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Sample records for subbituminous coal slurry

  1. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  2. Liquefaction of sub-bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1986-01-01

    Sub-bituminous coal is directly liquefied in two stages by use of a liquefaction solvent containing insoluble material as well as 850.degree. F.+ material and 850.degree. F.- material derived from the second stage, and controlled temperature and conversion in the second stage. The process is in hydrogen balance.

  3. Reductive pyrolysis study of biodesulfurized subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Marinov; L. Gonsalvesha; M. Stefanova; Y. Yueeriem; A.G. Dumanli; N. Kolankaya; M. Sam; R. Carleer; G. Reggers; J. Yperman [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    Biodesulfurization is one of the perspective methods for production of friendly fuels. Reductive pyrolysis in mode of atmospheric pressure temperature programmed reduction (AP-TPR) combined with varied detection systems gave us possibility to obtain more satisfactory explanation of biodesulfurization effects. AP-TPR coupled 'on-line' and 'off-line' with potentiometry, mass spectrometry and GC/MS analysis with inner sulfur standards for quantification were applied. Subbituminous coal from 'Pirin' basin, Bulgaria was treated by three different types of microorganisms with maximal desulfurization effect for total (26%) and organic sulfur (13%). Namely, two types white rot fungi - 'Trametes Versicolor', 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' and one mixed bacterial culture were used. Improved sulfur balance determination was registered. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Electrolysis of coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, K.E.; Tran, T.; Swinkels, D.

    1984-01-01

    The major aims of the project were: to verify early reports of the American workers and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept of electrolysis of coal slurries; investigate reaction mechanisms and the stoichiometry; measure the reducing power and oxidation kinetics of selected Australian coals; investigate some process variables, and demonstrate an electrolysis cell with practical electrode geometry.

  5. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  6. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  7. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Two-stage liquefaction of a Spanish subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.T.; Fernandez, I.; Benito, A.M.; Cebolla, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.H. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A Spanish subbituminous coal has been processed in two-stage liquefaction in a non-integrated process. The first-stage coal liquefaction has been carried out in a continuous pilot plant in Germany at Clausthal Technical University at 400[degree]C, 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and anthracene oil as solvent. The second-stage coal liquefaction has been performed in continuous operation in a hydroprocessing unit at the Instituto de Carboquimica at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The total conversion for the first-stage coal liquefaction was 75.41 wt% (coal d.a.f.), being 3.79 wt% gases, 2.58 wt% primary condensate and 69.04 wt% heavy liquids. The heteroatoms removal for the second-stage liquefaction was 97-99 wt% of S, 85-87 wt% of N and 93-100 wt% of O. The hydroprocessed liquids have about 70% of compounds with boiling point below 350[degree]C, and meet the sulphur and nitrogen specifications for refinery feedstocks. Liquids from two-stage coal liquefaction have been distilled, and the naphtha, kerosene and diesel fractions obtained have been characterized. 39 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 262 with Black Thunder subbituminous coal: Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 262 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on July 10, 1991 and continued until September 30, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). A dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating solids buildup was also evaluated. Half volume reactors were used with supported Criterion 324 1/16`` catalyst in the second stage at a catalyst replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The hybrid dispersed plus supported catalyst system was tested for the effect of space velocity, second stage temperature, and molybdenum concentration. The supported catalyst was removed from the second stage for one test period to see the performance of slurry reactors. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run (dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was used as the sulfiding agent). The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 1271.2 hours for an on-stream factor of 89.8% and the ROSE-SR unit was on-feed for 1101.6 hours for an on-stream factor of 90.3% for the entire run.

  10. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 14. Gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fourteen volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal, from August 11, 1984 to August 15, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. XRD and FT–IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    such as gasification, liquefaction, combustion, carbonization and desulphurization. There is still only little basic in- formation concerning the structure of Assam coal. Assam coals have been classified as sub-bituminous on the basis of the studies on their chemical compositions and physical characteristics (Myers 1981).

  12. Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbaty, Martin L.; Taunton, John W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate deposits, e.g., vaterite, which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. A solution of a compound or salt characterized by the formula MX, where M is a Group IA metal of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X is an anion which is capable of forming water-insoluble, thermally stable calcium compounds, is maintained in contact with a particulate coal feed sufficient to impregnate said salt or compound into the pores of the coal. On separation of the impregnated particulate coal from the solution, the coal can be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of vaterite or other forms of calcium carbonate on reactor surfaces, auxiliary equipment and the like; and the Group IA metal which remains within the liquefaction bottoms catalyzes the reaction when the liquefaction bottoms are subjected to a gasification reaction.

  13. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. Phase I summary report, October 15, 1977-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffee, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    Slurry fuels comprised of either bituminous, subbituminous, or lignite coal, and either aqeuous media or emulsions of No. 6 oil in water as the carrier were developed and evaluated at solids loadings up to 70% by weight. Emphasis was placed on aqueous slurries of bituminous coal. These slurries were developed for use in place of No. 6 oil in oil-fired burners. High solids loadings were attained by use of bimodal particle size distributions, which are blends of coarse-grind coal (approx. 50 to 85% -50 mesh) and fine-grind coal (generally 90% -200 mesh). The effect of the blends on slurry viscosity was determined to find the blends that minimize viscosity. The effect of mill conditions on particle size distribution was determined for each coal, using a hammermill pulverizer. A large number of water-soluble resins were evaluated for effect on slurry stability and viscosity. The best of these was found to be hydroxypropylated corn starch. Slurries based on the use of 3% solutions of the starch in water were prepared with up to 70% by weight bituminous coal and up to 65% subbituminous coal. The slurries are pourable pseudo-plastic fluids having room-temperature viscosities in the range of 550 to 1100 cp at a shear rate of 3000 sec/sup -1/, depending on the type of coal, solids loading, and particle size distribution. None of the slurries exhibited hard pack settling, even after room-temperature storage up to 74 days. Oil-in-water emulsions made with polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether as an emulsifier were found to be stable with respect to phase separation when stored at 160/sup 0/F. Slurries made with these emulsions do not exhibit hard pack settling after one week storage at 160/sup 0/F.

  15. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  16. Biodesulphurized subbituminous coal by different fungi and bacteria studied by reductive pyrolysis. Part 1: Initial coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Gonsalvesh; S.P. Marinov; M. Stefanova; Y. Yurum; A.G. Dumanli; G. Dinler-Doganay; N. Kolankaya; M. Sam; R. Carleer; G. Reggers; E. Thijssen; J. Yperman [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2008-09-15

    One of the perspective methods for clean solid fuels production is biodesulphurization. In order to increase the effect of this approach it is necessary to apply the advantages of more informative analytical techniques. Atmospheric pressure temperature programming reduction (AP-TPR) coupled with different detection systems gave us ground to attain more satisfactory explanation of the effects of biodesulphurization on the treated solid products. Subbituminous high sulphur coal from 'Pirin' basin (Bulgaria) was selected as a high sulphur containing sample. Different types of microorganisms were chosen and maximal desulphurization of 26% was registered. Biodesulphurization treatments were performed with three types of fungi: 'Trametes Versicolor' - ATCC No. 200801, 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' - ME446, Pleurotus Sajor-Caju and one Mixed Culture of bacteria - ATCC No. 39327. A high degree of inorganic sulphur removal (79%) with Mixed Culture of bacteria and consecutive reduction by 13% for organic sulphur (Sorg) decrease with 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' and 'Trametes Versicolor' were achieved. To follow the Sorg changes a set of different detection systems i.e. AP-TPR coupled 'on-line' with mass spectrometry (AP-TPR/MS), on-line with potentiometry (AP-TPR/pot) and by the 'off-line' AP-TPR/GC/MS analysis was used. The need of applying different atmospheres in pyrolysis experiments was proved and their effects were discussed. In order to reach more precise total sulphur balance, oxygen bomb combustion followed by ion chromatography was used. 28 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Interaction of organic solvent with a subbituminous coal below pyrolysis temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.; Grens, E.A.

    1978-06-01

    The interactions of a subbituminous coal with certain binary organic solvent mixtures have been studied at 250/sup 0/C. Mixtures of pyridine, quinoline, piperidine, tetrahydroquinoline, and ethylenediamine with either toluene or tetralin were contacted with coal in a successive batch, stirred reactor, the extractions being carried to near completion. Two distinct behaviors of extraction yield as a function of composition have been identified. In the majority of the solvent mixtures the extraction yield increases linearly with increasing concentration of the more active solvent. When the active solvent is ethylenediamine, however, the extraction yield increases rapidly when small concentrations of ethylenediamine are used but then levels out close to its maximum value in a 50 to 50 mix. This behavior is an indication that, except in the case of ethylenediamine, the activity of solvent mixtures is a function of bulk solution properties.

  18. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  19. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 12. Gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial particpants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the twelfth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. this specific reports describes the gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal. This volume covers the test period June 18, 1984 to June 30, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 3. Gasification of Rosebud sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the third volume in a series of documents prepared by Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated and describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal during the time period November 2-20, 1982. Test results and data are presented for the gasification of the coal and the operation of a slipstream tar scrubber to cool the gas and remove condensed tar. 5 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  2. Interaction of organic solvents with a subbituminous coal below pyrolysis temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorighi, G.P.

    1977-06-01

    The interactions of a subbituminous coal with pyridine, quinoline, piperidine, ethylenediamine, and tetrahydrofuran have been studied at temperatures ranging from 100 to 350/sup 0/C under the conditions of constant temperature contracting with pure solvent. The yields of extracted material were as high as 64.3 wt% with ethylenediamine at 250/sup 0/C on a dry, ash-free basis. The hydrogen to carbon molecular ratios in the extracts decreased with the temperature of extraction and as the yield increased and were found to be less than half that of the coal (1.01) in cases of large extracted yields. The extracted materials were generally only slightly soluble in cyclohexane or benzene, that is they consisted largely of preasphaltenes. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated the hydrogen content of the extracted material was overwhelmingly (avg. = 88%) aliphatic. The more effective solvents were retained to a high degree in the extracted material. This fact, coupled with a hydrogen deficiency in the extract plus coal residue, suggests the formation of combinations between elements in the coal structure and solvent, accompanied by elimination of water.

  3. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  4. An alternative SEM drying method using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for microbial cell attachment studies on sub-bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrin-Chong, Nur Hazlin; Manefield, Mike

    2012-08-01

    The use of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as a drying agent was investigated in the specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of bacterial surface colonization on sub-bituminous coal. The ability of microbes to biofragment, ferment and generate methane from coal has sparked interest in the initial attachment and colonization of coal surfaces. HMDS represents an attractive alternative to critical point drying (CPD) in the imaging of cells on coal, negating the need for expensive equipment. Coal is easily fragmented into sub-micron particles, which can be problematic in critical point drying procedures. In this study, both individual and aggregated cells appeared well shaped with minimal occurrence of flattened cells, signifying the suitability of HMDS in cell attachment studies on sub-bituminous coal. In the absence of glucose, microcolonies of short and long cells showed similar positive results using this method. EPS shrinkage found in microcolonies was inevitable, though this enabled observation of points of attachment between cells and with coal, which would be less effective if the EPS was intact. Overall the use of HMDS drying is preferred over the more commonly used CPD method as it is safer, cheaper and more practical. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ANALYSIS OF COAL TAR COMPOSITIONS PRODUCED FROM SUB-BITUMINOUS KALIMANTAN COAL TAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kind of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78 chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene, naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar is 33.25% (PT KPC and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan. The total naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC and 17.13% (ArutminKalimantan.

  6. The resource utilization of algae - preparing coal slurry with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidong Li; Weifeng Li; Haifeng Li [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Education Ministry of China

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, the methods of resource utilization of algae are very few. In this study, we propose a new way to dispose algae, which is gasification of coal-algae slurry. Coal slurries prepared with algae were investigated, and gasification reactivity of coal-algae slurry was compared with that of coal-water slurry (CWS). The results showed that, anaerobic fermentation, chemical treatment, high-speed shearing and heating are effective pre-treatment methods on reducing the viscosity of algae, which could obviously increase the maximum solids concentration of coal-algae slurry. When the de-ionized water/algae ratio is 1:1, the maximum solids concentration could get to 62.5 wt.%, which is almost the same as that of CWS. All the coal-algae slurries exhibit pseudo-plastic behavior, and this type of fluid is shear-thinning. Compared with CWS, the stability of coal-algae slurry is much better, which could be no solids deposition after 70 h. The coal-algae slurry displays better gasification reactivity than CWS. 30 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  8. Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

  9. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  10. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... with steam/carbon ratio of 5, the syngas components are similar with that in equilibrium. A synergistic effect exists between coal and bio-oil in coal/bio-oil slurry gasification which might be caused by the catalysis effect of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in bio-oil....

  11. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography observations of the thermal drying of lump-sized subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Jonathan P. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); EMS Energy Institute, University Park, PA (United States); Pone, J. Denis N. [ConocoPhilips Technology Center, Bartlesville, Oklahoma (United States); Mitchell, Gareth D.; Halleck, Phillip [EMS Energy Institute, University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Drying of low-rank coals affects: coal cleaning, combustion, comminution, gasification, liquefaction, and in-seam fluid-flow (water, coalbed methane, and carbon dioxide for sequestration/enhanced coalbed methane). To evaluate the extent of drying-induced transitions, 3 lump-sized (approximately 6 x 2 x 2 cm) Powder River Basin subbituminous coal samples were thermally dried in an air-drying coal oven at 50 C over two weeks. A high-resolution industrial X-ray computed tomography scanner was utilized to generate (non-destructively) three-dimensional regional volumetric renderings, as-received and over 3-stages of drying. The lumps had cleats, both open and mineral filled, with a degree of fracture diversity along the longitudinal plane. Comparison of the virtual slice surfaces, at identifiable locations, allowed the induced cracking and shrinkage accompanying the transitions during 19% moisture loss to almost dry to be observed. Under these drying conditions, the heat transfer, and thus extent of drying, proceeded radially inward. With increased drying time the fractures extend and become larger in aperture as the coal shrinks. The major fractures mostly followed the existing cleat system. With additional drying, these cleats widened and the aperture increase propagated deeper into the coal extended into the butt cleats. New fractures were located mostly perpendicular to the cleat fracture surface. The external volume of the coal lumps had limited shrinkage. The axial extent of the shrinkage length (lump edge to lump edge) was on the order of 4-6%, the bulk of the shrinkage being accommodated by the internal shrinkage between cleats. (author)

  12. Trace elements in high-S subbituminous coals from the Teruel mining district, northeast Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Turiel, J.L.F.; Soler, A.L.; Duran, M.E. (Institute of Earth Sciences, Barcelona (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    The elemental composition of high temperature ash (750[degree]C) and forms of S were studied in 25 coal seams from the Escucha Formation (Middle Albian) in the Teruel Mining District, northeast Spain. The principal analytical method was ICP-MS, but ICP-ES was also used in the determination of some trace elements. The analytical data show wide ranges of trace element contents among the coal seams studied, even in the vertical profile of a single coal seam. These wide ranges of the trace element concentrations are attributed to both syngenetic and epigenetic processes. When a comparison was made between the average trace element contentsof the Teruel Mining District coals, and those of the average content in worldwide coals, the Teruel coals show slightly higher concentrations of Be and U, and lower concentrations of Ba, Cd Mn, Pb, Sr and Zr. Further, three main groups of trace elements were differentiated on the basis of the inorganic/organic affinity; Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Mn, Ni, Rb and Ze. Between these, Ba, Ce, Cr and Rb show a well defined correlation with the clay mineral content, and Co and Ni with pyritic-S content; (2)trace elements with an intermediate (mixed) affinity; As, Cd, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ge, Ho, Lu, Mo, Nd, Pb, Pr, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zr. In this group, As, Cd, Cu, Ge, Mo, Th, U and Zn show a weak trend associated with the mineral matter and Sr with the organic matter; and (3) Be shows an organic affinity. The high mineral matter content (21.3% HTA) of the Teruel coals may account for the great number of elements with inorganic affinity. This classification represents a general trend, but the results show that the affinities of some trace elements (e.g. As, Sb, and Zn) may vary from one coal seam to another in the Teruel Mining District.

  13. XRD and FT–IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study indicates that the coals are lignite in type and there is no evidence of graphite-like structures. The maximum in the () plots of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) relates to different distances between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains. The first significant maximum relates to the C–C bond (type ...

  14. Effects of main parameters on rheological properties of oil-coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yong-gang; Hao Li-fang; Xiong Chu-an; Sun Xiu-ying [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Oil-coal slurry prepared in coal direct liquefaction is a dispersed solid-liquid suspension system. In this paper, some factors such as solvent properties, solid concentrations and temperatures, which affect viscosity change of oil-coal slurry, were studied. The viscosity of coal slurry was measured using rotary viscometer, and the rheological properties have been investigated. The viscosity and rheological curves were plotted and regressed, respectively. The results show that the coal slurry behaves a pseudoplastic and thixotropic property. The rheological type of coal slurry was ascertained and its rheological equations were educed. The oil-coal slurry changes to non-Newtonian fluid from Newtonian fluid with the increasing of solid concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Bench-scale synthesis of zeolite A from subbituminous coal ashes with high crystalline silica content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareonpanich, M.; Jullaphan, O.; Tang, C. [Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    In this present work, fly ash and bottom ash with high crystalline silica content were obtained from the coal-fired boilers within the paper industries in Thailand. These coal ashes were used as the basic raw materials for synthetic zeolite production. The crystal type and crystallinity, specific surface area and pore size, and textural properties of zeolite products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), N{sub 2} sorption analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that sodalite octahydrate was selectively formed via the direct conventional (one-step) synthesis, whereas through a two-step, sodium silicate preparation and consecutive zeolite A synthesis process, 94 and 72 wt.% zeolite A products could be produced from the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. The cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of fly ash and bottom ash-derived zeolite A products were closely similar to that of the commercial grade zeolite A.

  16. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  17. The middle Eocene Markushegy subbituminous coal (Hungary): Paleoenvironmental implications from petrographical and geochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A. [Department Angewandte Geowissenschaften und Geophysik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str. 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Hamor-Vido, M. [Eoetvoes Lorand Geophysical Institute of Hungary, Kolumbusz u. 17-23, 1145 Budapest (Hungary); Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Reischenbacher, D.; Gratzer, R. [Department Angewandte Geowissenschaften und Geophysik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str. 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Puettmann, W. [Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Analytical Environmental Chemistry, J. W. Goethe-University, Georg-Voigt-Str. 14, D-60054 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)

    2007-09-03

    Samples from two coal seams of the Markushegy underground mine (Hungary) were investigated for variations in maceral composition, petrography-based facies indicators and various geochemical parameters, using three seam profiles. Both seams originate from a topogenous mire and evolved within a peneplaned coastal area covered with eutrophic swamps. The presence of foraminifera and marine algae in the marly layers is indicative of marine ingressions. Coal facies characterisation from these parameters is combined with the results from biomarker analyses of soluble organic matter in order to reconstruct the depositional environment and to relate petrography-based indicators to the molecular composition. The contents of macerals of the liptinite group are positively correlated with soluble organic matter (SOM) yields and Hydrogen Index (HI). Consistent with maceral composition and high HI values, enhanced proportions of n-alkanes of intermediate molecular weight (n-C{sub 21-25}), which are predominantly found in macrophytes, are obtained from samples of the marly shales. The final drowning of the mire is reflected by decreasing pristane/phytane ratios, due to the rise of the (ground)water table and the establishment of anaerobic conditions. The observed positive correlation between pristane/phytane ratios and inertinite percentages suggests that, at least in the Markushegy deposit, both parameters reflect variations in redox conditions of the mire. The predominance of angiosperms in the peat-forming vegetation of the Markushegy coal is evidenced by the high relative proportions of angiosperm-derived triterpenoids. The influence of the relative proportion of fossil wood on tissue preservation (TPI) is indicated by the positive relationship of the concentration of land plant-derived terpenoid hydrocarbons and TPI. The degree of gelification of plant tissue (GI) is governed by the microbial activity in the mire, as indicated by a negative relationship between GI and the

  18. Prediction of coal slurry concentration based on artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Li, Y.; Cheng, J.; Zhou, Z.; Li, S.; Liu, J.; Cen, K. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2005-12-15

    Based on experimental data of coal slurry, three BP neural network models with 8, 7 and 5 input factors, were set up for predicting the slurry concentration. Three BP neural networks algorithm was Levenberg Marquardt algorithm, and their learning rate was 0.01. The hidden neurons number was settled by practical training effect of the networks. The hidden neurons number of BP model, with 8, 7 and 5 input factors is 27, 30 and 24, respectively. Two data treated methods were tested by seven input factors network model, which proves that the first method is the better one. The mean absolute error of the neural network models with 5, 7 and 8 factors is 0.53%, 0.50% and 0.74%, respectively, while that of the existed regression model is 1.15%. This indicates that the neural network models, especially the 7 factors model, are effective in predicting the slurry. The HGI input neuron in eight input factors model affects the prediction result because of its interference to other input factors. The effect of H and N in coal on the slurry is slight. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Fulvic acid constituents of coal slurry transport wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.C.; Davis, J.W.; Minear, R.A.; Sayler, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Humic and fulvic components in coal slurry transport wastewater (pipeline and laboratory generated) were fractionated by XAD-8 adsorption chromatography. The wastewaters were dominated by fulvic acids with humic acid contributing <1% of the total DOC. Partial degradation of the fulvic and non-fulvic acid fractions was conducted using permanganate oxidation and derivatization with diazomethane. Methylated decomposition products were examined by GC-MS. Wyodak coal slurry preparations were dominated by both aromatic and aliphatic moieties as demonstrated by six distinct classes of decomposition products, while Black Mesa pipeline wastewater DOC appeared to be dominated by fulvic acids of an aliphatic character as suggested by the presence of a single decomposition product, oxalic acid. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Co-gasification of pine and oak biochar with sub-bituminous coal in carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagle, E; Wang, Y; Bell, D; Belmont, E

    2018-03-01

    Pine and oak biochars derived as byproducts of demonstration-scale pyrolysis, and blends of these two feedstocks with Powder River Basin coal, were gasified in a carbon dioxide environment using a modified drop tube reactor (MDTR) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The impact of gasification temperature on conversion kinetics was evaluated from the temporal evolution of major product gases in the MDTR as measured using a mass spectrometer. Random pore modeling was conducted to simulate gasification in the MDTR with favorable results. The MDTR and TGA were used to conduct gasification for assessment of non-linear additive effects in the blends. Additive analysis of the blends showed deviation from the experimental blend results, indicating inhibiting effects of co-gasifying the biochar and coal. Inhibitory effects are more significant for oak than pine and more pronounced in the TGA at lower gasification temperatures. Results are discussed in the context of feedstock and reactor type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyrolysis g.c.-m.s. of a series of degraded woods and coalified logs that increase in rank from peat to subbituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Kotra, R.K.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    Xylem tissue from degraded wood and coalified logs or stems was examined by pyrolysis g.c.-m.s. to improve understanding of the coalification process. The pyrolysis data, when combined with solid-state 13C n.m.r. data for the same samples, show several stages of evolution during coalification. The first stage, microbial degradation in peat, involves the selective degradation of cellulosic components and preservation of lignin-like components. As coalification increases, the lignin structural units undergo a series of defunctionalization reactions. The first of these involve loss of methoxyl groups, with replacement by phenolic hydroxyls such that catechol-like structures are produced. As the xylem tissue is converted to subbituminous coal, the persistence of phenols and methylated phenols in pyrolysis g.c.-m.s. data of subbituminous coal suggests that the catechol-like structures are being converted to phenol-like structures. The ability to discern detailed changes in the chemical structural composition of a genetically and histologically related series of samples provides an ideal method for developing models of coal structure, especially that of low-rank coal. ?? 1988.

  2. Liquid CO2/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Goldstein, Harvey [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dooher, John [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO2/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO2 has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO2 is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO2 through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO2 is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO2 is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO2 slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO2 has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO2 over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO2/coal slurry properties.

  3. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

    1996-08-01

    The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

  4. A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1990-05-01

    Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  6. Assessment of slurry pressure letdown valve and slurry block valve technology for direct coal liquefaction demonstration and pioneer commercial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1984-10-01

    This report examines the status of the technology of high pressure slurry letdown valves and slurry block valves in coal liquefaction service. All of the demonstration and pioneer commercial direct liquefaction plant designs call for the use of high pressure slurry letdown valves for flow control and slurry block valves for flow isolation. Successful performance and reliability of these valves is a serious concern because of the severity of the process streams and the limited experience and performance data on these valves under such conditions. The objectives of this report are: (1) to examine the existing data base on these valves from the four major direct coal liquefaction pilot plants in the US, (2) to present the recommendations from the pilot plant experience, (3) to examine the specifications for the letdown and block valves in the demonstration/pioneer commercial designs, and (4) to identify the scale-up issues, data gaps, and development and testing needs. 23 references, 20 figures, 7 tables.

  7. Acoustically enhanced combustion of micronized coal water slurry fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmann, G. M.; Scaroni, A. W.; Yavuzkurt, S.; Reethof, G.; Ramachandran, P.; Ha, M. Y.

    1989-05-01

    A multi-faceted investigation has been carried out to demonstrate analytically and experimentally, that a high intensity acoustic field can be substantially enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during MCWSF (micronized coal water slurry fuel) combustion. The initial stage of the investigation dealt with elucidating the transient as well as time-averaged efforts of high intensity acoustic fields on the heat and mass transfer between a single spherical particle and its environment. A two-dimensional unsteady computer code was developed, which employs the unsteady conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations for laminar flow in spherical coordinates. One objective of the present project was the modeling of MCWSF combustion in a laboratory scale combustor with and without the application of a sonic field. The influence of various operating parameters (sound frequency and level, etc.) on sonic enhancement could thus be studied. The combustion of pulverized coal (PC) was also modeled for the sake of comparison. The first of the two coal combustion experiments was performed using a flat flame methane-air burner. Micronized coal was injected in the same direction as, and burned together with the methane. The final investigation was carried out in a 300,000 Btu/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to the combustor. Frequency was held at 1400 Hz. Finally, an attempt was made to model the runs performed in the down-fired unit, using the PCGC-2 code. 61 refs., 60 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids (CSS) from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids.

  9. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  10. Increasing the effectiveness of flotation of large classes of coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogloblin, N.D.; Gruba, I.V.; Samoylov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of increasing the effectiveness of flotation of coal slurries which contain particles of +0.3 millimeters with the use of the proposed technology is shown. The obtained data are confirmed during experimental industrial tests.

  11. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohene, F.

    1997-05-01

    To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

  12. Effect of particle size distribution on the rheology of oil-coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, L.; Wang, Y.; Xiong, C. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2007-02-15

    The rheological behaviour of Shenhua coal-oil slurry was studied as a function of solids concentration, particle size and size distribution. At a certain particle size distribution the apparent viscosity of coal slurry increases with the increase of solid concentration. Coal slurries were found to exhibit a wide spectrum of flow behaviour ranging from Newtonian at low concentrations to shear-thinning and pseudoplastic with a yield stress at higher concentrations. By adding a narrow-sized coarse coal fraction to the finer coal slurry, a flow characteristics optimum coarse-to-fine particle ratio of 40:60 exists at which the slurry is Newtonian. The significant improvement in the rheological behavior with changing the particle size distribution may be explained in terms of spatial rearrangement of the particles and apparent dilution effect. The results indicate that, with a careful control of the particle size distribution, it is possible to prepare an optimum oil-coal slurry which has a low viscosity but with high solids loadings. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Fan, Junjie; Zhao, Houyin; Zhou, Tuo; Hack, Pauline; Chan, Chia-Chun; Liou, Jian-Chang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150 degrees C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. This was also true when limestone was added while cofiring coal and chicken waste because the gaseous chlorine was reduced in the freeboard of the fluidized bed combustor, where the temperature was generally below 650 degrees C without addition of the secondary air. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650 degrees C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be

  14. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  15. Coal slurry combustion optimization on single cylinder engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, GE Transportation System has been conducting a proof of concept program to use coal water slurry (CWS) fuel to power a diesel engine locomotive since 1988. As reported earlier [1], a high pressure electronically controlled accumulator injector using a diamond compact insert nozzle was developed for this project. The improved reliability and durability of this new FIE allowed for an improved and more thorough study of combustion of CWS fuel in a diesel engine. It was decided to include a diesel pilot fuel injector in the combustion system mainly due to engine start and low load operation needs. BKM, Inc. of San Diego, CA was contracted to develop the electronic diesel fuel pilot/starting FIE for the research engine. As a result, the experimental combustion study was very much facilitated due to the ability of changing pilot/CWS injection timings and quantities without having to stop the engine. Other parameters studied included combustion chamber configuration (by changing CWS fuel injector nozzle hole number/shape/angle), as well as injection pressure. The initial phase of this combustion study is now complete. The results have been adopted into the design of a 12 cylinder engine FIE, to be tested in 1992. This paper summarizes the main findings of this study.

  16. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  17. Fiscal 1993 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Supply to Japan of subbituminous coal of the west of the U.S. (survey of the cost and a potentiality of the cost); 1993 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban sokushin chosa. Beikoku seibu arekiseitan no tainichi kyokyu (cost to yunyu chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Subbituminous coal of the Powder River coal field in the west of the U.S. is abundant, about 1/3 in the U.S. in reserve and about 1/4 in production. It is predicted that supply/demand of general coal will be tight from now up to the coming year of 2000 in the Pacific rim region including Japan as center, and therefore, if Japan imports in large quantity the subbituminous coal which exists abundantly and has a great potentiality of the expanding production quantity, Japan can contribute greatly to loosening the supply/demand of general coal in the Pacific rim region. However, there are some problems on the following: long inland transportation distance of more than 2000km, heavy burden of railroad fare, and coal quality, namely high water content, low calorific value, and low ash melting point of the coal being low in sulfur and ash. Accordingly, surveyed were on what level the cost of supply to Japan will be as compared with Australian coal, and whether there is a possibility of import of the subbituminous coal in large quantity at a competitive price. As to the potential import to Japan, the import of this coal will be 2.025 million tons/year at maximum in 2000 if the railroad price is reduced 20% and the blending of 30% at maximum can be realized at the Soma Kyodo Thermal Power Plant. 34 figs., 48 tabs.

  18. Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

  19. Effect of the molecular weight of sodium polystyrene sulfonate on the properties of coal water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.; Gao, F.; Li, Y. [Ningxia University, Yinchuan (China)

    2006-06-15

    Three sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) additives with different molecular weight and 8 coals are selected to evaluate the effect of molecular weight of PSS on the properties of coal water slurry (CWS). The range of weight average molecular weight of PSS for preparing coal water slurry is from 53400 to 333900. The results indicate that the slurryability of CWS of 8 coals decreases as the molecular weight of PSS increases. The relation between slurry ability of CWS and molecular weight of PSS is attributed to the adsorption of PSS on the coal particles. The adsorption quantity of PSS with low molecular weight on the coal particles is larger than that of PSS with high molecular weight. On the other hand, the rheological behavior of CWS of 8 coals is changed from dilatant flow to pseudoplastic one as the increase of molecular weight of PSS. The static stability of CWS is also improved with increasing molecular weight of PSS. 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Comparison of litter decomposition in a natural versus coal-slurry pond reclaimed as a wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.; Middleton, B.A. [National Wetlands Research Center (USGS), Lafayette, LA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Decomposition is a key function in reclaimed wetlands, and changes in its rate have ramifications for organic-matter accumulation, nutrient cycling, and production. The purpose of this study was to compare leaf litter decomposition rates in coal-slurry ponds vs. natural wetlands on natural floodplain wetlands in Illinois, USA. The rate of decomposition was slower in the natural wetland vs. the coal pond (k = 0.0043{+-}0.0008 vs. 0.0066{+-}0.0011, respectively); the soil of the natural wetland was more acidic than the coal pond in this study (pH = 5.3 vs. 7.9, respectively). Similarly, higher organic matter levels were related to lower pH levels, and organic matter levels were seven-times higher in the natural wetland than in the coal pond. The coal slurry pond was five years old at the time of the study, while the natural oxbow wetland was older (more than 550 years). The coal-slurry pond was originally a floodplain wetland (slough); the downstream end was blocked with a stoplog structure and the oxbow filled with slurry. The pattern of decomposition for all species in the coal pond was the same as in the natural pond; Potomogeton nodosus decomposed more quickly than Phragmites australis, and both of these species decomposed more quickly than either Typha latifolia or Cyperus erythrorhizos. Depending on how open or closed the system is to outside inputs, decomposition rate regulates other functions such as production, nutrient cycling, organic-layer accumulation in the soil, and the timing and nature of delivery of detritus to the food chain.

  1. Flow resistance reduction of coal water slurry through gas phase addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main advantages of coal water slurry fuel (CWS is a physical form that allows, among others, their transfer by pipelines over long distances. For this form of transport actions towards reducing the flow resistance of the transmitted medium are important. One of the treatments leading to reduction in the flow resistance of suspensions is to introduce gas into the stream of flowing slurry. The goal of that action is to either loosen the structure of densely packed grains or increase the velocity of the suspension. The paper presents the flow resistance of CWS in a horizontal pipeline and the effect of addition of the gas phase on the resistance level. The investigation was carried out with the use of a research stand enabling to measure the flow resistance of the multiphase/multicomponent systems. The measured diameter and length of sections were respectively: 0.03 and 2 m. The coal-water slurries (based on steam coals with concentration of dry coal in the range of 51 do 60% obtained by wet milling in a drum mill were used. During the tests, the following parameters were measured: slurry flow rate, air flow rate, temperature and pressure difference in inlet and outlet of the measured section. The volume flow rate of slurry fuel was in the range of 30 to 110 dm3/min while the volume flow rate of air was from 0.15 to 4 m3/h. Based on the obtained results, the slurry flow resistance as a function of the flow rate and share of introduced air was evaluated. The performed research allowed for assessment of flow resistance reduction condition and to determine the pipe flow curves for different temperatures. It was found that the effect of reducing the flow resistance of the coal slurry by introducing gas into the flow tube depended on the volumetric flow rate, and thus the linear velocity of the slurry. Under the experimental condition, this effect only occurred at low flow rates (30 - 50 dm3/min and low temperature of the suspension. The

  2. Environmental indicators of the combustion of prospective coal water slurry containing petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Nyashina, Galina S; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-09-15

    Negative environmental impact of coal combustion has been known to humankind for a fairly long time. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are considered the most dangerous anthropogenic emissions. A possible solution to this problem is replacing coal dust combustion with that of coal water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Coal processing wastes and used combustible liquids (oils, sludge, resins) are promising in terms of their economic and energy yield characteristics. However, no research has yet been conducted on the environmental indicators of fuels based on CWSP. The present work contains the findings of the research of CO, CO2, NOx, SOx emissions from the combustion of coals and CWSPs produced from coal processing waste (filter cakes). It is demonstrated for the first time that the concentrations of dangerous emissions from the combustion of CWSPs (carbon oxide and dioxide), even when combustible heavy liquid fractions are added, are not worse than those of coal. As for the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is significantly lower for CWSPs combustion as compared to coals. The presented research findings illustrate the prospects of the wide use of CWSPs as a fuel that is cheap and beneficial, in terms of both energy output and ecology, as compared to coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Micronized-coal-water slurry sprays from a diesel engine positive displacement fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.; Seshadri, A.K.; Zicterman, G. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1991-12-31

    Experiments have been conducted to characterize the sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system for a diesel engine. Diesel fuel water and three concentrations of micronized-coal-water slurry were used in these experiments. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and still photographs of the sprays were obtained. In addition, instaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. Data were acquired as a function of fluid, nozzle orifice diameter, rack setting and chamber conditions. The high speed movies were used to determine spray penetration and spray growth.

  4. Ignition of the Soaring Droplet Sets of Waste-Derived Coal-Water Slurry With Petrochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the ignition of droplet sets of waste-derived coal-water slurry with petrochemicals for the case of their soaring inside special combustion chamber. The fuel composition consists of filter cake of bituminous coal type G, waste turbine oil, water and plasticizer. Features of the ignition process were emphasized for groups of three soaring droplets in comparison with single droplet ignition. The ignition delay times were registered for particles that were deformed or segregated due to the interaction of initial fuel droplets with walls of the combustion chamber.

  5. Local treatment of coal-water slurries from thermal power plants with the use of coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapulova, G. I.; Logunova, N. I.

    2015-04-01

    The coagulation of coal particles in a coal-water slurry from the Novo-Irkutsk thermal power plant was studied. The advisability of the application of highly basic aluminum hydroxochloride of grade B for the treatment of contaminated water with a concentration of suspended particles of 30 g/dm3 was shown. The granulometric analysis of coal particles was performed. The application of the reagent was revealed to be efficient for the coagulation of both coarse particles and a finely dispersed fraction. Carbonate hardness values of up to 1.5 mmol-equiv/dm3 and pH ≤ 7.8 were shown to be typical for the contaminated water from the fuel supply shop. They were the most optimal parameters for hydrolysis and efficient flocculation and did not require the addition of sodium bicarbonate and flocculants. The process flowsheet of the separate purification of a coal-water slurry was developed for the fuel supply shop. Among the advantages of this purification method are the return of rather highly purified water for thermal power plant needs, and also the production of additional fuel in the form of recovered coal particles. The product was characterized by improved engineering parameters in comparison with the initial fuel, i.e., had a higher calorific value and a lower sulfur content. The purified water corresponded to the normative requirements to the content of residual aluminum. This technology of purification was resource-saving, environmental-friendly, and economically profitable.

  6. Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% (by man) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  7. A computerized coal-water slurry transportation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljubicic, B.R.; Trostad, B. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

    1995-12-01

    Coal-water fuel (CWF) technology has been developed to the point where full-scale commercialization is just a matter of gaining sufficient market confidence in the price stability of alternate fossil fuels. In order to generalize alternative fuel cost estimates for the desired combinations of processing and/or transportation, a great deal of flexibility is required owing to the understood lack of precision in many of the newly emerging coal technologies. Previously, decisions regarding the sequential and spatial arrangement of the various process steps were made strictly on the basis of experience, simplified analysis, and intuition. Over the last decade, computer modeling has progressed from empirically based correlation to that of intricate mechanistic analysis. Nomograms, charts, tables, and many simple rules of thumb have been made obsolete by the availability of complex computer models. Given the ability to view results graphically in real or near real time, the engineer can immediately verify, from a practical standpoint, whether the initial assumptions and inputs were indeed valid. If the feasibility of a project is being determined in the context of a lack of specific data, the ability to provide a dynamic software-based solution is crucial. Furthermore, the resulting model can be used to establish preliminary operating procedures, test control logic, and train plant/process operators. Presented in this paper is a computerized model capable of estimating the delivered cost of CWF. The model uses coal-specific values, process and transport requirements, terrain factors, and input costs to determine the final operating configuration, bill of materials, and, ultimately, the capital, operating, and unit costs.

  8. Maximum solid concentrations of coal water slurries predicted by neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Yanchang; Zhou, Junhu; Liu, Jianzhong; Cen, Kefa

    2010-12-15

    The nonlinear back-propagation (BP) neural network models were developed to predict the maximum solid concentration of coal water slurry (CWS) which is a substitute for oil fuel, based on physicochemical properties of 37 typical Chinese coals. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to train five BP neural network models with different input factors. The data pretreatment method, learning rate and hidden neuron number were optimized by training models. It is found that the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI), moisture and coalification degree of parent coal are 3 indispensable factors for the prediction of CWS maximum solid concentration. Each BP neural network model gives a more accurate prediction result than the traditional polynomial regression equation. The BP neural network model with 3 input factors of HGI, moisture and oxygen/carbon ratio gives the smallest mean absolute error of 0.40%, which is much lower than that of 1.15% given by the traditional polynomial regression equation. (author)

  9. Synthesis and application of flocculants for treatment of ultra-fine coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shu-quan; Jiang Lin-hua; Zou Li-zhuang [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2009-04-15

    The flocculants play an important role in treatment and closed-circulation of ultra-fine coal slurry. The cationic modified starch macromolecule flocculants St-DMDAAC-AM was prepared by grafting dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) and acrylamide (AM) onto starch, and its thermal stability and surface morphology were characterized by FTIR, DSC and SEM, respectively. The flocculation and filtration experiments with typical fine coal slurry were carried out and the treatment process was optimized. The characteristic peak of groups on IR spectrum shows the successful synthesis of St-DMDAAC-AM, and its high performance can be confirmed by results of DSC and SEM. The cationic flocculants play both roles of the charge neutralization and the formation of particle-polymer-particle bridges, and can effectively improve the effect of settlement and pressure filtration of ultra-fine coal. Under the optimized operation parameters, the concentration of thickener overflow is 2 g/L, the moisture of filter cake of thickener underflow is about 20%-25% and the concentration of filter liquid is less than 10 g/L. 14 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The Development of Environmentally Friendly Technologies of Using Coals and Products of Their Enrichment in the Form of Coal Water Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murko, Vasily; Hamalainen, Veniamin

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the current state of the technology for production and combustion of fuel coal water slurries in Russia and foreign countries. Experimental and industrial facilities show the technological and economic efficiency of using this technology for disposal of wastes resulting after coal processing and enrichment. The feasibility studies of use of the technology at large Kuzbass thermal power stations are presented. The possibility of solving a serious environmental problem of reducing storage of the most toxic waste of coal enrichment in the location areas of coal washing plants and coal mining enterprises is demonstrated.

  11. Benefits of coal cleaning upon the performance of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, R.A.; Walia, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A description of the benefits of coal preparation was presented. These included the reduction of ash and sulfur oxide forming components, production of consistent quality fuel, increasing of heat value, and production of multigrade fuels. A comparison was made of commercial United Coal Company (UCC) and super-clean UCC coal on the basis of ash content, particulate emission upon combustion, furnace ash deposit, and carbon conversion efficiency. The ash content was 8% for the commercial and 2% for the super-clean coals.

  12. Wear surface studies on coal water slurry nozzles in industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Zeliang [Hunan Engineering Technology Key Laboratory of Inorganic and Nonmetal Materials, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412008, Hunan Province (China)]. E-mail: dingzl@263.net; Deng Jianxin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail: jxdeng@sdu.edu.cn; Li Jianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail: ljf@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-07-01

    In this study, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic, WC/Co cemented carbide, and 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel were produced to be used as nozzle materials in coal water slurry (CWS) industry boilers. Coal water slurry burning tests with these nozzles were carried out. The wear surface features of the nozzles made from these materials were examined. The results showed that the wear mechanisms of nozzles varied from entry to exit. The material removal of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic nozzle in CWS atomizing and burning is attributed to a mixed mode damage by brittle fracture, polishing, thermal cracking and chipping. The nozzle entry section appears to be entirely brittle in nature with evidence of large scale-chipping. The centre bore area showed a polishing effect with a very smooth surface. While the exit section exhibits cracking owing to the large thermal shock. Examination of the eroded bore surface of the WC/Co cemented carbide nozzles demonstrated that the wear occurred through preferential removal of the metal binder (Co) followed by pluck-out of the exposed WC grains at the entry zone, while the center and the exit zone showed polishing action. The primary wear mechanisms of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel nozzle exhibited plastic deformation at the entry zone, and plowing and micro-cutting at the other zones by the eroded particles.

  13. Properly synchronized measurements of droplet sizes for high-pressure intermittent coal-water slurry fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation with a laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. A correlation of the SMD with the injection conditions was determined which should show a satisfactory agreement with the measured SMD data. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure.

  14. An investigation on the rheological and sulfur-retention characteristics of desulfurizing coal water slurry with calcium-based additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianzhong; Zhao, Weidong; Zhou, Junhu; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Guangxue; Feng, Yungang; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-01-15

    Desulphurizing coal water slurry is a kind of new clean coal water slurry(CWS), which has good performance on SO{sub 2} emission during combustion and gasification process. But, the addition of sulfur-retention agents have some effects on the stability and fluid characters of the coal water slurry. In this paper, the viscosity, stability and rheology of Xinwen coal water slurry have been studied by adding different kinds of calcium-based sulfur-retention agents and different dosage. The results show that the sulfur-retention agents have little effect on rheological nature of CWS, which still presents pseudoplastic fluid. The addition of sulfur-retention agents will increase the viscosity of CWS, but the stability will decrease a little. The results also show that inorganic calcium has less negative effect on the performance of CWS than the organic calcium. The viscosity of the CWS with organic calcium agent keeps 1000-1200 mPa s when Ca/S molar ratio is 2. Sulfur release of the CWS with CaCO{sub 3} reduces to 52% at Ca/S = 2 compared to original of 98%. (author)

  15. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  16. Investigation of the efect of the coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.; Deignan, P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.

  17. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Analytical methods were finalized and all analyses completed on shake flask tests with Indiana No. 5 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. A column leaching-rotating biological contractor (RBC) unit was used to bioleach pyrite and hazardous air pollutant precursors from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Shake flask tests with Rosebud subbituminous coal were begun. In connection with upcoming slurry column reactor tests, coal was prepared and shipped to INEL, and a detailed work plan was developed for operation and sampling for the tests. A manuscript and poster was prepared for presentation at the PETC contractors conference.

  19. PYROLYSIS/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY OF A SERIES OF BURIED WOODS AND COALIFIED LOGS THAT INCREASE IN RANK FROM PEAT TO SUBBITUMINOUS COAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Lerch, Harry E.; Kotra, Rama K.; Verheyen, Vincent T.

    1987-01-01

    To better understand the coalification process, we have conducted numerous studies of the chemical structural composition of xylem tissue from gymosperm wood and related woods that has been coalified to varying degrees. The studies presented here, examine the chemical nature of buried and coalified xylem tissue at the molecular level. To achieve this, we employed pyrolysis/gas chromatography (py/gc) and pyrolysis/gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (py/gc/ms). Pyrolysis techniques have been used to examine peat, coal, coalified wood, and related substances. However, the technique has not been previously applied to a systematic and histologically-related series of coalified woods. It is particularly useful to compare the results from pyrolytic studies with the data obtained from solid-state **1**3C NMR.

  20. Type II preliminary pilot-plant evaluation of a coal-liquefaction residue - water slurry using vaccum-tower bottoms from the H-Coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    About 6.7 tons of vacuum tower bottoms (residue) which were obtained during the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal from the H-Coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky were successfully gasified at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory. The single 9.5-hour run with H-Coal liquefaction residue-water slurry was completed at 750 to 760 psig gasifier pressure. The run consisted of two test periods, each at a different gasifier temperature. Over 99.6 percent conversion of carbon in the feed to syngas was achieved yielding 32.9 to 33.7 standard cubic feet of dry syngas per pound of residue charged. The oxygen requirement was about 1.0 pound of oxygen per pound of residue. The dry syngas contained 78.5 to 79.7 (vol.) percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen.

  1. Chemical modifiers for direct determination of cobalt in coal combustion residues by ultrasonic slurry-sampling-ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M.; Carlosena, A.; Fernandez, E.; Lopez-Mahia, P.; Muniategui, S.; Prada, D. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Univ. of La Coruna (Spain)

    2001-12-01

    Five modifiers were tested for the direct determination of cobalt in coal fly ash and slag by ultrasonic slurry-sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (USS-ETAAS).The furnace temperature programs and the appropriate amount for each modifier were optimized to get the highest signal and the best separation between the atomic and background signals. Nitric acid (0.5% v/v) was the most adequate chemical modifier for cobalt determination, selecting 1450 C and 2100 C as pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, respectively. This modifier also acts as liquid medium for the slurry simplifying the procedure. The remaining modifiers enhanced the background signal, totally overlapped with cobalt peak. The method optimized gave a limit of detection of 0.36 {mu}g g{sup -1}, a characteristic mass of 13{+-}1 pg and an overall-method precision which is highly satisfactory (<7%, RSD). The method was validated by analyzing two certified coal fly ash materials, and satisfactory recoveries were obtained (83-90%) and no statistical differences were observed between the experimental and the certified cobalt concentrations. Additionally, certified sediment, soil and urban particulate matter were assayed; again good results were obtained. The developed methodology was used to determine cobalt in several coal combustion residues from five Spanish power plants. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of the effect of coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels: Final report, July 1, 1994-June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The scope of the project is two fold: (1) examining particle size effect on interfacial properties of CWS fuels by measuring static and dynamic surface tension properties of specially prepared CWS samples containing different ranges of coal particle sizes, and (2) studying the effect of particle size on CWS atomization characteristics by measuring mean diameters of several different CWS sprays generated by sonic air blasting. The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions decrease with increasing coal particle size and mean droplet diameter of CW-S sprays also decreases with increasing coal particle size. Based on the experimental evidence we conjecture that three different energies are competing in slurry atomization: (1) the internal capillary holding between particles and water, (2) the interfacial surface tensile energy at the slurry surface contacting air, and (3) the external air blast shear energy acting against the former two energies. The internal capillary holding force decreases with increasing particle size. This force is believed to play a major role in determining the effect of particle size on CWS atomization.

  3. Pressure Prediction of Coal Slurry Transportation Pipeline Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Kernel Function Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-cun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For coal slurry pipeline blockage prediction problem, through the analysis of actual scene, it is determined that the pressure prediction from each measuring point is the premise of pipeline blockage prediction. Kernel function of support vector machine is introduced into extreme learning machine, the parameters are optimized by particle swarm algorithm, and blockage prediction method based on particle swarm optimization kernel function extreme learning machine (PSOKELM is put forward. The actual test data from HuangLing coal gangue power plant are used for simulation experiments and compared with support vector machine prediction model optimized by particle swarm algorithm (PSOSVM and kernel function extreme learning machine prediction model (KELM. The results prove that mean square error (MSE for the prediction model based on PSOKELM is 0.0038 and the correlation coefficient is 0.9955, which is superior to prediction model based on PSOSVM in speed and accuracy and superior to KELM prediction model in accuracy.

  4. Spray tip penetration and cone angles for coal-water slurry using a modified medium-speed diesel engine injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, J.a.; Seshadri, A.K.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a medium-speed diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, instantaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a correlations using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base case conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For the cases studied, the time-averaged cone angles ranged between 10.2 and 17.0{degree}.

  5. Fluidized Bed Gasification of Coal-Oil and Coal-Water-Oil Slurries by Oxygen –Steam and Oxygen-CO2 Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Hartman, Miloslav; Skoblia, S.; Šyc, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-26 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048; GA MŠk 7C08034 Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * coal slurries Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2012 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-82455175439&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=svoboda%2ck&sid=ikNGw6d45E-yyuMoDwlGiWn%3a420&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28svoboda%2ck%29&relpos=1&relpos=1&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(svoboda,k)

  6. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  7. Liquefaction behavior of a Canadian subbituminous coal in comparison with several US lignites and subbituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G. G.; Knudson, C. L.; Farnum, S. A.; Farnum, B. W.; Willson, W. G.

    1982-09-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a preparation facility processing 1.46 million tons per year (4000 tpd) of lignite in which the sodium content of the total product is reduced from 8.5 to 4 pct (as Na2O in ash). Sodium removal from the lignite is by ion exchange using hydrogen ions from aqueous sulfuric acid. Limited experimental data was obtained using a bench scale continuous countercurrent ion exchange unit for design purposes. This includes the decision of the ion exchanger, the lignite washing and dewatering facilities, and the waste water clean-up steps. Complete material balances and energy requirements are presented. A brief discussion of instrumentation and process control is given. Most equipment can be obtained commercially. To limit the environmental impact, extensive cleaning and reuse of process water is employed. Waste effluent is discharged to an evaporation pond. The total capital investment was estimated to be $21.88 million in mid-1979 dollars with annual operating costs of $6.08 million. The unit processing cost was determined at $4.17 per ton of lignite input. Raw materials represent 9 pct of the unit cost, whereas finance charges are nearly 32 pct. It was concluded that this ion exchange process is technically feasible, and in certain favorable circumstances, may be economically viable.

  8. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  9. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  10. Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

  11. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  12. Feed dilution-based design of a thickener for refuse slurry of a coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Banisi; M. Yahyaei [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran). Mining Engineering Group

    2008-10-15

    Thickening is the most widely applied dewatering technique in mineral processing. Thickeners are used to increase the concentration of suspensions by sedimentation, accompanied by the release of a clear liquid. As the particles get finer the thickening process encounters difficulty due to a significant change in the particles settling behavior. The batch settling tests of coal refuse of a coal washing plant that contained 91% particles smaller than 38 {mu}m and 0.6% coarser than 75 {mu}m showed that the optimum feed percent solids that provided highest flux (solids handling capacity) was 4%. The flux of the pulp with the plant solids concentration (i.e., 10% by weight) was 60% lower than that of the pulp with 4% solids. A thickener with a diameter of 22 m based on the dilution of feed from solids concentration of 10% to 4% was designed. Monitoring of the thickener performance for a period of one month in the plant indicated that an average feed rate of 25t/h (dry solids) with solids concentration of 10% could be thickened to an underflow concentration of 26.5% with a clear water overflow. It was found that the key component of the successful operation of the thickener is the dilution of the feed, without dilution the overflow loses its clarity and the system ceases to operate under predetermined conditions. Based on the results of established CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) studies, a feeding system that efficiently dissipated the energy of the incoming flow and a staged flocculant addition regime were utilized in the design and operation of the thickener. 23 refs.

  13. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Final report. [Polygalacturonic acid and gum tragacanth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1988-12-01

    Polysaccharides were found to stabilize colloidal dispersions (such as coal particles and polystyrene latex particles) even at high ionic strengths. The stability studies with various kinds of polysaccharides showed that rod-like molecules (such as poly (galacturonic acid) and gum tragacanth) are much more effective stabilizers than highly-branched molecules such as arabinogalactan. This effective stabilization with the rod-like molecules was found to result from the adsorption of polysaccharides on the particles, i.e., the steric stabilization mechanism. The stability depends significantly on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge of particles. Adsorption isotherms, the zeta potential and the conformation of adsorbed molecules (the steric layer thicknesses) were measured as a function of the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge. Photon correlation spectroscopy studies showed that the conformation of adsorbed molecules is strongly dependent on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge, suggesting that the dependence of stability on these parameters is due to the change of the conformation of the molecules adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the solution pH has a significant effect on the flocculation behavior of particles and can be modulated to bring about peptization of particles. This type of stabilization is referred to as electrosteric stabilization whereby steric stabilization is induced by changing the electrical properties of the system (the solution pH in this case). 41 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  15. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  16. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chukwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State, Owukpa (Benue State, Ezimo (Enugu State, Amansiodo (Enugu State, and Inyi (Enugu State of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, low sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Odagbo coal is a subbituminous B, medium sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Ezimo coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal, and Inyi coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal. Between Odagbo and Owukpa subbituminous coals, Owukpa has a lower ignition temperature (283.63°C due to its higher volatile matter content (39.1%. However, Ezimo subbituminous coal, which has a lower volatile matter (31.1%, unexpectedly has the same ignition temperature as Owukpa (283.63°C due to its higher liptinite content (7.2% when compared with that of Owukpa (2.9%. The ease of combustion of the coal samples in decreasing order is Odagbo < Owukpa < Inyi < Ezimo < Amansiodo.

  17. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Shake flask tests were completed of microbial pyrite and HAP precursor removal from Rosebud subbituminous coal. Significant amounts of Ni, F, Mn, Cd, Co and Be were removed from this coal. Analyses in connection with leach column tests of Pittsburgh coal were completed and confirmed significant removal of Ni, F, Mn, Cd, Co and As from this coal. Although Hg was not removed from Pittsburgh coal by microbial attack, there was a correlation between HCl leaching of Hg from this coal and the extent of depyritization. Since HgS is soluble in HCl, the results suggest HgS is exposed by chemical and microbial dissolution of coal pyrite. Column tests with cleaned Indiana No. 5 coal are in progress and show significant early dissolution of Ni, Mn, Cd, Co and As. A final shake flask test with Kentucky No. 9 coal was begun. Pittsburgh coal with a low content of fines was shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in preparation for slurry column tests of HAP precursor removal. Project results were presented at the PETC contractor`s conference held in Pittsburgh. A project progress review meeting was also held with the PETC technical project monitor.

  18. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 262 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on July 10, 1991 and continued until September 30, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). A dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating solids buildup was also evaluated. Half volume reactors were used with supported Criterion 324 1/16'' catalyst in the second stage at a catalyst replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The hybrid dispersed plus supported catalyst system was tested for the effect of space velocity, second stage temperature, and molybdenum concentration. The supported catalyst was removed from the second stage for one test period to see the performance of slurry reactors. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run (dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was used as the sulfiding agent). The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 1271.2 hours for an on-stream factor of 89.8% and the ROSE-SR unit was on-feed for 1101.6 hours for an on-stream factor of 90.3% for the entire run.

  19. Proposal of a new rheological model of a highly loaded coal-water mixture (CWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, S. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School for Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Effective use of coal has been increasingly highlighted by the growing needs for energy sources. Among them low-rank coal including sub-bituminous coal and brown coal is an abundant resource, but it has not been competitive in thermal coal markets due to its low heating value and a tendency for spontaneous combustion. One solution to this problem is the Coal-Water Mixture (CWM) technique. This paper proposes a new rheological model of CWM. Several reports that have described the importance of a particle size distribution minimizes the void fraction among the coal particles in a low viscosity CWM. This model was semi-empirically derived from the concept of the average thickness of liquid layer among coal particles, and the relative viscosity of the slurry was described as a function of the void fraction and specific surface area of particles. The extension of the model to non-Newtonian fluids based on coagulation process was also discussed. The relative viscosity of CWM estimated by this model was compared with experimental data. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data when the void fraction of sample could be accurately calculated from the particle size distribution. In particular, a sample in which the void fraction of coal particles is minimal does not always show the lowest viscosity. It became clear that in theory, the relative viscosity of CWM is influenced not only by the void fraction but also by the specific surface area of particles.

  20. Separation of coal-tar constituents from soil particles in a two-liquid-phase slurry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuur, J H Berg; Mattiasson, B

    2003-06-01

    An evaluation has been made of the capability of rapeseed oil to dissolve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) crystals in a biphasic system and of its capability to extract PAHs from polluted soil in a two-liquid-phase (TLP) slurry system. Up to 220 g l(-1) of the crystalline hydrocarbons could be dissolved in the organic phase, indicating oil/water-partitioning coefficients of 10(5). When soil from a former gasworks site was treated in a TLP slurry system, it was found that a certain critical amount of vegetable oil had to be added in order to form a free oil phase. Single and multiple extractions gave similar results for multiple short-term and single long-term treatments, with a maximum of 87% for pyrene release. Following a 30-day bioslurry treatment, the total concentration of the 16 EPA PAHs in the soil decreased from 2740 mg kg(-1) to 1366 mg kg(-1). This was followed by one of three different 12-day post-bioslurry treatments. Further bioslurry treatment reduced the final concentration to 1002 mg kg(-1). Abiotic treatment with a surfactant (Brij 30) achieved a reduction to 797 mg kg(-1). Treatment with rapeseed oil gave the best reduction to 343 mg kg(-1).

  1. A comparison of spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the CPT of Onyeama coal and Owukpa coal is identical to each other as they are the sub-bituminous, Owukpa coal has a lower initial oxidation temperature (IOT) and maximum oxidation temperature (MOT) than those of Onyeama coal. This means that although each coal has the same rank and CPT, spontaneous ...

  2. Advanced coal liquefaction research: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gall, W.; McIlvried, III, H. G.

    1988-07-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) To enhance the fundamental understanding of observed differences in the short contact time, donor solvent liquefaction of bituminous and subbituminous coals. (2) To determine if physical refining of subbituminous coals could be used to give a better feedstock for the first stage of two-stage liquefaction processes. Liquefaction studies using microautoclaves were carried out. Results are discussed. 11 refs., 25 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  4. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  5. Evaluation of a pilot-scale, plate-and-frame filter press for dewatering thickener underflow slurries from bituminous coal-cleaning plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.; Klima, M.S. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of a pilot-scale, plate-and-frame filter press for dewatering bituminous coal slurries. The fully automated filter press is manufactured by T.H. Minerals and is equipped with a hydraulic system, which operates the plate and diaphragm feed pumps. The filter press is capable of achieving an operating pressure of up to 1035kPa. The unit contains a single set of plates having a filtration area of 0.45x0.45m. Thickener underflow samples were collected from two bituminous coal-cleaning plants located in Pennsylvania. The first sample (Plant 1) was nominal -840 {mu}m and had an ash value of 39.2%. It contained approximately 34% of -25 {mu}m material with an ash value of 64.5%. The second sample (Plant 2) was nominal -150 {mu}m and had an ash value of 17.5%. It contained approximately 65% of -25 {mu}m material with an ash value of 20.9%. Testing was conducted to evaluate the effects of filter time, air-drying time, and air-blow pressure on filtrate flow, filtrate solids content, final cake moisture, and filter press unit capacity. For Plant 1, product moisture ranged from 23.5% to 25.6% with filtrate solids content ranging from 1% to 2% solids by weight. The unit capacities ranged from 45kg/hr/m{sup 2} to 70kg/hr/m{sup 2}. For Plant 2, product moisture ranged from 16.1% to 21.6% with filtrate solids less than 0.1% by weight. The unit capacities ranged from 117kg/hr/m{sup 2} to 168kg/hr/m{sup 2}. In both cases, low cake moisture were associated with lower unit capacities. The results indicate that the filter press is capable of producing handleable filter cakes without the use of additional flocculants.

  6. Performance evaluation of South African coals under oxy-fuel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathekga, I

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the experimental results of the oxy-fluidized combustion of three different South African coals (sub-bituminous) are presented. The coal samples were denoted Coal A, B, and C. Three combustion atmospheres—air, oxy (21% O(sub2)/79% CO(sub...

  7. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  8. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  10. Biotransformation of Spanish coals by microorganisms; Biotransformacion de Carbones Espanoles por Microorganismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    some newly isolated microorganisms could solubilized different kinds of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite). Certain fungi and bacteria could solubilized lignite when growing in a mineral medium. However, to solubilized higher rank coals (hard coal and subbituminous coal) microorganisms require a complete medium. Microorganisms, which showed higher capacity to solubilized coal, were incubated in the presence of coal (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) at the optimal conditions to get coal liquefaction/solubilization. The resultant products were analysed by IR and UV/visible spectrometry. No major differences among the original coal, solubilized/liquefied coal and residual coal were detected. However, an increase in metallic carboxylate and a decrease in OH'- carboxylic groups were observed in the liquefied lignite. Humic acids derived from original lignite residual lignite and liquefied/solubilized lignite by microorganisms were analysed. Several differences were observed in the humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite, such as an increase in the total acidity and in the proportion of the phenolic groups. Differences on the humic acid molecular weight were observed too. Several fungal and bacterial strains were able to grow using humic acids as sole carbon source. Microorganisms growing in humic acid were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Besides, the coal solubilization capacity of several fungal strains (M2, m$ and AGI) growing in different culture media was assayed. In order to get some insight into the mechanisms of the liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) by these microorganisms, some features in the culture supernatants were studied: pH values; extracellular specific proteins; enzyme activities possibly related with coal solubilization and the presence of oxalate. M2 and M4 fungal strains grown in the presence of coal produced some specific extracellular

  11. Hydrocarbonization of coal in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Miller, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple method of producing oil, substitute natural gas, and devolatilized char from coal. Oil and gas yields have been determined for hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.10-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 850 K. Subbituminous coal and bituminous coal that was pretreated with CaO, NaOH, and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to eliminate agglomeration was used. Oil yields up to 21% (based on moisture- and ash-free coal) were achieved. Data on the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

  12. Investigation of the existence of coal matrix effects on the hydroliquefaction of vitrinites derived from low rank Spanish coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebolla, V.L.; Martinez, M.T.; Prado, J.G.; Miranda, J.L.; Fernandez, I.; Benito, A.M. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Two lignites (Mequinenza, Spain) and two subbituminous coals (Teruel, Spain), their demineralized derivatives (HCl/HF+HCl) and their corresponding derived vitrinite concentrates were submitted to hydroliquefaction in tetralin in fixed conditions to study a possible synergism of vitrinite concentrates in the original coal matrix. Sufficiently pure amounts of vitrinite concentrates were isolated by a method based on differential centrifugation in CsCl. The coals were characterized by densimetric and petrographic analyses including reflectance-frequency distributions. A synergism for vitrinite concentrates related to the demineralized coals has not been found here because all the vitrinite concentrates, once separated, have similar or higher reactivity than in the corresponding original coal matrix. On the other hand, the studied lignite-derived vitrinite concentrates have proved to be much more reactive than the subbituminous-derived ones. Displacements of Absorbance-Density curves and maxima toward higher densities (densimetric analyses data) and appearance of V-4 vitrinite type structures (coal reflectograms) in the case of the subbituminous coals imply differences in chemical structures for the lignite and the subbituminous derived vitrinite concentrates which could explain the differences in reactivity. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Coal desulfurization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  14. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  15. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

  16. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

  17. Ultra-fine coal characterization. 12th progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F. J.

    1988-02-29

    Research continued on this program to relate beneficiation characteristics of ultra-fine coals to the mineral-matter liberation and bulk properties of the coals. Washability tests are reported here which quantify mineral-matter liberation during ultra-fine grinding of Pittsburgh, Pocahontas No. 3, Sunnyside, Anderson and Beulah-Zap coals. The first three are bituminous coals from Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Utah, respectively, and the last two are a subbituminous coal from the Powder River area of Wyoming and a lignite coal from North Dakota. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Process for recovering deashing solvent from insoluble coal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, T.A.

    1982-02-02

    A process for effecting deashing solvent recovery from insoluble coal products and preparing a slurry of the insoluble products. An elevated temperature and pressure stream comprising insoluble coal products and deashing solvent is admixed with a makeup liquid to dilute the stream. The diluted stream is reduced in pressure and introduced into a first treatment vessel containing sufficient slurry to provide a hydrostatic pressure to prevent boiling of the diluted stream upon entry therein. The solvent then is permitted to flash and cool the remainder of the slurry. A portion of the cooled slurry is recycled to provide the makeup liquid and a second portion is introduced into a second treatment vessel to permit diffusion of solvent infused into the insoluble coal products in the slurry. The slurry of insoluble coal products in the second vessel then is introduced into a thickener to concentrate the slurry and provide a feed suitable for a gasifier.

  19. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  20. Thermal conductivity of US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrin, J.M.; Deming, D. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-11-10

    Coal samples in the form of randomly oriented aggregates were obtained from the Pennsylvania State University Coal Bank for the purpose of thermal conductivity measurements. Samples represented 55 locations from throughout the United States and included 6 lignites, 10 subbituminous coals, 36 bituminous coals, and 3 anthracite samples. Matrix thermal conductivities measured at 22{degree}C in the laboratory ranged from 0.22 to 0.55 W/m degree K, with an arithmetic mean of 0.33 W/m degrees K and a standard deviation of 0.07 W/m degrees K. The thermal conductivity of lignites, subbituminous, and bituminous coals is controlled by composition and can be predicted by a three-component (Moisture, ash, and carbon + volatiles) geometric mean model with a rns residual of 6.1%. The thermal conductivity of bituminous and anthracite samples was found to be positively correlated with matrix density. With the exception of three anthracite samples, rank was not correlated with thermal conductivity nor was the ratio of carbon to volatiles. The relatively high thermal conductivity of three anthracite samples (mean of 0.49 W/m degrees K) may have been related to graphitization.

  1. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  3. Organic petrology of subbituminous carbonaceous shale samples from Chalaw, Kabul Province, Afghanistan: Considerations for paleoenvironment and energy resource potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; SanFilipo, J.R.; Azizi, G.P.; Davis, P.A.; Starratt, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Neogene (?) subbituminous carbonaceous shale deposits from Chalaw, Afghanistan, were investigated through organic petrology techniques and standard coal analyses to determine paleoenvironment and potential for resource utilization. The Chalaw deposit, approximately 30. km southeast of Kabul, currently is exploited for brick making and domestic heating and cooking. Three multiple-bench channel samples of the mined bed at Chalaw were collected and evaluated. The presence of significant huminite (ranging from 0.2 to 59.0. vol.%, mineral-inclusive basis) is suggestive of a terrestrial lignin-rich precursor plant material. Measured reflectance values of 0.38-0.55% indicate subbituminous rank. This rank suggests burial depths of approximately 1500. m and maximum temperatures of approximately 50. ??C. Structured liptinite macerals generally are absent except for some fluorescing morphologies interpreted to be poorly-preserved root cork suberinite. Sponge spicule bioliths including gemmoscleres and megascleres are common. These petrographic observations, in addition to high mineral matter content (33 to >95 vol%), medium to high sulfur content (2.1-11.5. wt.%, dry basis; db), and the presence of common gastropod? shell fragments and an aragonite-needle chalk bed are consistent with, but not directly indicative of, a marginal marine or estuarine mangrove depositional environment. However, additional data are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and deposition in a freshwater environment cannot be ruled out at this time.Commercial-scale development and utilization of the Chalaw deposit as a thermal fuel resource may be possible using a fluidized bed combustion system which could accept the low-quality mine product currently produced. Samples examined herein contain high-ash yield (45-90. wt.%, db), high total moisture content (17-39. wt.%), low calorific value (980-6860. Btu/lb, m,mmf), and have poor agglomerating properties (FSI=0), consistent with fuels utilized in

  4. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  6. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  7. Ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation on-line low cost sulfur and ash analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malito, M.L.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the testing to be performed on field collected coal slurry samples by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy). A total of 20 samples (8 from an Upper Freeport coal and 12 from an Oklahoma coal) are to be analyzed in triplicate for the elements S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg. For each of the two coal slurry types (Upper Freeport and Oklahoma), a container of slurry labeled calibration'' has been prepared. These calibration slurries may be used to get the system tuned'' (note that the volume of the field collected slurries is relatively small and cannot be used to tune'' the system). The calibration slurries were made from the slurry collected from the drain from the second sampling stage during the field testing.

  8. 30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements; changes or modifications; certification. 77.216-2 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding...

  9. Organic emissions from coal pyrolysis: mutagenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A G; Wornat, M J; Mitra, A; Sarofim, A F

    1987-01-01

    Four different types of coal have been pyrolyzed in a laminar flow, drop tube furnace in order to establish a relationship between polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) evolution and mutagenicity. Temperatures of 900K to 1700K and particle residence times up to 0.3 sec were chosen to best simulate conditions of rapid rate pyrolysis in pulverized (44-53 microns) coal combustion. The specific mutagenic activity (i.e., the activity per unit sample weight) of extracts from particulates and volatiles captured on XAD-2 resin varied with coal type according to the order: subbituminous greater than high volatile bituminous greater than lignite greater than anthracite. Total mutagenic activity (the activity per gram of coal pyrolyzed), however, varied with coal type according to the order: high volatile bituminous much greater than subbituminous = lignite much greater than anthracite, due primarily to high organic yield during high volatile bituminous coal pyrolysis. Specific mutagenic activity peaked in a temperature range of 1300K to 1500K and generally appeared at higher temperatures and longer residence times than peak PAC production. PMID:3311724

  10. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Schobert, Harold H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  11. PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

  12. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  13. Planarization effect evaluation of acid and alkaline slurries in the copper interconnect process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hu; Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Yangang, He

    2015-03-01

    We observed and analyzed the acid and HEBUT alkaline of Cu chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurry to evaluate their effects. Material analysis has shown that the planarity surfaces and the removal rate of alkaline slurry are better than the acid slurry during metal CMP processes. The global surface roughness and the small-scale surface roughness by 10 × 10 μm2 of copper film polished by the SVTC slurry are 1.127 nm and 2.49 nm. However, it is found that the surface roughnesses of copper films polished by the HEBUT slurry are 0.728 nm and 0.215 nm. All other things being equal, the remaining step heights of copper films polished by the SVTC slurry and HEBUT slurry are respectively 150 nm and 50 nm. At the end of the polishing process, the dishing heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 30 nm, the erosion heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 20 nm. The surface states of the copper film after CMP are tested, and the AFM results of two samples are obviously seen. The surface polished by SVTC slurry shows many spikes. This indicates that the HEBUT alkaline slurry is promising for inter-level dielectric (ILD) applications in ultra large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI) technology. Project supported by the Special Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009ZX02308), the Doctoral Program Foundation of Xinjiang Normal University Plan (No. XJNUBS1226), the Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification, Ministry of Education, and the Inorganic Chemistry Key Disciplines of Xinjiang Normal University.

  14. Demonstration of the Viability and Evaluation of Production Costs for Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamshad, Kourosh [Coaltek Incorporated, Tucker, GA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project was split into four main areas, first to identify the best combination of coal and biomass, second, create and test lab quantity of preferred combinations, Third, create a sizeable quantity for larger scale handling and consuming analysis and fourth, to provide analysis for a commercial scale production capacity. Samples of coal and biomass were collected. Five coals, representing the three major coal ranks, were collected including one bituminous, two sub-bituminous, and two lignite samples. In addition, three square bales (~50 lbs/bale) each of corn Stover and switch grass were collected with one bale of each sample processed through a hammer mill to approximately -5 mesh. A third sample of sawdust was collected once experimentation began at the University of Kentucky. Multiple combinations of coal and biomass; coal, biomass, with biomass binder, were tested until a formulation was identified that could meet the requirement criteria. Based on the results of the binderless briquetting evaluations, the CS/Sub-bit combinations was selected for extended evaluation at a 10% biomass addition rate while the WS/Bitum combination was selected for extended evaluation at a 30% biomass-addition rate. With the final results of the selection process complete, the CoalTek continuous production pilot plant in Tucker GA was outfitted with the specialized blending equipment and two 1/4 ton production runs of biomass and binder subbituminous coal briquettes were completed. These briquettes were later used for a calorific test burn at the University of North Dakota. The first formulation included subbituminous coal, corn stover and a corn starch binder the second formulation included subbituminous coal, wheat stover and corn starch binder.

  15. Thermochemical Equilibrium Model of Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Coal Gasification Using Aspen Plus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrera, Rolando; Salazar, Carlos; Pérez, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    .... The model was developed using a complete and comprehensive Aspen Plus model. Two typical technologies used in entrained flow gasifiers such as coal dry and coal slurry are modeled and simulated...

  16. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2005-10-01

    Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits

  17. Thermal conductivity of U.S. coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, James M.; Deming, David

    1996-11-01

    Coal samples in the form of randomly oriented aggregates were obtained from the Pennsylvania State University Coal Bank for the purpose of thermal conductivity measurements. Samples represented 55 locations from throughout the United States and included 6 lignites, 10 subbituminous coals, 36 bituminous coals, and 3 anthracite samples. Matrix thermal conductivities measured at 22°C in the laboratory ranged from 0.22 to 0.55 W/m°K, with an arithmetic mean of 0.33 W/m°K and a standard deviation of 0.07 W/m°K. The thermal conductivity of lignites, subbituminous, and bituminous coals is controlled by composition and can be predicted by a three-component (moisture, ash, and carbon + volatiles) geometric mean model with an rms residual of 6.1%. The thermal conductivity of bituminous and anthracite samples was found to be positively correlated with matrix density. With the exception of three anthracite samples, rank was not correlated with thermal conductivity, nor was the ratio of carbon to volatiles. The relatively high thermal conductivity of three anthracite samples (mean of 0.49 W/m°K) may have been related to graphitization.

  18. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This is the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III (this volume) describes the high sulfur coal plant. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in this volume. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue-gas-desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  19. Investigation on characterization of Ereen coal deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jargalmaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ereen coal deposit is located 360 km west from Ulaanbaatar and 95 km from Bulgan town. The coal reserve of this deposit is approximately 345.2 million tons. The Ereen coal is used directly for the Erdenet power plant for producing of electricity and heat. The utilization of this coal for gas and liquid product using gasification and pyrolysis is now being considered. The proximate and ultimate analysis show that the Ereen coal is low rank D mark hard coal, which corresponds to subbituminous coal. The SEM images of initial coal sample have compact solid pieces. The SEM image of carbonized and activated carbon samples are hard material with high developed macro porosity structure. The SEM images of hard residue after thermal dissolution in autoclave characterizes hard pieces with micro porous structure in comparison with activated carbon sample. The results of the thermal dissolution of Ereen coal in tetralin with constant weight ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at the 450ºC show that 38% of liquid product can be obtained by thermal decomposition of the COM (coal organic matter.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 18-21

  20. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  1. Bidirectional, Automatic Coal-Mining Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed coal-mining machine operates in both forward and reverse directions along mine face. New design increases efficiency and productivity, because does not stop cutting as it retreats to starting position after completing pass along face. To further increase efficiency, automatic miner carries its own machinery for crushing coal and feeding it to slurry-transport tube. Dual-drum mining machine cuts coal in two layers, crushes, mixes with water, and feeds it as slurry to haulage tube. At end of pass, foward drum raised so it becomes rear drum, and rear drum lowered, becoming forward drum for return pass.

  2. Flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Quarterly report No. 9, April 1-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    Both the North Dakota lignite and New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogasified in the Flash Hydropyrolysis unit with yields ranging up to about 85 to 90% conversion of the available carbon at 2500 psi and 875 to 900/sup 0/C. The lignite appears to be less reactive at lower pressure than the sub-bituminous coal, producing an average of 40% gaseous yield at 1000 psi and 900/sup 0/C while the sub-bituminous produced over 50%. The reactivity of both coals is dependent on the hydrogen partial pressure but does not appear to be affected by H/sub 2//coal feed ratio. When the H/sub 2//coal ratio was reduced to 0.05 and sub-bituminous coal was run at 2500 psi and 875/sup 0/C, a high methane concentration of 57% was achieved. However, the yield or conversion of carbon to gas was limited to 30% which may be attributed to the reduction in hydrogen partial pressure during the run. Further work is being planned to obtain additional data at the lower pressure and H/sub 2//coal feed ratios. Illinois No. 6 coal, a caking bituminous, has been successfully run in the experimental equipment both treated with calcium and untreated. A reaction model, previously developed, has been modified and is being fitted to all the lignite data to produce one consistent set of pre-exponential factors and activation energies for the reaction rate equations. The experimental equipment is being modified to allow varying feed composition and especially introduction of steam into the feed gas.

  3. Development of standards and a cost model for coal agglomeration and related studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Paulin, M.O.

    1982-02-26

    Several topics concerning coal agglomeration and fixed-bed coal gasification, as they relate to an agglomeration-process development program presently being performed for the Department of Energy, are discussed in this report. Specific topics include an examination of the performance of coals in fixed-bed gasifiers, the development of properties' standards by which agglomerates produced in the program may be compared, the development of a cost model to judge the economic feasibility of coal agglomeration for potential users and the maximum binder levels to be considered in the program, the definition of a suitable briquette size for coal gasification, and a study of upgrading methods at the mines to improve agglomeration. Extensive property data and the results of a number of special tests on six coals (Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Wyoming Bighorn subbituminous coal, Montana Rosebud No. 14 subbituminous coal, North Dakota Indian Head lignite and Pennsylvania Nanoth anthracite coal) and on FMC formcoke and Simplex briquettes are reported.

  4. Charged slurry droplet research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. J.

    1989-02-01

    Rayleigh Bursting, wherein critically charged droplets explosively expel a number of micron sized sibling droplets, enhances atomization and combustion of all liquid fuels. Droplet surface charge is retained during evaporation, permitting multiple Rayleigh Bursts to occur. Moreover, the charge is available for the deagglomeration of residual particulate flocs from slurry droplet evaporation. To fill gaps in our knowledge of these processes, an experimental program involving the use of a charged droplet levitator and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer, High Speed Electrometer (QMS/HSE) has been undertaken to observe the disruption and to measure quantitatively the debris. A charged droplet levitator based on a new video frame grabber technology to image transient events, is described. Sibling droplet size is ten microns or less and is close to, if not coincident with, the predicted phase transition in droplet charging level. The research effort has focused on the exploration of this transition and its implications.

  5. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  6. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  7. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  8. Organic intermediates in the anaerobic biodegradation of coal to methane under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Voytek, M.A.; Jones, E.J.; Lerch, H.E.; Bates, A.L.; Corum, M.D.; Warwick, P.D.; Clark, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Organic intermediates in coal fluids produced by anaerobic biodegradation of geopolymers in coal play a key role in the production of methane in natural gas reservoirs. Laboratory biodegradation experiments on sub-bituminous coal from Texas, USA, were conducted using bioreactors to examine the organic intermediates relevant to methane production. Production of methane in the bioreactors was linked to acetate accumulation in bioreactor fluid. Long chain fatty acids, alkanes (C19-C36) and various low molecular weight aromatics, including phenols, also accumulated in the bioreactor fluid and appear to be the primary intermediates in the biodegradation pathway from coal-derived geopolymers to acetate and methane. ?? 2010.

  9. Organic intermediates in the anaerobic biodegradation of coal to methane under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orem, W.H.; Voytek, M.A.; Jones, E.J.; Lerch, H.E.; Bates, A.L.; Corum, M.D.; Warwick, P.D.; Clark, A.C. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Organic intermediates in coal fluids produced by anaerobic biodegradation of geopolymers in coal play a key role in the production of methane in natural gas reservoirs. Laboratory biodegradation experiments on sub-bituminous coal from Texas, USA, were conducted using bioreactors to examine the organic intermediates relevant to methane production. Production of methane in the bioreactors was linked to acetate accumulation in bioreactor fluid. Long chain fatty acids, alkanes (C{sub 19}-C{sub 36}) and various low molecular weight aromatics, including phenols, also accumulated in the bioreactor fluid and appear to be the primary intermediates in the biodegradation pathway from coal-derived geopolymers to acetate and methane.

  10. Two-dimensional studies of coal pyrolysis: preliminary results. [Large blocks heated slowly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, R.C. III

    1976-01-01

    Two-dimensional pyrolysis behavior of large, instrumented blocks of subbituminous coal has been examined recently in support of in-situ coal gasification process development. Pyrolysis studies have traditionally dealt with small coal particles which were heated rapidly; but, by contrast, in-situ gasification involves slow heating of large coal blocks resulting from permeability enhancement operations or, perhaps, roof collapse. Experiments utilizing maximum reactor temperatures of 500/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C, achieved over 4- to 50-hr time periods, have produced data correlating tar and gas production rates and composition with maximum temperature and heating rate.

  11. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  12. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  13. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  14. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL; Oras, John [Des Plaines, IL; Son, HyunJin [Naperville, IL

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  15. Aspects of solid state 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy in coals from the Balkan peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS GEORGAKOPOULOS

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-polarized magic-angle-spinning NMR (CPMAS-NMR technique was used in this work to assess the carbon distribution in coals of different rank (peat, lignite, xylite, sub-bituminous coal from important deposits in Greece and Bulgaria. The technique is assumed to be only semiquantitative, due to a number of interferences, such as spinning side bands (SSB in the spectra, paramagnetic species in the samples, and low or remote protonation of aromatic carbons. The Bulgarian sub-bituminous coal shows the greatest amounts of aromatic structures. The lignite sample from the Drama basin, Northern Greece, is relatively unaltered and largely unweathered, and shows the greatest amounts of aliphatic groups. The 13C-NMR spectra of Pliocene lignites from endemic areas in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia, taken from published papers, show significantly more intense resonances for methoxyl, phenolic, and polysaccharide moieties compared to the Drama lignite NMR spectrum. Xylite reveals high contents of carbohydrates.

  16. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. [Quarterly] technical progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Saini, A.K.; Schobert, H.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1993-07-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: (1) effects of drying and mild oxidation on conversion and product distribution during non-catalytic and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9); and (2) effects of solvent and catalyst on conversion and structural changes of a Texas subbituminous coal (DECS-1). Influence of drying and mild oxidation on catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction (at 350C for 30 min with 6.9 MPa (cold) H{sub 2} was studied using Wyodak subbituminous coal. For non-catalytic runs, fresh raw coal gave higher conversion and higher oil yield than both the vacuum- and air-dried coals, regardless of the solvent. Compared to the vacuum-dried coal, the coal dried in air in 100C for 2 h gave a better conversion in the presence of either a hydrogen donor tetralin or a non-donor 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) solvent. Catalytic runs were performed using in-situ generated molybdenum sulfide catalyst from ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) precursor impregnated on either raw coal or predried coal samples. The solvent-free runs using ATTM loaded on the raw coal gave higher conversion and higher oil yield than loading ATTM on vacuum- or air-dried coal. In the presence of either tetralin or 1-MN, however, the runs using ATTM loaded on air-dried coal afford better conversions and oil yields as compared to the runs using vacuum-dried coal. Upon drying coal in air at 150C for 20 h, the conversion significantly decreased to a lower value than that of the vacuum-dried coal in the non-catalytic runs, and the same trend was observed in the runs of the dried coals loaded with ATTM. Physical, chemical, and surface chemical aspects of effects of drying and oxidation and the role of water are also discussed in the report.

  17. Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-21

    The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

  18. Capital cost: low- and high-sulfur coal plants, 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) high- and low-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equimpment list, and site description are contained in Volume II. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue-gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal.

  19. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  20. Research of rheological properties improvement methods of coal-water fuel based on low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of coal-water fuel (CWF rheological properties based on 3B brown coal have been conducted using different processing methods, such as rotary flows modulation device (RFMD, sodium hydroxide and lignosulfonate. Physicochemical properties of initial solid fuel have been determined using JEOL JCM 6000 microscope. Optimal method of coal-water treatment has been determined based on obtained data considering its influence on viscosity and sedimentation stability of coal-water slurry (CWS.

  1. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  2. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Influence of CO Conversion on Selectivities H2/CO Usage Ratios and Catalyst Stability for a 0.27 percent Ru 25 percent Co/Al2O3 using a Slurry Phase Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W Ma; G Jacobs; Y Ji; T Bhatelia; D Bukur; S Khalid; B Davis

    2011-12-31

    The effect of CO conversion on hydrocarbon selectivities (i.e., CH{sub 4}, C{sub 5+}, olefin and paraffin), H{sub 2}/CO usage ratios, CO{sub 2} selectivity, and catalyst stability over a wide range of CO conversion (12-94%) on 0.27%Ru-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied under the conditions of 220 C, 1.5 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio of 2.1 and gas space velocities of 0.3-15 NL/g-cat/h in a 1-L continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Catalyst samples were withdrawn from the CSTR at different CO conversion levels, and Co phases (Co, CoO) in the slurry samples were characterized by XANES, and in the case of the fresh catalysts, EXAFS as well. Ru was responsible for increasing the extent of Co reduction, thus boosting the active site density. At 1%Ru loading, EXAFS indicates that coordination of Ru at the atomic level was virtually solely with Co. It was found that the selectivities to CH{sub 4}, C{sub 5+}, and CO{sub 2} on the Co catalyst are functions of CO conversion. At high CO conversions, i.e. above 80%, CH{sub 4} selectivity experienced a change in the trend, and began to increase, and CO{sub 2} selectivity experienced a rapid increase. H{sub 2}/CO usage ratio and olefin content were found to decrease with increasing CO conversion in the range of 12-94%. The observed results are consistent with water reoxidation of Co during FTS at high conversion. XANES spectroscopy of used catalyst samples displayed spectra consistent with the presence of more CoO at higher CO conversion levels.

  3. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Tenth Quartery report, October 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, R.L. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-28

    It has long been known that low rank coal such as leonardite can be solubilized by strong base (>pH 12). Recent discoveries have also shown that leonardite is solubilized by Lewis bases at considerably lower pH values and by fungi that secrete certain Lewis bases (i.e., oxalate ion). During the current reporting period we have studied the ability of a strong base (sodium hydroxide, pH 12), and two fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor, to solubilize Argonne Premium Coals. In general, Argonne Premium Coals were relatively resistant to base mediated solubilization. However, when these coals were preoxidized (150{degrees}C for seven days), substantial amounts of several coals were solubilized. Most affected were the Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite, the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Argonne Premium Coals were previously shown by us to be relatively resistant to solubilization by sodium oxalate. When preoxidized coals were treated with sodium oxalate, only the Beulah-Zap lignite was substantially solubilized. Although very small amounts of the other preoxidized coals were solubilized by treatment with oxalate, the small amount of solubilization that did take place was generally increased relative to that observed for coals that were not preoxidized. None of the Argonne Premium Coals were solubilized by P. chrysosporium or T. versicolor. Of considerable interest, however, is the observation that P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor mediated extensive solubilization of Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite and the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal.

  4. The slurryability of Chinese coals and the role of macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuquan, Z.; Zuna, W.; Shouzheng, R.; Ximing, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Haidian, BJ (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1995-08-01

    The slurry forming characteristics of 17 coals are evaluated under controlled particle size distribution, packing efficiency, and other conditions. The coals were collected from different Chinese mines and cover a broad range of coalification, from lignite to anthracite. The solid concentration of each coal is measured by plotting apparent viscosity against the solid coal concentration. The slurryability index is related to coal characteristics by regression analysis. Coal oxygen content is the most relevant parameter, with inherent moisture, mineral matter, and inertinite content also relevant. 12 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  6. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Energy International is developing a technology that will create a staged formulation with the first coal form (Mulled Coal) that can be stored, transported, and pumped. Just prior to combustion, the Mulled Coal (MC) would be modified to provide the properties needed for proper atomization. This concept is an alternative to the expensive and energy intensive thermal drying processing of fine coal wet cakes. The material is suitable for both direct feed use in conventional and fluid bed combustors as well as on-site conversion to combustible slurries. By maintaining the coal form relatively close to the feed wet cake, only minor processing with low additive levels and low energy blending needed at the point of production. Its conversion to slurry or other use-feed form is made near the time of use and thus the requirements for stability, climatic control, and other storage, transport, and handling requirements are much less severe.

  7. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  8. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [For low sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 V olume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  9. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  10. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  11. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Hou, L.; Saini, A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-06-01

    Residues of two subbituminous coals from their liquefaction at 300-425{degrees}C were analyzed using cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) and dipolar dephasing (DD) solid-state {sup 13}C NMR techniques. The DDMAS and CPMAS NMR analysis of a Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9) indicate that it has 63-64% aromatic carbons among total carbons; 34-35% of the aromatic carbons are protonated carbons, and 23-24% of the aromatic carbons are oxygen-bound carbons, with the remaining 31-33% bound primarily to other carbon atoms. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectrum of Wyodak subbituminous coal (DECS-8) is similar to that of Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9). CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR of the residues from DECS-9 coal revealed that catechol-like structures and phenolic structures in the coal are thermally sensitive and diminish gradually with increasing temperature. The carbon aromaticity increased monotonically with increasing reaction temperature, whereas hydrogen aromaticity reached a maximum for residue from a 300{degrees}C run and then declines with further increase in temperature. The increase in carbon aromaticity is mainly driven by temperature, rather than by the adduction of aromatic solvents. DDMAS NMR analysis indicates that the degree of protonation of aromatic carbons decreased from 35% (for THF-extracted but unreacted DECS-9 coal) to 13% (for residue from a non-catalytic run) with increasing reaction temperature up to 375{degrees}C. DDMAS {sup 13}C NMR of the residues from DECS-8 Wyodak coal revealed that the degree of protonation of aromatic carbons (f{sub a}{sup ah}) is lower with the residues from catalytic liquefaction a 350{degrees}C.

  12. Sonic velocities for gases from coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodner, A.J.; Jett, O.J.

    1982-10-01

    Accurate predictions of choking velocities for three-phase mixtures are needed to properly size coal-slurry letdown valves. The sonic velocity of the gas phase of the coal slurry must be known to evaluate this choking velocity. A FORTRAN computer program, based on the Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state, was developed to predict sonic velocities for both pure and pseudocomponent gaseous mixtures. Predictions of the sonic velocity for methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene deviated 0 to 25% from experimental data. The sonic velocity predictions were also more accurate than those with the reduced-property correlation of Pitzer and Curl. The predicted sonic velocity at 700 K for a mixture of gases from coal-derived liquids at conditions typical of coal-slurry letdown valves ranged from 100 to 330 m/s.

  13. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  14. Moving Bed Gasification of Low Rank Alaska Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents process simulation of moving bed gasifier using low rank, subbituminous Usibelli coal from Alaska. All the processes occurring in a moving bed gasifier, drying, devolatilization, gasification, and combustion, are included in this model. The model, developed in Aspen Plus, is used to predict the effect of various operating parameters including pressure, oxygen to coal, and steam to coal ratio on the product gas composition. The results obtained from the simulation were compared with experimental data in the literature. The predicted composition of the product gas was in general agreement with the established results. Carbon conversion increased with increasing oxygen-coal ratio and decreased with increasing steam-coal ratio. Steam to coal ratio and oxygen to coal ratios impacted produced syngas composition, while pressure did not have a large impact on the product syngas composition. A nonslagging moving bed gasifier would have to be limited to an oxygen-coal ratio of 0.26 to operate below the ash softening temperature. Slagging moving bed gasifiers, not limited by operating temperature, could achieve carbon conversion efficiency of 99.5% at oxygen-coal ratio of 0.33. The model is useful for predicting performance of the Usibelli coal in a moving bed gasifier using different operating parameters.

  15. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., (United States); Gutterman, C. [FWDC (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 3.5 wt % ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt % ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated subbituminous coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent. The study of bottoms processing consists of combining the ASCOT process which consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The asphalt production phase has been completed; representative product has been evaluated. The solvent system for the deasphalting process has been established. Two ASCOT tests produced overall liquid yields (63.3 wt % and 61.5 wt %) that exceeded the combined liquid yields from the vacuum tower and ROSE process.

  16. A comparative classification of coal reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolin, A.; Jensen, A.; Storm Pedersen, L. [Technical Univ. Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Toerslev Jensen, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. [Elsam I/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests, a qualitative reactivity classification of nine different coals ranking from subbituminous to low volatile bituminous with respect to one coal, Cerrejon, is presented. The classification agrees well with a corresponding one obtained from another study by entrained flow reactor (EFR) experiments. Two Southern Hemisphere coals (Australia), however, showed a higher reactivity with respect to the Northern Hemisphere coal Cerrejon (Colombia) in the low temperature TGA experiments. It appears that TGA can provide a simple means for determining a fuel reactivity classification that may be applied to full scale suspension fired plants. The combustion behaviour of the Cerrejon coals was investigated at different temperatures and oxygen concentrations to determine the activation energy and reaction order. In addition, TGA tests revealed that for this coal, increasing values of the heat treatment temperature and holding time during pyrolysis result in lower char reactivities. This is attributed to the severity of the pyrolysis process and thereby the influence of thermal annealing effects. (orig.)

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Winshel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1990-10-01

    Consol R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The first objective will utilize analytical techniques which have not been fully demonstrated; the second objective involves more previously proven methods. This quarter, two feed coals and 39 process oils from Wilsonville Run 258 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 258 was operated in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode with ash recycle. The subbituminous feed coals were from the Spring Creek Mine (Anderson and Dietz seams) and from the Black Thunder Mine (Wyodak and Anderson seams). Shell 324 catalyst was used in the second stage. Various coal samples related to Wilsonville Run 259 were analyzed for chemical and petrographic composition. These results will be given in a future report, which covers all of Run 259. 18 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Coal liquefaction co-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafis, D. A.; Humbach, M. J. [UOP, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA); Gatsis, J. G. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA). Engineered Materials Research Center

    1988-09-19

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is used to enhance operations at moderate reaction conditions. A three-year research program has been completed to study the feasibility of this technology. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 14 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  20. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  1. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in...... generally high. It was concluded that the contribution from floors to NH3 emissions was effect on N2O emissions was observed. The effect...

  2. Chromium determination in fly ash by slurry-sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baralkiewicz, D; Lamont, S.; Stemerowicz, M. [Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Water & Soil Analysis

    2002-07-01

    The paper reports analytical conditions for determination of chromium in fly ash by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SS ETAAS). Stability test for slurries have been carried out. Triton X-100 was used as a stabilizing agent. The procedure was validated by analysis of certified reference coal fly ash material SRM 1633B. The results of determination of chromium by SS ETAAS in three real fly ash samples from Poland (Szczecin area) and Canada (Sydney, Nova Scotia area) were compared with the results of these samples analysed by the wet digestion method. The detection limit calculated to 0.077 mg/kg and relative standard deviation (RSD) of measurements for the slurry sampling method was 3.5-5.2% for SRM 1633B.

  3. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  4. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  5. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  6. Coal Technology Program progress report, March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    In the final hydrocarbonization experiment with Wyodak subbituminous coal, the coal was hydrocarbonized at 1100/sup 0/F and 300 psig in the recirculating fluidized bed. Two-dimensional pyrolysis behavior of an eastern bituminous coal (Pittsburgh seam) continues to be examined. Results to date indicate that swelling is significantly more pronounced at very low heating rates. Several activities in progress are related to inspection techniques for wear- and process-resistant coatings. Experimental investigations of fireside corrosion on tubing from a fluidized bed combustor have proceeded with metallographic examination and analyses of the scale formed during the test exposure. Methods for nondestructively determining remaining tube wall thickness and scale thickness were developed. Failure prevention and analysis work was aimed at several parts from the Solvent Refined Coal Plant in Ft. Lewis, Washington. The mechanical design of the gas-fired potassium boiler system was completed with the issue of the last four drawings. One electrical and five instrument and control drawings were completed and some fabrication work was completed. Surveys of industrial coal conversion capabilities continued with emphasis on rotating components, valves, hot gas cleanup devices, and heat recovery equipment. Process and program analysis research studies continued with work on low-Btu gasification, direct combustion, advanced power conversion, liquefaction, high-Btu gasification, in-situ gasification, and beneficiation. In the fossil energy environmental project, a first draft of a landfill assessment report was issued for review. Work continued on the Environmental Monitoring Handbook and Pipeline Gas Programmatic Assessment.

  7. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

    2006-03-01

    U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

  8. SLURRY FLOW MODELLING BY CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Ghanta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made in the present study to develop a generalized slurry flow model using CFD and utilize the model to predict concentration profile. The purpose of the CFD model is to gain better insight into the solid liquid slur¬ry flow in pipelines. Initially a three-dimensional model problem was developed to understand the influence of the particle drag coefficient on the solid concen¬tration profile. The preliminary simulations highlighted the need for correct mo¬delling of the inter phase drag force. The various drag correlations available in the literature were incorporated into a two-fluid model (Euler-Euler along with the standard k- turbulence model with mixture properties to simulate the tur¬bulent solid-liquid flow in a pipeline. The computational model was mapped on to a commercial CFD solver FLUENT6.2 (of Fluent Inc., USA. To push the en¬velope of applicability of the simulation, recent data from Kaushal (2005 (with solid concentration up to 50% was selected to validate the three dimensional simulations. The experimental data consisted of water-glass bead slurry at 125 and 440-micron particle with different flow velocity (from 1 to 5 m/s and overall concentration up to 10 to 50% by volume. The predicted pressure drop and concentration profile were validated by experimental data and showed excel-lent agreement. Interesting findings came out from the parametric study of ve-locity and concentration profiles. The computational model and results discus¬sed in this work would be useful for extending the applications of CFD models for simulating large slurry pipelines.

  9. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  10. Physicochemical Characterization and Thermal Decomposition of Garin Maiganga Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the newly discovered Garin Maiganga (GMG coal from Nigeria. The physicochemical characterization comprised of elemental, proximate, calorific value, and classification (rank analyses. Thermal analysis was examined using combined Thermogravimetric (TG and Derivative Thermogravimetric analyses (DTG. Hence, the coal was heated from 30°C to 1000°C at 20°C/min under inert conditions to examine its thermal degradation behaviour and temperature profile characteristics (TPC. The results indicated that the GMG coal fuel properties consist of low Ash, Nitrogen, and Sulphur content. Moisture content was > 5%, Volatile Matter > 50%, Fixed Carbon > 22%, and Heating Value (HHV 23.74 MJ/kg. Based on its fuel properties, the GMG coal can be classified as a Sub-Bituminous B, non-agglomerating low rank coal (LRC. The GMG coal TPCs – onset, peak, and offset temperatures – were 382.70°C, 454.60°C, and 527.80°C, respectively. The DTG profile revealed four (4 endothermic peaks corresponding to loss of moisture (drying, volatile matter (devolatization, and coke formation. The residual mass Rm was 50.16%, which indicates that higher temperatures above 1000°C are required for the complete pyrolytic decomposition of the GMG coal. In conclusion, the results indicate that the GMG coal is potentially suitable for future utilization in electric power generation and the manufacture of cement and steel.

  11. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II (this volume), while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low-sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I and the drawings, equipment list, and site description are contained in this document. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  12. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  13. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 1 feasibility studies: Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Energy International is developing a technology that will create a staged formulation with the first coal form (Mulled Coal) that can be stored, transported, and pumped. Just prior to combustion, the Mulled Coal (MC) would be modified to provide the properties needed for proper atomization. This concept is an alternative to the expensive and energy intensive thermal drying processing of fine coal wet cakes. The material is suitable for both direct feed use in conventional and fluid bed combustors as well as on-site conversion to combustible slurries. By maintaining the coal form relatively close to the feed wet cake, only minor processing with low additive levels and low energy blending needed at the point of production. Its conversion to slurry or other use-feed form is made near the time of use and thus the requirements for stability, climatic control, and other storage, transport, and handling requirements are much less severe.

  14. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  15. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  16. Multi-Attribute Selection of Coal Center Location: A Case Study in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuakunrittiwong, T.; Ratanakuakangwan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Under Power Development Plan 2015, Thailand has to diversify its heavily gas-fired electricity generation. The main owner of electricity transmission grids is responsible to implement several coal-fired power plants with clean coal technology. To environmentally handle and economically transport unprecedented quantities of sub-bituminous and bituminous coal, a coal center is required. The location of such facility is an important strategic decision and a paramount to the success of the energy plan. As site selection involves many criteria, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process or Fuzzy-AHP is applied to select the most suitable location among three candidates. Having analyzed relevant criteria and the potential alternatives, the result reveals that engineering and socioeconomic are important criteria and Map Ta Phut is the most suitable site for the coal center.

  17. Paste thickening of fine coal refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Patil; R. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2007-10-15

    The coal industry is being subjected to increasing public scrutiny with regards to its effect on the environment and impact on public health and safety. Recently, disposal and storage of fine coal waste slurry has drawn considerable public attention. This article discusses the emerging paste thickening technology as a possible solution to the fine coal waste slurry disposal problem. Paste-thickening studies were conducted on thickener underflow slurry from a central Appalachia preparation plant. Initial experiments were conducted with a laboratory scale T-Floc apparatus to optimize flocculant dosages to obtain maximum settling flux and underflow solids concentration. Results showed that the addition of anionic flocculant (400 g/t) to the slurry followed by cationic flocculant (100 g/t) provided the highest settling flux (3.85 tonnes/hr/m{sup 2}) and solids concentration (35% by weight). Pilot-scale paste thickening tests were conducted using a Dorr-Oliver Eimco Deepcone{trademark} thickener. The thickener concentrated the solids from 10% to 50% by weight using about 450 g/t of anionic and 150 g/t of cationic flocculants. The thickened paste had a yield stress of about 165 Pa that is sufficiently low to allow transport using a conventional positive displacement pump to a disposal area. The clarity of the overflow stream was similar to that currently obtained with a conventional thickener.

  18. Anaerobic biprocessing of low rank coals. Final technical report, September 12, 1990--August 10, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.

    1993-08-05

    Coal solubilization under aerobic conditions results in oxygenated coal product which, in turn, makes the coal poorer fuel than the starting material. A novel approach has been made in this project is to remove oxygen from coal by reductive decarboxylation. In Wyodak subbituminous coal the major oxygen functionality is carboxylic groups which exist predominantly as carboxylate anions strongly chelating metal cations like Ca{sup 2+} and forming strong macromolecular crosslinks which contribute in large measure to network polymer structure. Removal of the carboxylic groups at ambient temperature by anaerobic organisms would unravel the macromoleculer network, resulting in smaller coal macromolecules with increased H/C ratio which has better fuel value and better processing prospects. These studies described here sought to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. Efforts were made to establish anaerobic microbial consortia having decarboxylating ability, decarboxylate coal with the adapted microbial consortia, isolate the organisms, and characterize the biotreated coal products. Production of CO{sup 2} was used as the primary indicator for possible coal decarboxylation.

  19. Comparison and analysis of organic components of biogas slurry from eichhornia crassipes solms and corn straw biogas slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Liu, Z. H.; Min, J.; Cui, Y.; Gao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Biogas slurry is one of anaerobic fermentations, and biomass fermentation biogas slurries with different compositions are different. This paper mainly presents through the anaerobic fermentation of Eichhornia crassipes solms biogas slurry and biogas slurry of corn straw, the organic components of two kinds of biogas slurry after extraction were compared by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acid and protein of two kinds of biogas slurry organic components, and analyzes the result of comparison.

  20. Coal geology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of coal geology. All aspects of coal geology are covered in one volume, bridgint the gap between the academic aspects and the practical role of geology in the coal industry...

  1. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  2. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  3. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gregory J

    1997-05-12

    Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

  4. Environmentally and economically efficient utilization of coal processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-11-15

    High concentrations of hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur, nitrogen and carbon oxides) from solid fuel combustion in coal burning plants cause environmental problems that have been especially pressing over the last 20-30 years. A promising solution to these problems is a switch from conventional pulverized coal combustion to coal-water slurry fuel. In this paper, we pay special attention to the environmental indicators characterizing the combustion of different coal ranks (gas, flame, coking, low-caking, and nonbaking coals) and coal-water slurry fuels based on the coal processing waste - filter cakes. There have been no consistent data so far on the acceptable intervals for the anthropogenic emissions of sulfur (SOx), nitrogen (NOx) and carbon (CO, CO2) oxides. Using a specialized combustion chamber and gas analyzing system, we have measured the concentrations of typical coal and filter-cake-based CWS combustion products. We have also calculated the typical combustion heat of the fuels under study and measured the ratio between environmental and energy attributes. The research findings show that the use of filter cakes in the form of CWS is even better than coals in terms of environment and economy. Wide utilization of filter cakes solves many environmental problems: the areas of contaminated sites shrink, anthropogenic emissions decrease, and there is no need to develop new coal mines anymore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-07-01

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Three major topics are reported: (1) Feed coals and process oils form Wilsonville Run 259 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 259 was operated in the catalytic/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode with ash recycle. Feed coals were conventionally cleaned and deep cleaned coal from the Ireland Mine (Pittsburgh seam). The catalyst used in both reactors was Shell 324 for most of the run; Amocat IC was used for start-up and (unstable) period A. (2) A special set of samples from Wilsonville Runs 258 and 259 was analyzed to provide clues for the cause of interstage deposition problems during Run 258, which was operated with subbituminous coal. (3) Eight technical sites were visited to provide input to the Analytical Needs Assessment and to refine ideas for proposed research under the Participants Program. The site visits are summarized. 11 refs., 18 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Thickened aqueous slurry explosive composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.F.M.; Matts, T.C.; Seto, P.F.L.

    1979-01-04

    A thickened slurry explosive composition consists of water, inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, and thickener wherein the thickener is a mixture of an unmodified guar gum and a hydroxypropyl-modified guar gum. The thickener mixture improves the stability and rheologic properties of the explosive. The preferred thickener mixture contains from 15 to 85% by weight of unmodified guar to 15 to 85% by weight of hydroxypropyl-modified guar and the composition preferably comprises 0.2% to 2.0% by weight of the thickener mixture. The thickener mixture is especially effective in explosive compositions sensitized with gas bubbles or with water-soluble organic nitrate for example, ethylene glycol mononitrate, propylene glycol mononitrate, ethanolamine nitrate, propanolamine nitrate, methylamine nitrate, ethylamine nitrate, ethylenediamine dinitrate, urea nitrate, or aniline nitrate. 14 claims.

  7. Design considerations for slurry bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappi, M.E. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Waterways Experiment Station; Banerji, S.K.; Bajpai, R.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Slurry treatment is an innovative approach for bioremediation of contaminated soils under controlled conditions of pH, temperature, and nutrients. This treatment of excavated soils permits better control of environmental conditions than in landfarming, composting, and biocell units, and therefore may achieve accelerated rates of decontamination. Bioslurry reactors have been used to remediate a variety of contaminants, such as soils and sludges from refinery wastes, wood-preserving wastes, wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls and halogenated solvents. Key considerations in design of such reactors involve meeting the oxygen requirements for biodegradation, preventing the settling of soil particles, efficient mixing of additives, and control of foaming. The aspects of reactor design, specifically agitation system have been discussed in this paper.

  8. Application of computer graphics to generate coal resources of the Cache coal bed, Recluse geologic model area, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G.B.; Crowley, S.S.; Carey, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low-sulfur subbituminous coal resources have been calculated, using both manual and computer methods, for the Cache coal bed in the Recluse Model Area, which covers the White Tail Butte, Pitch Draw, Recluse, and Homestead Draw SW 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Campbell County, Wyoming. Approximately 275 coal thickness measurements obtained from drill hole data are evenly distributed throughout the area. The Cache coal and associated beds are in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. The depth from the surface to the Cache bed ranges from 269 to 1,257 feet. The thickness of the coal is as much as 31 feet, but in places the Cache coal bed is absent. Comparisons between hand-drawn and computer-generated isopach maps show minimal differences. Total coal resources calculated by computer show the bed to contain 2,316 million short tons or about 6.7 percent more than the hand-calculated figure of 2,160 million short tons.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination......This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... of technologies) having the largest potential for reducing the overall environmental impacts....

  10. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  11. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Metals in Coal with Low-Resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    linearity of the Log–Log calibration curves suggests possibility of using carbon powder impregnated with metals for calibra- tion. 3.3. Coal Absorption Spectrum. The transient absorption spectra from 0.4 mg SARM 18 coal sampled as 30 µL slurry after pyrolysis at 500 and 600 °C is shown in Fig. 6a and Fig. 6b, respectively.

  13. Maturation, constitution and depositional environment of the coals from Makardhokada area, Nagpur District, Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2007-12-15

    Recent sub-surface investigations have proved the existence of coal deposits in Makardhokada area of Nagpur District, Maharashtra. Structurally, Makardhokada area represents the western extension of Umrer coalfield. As far as the economic potentialities of these coal deposits are concerned, out of the six seams intersected, only four viz. Seam I, II, IV and V have attained workable thickness of more than a metre. The maceral constitution and rank estimations have been considered as the parameters to interpret the depositional environment and economic importance of these coal deposits. The maceral study suggests that the coal of seam I contains a mixture of all the three coal types i.e. vitric (Vitrinite rich), fusic (Inertinite rich) and mixed (Vitrinite + Inertinite rich). However, the seams II and IV are constituted by fusic and mixed coal types. Seam V contains both the vitric and mixed coal types. The maturation (reflectance) studies have indicated low vitrinite reflectivity (R{sub 0} max %) of 0.42-0.53%, which suggests that the coals have attained sub-bituminous C to high volatile bituminous C stage of the rank. The coal constitution suggests frequent floods at the depositional site and alternate dry oxidizing and cold climatic seasonal changes caused the formation of vitric and fusic coal types.

  14. Investigation on characterization and liquefaction of coals from Tavan tolgoi deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Purevsuren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of proximate, ultimate, petrographic and IR analysis results have been confirmed that the Tavan tolgoi coal is a high-rank G mark stone coal. The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of coal ash show that the Tavan tolgoi coal is a subbituminous coal. The ash of Tavan tolgoi coal has an acidic character. The results of pyrolysis of Tavan tolgoi coal at different heating temperatures show that a maximum yield - 5.0% of liquid product can be obtained at 700°C. The results of thermal dissolution of Tavan tolgoi coal in tetralin with constant mass ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at 450°C show that 50.0% of liquid product can be obtained after thermal decomposition of the COM (coal organic matter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.191 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p12-19

  15. Economic comparison of fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators for particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, P. M.; Chapman, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The uncertainties and associated costs involved in selecting and designing a particulate control device to meet California's air emission regulations are considered. The basic operating principles of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters are discussed, and design parameters are identified. The size and resulting cost of the control device as a function of design parameters is illustrated by a case study for an 800 MW coal-fired fired utility boiler burning a typical southwestern subbituminous coal. The cost of selecting an undersized particulate control device is compared with the cost of selecting an oversized device.

  16. Characterisation and classification of the Cretaceous coals of Teruel. Relationships between their characteristics and the geological sequence; Caracterizacion y clasificacion de los carbones cretacicos de Teruel. Relaciones entre sus caracteristicas y el entorno geologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, R.; Ruiz, C.; Querol, X.; Fernandez, J.L.; Lopez, A. [C.S.I.C., Zaragoza (Spain). Instituto de Carboquimica

    1993-12-31

    Cretaceous coals from the Teruel Mining District (Spain) have been characterized by an exhaustive study of 36 bed samples from all of the underground and open cut mines with activity in that coal field. This study has included proximate, elemental, petrographic and other analyses. Also, some chemical tests, as oxidations and hydrogenations, have been carried out. The results show that although these coals belong to the same geological unit (Escucha Formation in the lower Cretaceous), there are clear differences between the Northern and Southern Subzones of the Mining District. These coals have been classified by some scientific (Syler`s, van Krevelen diagram and Alpern-ICCP) and commercial (ECE/UN and ASTM) systems. The best parameter to classify these coals has been the vitrinite reflectance. In depending on the used classification system, coals from the North Subzone can be considered as lignites or subbituminous B while coals from the South Subzone can be considered as subbituminous B or A. The differences between both groups of studied coals can be explained, from a geological viewpoint, by two major factors: (1) The lithostatic pressure supported by the coal beds has been different in depending on the Subzone, because of the progressive thickness increase of the Cenomanian - Senonian sediments (Upper Cretaceous) from the North to the South of the Mining District. (2) The intensity of the Alpine Orogeny was stronger in the South Subzone; where gave rise to a more intense structuration of the Mesozoic sequences. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo1 7, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In China, there are bottle-necks of the coal transportation capacity in the major inter-regional routes. The Chinese Government`s eighth and ninth five-year plans intend to increase the capacity. In the 9% growth case, the planned railway transport capacity will be critical. Measures are considered, as to promotion of coal dressing, transport as electric power, construction of nuclear power plants and hydraulic power plants, and construction of coal water slurry pipe lines. Japan`s coal policy includes the structural adjustment of coal mining industry, and a new policy for coal in the total energy policy. To secure the stable overseas coal supply, NEDO has a leading part in overseas coal resources development. Coal demand and supply, mining technology, mine safety, coal preparation and processing technology, and comprehensive coal utilization technology including clean coal technology in Japan are described. At present, Thailand is progressing with the seventh plan, and the development of domestic energy emphasize lignite, natural gas, and oil. Thai import demand for high-quality coal is to be increasing. Japan`s cooperation is considered to be effective for the environmental problems. 12 figs., 40 tabs.

  18. The differences between soil grouting with cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingting; Sui, Haitong; Yang, Honglu

    2018-01-01

    Cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry are the most widely applied for soil grouting reinforcement project. The viscosity change of cement slurry is negligible during grouting period and presumed to be time-independent while the viscosity of cement-water glass slurry increases with time quickly and is presumed to be time-dependent. Due to the significantly rheology differences between them, the grouting quality and the increasing characteristics of grouting parameters may be different, such as grouting pressure, grouting surrounding rock pressure, i.e., the change of surrounding rock pressure deduced by grouting pressure. Those are main factors for grouting design. In this paper, a large-scale 3D grouting simulation device was developed to simulate the surrounding curtain grouting for a tunnel. Two series of surrounding curtain grouting experiments under different geo-stress of 100 kPa, 150 kPa and 200 kPa were performed. The overload test on tunnel was performed to evaluate grouting effect of all surrounding curtain grouting experiments. In the present results, before 240 seconds, the grouting pressure increases slowly for both slurries; after 240 seconds the increase rate of grouting pressure for cement-water glass slurry increases quickly while that for cement slurry remains roughly constant. The increasing trend of grouting pressure for cement-water glass is similar to its viscosity. The setting time of cement-water glass slurry obtained from laboratory test is less than that in practical grouting where grout slurry solidifies in soil. The grouting effect of cement-water glass slurry is better than that of cement slurry and the grouting quality decreases with initial pressure.

  19. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  20. Coal technology program progress report for February 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    Two-dimensional pyrolysis studies were continued using Eastern bituminous coal. Unusual char formations (associated with the swelling nature of the material) have been observed, though tar and gas production per gram is not greatly different from that observed with Western subbituminous coals. Materials engineering support activities continued with work on properties of thick sections of steel, development of methods for nondestructive testing of coatings, cladding of low-alloy steels, fireside corrosion in fluidized bed boilers, failure analysis, and publication of a draft report on the use of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. Design and construction work continued in preparation for operation of the gas-fired boiler with potassium. Design studies of a coal-fired, alkali-metal-vapor, power system continued. Engineering studies and technical support continued with work on process modeling, the process research digest, a survey of industrial equipment capabilities, and a study of large air separation plants. Process and program analysis studies continued with work on low Btu gasification, direct combustion, advanced power systems, liquefaction, in-situ gasification, and beneficiation of coal. In the coal-fueled MIUS project, a 1000-hr endurance run of the coal feed system was completed and analysis of corrosion specimens exposed in a fluidized bed combustor was started.

  1. The utilization of forward osmosis for coal tailings dewatering

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of dewatering coal tailings slurry by forward osmosis (FO) membrane process was investigated in this research. A prototype cell was designed and used for the dewatering tests. A cellulosic FO membrane (Hydration Technology Innovations, LLC, Albany, OR) was used fo...

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Metals in Coal with Low-Resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The setup including low-resolution spectrometer with the charge-coupled device (CCD) detector, continuum radiation source and filter furnace (FF) atomizer was employed for direct simultaneous determination of Al, Fe, Mg, Cu and Mn in coal slurry. In the FF, sample vapour entered absorption volume by filtering through ...

  3. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  4. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  5. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  6. Thermal processing of Khoot coal and characterization of obtained solid and liquid products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Batbileg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On 21st January 2015, the abstract of this paper was replaced with the correct abstract.The coal of Khoot deposit have been investigated and determined the technical characteristics, elemental and petrographical maceral compositions. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, petrographic and IR analysis results have been confirmed that the Khoot coal is a sub-bituminous coal. The hard residue after pyrolysis have been activated by heated water steam and determined the iodine and methylene blue adsorption of initial coal and activated carbon samples from pyrolysis hard residue. The porosity structure of initial coal, activated carbon of pyrolysis hard residue and hard residue after thermolysis (thermal dissolution have been determined by SEM analysis. The liquid tar product of thermolysis of Khoot coal was investigated by FTIR, 13C and 1H NMR spectrometric analysis. The results of thermolysis of Khoot coal in tetralin with constant mass ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at 450°C show that 60.8% of liquid product can be obtained after thermolysis of the coal organic mass.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.326 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p66-72

  7. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  8. Coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  9. Trace element affinities in two high-Ge coals from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Li; Xinguo Zhuang; Xavier Querol [China University of Geosciences, Wuhan (China). Faculty of Earth Resources

    2011-01-15

    The Lincang (Yunnan Province, Southwest China) and Wulantuga (Inner Mongolia, Northeast China) coal deposits are known because of the high-Ge content. These coals have also a high concentration of a number of other elements. To determine the mode of occurrence of the enriched elements in both coals, six density fractions from {lt} 1.43 to {gt} 2.8 g/cm{sup 3} were obtained from two representative samples using heavy-liquids. A number of peculiar geochemical patterns characterize these high-Ge coals. Thus, the results of the chemical analysis of these density fractions showed that both coals (very distant and of a different geological age) are highly enriched (compared with the usual worldwide coal concentration ranges) in Ge, As, Sb, W, Be, and Tl. This may be due to similar geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids influencing the Earth Crust in these regions of China. Moreover, Wulantuga coal (Early Cretaceous subbituminous coal) is also enriched in Ca, Mg, and Na, and Lincang coal (Neogene subbituminous coal) in K, Rb, Nb, Mo, Sn, Cs, and U. A group of elements consisting of Ge, W, B, Nb, and Sb mostly occur with an organic affinity in both coals. Additionally, Be, U, and Mo (and partially Mn and Zn) in Lincang, and Na and Mg in Wulantuga occur also with a major organic affinity. Both coals have sulfide-arsenide mineral assemblages (Fe, S, As, Sn, and Pb, and in addition to Tl, Ta, and Cs in the Lincang coal). The occurrence of Al, P, Li, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, and Zr in both coals, and Ba in Lincang, are associated with the mineral assemblage of silico-aluminates and minor heavy minerals. Furthermore, P, Na, Li, Sc, Ti, Ga, Rb, Zr, Cr, Ba, Th, and LREE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Gd) in Lincang are associated with mineral assemblages of phosphates and minor heavy minerals. The two later mineral assemblages are derived from the occurrence of detrital minerals. 34 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  11. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-07-05

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  12. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    for one impact category, but disadvantageous for another, while another type showed the opposite trends. Slurry acidification was the preferred technology for reducing terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, while slurry separation performed best for freshwater eutrophication......, and anaerobic digestion showed the lowest impact potential for fossil resource depletion and marine eutrophication. For climate change potential, whether a beneficial or disadvantageous impact potential was revealed depended on the specific technology (moment of acidification, separation and fraction upgrading...... occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...

  13. Continuous in-house acidification affecting animal slurry composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Cocolo, Giorgia; Jonassen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    The emerging slurry acidification technology affects gaseous emissions, fertiliser value, biogas production and solid-liquid separation; however, maximising the advantages is difficult, as the effect of acidification on the slurry characteristics resulting in those observations remains unclarifie...

  14. Results of sludge slurry pipeline pluggage tests. [Simulation of Radioactive Slurry Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, J.M.

    1987-02-06

    Test results of sludge slurry transport through the Interarea Transfer Line (IAL) Mock-up Facility showed little risk of plugging the interarea pipelines with sludge slurry. Plug-free operation of the pipeline was successfully demonstrated by worst case IAL operating scenarios. Pipeline pressure gradients were measured vs. flow rate for comparison with a computer model over a range of sludge slurry rheological properties. A mathematical computer model developed by L. M. Lee is included in this report which will predict pressure drop for Bingham plastic fluid flow in a pipeline. IAL pluggage situations and pumping requirements may be realized from this model. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  16. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1978-04-01

    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  17. Ancillary operation in coal preparation instrumentation: On-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Progress in reported on ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation, and on-line low cost sulfur and ash analysis of coal. This quarter's activities consisted of the following; the assembly of the sample preparation and delivery (SPAD) system was completed and laboratory pretesting performed; the entire system was assembled and debugged at C.Q. Inc.; field tests were executed according to the Field Test Plan with certain modifications necessitated by actual field conditions and C.Q. test schedule; coal slurry samples collected at C.Q. Inc. were either sent to the Homer City Coal Lab or brought back to B W for ICP analysis; and Homer City Coal Lab analysis of field collected slurry samples was completed and results reported to B W.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  19. CATALYTIC RECOMBINATION OF RADIOLYTIC GASES IN THORIUM OXIDE SLURRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, L.E.

    1962-08-01

    A method for the coinbination of hydrogen and oxygen in aqueous thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurries is described. A small amount of molybdenum oxide catalyst is provided in the slurry. This catalyst is applicable to the recombination of hydrogen and/or deuterium and oxygen produced by irradiation of the slurries in nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  20. Nitrification limitation in animal slurries at high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Derikx, P.J.L.; Have, ten P.J.W.; Vijn, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrification rates in two types of animal slurry were measured at temperatures between 20 and 60°C. The rates were assessed in rapid laboratory assays using samples from aeration tanks of large scale treatment plants for pig or veal-calf slurry. Maximum nitrification rates for the two slurries were

  1. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  2. Kinetics of coal combustion: Part 3, Mechanisms and kinetics of char combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavalas, G. R.; Flagan, R. C. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA)

    1988-09-01

    This report summarizes a three-year research program aimed at developing this level of understanding of char combustion through a combination of detailed analysis of chars as produced during devolatilization and as they evolve during oxidation, and theoretical studies of the porous microstructures and of pore diffusion and reaction within the coal particles. A small number of coals have been studied in detail, namely a HVA bituminous (PSOC 1451), a sub-bituminous (PSOC 1488), and a lignite (PSOC 1443). Chars have been generated from size-classified samples of these coals by pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere in a drop tube furnace. The chars were then characterized both chemically and physically. Subsequent oxidation studies were performed on these chars. 42 refs., 54 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 4 wt% ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt% ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases.

  4. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  5. Increasing effectiveness of production and quality of production at the Sibir' coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, L.A.; Kuz' kin, V.M.

    1980-08-01

    The Sibir' plant, built in 1974, prepares over 5.6 Mt of coking coal yearly. New coal preparing schemes and machines characterized by high efficiency (improving quality and increasing yield of coal concentrate) used in the Sibir' plant are described. Introducing an automated system controlling coal preparation in mineral suspension caused a 0.1% increase of coal concentrate yield. Using new machines for conditioning water-coal slurry mixture (AKP-1600) and the SAF-3 system used in flotation and filtration processes reduced ash content of flotation concentrate by 0.1%, moisture content by 0.5% and increased concentrate yield by 0.2%. Removing coal slurry from coal fraction 0 to 13 mm reduced ash content of the concentrate by 0.1% and increased its yield by 0.6%. DU-250 vacuum filters used in the Sibir' plant are 3 times more efficient than the Ukraine-80 filters. Their use reduced moisture content of coal concentrate 2.5% to 3%. One of the ways of increasing efficiency of coal preparation in the Sibir' plant is using alkyl oxides which improve flotation properties of apolar reagents. Using 300 g alkyl oxide per 1 t flotation reagent reduced ash content of the coal concentrate by 0.5% and increased its yield by 1.5% and at the same time increased ash content in the waste product of the flotation process by 4 to 6%. (In Russian)

  6. Potassium sorbate as an inhibitor in copper chemical mechanical planarization slurry. Part I. Elucidating slurry chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Magi; Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Vaes, Jan [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Ein-Eli, Yair, E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-04-01

    The integration of an advanced inhibitor, potassium sorbate (K[CH{sub 3}(CH){sub 4}CO{sub 2}]), in a copper CMP slurry based on hydrogen peroxide and glycine is reported. The first part of the study discusses the slurry chemistry by qualitatively describing the processes involved and proposes a mechanism for a hydrogen peroxide-glycine based slurry having sorbate anion as an inhibitor. For this purpose, the specific role of each chemical constituent in the slurry was elucidated at a fundamental level by electrochemical studies, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, all linked to the CMP performance on blanket wafers. Once the polishing mechanism was resolved the influence of the inhibitor was evaluated by CMP processing of patterned wafers.

  7. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

    2002-05-30

    This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

  8. Evaluation of the Monroe Slurry Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In early February, 2009, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) installed a Monroe Slurry : Maker on one of its 2009 Volvo Wheelers (see Photos 1 and 2). This truck was equipped with a : Henderson Utility Body. An 18 gallon per minute spoo...

  9. Electrokinetic sedimentation and dewatering of clay slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamedelhassan, E. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Electrokinetics is the application of a low voltage direct current across soil mass or soil slurry. It involves electro-osmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. Electrokinetics improves the sedimentation and dewatering by increasing the sedimentation velocity of soil particles by electrophoresis and draining water from soil pores by electro-osmosis. This presentation discussed a study that involved the electrokinetic sedimentation and dewatering of clay slurries. The objectives of the study were to accelerate the sedimentation by electrophoresis and enhance the dewatering and consolidation by electro-osmosis for two clay slurries. The presentation discussed the experimental program and provided several illustrations and photographs of the sedimentation configuration and dewatering process. Last, results of the experiment were presented. It was concluded that the the volume of the kaolinite/bentonite slurry in the electrokinetic test decreased by 63.6 per cent compared to a decrease of only 2.9 per cent in the control group. Next steps were identified as conducting a sedimentation and dewatering study with a solar panel as the source for direct current. tabs., figs.

  10. Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  11. Bio-slurry as fertilizer : is bio-slurry from household digesters a better fertilizer than manure? : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Zwart, K.B.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Postma, R.; Haas, de M.J.G.; Nysingh, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries manure is anaerobically digested to produce biogas. The residue of manure digestion, bio-slurry, can be used as fertilizer for crop production and aquaculture. This study compared bio-slurry and manure as fertilizers. Nutrients in bio-slurry, especially nitrogen, are

  12. Flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.; Bhatt, B.L.

    1980-02-01

    The following conclusions can be drawn from this work: (1) when the caking bituminous coals are used with diluents, only 20% Pittsburgh No. 8 coal can be added to the diluent swhile 40% Illinois No. 6 could be added due to the higher free swelling index of the Pittsburgh No. 8; (2) When limestone is used as a diluent, considerably more sulfur is retained in the char than when using sand; (3) when the char from an experiment using limestone is recycled as the diluent for another experiment, the char continually retains additional sulfur through at least three recycles; (4) decomposition of the limestone and reduction is indicated by the high concentrations of CO observed at 900/sup 0/C; (5) increasing the coal feed rate by a factor of 4 from 2.4 to 10.7 lb/hr at low H/sub 2//Coal ratios (approx. = 0.6) results in no appreciable change in gaseous HC yields (approx. = 27%) or concentration (approx. = 45%) but higher BTX yields (1.1% vs. 5.4%); (6) although only one experiment was conducted, it appears that hydrogasification of untreated New Mexico sub-bituminous coal at 950/sup 0/C does not give an increase in yield over hydrogasification at 900/sup 0/C; (7) the hydrogasification of Wyodak lignite gives approximately the same gaseous HC yields as that obtained from North Dakota lignite but higher BTX yields particularly at 900/sup 0/C and 1000 psi (9% vs. 2%); (8) treating New Mexico sub-bituminous coal with NaCO/sub 3/ does not increase its hydrogasification qualities between 600/sup 0/C and 900/sup 0/C at 1000 psi but does decrease the BTX yield.

  13. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Development of alternative fuels from coal derived syngas. Topical report: Task 2.2, Demonstration of a one-step slurry-phase process for the production of dimethyl ether/methanol mixtures at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report documents engineering, modification, and operations efforts of demonstration of dimethyl-ether/methanol coproduction in a slurry-phase reactor, carried out in a 2-ft diameter bubble column reactor. Equipment modifications made it possible to remove the product DME and by-product CO{sub 2} from the reactor effluent. Coproduction of dimethyl-ether (DME) and methanol (MeOH) was accomplished in the slurry reactor by physically mixing two different catalysts. The catalyst used to produce MeOH from syngas was manufactured by BASF (type S3-86); the catalyst used to convert MeOH to DME was Catapal {gamma}-alumina. Ratio of MeOH to DME catalysts determined the selectivity towards DME. The demonstration sought to study effect of cocatalyst ratio on product selectivity. Three different proportions of DME catalyst were examined: 0, 6.6, and 19.3 wt % alumina. At each catalyst proportion, the plant was operated at two different gas space velocities. Some process variables were maintained at fixed conditions; most important variables included: reactor temperature (482F), reactor pressure (750 psig), and reactor feed gas composition (35% H{sub 2}, 51% CO,13% CO{sub 2} 1% other, nominal-molar basis).

  15. Physicochemical and rheological characteristics of charcoal slurry fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugwu, K.E.; Eze, S.I. [National Center for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    Charcoal slurry fuel (CCF) was prepared from a mixture of charcoal, water and a surfactant. Some properties of the slurry were examined and evaluated. The rheological characteristics which were evaluated from the measurement of the viscosity of the slurry at varying solid concentrations showed it to be a Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid depending on the solid concentrations. The slurry was stable at below 40% solid concentration. This research results provided data that may be useful in the consideration of charcoal slurry as a potential substitute for the conventional petroleum-based diesel oil.

  16. Rheology of Fly Ash Mixed Tailings Slurries and Applicability of Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Kyu Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash has potential applications in the management of reactive mine tailings. The shear stress versus shear rate curves obtained during viscometer tests are presented to describe the rheological behaviors of tailings slurries mixed with fly ash. The investigation was conducted on specimens prepared with different fly ash additions as well as prepared at variable conditions of temperature, mixing time, and CaCl2 solution. It was observed that the rheological properties of ash-tailings slurry mixtures are influenced by the hydration of fly ash as well as the particle packing and arrangement. Rheological properties of specimen mixtures were determined from the resulting flow curves using the existing rheological models. The performance of prediction models in calculating the rheological properties of the mixed specimens, as quantified by the root mean square error (RMSE, varied with the mixture constituents, temperature, and time. In general, the Papanastasion, Herschel-Bulkley, Sisko, and Robertson-Stiff models were found to be favorable for use with mixtures of fly ash and tailings slurries, compared to the Bingham, Modified Bingham, Casson, and De Kee models.

  17. Progression towards optimization of viscosity of highly concentrated carbonaceous solid-water slurries by incorporating and modifying surface chemistry parameters with and without additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Amrita

    Carbonaceous solid-water slurries (CSWS) are concentrated suspensions of coal, petcoke bitumen, pitch etc. in water which are used as feedstock for gasifiers. The high solid loading (60-75 wt.%) in the slurry increases CSWS viscosity. For easier handling and pumping of these highly loaded mixtures, low viscosities are desirable. Depending on the nature of the carbonaceous solid, solids loading in the slurry and the particle size distribution, viscosity of a slurry can vary significantly. Ability to accurately predict the viscosity of a slurry will provide a better control over the design of slurry transport system and for viscosity optimization. The existing viscosity prediction models were originally developed for hard-sphere suspensions and therefore do not take into account surface chemistry. As a result, the viscosity predictions using these models for CSWS are not very accurate. Additives are commonly added to decrease viscosity of the CSWS by altering the surface chemistry. Since additives are specific to CSWS, selection of appropriate additives is crucial. The goal of this research was to aid in optimization of CSWS viscosity through improved prediction and selection of appropriate additive. To incorporate effect of surface chemistry in the models predicting suspension viscosity, the effect of the different interfacial interactions caused by different surface chemistries has to be accounted for. Slurries of five carbonaceous solids with varying O/C ratio (to represent different surface chemistry parameters) were used for the study. To determine the interparticle interactions of the carbonaceous solids in water, interfacial energies were calculated on the basis of surface chemistries, characterized by contact angles and zeta potential measurements. The carbonaceous solid particles in the slurries were assumed to be spherical. Polar interaction energy (hydrophobic/hydrophilic interaction energy), which was observed to be 5-6 orders of magnitude higher than the

  18. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  19. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

    1985-06-19

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

  20. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  1. Paste-like self-flowing transportation backfilling technology based on coal gangue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin-min Wang; Bin Zhao; Chuan-shu Zhang; Qin-li Zhang [Central South University, Changsha (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering

    2009-03-15

    A paste-like self-flowing pipeline transportation backfilling technology with coal gangue as aggregate is proposed to remove the potential damage caused by coal gangue piles. As well, the difficult problems of recovering high quality safety coal pillars and deep mining of the Suncun Coal Mine (SCM), Xinwen Coal Group, Shandong are resolved. The physical-chemical properties of coal gangue, optimized proportion of materials, backfilling system and craft in the SCM were studied in the laboratory and then an industrial test was carried out on high quality coal pillars under a town. The results show that finely crushed kaolinized and fresh gangue with granularity less than 5 mm can be used as aggregate with fly ash to replace part of the cement and a composite water reducer as an additive, accounting for 1.0%-1.5% of the total amount of cement and fly ash. The recommended proportion is 1(cement):4(fly ash):15(coal gangue), with a mass fraction of 72%-75%, rheological paste-like properties and a strength of more than 0.7 MPa at 7 d. The sequence of adding cement, fly ash, water reducer and then coal gangue ensures that the suspended state of the slurry, reducing the wear and jam of pipelines. The working face is advancing continuously by the alternating craft of building block walls with coal gangue and backfilling mined-out gobs with paste-like slurry. The recovery rate is as high as 90% with a backfilling cost of 36.9 Yuan/t, good utilization of coal gangue and no subsidence on the surface. This technology provides a good theoretical basis and application experience for coal mines, cement backfilling with paste-like slurry. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Geological, archaeological and historical occurrences of coal, east-central Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, W.D.; McCullough, K.M.; Richardson, R.J.H. [Institute of Sedimentary & Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1993-11-01

    Coal, once widely distributed over most of east-central Ellesmere Island, is only present in restricted outcrops of Eureka Sound Group sediments that survive in the Bache Peninsula Graben (BPG) on eastern Bache Peninsula. The discovery of coals similar to those of Bache Peninsula in modern morain sediments at the Jewell, Leffert, and Alfred Newton glaciers on Johan Peninsula to the south, provide evidence that (1) the Eureka Sound Group was more extensive in the past and is present today beneath modern glaciers and (2) the glaciers are likely filing grabens similar to the BPG. Twelve samples of coal were recovered from Thule culture house ruins dating from the 12th to 17th centuries A.D. Four samples have huminite reflectance levels and compositional features of lignites, and most likely originated in nearby seams of the Tertiary Eureka Sound Group. There is no evidence that coal was burned by the early native peoples. At the turn of the century exploration of the area and the quest for the North Pole saw the importation of coal into the area from Nova Scotia. Samples of coals from the caches imported by explorers proved to be identical to Nova Scotia bituminous coals and very different from the Eureka Sound lignites and sub-bituminous coals. The R.C.M.P. manned a post on Bache Peninsula from 1926 to 1933 and later at Alexandra Fiord. The coal, used for cooking and heating, was purchased from a company that imported high rank (anthracite) coal from Wales. Samples of coals from the two posts and a way-station at Rice Strait are very different from both the local and the Nova Scotia coals in terms of rank.

  3. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  4. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  5. Fuel properties of bituminous coal and pyrolytic oil mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Hazlin; Sharuddin, Munawar Zaman; Daud, Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A.

    2014-10-01

    Investigation on the thermal decomposition kinetics of coal-biooil slurry (CBS) fuel prepared at different ratios (100:0,70:30,60:40,0:100) was conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The materials consisted of Clermont bituminous coal (Australia) and bio-oil (also known as pyrolytic oil) from the source of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) that was thermally converted by means of pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of CBS fuel was performed in an inert atmosphere (50mL/min nitrogen) under non-isothermal conditions from room temperature to 1000°C at heating rate of 10°C/min. The apparent activation energy (Ea.) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model which first-order decomposition reaction was assumed. All kinetic parameters were tabulated based on the TG data obtained from the experiment. It was found that, the CBS fuel has higher reactivity than Clermont coal fuel during pyrolysis process, as the addition of pyrolytic oil will reduce the Ea values of the fuel. The thermal profiles of the mixtures showed potential trends that followed the characteristics of an ideal slurry fuel where high degradation rate is desirable. Among the mixture, the optimum fuel was found at the ratio of 60:40 of pyrolytic oil/coal mixtures with highest degradation rate. These findings may contribute to the development of a slurry fuel to be used in the vast existing conventional power plants.

  6. Overview of the environmental concerns of coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.; Dauzvardis, P.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-02-01

    More than 30 environmental concerns were analyzed for the transportation of coal by rail, roads (trucks), high voltage transmission lines (that is, from mine-mouth generating plants to distribution networks), coal slurry pipelines, and barges. The following criteria were used to identify these problems: (1) real physical environmetal impacts for which control technologies must be developed, or regulation made effective where control technologies presently exist; (2) the level of impact is uncertain, although the potential impact may be moderate to high; (3) the concerns identified by the first two criteria are specific to or exacerbated by coal transportation. Generic transportation problems are not included. The significant environmental problems identified as a result of this study are: (1) rail transport - community traffic disruption and human health, safety, and habitat destruction; (2) coal haul roads - road degradation, traffic congestion and safety, air quality, and noise; (3) high voltage transmission lines - changed land use without local benefits, biological health and safety effects, and disruption of world weather patterns; (4) slurry pipelines - water availability, water quality, and possible spills from non-water slurry pipelines; and (5) barge transport - impacts common to all barge traffic. (DMC)

  7. Research on coal ashes treatment technology. Sekitan bai shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masao; Hotari, Matajuro; Tokuda, Hitoshi; Eto, Yoshitake (Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1989-03-30

    Effective utilization and reclamation treatment of coal ashs of about 20% in quantity of coal which is produced by coal burning, become big problem. In order to research the treatment technology for coal ashs, the fundamental experiment in laboratory and ash treatment experiment on site were conducted by bench test for two years from the 1987 to 1988 fiscal year, and foundation characteristics of high density slurry, its environmental property, an selection of equipment such as mixer and pump were studied. The high density slurry system is a method that coal ashs are mixed with water at about 40-50% moisture content, placed into undersea and reclaimed. The result of the high density slurry system showed that density was about 10% larger in the value than that of dry system and the density of slurry was much affected by moisture content, and that the lower moisture content at the placing was, the larger moisture content was after the placing. the system was superior in strength and environmental property than those of conventional system, then its availability was able to be confirmed and verified. 9 refs., 71 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Coal derived fuel gases for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compatible with gasifier product gases. Results are presented on: (1) the range of gasifier raw-gas compositions available from the major classes of coal gasifiers; (2) the degree of gas clean-up achievable with state-of-the-art and future gas clean-up systems; and (3) the energy penalties associated with gas clean-up. The study encompasses fixed-bed, fluid-bed, entrained-bed, and molten salt gasifiers operating with Eastern bituminous and Western subbituminous coals. Gasifiers operating with air and oxygen blowing are evaluated, and the coal gasification product streams are characterized with respect to: (1) major gas stream constituents, e.g., CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O; (2) major gas stream contaminants, e.g., H/sub 2/S, COS, particulates, tars, etc.; and (3) trace element contaminants, e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, Hg, etc.

  9. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  10. Explosions of coal powder in pressured process; Explosiones de Polvo de Carbon en Procesos a Presion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    As continuation of the previous introductory work about explosions of coal under hyperbaric conditions and considering the higher risk of explosions repercution with pressure; it was decided to develop this ambitious project, taking into account the more extensive range of type of coals: since subbituminous coals through hard coal to anthracite. It has been considered also several type of sorbents as limestones and others. The main objective of the project is to define, by experimental way, the utilization conditions for a safety coal handling. Many variables have been analyzed: Coal characteristics and origin, type of limestones, oxygen. moisture, temperature, and pressure. Due the great project complexity it was necessary to build one especial installation for trails under high pressure, where it was possible to use all the big number of variable combinations. The main research result has been the development of a model which has the possibility to simulate and analyze the foreseeable performance of coals and sorbent blends, in order to avoid the exploitations using specific handling methods. (Author)

  11. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m3 of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m3 h-1), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH3, CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m-3 [slurry] d-1, P effect was detected for CO2, and no relevant N2O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH3 emissions.

  12. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  13. Creosote treatability using a slurry bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosier, K. R.; Vale, E.; Wardlaw, C. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre

    1995-12-31

    A treatability study using continuously-stirred bioslurry reactors was performed to test the biodegradability of a creosote-contaminated soil taken from a wood-preserving plant site. The experiment evaluated the use of two surfactants, a microbial inocculant from a sewage treatment plant (STP)and a combination of surfactants and STP inoculum. A biotic control (i.e. no treatment) and an abiotic treatment (no treatment; autoclaved slurry) were also used. Monitoring was performed on a periodic basis for pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, oxygen consumption rate, slurry surface tension, temperature, microbial biomass, toxicity, and PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons). Viable fluoranthene -degrading microbes were found to be present in the slurries. Toxicity was quite high initially, but decreased with time. Surface tension also decreased initially, but periodic additions of surfactants helped to maintain desired levels. Oxygen consumption rates appeared to increase progressively. Gas chromatography showed a decrease in the contaminants-of-concern (i.e. those on the EPA`s priority pollutant list) over the course of the study.

  14. Comparison of Raw Dairy Manure Slurry and Anaerobically Digested Slurry as N Sources for Grass Forage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia E. Saunders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a 3-year field study to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR, and soil nitrate concentrations relative to urea. Annual N applications ranged from 600 kg N ha−1 in 2009 to 300 g N ha−1 in 2011. Forage yield and N uptake were similar across slurry treatments. Soil nitrate concentrations were greatest at the beginning of the fall leaching season, and did not differ among slurry treatments or application methods. Urea-fertilized plots had the highest soil nitrate concentrations but did not consistently have greatest forage biomass. ANR for the slurry treatments ranged from 35 to 70% when calculations were based on ammonium-N concentration, compared with 31 to 65% for urea. Slurry ANR calculated on a total N basis was lower (15 to 40% due to lower availability of the organic N in the slurries. No consistent differences in soil microbial biomass or other biological indicators were observed. Anaerobically digested slurry supported equal forage production and similar N use efficiency when compared to raw dairy slurry.

  15. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-09-29

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter ({alpha}) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number

  16. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  17. Consortium for coal log pipeline research and development. Final technical progress report, August 10, 1993--August 9, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R.

    1996-10-01

    The main objective of this project was to conduct intensive research and development of the Coal Log Pipeline (CLP). Specifically, the R & D was to concentrate on previously neglected and insufficiently studied aspects of CLP which were deemed significant. With improvements in these areas, CLP could be implemented for commercial use within five years. CLP technology is capable of transporting coal logs for long distances. The many potential advantages of CLP over truck and railroad transportation include: lower freight costs, less energy consumption, less air pollution, decreased environmental problems, increased safety, and improved reliability. Previous studies have shown that CLP is advantageous over slurry pipeline technology. First, CLP uses one-third the water required by a coal slurry pipeline. Second, CLP provides easier coal dewatering. Third, the CLP conveying capacity of coal is twice as much as a slurry transport line of equal diameter. In many situations, the cost for transporting each ton of coal is expected to be less expensive by CLP as compared to other competing modes of transportation such as: truck, unit train and slurry pipeline.

  18. Compensated gamma ray densimeter measures slurry densities in flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, R.J.; Zimmerman, C.W.

    1973-09-01

    A gamma-ray densitometer has been compensated so that the density of flowing oil-field slurries is measured accurately and independent of slurry composition. Accuracies over the range of densities employed in oil-field applications is within +.25 lb/gal of true density. Normal drilling mud densities are measured while flowing through the rig's standpipe at accuracies of +0.1 lb/gal of true density. Until the compensated gamma-ray densitometer was developed, it was necessary to recalibrate densitometers when slurries containing elements of high atomic numbers were present. Most oil-field cementing slurries contain no significant amounts of high atomic number elements. However, some cement slurries and drilling mud contain barite (atomic number 56) which precluded accurate measurements by earlier gamma-ray densitometers without recalibration for changes in slurry composition.

  19. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...... of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from H2S dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the H2S contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than...... with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with addition...

  20. Biogas slurry pricing method based on nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-ai; Guo, Honghai; Yang, Zhengtao; Xin, Shurong

    2017-11-01

    In order to promote biogas-slurry commercialization, A method was put forward to valuate biogas slurry based on its nutrient contents. Firstly, element contents of biogas slurry was measured; Secondly, each element was valuated based on its market price, and then traffic cost, using cost and market effect were taken into account, the pricing method of biogas slurry were obtained lastly. This method could be useful in practical production. Taking cattle manure raw meterial biogas slurry and con stalk raw material biogas slurry for example, their price were 38.50 yuan RMB per ton and 28.80 yuan RMB per ton. This paper will be useful for recognizing the value of biogas projects, ensuring biogas project running, and instructing the cyclic utilization of biomass resources in China.

  1. Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.; McTigue, D.F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

  2. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Lignosulfonate Application for Organic Coal-Water Fuel Rheological Properties Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lignosulfonate on viscosity of organic coal-water-fuel (OCWF was investigated. Brown coal from “Borodinskoe” deposit, waste oil Motul 8100 X-Clean 5W-30-C3, distilled water and powdered lignosulfonate was used as raw materials for slurry preparation. OCWF viscosity were measured using a rotational viscometer BROOKFIELD DV-II + Pro EXTRA. Optimum lignosulfonate concentration was obtained (1.3-1.4%.

  3. Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  4. Coals of Greece: distribution, quality and reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukouzas, C.; Koukouzas, N. [Institute of Geological and Mineral Exploration, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Energy Resources

    1995-08-01

    Greek coals occur in a number of sedimentary basins and range in age from Eocene to Quaternary. The petrographic data indicate a wide variation in petrographic and chemical composition. The rank ranges from the transition zone peat-lignite to subbituminous. Lignite constitutes the most abundant type of coal in Greece and the most important of the Greek lignite deposits formed during the Pliocene and Pleistocene in shallow lakes and marshes of closed intramontaine basins. The proved lignite reserves are currently estimated at 6750 MT, excluding the 4300 Mm{sup 3} of Philipi peat in Macedonia. There, 58% (about 3900 Mt) is considered to be economically recoverable. The probable and possible reserves are estimated to be of the order of 4000 Mt. The Kozane-Ptolemais-Amynteo-Florian basins in Macedonia contain most (about 64%) of the nation`s coal resources. These lignites, which are all already being exploited, have a very low calorific value (at Ptolemais-Amynteo, 1400 kcal/kg; at Megalopolis, 900 kcal/kg) and high ash and low sulphur contents. The lignite production for 1992 was over 54 Mt. The greatest centres of lignite production are in Macedonia, at the opencast mines of Ptolemais and Amynteo, and in Peloponnesus, at the opencast mine of Negalopolis. The vast majority (98%) of the extracted lignite is used for electricity generation and feeds power plants which have a total capacity of 4533 MW. The lignite-based power plants accounts for more than 72% of the total electricity generation of the country. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Slurry combustion. Volume 2: Appendices, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: coal analyses and slurryability characteristics; listings of programs used to call and file experimental data, and to reduce data in enthalpy and efficiency calculations; and tabulated data sets.

  6. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  7. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  8. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  9. Reconnaissance coal study in the Susitna basin, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. LePain,; Stanley, Richard G.; Harun, Nina T.; Helmold, Kenneth T.; Tsigonis, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) conducted fieldwork during the summer of 2014 in the Susitna basin as part of an ongoing evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of frontier basins, particularly those near the Railbelt region (for example, Decker and others, 2013; Gillis and others, 2013). Topical studies associated with this recent work include sedimentary facies analysis (LePain and others, 2015) and structural geology investigations (Gillis and others, 2015). The Susitna basin contains coal-bearing Paleogene and Neogene strata correlative with formations that host oil and gas in Cook Inlet basin to its south. Isotopic signatures of natural gas reservoired in the Miocene/Pliocene Sterling and Miocene Beluga Formations suggest a biogenic origin for Cook Inlet gas (Claypool and others, 1980). To assess the biogenic gas potential of the Susitna basin, it is important to obtain information from its coal-bearing units.Characteristics of coal, such as maturity/rank and cleat development are key parameters influencing viability of a biogenic gas system (Laubach and others, 1998). In an early study of the Susitna basin (Beluga–Yentna region), Barnes (1966) identified, analyzed, and recognized potentially valuable subbituminous coal resources at Fairview Mountain, Canyon Creek, and Johnson Creek. Merritt (1990), in a sedimentological study to evaluate surface coal mining potential of the Tertiary rocks of the Susitna basin (Susitna lowland), concluded that the basin contained several billion tons of mineable reserves. This preliminary report offers a brief summary of new information on coals in the Susitna Basin acquired during associated stratigraphic studies (see LePain and others, 2015). 

  10. Mercury in coal ash and its fate in the Indian subcontinent: A synoptic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun B; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2006-09-01

    In the Indian subcontinent power generation is mainly dependent upon the thermal power units and coal is burnt as a fuel for the production of heat and electricity. In India, bituminous and sub-bituminous coals are used which contain over 40% of ash. At present, 80-90 million tons of fly ashes are generated from 85 existing coal based thermal power plants. Coal contains trace metals of which mercury is most toxic for humans and aquatic fauna. The problem of mercury in the society is not new, but in recent years the Indian subcontinent has gained the reputation of being "a dumping ground for mercury". This study focuses on mercury in fly ash and its releases to the atmosphere and soils cross the country. The utilisation of coal ash in India is also addressed although it is still in its nascent stage. About 10% of produced fly ashes are used in India whereas in Western countries its use is typically over 70%. Regulations from India's Ministry of Environment and Forestry should increase coal fly ash utilisation, although this would require that cost-effective new technology is put to use. As to the release of Hg from ashes disposed of in the environment, the scarce literature suggests that this is negligible or zero, and less problematic than wet or dry deposition of Hg from flue gases.

  11. Characterization of the intermediate product of coal solubilization by Penicillin simplicissimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achi, O.K. [Federal Polytechnic, Idah (Nigeria). Dept. of Science and Technology

    1994-12-01

    Penicillium simplicissimum has previously been shown to solubilize pre-oxidized alkali-extracted sub-bituminous coal. The product of solubilization, a soluble acid-precipitable coal polymer, was isolated and characterized. The effects of oxidation pretreatments on the ability to solubilize coal were also examined. The intermediate product, which comprised 30% of the original coal, was readily recovered from the growth medium by acid precipitation and possibly consisted of a heterogeneous mixture of high molecular weight compounds of approximately 2.7 x 10{sup 4} molecular weight. Further characterization by elemental analyses revealed that the bioproduct was enriched in inorganic materials, oxygen, nitrogen but lower in carbon, hydrogen and sulphur when compared with the original coal. A 14% loss of carbon atoms occurred during the biodegradation. The product had a featureless visible light spectrum and a shoulder in the ultraviolet range at 290 nm. Infrared analyses showed a decrease in aromatic carbons, methylenic bonds and etheric oxygen. Experimental results suggested that solubilization changes appear to be largely oxidative and may involve cleavage of intermonomeric linkages in coal.

  12. Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

    2012-03-15

    Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Origin and distribution of biomarkers in the sulphur rich Utrillas coal basin - Teruel mining district - Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivella, M.A.; Gorchs, R.; de las Heras, F.X.C. [University Politecnica Catalunya, Manresa (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The Utrillas coal facies are located in the Maestrazgo basin in NE Spain. This mining district of Teruel contains subbituminous deposits from the Middle Albian (Lower Cretaceous 105 Ma) in areas near a delta estuary with abundant sulphur. The high sulphur content is due to an influx of sulphate caused by the geological recycling of Triassic gypsum from the catchment area into the delta estuary. In some outcrops, the weathered coal reveals leonardite deposits. The depositional environment of the basin originated coals, some of which are currently mined. The organic matter of the coals has been the object of scattered reports. Studies have focused on bulk pyrolysis parameters and microscopic observation in Utrillas samples, as well as the inorganic and insoluble organic fraction. We analysed the organic soluble extract of the Utrillas coals using GC-MS in order to characterize their aliphatic, aromatic and organosulphur compounds. The biomarker distribution allowed us to recognize different inputs, assess their depositional palaeoenvironment and finally determine their degree of maturity. In particular, homologous series of hopanes related to eubacteria were present. Biomarkers characteristic of higher plant inputs were also widely distributed (e.g. phyllocladane or C-29 steranes). The presence of linear alkylbenzenes allowed us to recognize the palaeodepositional reducing environments where they were deposited. Specifically, thienylhopanes were associated with sulphur-reducing environments. Finally, the abundance of unsaturated biomarkers such as diacholestenes indicated low-maturity coals. Various aromatic ratios such as the methylphenanthrene index also suggested diagenesis in the initial stage.

  14. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  15. Potassic zeolites from Brazilian coal ash for use as a fertilizer in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Camila Gomes; Schneider, Helena; Marcilio, Nilson Romeu; Ferret, Lizete; Oliveira, João Carlos Pinto

    2017-12-01

    Brazilian coal has an ash content ranging from 30 to 50% by weight. Consequently, its use in coal-fired thermoelectric for power production generates a lot of waste. The construction sector is the largest consumer of coal ash, but it cannot absorb the entire amount generated. Thus, other applications for coal ash should be studied in aim to optimize the use of this industrial waste. This research had as focus to synthesize potassic zeolite from of the coal ash into on potassium fertilizer for the grown wheat plant. In this work, it was used a subbituminous coal from Mina do Leão (RS, Brazil) presenting 48.7% ash content on a dry basis. Concerning the synthesis of potassic zeolite, it was adopted the conventional method of hydrothermal treatment with potassium hydroxide. A schedule of experiments was conducted in order to define the optimum condition of zeolite synthesis that was then used an alkaline solution of 5M KOH with a reaction time of 24h at 150°C. According to this procedure, it was obtained a zeolite with a single crystalline phase, identified through X-ray diffraction as Merlinoite. Subsequently, it was performed a set of tests using potassic zeolite asa fertilizer for plants in a greenhouse. The synthesized potassic zeolite showed a good potential for its use as fertilizer in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Jeffrey C

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO(2) emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO(2) emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO(2) emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97, 91.97, 88.20, and 98.91 kg CO(2)/GJ(gross), respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO(2) emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO(2) emission factors for U.S. coal.

  17. Gasification of high ash content coals with steam in a semibatch fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmal, M.; Monterio, J.L.F.; Toscani, M.

    1983-10-01

    This work reports a study on gasification of Brazilian mineral subbituminous coal with steam in a semibatch fluidized bed reactor. Several tests for the fluidization characteristics of mixtures of coal and ash were performed. Fluidization velocity was determined from the data of the minimum velocity, calculated at high temperatures and later tested. Experimental results show that flow conditions must be determined experimentally for high temperatures and pressures. The influence of temperature and pressure on product gases during the reaction and on the ratio CO/CO/sub 2/ were determined. The reaction rate is very sensitive to temperature variations between 850 and 1000 /sup 0/C. For pressures higher than 10 atm the effect of the pressure on reaction rate is negligible. The experimental results are well described by the unreacted core model above 850 /sup 0/C where the chemical reaction is the rate controlling step. The activation energy was found to be 39 kcal/mol.

  18. Gasification of high ash content coals with steam in a semibatch fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmal, M.

    1983-10-01

    The work reports a study of gasification of a Brazilian subbituminous coal with steam in a semi-batch fluidized bed reactor. Several tests of the fluidization characteristics of mixtures of coal and ash were carried out. Experimental results show that flow conditions must be determined experimentally for high temperatures and pressures. The influences of temperature and pressure on product gases and on the CO/CO/sub 2/ ratio were determined. The reaction is very sensitive to temperature variations between 850 and 1000 C. For pressures above 10 atm, the effect of pressure on the reaction rate is negligible. The experimental results are well described by the uncreacted core model above 850 C where the chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step.

  19. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  20. The pressure gradient for heterogeneous flow of coal, sand and iron in pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, X.Q.

    1986-01-01

    The existing relationships based on Durand's method to predict pressure gradients for slurry flow in pipelines appear to be inadequate when accounting for a wide range of variables such as particle size and relative density as well as concentration. Using the coal, sand and iron ore data collected

  1. Pig slurry treatment modifies slurry composition, N2O, and CO2 emissions after soil incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertora, C.; Alluvione, F.; Zavattaro, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Velthof, G.L.; Grignani, C.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of manures may improve their agricultural value and environmental quality, for instance with regards to greenhouse gases mitigation and enhancement of carbon (C) sequestration. The present study verified whether different pig slurry treatments (i.e. solid/liquid separation and

  2. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  3. Theory and practice of coal flotation in the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhovtyuk, G.V.; Liber, L.A.; Polotskii, V.A.; Tyurnikova, V.I.

    1980-07-01

    This paper discusses problems of black coal flotation and new flotation reagents and equipment in various Soviet coal basins. AAR-1 and AAR-2 apolar aromatized reagents, produced from natural oil, are characterized. In comparison to reagents used until now, AAR contain 3 to 4 times more active aromatic hydrocarbons. Using AAR reagents in flotation of low rank coals characterized by high ash content and low flotation capacity brings about significant increase in concentrate yield. AAR reagents are nontoxic and their production is not expensive. Applying surface-active agents to improve efficiency of flotation reagents is also discussed. Lotos, Kristall and Aina surface-active agents and their efficiency in 6 coal preparation plants are evaluated. Results are given in a table. New flotation machines are described. Among others, the FPPM-20 double chamber counterflow flotation machine is characterized: chamber volume 40 m3, capacity 800 m3 of slurry per hour and 80 to 120 t/h of flotation concentrate.

  4. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hed, P. Paul (San Ramon, CA); Fuchs, Baruch A. (Aventura, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  5. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients

  6. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients

  7. Developing Archetypal Machines for a Sequence of Food- Slurry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional methods of producing these food-slurries prior to their consumption as food cannot meet up with the high demand for these gruels. This current ... The results show that the machines have increased the sieving rate of steeped grain and in extension the production of these food-slurries by over 50%. Design ...

  8. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different

  9. theoretical basis for slurry computation and compounding in highly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... 6 shows the conventional slurry distribution over the annular space of a casing landed in a devi- ated well. Grain size distribution of the slurry is uni- form. Free water and sedimentation tendencies exist. Hence it is expected that every little inter-granular space would be occupied with equal hydrostatic pres-.

  10. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

      Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  11. Technical Development of Slurry Three-Dimensional Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cho-Pei; Hsu, Huang-Jan; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the technical development of slurry three-dimensional printer (3DP) which based on photo-polymerization and constrained surface method. Basically, slurry consists of ceramic powder, resin and photo-initiator. The light engines for solidifying the photo-curable slurry can be classified as laser, liquid crystal panel (LCD), digital light processing (DLP). The slurry can be reacted and solidified by selective ray according to the reaction spectrum of photo-initiator. Ceramic powder used in this study is zirconia oxide. Experimental results show that ceramic particle size affects the viscosity of slurry severely resulting in low accuracy and the occurrence of micro crack in the layer casting procedure. Therefore, the effect of particle size on the curability and accuracy of built green part is discussed. A single dental crown is proposed to be fabricated by these three light engines as a benchmark for comparison. In addition, the cost and the limitation are compared in the aspect of dental crown fabrication. Consequently, the lowest cost is LCD-type slurry 3DP system. DLP-type slurry 3DP can produce green body with the fastest fabrication time. The volumetric error of sintered part that made by these three fabrication methods is similar because the composition of slurry is the same.

  12. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at

  13. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    taurus L.) manure slurry. Surface application of slurry increased P leaching losses relative to baseline losses, but losses declined with increasing active flow volume. After elution of one pore volume, leaching averaged 0.54 kg P ha−1 from the loam, 0.38 kg P ha−1 from the sandy loam, and 0.22 kg P ha−1...

  14. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-11-15

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

  15. A comparison between ceramic membrane filters and conventional fabric filters for fine particulate removal from a coal-fired industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Glick, D.C.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Drury, K. [Corning Inc., Painted Post, NY (United States); Makris [Corning Inc., Acton, MA (United States); Stubblefield, D.J. [Corning Inc., Corning, NY (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Penn State is developing technologies for ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuels, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) in industrial boilers. Emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Results from trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions testing, when firing coal-based fuels, are reported elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper discusses the evaluation of ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal in a package boiler when firing micronized coal and CWSF.

  16. Effective Compressibility of a Bubbly Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, S. I.; Gauglitz, P. A.; Rossen, W. R.

    2001-09-01

    The goal of this study is to fit model parameters to changes in waste level in response to barometric pressure changes in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This waste compressibility is a measure of the quantity of gas, typically hydrogen and other flammable gases, that can pose a safety hazard, retained in the waste. A one-dimensional biconical-pore-network model for compressibility of a bubbly slurry is presented in a companion paper. Fitting these results to actual waste level changes in the tanks implies that bubbles in the slurry layer are long and the ratio of pore-body radius to pore-throat radius is close to 1; unfortunately, compressibility can not be quantified unambiguously from the data without additional information on pore geometry. Therefore, determining the quantity of gas in the tanks requires more than just waste-level data. The non-uniqueness of the fit is also found with two other simple models: a capillary-tube model with contact angle hysteresis and a spherical-pore model. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  18. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  19. Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.

    2016-11-01

    Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.

  20. Manufacturing optimization of the technological unit for crushing the dressing coal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, K.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of coal preparation is discussed. Run-of-mine coal fed to a screen is separated into 2 classes: to 80 mm and above 80 mm. Coal slurry is separated from the size fraction below 80 mm using a clarifier. After slurry separation, the coal is prepared by jigging (three-product preparation). Two separating densities are used: 1.4 and 1.8 t/m/sup 3/. By-product supplied by jigging is crushed and is prepared in another jig system. Optimization of by-product crushing and secondary jigging is discussed. A procedure for selecting the optimum crushing size and the optimum separation density is analyzed. The procedure is based on simulation methods using models developed by the US Bureau of Mines and by S. Cierpisz and A. Tatarkiewicz. The optimum crushing size of coal and the optimum separation density for 8 coal types from one coal mine are determined. The aim is to increase yields of coal concentrate with ash content below the permissible level. 3 references.

  1. Model predictions and experimental results on self-heating prevention of stockpiled coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andres, J.M.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2001-01-01

    The spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This phenomenon is analysed using a TNO-model modified to predict the spontaneous heating behaviour of coal piles built with 'Mezcla', a mixture of low rank coals from Teruel (Spain). The simulation carried out with the mathematical model for this coal showed that the pile porosity or voidage and wind speed play an important role, although voidage is decisive and controls the effect of the wind velocity. To reduce the negative effects of both factors, five test coal piles (2000-3000 t) were built and several measures were applied to four of them: periodic compaction, use of a low angle slope, protection of the stockpiled coal with an artificial wind barrier and covering it with an ash-water slurry. The heat losses were experimentally determined and it was found that the mathematical model gave predictions of the right order of magnitude of time, site of spontaneous combustion and magnitude of calorific losses. All the methods of protection applied to decrease the self-heating of coal were effective, but the experimental results indicate that the most economical way to avoid the heat losses is the use of an ash-water slurry to cover the coal pile. 28 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Observations on microbial activity in acidified pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of pig slurry to pH 5.5 is used as a measure to reduce ammonia emission from pits and storages. The slurry is acidified with sulphuric acid in a process tank and pumped back to the slurry pits or to a storage tank. We investigated the effect of acidification on microbial activity...... by the high concentration of protonized short-chained volatile fatty acids in the acidified slurry (approximately 25 mM, compared to untreated slurry ... acidification are greatly reduced production rates and loss of sulphide and methane, and eliminated loss of ammonia. On the other hand, increased volatilization and loss of smelly fatty acids is to be expected....

  3. Characterizations and Stability of Colloidal Coal-Measure Kaolinite in Aqueous Suspensions: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingyun; Hu, Yang; Min, Fanfei; Zhang, Mingxu; Song, Shaoxian

    2013-03-01

    Coal-measure kaolinite is a main gangue mineral in coal deposits. Because of the colloidal particle size, the kaolinite is very stable in coal tailing slurries, leading to a high turbidity of recycled water in coal washing plants. The coagulation of colloidal kaolinite in aqueous suspensions is an essential problem in many coal washing plants. This review highlights the characterizations and stability of colloidal coal-measure kaolinite in aqueous suspensions. The characterizations include mineralogy, electrokinetics and hydration layers on kaolinite surfaces. The coagulation of colloidal kaolinite in aqueous suspensions is reviewed and discussed on the basis of the DLVO theory and the characterization. In addition,the main parameters of affecting the coagulation, such as suspension pH, electrolytic ions and temperature, are summarized.

  4. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  5. Achievement report on developing coal liquefaction technologies in fiscal 1998 - edition B. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (studies by using pilot plant) 1/2; 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho B. 1/2. Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to improve the environment by substituting petroleum energy by coal, and by reducing emission of SOx and NOx, research and development has been performed on coal liquefaction technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof in fiscal 1998. In the operation study RUN-5, the operation was carried out by using the Tanito Harum coal of Indonesia, and raising the slurry concentration to 50% by weight. The operation stability when the high concentration slurry was used was verified, and the liquefying reaction column fluidity property data, and the material balance and heat balance data were acquired by using the NAT method. In the RUN-6 and 7, for the purpose of verifying the applicability of the NEDOL process to the wide range of coal types as the process feature, the Adaro coal of Indonesia and the Ikejima coal of Japan were used, and the operation at high slurry concentration was performed at 80% load and under the standard NEDOL conditions. The operation stability when the upper and lower limit coals was used was verified, and the operability at high slurry concentration was identified. At the same time, the liquefying reaction column fluidity property data, and the material balance and heat balance data were acquired. The development targets established by the Industrial Technology Council have all been achieved. (NEDO)

  6. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  7. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  8. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1992--February 8, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    The mixed iron/alumina pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported iron catalysts have been shown in previous reports of this project to significantly improve yields of heptane-soluble products obtained in the liquefaction of both as received and acid-exchanged Wyodak subbituminous coal and Blind Canyon bituminous coal. In this quarter, the soluble product (LSW) obtained from the noncatalytic low-severity liquefaction of Wyodak coal was used as a feed to determine the activity of iron based catalysts for the hydrogenation and depolymerization steps. Comparison data for liquefaction of the soluble LSW with other catalysts were desired, and these data were obtained for a dispersed form of iron sulfide, prepared via iron hydroxyoxide (PETC method). The iron oxyhydroxide catalyst was directly precipitated on LSW product using either water or ethanol as the solvent. An insight into the functioning of the mixed iron/alumina pillared clay in coal liquefaction was investigated by preparing and studying an iron oxoaluminate structure. An investigation of new methods for the production of tetralin soluble iron oxometallate catalysts and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. The hydrogenation activity of iron oxoaluminate was investigated using pyrene and 1-methylnaphthalene as the test compounds, and results were compared with thermal reactions. In order to determine the loss of activity, recovered catalyst was recycled a second time for the hydrotreating of pyrene. Reaction of 1-methylnaphthalene with iron oxoaluminate also gave very high conversion to 1- and 5-methyltetralins and small amount of 2- and 6-methyltetralins. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous and Blind Canyon bituminous coal was investigated using an in situ sulfided soluble iron oxoaluminate catalyst.

  9. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2000-03-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of shiny in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  10. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  11. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

    1999-08-01

    Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

  12. CFD Prediction of Erosion Wear in Centrifugal Slurry Pumps for Dilute Slurry Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Pagalthivarthi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses numerical prediction of erosion wear trends in centrifugal pump casing pumping dilute slurries. The casing geometry is considered two-dimensional. Discrete Phase Model (DPM in FLUENT 6.1® is utilized to obtain dilute slurry flow field through the pump casing employing two-way coupling. Standard k — ε model is used for turbulence. Effect of several operational parameters viz. pump flow rate, pump speed (RPM, particle diameter and various geometry conditions viz. tongue curvature, slope of the discharge pipe and casing width is studied. Qualitative trends of erosion wear is described for these operational and geometric parameters with an idea to lower the wear rates and to make the wear pattern along the casing wall as uniform as possible. For example, with increase in pump flow rate, wear rates tends to even out whereas with increased casing width, wear rates are found to decrease.

  13. Temperature Trends in Coal Char Combustion under Oxy-fuel Conditions for the Determination of Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Samira [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hecht, Ethan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion technology with carbon capture and storage could significantly reduce global CO2 emissions, a greenhouse gas. Implementation can be aided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, which require an accurate understanding of coal particle kinetics as they go through combustion in a range of environments. To understand the kinetics of pulverized coal char combustion, a heated flow reactor was operated under a wide range of experimental conditions. We varied the environment for combustion by modifying the diluent gas, oxygen concentration, gas flow rate, and temperature of the reactor/reacting gases. Measurements of reacting particle temperatures were made for a sub-bituminous and bituminous coal char, in environments with CO2 or N2 as the diluent gas, with 12, 24, and 36 vol-% oxygen concentration, at 50, 80, 100, and 200 standard liters per minute flowing through the reactor, reactor temperatures of 1200, 1400 K, at pressures slightly above atmospheric. The data shows consistent increasing particle temperature with increased oxygen concentration, reactor temperature and higher particle temperatures for N2 diluent than CO2. We also see the effects of CO2 gasification when different ranks of coal are used, and how the reduction in the temperature due to the CO2 diluent is greater for the coal char that has higher reactivity. Quantitative measurements for temperature are not yet complete due to ongoing calibration of detection systems.

  14. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  15. Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

  16. Rheological analysis of an effect of different deflocculants on the fly-ash slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnecki, K.; Bartosik, A.

    2014-08-01

    During the combustion of coal in the combined heat and power plant (CHP), a very large amount of combustion waste, called further as a fly-ash, is produced. It is typical that fly-ash appears during the combustion process of the fine coal and is transported by a pipeline with support of water as a carrier liquid to a pond storage site, where it is disposed. The pond is localized usually a few kilometers from the CHP, which makes it possible that decrease of friction in such a pipeline can result in energy savings of electricity needed for the pump and water needed as a carrier liquid. In the study an efficient method using a few deflocculants for reducing shear stress, and as a consequence viscosity, is demonstrated. The objective of the paper is to improve the efficiency of the hydrotransport of the fly-ash slurry by adding own designed additives. During the experiments a solids concentration by weight was determined from procured raw material in order to compute the real value occurring in industrial conditions. In addition, the analysis of the particle size distribution was conducted. The Anton Paar MCR 302 electronic rheometer was used to measure the dependence of shear stress and viscosity vs shear rate in the fly-ash existing in the CHP. Another part of the analysis was focused on the additives (deflocculants), to examine their influence on the reduction of the shear stress. The paper proves positive deflocculants impact on the rheological properties of the fly-ash slurry. The results of measurements are presented as figures and conclusions.

  17. Slurry Bubble Column Reactor Optimization (book chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamwo, I.K.; Gidaspow, D. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL); Jung, J. (ANL)

    2007-03-01

    Slurry bubble column reactors (SBCR) are the preferred contactors for the conversion of syngas to fules and chemicals partially due to their superior heat and mass transfer characteristics. The multiphase fluid dynamics in these systems greatly affect the reactor volumetric productivity. Here, we have developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assisted design methodology for searching the optimum particle size for maximum production in a SBCR. Reactor optimization due to heat exchanger configuration was also investigated. We have rearranged the heat exchangers in a SBCR and constructed a CFD model for a baffled reactor. The novel arrangement of the exchangers prevents the unfavorable high catalysts concentration at the lower stage of the reactor. Thus an optimum catalyst concentration is maintained during the course of the production of liquid fuels.

  18. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  19. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  20. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  1. Microstructural evaluation of oil well cementing slurries using alternative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Maria D.M.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Martinelli, Antonio E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    n this work, cementing slurries were prepared with densities between 12.2 and 13.8 lb/gal with addition of clay materials (vermiculite and paligorskite) and pozzolans (metakaolin), comparing with neat reference slurries, from 15.6 to 15.8 lb/gal. The cements employed were the Portland G and ordinary Portland. These mixes were evaluated microstructurally through microhardness testing and acquisition of electronic images by ESEM and X-ray maps by EDS. A semi-quantitative analysis software was developed to identify phase distributions from the X-ray maps. It was found that the addition of metakaolin generated slurries with microhardness comparable to or superior to neat slurries, although a new phase was introduced in the hardened material. On the other hand, clay materials generated slurries with lower microhardness. It was observed in these cases a lower hydration degree, possibly due to water absorption by the clays' grains. One exception was the light slurry with paligorskite, which has an excess of water compared to the others. However, the higher water-cement ratio produced a lower microhardness due to the presence of voids, visible by ESEM. Clay inclusions also decreased the microhardness of the slurries. Based on these results, we can recommend metakaolin as the best performing addition to be further evaluated in the field. (author)

  2. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  3. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  5. Incineration of water pollutants with activated char from coal, wood, or crop residues in a system designed to produce energy and pyrolysis by-product chemicals. Final Technical completion report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E.; Gale, R.W.; Laquer, F.C.; Smith, K.E.; Bornhop, D.J.

    1982-11-18

    A wastewater-treatment system, particularly useful for treating chemical leachates, was developed on a laboratory scale. Subbituminous coal, 20-60-mesh, was pyrolyzed. A synthetic wastewater containing 3520 ppm total organic carbon was contacted with nonactivated char, char activated in water-saturated nitrogen at 850/sup 0/C, and coal ash. During a contact time of 0.5 hour, organic removals from the wastewater were 13.3% by nonactivated char, 38.8% by activated char, and 46.5% by ash. For a contact time of 72 hours, organic removals were about 25% for nonactivated char, 58.8% for activated char, and 53.4% for ash. This treatment system is applicable where large amounts of waste carbonaceous material (coal, wood, crop residues) are available. The spent char can be incinerated. Heat from incineration can be used in the pyrolysis step, and the coal ash can be recycled to the water-purification step.

  6. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    This fifth quarterly report covers the period of October through December of 1996. Results are presented of pyrite and HAP precursor removal from Kentucky No. 9 coal in shake flasks and from Indiana No. 5 coal in columns. With Kentucky coal, rates of pyrite oxidation were about 6% per day, and significant As, Co, Cd, Mn, and Ni were removed from the coal. These same five HAP precursors also were significantly removed from Indiana No. 5 coal. Additionally, test results are presented of pyrite and HAP precursor removal from Indiana No. 5 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal using high initial concentrations of ferric ions. These tests showed faster depyritization of coal than in previous tests done with low initial ferric ion concentrations. In addition, faster and more extensive removal of Cd, Co, Mn, and Ni from Indiana No. 5 coal occurred under high ferric conditions. High solution ferric ion concentration are expected in any biodepyritization process due to progressive biooxidation of pyrite to ferric sulfate. Ferric ions are probably the primary oxidant of pyrite and many of the HAP precursors in coal. Analysis of HAP precursors in Stockton Coal, used by PETC in HAP precursor combustion-mass balance test, was done and compared to PETC analytical data. The INEL slurry column reactor was operated in several shake down runs to prepare for complete HAP precursor removal-mass balance tests. Good separation of coal from ash-forming minerals was observed in these tests.

  8. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  9. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  11. Microbial solubilization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  12. A combined physical/microbial process for the beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, G.F.; Stevens, C.J.; Noah, K.S.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    A large-laboratory scale physical/microbial process was demonstrated for the removal of pyritic sulfur from coal. The process took place in an aerated-trough slurry reactor with a total slurry volume of 150 L. The reactor was divided into six sections, each of which acted as a physical separator and a bioreactor. The process objective was to physically remove the larger pyritic inclusions and to biodegrade the small inclusions (micropyrite). The process was continuously operated for 120 days, treating approximately 1 ton of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal. Ninety percent pyrite removal was achieved at a 20% slurry concentration and a reactor residence time of 5 days. Additional research should be performed to find the optimum values for reactor residence time, slurry concentration, and process hydraulic residence time (or recycle ratio). Finding these optimum values will enable a process to be developed that will maximize the amount of coal that can be processed per unit reactor volume per unit time with the desired level of pyritic sulfur removal.

  13. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction. Sixth quarterly report, 1 January 1992--31 March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, R.A.; Balogh-Nair, V.

    1992-06-28

    Steam pretreatment is the reaction of coal with steam at temperatures well below those usually used for solubilization. The objective of the proposed work is to test the application of steam pretreatment to coal liquefaction. Conversion of the autoclave apparatus to rapid heating liquefaction was carried out this quarter following redesign of the coal slurry injection system. The modified equipment and procedure was tested in a simulated liquefaction run without coal. Initial tests of slurried {minus}20 mesh coal showed too rapid settling for successful operation. Coal ground to pass 200 mesh proved suitable, and a impact grinder was put into operation to grind the material under an inert atmosphere. A batch of Illinois No. 6 coal for the, first rapid heating liquefaction tests has been prepared and stored under inert gas. The steam pretreatment of {alpha}-benzylnaphthyl ether was carried out using stainless steel and glass lined reactors. A preparative scale procedure for product separation was developed. The major components were identified and the average product distribution determined for both types of reactors. Pretreatment of {alpha}-naphthylmethyl phenyl ether was also carried out using stainless steel and glass-lined reactors. Separation and analysis of the products has been started. The major components have been identified. Analyses and identification of the components will be continued next quarter.

  14. Geotextile filtration performance with coal refuse under standard and reduced compaction energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, J.D.; Tolikonda, R.; Bell, S. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Wheeling Jesuit Univ., Wheeling, WV (United States). Coal Impoundment Project

    2009-07-01

    This presentation investigated the performance of a geotextile filtration system designed for use with coal refuse. The study was conducted as a result of coal waste slurry releases at an impoundment in Kentucky in order to determine best available practices for the design, operation and safety of coal slurry impoundments. Correlations between geotextile filter clogging of coarse and fine coal refuse with reduced and optimum levels of compaction energies were investigated. Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on coal refuse specimens with different compaction densities. Correlations between geotextile clogging of the coal fines as well as the fine particle distribution of the fines was examined in order to predict long-term clogging potential. Compaction energy was calculated based on the volume of mold, the number of blows, and the number of layers used for the compaction. The study showed that no significant clogging of the geotextile occurred as a result of reductions in hydraulic conductivity for both coarse coal and blended refuse. tabs., figs.

  15. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  16. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  17. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  18. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.; Osseo-Asare, K. [and others

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size is being carried out. It is based on the molecular design of inverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis is on molybdenum- and iron-based catalysts, but the techniques being developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal matrix are characterized using a battery of techniques, including g dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Catalytic activity tests are conducted under standardized coal liquefaction conditions. The effects of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during conversion of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal are being determined. This report discusses molybdenum sulfide particle synthesis, characterization, and microemulsion characterization.

  19. Evaluation of paramagnetic species in coals with iodine doping technique; Yoso tenkaho wo mochiita sekitanchu no jojiseishu no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, S.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of coals was considered by using iodine doping technique. Sub-bituminous coal (WA) and bituminous coal (UF) were used to observe EPR spectra using microwaves. With the UF coal, strength of the narrow component of the spectra was found constant regardless of amount of the doped iodine, wherein radicals without interaction with iodine were detected. Strength of the broad component increased with the iodine doping amount, where in deviation of {pi} electrons was detected, which have been generated as a result of interaction between aromatic rings and iodine in the coals. Spin concentration of the WA coal with low coalification degree is constant regardless of the iodine doping amount, and the interaction of the iodine with the aromatic rings was found small. The higher the coalification degree, the more the aromatic ring structure grows, and electron donor capability for the iodine increases. In a system with the entire spin being uniform, the spectrum height shows a saturation phenomenon against increase in microwave output. A non-uniform system, in which the oriented spin forms small groups and is in local thermal equilibrium, does not show saturation, but increases monotonously. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  1. Ash formation under pressurized pulverized coal combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila Latorre, Aura Cecilia

    Coal combustion is a source of inorganic particulate matter (ash), which can deposit in boilers and also be emitted into the atmosphere becoming part of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). In order to decrease coal combustion emissions per unit of power produced, higher efficiency systems have been proposed, including systems operating at elevated pressures. These new operating conditions will affect pollutant formation mechanisms, particularly those associated with the conversion of mineral matter to ash. Ash particle formation mechanisms are particularly sensitive to changes in pressure as they are related to the structure of coal char particles at early stages of combustion. To assess the importance of pressure on ash particle formation, pyrolyzed chars and ash particles from pressurized pulverized combustion of two bituminous and one subbituminous U.S. coals at operating pressures up to 30 atm were studied. Pressure changes the distribution of char particle types, changing the spatial distribution of the minerals during the combustion process and therefore affecting particle formation mechanisms. Chars were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and classified into two different types (cenospheric and solid) depending on porosity and wall thickness. A correlation for estimating the amount of these cenospheric char particles was then proposed for bituminous coals based on the operating conditions and coal maceral analysis. The ash particle size distribution of the coals combusted at different operating pressures was measured using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). The results of the char characterization and ash particle size distribution measurements were then incorporated into an ash particle formation algorithm that was proposed and implemented. The model predicts ash particle size and composition distributions at elevated pressures under conditions of complete char burnout. Ash predictions were calculated by first

  2. The importance of thermal behaviour and petrographic composition for understanding the characteristics of a Portuguese perhydrous Jurassic coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Flores, D. [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Pevida, C.; Rubiera, F. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain); Iglesias, M.J. [Area de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Almeria (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    The perhydrous Batalha coal (Portugal) is found in the Cabacos and Montejunto Formation of the Oxfordian-Kimeridgian, Upper Jurassic age. From the macroscopic point of view, its appearance is similar to other perhydrous coals. Microscopically, the maceral group of huminite is the main organic component (96%), ulminite being the most important petrographic component, followed by textinite with resinite (4%) lumina filled. The huminite random reflectance is 0.33%. This coal is characterized by high H/C atomic ratio, and anomalous physical and chemical properties that are characteristic of perhydrous coals such as: (i) the absence of any correlation between reflectance and the chemical rank parameters; (ii) a lower real density than that of non-perhydrous coals; (iii) a high hydrogen content; and (iv) suppressed reflectance. Using its calorific value (moist, ash-free basis) as rank parameter, Batalha coal must be considered a subbituminous A coal. Hydrogen enrichment due to the presence of resinite has influenced the technological properties of this coal, namely: (i) reduction of the thermostability and decrease in the temperature of initial thermal decomposition due to, among other reasons, the existence of aliphatic structures with low dissociation energy bonds resulting from the presence of resinite; (ii) from the DTG profile, the volatile matter combustion and char combustion is not evident; (iii) development of chars made up of isotropic particles with angular edges, which is typical of a low rank coal; (iv) the evolution trend of gaseous compounds (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) during pyrolysis; and, (v) an increase in its calorific value due to its hydrogen content. The study of this coal which is interbedded in Jurassic formations in the Lusitanian Basin of Portugal is a new contribution to the assessment of the evolution of organic matter in this area. (author)

  3. Polyacrylamide thickened slurry explosive with particular cross-linking combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheeran, H.W.; Oriard, M.H.

    1973-02-20

    In manufacturing slurry blasting agents, it is commonly very important to produce a uniform and stable suspension of the liquid and nonexplosive solid ingredients along with a desired amount of fine entrained air bubbles in order to obtain optimum density and reactivity. Slurry explosives require the same type of uniform stable suspension of the liquid and explosive solid ingredients for optimum performance. In addition, it is very important that the suspending medium, the liquid or continuous phase of the slurries, be stable for extended periods of time at all normally encountered storage and use conditions. Further, it is very desirable that this liquid phase must resist penetration or dilution by water when the slurry is loaded in drill holes prior to a blast. Water-resistant gels are described which are produced by cross linking water-soluble polyacrylamide resins in an aqueous nitrate solution. (15 claims)

  4. Particle size and metal distributions in anaerobically digested pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, Claire E; Pinelli, Eric; Pouech, Philippe; Winterton, Peter; Guiresse, Maritxu

    2008-05-01

    Particle size distribution and trace element patterns were studied in a full-scale anaerobic digestion plant treating pig slurry. Mass balance was established for major (N, P, K, Ca, Fe, Mg and S) and minor (Al, Cu, Mn and Zn) elements. Most of the elements were conserved through the process but part of the P, Ca, Mg and Mn was deposited as crystals lining the digester. In the dry matter of the slurry, Cu and Zn occurred at between 170 and 2600 mg kg(-1) due to pig diet supplements. Analyses of particle size distributions in raw and digested slurries showed a general shift in distribution towards larger sizes due to degradation of small and easily degradable particles as well as formation of large microbial filaments. Graded sieving of digested slurry showed metals to be mainly present on 3-25 microm particles. Less than 2% Cu and Zn was removed by passage through a 250 microm rotary screen.

  5. Developing Archetypal Machines for a Sequence of Food- Slurry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Archetypal Machines for a Sequence of Food- Slurry Processing Operations: An ... Conclusively, this work presents a remarkable contribution to research on the ... developing nations through the introduction of new processing technologies.

  6. Interactions between soil texture and placement of dairy slurry application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    -textured soil. Smaller active flow volumes and higher proportions of preferential flow were observed with increasing soil clay content. Injection of slurry in the loam soil significantly enhanced diffusion of applied bromide into the large fraction of small pores compared with surface application. The resulting...... soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...... physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil...

  7. Impact of drilled shaft synthetic slurries on groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of the aforementioned synthetic slurries on groundwater quality. The objective of Phase I (this report), however, was to conduct a comprehensive literature survey to gather data to evalu...

  8. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  9. Development and evaluation of shallow injection of slurry into ley

    OpenAIRE

    Rodhe, Lena

    2004-01-01

    Shallow injection of slurry on grassland can reduce ammonia emissions compared to surface spreading and increase plant nitrogen utilisation. Other advantages include enhanced silage quality and lower odour. Disadvantages include higher investment costs, increased draught requirements and potential crop damage. The objective of this thesis was to determine appropriate techniques for slurry injection into ley that would minimise ammonia emissions, contamination of crops and energy inputs, while...

  10. Coupling pathways for dihydroxy aromatics during coal pyrolysis and liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. McMillen; Ripudaman Malhotra; Sou-Jen Chang; S. Esther Nigenda; Gilbert A. St. John [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory

    2004-08-01

    Studies with model-compounds and hybrid studies in which model compounds are added to coal experiments were conducted to elucidate the major pathways by which phenols can lead to cross-links during coal conversion. This effort was greatly facilitated by the application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS). For 1,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, FIMS analysis showing the entire sequence of oligomeric coupling products up through pentamers at 688 Da demonstrates unequivocally that the stoichiometry and sequence of reactions at 400{sup o}C involve an initial condensation to eliminate water, followed by an oxidative coupling eliminating the elements of H{sub 2}. Reaction conditions were varied to determine the effect of neutral and basic hydroaromatic solvents, non-donor aromatic solvents, reactor surfaces, metal-oxide additives, and gas atmosphere. Resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) couples in a similar manner, but analyzable products are difficult to intercept; evidently the initial coupling products are far more reactive toward coupling than is the starting material. Catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) undergoes self-coupling at a slightly slower rate than resorcinol, while 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene undergoes dehydroxylation in donor solvents at a rate fast enough to largely block rapid self-coupling of the dihydroxy aromatic. Hybrid experiments with a subbituminous coal (Wyodak) and these Ar(OH){sub 2} show that the coal possesses structures that couple far more rapidly with Ar(OH){sub 2} than the latter do with themselves. Simple phenols inhibit the coupling, but the amine hydroaromatic, tetrahydroquinoline, has no special inhibiting effect, except that it itself tends to couple with Ar(OH){sub 2}. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  12. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Interim report, March 27, 1993--July 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1993-09-24

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase I are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  13. H-coal fluid dynamics. Final report, August 1, 1977-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-16

    This report presents the results of work aimed at understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of the H-Coal reactor. A summary of the literature search related to the fluid dynamic behavior of gas/liquid/solid systems has been presented. Design details of a cold flow unit were discussed. The process design of this cold flow model followed practices established by HRI in their process development unit. The cold fow unit has been used to conduct experiments with nitrogen, kerosene, or kerosene/coal char slurries, and HDS catalyst, which at room temperature have properties similar to those existing in the H-Coal reactor. Mineral oil, a high-viscosity liquid, was also used. The volume fractions occupied by gas/liquid slurries and catalyst particles were determined by several experimental techniques. The use of a mini-computer for data collection and calculation has greatly accelerated the analysis and reporting of data. Data on nitrogen/kerosene/HDS catalyst and coal char fines are presented in this paper. Correlations identified in the literature search were utilized to analyze the data. From this analysis it became evident that the Richardson-Zaki correlation describes the effect of slurry flow rate on catalyst expansion. Three-phase fluidization data were analyzed with two models.

  14. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique: Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1997-01-21

    The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter in the laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using copper and aluminum ions showed that for the low sulfur clean coal slurry addition of 0.1 Kg/t of copper ions was effective in lowering the filter cake moisture from 29 percent to 26.3 percent. Addition of 0.3 Kg/t of aluminum ions provided filter cake with 28 percent moisture. For the high sulfur clean coal slurry 0.5 Kg/t of copper and 0.1 Kg/t of aluminum ions reduced cake moisture from 30.5 percent to 28 percent respectively. Combined addition of anionic (10 g/t) and cationic (10 g/t) flocculants was effective in providing a filter cake with 29.8 percent moisture. Addition of flocculants was not effective in centrifuge dewatering. In pilot scale screen bowl centrifuge dewatering studies it was found that the clean coal slurry feed rate of 30 gpm was optimum to the centrifuge, which provided 65 percent solids capture. Addition of anionic or cationic flocculants was not effective in lowering of filter cake moisture, which remained close to 30 percent for both clean coal slurries.

  15. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  16. Morphology and chemistry of fine particles emitted from a Canadian coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Goodarzi [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Environmental Study Group

    2006-02-01

    Particles emitted from coal-fired power plants burning subbituminous coal from Alberta, Canada were examined for total particulates (PM) and size fractions PM>10, PM10, and PM2.5. The sampling was carried out following EPA Method 201A. Three tests were performed at each station. The emitted particles were examined using SEM/EDX and gravimetric method for the determination of their sizes. The elemental composition of particles was determined using INAA and ICP-MS. The particles emitted from the stack are classified based on their morphologies and chemistries to the following: unburnt carbon, feed-coal minerals such as quartz, and by-products of the dissociation, fractionation, and contamination by minerals in coal. The emitted particles are mostly spherical and their matrices are composed of aluminosilicate minerals containing calcium. The PM>10 fraction contains small plerospheres, fragments of char, and angular quartz and feldspar particles. The PM10 fraction contains solid spheres and cenospheres, gypsum needles, and particles of char. The PM2.5 particle size fraction is mostly composed of solid spherical aluminosilicates with some surface enrichment of elements such as Ba, Ca, and Fe. The composition of emitted particles is ferrocalsialic. Most elements in the particle size fractions are Class I or II, such as Al, Ca, and Fe. Cd, Cu, Mo, and Ti were only detected in PM2.5 fraction. 42 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  18. Coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  19. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1994--September 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1995-04-14

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. Activities this reporting period included performing coal beneficiation/preparation studies, conducting combustion performance evaluations, preparing retrofit engineering designs, determining retrofit economics, and installing a micronized coal-water mixture (MCWM) circuit.

  20. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory for the period January 1, 1980 through March 31, 1980. A series of experiments was conducted with three western coals to study the relationship between coal properties and liquefaction behavior. All three coals were low in iron (0.2 to 0.4%, dry coal basis) and processing in both the SRC I and SRC II modes does not appear to be feasible at normal conditions without added catalyst. Adding 1 to 2% pyrite to the feed slurry increased oil yields considerably while reducing SRC and IOM yields and improved operability. Product quality was also generally improved by the catalyst. Operability and oil yields were generally found to be better at 450/sup 0/C than at 465/sup 0/C.

  1. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  2. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawong, Achariya; Magee, Rogan; Peebles, Ken; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-05-01

    During the past decade, there has been substantial interest in recovering energy from many unwanted byproducts from industries and municipalities. Co-combustion of these products with coal seems to be the most cost-effective approach. The combustion process typically results in emissions of pollutants, especially fine particles and trace elements. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic [As], barium [Ba], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], cobalt [Co], manganese [Mn], molybdenum [Mo], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter [dp] > 0.5 microm), a submicrometer-mode ash (dp combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion.

  3. Abatement of mercury emissions in the coal combustion process equipped with a Fabric Filter Baghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Cao; Chin-Min Cheng; Chien-Wei Chen; Mingchong Liu; Chiawei Wang; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dependence of mercury emissions on coal ranks and electric utility boilers equipped with Fabric Filter Baghouses (FF). A comparison of mercury emission rates and fly ash properties was made between a circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC) with FF and a Pulverized Coal (PC) combustor with FF during the burning of all three ranks of American coals. The data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency Information Collection Request (EPA ICR) and WKU ICSET's mercury testing program. A statistical stepwise regression procedure was used to determine significant factors such as coal rank and types of boilers equipped with FF on mercury emissions during coal combustion. The higher mercury emission rates were generally found in both CFB and PC units when lignite was burned. The lower mercury emission rates were generally found in both CFB equipped with FF and PC units equipped with FF when bituminous coal was burned. There was a statistically significant lower mercury emission in the CFBC equipped with FF than that in the PC units when sub-bituminous coal was burned. Lower mercury emission rates in electric utility boilers equipped with FF are due to the active fly ash generated with a larger specific surface area and pore volume. Higher mercury emission rates observed during lignite-fired boilers may be due to their lower specific area of fly ash, which results from lower LOI, as well as the pore blockage by selenium (Se) for Texas lignite; and sodium (Na) and potassium (K) for North Dakota lignite. There is no significant mutual benefit for the mercury captured by the addition of Spray Dry Absorber (SDA) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) in the CFBC system. 25 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Column flotation results at Powell Mountain Coal Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, W.J.; Parekh, B.K. (Powell Mountain Coal Company (USA))

    1992-01-01

    In 1989 a column flotation process was developed at the CAER, which enabled the economical recovery of coal fines from high-ash fine refuse. The laboratory design was expanded to commercial scale and installed at the Mayflower Coal Preparation Plant of Powell Mountain Coal Company in December, 1989. It has been in continuous operation there since that time. This article is a summary of the past two years' experiences with this applied technology, applicable dewatering tests and flotation tests results from the plant. Conventional froth flotation techniques are ineffective for the recovery of very fine coal. In the 'Ken-Flote' process coal slurry is fed into a flotation column. Coal-laden air bubbles are carried upwards to the cleaning zone where a spray of wash water removes residual mineral matter. Operating experience indicates that column performance depends on e.g. type of frother, percentage solids feed and column froth depth. Many manufacturers in the USA are now installing column flotation concepts and technology, indicating the success of the project. 2 figs.

  5. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  6. Description, calibration, and preliminary testing of the coal liquefaction heat transfer coefficient measurement test unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulcahey, T.P.; Lo, R.N.K.; Bump, T.R.; Mulcahey, M.E.; Fischer, J.; Cannon, T.F.; Brock, R.E.; Wilson, W.I.; Bowyer, D.

    1979-06-01

    The efficiency of energy utilization within coal-liquefaction process is of major significance to the commercialization of the process. Heat exchange equipment is also one of the major economic investments in new plants. Consequently, reliable heat transfer data are required for the economical design of heat exchange equipment. Since accurate heat transfer coefficients of coal slurries, especially with a gas phase present, cannot be accurately calculated from known physical data for the operational conditions found in the coal-liquefaction process, experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients under actual process conditions are needed. A liquefaction heat-transfer-coefficient measurement test unit for a nominal one-half-ton-per-day coal slurry was constructed, calibrated, and operated at ANL. This test unit was built to determine heat transfer coefficients needed for design of feed-heat and effluent-heat exchangers used in coal-liquefaction processes. The heat-transfer test module was substituted for the preheater and reactor used in the normal coal-liquefaction process. The heat transfer coefficient can be evaluated for the heat transfer between the three-phase feed and effluent fluids in turbulent flow and a heated or cooled stainless steel surface. A description is presented of the unit and its capabilities, calibration procedures and results, and preliminary operation and data analysis. Recommendations are made that should improve accuracy and ease of operation and data analysis of the test unit.

  7. Coal power and combustion. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    ERDA's coal combustion and power program has focused on two major areas: Direct combustion of coal and advanced power systems. Efforts in the area of direct combustion are concentrated on: Development of atmospheric and pressurized systems capable of burning high-sulfur coal of all rank and quality in fluidized-bed combustors; development of advanced technology power systems to generate power more economically than present technology permits while using medium- and high-sulfur coal in an environmentally-acceptable manner; development of the technology enabling coal-oil slurries to be substituted as feedstock for gas or oil-fired combustors; and improvement of the efficiency of present boilers. Compared with conventional coal-fired systems, fluidized-bed combustion systems give higher power generation efficiencies and cleaner exhaust gases, even when burning high-sulfur coals. If the fluidized-bed system is pressurized, additional economies in capital and operating costs may be realized. The benefits from high-pressure combustion are a reduction of furnace size due to decreased gas volume and better sulfur removal. High-pressure combustion, however, requires the development of equipment to clean the hot combustion products to make them suitable for use in power generation turbines. The advanced power systems program is directed toward developing electric power systems capable of operating on coal or coal-derived fuels. These systems involve the use of high temperature gas turbines burning low-Btu gas and turbine systems using inert gases and alkali metal vapors. Some 25 projects in these areas are described, including a brief summary of progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  8. Organic coal-water fuel: Problems and advances (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The study results of ignition of organic coal-water fuel (OCWF) compositions were considered. The main problems associated with investigation of these processes were identified. Historical perspectives of the development of coal-water composite fuel technologies in Russia and worldwide are presented. The advantages of the OCWF use as a power-plant fuel in comparison with the common coal-water fuels (CWF) were emphasized. The factors (component ratio, grinding degree of solid (coal) component, limiting temperature of oxidizer, properties of liquid and solid components, procedure and time of suspension preparation, etc.) affecting inertia and stability of the ignition processes of suspensions based on the products of coaland oil processing (coals of various types and metamorphism degree, filter cakes, waste motor, transformer, and turbine oils, water-oil emulsions, fuel-oil, etc.) were analyzed. The promising directions for the development of modern notions on the OCWF ignition processes were determined. The main reasons limiting active application of the OCWF in power generation were identified. Characteristics of ignition and combustion of coal-water and organic coal-water slurry fuels were compared. The effect of water in the composite coal fuels on the energy characteristics of their ignition and combustion, as well as ecological features of these processes, were elucidated. The current problems associated with pulverization of composite coal fuels in power plants, as well as the effect of characteristics of the pulverization process on the combustion parameters of fuel, were considered. The problems hindering the development of models of ignition and combustion of OCWF were analyzed. It was established that the main one was the lack of reliable experimental data on the processes of heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion of OCWF droplets. It was concluded that the use of high-speed video recording systems and low-inertia sensors of temperature and gas

  9. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan; Popovic, Olga; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7.9-22.4 mM in raw slurry and 7.3-23.2 mM in liquid slurry compared to 3.2-9.5 mM in raw slurry and 2.6-9.5 mM in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops.

  10. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  11. Fernenes and other triterpenoid hydrocarbons in Dicroidium-bearing Triassic mudstones and coals from South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paull, R.; Michaelsen, B.H.; McKirdy, D.M. [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-12-31

    The paper describes how tandem sector mass spectrometry of the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of selected Late Triassic subbituminous coals, mudstones and plant fossils from the Leigh Creek coalfield, Telford Basin, South Australia, has revealed three pseudohomologous series of triterpenoid hydrocarbons. Two of these series have been identified as fern-8-enes (C{sub 29}-C{sub 31}) and fern-9(11)-enes (C{sub 29}-C{sub 30}). The third series (C{sub 29}-C{sub 31}) comprises saturated hydrocarbons tentatively identified as fernanes. These hydrocarbons appear to be related to pteridosperms (seed ferns) of the genus Dicroidium, fronds of which are preserved throughout the sedimentary sequence.

  12. Steam coal forecaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This quarterly forecasting service provides a short-term analysis and predictions of the international steam coal trade. Sections are entitled: market review; world steam coal at a glance; economics/foreign exchange; demand (reviewing the main purchasing companies country-by-country); supply (country-by-country information on the main producers of steam coal); and freight. A subscription to Steam Coal Forecaster provides: a monthly PDF of McCloskey's Steam Coal Forecaster sent by email; access to database of stories in Steam Coal Forecaster via the search function; and online access to the latest issue of Steam Coal.

  13. Influence of coal-specific fly ash properties upon baghouse performance: a comparison of two extreme examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.; Sears, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot plant data with a large number of lignite and subbituminous coals have demonstrated that shaker baghouse efficiency is highly coal specific with large differences in baghouse penetration for different coals. A previous report has presented these findings along with an observed correlation between elemental fly ash composition and baghouse penetration. This paper presents a further investigation of the relationship between fly ash properties and baghouse penetration with woven glass fabric and shaker cleaning. The focus will be on two coals which represent the good and poor extremes of filter performance. The coal and ash properties of a lignite showing good filter performance are compared with the properties of a lignite demonstrating very poor performance. An examination of both chemical and physical ash properties which include elemental compositions as a function of size, particulate size distribution, particle surface morphology, and other physical descriptors is presented in an attempt to determine causes of grossly different baghouse performance. The work described in this paper was not funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency and therefore the contents do not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency and no official endorsement shoud be inferred. 12 references.

  14. Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction: Type II preliminary pilot-plant evaluation of molten H-Coal liquefaction residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1982-10-01

    About 5.5 tons of vacuum tower bottoms (residue) obtained from the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal from the H-Coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky were successfully gasified at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory on January 16-17, 1982. Two test runs with molten H-Coal liquefaction residue were completed, each at a different operating temperature. The conversions of carbon in the feed to syngas achieved during the two test runs were 99.4 and 98.6 percent, yielding 35.2 and 35.5 standard cubic feet of dry syngas per pound of residue feed. The oxygen requirement was about 0.8 pound of oxygen per pound of residue for each run. The dry syngas contained about 93.4 (vol.) percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen. The two short pilot unit runs did confirm the operability of the Texaco Synthesis Gas Generation Process with this feedstock, and the data obtained confirm earlier predictions of performance efficiency. A comparison of the gasification efficiency of molten H-Coal liquefaction residue with the gasification efficiency of H-Coal liquefaction residue-water slurry revealed that the molten process was more efficient. The molten system required less oxygen for gasification, 0.78 versus 1.00 pounds of oxygen per pound of residue, and produced a greater volume percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen in the product syngas, 93.4% versus 79.2%, than the residue-water slurry.

  15. Assessing The Durability of Polymer Modified Asphalt Emulsions Slurry Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singgih, C.; Handayani, D.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Slurry Seal is an application of road preservation in the form of impermeable nonstructural thin layer with maximum thickness of 10 mm, which consisting of a cold laid mixture of asphalt emulsion with continuous graded fine aggregate, mineral filler, water and other added ingredients. Road preservation use slurry seal only functioning as a surface layer on the existing pavement structure. This preliminary research was conducted to determine the value of consistency, setting time, and indirect tensile strength of polymer modified slurry seal. The laboratory tests were conducted to determine the optimum residual asphalt content. The results show that the value of the optimum water content by pre-wetting 5% is getting smaller with increasing levels of residual asphalt emulsion. The addition of water 0 - 2.5% with 5% water for pre-wetting, the mixture provides a sufficient consistency in accordance with the specifications. The increasing levels of residual asphalt emulsion obtained the longer setting time at all slurry seal mixtures, but all of the mixtures still meet the specifications. The use of polymer modified asphalt emulsion on slurry seal was improved durability significantly, based on the value of indirect tensile strength.

  16. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  17. Uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms from pulverised fuel ash (PFA) leachates and slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, K.B.; Mehra, A.; Farago, M.E.; Banerjee, D.K. [University of Derby, Derby (United Kingdom). School of Environmental and Applied Science

    2000-12-01

    The main solid waste product from coal-fired power stations is pulverised fuel ash (PFA). This study investigates the uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the aquatic plant E-crassipes grown in leachates and slurries prepared from two different PFA samples. PFA samples were obtained from Indraprastha Power Station (IPP stn.) in New Delhi, India and the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station in the UK. Results show that E. crassipes has a high accumulation capacity for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from leachates and slurries generated from two different PFAs and uptake of these metals is stronger in the roots than in the tops of the plant. As the metal concentrations in the growth medium increase in the 1:5 PFA:DIW ratio as compared to the 1:50 ratio, metal accumulation (as indicated by accumulation factor (AF) values) from both leachates and slurries is higher for plants grown in the 1:50 (PFA:DIW) ratios than in the 1:5 ratios. Lower metal accumulation in the plants grown in slurries than in leachates is related to the high turbidity of growth medium in slurries resulting in ash particles adhering to the root surfaces thus reducing the surface area of metal absorption. In terms of neutralisation capacity of the pH of the growth medium, Eichhornia is seen to be able to reduce the pH of all leachates. Accumulation of Cd and Zn by the plant is higher from the lower pH IPP leachates than the Ratcliffe leachates, indicating that these metals are more soluble and bioavailable in the acidic medium. Accumulation of Cu and Ni is independent of the pH of the leachates; indicating that there may be other contributory factors. 78 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. A novel route to utilize waste engine oil by blending it with water and coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2017-06-15

    Coal-oil-water slurry (COWS) synfuel can be prepared successfully by waste engine oil (WEO), water and coal in the existence of Tween 80 and SL. The effects of coal type, coal particle size distribution, and WEO blending proportion (α) on the slurryability of COWS were investigated, and certain essential properties, such as slurryability, rheology, thixotropy, and stability of COWS were examined. The results show that the maximum coal content of COWS decreases with an increment in α, ranging from 60wt.% at α=0 to 48wt.% at α=15wt.%. The apparent viscosity of COWS becomes high when the amount of WEO is increased for the same coal content. The lower heating value (19.15kJ/g) of 48wt.% COWS (α=15wt.%) is equivalent to that of CWS with 67.88wt.% coal. The mass ratio of separated supernatant to oil-water emulsion for COWS with 49wt.% coal decreases by 1.12% while the amount of WEO is increased to 15wt.% from 10wt.%. COWS exhibits the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid behavior. Its pseudoplasticity and thixotropy are also promoted as the coal content of COWS is increased. And the dispersion and stabilization mechanism of COWS is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rawls, P. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  20. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  1. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  2. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  3. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  4. Thermal and hydrodynamic considerations of ice slurry in heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedecarrats, Jean-Pierre; Strub, Francoise; Peuvrel, Christophe [Laboratoire de Thermique, Energetique et Procedes, Equipe Energetique, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France)

    2009-11-15

    This article focuses on the behavior in heat exchangers of an ice slurry composed of fine ice particles inside an ethanol-water solution. The heat transfer and friction characteristics were studied in two double pipe heat exchangers, one with a smooth surface and another with an improved surface. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were experimentally investigated for the slurry flowing in the internal tube with ice mass fractions ranging from 0 to 30% and with flow velocities between 0.3 and 1.9 m s{sup -1}. For some flow velocities, the results showed that an increase in the ice fractions caused a change in the slurry flow structure influencing the evolution of the pressure drops and the heat transfer coefficients. Critical ice fraction values were determined corresponding to a change flow structure from laminar to turbulent motion revealed by the evolution of the friction factor. (author)

  5. Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of ice slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Tetsuo [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1, Wakasato, Nagano-shi, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Shouji, Ryouta [Chubu Plant Service Co., Ltd., 11-22, Gohommatsu-cho, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8516 (Japan); Shirakawa, Michito [Toyota Motor Corp., 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota, Aichi 471-8571 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Heat transfer characteristics of ice slurry were investigated experimentally. The Reynolds number, diameter of the tubes and ice packing factor (IPF) were varied as experimental parameters. For laminar flow, it was found that the ratio of the Nusselt numbers increased with the IPF, and an approximation equation of the Nusselt number could be derived using the apparent Reynolds number, IPF and the ratio of the average diameter of the ice particles to the diameter of the test tube. For turbulent flow, the ratio of the Nusselt numbers was 1 for each condition in the case of a low IPF. However, the ratio of the Nusselt numbers increased with the IPF in the high-IPF region. Moreover, the apparent Reynolds number, which can be derived by treating the ice slurry as a pseudoplastic fluid, can be used to determine the condition under which variation in the heat transfer characteristics of ice slurry in turbulent flow occurs. (author)

  6. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  8. Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Inst. of Environmental Technology, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan (China))

    2010-05-15

    Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of microflora in both nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could bring significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, beta-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It was concluded that the application is a practicable means in tomato production and will better service the area of sustainable agriculture

  9. Pretreatment of wood flour slurries prior to liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanasse, C.; Lemonnier, J.P.; Eugene, D.; Chornet, E.

    1988-02-01

    As a part of a solvolytic approach to wood fractionation and liquefaction known as UDES-S, a pretreatment stage has been developed using a fed batch technique to produce high solids content slurries. By using a combination of temperature and shear stress across homogenizing valves, wood flour slurries of poplar or aspen having concentrations of 20-32% by weight in both paraffin oil and ethylene glycol have been produced. Optical and scanning electron microscopy have shown that the recirculation loop and homogenizing valve cause structural degradation, defibration and defibrillation of the original particles as well as partial solubilization of the wood components. The maximum wood flour concentration, attainable before plugging was observed in the small scale system used, was just below 36% by weight. High concentration slurries are a prerequisite in order to obtain realistic reactor space velocities in biomass liquefaction processes. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. c.

    2005-09-01

    Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman

  11. Numerical simulation of slurry jets using mixture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xin Huai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slurry jets in a static uniform environment were simulated with a two-phase mixture model in which flow-particle interactions were considered. A standard k-ε turbulence model was chosen to close the governing equations. The computational results were in agreement with previous laboratory measurements. The characteristics of the two-phase flow field and the influences of hydraulic and geometric parameters on the distribution of the slurry jets were analyzed on the basis of the computational results. The calculated results reveal that if the initial velocity of the slurry jet is high, the jet spreads less in the radial direction. When the slurry jet is less influenced by the ambient fluid (when the Stokes number St is relatively large, the turbulent kinetic energy k and turbulent dissipation rate ε, which are relatively concentrated around the jet axis, decrease more rapidly after the slurry jet passes through the nozzle. For different values of St, the radial distributions of streamwise velocity and particle volume fraction are both self-similar and fit a Gaussian profile after the slurry jet fully develops. The decay rate of the particle velocity is lower than that of water velocity along the jet axis, and the axial distributions of the centerline particle streamwise velocity are self-similar along the jet axis. The pattern of particle dispersion depends on the Stokes number St. When St = 0.39, the particle dispersion along the radial direction is considerable, and the relative velocity is very low due to the low dynamic response time. When St = 3.08, the dispersion of particles along the radial direction is very little, and most of the particles have high relative velocities along the streamwise direction.

  12. Defining the upper viscosity limit for mineral slurries used in drilled shaft construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Drilled shaft construction often requires the use of drill slurry to maintain borehole stability during : excavation and concreting. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) specifications require that the : mineral slurry used for all primary str...

  13. Study of coal and graphite specimens by means of Raman and cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Irena; Tormo, Laura; Crespo-Feo, Elena; Garcia-Guinea, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The weak luminescence shown by coals has been attributed to accessorial minerals and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, such as exinite, vitrinite or inertinite, while the luminescence quenching has been found in asphaltenes produced by coal hydrogenation or in pyridine extracts. Nowadays, the spatial resolution and the improved luminescence efficiency of the modern spectrometers allow some details of the luminescent emission centers to be explained. We have selected museum historical coal specimens with different rank, i.e., peat, lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite to be analyzed by their spectra from cathodoluminescence probe (CL) of an environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), with an energy dispersive spectrometry analyzer (EDS). Additional analytical controls were also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectrometries. We conclude that coals may display different luminescence emission features coming from several different sources, as follows: (i) broadband of intense luminescence from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, (ii) weakly visible broadband luminescence attributed to band-tail states caused by variations in the energy gap of individual sp2 carbon clusters, which are different in size and/or shape, (iii) silicate impurities causing the common luminescence peak at 325 nm observed in coals. This peak is due to non-bridging oxygen hole centres (tbnd Sisbnd Orad ) probably generated by precursor Sisbnd Osbnd C species formed by tbnd Sisbnd Orad defects and carbon atoms; (iv) a 710 nm CL emission commonly detected also in wood and ivory, which has been correlated with hydrocarbon groups of chlorophyll or lignine. Coals are very complex rocks, composed by both organic and inorganic phases with variable and complex spectra. More analyses are necessary and carbonaceous standards of graphite, silicon carbide, stuffed carbon silica and diamond at variable experimental conditions have to be

  14. Emission factors for carbonaceous particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustion in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yingjun Chen; Guoying Sheng; Xinhui Bi; Yanli Feng; Bixian Mai; Jiamo Fu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry

    2005-03-15

    Emission factors of carbonaceous particles, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for five coals, which ranged in maturity from sub-bituminous to anthracite. They were burned in the form of honeycomb briquettes in a residential coalstove, one of the most common fuel/stove combinations in China. Smoke samples were taken through dilution sampling equipment, with a high volume sampler that could simultaneously collect emissions in both particulate and gaseous phases, and a cascade impactor that could segregate particles into six fractions. Particulate BC and OC were analyzed by a thermal-optical method, and PAHs in emissions of both phases were analyzed by GC-MS. Burning of bituminous coals produced the highest emission factors of particulate matter (12.91 g/kg), BC (0.28 g/kg), OC (7.82 g/kg), and 20 PAHs (210.6 mg/kg) on the basis of burned dry ash-free (daf) coal, while the anthracite honeycomb-briquette was the cleanest household coal fuel. The size-segregated results show that more than 94% of the particles were submicron, and calculated mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of all particles were under 0.3 {mu}m. Based on the coal consumption in the residential sector of China, 290.24 Gg (gigagrams) of particulate matter, 5.36 Gg of BC, 170.33 Gg of OC, and 4.72 Gg of 20 PAHs mass were emitted annually from household honeycomb-briquette burning during 2000. Anthracite coal should be selected preferentially and more advanced burning conditions should be applied in domestic combustion, from the viewpoint of both climate change and adverse health effects. 61 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. A comparison of coal char reactivity determined from thermogravimetric and laminar flow reactor experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolin, A.; Jensen, A.; Pedersen, L.S.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Toerslev, P. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The reactivity of nine different coals ranking from subbituminous to low-volatile bituminous has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). At a standard set of conditions a qualitative fuel reactivity classification (ranking) with respect to one of the coals, Cerrejon, is presented. Particle reaction rates per unit external surface area and a normalized reactivity index based on raw experimental data were used as reactivity parameters to compare the fuels. The TGA chars were prepared at 900{degree}C with 15 min holding time and then combusted in a 20 mol % O{sub 2} environment at several temperatures in the range 450-650{degree}C. TGA reaction rate data were adequately interpreted by a random pore model. However, at 650{degree}C it is believed that particle ignition gave rise to a char reaction rate behavior that the model was incapable of describing properly. Except for two Southern Hemisphere coals, the reactivity ranking obtained with the TGA apparatus at a combustion temperature of 550{degree}C agrees well with a corresponding classification based on experiments carried out in another study with a laminar flow reactor (LFR) at {approximately} 1400{degree}C. The maximum difference in reaction rates based on external surface area between the coal chars in the low-temperature TGA experiments was 1 order of magnitude higher than in the high-temperature LFT experiments, due to the increasing effect of pore diffusion and thermal annealing of the coal chars in the LFR tests. The similarity in the reactivity ranking obtained for the Northern Hemisphere coals from both reactor systems indicates that a ranking can be performed by thermogravimetric analysis. This provides a simple means for determining a fuel reactivity ranking that could be applied to full scale suspension fired plants. 28 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-22

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels development Unit (AFDU). The program will initially involve a continuation of the work performed under the Liquid Phase Methanol Program but will later draw upon information and technologies generated in current and future DOE-funded contracts, as well as test commercially available catalysts. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Morphometric analysis of polygonal cracking patterns in desiccated starch slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yuri; Magome, Jun; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the geometry of two-dimensional polygonal cracking that forms on the air-exposed surface of dried starch slurries. Two different kinds of starches, made from potato and corn, exhibited distinguished crack evolution, and there were contrasting effects of slurry thickness on the probability distribution of the polygonal cell area. The experimental findings are believed to result from the difference in the shape and size of starch grains, which strongly influence the capillary transport of water and tensile stress field that drives the polygonal cracking.

  18. Morphometric analysis of polygonal cracking patterns in desiccated starch slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yuri; Magome, Jun; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the geometry of two-dimensional polygonal cracking that forms on the air-exposed surface of dried starch slurries. Two different kinds of starches, made from potato and corn, exhibited distinguished crack evolution, and there were contrasting effects of slurry thickness on the probability distribution of the polygonal cell area. The experimental findings are believed to result from the difference in the shape and size of starch grains, which strongly influence the capillary transport of water and tensile stress field that drives the polygonal cracking.

  19. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.

  20. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  1. Distribution of sulphur in the Albian coals of the Maestrazgo basin. Distribution del azufre en los carbones albienses de la cuenca del Maestrazgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Chinchon, J.S.; Lopez, A. (Inst. Geol. Jaume Almera, Barcelona (Spain))

    1989-01-01

    Important accumulations of coal took place in the proximal areas of a delta-estuary in the Maestrazgo Basin in Spain during the Middle Albian (Late Lower Cretaceous). Tectosedimentary control of this depositional system was carried out by distensive faults, creating a sedimentary space divided into four principal subbasins. Only two sub-basins (Calanda and Castellote), located in the northern sector of Maestrazgo Basin, contain workable coal deposits. These are dominantly subbituminous coals with high sulfur contents. In the present study inorganic sulfur bearing phases: (a) calcium, iron and magnesium sulfates; (b) iron sulfides (framboidal, euhedral fibrous and massive pyrite, and radial, anhedral and fibrous marcasite) and vertical distribution of sulfur in coal seams from Maestrazgo Basin coal are characterized. Some relations between the iron sulfide contents and the sedimentological features of interlayered sediments are shown; there is a clear tendency to increase iron sulfide content in the roofs of coal seams which are covered by marine influenced sediments. 22 refs., 2 figs., 7 plts., 2 tabs.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of ancient buried wood-II. Observations on the origin of coal from lignite to bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Breger, I.A.; Szeverenyi, N.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Coalified logs ranging in age from Late Pennsylvania to Miocene and in rank from lignite B to bituminous coal were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) utilizing the cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning technique, as well as by infrared spectroscopy. The results of this study indicate that at least three major stages of coalification can be observed as wood gradually undergoes transformation to bituminous coal. The first stage involves hydrolysis and loss of cellulose from wood with retention and differential concentration of the resistant lignin. The second stage involves conversion of the lignin residues directly to coalified wood of lignitic rank, during which the oxygen content of intermediate diagenetic products remains constant as the hydrogen content and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to involve loss of methoxyl groups, water, and C3 side chains from the lignin. In the third major stage of coalification, the coalified wood increases in rank to subbituminous and bituminous coal; during this stage the oxygen content decreases, hydrogen remains constant, and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to result from loss of soluble humic acids that are rich in oxygen and that are mobilized during compaction and dewatering. Relatively resistant resinous substances are differentially concentrated in the coal during this stage. The hypothesis that humic acids are formed as mobile by-products of the coalification of lignin and function only as vehicles for removal of oxygen represents a dramatic departure from commonly accepted views that they are relatively low-molecular-weight intermediates formed during the degradation of lignin that then condense to form high-molecular-weight coal structures. ?? 1982.

  3. Formation and emission of fine particles from two coal-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.T.; Livbjerg, H.; Fogh, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    , before the desulfurisation plant, and in the stack. The following sampling techniques are used: scanning mobility particle sizer, low pressure cascade impactor, dichotomous PM2.5 sampler, and total particle filter. The so-called multi-platform method used in this work Proves useful for gaining insight...... are in the PM2.5 range. The emitted particles primarily stern from the coal ash with a minor contribution of particles of entrained, dried-out droplets of scrubber slurry. The large emitted particles are compact, almost-spherical single particles originating from the ash mineral inclusions in the coal...

  4. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or proposed impounding structure can: (1) Impound water, sediment, or slurry to an elevation of five feet or more above... design and construction of all new water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...

  5. Draught requirement of trailing foot and shallow injection equipment for applying slurry to grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Hendriks, J.L.G.; Vermeulen, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Surface spreading of slurry leads to the inevitable emission of ammonia into the environment. Injection of slurry on grassland reduces these emissions. However, injection of slurry by deep working injector tines with goose foot chisels (wings) requires high draught forces. This type of injection has

  6. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  7. Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry was studied as a function of the microstructure developed by austempering at 380 and 300°C for different exposure time in the slurry. The corrosion rates of the ADI balls immersed in the iron ore slurry was determined using weight loss method.

  8. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective

  9. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fib...... comprising acid addition and drying/pelletizing is estimated at 3.7 mol HNO3 mol-1 P for mink, 4.5 mol HNO3 mol-1 P for pig and AD and 7.4 mol HNO3 mol-1 P for cattle....

  10. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Schobert, H.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: (1) spectroscopic and chemical reaction studies on the effects of drying and mild oxidation of a Wyodak subbituminous coal on its structure and pretreatment/liquefaction at 350{degrees}C; and (2) effects of dispersed catalyst and solvent on conversion and structural changes of a North Dakota lignite. Drying and oxidation of Wyodak subbituminous coal at 100-150{degrees}C have been shown to have significant effects on its structure and on its catalytic and non-catalytic low-severity liquefaction at 350{degrees}C for 30 min under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2}. Spectroscopic analyses using solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, Pyrolysis-GC-MS, and FT-IR revealed that oxidative drying at 100-150{degrees}C causes the transformation of phenolics and catechol into other related structures (presumably via condensation) and high-severity air drying at 150{degrees}C for 20 h leads to disappearance of catechol-like structure. Increasing air drying time or temperature increases oxidation to form more oxygen functional groups at the expense of aliphatic carbons. Such a clearly negative impact of severe oxidation is considered to arise from significantly increased oxygen functionality which enhances the cross-link formation in the early stage of coal liquefaction. Physical, chemical, and surface physicochemical aspects of drying and oxidation and the role of water are also discussed. A North Dakota lignite (DECS-1) coal was studied for its behaviors in non-catalytic and catalytic liquefaction. Reactions were carried out at temperatures between 250 and 450{degrees}C. Regardless the reaction solvents and the catalyst being used, the optimum temperature was found to be 400{degrees}C. The donor solvent has a significant effect over the conversion especially at temperatures higher than 350{degrees}C.

  11. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  12. Refining and end use study of coal liquids I - pilot plant studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Office of Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center is examining the ways in which coal liquids may best be integrated into the refinery of the 2000-2015 time frame and what performance and emission properties will prevail among the slate of fuels produced. The study consists of a Basic Program administered by Bechtel Group, Inc. to build a linear programming refinery model and provide processing and fuel properties data through subcontractors Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and M.W. Kellogg Company. The model will be used in an Option 1 to devise a slate of test fuels meeting advanced specifications, which will be produced and tested for physical ASTM-type properties, engine performance, and vehicle emissions. Three coal liquids will be included: a direct liquid from bituminous coal, another from subbituminous, and a Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction product. This paper reports the work to date on fractions of the first direct liquid including naphtha hydrotreating, heavy distillate hydrotreating, FCC of the heavy distillate hydrotreater products. Also reported are the first stages of work on the indirect liquefaction wax including feed preparation and FCC tests of blends with petroleum FCC feed.

  13. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  14. Selection of design parameters for a slurry injection tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nyord, Tavs

    2013-01-01

    Injection has been recognized as an effective method for land application of liquid slurry. Optimization design is essential for developing higher-performance injection tools and identifying potential improvement of existing tools. In this study, design parameters of an injection tool were determ...

  15. Developing Archetypal Machines for a Sequence of Food- Slurry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    different operations respectively. The results show that the machines have increased the sieving rate of steeped grain and in extension the production of these food-slurries by over 50%. Design considerations for a dual- processing machine-assembly that combines the sieving and milling processes into a single operation ...

  16. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involvi...

  17. Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  18. SLURRY NEBULIZATION ICP-OES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SLURRY NEBULIZATION ICP-OES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF Cu, Fe, Mg,. Mn AND Zn IN BOVINE LIVER. Ntebogeng S. Mokgalaka1*, Taddese Wondimu2 and Robert I. McCrindle1. 1Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Arcadia Campus, P.O. Box. 56208, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.

  19. Effect of internal filtration on slurry reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, P.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1999-01-01

    In slurry bubble column reactors, generally small particles (<200 m) are applied. These particles often introduce a strenuous liquid-solid separation in processes involving liquid-phase products. This operation can be facilitated by performing filtration inside the reactor and thereby utilizing the

  20. Separation of phosphorus from pig slurry using chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estevez Rodriguez, M.D.; Gomez del Puerto, A.M.; Montealegre Meléndez, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    retention of P in a solid fraction. The laboratory studies showed that 98% of the P in slurry was retained in the solid fraction retained on the filter net (12% to 28% retained W:W) after the addition of coagulants and flocculants. Linear cationic polyacrylamide polymers proved to be more efficient at lower...

  1. Explorative study of phosphorus recovery from pig slurry : laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoumans, O.F.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Nelemans, J.A.; Doorn-van Tintelen, van W.; Rulkens, W.H.; Oenema, O.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report on laboratory experiments with the aim to explore cheap and innovative techniques. The main focus of the experiments was to lower the P-content in pig slurry with 25%. In that case, in principle all manure produced in the Netherlands can be applied on agricultural land in The

  2. Agronomic recycling of pig slurry and pig sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Garrido, Melisa; Sánchez García, Pablo; Faz Cano, Ángel; Büyükkılıç Yanardag, Asuman; Yanardag, Ibrahim; Kabas, Sebla; Ángeles Múñoz García, María; María Rosales Aranda, Rosa; Segura Ruíz, Juan Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Recycling pig slurry as organic fertilizer is a convenient and suitable way of waste elimination due to its low cost and high agronomic benefits. The objectives of this two year study are focused on improving and recycling pig slurry appropriately, and monitoring the soil-plant system at the same time. The evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of different types of pig slurry (raw, solid, treated and depurated) in different doses (170 kg N ha-1 (legislated dose), 340 and 510 kg N ha-1) is innovative because the fertilizer value of each amendment can be balanced. Furthermore environmental issues such us volatilisation, leaching and salinisation have been considered for each treatment in order to set the viability of the study and to justify the treatments applied. Electrical conductivity, Kjeldhal nitrogen, sodium and potassium are the physico-chemical parameters most influenced in soils treated with doses 340 and 510 kg N ha-1. Additionally plant samples, especially halophyte, have shown the highest major and minor nutrients contents. Finally, pig slurry application in legislated doses could be considered a useful environmental practice; however, the development of the crop will be very influenced by the type of dose and amendment selected.

  3. Coal Production 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  4. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  5. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  6. Thermochemical Equilibrium Model of Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Coal Gasification Using Aspen Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG from coal is a process of interest in Colombia where the reserves-to-production ratio (R/P for natural gas is expected to be between 7 and 10 years, while the R/P for coal is forecasted to be around 90 years. In this work, the process to produce SNG by means of coal-entrained flow gasifiers is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium with the Gibbs free energy approach. The model was developed using a complete and comprehensive Aspen Plus model. Two typical technologies used in entrained flow gasifiers such as coal dry and coal slurry are modeled and simulated. Emphasis is put on interactions between the fuel feeding technology and selected energy output parameters of coal-SNG process, that is, energy efficiencies, power, and SNG quality. It was found that coal rank does not significantly affect energy indicators such as cold gas, process, and global efficiencies. However, feeding technology clearly has an effect on the process due to the gasifying agent. Simulations results are compared against available technical data with good accuracy. Thus, the proposed model is considered as a versatile and useful computational tool to study and optimize the coal to SNG process.

  7. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  8. Ice slurry ingestion increases running time in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    To examine the effect of drinking an ice slurry (slushy) compared with cold water on prolonged submaximal exercise performed in the heat and on thermoregulatory responses. Crossover trial, with the 2 conditions counterbalanced and in random order. Results were adjusted for multiple comparisons by the method of Bonferroni. Exercise laboratory study; Edith Cowan University, Western Australia. Moderately active male volunteers (n = 10; mean age, 28 years) who participated in recreational sport and who had no injuries or history of heat illness were included. Five to 14 days before the trials, the participants were familiarized with the procedure by a progressive treadmill run to volitional exhaustion at their previously determined first ventilatory threshold running speed, in the same hot environment as the trials (34°C, 55% relative humidity). The 2 experimental trials were completed at the same time of day, 5 to 20 days apart. During the first 15 minutes, the participants rested while baseline measurements were taken. Over the next 30 minutes, they drank either a 7.5 g/kg flavored ice slurry (-1°C) or the same volume of flavored cold water (4°C) and then commenced the treadmill run. Participants were instructed to keep their normal lifestyle habits stable. In the 24 hours preceding the trials, they were asked to avoid strenuous exercise and to consume a specified amount of carbohydrate and fluid but no alcohol, caffeine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or nutritional supplements. Urine and blood samples were taken, and respiratory variables, heart rate, and rectal and skin temperatures were continuously monitored. Heat storage was calculated from temperature and anthropomorphic measurements. The primary outcome measures were comparisons of run time to exhaustion, perceived exhaustion, heat storage capacity, and changes in rectal and skin body temperatures during the 2 trials. All 10 participants took longer to fatigue (range, 2.4-14.2 minutes) after ice

  9. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  10. Coal terminal project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    Malaysia is building the necessary infrastructure to cope with an increasing demand for electricity. Its restructured energy policy has led to construction of the 2,100 MW Manjung coal-fired power plant in the state of Perak, for which coal has to be imported via the new Lekiv Bulk Terminal (LBT) adjacent to the plant. Contracts for the LBC and the TNBJ coal stockyard were awarded to the Koch Consortium. The article describes equipment for handling and storing coal. 4 photos.

  11. Inorganic constituents in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Radenovic [University of Zagreb, Sisak (Croatia). Faculty of Metallurgy

    2006-07-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More than one hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been found in coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates), minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the order of w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprised in coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases. Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A variety of analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode of occurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumental methods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is the one most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that have influence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion. Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuously and widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is a conflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution on the other. It's known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, can be: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert a significant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  12. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  13. Evaluation of abiotic fate mechanisms in soil slurry bioreactor treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, J.A.; McCauley, P.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Dosani, M.A. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Biological treatment of contaminated soil slurries may offer a viable technology for soil bioremediation. Slurry bioreactor treatment of soils, however, has not sufficiently progressed to be a durable, reliable, and cost-effective treatment option. Critical to the evaluation of slurry bioreactors is a better description of pollutant mass transfer during the treatment phase. Losses attributable to abiotic means are generally overlooked in field application of the technology. Discussions with EPA regional personnel and inspection of active soil slurry bioreactor operations have identified operational problems such as foaming which could result in possible abiotic loss. Field bioslurry operations have adopted various approaches to reduce foaming: (1) the addition of defoaming agents, (2) the reduction of rotational speed of the agitator, and (3) the reduction of gas flow through the bioreactor system. We have conducted two bench-scale slurry bioreactor treatability studies, at the U.S. EPA Testing & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, which were designed to investigate some of the operating factors leading to foam formation and identify the most advantageous means to deal with foaming. The initial study has been previously presented as a general treatability study for treatment of creosote contamination in a soil. During this study, foaming became a major problem for operation. The foaming conditions were mitigated by use of defoamer and, in the more extreme cases, through reduction of the mixer rotational speed and gas flow. A subsequent study which was devoted specifically to investigating the causes and conditions of foaming using a different batch of soil from the same site as the earlier study showed little foaming at the very beginning of the study.

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  15. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period...... to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for ground water contamination as compared to application of raw slurry....

  16. Effect of pore size distribution of coal-based activated carbons on double layer capacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryglewicz, G.; Machnikowski, J.; Lorenc Grabowska, E. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry and Technology of Petroluem and Coal; Lota, G.; Frackowiak, E. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry

    2005-01-15

    A series of coal-based activated carbons representing a wide range of mesopore content, from 16.7 to 86.9%, were investigated as an electrode in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in 1 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 6 mol l{sup -1} KOH electrolytic solutions. The activated carbons (ACs) used in this study were produced from chemically modified lignite, subbituminous and bituminous coals by carbonization and subsequent activation with steam. The BET surface area of ACs studied ranged from 340 to 1270 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The performance of ACs as EDLC electrodes was characterized using voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance spectroscopy measurements. For the carbons with surface area up to 1000 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, the higher BET surface area the higher specific capacitance (F g{sup -1}) for both electrolytes. The surface capacitance ({mu}F cm{sup -2}) increases also with the mesopore content. The optimum range of mesopore content in terms of the use of ACs studied for EDLCs was found to be between 20 and 50%. A maximum capacitance exceeding 160 F g{sup -1} and a relatively high surface capacitance about 16 {mu}F cm{sup -2} measured in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution were achieved for the AC prepared from a sulfonated subbituminous coal. This study shows that the ACs produced from coals exhibit a better performance as an electrode material of EDLC in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} than in KOH electrolytic solutions. For KOH, the capacitance per unit mesopore surface is slightly lower than that referred to unit micropore surface (9.1 versus 10.1 {mu}F cm{sup -2}). However, in the case of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} the former capacitance is double and even higher compared with the latter (23.1 versus 9.8 {mu}F cm{sup -2}). On the other hand, the capacitance per micropore surface area is the same in both electrolytes used, about 10.0 {mu}F cm{sup -2}. (Author)

  17. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  18. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  19. Pb-free Radiation Shielding Glass Using Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharin Rachniyom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Pb-free shielding glass samples were prepared by the melt quenching technique using subbituminous fly ash (SFA composed of xBi2O3 : (60-xB2O3 : 10Na2O : 30SFA (where x = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 by wt%. The samples were investigated for their physical and radiation shielding properties. The density and hardness were measured. The results showed that the density increased with the increase of Bi2O3 content. The highest value of hardness was observed for glass sample with 30 wt% of Bi2O3 concentration. The samples were investigated under 662 keV gamma ray and the results were compared with theoretical calculations. The values of the mass attenuation coefficient (μm, the atomic cross section (σe and the effective atomic number (Zeff were found to increase with an increase of the Bi2O3 concentration and were in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. The best results for the half-value layer (HVL were observed in the sample with 35 wt% of Bi2O3 concentration, better than the values of barite concrete. These results demonstrate the viability of using coal fly ash waste for radiation shielding glass without PbO in the glass matrices.

  20. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  1. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw...... slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7·9-22·4 mm in raw slurry and 7·3-23·2 mm in liquid slurry compared to 3·2-9·5 mm in raw slurry and 2·6-9·5 mm in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs...

  2. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  3. Vaporization of trace element species from coal under gasification and combustion conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-03-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the chemical forms and relative abundance of trace inorganic vapor species in coal during combustion and gasification. A joint experimental and calculational program to observe the vaporization of Illinois No. 6 bituminous and Wyodak subbituminous was performed. Experimental studies were performed by Knudsen cell mass spectroscopy on samples of each coal that were ashed at low temperature by an oxygen plasma. To simulate actual coal more closely, some samples were only partially ashed to retain more of the original organic components. Vapor species were identified and their abundances measured over the temperature range 300-1700 K. In the first year of the program, vaporization from the coal ash alone was studied. Dynamic partial pressures were measured against temperature and time. Vapor species of 32 major or trace elements were identified. During the second year of the program, mass spectrometry experiments addressed the effects of added gases (O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O) on the identities and abundances of trace element vapor species. Coincident with experimental studies, trace element vaporization behavior was evaluated by Gibbs energy minimization calculations. A data base including both solution and pure condensed and gaseous components was compiled. The behavior of Wyodak coal at 1 atm total pressure was evaluated over the temperature range 300--1800 K and the oxygen partial pressure range from 10/sup /minus/1/ to 10/sup /minus/25/ atm. Results were used to evaluate the effects on trace element volatility of several proposed strategies for containment removal. 13 refs., 23 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to calibrate'' the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850[degrees]F[sup +] , 1050[degrees]F[sup +], and 850 [times] 1050[degrees]F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  5. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  6. Secondary atomization of single coal-water fuel droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassel, G.R.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1989-03-01

    The evaporative behavior of single, well characterized droplets of a lignite coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) and a carbon black in water slurry was studied as a function of heating rate and droplet composition. Induced droplet heating rates were varied from 0 to 10{sup 5} K/s. Droplets studied were between 97 and 170 {mu}m in diameter, with compositions ranging from 25 to 60% solids by weight. The effect of a commercially available surfactant additive package on droplet evaporation rate, explosive boiling energy requirements, and agglomerate formation was assessed. Surfactant concentrations were varied from none to 2 and 4% by weight solution (1.7 and 3.6% by weight of active species on a dry coal basis). The experimental system incorporated an electrodynamic balance to hold single, free droplets, a counterpropagating pulsed laser heating arrangement, and both video and high speed cinematographic recording systems. Data were obtained for ambient droplet evaporation by monitoring the temporal size, weight, and solids concentration changes. 49 refs., 31 figs.

  7. Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Abd Rahman, Norazah; Ismail, Khudzir; Alias, Azil Bahari; Abd Rashid, Zulkifli; Aris, Mohd Jindra

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 degrees C to 900 degrees C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  9. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  10. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  11. Flow characteristics of ice slurry in narrow tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Tetsuo; Shouji, Ryouta; Hagiwara, Yosuke [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1, Wakasato, Nagano-shi, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Shirakawa, Michito [Toyota Motor Corporation, 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota, Aichi 471-8571 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Flow characteristics of ice slurry were experimentally investigated using narrow tubes. Reynolds number, the diameter of the tubes and the ice packing factor (IPF) were varied as the experimental parameters. Theoretical analysis was carried out using the experimental results. For laminar flow, it was found that the ratio of the coefficients of pipe friction increases with the IPF, and the rate of increase is high in the case of a low Reynolds number. For turbulent flow, the ratio of the coefficients of pipe friction was 1 for each condition in the case of a low IPF. The ratio of coefficients of pipe friction then decreased slightly at a particular IPF and increased with the IPF in the high-IPF region. In theoretical analysis, it was found that the flow characteristics of ice slurry can be treated as those of pseudoplastic fluid and clarified using the apparent Reynolds number. (author)

  12. Design of a new abrasive slurry jet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. C.; Shi, L. L.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    With the advantages of a low system working pressure, good jet convergence and high cutting quality, abrasive slurry jet (ASJ) has broad application prospects in material cutting and equipment cleaning. Considering that the generator plays a crucial role in ASJ system, the paper designed a new type ASJ generator using an electric oil pump, a separate plunger cylinder, and a spring energized seal. According to the determining of structure shape, size and seal type, a new ASJ generator has been manufactured out and tested by a series of experiments. The new generator separates the abrasive slurry from the dynamic hydraulic oil, which can improve the service life of the ASJ system. And the new ASJ system can reach 40 MPa and has good performance in jet convergence, which deserves to popularization and application in materials machining.

  13. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    with this interaction mechanism mainly give a geometrical protection against oxidation by blocking oxygen access at the surface of the oxide scale. The protecting effect is gradually reduced as the oxide scale grows thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. Interaction mechanism B entails a chemical reaction.......85Sr0.15)CoO3 + 10% Co3O4, LSC, coatings were found to be relatively successful in decreasing the oxidation rate, the chromium content in the outermost part of ii the dense scale, and the electrical resistance in the growing oxide scales when applied onto Crofer 22APU. But, the positive effects......In this project, high temperature oxidation experiments of slurry coated ferritic alloys in atmospheres similar to the atmosphere found at the cathode in an SOFC were conducted. From the observations possible interaction mechanisms between the slurry coatings and the growing oxide scale...

  14. Why is acidification of slurry a success only in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    . Several technologies have been used in the buildings, in the storage and when applying manure. One technology now used widely in Denmark (20% of all slurry) is acidification of slurry where the application of sulphuric acid reduces the ammonia emission. However, the technology has hardly been used......The EU countries are trying to reduce the ammonia emission towards the 2020 and the 2030 targets in the Clean Air agreement. In order to do so, the countries need to implement a range of technologies. The Danish ammonia emission has been reduced by 40% from 1980 to 2015, but more is required...... about safety. For a technology to be accepted in a “non-native” country, national farm scale tests are required as the technology acceptance. It is shown that regulatory requirements help companies producing these technologies and without these requirements the companies might struggle financially...

  15. Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-01

    This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

  16. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate onto coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S.K.; Kanungo, S.B.; Rajeev [Regional Research Lab., Bhubaneswar (India)

    2003-11-01

    The adsorption behavior of sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (NaDDBS) on a raw (as received) coal sample and its demineralized variety with 11.3% and 1.2% ash contents respectively has been studied. The samples have been characterized by their proximate analysis, particle size distribution, surface area, porosity, density, points of zero charge, etc. Adsorption of NaDDBS on these two samples has been studied as a function of concentration of NaDDBS, temperature, pH, and presence of indifferent electrolyte in the medium. It has been observed that the isotherm exhibits two adsorption plateaus below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of NaDDBS. Low heats of adsorption suggest weak hydrophobic bonding between adsorbent and adsorbate. The present work aims to correlate the adsorption of surfactant onto coal particles with the rheological behavior of coal-water slurry (CWS). The results reveal that addition of a very small amount of NaDDBS (0.3 wt% of coal) to 60% (w/w) CWS results in a marked reduction of the apparent viscosity of the CWS at a shear rate of 100 s{sup -1}. The effect of pH on the apparent viscosity of CWS with and without the presence of the surfactant is also investigated.

  17. Characteristics of microencapsulated PCM slurry as a heat-transfer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Yasushi [Daido Hoxan Inc., Osaka (Japan); Takeuchi, Hiromi; Pyatenko, A.T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Inst., Sapporo (Japan); Kayukawa, Naoyuki [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1999-04-01

    The hydrodynamic and heat-transfer characteristics of slurry containing microencapsulated phase-change materials (MCPCMs) were investigated experimentally for use as a heat-transfer fluid. Pressure drop and local convective heat-transfer coefficients of the slurry flows in a circular tube with uniform heat flux were measured. Slurries consisting of octadecane (C{sub 18}H{sub 38}) contained in 2--10-{micro}m-dia. microcapsules and pure water were used. The particle volume fractions in the slurry were varied up to 0.3. Results showed that increases in particle volume fractions caused the slurry flow structure to change from turbulent to laminar, and the pressure-drop reduction of the slurry flow relative to a single-phase water flow was under the same flow-rate conditions. The heat-transfer performance of the slurry also depended on the change in flow structure. When the MCPCMs melted, the local heat-transfer coefficients for turbulent slurry flows increased relative to those for nonmelting slurry. This phenomenon was influenced by the MCPCM fraction, the degree of turbulence, and the heating rate at the tube wall. The experimental data will be useful in the design of thermal-energy transportation systems using MCPCM slurry.

  18. Water effects of the use of western coal for electrical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Water may be a constraint on the expanded development of coal resources in the semi-arid western United States. Water allocation in the West has been determined by the appropriative rights doctrine which allows perpetual use of water sources by those who first claim it for beneficial purposes. This has had the effect of placing a dominative interest in water allocation in one economic sector: agriculture. New water sources are available to coal producers but political and economic problems must be overcome. Water is required by every phase of coal development. Mines use water for dust control and land reclamation. Coal slurry pipelines would use water as a transport medium. Steam electric power plants use water for cooling, cleaning, and in the boiler. Coal gasification plants would use water for cooling, cleaning, and as a material input. In addition to these direct uses of water by coal development, the people who build and operate the development demand water for domestic and recreational purposes. The quantity of water required for a given element of a coal development is site specific and dependent on many factors. The available literature cites a range of estimates of the amount of water required for each type of development. The width of this range seems related to the stage of development of the particular technology. Estimates of water requirements for various schemes to provide an average electrical load of 9 GWe to a load center 1000 miles from western mines are shown in Table 5.

  19. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  20. New plug flow slurry bioreactor for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamati, S.; Gosselin, C.; Bergeron, E.; Chenier, M.; Truong, T.V. [Sodexen Group, Laval, PQ (Canada); Bisaillon, J.G. [INRS-Inst. Armand-Frappier, Laval, PQ (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Sodexen Group has developed a new bioslurry bioreactor capable of efficiently and economically treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils and sediments. A pilot plug-flow reactor was constructed, and innovations included were specifically-designed Venturi jet aerators for improved mixing and and oxygen distribution, and the development of bacterial consortia selectively adapted to high molecular weight PAH soil matrices. Rapid biodegradation is provided due to enhanced mass transfer rates and better microorgamism/contaminant contact. Various soil mixtures were tested in a 200 L pilot, and recirculation of a 50% slurry solid concentration was obtained by the use of centrifugal pumps along with submerged aerators and water nozzles. Based on microcosm biodegradation results, specific bioenhancing agents were added to the slurry to optimize bacterial activity and increase substrate bioavailability. Collected volatile organic compounds were treated by a biofilter. The feasibility of operating the continuously fed plug-flow reactor at high slurry solid content was shown. The bioslurry reactor allowed adequate operational conditions and mass transfer rates. Initial operation tests showed that increasing the slurry solid content up to 50% required certain design modifications to move settled particles. These included the number, size, position and distribution of the aerators. Internal shape of the reactor was also changed to obtain adequate mixing and solid suspension. Obtained oxygen levels throughout the reactor showed the efficiency of the aeration system. Resulting PAH removal efficiencies ranged from 63-90% depending on PAH molecular weights. Residence times of about ten days were needed to attain this removal rate. A rapid biodegradation of 80-90% of the more readily-available 2- and 3- ring PHAs occurred. Overall removal rates of more sorbed 4- and 6- ring PHAs were lower, suggesting the need for longer residence times, improved

  1. Ice slurry on outdoor running performance in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Z W; Fan, P W P; Nio, A Q X; Byrne, C; Lee, J K W

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of ingestion of ice slurry on actual outdoor endurance performance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate ice slurry ingestion as a cooling intervention before a 10 km outdoor running time-trial. Twelve participants ingested 8 g · kg (- 1) of either ice slurry ( - 1.4°C; ICE) or ambient temperature drink (30.9°C; CON) and performed a 15-min warm-up prior to a 10 km outdoor running time-trial (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature: 28.2 ± 0.8°C). Mean performance time was faster with ICE (2 715 ± 396 s) than CON (2 730 ± 385 s; P=0.023). Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) reduced by 0.5 ± 0.2°C after ICE ingestion compared with 0.1 ± 0.1°C (P<0.001) with CON. During the run, the rate of rise in Tgi was greater (P=0.01) with ICE than with CON for the first 15 min. At the end of time-trial, Tgi was higher with ICE (40.2 ± 0.6°C) than CON (39.8 ± 0.4°C, P=0.005). Ratings of thermal sensation were lower during the cooling phase and for the first kilometre of the run ( - 1.2 ± 0.8; P<0.001). Although ingestion of ice slurry resulted in a transient increase in heat strain following a warm up routine, it is a practical and effective pre-competition cooling manoeuvre to improve performance in warm and humid environments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. An improved cement slurry formulation for oil and geothermal wells

    OpenAIRE

    Fridriksson, Fridrik Hilmar Zimsen

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Properly designed cement slurry and good cement job are crucial factors for integrity during a well‘s life cycle. For this, cement must be able to prevent migration of formation fluids, support the well construction and withstand high pressure and temperature. A survey on the Norwegian continental shelf showed that 11% of well integrity issues were due to cement related problems [1]. Another integrity survey in Pennsylvania showed that 2.41% of over...

  3. Energetic performances of a refrigerating loop using ice slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Abbassi, Ikram El; Castaing-Lasvignottes, Jean; Bédécarrats, Jean-Pierre; Dumas, Jean-Pierre; Mimet, Et Abdelaziz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The consideration of environmental constraints in production, transport and distribution of cold energy resulted in reconsidering the practices of installations dimensioning in particular. Their containment led to the development of secondary refrigerants such as ice slurries to store, transport and distribute the cold energy. These heat transfer fluids should have good thermophysical properties, giving high transport capability, high heat transfer ability as well as low p...

  4. Explorative study of phosphorus recovery from pig slurry : laboratory experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Schoumans, O.F.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Nelemans, J.A.; Doorn-van Tintelen, van, W.; Rulkens, W.H.; Oenema, O.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report on laboratory experiments with the aim to explore cheap and innovative techniques. The main focus of the experiments was to lower the P-content in pig slurry with 25%. In that case, in principle all manure produced in the Netherlands can be applied on agricultural land in The Netherlands itself, including the organic matter and other nutrients in the manure. The results show that with physical and chemical treatment techniques 25% of the phosphate can rather easily be recovere...

  5. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  6. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  7. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, B. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

  8. Automation of the second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Juliana M.; Fonseca, Mario L.; Drumond, Pablo P.; Barbosa, Sylvio [IHM Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco was build to attend the Third Pellet Plant Project, which includes a new Concentration Plant at Germano-MG and a third Pellet Plant at Ubu-ES. It has 396km of extension and links the two plants by pulping the iron ore slurry prepared at Germano Unit. This works aims to present the iron ore slurry pipeline with emphasis on the automation architecture for the supervision and control system, interconnect throughout the pipe extension by fiber optics. The control system is composed of ControlLogix CLP's at the pulping and valve station and Micrologix CLP's at the pressure and cathodic protection monitoring points, totalizing 19 PLC's. The supervisory system was developed using the Wonderware IAS 3.0 suite, including the supervisory software InTouch 9.5 and the integrated ArchestrA IDE, and is composed of two data servers in redundancy and nine operation stations. The control and supervision system is interconnect through and Ethernet network using fiber optics and multiplexer modules (GE JungleMux) for voice, data and video. Among the expected results, it can be highlighted the sequence automation, greater process data availability (real and historical) and greater facility for the operation and detection of failures. (author)

  9. Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, David V

    2013-01-01

    The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting.

  10. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  11. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  12. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  13. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used...

  14. Prediction of the heat transfer coefficient for ice slurry flows in a horizontal pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousksou, T.; Jamil, A.; Zeraouli, Y. [Laboratoire de Thermique Energetique et Procedes, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); El Rhafiki, T. [Laboratoire de Thermique Energetique et Procedes, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Energetique, Mecanique des Fluides et Sciences des Materiaux, Universite AbdelMalek Essaidi, 90000 Tetouan (Morocco)

    2010-06-15

    In this study, heat transfer for ice slurry flows was investigated. For the experiments, ice slurry was made from 9% ethanol-water solution flow in a 20 mm internal diameter, 1000 mm long horizontal copper tube. The ice slurry was heated by a cylindrical electrical resistance. Experiments of the melting process were conducted with changing the ice slurry mass flux rate and the heat flux. The enthalpy-porosity formulation was used to predict the ice slurry temperature and the local values of heat transfer coefficient in the exchanger. Measurements and data acquisition of ice slurry temperature and mass flow rate at the inlet and outlet are performed. It was found that the heat transfer rates increase with the mass flow rate, the ice fraction and the heat flux density. However, the effect of ice fraction appears not to be significant at high mass flow rates. In addition, the correlation proposed by Christensen and Kauffeld gives good agreement with numerical results. (author)

  15. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  16. Spread of Hepatitis E virus from pig slurry to the water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Breum, Solvej Østergaard

    Objectives: Spread of pig slurry as an organic fertilizer is commonly used in Danish agriculture. The slurry is spread untreated so pathogens able to survive in slurry tanks will be widely distributed in the environment. The objective of this study was to examine if hepatitis E virus (HEV), which...... HEV cannot be cultivated in cells. We did not find any HEV positive mussel samples indicating that the release of HEV from fields is not a concern for shellfish production....

  17. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  18. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  19. Analysis of conduction responses during an underground coal gasification experiment. [Hanna II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommert, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Laramie Energy Research Center (LERC) conducted an underground coal gasification experiment in a 9-m thick subbituminous coal seam near Hanna, Wyoming. Sandia Laboratories designed and fielded an extensive instrumentation array which included approximately eight thermocouples within the seam in each of 15 diagnostic wells. The instrumentation provided thermal data related to the process during both reverse combustion linkage and forward gasification. Portions of these data suitable for analysis by inverse heat conduction techniques included (1) the responses from the approximately cylindrical reverse combustion linkage path and (2) the responses at thermocouples outside the gasified zone due to conduction from the final boundary. Because of the effects of property variations and water vaporization on the conduction response, an exact analytical solution could not be used. Instead, the approach was to adjust parameters of the constant property analytical solutions to fit numerical calculations that included property variations and water vaporization. Sensitivity studies performed to estimate the accuracy of solutions obtained indicated that parameters relating to size and distance should be identifiable within +- 0.25 m; however, accurate estimates of temperature could not be obtained. Results allowed the position of the reverse combustion linkage path to be mapped, and estimates of its size (approximately 1 m in diameter) and average temperature (750 K--1000 K) to be obtained. With respect to forward gasification, the analysis yielded estimates of the final boundaries established by the burn and characterizations of how the front approached its final position.

  20. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)