products were examined. - Abstract: Two brown coals from China were dewatered under hydrothermal dewatering (HTD) conditions at 250–320 °C for 1 h in a 2 L autoclave. The hydrothermally dewatered products were used to prepare coal water slurry (CWS) with a lower viscosity than brown raw coal slurry. Moreover, the coal rank and heat value of the brown coal increased as the inherent moisture and oxygen content decreased during the HTD process. The maximum solid concentration of CWS prepared from XiMeng coal increased from 45.7% to 59.3%, whereas that of CWS prepared from BaoTou coal increased from 53.7% to 62.1%, after being dewatered at 320 °C. The improvement in the slurryability of brown coal significantly depended on the final temperature of the HTD process, the mechanism of which can be explained by the chemical analysis of oxygen functional groups, zeta potential, and the contact angle of the surface between coal and water. The oxygen functional groups, the oxygen/carbon ratio and hydrogen/carbon ratio in brown coal decreased, indicating that the coal rank was upgraded during the HTD process. As a result, both the point of zero charge and the contact angle increased, implying that the HTD products were highly hydrophobic.

  5. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  6. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  7. Radio-frequency slurry-density measurement for dredging pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeten, M.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic dredgers make use of a density meter to measure the instantaneous density in the slurry transport pipeline, primarily for process control and production calculation. the current ‘golden’ standard for slurry density measurement is the radioactive density meter. It is based on a slurry

  8. Management of coal combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-01

    It has been estimated that 780 Mt of coal combustion products (CCPs) were produced worldwide in 2010. Only about 53.5% were utilised, the rest went to storage or disposal sites. Disposal of coal combustion waste (CCW) on-site at a power plant may involve decades-long accumulation of waste, with hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of tonnes of dry ash or wet ash slurry being stored. In December 2008, a coal combustion waste pond in Kingston, Tennessee, USA burst. Over 4 million cubic metres of ash sludge poured out, burying houses and rivers in tonnes of toxic waste. Clean-up is expected to continue into 2014 and will cost $1.2 billion. The incident drew worldwide attention to the risk of CCW disposal. This caused a number of countries to review CCW management methods and regulations. The report begins by outlining the physical and chemical characteristics of the different type of ashes generated in a coal-fired power plant. The amounts of CCPs produced and regulations on CCW management in selected countries have been compiled. The CCW disposal methods are then discussed. Finally, the potential environmental impacts and human health risks of CCW disposal, together with the methods used to prevent them, are reviewed.

  9. Technological and economic aspects of coal biodesulfurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J

    1998-01-01

    The sulfur found in coal is either part of the molecular coal structure (organically bound sulfur), is contained in minerals such as pyrite (FeS2), or occurs in minor quantities in the form of sulfate and elemental sulfur. When pyrite crystals are finely distributed within the coal matrix, mechanical cleaning can only remove part of the pyrite. It can, however, be removed by microbial action requiring only mild conditions. The process involves simple equipment, almost no chemicals, but relatively long reaction times, and treatment of iron sulfate containing process water. Different process configurations are possible, depending on the coal particle size. Coal with particle sizes of less than 0.5 mm is preferably desulfurised in slurry reactors, while lump coal (> 0.5 mm) should be treated in heaps. Investment and operating costs are estimated for different process configurations on an industrial scale. Concerning the organically bound sulfur in coal there is up to now no promising biochemical pathway for the degradation and/or desulfurisation of such compounds.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of dairy farm slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C

    1973-04-01

    Bell described the intermittent operation of a pilot-scale anaerobic digester receiving dilute dairy farm slurry. A 65 to 75 percent reduction of the ''permanganate (COD) value'' could be obtained at 35/sup 0/ and a 60 day detention time. Methane content of the gases ranged between 40 and 70 percent.

  11. Bio-slurry as fertilizer : is bio-slurry from household digesters a better fertilizer than manure? : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Zwart, K.B.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Postma, R.; Haas, de M.J.G.; Nysingh, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries manure is anaerobically digested to produce biogas. The residue of manure digestion, bio-slurry, can be used as fertilizer for crop production and aquaculture. This study compared bio-slurry and manure as fertilizers. Nutrients in bio-slurry, especially nitrogen, are

  12. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  13. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  14. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  15. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  16. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  18. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  19. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  20. Predicting transport requirements for radioactive-waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, T.; Randall, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the transport requirements of radioactive waste slurries was developed. This method involved preparing nonradioactive sludge slurries chemically similar to the actual high-level waste. The rheological and settling characteristics of these synthetic waste slurries were measured and found to compare favorably with data on actual defense waste slurries. Pressure drop versus flow rate data obtained fom a 2-in. slurry test loop confirmed the Bingham plastic behavior of the slurry observed during viscometry measurements. The pipeline tests, however, yielded friction factors 30 percent lower than those predicted from viscometry data. Differences between the sets of data were attributed to inherent problems in interpreting accurate yield-stress values of slurry suspensions with Couette-type viscometers. Equivalent lengths of fittings were also determined and found to be less than that of water at a specified flow rate

  1. Investigation of the remaining major and trace elements in clean coal generated by organic solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Wang; Chunqi Li; Kinya Sakanishi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Hiroaki Tao; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takayuki Takarada; Ikuo Saito [National Institute Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2005-09-01

    A sub-bituminous Wyodak coal (WD coal) and a bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal (IL coal) were thermally extracted with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to produce clean extract. A mild pretreatment with acetic acid was also carried out. Major and trace inorganic elements in the raw coals and resultant extracts were determined by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). It was found that the extraction with 1-MN resulted in 73-100% reductions in the concentration of Li, Be, V, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Ba, Hg, and Pb. The extraction with NMP yielded more extract than that with 1-MN, but it retained more organically associated major and trace metals in the extracts. In the extraction of WD coal with NMP, the acid pretreatment not only significantly enhanced the extraction yield but also significantly reduced the concentrations of alkaline earth elements such as Be, Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba in the extract. In addition, the modes of occurrence of trace elements in the coals were discussed according to their extraction behaviors. 30 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. The effect of solvent swelling for the production of ashless coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylin Kurman; Sultan Giray; Ozgur Sonmez [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Chemistry Department, Art& Science Faculty

    2005-07-01

    Two Turkish coal (a bituminous and a brown coal) were extracted with NMP-CS2 (1:1 v/v) and NMP-EDA (1:17, v/v) at room conditions and with NMP and NMP/EDA under reflux. To obtain any effect of solvent swelling on extraction yield coals were also extracted at same conditions after swelling with NMP and EDA. The extraction yield was maximum in the NMP-CS2 mixed solvent for higher ranked coal, suggesting a synergistic effect of the system. It was possible to extract over 35 % of sub-bituminous coal by using NMP- CS2. The extraction of same coal with NMP under reflux gave an extraction yield of 33% suggesting the useful effect of solvent swelling and heat during the reflux period. A positive effect of pre-swelling with NMP and EDA on extraction yield and recovery of solid extracts were observed , especially for brown coal sample. Following the extraction, solid extracts were produced with less than 0.12 % in ash content for almost all extraction conditions.

  3. Explosions of coal powder in pressured process; Explosiones de Polvo de Carbon en Procesos a Presion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    As continuation of the previous introductory work about explosions of coal under hyperbaric conditions and considering the higher risk of explosions repercution with pressure; it was decided to develop this ambitious project, taking into account the more extensive range of type of coals: since subbituminous coals through hard coal to anthracite. It has been considered also several type of sorbents as limestones and others. The main objective of the project is to define, by experimental way, the utilization conditions for a safety coal handling. Many variables have been analyzed: Coal characteristics and origin, type of limestones, oxygen. moisture, temperature, and pressure. Due the great project complexity it was necessary to build one especial installation for trails under high pressure, where it was possible to use all the big number of variable combinations. The main research result has been the development of a model which has the possibility to simulate and analyze the foreseeable performance of coals and sorbent blends, in order to avoid the exploitations using specific handling methods. (Author)

  4. Quality and petrographic characteristics of the lacustrine Ermenek coal (early Miocene), Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, I.H.; Karayigit, A.I. [Hacettepe Univ., Beytepe-Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    1999-05-01

    The early Miocene Yenimahalle Formation including alluvial-lacustrine sediments and a mineable coal steam with an average of 5 m in thickness rests unconformably upon the basement and is also unconformably overlain by marine limestones of the middle-late Miocene Mut Formation in the Ermenek coal basin. The coal basin in the present study has been subdivided into two areas, Canakci and Pamuklu-Tepebasi, which are separated by the basement and a fault, in order to determine coal properties in detail. The investigated subbituminous coals with an average of 0.40%Ro huminite reflectance often contain gastropod shells (Planorbidae) which commonly maintain the original aragonite and calcite composition. The coals have similar chemical properties and petrographic composition in the two areas, but their sulphur contents are clearly different. In the Canakci area the coals on an air-dried basis contain distinctly less total sulphur (avg. 1.3%) and organic sulphur contents (0.13--0.15%) than in the Pamuklu-Tepebasi area (avg. 4.5% and 4.25%, respectively). This difference is interpreted to be controlled by mire chemistry and sedimentation during peat formation.

  5. Quality and petrographic characteristics of the Lacustrine Ermenek Coal (Early Miocene), Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, I.H.; Karayigit, A.I.

    1999-04-15

    The early Miocene Yenimahalle Formation including alluvial-lacustrine sediments and a mineable coal seam with an average of 5 m in thickness rests unconformably upon the basement and is also unconformably overlain by marine limestones of the middle-late Miocene Mut Formation in the Ermenek coal basin. The coal basin in the present study has been subdivided into two areas, Canakci and Pamuklu-Tepebasi, which are separated by the basement and a fault, in order to determine coal properties in detail. The investigated subbituminous coals with an average of 0.40% Ro huminite reflectance often contain gastropod shells (Planorbidae) which commonly maintain the original aragonite and calcite composition. The coals have similar chemical properties and petrographic composition in the two areas, but their sulphur contents are clearly different. In the Canakci area the coals on an air-dried basis contain distinctly less total sulphur (avg. 1.3%) and organic sulphur contents (0.13 0.15%) than in the Pamuklu-Tepebasi area (avg. 4.5% and 4.25%, respectively). This difference is interpreted to be controlled by mire chemistry and sedimentation during peat formation. (author)

  6. Possible Applications of Hardening Slurries with Fly Ash from Thermal Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge in Environmental Protection Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falacinski, Paweł; Szarek, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    In Poland, in recent years, there has been a rapid accumulation of sewage sludge - a by-product in the treatment of urban wastewater. This has come about as a result of infrastructure renewal, specifically, the construction of modern sewage treatment plants. The more stringent regulations and strategic goals adopted for modern sewage management have necessitated the application of modern engineering methodology for the disposal of sewage sludge. One approach is incineration. As a consequence, the amount of fly ash resulting from the thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has grown significantly. Hence, intensive work is in progress for environmentally safe management of this type of waste. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of using the fly ash that results from municipal sewage sludge thermal treatment (SSTT) as an additive to hardening slurries. This type of hardening slurry with various types of additives, e.g. coal combustion products, is used in the construction of cut-off walls in hydraulic structures. The article presents the technological and functional parameters of hardening slurries with an addition of fly ash obtained by SSTT. Moreover, the usefulness of these slurries is analysed on the basis of their basic properties, i.e. density, contractual viscosity, water separation, structural strength, volumetric density, hydraulic conductivity, compressive and tensile strength. The mandated requirements for slurries employed in the construction of cut-off walls in flood embankments are listed as a usefulness criteria. The article presents the potential uses of fly ash from SSTT in hardening slurry technology. It also suggests directions for further research to fully identify other potential uses of this by-product in this field.

  7. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  8. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  9. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2). © 2015 ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  10. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2)....

  11. Report on the FY 1987 potential survey of overseas coal development. Himalian area, Semirara island and San Miguel, Mindanao island, the Philippines; 1987 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Philippines Semirara to Himalian chiku Mindanao to Miguel chiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    Out of the ASEAN countries, the Philippines is not rich in coal resource. The coal reserve is 3.7 million tons, which is only about 1/3 of that in Indonesia, 11.47 million tons. The coal is the one in the young period in quality, and most of the coal except that form the Cebu island is the low grade coal belonging from lignite to sub-bituminous C. The coal in the Himalian area, Semirara island, is expected to be supplied to Calaca No. 2 coal thermal power plant which is planned to be constructed in the south of Luzon island. If it agrees to the power plant side in terms of the coal quality specifications and the price, there is a great possibility of concluding a long-term contract on business. It may be said that developmental potentiality is great. Accordingly, it is important to enhance the quality of the study of developmental possibility in the Himalian area in future. On the other hand, the coal in the San Miguel area, Mindanao island, is extremely high in ash content, and has a problem on coal quality. The developmental potentiality is low. The developmental potentiality of the coal of the Himalian area is high, but the necessity of exporting it to Japan is low since there are no coal thermal power plants which use this kind of low grade coal in Japan. (NEDO)

  12. Application of slurries in rationalization of blasting technology. Primjena emulzija radi racionalizacije procesa miniranja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kljucanin, T.; Dzindic, M. (Rudarski Institut, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    Emphasizes the advantages of using slurry-type explosives in surface coal mines. Outputs achieved at the Potocari surface coal mine with vitezit, amonal, kamniktit, nitrol and anfex explosives (90 mm cartridge diameter) are compared with output achieved using the slurry-type vitomex explosive (171 mm and 249 mm diameter). In two experimental detonations, 12,636 and 13,720 m[sup 3] of rocky material were blasted using multirow blasting. Average consumption of explosives when blasting with vitomex was 0.32 kg/m[sup 3] and 0.36 kg/m[sup 3]. When blasting with conventional explosives the average consumption of explosives ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 kg/m[sup 3]. Owing to its lower price (YUD 6.7/kg), use of vitomex brings about significant savings in operating costs (average price of conventional explosives is YUD 12/kg), in addition to technological advantages. Recommendations are made for further experimental blasting by means of weakened explosive charges. Use of hole cylinders, made of inert salt, put around explosive cartridges, is recommended as a measure for obtaining better fracturing of blasted material. 3 refs.

  13. Overview of the environmental concerns of coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.; Dauzvardis, P.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-02-01

    More than 30 environmental concerns were analyzed for the transportation of coal by rail, roads (trucks), high voltage transmission lines (that is, from mine-mouth generating plants to distribution networks), coal slurry pipelines, and barges. The following criteria were used to identify these problems: (1) real physical environmetal impacts for which control technologies must be developed, or regulation made effective where control technologies presently exist; (2) the level of impact is uncertain, although the potential impact may be moderate to high; (3) the concerns identified by the first two criteria are specific to or exacerbated by coal transportation. Generic transportation problems are not included. The significant environmental problems identified as a result of this study are: (1) rail transport - community traffic disruption and human health, safety, and habitat destruction; (2) coal haul roads - road degradation, traffic congestion and safety, air quality, and noise; (3) high voltage transmission lines - changed land use without local benefits, biological health and safety effects, and disruption of world weather patterns; (4) slurry pipelines - water availability, water quality, and possible spills from non-water slurry pipelines; and (5) barge transport - impacts common to all barge traffic. (DMC)

  14. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2

  15. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...... technology, or co-substrate for anaerobic digestion). With respect to odorous emissions, an LCIA method was developed, but due to a lack of data it proved difficult to include odour in LCA. Regulations appear to have an influence on the environmental impacts of slurry treatment. A decrease in N application...

  16. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  17. Pump transients in FGD slurry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce-Campos, C.D., Thoy, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the start-up transient of a limestone slurry system used for a power plant scrubber is discussed. Particular characteristics of these kind of systems are pointed out and incorporated into an ad-hoc numerical model. Three possible start-up scenarios are discussed and compared with field experimental data. The results illustrate well the importance of air pocket purging prior to system start-up

  18. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  19. Engineering properties of nuclear waste slurries - 16378

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Fairweather, Michael; Hunter, Timothy; Omokanye, Qanitalillahi; Peakall, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The type of particulate systems encountered in legacy nuclear waste slurries is highly complicated, with the aggregation and flow behaviour being at times very variable. However, deconstructing the complex overall slurry activity to singular particle-particle interactions can lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved with particle aggregation, and so to predictions of their settling and flow in nuclear systems. Of particular importance to legacy waste is the role of salts in controlling the attraction of particles (and so in dictating the rheological properties of the system) as sludge may contain a variety of specific ions and generally have high ionic conductivity [1]. In this paper, particle-particle interactions are characterised using a number of complimentary methods, and their influence on resulting flow and bed compression is measured. The methods used to characterise the particle-particle interactions under various salt and pH conditions were electro-acoustic analysis (zeta potential) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Following on from the analysis of particle-particle properties, bulk sediment behaviour was investigated using shear and compressive yield stress measurements, vital parameters in dictating flow and dewatering performance, respectively. Together, these techniques enable the characterisation of a range of particulate systems that may be encountered in legacy wastes, and results point to a number of important factors that can help explain the observed variability in industrial slurry behaviour. (authors)

  20. Slurry explosive containing an improved thickening agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakazono, Y.; Otsuka, Y.

    1970-08-18

    A slurry explosive having stable physical properties and a thickening agent which when blended with a slurry explosive, maintains it in a uniform and stable state as a good suspended dispersion condition over a long period of time, are described. The slurry explosive has a composition consisting essentially of ammonium nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels, and water, 0.1 to 2.0% guar gum, not more than 0.3% of a borate or borates, and/or not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine, and 0.02 to 2.0% of an antimony compound or compounds, all percents being by weight. (6 claims)

  1. Report on the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. With an intention of developing a technology on the process (NEDOL) suitable for liquefaction of wide range of coal types placing sub-bituminous coal at the center, researches were carried out by using a pilot plant, and engineering data purposed for practical application of the technology were acquired. The construction of the pilot plant was launched in fiscal 1991. It is necessary to execute the pilot plant plan steadily in the future, and at the same time, reliably acquire different data by means of supportive researches. Economic performance of the process is also important. The first sub-committee meeting presented the following agenda: the status of constructing the 150-t/d pilot plant, tests and investigations thereon, research works by using a 1-t/d PSU, development of the most suitable coal refining technology, development of a coal pretreatment technology, improvement of the distilled oil distribution, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. The second sub-committee meeting presented the following agenda: the status of constructing the pilot plant, tests and investigations on improving the performance of natural pylite catalyst and circulating solvent, technological investigations on structuring a liquefying reaction data analyzing system, studies using a 1-t/d PSU, development of the most suitable coal refining technology, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. (NEDO)

  2. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  3. Use of structural parameters of Canadian coals to follow coalification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Charland, J.-P.; Dureau, R.; Kalkreuth, W.; Wieschenkaemper, I. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1991-06-01

    A series of Canadian coals was used to evaluate the structural parameters determined by the FTIR spectroscopy and the apparent aromaticity determined by solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy as coalification indicators. The results support the existence of two main coalification regions, i.e. the first involving lignite-subbituminous-high volatile bituminous stages and the second which begins with high volatile bituminous coals and ends with anthracite. The deoxygenation is the main reaction in the first region whereas the steady increase in apparent aromaticity is the most evident process in the second. The hydroxylic oxygen is a good indicator to distinguish between different coalification stages in the first region. The amount of three and more hydrogens attached to aromatic units exhibited a linear trend with both apparent aromaticity and mean reflectance for the coalification range from lignite to anthracite. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Entrained bed gasification of coal: prediction of contaminant levels using thermodynamic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Zheng, L.; Boudreau, F.; Kovacik, G. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Labs.)

    1993-10-01

    The F.A.C.T. method was used for predicting the emissions of S-, Cl-, N-, Pb- and As-containing contaminants from entrained bed gasification of one bituminous coal and one subbituminous coal. When the effect of mineral matter was included, the emissions of H[sub 2]S, CS[sub 2], COS, HCl and HCN decreased substantially whereas the amount of predicted NH[sub 3] remained unaffected. The decrease was offset by increased formation of metal sulphides, chlorides and cyanides. Relatively large amounts of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb and As in the gas were predicted by the method. The chlorides of these metals are also rather volatile. The presence of steam increased the amount of H[sub 2]S and HCl and decreased the amount of HCN in the products. 8 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-01-01

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter (α) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number. Predicted molar flow

  6. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH 3 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m 3 of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m 3  h -1 ), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH 3 , CH 4 , carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and N 2 O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH 3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P emissions were 40% lower in the aerated tanks (2.04 vs. 3.39 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P emissions remained after the aeration phase had finished. No effect was detected for CO 2 , and no relevant N 2 O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH 3 emissions.

  7. Reconnaissance coal study in the Susitna basin, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. LePain,; Stanley, Richard G.; Harun, Nina T.; Helmold, Kenneth T.; Tsigonis, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) conducted fieldwork during the summer of 2014 in the Susitna basin as part of an ongoing evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of frontier basins, particularly those near the Railbelt region (for example, Decker and others, 2013; Gillis and others, 2013). Topical studies associated with this recent work include sedimentary facies analysis (LePain and others, 2015) and structural geology investigations (Gillis and others, 2015). The Susitna basin contains coal-bearing Paleogene and Neogene strata correlative with formations that host oil and gas in Cook Inlet basin to its south. Isotopic signatures of natural gas reservoired in the Miocene/Pliocene Sterling and Miocene Beluga Formations suggest a biogenic origin for Cook Inlet gas (Claypool and others, 1980). To assess the biogenic gas potential of the Susitna basin, it is important to obtain information from its coal-bearing units.Characteristics of coal, such as maturity/rank and cleat development are key parameters influencing viability of a biogenic gas system (Laubach and others, 1998). In an early study of the Susitna basin (Beluga–Yentna region), Barnes (1966) identified, analyzed, and recognized potentially valuable subbituminous coal resources at Fairview Mountain, Canyon Creek, and Johnson Creek. Merritt (1990), in a sedimentological study to evaluate surface coal mining potential of the Tertiary rocks of the Susitna basin (Susitna lowland), concluded that the basin contained several billion tons of mineable reserves. This preliminary report offers a brief summary of new information on coals in the Susitna Basin acquired during associated stratigraphic studies (see LePain and others, 2015). 

  8. Availability of phosphorus in cow slurry using isotopic labelling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongsakul, P.; Bertelsen, F.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1988-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of cow slurry on P uptake by corn and to estimate the readily available P in the slurry by using an isotopic labelling techique. Water-soluble P in soil was increased and isotopic equilibrium of available P was attained after labelled slurry was mixed thoroughly throughout the soil. Labelled slurry applied at planting increased the P uptake by corn, whereas the same amount applied one week before harvest did not affect the P uptake. It was estimated that 46-54% of the total P uptake in plants is derived from the slurry. The readily available P (the L-value) in the slurry was at least 26 mg/kg which equals 3.7% of the total P. (author)

  9. Biogas slurry pricing method based on nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-ai; Guo, Honghai; Yang, Zhengtao; Xin, Shurong

    2017-11-01

    In order to promote biogas-slurry commercialization, A method was put forward to valuate biogas slurry based on its nutrient contents. Firstly, element contents of biogas slurry was measured; Secondly, each element was valuated based on its market price, and then traffic cost, using cost and market effect were taken into account, the pricing method of biogas slurry were obtained lastly. This method could be useful in practical production. Taking cattle manure raw meterial biogas slurry and con stalk raw material biogas slurry for example, their price were 38.50 yuan RMB per ton and 28.80 yuan RMB per ton. This paper will be useful for recognizing the value of biogas projects, ensuring biogas project running, and instructing the cyclic utilization of biomass resources in China.

  10. Potassic zeolites from Brazilian coal ash for use as a fertilizer in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Camila Gomes; Schneider, Helena; Marcilio, Nilson Romeu; Ferret, Lizete; Oliveira, João Carlos Pinto

    2017-12-01

    Brazilian coal has an ash content ranging from 30 to 50% by weight. Consequently, its use in coal-fired thermoelectric for power production generates a lot of waste. The construction sector is the largest consumer of coal ash, but it cannot absorb the entire amount generated. Thus, other applications for coal ash should be studied in aim to optimize the use of this industrial waste. This research had as focus to synthesize potassic zeolite from of the coal ash into on potassium fertilizer for the grown wheat plant. In this work, it was used a subbituminous coal from Mina do Leão (RS, Brazil) presenting 48.7% ash content on a dry basis. Concerning the synthesis of potassic zeolite, it was adopted the conventional method of hydrothermal treatment with potassium hydroxide. A schedule of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum condition of zeolite synthesis that was then used an alkaline solution of 5M KOH with a reaction time of 24h at 150°C. According to this procedure, it was obtained a zeolite with a single crystalline phase, identified through X-ray diffraction as Merlinoite. Subsequently, it was performed a set of tests using potassic zeolite asa fertilizer for plants in a greenhouse. The synthesized potassic zeolite showed a good potential for its use as fertilizer in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO2 emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO2 emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97,91.97,88.20, and 98.91 kg CO2/GJgross, respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO2 emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  13. Atlas of the Colombian coal, Potential map and rank: Map 5-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido Gonzalez, Orlando

    1999-01-01

    With the presentation of the Atlas of Coal to scale 1:500.000, it is sought to show to big features the location of the different areas with coal in Colombia, associating with the geologic units, the potential and the range. In the Map 5-09, the formations that include the coal are defined as Umir, Guaduas, Limbo, (Los Cuervos), San Fernando, (Carbonera), defined as Kst, Ksgt and Pgt. For the potential an arbitrary scale settled down, in the following way: in the first place bigger to 1000 million tons; between 1000 and 100; between 100 and 10 and lastly smaller to 10 million tons. These figures are represented in the map by triangles with colors that they are equal before to the figures mentioned. Keeping in mind the scale, it was opted to report the potential in the category of the hypothetical resources; when the resources or reserves are established, they are also reported. As for the range, in the map it is indicated by means of symbols that should be taken as a domain or tendency of the coal in each area in general. The the coal rank understood as the transformation that has reached along the geologic evolution is what is mentioned as anthracitic coal, semi-anthracitic, bituminous low in volatile, bituminous middle in volatile, bituminous high in volatile A, B and C, sub-bituminous and lastly the lignite. For each map are mentioned that there are determined

  14. Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

    2012-03-15

    Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Electrochemistry of carbonaceous materials; 1. Oxidation of Sardinian coal by Fe(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomat, R.; Salmaso, R.; Zecchin, S. (CNR-Instituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Padova (Italy))

    1992-04-01

    Oxidation of subbitiminous coal (Sulcis basin, Sardinia, Italy) by Fe(III) ions in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution was investigated over a wide temperature range (20-80{degree}C). Experimental results are in accord with a reaction scheme involving a reversible complex between coal particles and Fe(III) ions as a first step in the oxidation process. At low coal concentration, the reaction rate follows first-order kinetics in both coal and ferric ions (overall second order), while at sufficiently high coal concentration, the reaction rate is consistent with first-order kinetics in Fe(III) concentration, appearing to be independent of coal concentration. The kinetic results obtained give preliminary information on the advantageous use of the Fe(III)/slurried coal reaction system to depolarize the anodic compartment of an electrolysis cell, for the production of H{sub 2}. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  17. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  18. Heterogeneous ice slurry flow and concentration distribution in horizontal pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jihong; Zhang, Tengfei; Wang, Shugang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A Mixture CFD model is applied to describe heterogeneous ice slurry flow. • The ice slurry rheological behavior is considered piecewise. • The coupled flow and concentration profiles in heterogeneous slurry flow is acquired. • The current numerical model achieves good balance between precision and universality. -- Abstract: Ice slurry is an energy-intensive solid–liquid mixture fluid which may play an important role in various cooling purposes. Knowing detailed flow information is important from the system design point of view. However, the heterogeneous ice slurry flow makes it difficult to be quantified due to the complex two phase flow characteristic. The present study applies a Mixture computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on different rheological behavior to characterize the heterogeneous ice slurry flow. The Mixture CFD model was firstly validated by three different experiments. Then the validated Mixture CFD model was applied to solve the ice slurry isothermal flow by considering the rheological behavior piecewise. Finally, the numerical solutions have displayed the coupled flow information, such as slurry velocity, ice particle concentration and pressure drop distribution. The results show that, the ice slurry flow distribution will appear varying degree of asymmetry under different operating conditions. The rheological behavior will be affected by the asymmetric flow distributions. When mean flow velocity is high, Thomas equation can be appropriate for describing ice slurry viscosity. While with the decreasing of mean flow velocity, the ice slurry behaves Bingham rheology. As compared with experimental pressure drop results, the relative errors of numerical computation are almost within ±15%. The Mixture CFD model is validated to be an effective model for describing heterogeneous ice slurry flow and could supply plentiful flow information

  19. Method of transporting radioactive slurry-like wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, K; Yusa, H; Sugimoto, Y

    1975-06-30

    The object is to prevent blockage of a transporting tube to positively and effectively transport radioactive slurry wastes. A method of transporting radioactive slurry-like wastes produced in an atomic power plant, wherein liquid wastes produced in the power plant are diluted to form into a driving liquid, by which said radioactive slurry-like wastes are transported within the pipe, and said driving liquid is recovered as the liquid waste.

  20. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  1. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  2. Report on the coal group in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Studies on a coal treatment technology in the initial process in liquefaction; 1989 nendo ekika shoki kotei ni okeru sekitan shori gijutsu no kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988 in studies on the studies of the initial process in liquefaction. It is intended to identify the swelling phenomenon in coal particles in the coal slurry preparation and preheating processes, and change in the slurry viscosity associated with the heating. The slurry viscosity starts decreasing from around 300 degrees C at which the liquefying reaction begins, and decreases sharply at around 350 degrees C. Therefore, rise in the viscosity at temperatures below 300 degrees C is caused by factors other than the liquefying reaction. The rise starting at 100 to 120 degrees C is due to absorption of the solvent by coal. The rise starting at 210 to 260 degrees C requires further discussions. The equilibrium swelling ratio was measured on different types of coals by using the hydrogenated anthracene oil solvent. No coals swelled at 100 degrees C. The temperature of 200 degrees C largely divides coals into those swelling and those not swelling. At 300 degrees C, the coals were divided into those shrinking after largely swelling, those not swelling and those swelling monotonously. For consideration of the utilization as an auxiliary solvent, petroleum-based heavy oil was used to perform coal liquefaction to discuss effects of the solvent on the liquefaction rates. (NEDO)

  3. Petrographic characteristics and depositional environment of Miocene Can coals, Canakkale-Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerdal, Guelbin; Bozcu, Mustafa [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty (Turkey)

    2011-01-01

    In this study, petrographic examinations along with proximate, calorific value, ultimate, sulphur form and XRD analyses were performed in order to determine the coal characteristics and the depositional environment of the Miocene Can coals. Seventy coal samples were taken from cores and open pit mines. The investigated Can coals are humic coals and classified as lignite to sub-bituminous coal based on the random huminite reflectance (0.38-0.54% R{sub r}), volatile matter (45.50-62.25 wt.%, daf) and calorific value (3419-6479 kcal/kg, maf). The sulphur content of the Can coals changes from 0.30 up to 12.23 wt.%, and a broad range of ash contents was observed varying between 2.46 wt.% and 41.19 wt.%. Huminite is the most abundant maceral group (74-95 vol.% mmf) consisting of mostly humocollinite (gelinite) which is followed by relatively low liptinite (2-18 vol.% mmf) and inertinite content (2-13 vol.% mmf). In general, major mineral contents of coal samples are clay minerals, quartz, mica, pyrite and feldspar. The Can-Etili lignite basin consists of mainly volcano-clastics, fluviatile and lacustrine clastic sediments and contains only one lignite seam with 17 m average thickness. In order to assess the development of paleo-mires, coal facies diagrams were obtained from maceral composition. According to the Vegetation Index (VI) and Ground Water Index (GWI), the Can coal accumulated in inundated marsh, limnic and swamp environments under a rheotrophic hydrological regime. In general, the facies interpretations are in accordance with the observed sedimentalogical data. (author)

  4. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  5. State of the art on phase change material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ziad; Delahaye, Anthony; Huang Li; Trinquet, François; Fournaison, Laurence; Pollerberg, Clemens; Doetsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A bibliographic study on PCM slurries. ► Clathrate Hydrate slurry, Microencapsulated PCM Slurry, shape-stabilized PCM slurries and Phase Change Material Emulsions. ► Formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfers properties and applications of these four PCS systems. ► The use of thermal energy storage and distribution based on PCM slurries can improve the refrigerating machine performances. - Abstract: The interest in using phase change slurry (PCS) media as thermal storage and heat transfer fluids is increasing and thus leading to an enhancement in the number of articles on the subject. In air-conditioning and refrigeration applications, PCS systems represent a pure benefit resulting in the increase of thermal energy storage capacity, high heat transfer characteristics and positive phase change temperatures which can occur under low pressures. Hence, they allow the increase of energy efficiency and reduce the quantity of thermal fluids. This review describes the formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfer properties and applications of four PCS systems: Clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS), Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Slurry (MPCMS), shape-stabilized PCM slurries (SPCMSs) and Phase Change Material Emulsions (PCMEs). It regroups a bibliographic summary of important information that can be very helpful when such systems are used. It also gives interesting and valuable insights on the choice of the most suitable PCS media for laboratory and industrial applications.

  6. Steam gasification of Bulmer coal in the presence of lignite ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steam gasification of blends prepared from Balmer coal and the ash from combustion of Onakawana lignite was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The blends were prepared by co-slurrying followed by drying. In the presence of 20 wt% ash the gasification rate doubled at 830 and 930 C. Direct blending of coal and lignite resulted in an overall increase in carbon conversion at 830 C but had no effect at 930 C. 5 refs.

  7. Infrared absorption characteristics of hydroxyl groups in coal tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, S A; Chu, C J; Hange, R H; Margrave, J L

    1987-01-01

    Tar evolution was observed over a temperature range of 150-600 C for four coals. Pittsburgh bituminous, Illinois No.6, Rawhide subbituminous, and Texas lignite. Isolation of the evolved tars in a nitrogen matrix at 15 degrees K produced better resolved infrared spectra than those in a coal matrix, thus enhancing structural characterization of the tar molecules. Two distinct hydroxyl functional groups in the tar molecules free of hydrogen bonding were identified for the first time without interference from H/sub 2/O absorptions. These absorptions at 3626.5 cm/sup -1/ have been assigned to phenolic hydroxyls. It is suggested that carboxylic and aliphatic hydroxyl groups do not survive the vaporization process. Tars from Illinois No.6 were found to contain the largest amount of phenolic hydroxyl; Pittsburgh No. 8 tar contains approximately half of that for Illinois No.6 while Rawhide and Texas lignite contain much less phenolic than either of the other coals. 10 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  8. Fiscal 1990 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1990 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made concerning the progress of research and development activities. Reported and discussed in relation to the pilot plant support research, etc., are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum coal refining technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum pretreatment technique and improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.); and studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.). Reported and discussed in relation to researches using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant are the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.), the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry pre-heating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1991 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section; 1991 nendo rekiseitan ekikabukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction section in FY 1991. In the 1st bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting, report/discussion were made on the outline of the plan on the FY 1991 research using pilot plant and the support study of pilot plant. In the 2nd section meeting, report was made on 'How the development of coal liquefaction technology should be in the 21st century,' a report made by the joint section of bituminous coal/brown coal liquefaction. In the 3rd section meeting, report/discussion were made on the state of progress of the FY 1991 R and D and results. In the study using the bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, report was made on the outline of construction of a 150t/d pilot plant, study on the acquisition of material balance, analytical study of the data on liquefaction tower, testing survey on properties of coal slurry, and testing survey on slurry preheating furnace. In the support study of pilot plant, report was made on the study using 1t/d PUS, study on the development of the optimum coal refining technology and improvement in the distillate distribution, study of conditions for coal liquefaction and study of solvent hydrogenation catalyst. (NEDO)

  10. Thermogravimetric determination of the carbon dioxide reactivity of char from some New Zealand coals and its association with the inorganic geochemistry of the parent coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B.B.; Shaw, K.J.; Rodgers, K.A.; Newman, J. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1998-02-01

    Thermogravimetrically-determined carbon dioxide reactivities of char formed from New Zealand coals, ranging in rank from lignite to high volatile bituminous, vary from 0.12 to 10.63 mg/h/mg on a dry, ash-free basis. The lowest rank subbituminous coal chars have similar reactivities to the lignite coal chars. Calcium content of the char shows the strongest correlation with reactivity, which increases as the calcium content increases. High calcium per se does not directly imply a high char reactivity. Organically-bound calcium catalyses the conversion of carbon to carbon monoxide in the presence of carbon dioxide, whereas calcium present as discrete minerals in the coal matrix e.g., calcite, fails to significantly affect reactivity. Catalytic effects of magnesium, iron, sodium and phosphorous are not as obvious, but can be recognised for individual chars. The thermogravimetric technique provides a fast, reliable analysis that is able to distinguish char reactivity differences between coals, which may be due to any of the above effects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  12. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO 3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s

  13. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  14. Mineral and inorganic chemical composition of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, Mariana G. [Geological Institute, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.24, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-22

    The mineral and inorganic chemical composition of five types of samples from the Pernik subbituminous coals and their products generated from the Pernik preparation plant were studied. They include feed coal, low-grade coal, high-grade coal, coal slime, and host rock. The mineral matter of the coals contains 44 species that belong mainly to silicates, carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, and oxides/hydroxides, and to a lesser extent, chlorides, biogenic minerals, and organic minerals. The detrital minerals are quartz, kaolinite, micas, feldspars, magnetite, cristobalite, spessartine, and amphibole. The authigenic minerals include various sulphides, silicates, oxihydroxides, sulphates, and carbonates. Several stages and substages of formation were identified during the syngenetic and epigenetic mineral precipitations of these coals. The authigenic minerals show the greatest diversity of mineral species as the epigenetic mineralization (mostly sulphides, carbonates, and sulphates) dominates qualitatively and quantitatively. The epigenetic mineralization was a result of complex processes occurring mostly during the late development of the Pernik basin. These processes indicate intensive tectonic, hydrothermal and volcanic activities accompanied by a change from fresh to marine sedimentation environment. Thermally altered organic matter due to some of the above processes was also identified in the basin. Most of the trace elements in the Pernik coals (Mo, Be, S, Zr, Y, Cl, Ba, Sc, Ga, Ag, V, P, Br, Ni, Co, Pb, Ca, and Ti) show an affinity to OM and phases intimately associated with OM. Some of the trace elements (Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, As, Ag, Yb, Sn, Ga, Ge, etc.) are impurities in authigenic and accessory minerals, while other trace elements (La, Ba, Cu, Ce, Sb, Bi, Zn, Pb, Cd, Nd, etc.) occur as discrete phases. Elements such as Sc, Be, Y, Ba, V, Zr, S, Mo, Ti, and Ga exceed Clarke concentrations in all of the coal types studied. It was also found that

  15. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-04-01

    Results from screening studies showed that the pyrite samples separated from various coal seams had similar catalytic activity. The addition of all the pyrite samples to feed slurry increased conversion of coal and production of oil. A sample of fusinite was also tested for its liquefaction behavior with and without added pyrite. The addition of pyrite increased the conversion of fusinite and production of oil. These results show that pyrite catalyzes the conversion of fusinite and therefore improves overall coal conversion. Conversion of coal and oil production increased by impregnating coal with iron and molybdenum compounds. Coal conversion and oil production also increased with increasing concentration of both iron and molybdenum impregnated on coal. Addition of various transition metal sulfides increased coal conversion and oil production. Dramatic improvements were noted with nickel, vanadium, and tin sulfides. Addition of transition metal naphthenates produced mixed results; some of them improved coal conversion and others had no effect. The effect of metal concentration on coal conversion was also not clear. Deep cleaning of coal did not affect coal conversion, but it significantly reduced oil production. Addition of pyrite separated from coal to deep cleaned coal sample regained the oil production to the original value, i.e., oil produced from liquefaction of raw coal.Coal cleaned by oil agglomeration gave highest coal conversion and oil production. Basic and non-basic nitrogen compounds reduced the naphthalene hydrogenation activity of both Co-Mo-Al and sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was inactive for denitrogenation of quinoline, and the reaction product mainly consisted of hydrogenated and hydrocracked quinoline. On the contrary, Co-Mo-Al was active for denitrogenation of quinoline, resulting in lower quinoline poisoning.

  16. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Coal energy; 1982 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Sekitan energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-07-01

    This research program consists of (1) the solid catalyst-aided reforming of various petroleum based oils and heavy coal oils into Solvolysis solvents and the secondary hydrogenolysis, (2) a search for pre-treatment for improvement on the sub-bituminous coal liquefaction yield, and (3) a search for measures for improvement on the brown coal liquefaction yield. Studied in this fiscal year are (1) the high-temperature short-contact time liquefaction of brown coal, (2) the role of catalyst support for selective upgrading of SRC (solvent refined coal), and (3) reforming of thermal melting feature of low rank coal by preliminary deashing at room temperature. In relation with Item (1), it is found that the dehydrogenation or reaction to carbonization of molecules involved in hydrogen donation is structure-sensitive but that thermolysis of coal is accelerated under high-temperature conditions to allow transfer hydrogen to contribute uniformly. It is deemed also that matching is excellent between hydrogen transfer and thermolysis, that the solvent dissolution level is elevated, and that the reaction short in duration inhibits consecutive polymerization reaction. These are supposed to be effective in improving on the liquefaction yield and in rendering heavy constituents lighter. In relation with Item (2), it is found that the experimentally manufactured catalysts are effective in reducing the weight of heavy constituents. In relation with Item (3), a carbonization reforming method is experimentally implemented in which the ash that affects carbonization is further removed by a pre-treatment at room temperature. (NEDO)

  18. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  19. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  20. Technical Development of Slurry Three-Dimensional Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cho-Pei; Hsu, Huang-Jan; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the technical development of slurry three-dimensional printer (3DP) which based on photo-polymerization and constrained surface method. Basically, slurry consists of ceramic powder, resin and photo-initiator. The light engines for solidifying the photo-curable slurry can be classified as laser, liquid crystal panel (LCD), digital light processing (DLP). The slurry can be reacted and solidified by selective ray according to the reaction spectrum of photo-initiator. Ceramic powder used in this study is zirconia oxide. Experimental results show that ceramic particle size affects the viscosity of slurry severely resulting in low accuracy and the occurrence of micro crack in the layer casting procedure. Therefore, the effect of particle size on the curability and accuracy of built green part is discussed. A single dental crown is proposed to be fabricated by these three light engines as a benchmark for comparison. In addition, the cost and the limitation are compared in the aspect of dental crown fabrication. Consequently, the lowest cost is LCD-type slurry 3DP system. DLP-type slurry 3DP can produce green body with the fastest fabrication time. The volumetric error of sintered part that made by these three fabrication methods is similar because the composition of slurry is the same.

  1. Drag reduction of dense fine-grained slurries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Štern, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 261-270 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : kaolin slurry * drag reduction * experimental investigation * peptization * slurry rheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  2. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  3. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes

  4. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...

  5. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different

  6. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  7. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  8. Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Woo; Jang, Cheol-Hyeon

    2011-03-01

    Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500°C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang-Woo; Jang, Cheol-Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

  10. Fiscal 1989 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1989 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are given and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. Reported and discussed in relation to the progress of the pilot plant support research are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); development of an optimum decalcification technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd., and Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.); and studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.). In relation to studies using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil, Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) are reported and discussed, the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry preheating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  11. Microbial production of natural gas from coal and organic-rich shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component of the energy mix in the United States, producing greater energy yield per unit weight and less pollution compared to coal and oil. Most of the world’s natural gas resource is thermogenic, produced in the geologic environment over time by high temperature and pressure within deposits of oil, coal, and shale. About 20 percent of the natural gas resource, however, is produced by microorganisms (microbes). Microbes potentially could be used to generate economic quantities of natural gas from otherwise unexploitable coal and shale deposits, from coal and shale from which natural gas has already been recovered, and from waste material such as coal slurry. Little is known, however, about the microbial production of natural gas from coal and shale.

  12. Secondary biogenic coal seam gas reservoirs in New Zealand: A preliminary assessment of gas contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butland, Carol I. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Moore, Tim A. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Solid Energy NZ Ltd., P.O. Box 1303, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2008-10-02

    Four coal cores, one from the Huntly (Eocene), two from the Ohai (Cretaceous) and one from the Greymouth (Cretaceous) coalfields, were sampled and analysed in terms of gas content and coal properties. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous B-A (Huntly) to subbituminous C-A (Ohai), and high volatile A bituminous (Greymouth). Average gas contents were 1.60 m{sup 3}/t (s 0.2) in the Huntly core, 4.80 m{sup 3}/t (s = 0.8) in the Ohai cores, and 2.39 m{sup 3}/t (s = 0.8) in the Greymouth core. The Ohai core not only contained more gas but also had the highest saturation (75%) compared with the Huntly (33%) and Greymouth (45%) cores. Carbon isotopes indicate that the Ohai gas is more mature, containing higher {delta}{sup 13}C isotopes values than either the Huntly or Greymouth gas samples. This may indicate that the gas was derived from a mixed biogenic and thermogenic source. The Huntly and Greymouth gases appear to be derived solely from a secondary biogenic (by CO{sub 2} reduction) source. Although the data set is limited, preliminary analysis indicates that ash yield is the dominant control on gas volume in all samples where the ash yield was above 10%. Below 10%, the amount of gas variation is unrelated to ash yield. Although organic content has some influence on gas volume, associations are basin and/or rank dependent. In the Huntly core total gas content and structured vitrinite increase together. Although this relationship does not appear for the other core data for the Ohai SC3 core, lost gas and fusinite are associated whereas gelovitrinite (unstructured vitrinite) correlates positively with residual gas for the Greymouth data. (author)

  13. Achievement report on developing coal liquefaction technologies in fiscal 1998 - edition B. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (studies by using pilot plant) 1/2; 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho B. 1/2. Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to improve the environment by substituting petroleum energy by coal, and by reducing emission of SOx and NOx, research and development has been performed on coal liquefaction technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof in fiscal 1998. In the operation study RUN-5, the operation was carried out by using the Tanito Harum coal of Indonesia, and raising the slurry concentration to 50% by weight. The operation stability when the high concentration slurry was used was verified, and the liquefying reaction column fluidity property data, and the material balance and heat balance data were acquired by using the NAT method. In the RUN-6 and 7, for the purpose of verifying the applicability of the NEDOL process to the wide range of coal types as the process feature, the Adaro coal of Indonesia and the Ikejima coal of Japan were used, and the operation at high slurry concentration was performed at 80% load and under the standard NEDOL conditions. The operation stability when the upper and lower limit coals was used was verified, and the operability at high slurry concentration was identified. At the same time, the liquefying reaction column fluidity property data, and the material balance and heat balance data were acquired. The development targets established by the Industrial Technology Council have all been achieved. (NEDO)

  14. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  15. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  16. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  17. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  18. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  19. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  20. Ice slurries; Les coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The safety and environmental problems linked with the use of refrigerants (toxicity, flammability, ozone layer, greenhouse effect) are the object of numerous research works in order to reduce their harmful impact in the case of accidental situation. The use of 'coldness carriers' is particularly justified in the case of industrial refrigerating facilities involving long loops and important quantities of refrigerating fluids. The use of single-phase 'coldness carriers' is a very old technique which encounters a revival today with researches in progress about the use of two-phase (liquid-solid) compounds named ice-slurries. This book takes stock of the status of this research work in a practical and exhaustive way. (J.S.)

  1. Regulatory controls and slurry fracture injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M. B.; Bilak, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The technological and regulatory framework necessary for the safe operation of solid waste disposal using slurry fracture injection (SFI) in Saskatchewan and Alberta was studied. Seven current SFI sites were used as the source of experience. Regular audits of volumes, continuous pressure recording, careful deformation monitoring and analysis, and repeated evaluation of reservoir properties were considered to be the essential features. In the case of toxic wastes, microseismic monitoring and regular well interference or tracer tests might be additional measures used to increase confidence in the containment method. Given the recent introduction of SFI technology, guarding against over-regulation was recommended to allow SFI to operate under the most effective operating conditions, and to preserve its attractiveness as an environmentally attractive and safe waste disposal alternative. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Drilling mud and cement slurry rheology manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This book is not primarily concerned with theory. Its basic approach is practical. It has attempted to present a logical treatment which will be easy to apply in practice. As a result, certain computing methods were omitted, and precision sometimes has to be sacrificed to simplicity. However, no apology is made for the use of such approximations; in fact, any attempt at rigor would be doomed to failure, in view of the many inherent factors which do not lend themselves to quantitative treatment. Chapter 1: deals with fundamental concepts. Chapter 2: refers to the general principles involved in determining rheological parameters of drilling fluids and cement slurries. Chapter 3: relates to practical methods for using the results obtained in the first two Chapters, in units employed on the worksite. It is primarily intended for technicians called upon to make ''hydraulic'' computations during drilling. Chapter 4: contains several examples.

  3. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  4. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  5. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  6. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  7. Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

  8. Evaluation of paramagnetic species in coals with iodine doping technique; Yoso tenkaho wo mochiita sekitanchu no jojiseishu no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, S.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of coals was considered by using iodine doping technique. Sub-bituminous coal (WA) and bituminous coal (UF) were used to observe EPR spectra using microwaves. With the UF coal, strength of the narrow component of the spectra was found constant regardless of amount of the doped iodine, wherein radicals without interaction with iodine were detected. Strength of the broad component increased with the iodine doping amount, where in deviation of {pi} electrons was detected, which have been generated as a result of interaction between aromatic rings and iodine in the coals. Spin concentration of the WA coal with low coalification degree is constant regardless of the iodine doping amount, and the interaction of the iodine with the aromatic rings was found small. The higher the coalification degree, the more the aromatic ring structure grows, and electron donor capability for the iodine increases. In a system with the entire spin being uniform, the spectrum height shows a saturation phenomenon against increase in microwave output. A non-uniform system, in which the oriented spin forms small groups and is in local thermal equilibrium, does not show saturation, but increases monotonously. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Effect of ultrafine iron and mineral matter on conversion of nitrogen and carbon during pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Furimsky, E. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Reaction Science

    1995-01-01

    A subbituminous coal was used to determine the distribution of N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN during slow rate heating pyrolysis in He and gasification in 10% CO{sub 2} + He balance. During pyrolysis, the N{sub 2} was the major product followed by NH{sub 3} and HCN. During gasification, the N{sub 2} yields were significantly enhanced and those of NH{sub 3} and HCN decreased. Partial demineralization of coal resulted in a decrease in carbon and nitrogen conversion. This effect was also evident by comparing the nitrogen and carbon conversions of chars prepared at 500{degree}C from the fresh and demineralized coals. The addition of ultrafine Fe to coal increased conversion of carbon and nitrogen to N{sub 2} during gasification but had little effect during pyrolysis. Thus, during the former more than 80% of the coal nitrogen was released as N{sub 2}. Also, in the presence of Fe the temperature of N{sub 2} release was decreased by about 100{degree}C both during pyrolysis and gasification. During gasification of chars prepared at 1000{degree}C, the conversion of the coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was much lower than that of carbon. 16 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Experimental evaluation of main emissions during coal processing waste combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Legros, Jean C; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    The total volume of the coal processing wastes (filter cakes) produced by Russia, China, and India is as high as dozens of millions of tons per year. The concentrations of CO and CO 2 in the emissions from the combustion of filter cakes have been measured directly for the first time. They are the biggest volume of coal processing wastes. There have been many discussions about using these wastes as primary or secondary components of coal-water slurries (CWS) and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Boilers have already been operationally tested in Russia for the combustion of CWSP based on filter cakes. In this work, the concentrations of hazardous emissions have been measured at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000°С. The produced CO and CO 2 concentrations are shown to be practically constant at high temperatures (over 900°С) for all the coal processing wastes under study. Experiments have shown the feasibility to lowering the combustion temperatures of coal processing wastes down to 750-850°С. This provides sustainable combustion and reduces the CO and CO 2 emissions 1.2-1.7 times. These relatively low temperatures ensure satisfactory environmental and energy performance of combustion. Using CWS and CWSP instead of conventional solid fuels significantly reduces NO x and SO x emissions but leaves CO and CO 2 emissions practically at the same level as coal powder combustion. Therefore, the environmentally friendly future (in terms of all the main atmospheric emissions: CO, CO 2 , NO x , and SO x ) of both CWS and CWSP technologies relies on low-temperature combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  12. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  13. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  14. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  15. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  16. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  18. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  19. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  20. Evaluation of plant available nitrogen in concentrated pig slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.; Comas, J.; Pujola, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Northeast Spin the expansion of the pig industry has brought as a result the production of vast amounts of pig slurry that exceeds field crops fertilization needs and consequently has contributed to the environmental deterioration of the region particularly ground water with NO 3 pollution. Under such circumstances, it is needed to treat and/or export pig slurry. During the last year the implantation of cogeneration plants that take advantage of the surplus of energy to produce concentrate pig slurry by water evaporation that could easily transported. (Author)

  1. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...... physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil...

  2. Use of radiation-induced polymers in cement slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Water loss from cement slurries is reduced by incorporating within a cement slurry a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in 10-60 percent aqueous monomer solution with gamma radiation. The aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25-99 percent acrylamide and 75-1 percent sodium acrylate. The polymer can be present in concentration of about 0.001 to about 3.0 weight percent, based on the aqueous phase of the slurry

  3. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-01-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics

  4. Pyrolysis of coal in the presence of nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, N; Dammeyer, W

    1956-01-01

    Examination of tars obtained by low-temperature carbonization of a subbituminous coal in the presence of NO suggests that NO will both retard thermal decomposition and inhibit secondary polymerization in the tar phase. But both reactions are subject to the condition that NO is present at the start of incipient pyrolysis (they do not occur if NO is admitted to the retorts at a point above the decomposition temperature of the coal), and their extent depends sharply upon the concentration of NO. At comparatively low partial pressure of NO, the dominant reaction is retardation of decomposition; significant modification of the tar, leading to a greater proportion of low-boiling material, is confined to high-partial pressure of NO. Conclusions, after analyzing tar yields and infrared spectra of tar fractions, are that the inhibition of secondary polymerization in the tar phase involves the transient attachment of NO to primary tar molecules, and that the inhibitory effect of NO is essentially temporary. Tars modified by NO do not appear to be more stable than normal tars in the presence of light, and their composition, as determined by infrared spectroscopy, is not perceptibly different.

  5. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  6. The importance of thermal behaviour and petrographic composition for understanding the characteristics of a Portuguese perhydrous Jurassic coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Flores, D. [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Pevida, C.; Rubiera, F. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain); Iglesias, M.J. [Area de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Almeria (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    The perhydrous Batalha coal (Portugal) is found in the Cabacos and Montejunto Formation of the Oxfordian-Kimeridgian, Upper Jurassic age. From the macroscopic point of view, its appearance is similar to other perhydrous coals. Microscopically, the maceral group of huminite is the main organic component (96%), ulminite being the most important petrographic component, followed by textinite with resinite (4%) lumina filled. The huminite random reflectance is 0.33%. This coal is characterized by high H/C atomic ratio, and anomalous physical and chemical properties that are characteristic of perhydrous coals such as: (i) the absence of any correlation between reflectance and the chemical rank parameters; (ii) a lower real density than that of non-perhydrous coals; (iii) a high hydrogen content; and (iv) suppressed reflectance. Using its calorific value (moist, ash-free basis) as rank parameter, Batalha coal must be considered a subbituminous A coal. Hydrogen enrichment due to the presence of resinite has influenced the technological properties of this coal, namely: (i) reduction of the thermostability and decrease in the temperature of initial thermal decomposition due to, among other reasons, the existence of aliphatic structures with low dissociation energy bonds resulting from the presence of resinite; (ii) from the DTG profile, the volatile matter combustion and char combustion is not evident; (iii) development of chars made up of isotropic particles with angular edges, which is typical of a low rank coal; (iv) the evolution trend of gaseous compounds (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) during pyrolysis; and, (v) an increase in its calorific value due to its hydrogen content. The study of this coal which is interbedded in Jurassic formations in the Lusitanian Basin of Portugal is a new contribution to the assessment of the evolution of organic matter in this area. (author)

  7. Development of the first coal seam gas exploration program in Indonesia: Reservoir properties of the Muaraenim Formation, south Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosrowidjojo, I.B. [R and D Centre for Oil and Gas Technology, LEMIGAS, Jakarta (Indonesia); Saghafi, A. [CSIRO Energy Technology, P O Box 330, Newcastle, NSW, 2300 (Australia)

    2009-09-01

    The Late Miocene Muaraenim Formation in southern Sumatra contains thick coal sequences, mostly of low rank ranging from lignite to sub-bituminous, and it is believed that these thick low rank coals are the most prospective for the production of coal seam gas (CSG), otherwise known as coalbed methane (CBM), in Indonesia. As part of a major CSG exploration project, gas exploration drilling operations are being undertaken in Rambutan Gasfields in the Muaraenim Formation to characterize the CSG potential of the coals. The first stage of the project, which is described here, was designed to examine the gas reservoir properties with a focus on coal gas storage capacity and compositional properties. Some five CSG exploration boreholes were drilled in the Rambutan Gasfield, south of Palembang. The exploration boreholes were drilled to depths of {proportional_to} 1000 m into the Muaraenim Formation. Five major coal seams were intersected by these holes between the depths of 450 and 1000 m. The petrography of coal samples collected from these seams showed that they are vitrinite rich, with vitrinite contents of more than 75% (on a mineral and moisture free basis). Gas contents of up to 5.8 m{sup 3}/t were measured for the coal samples. The gas desorbed from coal samples contain mainly methane (CH{sub 4}) ranging from 80 to 93% and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) ranging from 6 to 19%. The composition of the gas released into the production borehole/well is, however, much richer in CH{sub 4} with about 94 to 98% CH{sub 4} and less than 5% CO{sub 2}. The initial results of drilling and reservoir characterization studies indicate suitable gas recovery parameters for three of the five coal seams with a total thickness of more than 30 m. (author)

  8. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  9. An injection technique for in-situ remediation of abandoned underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Remediation of underground mines can prove to be a difficult task, given the physical constraints associated with introducing amendments to a subterranean environment. An acid mine abatement project involving in-situ chemical treatment method was conducted by the University of Oklahoma. The treatment method involved the injection of an alkaline coal combustion by-product (CCB) slurry into a flooded mine void (pH 4.4) to create a buffered zone. Injection of the CCB slurry was possible through the use of equipment developed by the petroleum industry for grouting recovery wells. This technology was selected because the CCB slurry could be injected under significant pressure and at a high rate. With higher pressure and rates of injection, a large quantity of slurry can be introduced into the mine within a limited amount of time. Theoretically, the high pressure and rate would improve dispersal of the slurry within the void. In addition, the high pressure is advantageous in fracturing or breaking-down obstructions to injection. During the injection process, a total of 418 tons of CCB was introduced within 15 hours. The mine did not refuse any of the material, and it is likely that a much larger mass could have been added. One injection well was drilled into a pillar of coal. Normally this would pose a problem when introducing a slurry; however, the coal pillar was easily fractured during the injection process. Currently, the pH of the mine discharge is above 6.5 and the alkalinity is approximately 100 mg/L as CACO 3

  10. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  11. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  12. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  13. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  14. Compartment modeling of coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier: A study on the influence of operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Zhong, Weimin; Du, Wenli; Qian, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gasification of Shenfu coal in an industrial Texaco gasifier for syngas production. • An equivalent compartment model is developed using Aspen Plus. • Effects of operating parameters on gasification performance indices are studied. • Choosing a reasonable ROC to enhance the gasification efficiency can be flexible. - Abstract: Coal gasifiers are core components of coal-based polygeneration systems for power and chemical production. To study the effects of operational parameters on the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers, this paper presents an equivalent compartment model (CM) using the Aspen Plus process simulator. The CM blocking is established based on gasifier flow field analysis, using a number of compartments. A simple configuration of these compartments involving material recirculation should be able to simulate the main flow and provide the temperature and gas component distributions. The model predictions exhibit good agreement with industrial data in the model validation. The influences of the oxygen-to-carbon ratio (ROC) and the coal slurry concentration on the gasification performance are discussed. Within the calculation range, the increase in the coal slurry concentration enhances the yield of the effective compositions in product gas. For a given slurry concentration of 62%, the efficient gas yield is a maximum for ROC of 1.43 kg/kg, whereas the oxygen consumption is a minimum for ROC of 1.37 kg/kg. According to the intended final use, however, choosing a reasonable ROC to obtain a higher efficient syngas yield and lower oxygen consumption can be flexible

  15. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises...

  16. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  17. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  18. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  19. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  20. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  1. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  2. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  3. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  4. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J.S.; Jung, K.J.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  5. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J.S.; Jung, K.J

    1998-12-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake.

  6. Improved system for pumping slurry of gel explosives into boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T K; Clay, R B; Udy, L L

    1967-05-16

    A method is described for injecting an explosive slurry into a borehole containing water. The slurry is heavier than water and is pumped through the tubing to a depth close to the bottom of the well. Injection is continued until all water has been displaced above the lower end of the tubing. This type of immiscible displacement results in substantially no mixing between the water and the explosive. (15 claims)

  7. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    OpenAIRE

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different properties and extremely different reaction behaviour even if the same Ziegler-Natta (ZN) catalyst is used? Generally, it is known that the reason can be found in the differences of local condition...

  8. Investigation of aqueous slurries as fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were carried out to assess the feasibility of using an aqueous slurry, with lithium in its solid component, to meet the tritium breeding, cooling, and shielding requirements of a controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR). The numerical studies were designed to demonstrate the theoretical ability of a conceptual slurry blanket to breed adequate tritium to sustain the CTR. The experimental studies were designed to show that the tritium retention characteristics of likely solid components for the slurry were conducive to adequate tritium recovery without the need for isotopic separation. The numerical portion of this work consisted in part of using ANISN, a one-dimensional finite difference neutron transport code, to model the neutronic performance of the slurry blanket concept. The parameters governing tritium production and retention in a slurry were computed and used to modify the results of the ANISN computer runs. The numerical work demonstrated that the slurry blanket was only marginally capable of breeding sufficient tritium without the aid of a neutron multiplying region. The experimental portion of this work consisted of several neutron irradiation experiments, which were designed to determine the retention abilities of LiF particles

  9. Environmental consequences of future biogas technologies based on separated slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn M

    2011-07-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises the whole slurry life cycle, including the flows bypassing the biogas plant. This study includes soil carbon balances and a method for quantifying the changes in yield resulting from increased nitrogen availability as well as for quantifying mineral fertilizers displacement. Soil carbon balances showed that between 13 and 50% less carbon ends up in the soil pool with the different biogas alternatives, as opposed to the reference slurry management.

  10. Effect of lapping slurry on critical cutting depth of spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhan-kui; Wang, Zhuan-kui; Zhu, Yong-wei; Su, Jian-xiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Measured spinel wafers’ hardness and crack length in different slurries. • Evaluated the softened layer thickness in different slurries. • Discussed the effect of slurries on critical cutting depth of spinel. - Abstract: The critical cutting depth for lapping process is very important because it influences the mode of material removal. In this paper, a serial of microscopic indentation experiments were carried out for measuring spinel wafers’ hardness and crack length in different lapping slurries. Their critical cutting depth and fracture toughness were calculated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was also employed to study the surface chemical composition and softened layer thickness of wafers in different slurries. Experimental results indicate that the softened layers of spinel wafers are formed due to the corrosion of lapping slurries, which leads to a lower hardness and a larger fracture toughness of samples, and increases the critical cutting depth. Among them, the critical cutting depth in ethylene glycol solution is the largest and up to 21.8 nm. The increase of critical cutting depth is helpful to modify the surface quality of the work-piece being lapped via ductile removal mode instead of brittle fracture mode

  11. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  12. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  13. Investigation of a separation process involving liquid-water-coal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jr, D V; Burry, W

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-liquid-solid separation procedure wherein a water-oil-coal-mineral matter slurry is allowed to come to equilibrium through mechanical agitation has for many years been applied to the separation of coal from mineral matter. The product is a black cottage cheese-like mass of agglomerated coal particles and oil suspended in the excess water which supports the dispersed mineral matter particles. A liquid bridge model which was proposed by earlier investigators is reviewed critically and used to estimate the free energy per unit area of the separation of coals of different ranks. Observations of the kinetics of the process suggest that the simple liquid bridge model is insufficient, probably due to the heterogeneous surfaces of the coal. An alternative model is proposed. 14 references.

  14. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. A simple biofilter for treatment of pig slurry in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S G; Mathanpaal, G; Dass, G T

    2005-03-01

    On commercial pig production farms in South East (SE) Asia, the liquid effluent is often discharged into rivers. The discharge is a hazard to the environment and to the health of people using water from the river either for consumption or for irrigation. Therefore, a simple percolation biofilter for treatment of the liquid effluent was developed. Pig slurry was treated in test-biofilters packed with different biomass for the purpose of selecting the most efficient material, thereafter the efficiency of the biofilter was examined at farm scale with demo biofilters using the most efficient material. The effect of using "Effective Microorganisms" (EM) added to slurry that was treated with biofilter material mixed with Glenor KR+ was examined. Slurry treatment in the test-biofilters indicated that rice straw was better than coconut husks, wood shavings, rattan strips and oil palm fronds in reducing BOD. Addition of EM and Glenor KR+ to slurry and biofilter material, respectively, had no effect on the temperature of the biofilter material or on the concentrations of organic and inorganic components of the treated slurry. The BOD of slurry treated in test biofilters is reduced to between 80 and 637 mg O2 I(-1) and in the demo biofilter to between 3094 and 3376 mg O2 l(-1). The concentration of BOD in the effluent is related to the BOD in the slurry being treated and the BOD concentration in slurry treated in test biofilters was lower than BOD of slurry treated in demo biofilters. The demo biofilter can reduce BOD to between 52 an 56% of the original value, and TSS, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and ammonium (NH4+) to 41-55% of the original slurry. The treated effluent could not meet the standards for discharge to rivers. The composted biofilter material has a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus; consequently, the fertilizer value of the compost is high. The investments costs were 123 US dollar per SPP which has to be reduced if this method should be a treatment option

  16. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  17. H-coal fluid dynamics. Final report, August 1, 1977-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-16

    This report presents the results of work aimed at understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of the H-Coal reactor. A summary of the literature search related to the fluid dynamic behavior of gas/liquid/solid systems has been presented. Design details of a cold flow unit were discussed. The process design of this cold flow model followed practices established by HRI in their process development unit. The cold fow unit has been used to conduct experiments with nitrogen, kerosene, or kerosene/coal char slurries, and HDS catalyst, which at room temperature have properties similar to those existing in the H-Coal reactor. Mineral oil, a high-viscosity liquid, was also used. The volume fractions occupied by gas/liquid slurries and catalyst particles were determined by several experimental techniques. The use of a mini-computer for data collection and calculation has greatly accelerated the analysis and reporting of data. Data on nitrogen/kerosene/HDS catalyst and coal char fines are presented in this paper. Correlations identified in the literature search were utilized to analyze the data. From this analysis it became evident that the Richardson-Zaki correlation describes the effect of slurry flow rate on catalyst expansion. Three-phase fluidization data were analyzed with two models.

  18. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1994--September 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1995-04-14

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. Activities this reporting period included performing coal beneficiation/preparation studies, conducting combustion performance evaluations, preparing retrofit engineering designs, determining retrofit economics, and installing a micronized coal-water mixture (MCWM) circuit.

  19. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  20. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  1. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  2. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of materials for the coal liquefaction plant); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika plant zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    A 1 T/D solvent-extraction type coal liquefaction test plant was constructed and operated to obtain the technical data for the design of, and establish the techniques for, an efficient coal liquefaction plant. The FY 1980 program includes surveys on the materials for coal liquefaction plants, covering those already developed and under development, to clarify the problematical points; drafting the test schedules; and conceptual designs of the material testing facilities. The major problems involved in the materials for coal liquefaction plants include erosion by fluidizing coal slurry, hydrogen embrittlement of the reactor materials, and corrosion by the liquefaction products (e.g., stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steel, and corrosion by organic acids). The surveys on materials research trends suggest that USA seems to concentrate their research efforts on the reactor materials. The corrosion tests are mostly of in-plant tests, but the stress corrosion and slurry erosion tests are conducted on a laboratory scale. The conceptual designs are drawn for some testing units, e.g., the loop type material testing unit and basic testing unit for jet-spray type slurry erosion. (NEDO)

  3. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  4. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  5. Commissioning an Engineering Scale Coal Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.

    2010-07-01

    This report explains the development, commissioning, and testing of an engineering scale slagging coal gasifier at PNNL. The initial objective of this project was to commission the gasifier with zero safety incidents. The commissioning work was primarily an empirical study that required an engineering design approach. After bringing the gasifier on-line, tests were conducted to assess the impact of various operating parameters on the synthesis gas (syngas) product composition. The long-term intent of this project is to produce syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in catalyst, materials, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for greater than 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, alternate designs that allow for increased flexibility regarding the fuel sources that can be used for syngas production is desired. Continued modifications to the fuel feed system will be pursued to address these goals. Alternative feed mechanisms such as a coal/methanol slurry are being considered.

  6. Predicting wear of hydrotransport pipelines in oil sand slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, J.; Lu, B.; Wolodko, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kiel, D. [Coanda Research and Development Corp., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of erosion and corrosion methods and techniques was presented. Wear to pipelines is influenced by slurry flow and chemistry; solids loading; and electrochemical interactions. While several experimental techniques have been developed to rank the performance of different pipeline materials, experiments do not currently provide accurate quantitative prediction of pipeline wear in the field. Rotating cylinder electrodes (RCE) and jet impingement methods are used to study the effect of flow velocity on corrosion rate. Slurry pot erosion-corrosion testers are used to rank materials for use in more dilute, less turbulent slurries. Coriolois slurry erosion testers are used to rank the erosion resistance of different pipeline materials. A pilot-scale flow loop is now being constructed by the Alberta Research Council (ARC) in order to replicate wet erosion phenomena in oil sands applications. The flow loop will be used to simulate the field conditions of oil sands pipelines and develop predictive wear data and models. Coulombic shear stress and characteristic wall velocities have been determined using a 2-layer model designed to represent flow as 2 distinct layers. To date, the flow loop pilot study has demonstrated that wear rates in smaller diameter flow loops are not significantly different than larger diameter field installations. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated that the flow loop can be used to accurately simulate the hydrodynamics and wear typically experienced in field slurry flows. 67 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Methane Fermentation of Slurry with Chemical and Biological Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smurzyńska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of proper slurry management is primarily present in intensive livestock production. Industrialized livestock farms generate enormous quantities of manure droppings in a livestock-litter-free system. The traditional management of slurry is made by using it as a fertilizer. Alternative techniques used for neutralizing the detrimental effect of slurry are based on the use of chemical and biological additives, as well as by introducing aerobic environment through aerobic or anaerobic digestion, leading to methane fermentation. In the experiment, cattle manure was used, which came from the Przybroda farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Poznan. The aim of the study was to determine the biogas yield of slurry using the chemical and biological additive available on the Polish market. Mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation was used for the indication of the effectiveness of the employed fermentation process. The slurry was supplemented by a biological and chemical additive, i.e. effective microorganisms and – PRP, respectively. The experiment allowed to achieve a higher biogas yield during the use of effective microorganisms.

  8. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  9. Numerical Investigation of Ice Slurry Flow in a Horizontal Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, K. S.; Pratihar, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade, phase changing material slurry (PCMS) gained much attention as a cooling medium due to its high energy storage capacity and transportability. However the flow of PCM slurry is a complex phenomenon as it affected by various parameters, i.e. fluid properties, velocity, particle size and concentration etc.. In the present work ice is used as a PCM and numerical investigation of heterogeneous slurry flow has been carried out using Eulerian KTGF model in a horizontal pipe. Firstly the present model is validated with existing experiment results available in the literature, and then model is applied to the present problem. Results show that, flow is almost homogeneous for ethanol based ice slurry with particle diameter of 0.1 mm at the velocity of 1 m/s. It is also found that ice particle distribution is more uniform at higher velocity, concentration of ice and ethanol in slurry. Results also show that ice concentration increases on the top of the pipe, and the effect of particle wall collision is more significant at higher particle diameter.

  10. ACR coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  11. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  12. Unconventional Coal in Wyoming: IGCC and Gasification of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffers, William Clemens

    Two unconventional uses for Wyoming Powder River Basin coal were investigated in this study. The first was the use of coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants to generate electricity. Twenty-eight different scenarios were modeled using AspenPlusRTM software. These included slurry, mechanical and dried fed gasifiers; Wyodak and Green River coals, 0%, 70%, and 90% CO2 capture; and conventional evaporative vs air cooling. All of the models were constructed on a feed basis of 6,900 tons of coal per day on an "as received basis". The AspenPlus RTM results were then used to create economic models using Microsoft RTM Excel for each configuration. These models assumed a 3 year construction period and a 30 year plant life. Results for capital and operating costs, yearly income, and internal rates of return (IRR) were compared. In addition, the scenarios were evaluated to compare electricity sales prices required to obtain a 12% IRR and to determine the effects of a carbon emissions tax on the sales price. The second part of the study investigated the gasification potential of residue remaining from solvent extraction or liquefaction of Powder River Basin Coal. Coal samples from the Decker mine on the Wyoming-Montana border were extracted with tetralin at a temperature of 360°C and pressure of 250 psi. Residue from the extraction was gasified with CO2 or steam at 833°C, 900°C and 975°C at pressures of 0.1 and 0.4 MPa. Product gases were analyzed with a mass spectrometer. Results were used to determine activation energies, reaction order, reaction rates and diffusion effects. Surface area and electron microscopic analyses were also performed on char produced from the solvent extraction residue.

  13. Upgraded Coal Interest Group -- A vision for coal-based power in 1999 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.; Battista, J.; Stopek, D.; Akers, D.

    1999-01-01

    The US is at a critical junction. Global competition is now a reality for a large number of US businesses and, ultimately, almost all US businesses will compete to one degree or another in the global marketplace. Under these circumstances, maintaining and improving the standard of living of US citizens requires a plentiful supply of low-cost electric energy to reduce the cost of providing goods and services both in the US an abroad. At the same time, segments of the public demand increased environmental restrictions on the utility industry. If the electric utility industry is to successfully respond to the goals of reducing electricity costs, maintaining reliability, and reducing emissions, fuels technology research is critical. For coal-fired units, fuel cost typically represents from 60--70% of operating costs. Reducing fuel cost, reduces operating costs. This can provide revenue that could be used to finance emissions control systems or advanced type of boilers resulting from post-combustion research. At the same time, improving coal quality reduces emissions from existing boilers without the need for substantial capital investment by the utility. If quality improvements can be accomplished with little or no increase in fuel costs, an immediate improvement in emissions can be achieved without an increase in electricity costs. All of this is directly dependent on continued and expanded levels of research on coal with the cooperation and partnership between government and industry. The paper describes enhanced fuel technologies (use of waste coal, coal water slurries, biomass/composite fuels, improved dewatering technologies, precombustion control of HAPs, dry cleaning technologies, and international coal characterization) and enhanced emission control technologies

  14. Atlas of the Colombian coal, Potential map and rank: Map 5-09; Atlas de los carbones colombianos. Mapa de potencial y rango: Plancha 5-09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido Gonzalez, Orlando

    1999-07-01

    With the presentation of the Atlas of Coal to scale 1:500.000, it is sought to show to big features the location of the different areas with coal in Colombia, associating with the geologic units, the potential and the range. In the Map 5-09, the formations that include the coal are defined as Umir, Guaduas, Limbo, (Los Cuervos), San Fernando, (Carbonera), defined as Kst, Ksgt and Pgt. For the potential an arbitrary scale settled down, in the following way: in the first place bigger to 1000 million tons; between 1000 and 100; between 100 and 10 and lastly smaller to 10 million tons. These figures are represented in the map by triangles with colors that they are equal before to the figures mentioned. Keeping in mind the scale, it was opted to report the potential in the category of the hypothetical resources; when the resources or reserves are established, they are also reported. As for the range, in the map it is indicated by means of symbols that should be taken as a domain or tendency of the coal in each area in general. The the coal rank understood as the transformation that has reached along the geologic evolution is what is mentioned as anthracitic coal, semi-anthracitic, bituminous low in volatile, bituminous middle in volatile, bituminous high in volatile A, B and C, sub-bituminous and lastly the lignite. For each map are mentioned that there are determined.

  15. Parameters influencing the variation in mercury emissions from an Alberta power plant burning high inertinite coal over thirty-eight weeks period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Reyes, J. [Environmental Studies, Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary, 3303-33rd Street N.W., Calgary, Alberta (Canada T2L 2A7); Schulz, J.; Hollman, D. [EPCOR 10065 Jasper Ave Edmonton, Alberta (Canada T5J 3B1); Rose, D. [Air Pollution Prevention Directorate Environment Canada, 315 St-Joseph Blvd Hull, Quebec (Canada K1A 0H3)

    2006-01-03

    Feed coals and fly ashes from a coal-fired power station burning Alberta subbituminous coal were examined for a period of thirty-eight weeks to determine the variation in emitted mercury. Feed coal samples were analyzed for proximate, calorific value and Hg content, while fly ash samples were examined for C and Hg contents. The maceral content of the feed coal was also determined. The emitted mercury was calculated and compared to mercury emitted from the stack according to a mass-balance calculation from a previous study for the same station. Mercury contents ranged from 0.029 to 0.066 mg/kg for feed coal, and from 0.069 to 0.112 mg/kg for fly ash. The carbon/char in fly ash was separated into reactive (vitrinitic/bimacerate) and less reactive (inertinitic) chars using ZnBr{sub 2} at specific gravities of 1.7, 2.0, and 2.25 to 2.4. The result shows that there is a positive correlation between the carbon and mercury content of the fly ash. The reactive char particles in the fly ash may be responsible for the capture mercury in fly ash. The percentage of estimated captured mercury by fly ash increases with increasing carbon content (%) in fly ash. The percentage of emitted mercury for the period of 38 weeks is estimated to be within the range of 49% to 76% of the total input of mercury. (author)

  16. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Riley, Jarrett; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 are excellent for chemical looping coal gasification. • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have minimal reactivity with synthesis gas. • Steam enhances the gasification process with these oxygen carriers. • Reaction rates of steam gasification of coal with CaFe 2 O 4 was better than with gaseous oxygen. • Coal gasification appears to be via solid–solid interaction with the oxygen carrier. - Abstract: Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe 2 O 4 ) and calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H 2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H 2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  17. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian K.; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this “slurry effect” on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, 14 C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in “intact” soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. - Highlights: ► We studied the protozoan impact on MCPA mineralization in soil slurries. ► Cycloheximide was used as protozoan inhibitor. ► Protozoa inhibited MCPA mineralization in dilute topsoil slurry and subsoil slurry. ► Mineralization potentials may be underestimated when using soil slurries. - Protozoan predation may strongly bias the quantification of mineralization potential when performed in soil slurries, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low such as in subsoil or very dilute topsoil slurries.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of ancient buried wood-II. Observations on the origin of coal from lignite to bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Breger, I.A.; Szeverenyi, N.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Coalified logs ranging in age from Late Pennsylvania to Miocene and in rank from lignite B to bituminous coal were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) utilizing the cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning technique, as well as by infrared spectroscopy. The results of this study indicate that at least three major stages of coalification can be observed as wood gradually undergoes transformation to bituminous coal. The first stage involves hydrolysis and loss of cellulose from wood with retention and differential concentration of the resistant lignin. The second stage involves conversion of the lignin residues directly to coalified wood of lignitic rank, during which the oxygen content of intermediate diagenetic products remains constant as the hydrogen content and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to involve loss of methoxyl groups, water, and C3 side chains from the lignin. In the third major stage of coalification, the coalified wood increases in rank to subbituminous and bituminous coal; during this stage the oxygen content decreases, hydrogen remains constant, and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to result from loss of soluble humic acids that are rich in oxygen and that are mobilized during compaction and dewatering. Relatively resistant resinous substances are differentially concentrated in the coal during this stage. The hypothesis that humic acids are formed as mobile by-products of the coalification of lignin and function only as vehicles for removal of oxygen represents a dramatic departure from commonly accepted views that they are relatively low-molecular-weight intermediates formed during the degradation of lignin that then condense to form high-molecular-weight coal structures. ?? 1982.

  19. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  20. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  1. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer

  2. Radioactive waste slurry dehydrating and drum filling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, Toshio; Abe, Kazuaki; Hasegawa, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for simultaneously filling and dehydrating radioactive waste in a waste can without the necessity of a special device for dehydration. Constitution: This device includes a radioactive waste storage tank, a pump for supplying the waste from the tank to a can, a drain tube having a filter at the lower end and installed displaceable in the axial direction of the can, and a drain pump. The slurry stored in the radioactive waste storage tank is supplied by the pump to the can, and the feedwater in the slurry is removed by another pump through a drain pipe having a filter which does not pass solid content from the can. Accordingly, as the slurry is filled in the can, the feedwater contained therein is removed. Consequently, it can simultaneously dehydrate and fill the dehydrated waste in the can. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  5. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rawls, P. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  6. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  7. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, T.M.; Melick, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources, has been awarded a DOE contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler with a coal-water slurry firing system. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the principle concern when firing slurry in fire-tube boilers, EER has focused the program on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. This paper reports on the program which consists of five tasks. Task 1 provides for the design and retrofit of the host boiler to fire coal-water slurry. Task 2 is a series of optimization tests that will determine the effects of adjustable parameters on boiler performance. Task 3 will perform about 1000 hours of proof-of-concept system tests. Task 4 will be a comprehensive review of the test data in order to evaluate the economics of slurry conversions. Task 5 will be the decommissioning of the test facility if required

  8. A compact XRF unit for determining total sulphur content in coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitra, T.; Chankow, N.; Punnachaiya, S.; Srisatit, S.

    1994-01-01

    A microcomputer based x-ray fluorescence (XRF) unit was developed for off-line determination of total sulphur content in coal samples. The unit consisted of the x-ray exciting/measuring set and the microcomputer with a plug-in interface card. An Fe-55 radioisotope was used as the exciting source while a krypton-filled proportional counter was used to measure x-rays from the samples. The x-ray spectrum was simultaneously displayed on the microcomputer screen. For quantitative determination of sulphur, the intensities of sulphur K x-rays as well as calcium K x-rays and scattered x-rays were taken into account. The unit was tested with finely-ground, dried and compressed lignite, subbituminous and bituminous samples. If was found that for low-calcium coals, the results were in good agreement with those obtained from the standard chemical analysis method within ± 0.2% and within ± 0.5%S for high-calcium coals. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  9. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char-for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests

  10. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  11. Refining and end use study of coal liquids I - pilot plant studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Office of Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center is examining the ways in which coal liquids may best be integrated into the refinery of the 2000-2015 time frame and what performance and emission properties will prevail among the slate of fuels produced. The study consists of a Basic Program administered by Bechtel Group, Inc. to build a linear programming refinery model and provide processing and fuel properties data through subcontractors Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and M.W. Kellogg Company. The model will be used in an Option 1 to devise a slate of test fuels meeting advanced specifications, which will be produced and tested for physical ASTM-type properties, engine performance, and vehicle emissions. Three coal liquids will be included: a direct liquid from bituminous coal, another from subbituminous, and a Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction product. This paper reports the work to date on fractions of the first direct liquid including naphtha hydrotreating, heavy distillate hydrotreating, FCC of the heavy distillate hydrotreater products. Also reported are the first stages of work on the indirect liquefaction wax including feed preparation and FCC tests of blends with petroleum FCC feed.

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Adsorbents from Coal and Irvingia gabonensis Seed Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokonkwo, Mercy A.; Ofor, Okechukwu F.; Ani, Julius U.

    2017-12-01

    The adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions on adsorbents prepared from sub-bituminous coal, lignite and a blend of coal and Irvingia gabonensis seed shells was investigated. Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence analyses implicated hydroxyl, carbonyl, Al2O3 and SiO2 as being responsible for binding the metal ions on the porous adsorbents. The optimum adsorption of carbonized lignite for the removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous media were 80.93% and 87.85%, respectively. Batch adsorption was done by effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, temperature, particle size, and initial concentration. Equilibrium for the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) was established within 100 and 120 min respectively. Blending the lignite-derived adsorbent with Irvingia gabonensis seed shell improved the performance significantly. More improvement was observed on modification of the blend using NaOH and H3PO4. Pb(II) was preferentially adsorbed than Cd(II) in all cases. Adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions followed Langmuir isotherm. The kinetics of adsorption was best described by pseudo-second order model. The potential for using a blend of coal and agricultural byproduct (Irvingia gabonensis seed shell) was found to be a viable alternative for removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

  13. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  14. Startup of a Joule-heated glass melter with a graphite slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.L.; Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical equations and physical and electrical property data of various graphite slurries for starting up a glass melter. An application test is also included to demonstrate the graphite slurry startup technique

  15. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF A NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC HERBICIDE IN ANOXIC AQUIFER SLURRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions. Liquid chromatograhy-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanogenic conditions but was not...

  16. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  17. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for ground water contamination as compared to application of raw slurry.......The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period......, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method although recovery rates were low (liquid slurry leached 73% and 90% more oocysts compared with columns with injected and surface applied raw slurry, respectively...

  18. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  19. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  20. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.