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Sample records for subarctic environment technical

  1. Controls and variability of solute and sedimentary fluxes in Arctic and sub-Arctic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John

    2015-04-01

    Six major factors consistently emerge as controls on the spatial and temporal variability in sediment and solute fluxes in cold climates. They are climatic, geologic, physiographic or relief, biologic, hydrologic, and regolith factors. The impact of these factors on sediment and solute mass transfer in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments is examined. Comparison of non-glacierized Arctic vs. subarctic drainage basins reveals the effects of these controls. All drainage basins exhibit considerable variability in rates of sediment and solute fluxes. For the non-glacierized drainage basins there is a consistent increase in sediment mass transfer by slope processes and fluvial processes as relief increases. Similarly, a consistent increase in sediment mass transfer by slope and fluvial processes is observed as total precipitation increases. Similar patterns are also observed with respect to solute transport and relief and precipitation. Lithologic factors are most strongly observed in the contrast between volcanic vs. plutonic igneous bedrock substrates. Basins underlain by volcanic rocks display greater mass transfers than those underlain by plutonic rocks. Biologic influences are most strongly expressed by variations in extent of vegetation cover and the degree of human interference, with human impacted basins generating greater fluxes. For glacierized basins the fundamental difference to non-glacierized basins is an overall increase in mean annual mass transfers of sediment and a generally smaller magnitude solute transfer. The principal role of geology is observed with respect to lithology. Catchments underlain by limestone demonstrate substantially greater solute mass transfers than sediment transfer. The influence of relief is seen in the contrast in mass transfers between upland and lowland drainage basins with upland basins generating greater sediment and solute transfers than lowland basins. For glacierized basins the effects of biology and regolith appear to be

  2. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion in the subarctic environment of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jóhannesdóttir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensified agricultural practices have driven biodiversity loss throughout the world, and although many actions aimed at halting and reversing these declines have been developed, their effectiveness depends greatly on the willingness of stakeholders to take part in conservation management. Knowledge of the willingness and capacity of landowners to engage with conservation can therefore be key to designing successful management strategies in agricultural land. In Iceland, agriculture is currently at a relatively low intensity but is very likely to expand in the near future. At the same time, Iceland supports internationally important breeding populations of many ground-nesting birds that could be seriously impacted by further expansion of agricultural activities. To understand the views of Icelandic farmers toward bird conservation, given the current potential for agricultural expansion, 62 farms across Iceland were visited and farmers were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire survey in which respondents indicated of a series of future actions. Most farmers intend to increase the area of cultivated land in the near future, and despite considering having rich birdlife on their land to be very important, most also report they are unlikely to specifically consider bird conservation in their management, even if financial compensation were available. However, as no agri-environment schemes are currently in place in Iceland, this concept is highly unfamiliar to Icelandic farmers. Nearly all respondents were unwilling, and thought it would be impossible, to delay harvest, but many were willing to consider sparing important patches of land and/or maintaining existing pools within fields (a key habitat feature for breeding waders. Farmers' views on the importance of having rich birdlife on their land and their willingness to participate in bird conservation provide a potential platform for the codesign of conservation management with landowners

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions related to landscape elements in the subarctic environment at Churchill, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, J.; Tenuta, M.; Bello, R.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, landscape elements and major environmental regulators was studied. The hydrologic regimes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands are expected to change along with the extent of permafrost and composition of vegetation due to increased levels of GHGs associated with global warming. Two transects were created at a Polygonized-Peat Plateau (PPP) and a Spruce Forest (SF) site in 2005. A sub-set on 4 dominant landscape elements of each transect were used to estimate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitric oxide (N 2 O) on a weekly basis from June to August. In order to obtain a good sampling representation of environmental conditions and of the gradients in plant communities, the entire transect at PPP was sampled monthly. In order to examine the role of soil conditions on the production and consumption of GHG leading to surface fluxes, soil gas samplers were installed at 2 depths at both sites. N 2 O production and consumption were found to be inconsequential at both sites. However, high methane emissions were observed when the volumetric moisture content (VMC) rose higher than 80 per cent at the edge of the ponds. Methane consumption was found to be related to low VMC values (20-40 per cent) for the tops of peat polygons. Soil atmosphere concentrations for CO 2 and CH 4 at PPP were typically much higher at depths of 23-32 cm compared to depths of 5-9 cm. Some of the wettest landscape elements had very high CH 4 content, but had no corresponding CH 4 flux from the soil surface, suggesting that the gas was consumed under aerobic conditions at the soil surface. It was concluded that GHG emissions from both sites were altered by both landscape elements and environmental regulators such as temperature and moisture. Future work will focus on identifying the association of these relationships to processes responsible for GHG emissions in subarctic environments. The impact of global warming on these

  4. Pristine Arctic: Background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína, E-mail: hronn.o.jorundsdottir@matis.is [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jensen, Sophie [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik [Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Svavarsson, Jörundur [University of Iceland, Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Askja - Natural Science Building, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík (Iceland); Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland); El-Taliawy, Haitham [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hoydal, Katrin S. [The Faroese Environment Agency, Traðagøta 38, P.O. Box 2048, FO-165 Argir, the Faroe Islands (Faroe Islands); Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland)

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ{sub 16}PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ{sub 16}PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. - Highlights: • Low levels of PAHs in blue mussels from remote areas of the Arctic. • Low

  5. A comparative assessment of heavy metal accumulation in soft parts and byssus of mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szefer, P.; Fowler, S.W.; Ikuta, K.; Osuna, F. Paez; Ali, A.A.; Kim, B.-S.; Fernandes, H.M.; Belzunce, M.-J.; Guterstam, B.; Kunzendorf, H.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Deslous-Paoli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Existing data on metal concentrations in mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical waters were analyzed using multivariate statistics in order to assess regional variations in metal contamination. Potential errors were reduced by only analyzing data from surveys that employed the same protocols, analytical methodologies and analysts. Factor analysis demonstrated that mussels inhabiting extremely contaminated areas (e.g. from Japanese and Swedish metallurgy sources) could be separated from mussels from other contaminated areas, and that metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn could be used to identify heavily contaminated samples while Co, Fe, Cr and Ni concentrations were good markers for exposure to inputs from different industrial sources. Furthermore byssus, like soft tissue, selectively and sensitively reflects variations of certain metal concentrations in ambient waters and thus serves as a reliable biomonitor for these contaminants in a variety of coastal and estuarine areas. - Byssus of mytilids, like soft tissues can be used as efficient biomonitor for heavy metals in the marine environment

  6. A comparative assessment of heavy metal accumulation in soft parts and byssus of mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szefer, P. [Department of Food Sciences, Medical University of Gdansk, Al. Gen. J. Hallera 107, PL 80-416 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: pszef@amg.gda.pl; Fowler, S.W. [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000 (Monaco); Ikuta, K. [Laboratory of Aquatic Environment and Ecology, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Miyazaki University, 889-21 Miyazaki (Japan); Osuna, F. Paez [Institute of Marine Sciences and Limnology, Mazatlan Station, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mazatlan 82000, Sinaloa (Mexico); Ali, A.A. [Faculty of Science, Arts and Education, University of Aden, PO Box 6014, Khormaksar, Aden (Yemen); Kim, B.-S. [School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, 56-1 Shillimdong, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Fernandes, H.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Cz. Postal 37 750 - CEP: 22642-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Belzunce, M.-J. [Instituto Tecnnologico Pesquero y Alimentario, Dpto de Oceanografia y Medio Ambiente Marino, Herrera Kaia, Portualdea z/g, 20110 Pasaia (Gipuzkoa) (Spain); Guterstam, B. [Stensund Ecological Center, 61991 Trosa, Sweden and Global Water Partnership Secretariat, Hantverkargatan 5, SE-112 21 Stockholm (Sweden); Kunzendorf, H. [Gamma Dating Center (GDC), Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgage 10 DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Wolowicz, M. [Laboratory of Estuarine Ecology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Al. Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378, Gdynia (Poland); Hummel, H. [Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Korringaweg 7, 4401 NT Yerseke (Netherlands); Deslous-Paoli, M. [IFREMER, Unite Ecologie Conchylicole, 1, rue Jean Vilar, 34200 Sete (France)

    2006-01-15

    Existing data on metal concentrations in mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical waters were analyzed using multivariate statistics in order to assess regional variations in metal contamination. Potential errors were reduced by only analyzing data from surveys that employed the same protocols, analytical methodologies and analysts. Factor analysis demonstrated that mussels inhabiting extremely contaminated areas (e.g. from Japanese and Swedish metallurgy sources) could be separated from mussels from other contaminated areas, and that metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn could be used to identify heavily contaminated samples while Co, Fe, Cr and Ni concentrations were good markers for exposure to inputs from different industrial sources. Furthermore byssus, like soft tissue, selectively and sensitively reflects variations of certain metal concentrations in ambient waters and thus serves as a reliable biomonitor for these contaminants in a variety of coastal and estuarine areas. - Byssus of mytilids, like soft tissues can be used as efficient biomonitor for heavy metals in the marine environment.

  7. High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Matthias B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1×1 m). A high-resolution (1 m) land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0-150 cm) is estimated to be 8.3 ± 8.0 kg C m-2 and the SOC stored in the top meter (0-100 cm) to be 7.7 ± 6.2 kg C m-2. The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions > 30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of SOC across all landscape compartments in post-permafrost landscapes.

  8. High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Siewert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1×1 m. A high-resolution (1 m land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0–150 cm is estimated to be 8.3 ± 8.0 kg C m−2 and the SOC stored in the top meter (0–100 cm to be 7.7 ± 6.2 kg C m−2. The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions  >  30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of

  9. Tracking the origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis for their fast adaptation to subarctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel; Jónsson, Hákon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Fumagalli, Matteo; Yang, Melinda A; Gamba, Cristina; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie D; Petersen, Bent; Hoover, Cindi A; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Nedoluzhko, Artem; Boulygina, Eugenia; Tsygankova, Svetlana; Neuditschko, Markus; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Thèves, Catherine; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Popov, Ruslan; Grigoriev, Semyon; Alekseev, Anatoly N; Rubin, Edward M; McCue, Molly; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso; Tikhonov, Alexei; Crubézy, Eric; Slatkin, Montgomery; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Kantanen, Juha; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-12-15

    Yakutia, Sakha Republic, in the Siberian Far East, represents one of the coldest places on Earth, with winter record temperatures dropping below -70 °C. Nevertheless, Yakutian horses survive all year round in the open air due to striking phenotypic adaptations, including compact body conformations, extremely hairy winter coats, and acute seasonal differences in metabolic activities. The evolutionary origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis of their adaptations remain, however, contentious. Here, we present the complete genomes of nine present-day Yakutian horses and two ancient specimens dating from the early 19th century and ∼5,200 y ago. By comparing these genomes with the genomes of two Late Pleistocene, 27 domesticated, and three wild Przewalski's horses, we find that contemporary Yakutian horses do not descend from the native horses that populated the region until the mid-Holocene, but were most likely introduced following the migration of the Yakut people a few centuries ago. Thus, they represent one of the fastest cases of adaptation to the extreme temperatures of the Arctic. We find cis-regulatory mutations to have contributed more than nonsynonymous changes to their adaptation, likely due to the comparatively limited standing variation within gene bodies at the time the population was founded. Genes involved in hair development, body size, and metabolic and hormone signaling pathways represent an essential part of the Yakutian horse adaptive genetic toolkit. Finally, we find evidence for convergent evolution with native human populations and woolly mammoths, suggesting that only a few evolutionary strategies are compatible with survival in extremely cold environments.

  10. The environment and directed technical change: comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Pottier, Antonin; Espagne, Etienne

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses the growth model with environmental constraints recently presented in (Acemoglu et al., 2011) which focuses on the redirection of technical change by climate policies with research subsidies and a carbon tax. First, Acemoglu et al.'s model and chosen parameters yield numerical results that do not support the conclusion that ambitious climate policies can be conducted 'without sacrificing (much or any) long-run growth'. Second, they select unrealistic key parameters for carbon sinks and elasticity of substitution. We find that more realistic parameters lead to very different results. Third, the model leads to an unrealistic conclusion when used to analyse endogenous growth, suggesting specification problems. (authors)

  11. NASA Space Environments Technical Discipline Team Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.

  12. Sixth ITER technical meeting on safety and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, G.; Baker, D.

    1997-01-01

    The article summarizes the topics of the Sixth Technical Meeting on Safety and Environment which was held to review the first draft of the Non-Site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-2) and the draft of the ITER Final Design Report Safety Assessment (FDR-Safety) during October 27 - November 4, 1997 at the ITER San Diego Joint Work Site

  13. New data on the natural environment of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene interglacial periods in the east of the European Subarctic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreicheva, L. N.; Marchenko-Vagapova, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    The data obtained from investigation of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene lake sediments in the European Subarctic Region of Russia are reported. Chirva, Rodionovo (Scklov), Sula (Mikulino), and Byzovaya (Leningrad) sediments were subject to palynological analysis and investigation of particle size distribution and mineral composition. The spore-pollen spectra of the Chirva sediments demonstrate two climatic optima: the lower optimum is dominated by the pollen of Pinus sylvestris and broad-leaved species (up to 10%); the upper optimum is dominated by Picea sp. and Pinus sylvestris, while the pollen of Picea sect. Omorica and broad-leaved species are sporadic. The Rodionovo flora is characterized by a more xerophilous composition relative to the Chirva flora and a higher pollen content of pine, birch, wormseed plants, and wormwood. The climatic optimum of the Sula interglacial is distinguished by boreal vegetation, including spruce, birch, and birch-spruce forests with sparse broad-leaved species. The Byzovaya interstadial is marked by seven stages of changes in the vegetation: from tundra and forest-tundra communities to taiga forests with some broad-leaved species. The natural climatic sedimentation conditions in the Middle and Late Neopleistocene interglacial periods are reconstructed. The mineral composition of sediments was largely formed owing to underlying deposits.

  14. Eighth ITER technical meeting on safety and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.; Raeder, J.

    2000-01-01

    From November 27 to 30, 2000 the Eighth ITER Technical Meeting on Safety and Environment was held by the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) at the Garching Joint Work Site, which also hosts the ITER Safety, Environment and Health Group (SEHG). At this meeting, safety experts from the Home Teams (HT) worked together with the SEHG members towards the following main objectives: review of Generic Site Safety Report (GSSR) results and drafts; review of the Plant Design Description (PDD) summary of safety; update on the status of the R and D tasks contributing to GSSR

  15. Seventh ITER technical meeting on safety and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, J.; Gordon, C.

    2000-01-01

    From February 15 to 18, 2000, the Seventy Technical Meeting on Safety and Environment was held at the Garching Joint Work Site which now hosts the Safety, Environment and Health Group of the ITER Joint Central Team. At this meeting, safety experts from the Home Teams worked with the SEHG members on reviews and agreements on the contents of GSSR and on the tasks and the schedule for the production of GSSR as well as the design information to be used and for the analyses to be done

  16. Sustainable Mining Environment: Technical Review of Post-mining Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Juniah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry exists because humans need mining commodities to meet their daily needs such as motor vehicles, mobile phones, electronic equipment and others. Mining commodities as mentioned in Government Regulation No. 23 of 2010 on Implementation of Mineral and Coal Mining Business Activities are radioactive minerals, metal minerals, nonmetallic minerals, rocks and coal. Mineral and coal mining is conducted to obtain the mining commodities through production operations. Mining and coal mining companies have an obligation to ensure that the mining environment in particular after the post production operation or post mining continues. The survey research aims to examine technically the post-mining plan in coal mining of PT Samantaka Batubara in Indragiri Hulu Regency of Riau Province towards the sustainability of the mining environment. The results indicate that the post-mining plan of PT Samantaka Batubara has met the technical aspects required in post mining planning for a sustainable mining environment. Postponement of post-mining land of PT Samantaka Batubara for garden and forest zone. The results of this study are expected to be useful and can be used by stakeholders, academics, researchers, practitioners and associations of mining, and the environment.

  17. The Natural Hospital Environment: a Socio-Technical-Material perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Juanita; Dawson, Linda

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces two concepts into analyses of information security and hospital-based information systems-- a Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and the Natural Hospital Environment. The research is grounded in a review of pertinent literature with previously published Australian (Victoria) case study data to analyse the way clinicians work with privacy and security in their work. The analysis was sorted into thematic categories, providing the basis for the Natural Hospital Environment and Socio-Technical-Material framework theories discussed here. Natural Hospital Environments feature inadequate yet pervasive computer use, aural privacy shortcomings, shared workspace, meagre budgets, complex regulation that hinders training outcomes and out-dated infrastructure and are highly interruptive. Working collaboratively in many cases, participants found ways to avoid or misuse security tools, such as passwords or screensavers for patient care. Workgroup infrastructure was old, architecturally limited, haphazard in some instances, and was less useful than paper handover sheets to ensure the quality of patient care outcomes. Despite valiant efforts by some participants, they were unable to control factors influencing the privacy of patient health information in public hospital settings. Future improvements to hospital-based organisational frameworks for e-health can only be made when there is an improved understanding of the Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and Natural Hospital Environment contexts. Aspects within control of clinicians and administrators can be addressed directly although some others are beyond their control. An understanding and acknowledgement of these issues will benefit the management and planning of improved and secure hospital settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ninth ITER technical meeting on safety and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, J.; Gordon, C.

    2001-01-01

    The ninth ITER Technical Meeting on safety and environment, the last in the course of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), was held at the ITER Garching Joint Work site, 8 to 10 May 2001. At this Meeting, safety experts from the House Teams worked together with the members of the Safety, Environment and Health Groups (SEHG) of the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) in the following areas: finalization of the Generic Site Safety report (GSSR) which is considered to be the most important objective of the present work; summary of the safety related R and D work done by the Home Teams for ITER during EDA; review of verification and validation work done on computer codes being applied for Safety and Environment (S and E) analyses; outline of work considered necessary for improving the S and E database, quantifying uncertainties of the code results and preparing the adaptation of ITER to a specific site

  19. Proceedings of the technical meetings 'Water, radioactivity and environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perceval, Olivier; Foulquier, Luc; Canneva, Guillem; Jedor, Beatrice; Genthon, Benedicte; Vicaud, Alain; Skrzypczak, Julien; Gibeaux, Audrey; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael; Tognelli, Antoine; Calmet, Dominique; Leprieur, Fabrice; Pignol, David; Thybaud, Eric; Feray, Christine; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Maitre, Melanie; Calmon, Philippe; Marang, Laura; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Leprieur, Fabrice; Philippot, Benoit; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Devin, Patrick; Perrier, Gilles; CALVEZ, Marianne; Descamps, E.; Preveral, S.; Brutesco, C.; Ginet, N.; Escofier, C.; Garcia, D.; Pignol, D.; Ansaldi, M.; Rodrigue, A.; Bazin, I.; Cholat, P.; Bailly-Du-Bois, Pascal; Fievet, Bruno; Godinot, Claire; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frederique; Antonelli, Christelle; Tournieux, Damien; Augeray, Celine; Galliez, Kevin; Baconet, I.; Cavaliere, N.; Dias Varela, D.; Foulon, L.; Laconici, C.; Lorand, H.; Mouton, M.; Siscard, N.; Tarlette, L.; Loyen, Jeanne; Gleizes, Marc; Vidal, R.; Borgia, Cecile; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Fouchet, Loic; Gontier, G.; Grignard, G.; Drozdzak, Jegodz; Leermakers, Martine; Brun, Frederic; Ameon, Roselyne; Gleizes, Marc; Maulard, Alain; Moine, Jerome; Tchilian, Nathalie; Paillard, Herve; Gaid, Abdelkader; Wittmann, Erich; Boucherie, Christophe; Devin, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    These technical days were organized by the 'Environment section' of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Their aim was to review the current state of water use, management and monitoring, in particular in the nuclear industry, both on the radiological and chemical aspects. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Environmental issues linked to water and aquatic ecosystems contamination by micropollutants (O. Perceval); 2 - 50 years of radioecology in aquatic environments (L. Foulquier); 3 - Regulation and organisation of the French administration for water and aquatic ecosystems management (G. Canneva); 4 -European and French regulations about the radiological quality of drinking water (B. Jedor); 5 - Water samplings and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities: regulation, authorisations, prescriptions (B. Genthon); 6 - Water needs of a NPP (A. Vicaud); 7 - Water management at old uranium mining sites (A. Gibeaux); 8 - Mobile system for liquid effluents treatment (J. Skrzypczak); 9 - Water: an essential vector for the transfer of radioactive and chemical compounds in the underground (A. Tognelli); 10 - Environmental guide values for aquatic ecosystems protection (E. Thybaud); 11 - Prioritisation work for radioactive and chemical compounds to be monitored in aquatic environments in the framework of the environment perennial lab (E. Leclerc); 12 - Liquid radioactive effluents in continental aquatic environments: why and how estimating the impact? (K. Beaugelin-Seiller); 13 - Sustainable water management: standards, a compulsory tool (D. Calmet); 14 - Water sampling: from theory to practice (F. Leprieur, B. Philippot); 15 - Prototype for the detection of toxic compounds in the environment (D. Pignol); 16 - Nuclear metrology and water: new available and developing techniques (C. Augeray, K. Galliez); 17 - Measurement of the uranium and radium bio

  20. Full immersion simulation: validation of a distributed simulation environment for technical and non-technical skills training in Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, James; Tang, Jessica; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, Muhammad S; Ahmed, Kamran; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger; Jaye, Peter

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the face, content and construct validity of the distributed simulation (DS) environment for technical and non-technical skills training in endourology. To evaluate the educational impact of DS for urology training. DS offers a portable, low-cost simulated operating room environment that can be set up in any open space. A prospective mixed methods design using established validation methodology was conducted in this simulated environment with 10 experienced and 10 trainee urologists. All participants performed a simulated prostate resection in the DS environment. Outcome measures included surveys to evaluate the DS, as well as comparative analyses of experienced and trainee urologist's performance using real-time and 'blinded' video analysis and validated performance metrics. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to compare differences between groups. The DS environment demonstrated face, content and construct validity for both non-technical and technical skills. Kirkpatrick level 1 evidence for the educational impact of the DS environment was shown. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of simulated operating room training on real operating room performance. This study has shown the validity of the DS environment for non-technical, as well as technical skills training. DS-based simulation appears to be a valuable addition to traditional classroom-based simulation training. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Extending human potential in a technical learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Kay A.

    This thesis is a report of a participatory inquiry process looking at enhancing the learning process in a technical academic field in high education by utilising tools and techniques which go beyond the rational/logical, intellectual domain in a functional, objective world. By empathising with, nurturing and sustaining the whole person, and taking account of past patterning as well as future visions including technological advances to augment human awareness, the scene is set for depth learning. Depth learning in a tertiary environment can only happen as a result of the dynamic that exists between the dominant, logical/rational, intellectual paradigm and the experiential extension of the boundaries surrounding this domain. Any experiences which suppress the full, holistic expression of our being alienate us from the fullness of the expression and hence from depth learning. Depth learning is indicated by intrinsic motivation, which is more likely to occur in a trusting and supporting environment. The research took place within a systemic intellectual framework, where emergence is the prime characteristic used to evaluate results.

  2. Creating technical heritage object replicas in a virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Olga; Shcherbinin, Dmitry

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents innovative informatics methods for creating virtual technical heritage replicas, which are of significant scientific and practical importance not only to researchers but to the public in general. By performing 3D modeling and animation of aircrafts, spaceships, architectural-engineering buildings, and other technical objects, the process of learning is achieved while promoting the preservation of the replicas for future generations. Modern approaches based on the wide usage of computer technologies attract a greater number of young people to explore the history of science and technology and renew their interest in the field of mechanical engineering.

  3. Increasing Student Interaction in Technical Writing Courses in Online Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtue, Drew

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the levels of student interaction change through the use of small groups and moderators in online writing courses. The study examines three technical and professional online writing courses: one course that employs small groups and group moderators and two courses that have no small groups or moderators. The results of…

  4. Teaching technical disciplines in a college by means of the resources of the Moodle software environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Касымбек Тулеуович Алдияров

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the didactic features of the free software environment Moodle open source and its testing in the implementation of e-learning technical subjects in the learning process of college.

  5. Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Howard E; Myers-Smith, Isla; Walker, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    We present a focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on the ‘Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation’. The focus issue includes three perspective articles (Verbyla 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041003, Williams et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041004, Loranty and Goetz 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 011005) and 22 research articles. The focus issue arose as a result of heightened interest in the response of high-latitude vegetation to natural and anthropogenic changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and the consequences that these vegetation changes might have for northern ecosystems. A special session at the December 2010 American Geophysical Union Meeting on the ‘Greening of the Arctic’ spurred the call for papers. Many of the resulting articles stem from intensive research efforts stimulated by International Polar Year projects and the growing acknowledgment of ongoing climate change impacts in northern terrestrial ecosystems. (synthesis and review)

  6. Technically Speaking: Transforming Language Learning through Virtual Learning Environments (MOOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Emde, Silke; Schneider, Jeffrey; Kotter, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Draws on experiences from a 7-week exchange between students learning German at an American college and advanced students of English at a German university. Maps out the benefits to using a MOO (multiple user domains object-oriented) for language learning: a student-centered learning environment structured by such objectives as peer teaching,…

  7. Bacterial community structure and soil properties of a subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Jung, Ji Young; Yergeau, Etienne; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Hinzman, Larry; Nam, Sungjin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-08-01

    The subarctic region is highly responsive and vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the structure of subarctic soil microbial communities is essential for predicting the response of the subarctic soil environment to climate change. To determine the composition of the bacterial community and its relationship with soil properties, we investigated the bacterial community structure and properties of surface soil from the moist acidic tussock tundra in Council, Alaska. We collected 70 soil samples with 25-m intervals between sampling points from 0-10 cm to 10-20 cm depths. The bacterial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and the following soil properties were analyzed: soil moisture content (MC), pH, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-). The community compositions of the two different depths showed that Alphaproteobacteria decreased with soil depth. Among the soil properties measured, soil pH was the most significant factor correlating with bacterial community in both upper and lower-layer soils. Bacterial community similarity based on jackknifed unweighted unifrac distance showed greater similarity across horizontal layers than through the vertical depth. This study showed that soil depth and pH were the most important soil properties determining bacterial community structure of the subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  8. Assessment of heterogeneous geological environment at Tono. A technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toida, Masaru; Suyama, Yasuhiro; Inaba, Takeshi; Sasakura, Takeshi; Atsumi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Iwano, Keita; Furuichi, Mitsuaki

    2004-02-01

    'Geoscientific research' at Tono is developing site investigation, characterization and assessment techniques for understanding of geological environment. Their important themes are to establish a methodology for analyzing uncertainties in heterogeneous geological environment and to develop investigation techniques for reducing the uncertainties efficiently. The current study proposes a new approach where all the possible options in the models and data-sets that cannot be excluded in the light of the evidence available is identified. This approach enables uncertainties associated with the understanding at a given stage of the site characterization to be made explicitly using an uncertainty analysis technique based on Fuzzy geostatistics. This in turn, supports the design of the following investigation stage to reduce the uncertainties efficiently. In this report the technique has been tested through geological modelling and groundwater analyses with Tono area case based on current knowledge, to demonstrate its applicability. This report summarizes as follows; 1) It is possible to quantify the uncertainties with Tono area case based on current knowledge using the technique. 2) Based on sensitivity analyses, it is possible to support designs of the following investigation stage to reduce the uncertainties efficiently. 3) The methodology of the technique has been developed with Tono area case. 4) The above could evaluate its applicability and propose further issues for synthesis of the methodology. (author)

  9. The Relationship Between Technical And Nontechnical Skills Within A Simulation-Based Ureteroscopy Training Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunckhorst, Oliver; Shahid, Shahab; Aydin, Abdullatif; Khan, Shahid; McIlhenny, Craig; Brewin, James; Sahai, Arun; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger; Shamim Khan, Muhammad; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Little integration of technical and nontechnical skills (e.g., situational awareness, communication, decision making, teamwork, and leadership) teaching exists within surgery. We therefore aimed to (1) evaluate the relationship between these 2 skill sets within a simulation-based environment and (2) assess if certain nontechnical skill components are of particular relevance to technical performance. A prospective analysis of data acquired from a comparative study of simulation vs nonsimulation training was conducted. Half of the participants underwent training of technical and nontechnical skills within ureteroscopy, with the remaining half undergoing no training. All were assessed within a full immersion environment against both technical (time to completion, Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills, and task-specific checklist scores) and nontechnical parameters (Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons [NOTSS] rating scale). The data of whole and individual cohorts were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The trial took place within the Simulation and Interactive Learning Centre at Guy's Hospital, London, UK. In total, 32 novice participants with no prior practical ureteroscopy experience were included within the data analysis. A correlation was found within all outcome measures analyzed. For the whole cohort, a strong negative correlation was found between time to completion and NOTSS scores (r = -0.75, p Technical Skills (r = 0.89, p technical skill parameters, regardless of training. A strong correlation between technical and nontechnical performance exists, which was demonstrated to be irrespective of training received. This may suggest an inherent link between skill sets. Furthermore, all nontechnical skill sets are important in technical performance. This supports the notion that both of these skills should be trained and assessed together within 1 curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by

  10. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna...... and the human activity are all very important interacting factors affecting epidemiology. In Greenland, where only sylvatic trichinellosis is present, the high prevalence in wildlife appears closely connected with polar bear hunting. In the Scandinavian countries, the prevalence of both sylvatic and domestic...

  11. Human paleoecological integration in subarctic eastern Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoë, François B.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Holmes, Charles E.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-11-01

    We contribute to the understanding of megafauna extinction and human dispersal in subarctic eastern Beringia by focusing on changes in the trophic dynamics of the large mammal community as well as the ecological role of humans as a predator and competitor. We reconstruct habitat use by megafauna and humans throughout the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary based on zooarchaeological data and stable isotope ratios of collagen. Our results are consistent with habitat heterogeneity and availability being important factors in the changing abundance of large herbivores. We argue that an increase in herbivore diversity and biomass at the beginning of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and a relative lack of competitors favored the initial human colonization of subarctic eastern Beringia. As herbivore resources dwindled later in the Late Glacial, people increasingly relied on bison and wapiti. By efficiently extracting some of the highest-ranked resources in the landscape, people are likely to have contributed to the trophic displacement or regional extirpation of other large predators. The ecological patterns that we observe in subarctic eastern Beringia are consistent with a mixture of both top-down and bottom-up controls over biotic turnover.

  12. Sub-arctic hydrology and climate change : a case study of the Tana River Basin in Northern Fennoscandia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Rutger

    2002-01-01

    The most significant changes in climate, due to the well-known enhanced greenhouse effect, are generally expected to occur at northern high latitudes. Sub-arctic environments, that are dominated by the presence of a seasonal snow cover, may therefore be particularly sensitive to global warming. The

  13. PRACTICAL ASPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF HIGH TECHNICAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Rodionov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach is offered to development of the informational and educational environment of high technical school,based on deep integration of electronic educational content with methods and tools for the engineering problemssolving. The application program interface (API is used asthe main integration instrument, which modern Its have.

  14. Carbon monoxide and methane in the North American Arctic and Subarctic troposphere - July-August 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriss, R.C.; Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K.B.; Collins, J.E.; Steele, L.P.; Novelli, P.C. (New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States) NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) Lockheed Engineering Sciences Co., Hampton, VA (United States) Science and Technology Corp., Hampton, VA (United States) Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Enhanced concentrations of CH4 in the unpolluted atmospheric mixed layer over both Arctic and subarctic tundra landscapes are documented here using data from the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The CH4 concentration gradients were determined mainly by interactions of biogenic emission from wet tundra and turbulent mixing proceses. The gradient were most frequently associated with intrusion of upper tropospheric or stratospheric air into the midtroposphere, emissions from forest and tundra fires, and long-range transport of enhanced concentration of these gases from unidentified sources. Summertime haze layers exhibited midtropospheric enhancements of CH4 similar to those measured in winter Arctic events. The observations confirm the importance of Arctic and Subarctic wetland environments as a regional source of global atmospheric CH4. 33 refs.

  15. Carbon monoxide and methane in the North American Arctic and Subarctic troposphere - July-August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, Robert C.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Wade, Larry; Bartlett, Karen B.; Collins, James E.; Steele, L. P.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Enhanced concentrations of CH4 in the unpolluted atmospheric mixed layer over both Arctic and subarctic tundra landscapes are documented here using data from the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The CH4 concentration gradients were determined mainly by interactions of biogenic emission from wet tundra and turbulent mixing proceses. The gradient were most frequently associated with intrusion of upper tropospheric or stratospheric air into the midtroposphere, emissions from forest and tundra fires, and long-range transport of enhanced concentration of these gases from unidentified sources. Summertime haze layers exhibited midtropospheric enhancements of CH4 similar to those measured in winter Arctic events. The observations confirm the importance of Arctic and Subarctic wetland environments as a regional source of global atmospheric CH4.

  16. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Stephanie Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective: Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design: A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT, other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods: Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling from 3 plots (A, B, and C in Fort Albany (on the mainland, subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results: The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusions: Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  17. Operating environment threats influence on the maritime ferry technical system safety – the numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuligowska Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The material given in this paper delivers the procedure for numerical approach that allows finding the main practically important safety characteristics of the complex technical systems at the variable operation conditions including operating environment threats. The obtained results are applied to the safety evaluation of the maritime ferry technical system. It is assumed that the conditional safety functions are different at various operation states and have the exponential forms. Using the procedure and the program written in Mathematica, the considered maritime ferry technical system main characteristics including: the conditional and the unconditional expected values and standard deviations of the system lifetimes, the unconditional safety function and the risk function are determined.

  18. Technical know-how for modeling of geological environment. (1) Overview and groundwater flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Osawa, Hideaki; Semba, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    It is important for site characterization projects to manage the decision-making process with transparency and traceability and to transfer the technical know-how accumulated during the research and development to the implementing phase and to future generations. The modeling for a geological environment is to be used to synthesize investigation results. Evaluation of the impact of uncertainties in the model is important to identify and prioritize key issues for further investigations. Therefore, a plan for site characterization should be made based on the results of the modeling. The aim of this study is to support for the planning of initial surface-based site characterization based on the technical know-how accumulated from the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment that are a basis for research and development for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, the work-flow of the groundwater flow modeling, which is one of the geological environment models, and is to be used for setting the area for the geological environment modeling and for groundwater flow characterization, and the related decision-making process using literature data have been summarized. (author)

  19. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  20. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  1. Technical experiences of implementing a wireless tracking and facial biometric verification system for a clinical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Brent; Lee, Jasper; Documet, Jorge; Guo, Bing; King, Nelson; Huang, H. K.

    2006-03-01

    By implementing a tracking and verification system, clinical facilities can effectively monitor workflow and heighten information security in today's growing demand towards digital imaging informatics. This paper presents the technical design and implementation experiences encountered during the development of a Location Tracking and Verification System (LTVS) for a clinical environment. LTVS integrates facial biometrics with wireless tracking so that administrators can manage and monitor patient and staff through a web-based application. Implementation challenges fall into three main areas: 1) Development and Integration, 2) Calibration and Optimization of Wi-Fi Tracking System, and 3) Clinical Implementation. An initial prototype LTVS has been implemented within USC's Healthcare Consultation Center II Outpatient Facility, which currently has a fully digital imaging department environment with integrated HIS/RIS/PACS/VR (Voice Recognition).

  2. Radioecology of tritiated water in subarctic soils and vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Miettinen, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The residence times of tritium in various types of soils and plants have been determined in southern and northern Finland. The experiments were conducted in forest and agricultural environments where tritiated water was applied to the soil surface in the form of a single fall of rain. After that the movement and loss of tritiated water from the unsaturated zone was followed over a 2-4-year period in some forest areas. Uptake and loss of tritium in the tissue-free water and organic compounds of some native plants was studied in each area. The results indicated that in the subarctic area the half-residence times of tritium in soils and plants were greatly dependent on the climatic conditions at the time of the labelling and during the short growing seasons and also on the rate of water movement in the soil. In the experiments started during the best growing season the half-residence times in soil and plants do not differ from those determined in more temperate latitudes. (author)

  3. Knowledge Acquisition and Job Training for Advanced Technical Skills Using Immersive Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Keiichi; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    The environment in which Japanese industry has achieved great respect is changing tremendously due to the globalization of world economies, while Asian countries are undergoing economic and technical development as well as benefiting from the advances in information technology. For example, in the design of custom-made casting products, a designer who lacks knowledge of casting may not be able to produce a good design. In order to obtain a good design and manufacturing result, it is necessary to equip the designer and manufacturer with a support system related to casting design, or a so-called knowledge transfer and creation system. This paper proposes a new virtual reality based knowledge acquisition and job training system for casting design, which is composed of the explicit and tacit knowledge transfer systems using synchronized multimedia and the knowledge internalization system using portable virtual environment. In our proposed system, the education content is displayed in the immersive virtual environment, whereby a trainee may experience work in the virtual site operation. Provided that the trainee has gained explicit and tacit knowledge of casting through the multimedia-based knowledge transfer system, the immersive virtual environment catalyzes the internalization of knowledge and also enables the trainee to gain tacit knowledge before undergoing on-the-job training at a real-time operation site.

  4. [Environment, Trauma and Technical Innovations: Three Links Between Donald W. Winnicott and Sándor Ferenczi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Peláez, Miguel; Herrera-Pardo, Emilio

    Throughout this paper, the theoretical and clinical approaches of D.W. Winnicott are reviewed in order to reread the written production of Sándor Ferenczi. Winnicott's clinical and theoretical concepts allow returning to Ferenczi and rescuing aspects of his work that had been silenced in the psychoanalytic community. Ferenczi, in turn, is one that holds his presence in Winnicott's thought. Even though there are few times in which he cites Ferenczi in his work, it is possible to draw clear relationships between both theories. Three main issues are addressed: the role of the environment as active; the primitive traumatic event in which there is no one that has experience of it, and psychoanalysis as the place to experience that which happened in the first months of life for the first time; and, finally, severe pathologies and psychoses: technical innovations in Winnicott and Ferenczi for the treatment of psychotic and borderline patients. It is concluded that the theoretical and technical developments of Winnicott serve to illuminate a retrospective reading of Ferenczi. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a technical scheme for the management of chemical dangerous substances in hospitable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja Amador, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical substances that are used in the hospitals, and their remainders, represent risks for the environment, the health and security of those who work in these establishments, and of the civil population. The deficiency of a norm that establishes the directives for the handling responsible for such products in the hospitals that our country has motivated the elaboration of a technical scheme that serves as it guides for the correct manipulation, storage and safe disposition of chemical substances in the twenty-nine hospitals of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, establishing Procedures of Standard Operation for its management. To development of the guideline proposal it took a sample of hospitals that includes three levels of comple complexity: national, regional and peripheral. Applying a methodology of evaluation of risks two factors of risk of hospitable were determined, the zones and the population but affected by the existence of chemical substances, which allowed to identify some operative deficiencies in the product handling diverse. The qualitative analysis of the results lead to the elaboration of a technical scheme that includes an instrument for the identification of risks, guideline for the management responsible for hospitable chemical substances, a friendly tool computations like complementary source of intelligence and the proposal of a governing group in charge of the monitoring of the fulfillment of these lineament. (Author) [es

  6. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  7. Bacterial carbon cycling in a subarctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Sejr, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    of viruses on bacterial mortality (4–36% of cell production) and carbon cycling. Heterotrophic bacterial consumption was closely coupled with autochthonous BDOC production, and the majority of the primary production was consumed by pelagic bacteria at all seasons. The relatively low measured BGE emphasized......In this seasonal study, we examined the environmental controls and quantitative importance of bacterial carbon consumption in the water column and the sediment in the subarctic Kobbefjord, Greenland. Depth-integrated bacterial production in the photic zone varied from 5.0 ± 2.7 mg C m−2 d−1...... in February to 42 ± 28 mg C m−2 d−1 in May and 34 ± 7 mg C m−2 d−1 in September, corresponding to a bacterial production to primary production ratio of 0.34 ± 0.14, 0.07 ± 0.04, and 0.08 ± 0.06, respectively. Based on measured bacterial growth efficiencies (BGEs) of 0.09–0.10, pelagic bacterial carbon...

  8. Analysis on the development of scientific and technical information under new competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tao

    2010-01-01

    The current external environment of information work has undergone profound changes. The world competition in Military fields, the development of national economy and the applications of high-technologies put forward higher requirements to intelligence work. Under the environment of global information integration, 'eyes and ears' roles of nuclear scientific and technical information will be more highlighted. In this context, we believe that the way of nuclear sci-tech information development should be focused on comprehensive research and be based on the building of information resources and advanced information technology methods, forming an integrated service system with capabilities of rapid resources, decision support, information assurance and sustainable development. The goal of nuclear sci-tech information development should be to serve the development of nuclear power and the popularization and application of nuclear technology in the fields of national economy, to implement the strategy of 'integrated intelligence support', to ensure the formation of rapid response capability, to enhance capabilities of decision support and science and technology development guidance, to build digital information resources and to constantly promote the research on network collaboration. This paper analyzes the characteristics of nuclear sci-tech information under new competitive environment, describes the ideas and goals of its development and proposes the way to achieve these goals. In order to provide the information support and service with the characteristics of rapid response, high quality and high efficiency, the paper also puts forward that under the new environment, we should optimize the service system, extend service functions, transform service mode, speed up the transformation on intelligence work, adjust and optimize business content and structure, promote business process re-engineering, and pay equal attention to 'ensuring demands' and 'guiding the future

  9. Conceptualising the interactive effects of climate change and biological invasions on subarctic freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J; Hayden, Brian; Kahilainen, Kimmo K

    2017-06-01

    Climate change and species invasions represent key threats to global biodiversity. Subarctic freshwaters are sentinels for understanding both stressors because the effects of climate change are disproportionately strong at high latitudes and invasion of temperate species is prevalent. Here, we summarize the environmental effects of climate change and illustrate the ecological responses of freshwater fishes to these effects, spanning individual, population, community and ecosystem levels. Climate change is modifying hydrological cycles across atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic components of subarctic ecosystems, causing increases in ambient water temperature and nutrient availability. These changes affect the individual behavior, habitat use, growth and metabolism, alter population spawning and recruitment dynamics, leading to changes in species abundance and distribution, modify food web structure, trophic interactions and energy flow within communities and change the sources, quantity and quality of energy and nutrients in ecosystems. Increases in temperature and its variability in aquatic environments underpin many ecological responses; however, altered hydrological regimes, increasing nutrient inputs and shortened ice cover are also important drivers of climate change effects and likely contribute to context-dependent responses. Species invasions are a complex aspect of the ecology of climate change because the phenomena of invasion are both an effect and a driver of the ecological consequences of climate change. Using subarctic freshwaters as an example, we illustrate how climate change can alter three distinct aspects of species invasions: (1) the vulnerability of ecosystems to be invaded, (2) the potential for species to spread and invade new habitats, and (3) the subsequent ecological effects of invaders. We identify three fundamental knowledge gaps focused on the need to determine (1) how environmental and landscape characteristics influence the

  10. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J Lembrechts

    Full Text Available Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  11. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrechts, Jonas J; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  12. Analysis of anaerobic BTX biodegradation in a subarctic aquifer using isotopes and benzylsuccinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R; Lindstrom, Jon E; Beller, Harry R; Richmond, Sharon A; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-12-01

    In situ biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer near Fairbanks, Alaska was assessed using carbon and hydrogen compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of benzene and toluene and analysis of signature metabolites for toluene (benzylsuccinate) and xylenes (methylbenzylsuccinates). Carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of benzene were between -25.9 per thousand and -26.8 per thousand for delta13C and -119 per thousand and -136 per thousand for delta2H, suggesting that biodegradation of benzene is unlikely at this site. However, biodegradation of both xylenes and toluene were documented in this subarctic aquifer. Biodegradation of xylenes was indicated by the presence of methylbenzylsuccinates with concentrations of 17-50 microg/L in three wells. Anaerobic toluene biodegradation was also indicated by benzylsuccinate concentrations of 10-49 microg/L in the three wells with the highest toluene concentrations (1500-5000 microg/L toluene). Since benzylsuccinate typically accounts for a very small fraction of the toluene present in groundwater (generally data is particularly valuable given the challenge of verifying biodegradation in subarctic environments where degradation rates are typically much slower than in temperate environments.

  13. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-01-01

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model will be revised to be consistent with

  14. Trends and driving forces of ecological training and education in the context of ecological education environment of the technical university

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenkova V. A.

    2017-01-01

    common patterns of ecological training and education in the technical university are analyzed in this article, their descriptions are defined. Driving forces of ecological training and education in the context of ecological education environment are discovered and proved. According to conducted research the author makes a proposition to point out at ecological risks as driving forces, searching for which improves the efficiency and effectiveness of ecological education environment. The resear...

  15. Animistic pragmatism and native ways of knowing: adaptive strategies for overcoming the struggle for food in the sub-Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Anthony

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subsistence norms are part of the “ecosophy” or ecological philosophy of Alaska Native Peoples in the sub-Arctic, such as the Inupiat of Seward Peninsula. This kind of animistic pragmatism is a special source of practical wisdom that spans over thousands of years and which has been instrumental in the Iñupiat’s struggle to survive and thrive in harsh and evolving environments. Objective. I hope to show how narrative in relationship to the “ecosophy” of Alaska Native peoples can help to promote a more ecological orientation to address food insecurity in rural communities in Alaska. Alaska Native ecosophy recommends central values and virtues necessary to help address concerns in Alaska’s rural communities. Design. Here, I will tease out the nature of this “ecosophy” in terms of animistic pragmatism and then show why this form of pragmatism can be instrumental for problematizing multi-scalar, intergenerational, uncertain and complex environmental challenges like food security. Results. Native elders have been the embodiment of trans-generational distributed cognition,1 for example, collective memory, norms, information, knowledge, technical skills and experimental adaptive strategies. They are human “supercomputers,” historical epistemologists and moral philosophers of a sort who use narrative, a form of moral testimony, to help their communities face challenges and seize opportunities in the wake of an ever-changing landscape. Conclusions. The “ecosophy” of the Iñupiat of Seward Peninsula offers examples of “focal practices”, which are essential for environmental education. These focal practices instil key virtues, namely humility, gratitude, self-reliance, attentiveness, responsibility and responsiveness, that are necessary for subsistence living.

  16. Animistic pragmatism and native ways of knowing: adaptive strategies for overcoming the struggle for food in the sub-Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Background Subsistence norms are part of the “ecosophy” or ecological philosophy of Alaska Native Peoples in the sub-Arctic, such as the Inupiat of Seward Peninsula. This kind of animistic pragmatism is a special source of practical wisdom that spans over thousands of years and which has been instrumental in the Iñupiat's struggle to survive and thrive in harsh and evolving environments. Objective I hope to show how narrative in relationship to the “ecosophy” of Alaska Native peoples can help to promote a more ecological orientation to address food insecurity in rural communities in Alaska. Alaska Native ecosophy recommends central values and virtues necessary to help address concerns in Alaska's rural communities. Design Here, I will tease out the nature of this “ecosophy” in terms of animistic pragmatism and then show why this form of pragmatism can be instrumental for problematizing multi-scalar, intergenerational, uncertain and complex environmental challenges like food security. Results Native elders have been the embodiment of trans-generational distributed cognition,1 for example, collective memory, norms, information, knowledge, technical skills and experimental adaptive strategies. They are human “supercomputers,” historical epistemologists and moral philosophers of a sort who use narrative, a form of moral testimony, to help their communities face challenges and seize opportunities in the wake of an ever-changing landscape. Conclusions The “ecosophy” of the Iñupiat of Seward Peninsula offers examples of “focal practices”, which are essential for environmental education. These focal practices instil key virtues, namely humility, gratitude, self-reliance, attentiveness, responsibility and responsiveness, that are necessary for subsistence living. PMID:23986900

  17. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  18. Selected References on Arctic and Subarctic Prehistory and Ethnology. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William, Comp.; Loring, Stephen, Comp.

    This bibliography provides an introduction to the current literature, in English, on arctic and subarctic prehistory and ethnology. Leads for further research will be found in section 1. Publications listed are not available from the Smithsonian Institution but copies may be found in larger libraries or obtained through inter-library loan.…

  19. Life-Histories of Sub-Arctic Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Jürgen

    1993-01-01

    Ant species belonging to seven genera occur in habitats near the tree line in the Northern Hemisphere. An analysis of colony founding strategies suggests that in addition to physiological cold resistance, behavioral and sociometric adaptations might be important for survival and propagation of ants in subarctic biomes.

  20. Development of JNC geological disposal technical information integration system for geological environment field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto; Ueta, Shinzo; Ohashi, Toyo

    2004-02-01

    Enormous data on geology, geological structure, hydrology, geochemistry and rock properties should be obtained by various investigation/study in the geological disposal study. Therefore, 'JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System for Geological Environment Field' was developed in order to manage these data systematically and to support/promote the use of these data for the investigators concerned. The system is equipped with data base to store the information of the works and the background information of the assumptions built up in the works on each stage of data flow ('instigative', → 'data sampling' → interpretation' → conceptualization/modeling/simulation' → 'output') in the geological disposal study. In this system the data flow is shown as 'plan' composed of task' and 'work' to be done in the geological disposal study. It is possible to input the data to the database and to refer data from the database by using GUI that shows the data flow as 'plan'. The system was installed to the server computer possessed by JNC and the system utilities were checked on both the server computer and client computer also possessed by JNC. (author)

  1. US decommissioning strategy in today's regulatory, technical, political, and economic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colvin, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The United States commercial nuclear power industry is nearly forty years old. Soon after the turn of the century, the United States expects to see a significant rise in the number of plants requiring decommissioning. This, coupled with recent economic pressures which are impacting the U.S. electrical generation industry and have resulted in the premature shutdown of some nuclear power plants, heighten the need for clear regulations and standards addressing facility closure and decommissioning. Since the issue of decommissioning involves public health and safety, technical, environmental and financial aspects, this complex regulatory environment poses a major challenge to the industry in this area. There are three fundamental issues facing utilities as they develop strategies for the eventual decommissioning of their nuclear power plants. These issues are the regulatory approach to decommissioning, the question of the availability of adequate funding, including the uncertainty resulting from the uncertainty of waste disposal options, and the need to meet environmental standards for the protection of health and safety. Futhermore, these issues, in particular the economic-related issues, are magnified in the event of prematurely shut down nuclear power plant. (Author)

  2. Contrasting distributions of dissolved gaseous mercury concentration and evasion in the North Pacific Subarctic Gyre and the Subarctic Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Rhee, Tae Siek; Hahm, Doshik; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Yang, Jisook; Han, Seunghee

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and the oxidation-reduction processes of mercury (Hg) in the surface and subsurface ocean are currently understudied despite their importance in ocean-atmosphere interactions. We investigated the Hg(0) evasion and the DGM distribution at water depths of 2-500 m in the Subarctic Front, Western Subarctic Gyre, and Bering Sea of the Northwestern Pacific. The mean DGM concentration in the surface mixed water (evasion flux were significantly higher in the Subarctic Front (125±5.0 fM and 15 pmol m-2 h-1, respectively), which typically has lower nutrient levels and higher primary production, than in the Western Subarctic Gyre and the Bering Sea (74±18 fM and 3.2±1.2 pmol m-2 h-1, respectively). The variation in the chlorophyll-a concentration and extracellular protease activity predicted 54% and 48% of the DGM variation, respectively, in the euphotic zone (2-50 m). The DGM concentration in aphotic intermediate water (415±286 fM) was positively correlated to the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU; r2=0.94 and pevasion is closely linked to primary production in euphotic water and organic remineralization in aphotic intermediate water. The oceanic alterations in these factors may induce significant modification in Hg redox speciation in the Northwestern Pacific.

  3. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-12-08

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model

  4. MACCIS 2.0 - An Architecture Description Framework for Technical Infostructures and Their Enterprise Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elvesaeter, Brian; Neple, Tor; Aagedal, Jan O; Rolfsen, Rolf K; Stensli, Ole-Oevind

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the MACCIS 2.0 framework. MACCIS is an architecture description framework that defines architectural artefacts that are used to describe technical information infrastructures (infostructures...

  5. Aufeis accumulations in stream bottoms in arctic and subarctic environments as a possible indicator of geologic structure: Chapter F in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Day, Warren C.; Gough, Larry P.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    Thick accumulations of ice, called “aufeis,” form during winter along stream and river valleys in arctic and subarctic regions. In high-gradient alpine streams, aufeis forms mostly as a result of ground-water discharge into the stream channel. The ice occludes this discharge, perturbing the steady-state condition, and causing an incremental rise in the local water table until discharge occurs higher on the stream bank above the previously formed ice. Successive freezing of onlapping ice layers can lead to aufeis accumulations several meters thick.

  6. Technical efficiency in milk production in underdeveloped production environment of India*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Dwaipayan; Sharma, Murari Lal

    2013-12-01

    The study was undertaken in Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state of India with the objective of estimating technical efficiency in milk production across different herd-size category households and factors influencing it. Total of 60 farm households having representation from different herd-size categories drawn from six randomly selected villages of plain and hilly regions of the division constituted the ultimate sampling units of the study. Stochastic frontier production function analysis was used to estimate the technical efficiency in milk production. Multivariate regression equations were fitted taking technical efficiency index as the regressand to identify the factors significantly influencing technical efficiency in milk production. The study revealed that variation in output across farms in the study area was due to difference in their technical efficiency levels. However, it was interesting to note that smallholder producers were more technically efficient in milk production than their larger counterparts, especially in the plains. Apart from herd size, intensity of market participation had significant and positive impact on technical efficiency in the plains. This provides definite indication that increasing the level of commercialization of dairy farms would have beneficial impact on their production efficiency.

  7. Distance Education Programs in Texas Community & Technical Colleges: Assessing Student Support Services in a Virtual Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Cherry Beth

    This project evaluates the status of distance learning at 54 public, two-year community, and technical colleges in Texas. Data was collected from the Web sites of each of the institutions. The Web site data indicted that 44 of the colleges refer specifically to distance education courses offered. To assess what student support services are…

  8. Evaluating non-technical skills and mission essential competencies of pilots in military aviation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsifetakis, Emmanuel; Kontogiannis, Tom

    2017-05-25

    To develop and validate a classification of non-technical skills (NTS) in military aviation, a study was conducted, using data from real operations of F16 aircraft formations. Phase 1 developed a NTS classification based on the literature review (e.g. NOTECHS) and a workshop with pilots. The Non-TEChnical-MILitary-Skills (NOTEMILS) scheme was tested in Phase 2 in a series of Principal Component Analysis with data from After-Action-Review sessions (i.e. 900 records from a wide range of operations). The NTS were found to make a good prediction of Mission Essential Components (R 2  > 0.80) above the effect of experience. Phase 3 undertook a reliability analysis where three raters assessed the NOTEMILS scheme with good results (i.e. all r wg  > 0.80). To look into the consistency of classifications, another test indicated that, at least, two out of three raters were in agreement in over 70% of the assessed flight segments. Practitioner Summary: A classification scheme of Non-Technical Skills (NTS) was developed and tested for reliability in military aviation operations. The NTS scheme is a valuable tool for assessing individual and team skills of F-16 pilots in combat. It is noteworthy that the tool had a good capability of predicting Mission Essential Competencies.

  9. Facilitating 3D Virtual World Learning Environments Creation by Non-Technical End Users through Template-Based Virtual World Instantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Zhong, Ying; Ozercan, Sertac; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a template-based solution to overcome technical barriers non-technical computer end users face when developing functional learning environments in three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVW). "iVirtualWorld," a prototype of a platform-independent 3DVW creation tool that implements the proposed solution, facilitates 3DVW…

  10. Technical data summary supporting the spent nuclear fuel environment impact statement, March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, R.L.; Claxton, R.E.; Lengel, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report has been compiled by the WSRC Nuclear Materials Processing Division's Planning Section at the request of the Office of Spent Fuel Management and Special Projects (EM-37) to support issuance of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Environmental Impact Statement. Savannah River Site input data evaluates five programmatic options (including open-quotes No Actionclose quotes) ranging up to transfer of all DOE responsibility spent fuel to the SRS. For each option, a range of management/disposition scenarios has been examined. Each case summary provides information relative to the technical proposal, technical issues, environmental impacts, and projected costs for a forty year period (FY-35) when it is assumed that the material will be dispositioned from the SRS. The original issue of the report which was prepared under severe time constraints contained many simplifications and assumptions. Although the revisions have corrected some of the shortcomings of the original report, it is still highly recommended that significant additional study be performed before basing key decisions upon the data contained in this report. The data represents the best effort by a significant group of technical personnel familiar with nuclear materials processing, handling, and storage; but it is likely that careful scrutiny will reveal numerous discrepancies, inconsistencies and omissions. Nor does this report attempt to analyze every potential disposal pathway, but probably establishes the bounds for the most of the viable pathways. The bulk of the effort went into defining the engineering approaches necessary to execute the various mission scenarios which were changed since the last revision. The decision to limit reprocessing to only SRS aluminum clad required a major alteration of the TDS. Collection and/or calculation of much of the various waste, emission, and utility consumption data, so important to an EIS, has been updated since the last revision, but not thoroughly completed

  11. Study on synthesis of geological environment at Horonobe area. A technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toida, Masaru; Suyama, Yasuhiro; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Atsumi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yasunori; Furuichi, Mitsuaki

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the Horonobe Under Ground Research Project includes enhancing reliability of disposal techniques and safety assessment methods which are based on data on deep underground geological environment obtained by surface explorations and models for geological environment developed using those data. In this study, through development of conceptual models of geological environment based on those data, the flows from data collection to modeling, which have been conducted independently for each geological environment of geology/geological structure, hydrogeology, geochemistry of groundwater and rock mechanics, were synthesized, and a systematic approach including processes from investigation of geological environment to its modeling was established, which is expected to ensure objectivity and traceability of the design and safety assessment of a disposal system. This study is also a part of a program that includes an iterative process in which geological models would be developed and revised repeatedly through the Horonobe Under Ground Research Project and development of geological environment investigation techniques. The results of the study are summarized as follows: (1) Models based on current knowledge were developed; conceptual geology/geological structural model, conceptual hydrogeological model, conceptual geochemical model of groundwater, and conceptual rock mechanical model, (2) Information of data flow and interpretation in the modeling process were synthesized into an data flow which includes knowledge on historical geology and palaeogeology in addition to four models shown above in terms of safety assessment, and (3) Based on modeling processes and syntheses of data flow shown above, tasks that should be considered were organized and suggestions of investigation program were provided for the next phase. (author)

  12. Progress in the domain of emissions tracking and environment radioactivity monitoring - Proceedings of the technical days organised by the SFRP Environment Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Dominique; Calvez, Marianne; Rivasseau, Corinne Cea; Monfort, Marguerite; Manificat, Guillaume; Pierrard, Olivier; Couvez, Celine; Masson, Olivier; Bruno, Valerie; Renaud, Philippe; Genova, Zhana; Reynal, Nathalie; Le Coz, Eric; Tchilian, Nathalie; Diana, Jean-Jacques; Beguinel, Philippe; Cortes, Pierre; Puydarrieux, Stephane; Brun, Thierry; Devin, Patrick; Clavel, Benoit; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Gontier, Gilles; Delloye, Thierry; Mailliat, Alain; Ferreri, Giovanni; LECLERC, Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    The Environment Section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) organized a technical meeting on the progress made in the domain of emissions tracking and environment radioactivity monitoring. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - Environment monitoring at the global, national and local scale: historical overview (Dominique CALMET, CEA); 2 - Evolution of radioactivity monitoring in the environment from 1960 to the present day (Guillaume MANIFICAT, IRSN); 3 - Euratom's legal framework (Zhana GENOVA, CTE); 4 - Main regulatory changes during the last decade (Nathalie REYNAL, ASN); 5 - Progress of standardization works on radioactive effluent emissions control and environment monitoring (Philippe BEGUINEL, BNEN); 6 - From operators' self-monitoring to ASN's inspections: a many components control system (Eric LE COZ, ASN); 7 - Control of effluents and emissions management at CEA Centres (Marianne CALVEZ, CEA); 8 - Liquid and gaseous effluents of ITER experimental facility: description and impacts (Pierre CORTES, IO); 9 - Effluents and emissions management strategy at AREVA NC La Hague facility (Stephane PUYDARRIEUX, AREVA); 10 - Radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities ongoing deconstruction: from dimensioning to real effluents (Benoit CLAVEL, EDF); 11 - Radionuclides decontamination process for liquid effluents using micro-algae at the laboratory scale (Corinne RIVASSEAU, CEA); 12 - Radioactive effluents from nuclear medicine services: management, monitoring and impact measurement methods (Nathalie TCHILIAN, ASN); 13 - Evolution history of effluents management and environment monitoring at the Solvay La Rochelle site (Thierry DELLOYE, SOLVAY); 14 - Different international approaches in effluents management and monitoring: example of French and German gaseous effluents - regulation, analyses, accounting rules (Jean-Jacques DIANA, ASN); 15 - Environment

  13. TIROS-N/NOAA A-J space environment monitor subsystem. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, R.A.; Bushnell, R.H.

    1987-04-01

    The Space Environment Monitor (SEM), which is incorporated as a subsystem in the TIROS-N and NOAA A-J satellites, is described. The SEM consists of a Total Energy Detector (TED), a Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED), a High Energy Proton and Alpha Detector (HEPAD) and a Data Processing Unit (DPU). The detectors are intended to provide near-real-time particle data for use in the Space Environment Service Center of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and to provide a long-term scientific data base. Telemeter codes, data reduction, and test instructions are given

  14. Electronic Scholarly Journals: A Review of Technical Issues in Digital Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnessa Galyani Moghaddam

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly journals are known as the most important medium for scholarly communication since long time back. As technology transforms the flow of information and idea everywhere, it changes the nature of scholarly communications and publishing of scholarly journals as well. The electronic scholarly publishing rapidly produced an expectation, among researchers of the availability of articles at their desktop, rather than the previous scenario of visiting the library to read a print journal issue. There are lots of technological improvements in electronic journals publishing. The present paper looks at some of technical issues in electronic publishing such as DOI, DOI-X, CrossRef, Citation/Reference Linking, OpenURL, SFX and MetaLib which are being used in the World Wide Web.

  15. Some Technical Implications of Distributed Cognition on the Design on Interactive Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenbourg, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that diagnosis, explanation, and tutoring, the functions of an interactive learning environment, are collaborative processes. Examines how human-computer interaction can be improved using a distributed cognition framework. Discusses situational and distributed knowledge theories and provides a model on how they can be used to redesign…

  16. Cross-Layer Energy Optimization for IoT Environments: Technical Advances and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirshna Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a significant characteristic of battery-run devices such as sensors, RFID and mobile phones. In the present scenario, this is the most prominent requirement that must be served while introducing a communication protocol for an IoT environment. IoT network success and performance enhancement depend heavily on optimization of energy consumption that enhance the lifetime of IoT nodes and the network. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive review on energy efficiency techniques used in IoT environments. The techniques proposed by researchers have been categorized based on five different layers of the energy architecture of IoT. These five layers are named as sensing, local processing and storage, network/communication, cloud processing and storage, and application. Specifically, the significance of energy efficiency in IoT environments is highlighted. A taxonomy is presented for the classification of related literature on energy efficient techniques in IoT environments. Following the taxonomy, a critical review of literature is performed focusing on major functional models, strengths and weaknesses. Open research challenges related to energy efficiency in IoT are identified as future research directions in the area. The survey should benefit IoT industry practitioners and researchers, in terms of augmenting the understanding of energy efficiency and its IoT-related trends and issues.

  17. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: satu.huttunen@oulu.fi; Lappalainen, N.M. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland); Turunen, J. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A{sub 280-320nm}) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time.

  18. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.; Lappalainen, N.M.; Turunen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A 280-320nm ) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time

  19. Examining the relationship between mercury and organic matter in lake sediments along a latitudinal transect in subarctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Sanei, Hamed; Parsons, Michael; Swindles, Graeme T.; Macumber, Andrew L.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Palmer, Michael; Falck, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of Hg in aquatic environments at both high and low latitudes can be controlled by organic matter through algal scavenging, thus complicating the interpretation of historical Hg profiles in lake sediments1,2,3. However, other recent studies suggest that algal scavenging is not important in governing Hg flux to sediments4, in some cases because of dilution by inorganic materials5. This study examines relationships between Hg and organic matter (OM) in over 100 lakes located between 60.5 and 65.4 °N and crossing the latitudinal tree-line in subarctic Canada. The latitudinal gradient approach in our study offers an opportunity to better understand climate and environmental controls on OM accumulation and its role in influencing Hg deposition in subarctic lacustrine environments. We used Rock Eval 6 pyrolysis to determine total organic carbon (TOC%), S1 (soluble OM consisting of degradable lipids and algal pigments), S2 (OM derived from highly aliphatic biomacromolecule structure of algal cell walls), and S3 (OM dominated by carbohydrates, lignins, and plant materials). Total Hg in sediments was measured using thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In these lake sediments, S2 composes the majority of TOC (Pearson's r = 0.978, porganic matter and mercury in recent lake sediment: the physical-geochemical aspects. Appl Geochem 21: 1900-12. 2Outridge, P.M., Sanei, H., Stern, G.A., Hamilton, P.B., Goodarzi, F. 2007. Evidence for control of mercury accumulation rates in Canadian high Arctic lake sediments by variations of aquatic primary productivity. Environ Sci Technol 41: 5259-65. 3Wu, F., Zu, L., Liao, H., Guo, F., Zhao, X., Giesy, J. 2013. Relationship between mercury and organic carbon in sediment cores from Lakes Qinghai and Chenghai, China. J Soils Sediments 13: 1084-1092.4Kirk, J.L., Muir, D.C.G., Antoniades, D., Douglas, M.S.V., Evans, M.S., Jackson, T.A., Kling, H., Lamoureux, S., Lim, D.S.S., Pienitz, R

  20. The socio-technical setting of economic stakes of global environment risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    For policy-making for fighting acid rain, protecting the ozone layer and initiating action to prevent global climate change related to the growth of the greenhouse effect, the economic approach requires more precise consideration of how the economic stakes attached to these threats have been built up by their social actors. Global environmental risks (GER) are not directly perceivable nor can they be easily related to any activity or phenomena at local level (in time or space). There are scientific controversies about the reality of damage and establishing credible responsibility links. Moreover, these controversies are brought to media and social debate before any scientific clarification is possible. The media representations of GER emphasize the fact they could have catastrophic and irreversible consequences. So, the social demand for public action becomes very heavy when delay, possibly of several years between the causes and consequences of global environmental change, prevents any rapid clarification in the controversies. These difficulties have led to the evolution of a decision process in several steps: firstly, an international convention is prepared in which signatory countries commit themselves to cooperate and to take action; secondly, one or several agreements are signed with clear technical objectives and a timetable for implementations. 23 refs

  1. A technical basis to relax the dew point specification for the environment in the vapor space in DWPF canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    This memorandum establishes the technical basis to conclude that relaxing, from 0 C to 20 C, the dew point specification for the atmosphere in the vapor space (free volume) of a DWPF canister will not provide an environment that will cause significant amounts of corrosion induced degradation of the canister wall. The conclusion is based on engineering analysis, experience and review of the corrosion literature. The basic assumptions underlying the conclusion are: (1) the canister was fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel; (2) the corrosion behavior of the canister material, including base metal, fusion zones and heat effected zones, is typified by literature data for, and industrial experience with, 300 series austenitic stainless steels; and (3) the glass-metal crevices created during the pouring operation will not alter the basic corrosion resistance of the steel although such crevices might serve as sites for the initiation of minor amounts of corrosion on the canister wall

  2. Enzymology under global change: organic nitrogen turnover in alpine and sub-Arctic soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weedon, J.T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding global change impacts on the globally important carbon storage in alpine, Arctic and sub-Arctic soils requires knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the balance between plant primary productivity and decomposition. Given that nitrogen availability limits both processes, understanding

  3. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alatalo, J.M.; Jägerbrand, A.K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, December (2015), s. 18161 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Collembola * alpine subarctic sites * experimental warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  4. Enzymology under global change: organic nitrogen turnover in alpine and sub-Arctic soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weedon, J.T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding global change impacts on the globally important carbon storage in alpine, Arctic and sub-Arctic soils requires knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the balance between plant primary productivity and decomposition. Given that nitrogen availability limits both processes, understanding

  5. Field investigation and analysis of buried pipelines under various seismic environments. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1982-08-01

    A research project is proposed in which the behavior of oil, water, sewer, and gas pipelines under various seismic environments, including seismic shaking and large ground deformation would be investigated. It is suggested that the investigation be conducted in the Beijing and Tangshan areas. Three major hazards to underground pipelines are identified: the effect of wave propagation; ground rupture and differential movement along fault lines; and soil liquefaction induced by ground shaking. Ruptures or severe distortions of the pipe are most often associated with fault movements, landslides, or ground squeeze associated with fault zones. A model is presented to evaluate the general longitudinal responses of buried pipelines, both segmented and continuous, subjected to ground shakings and vibrations. The results of these tests will be used to develop aseismic codes for buried pipelines.

  6. Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific/technical research environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krossa, Cheryl Delemos [San Francisco Univ. (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.

  7. The scavenging of volatile anesthetic agents in the cardiovascular intensive care unit environment: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickworth, Thomas; Jerath, Angela; DeVine, Rita; Kherani, Nazmin; Wąsowicz, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    The use of volatile-based sedation within critical care environments has been limited by difficulties of drug administration and safety concerns over environment pollution and staff exposure in an intensive care unit (ICU) with no scavenging. The aim of this study was to develop a simple scavenging system to be used with the Anesthesia Conserving Device (AnaConDa(®)) and to determine whether or not ambient concentrations of residual anesthetic are within current acceptable limits. The scavenging system consists of two Deltasorb(®) canisters attached to the ICU ventilator in series. AnaConDa is a miniature vaporizer designed to provide volatile-based sedation within an ICU. The first ten patients recruited into a larger randomized trial assessing outcomes after elective coronary graft bypass surgery were sedated within the cardiac ICU using either isoflurane or sevoflurane. Sedation was guided by the Sedation Agitation Scale, resulting in an end-tidal minimum anesthetic concentration of volatile agent ranging from 0.1-0.3. At one hour post ICU admission, infrared photometric analysis was used to assess environmental contamination at four points along the ventilator circuit and scavenging system and around the patient's head. All measurements taken within the patient's room were below 1 part per million, which satisfies criteria for occupational exposure. This study shows that volatile agents can be administered safely within critical care settings using a simple scavenging system. Our scavenging system used in conjunction with the AnaConDa device reduced the concentration of environmental contamination to a level that is acceptable to Canadian standards and standards in most Western countries and thus conforms to international safety standards. The related clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01151254).

  8. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Arctic and Subarctic Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Arctic and Subarctic Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in arctic and subarctic climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  9. Technical solutions for mitigating adverse impacts on the environment implemented at Deva Thermal Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, Victor; Egyed, Francisc; Manea, Laurean

    2004-01-01

    Situated at the south-west of Transylvania, 9 km from Deva town on the Mures River bank, Deva Power Plant has an installed capacity of 1260 MW, in six 210 MW generation units. Each unit operates with two steam boilers of 330 t/h, and steam rated parameters are 13.72 MPa and 550 deg C. The generated electricity is delivered in the national grid at voltage levels of 200 and 400 kV; there exists also the possibility of delivering electricity to the neighbouring countries through the power line Sibiu - Arad - Szeged. The Power Plant also produces thermal energy. The total installed thermal capacity is 400 MWt. Deva Power Plant was commissioned in three stages. During the first stage, between 1969 and 1971, Units No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 were commissioned, followed by Unit No. 5 in 1977 and by Unit No. 6 in 1980. All main equipment was manufactured in Russia. The main fuel utilised here is hard coal extracted from Valea Jiului basins, with calorific value between 14600 and 18800 kJ/kg. Natural gas is used as a flame support fuel. Deva Power Plant has actually produced 9% to 12% of the total electricity produced in the country and 18% to 25% of the electricity produced on coal. Continuous efforts have been made for the rehabilitation and modernisation of this power plant aiming to improve operational safety whilst equal interest has been paid to mitigating the environmental damage caused by the great size combustion systems. In this paper we present some of the preoccupations concerning earliest as well as prospective actions to be taken to protect the environment and to comply with the relevant standards and laws in force. The major role played by Deva Power Plant within the National Power Grid secured through reliable and steady operation also means undertaking exceptional environmental protection actions, to comply with current requirements. By its comprehensive modernisation programme already in progress, Deva Power Plant focus on the continuous upgrading of their plant in

  10. Developments in uranium resources, production, demand and the environment. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Globalization has led to growing importance of the uranium production industries of the world's developing countries. Uranium supply from these countries could be increasingly important in satisfying worldwide reactor requirements over time. Along with the increasing contribution to worldwide uranium supply, the environmental impact of uranium production in developing countries has come under increasing scrutiny from the nuclear power industry, the end-users of this supply, and from communities impacted by uranium mining and processing. The papers presented at the meeting on 'Developments in Uranium Resources, Production, Demand and the Environment' provide an important overview of uranium production operations and of their environmental consequences in developing countries, as well as offering insight into future production plans and potential. Along with their increasing contribution to worldwide uranium supply, the environmental impact of uranium production in developing countries has come under increasing scrutiny from the nuclear power industry, the end users of this supply, and by communities impacted by uranium mining and processing. Therefore, the environmental consequences of uranium production were included in the meeting agenda as noted in the meeting title, 'Developments in uranium resources, production, demand and the environment'. Accordingly, the papers presented at this meeting are about evenly divided between discussions of known and potential uranium resources and uranium production technology and the environmental impact of uranium mining and processing, its related remediation technology and its costs. Though emphasis is placed on uranium programmes in developing countries, an overview of COGEMA's worldwide activities is also presented. This presentation provides insight into the strategies of arguably the Western world's most integrated and diversified uranium company, including the geographic diversity of its exploration and production

  11. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-01-01

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  12. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Thomas B.

    2002-01-01

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  13. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-03-22

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  14. Technical knowledge assessment in radiology in patients protection in collective environments and more radiosensitive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of X-rays in medical fields has increased significantly in recent years, since various therapeutic procedures can be performed without the need for surgery, which presents the greatest risk to the patient. An example of this increase is the practice of cardiac catheterization, this procedure fluoroscopy is used for placement of central venous catheters and temporary pacemakers, and long-term use increases the risk of exposure to X-rays to the patient, doctor and his assistants. This has been observed with concern by many researchers, since many companies did not fit the standards of radiation protection. This failure can lead to exposure of professionals, patients and caregivers. It is therefore of fundamental importance, the use of personal protective equipment such as aprons and thyroid plumbíferos protectors, for dose reduction produced by the primary and secondary radiation. This study evaluated the knowledge of radiology professionals in Goiânia, on the use of lead apron in collective environments and use of guards in sensitive parts of patients to radiation. Through an information gathering technique based on a questionnaire with closed questions. From dista and focuses on the knowledge of professionals. The results showed that there is a serious deficiency as regards the most radiosensitive organ protection of patients when they are exposed to X-ray beams. (author)

  15. Environment and Economic Growth. Is Technical Change the Key to Decoupling?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeotti, M. [Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between economic growth and pollution is very complex, depending upon a host of different factors. Thus the study of this phenomenon represents a challenging endeavor. While most economics papers begin with theory and support that theory with econometric evidence, the literature on Environmental Kuznets Curves has proceeded in the opposite direction: first developing an empirical observation about the world, and then attempting to supply appropriate theories. A number of papers have aimed at providing the theoretical underpinnings to the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Prominent here is the class of optimal growth models. These are usually studied from the point of view of the analytical conditions that must hold in order to obtain an inverted-U functional relationship between pollution and growth. These models are however seldom confronted with the data. In this paper we take one popular optimal growth model designed for climate change policy analysis and carry out a few simulation exercises with the purpose of characterizing the relationship between economic growth and emissions. In particular, we try to assess the relative contribution of the ingredients of the well-known decomposition of the environment-growth relationship put forth by Grossman (1995): according to it, the presumed inverted-U pattern results from the joint effect of scale, composition, and technology components. We do this focusing on the developed regions of the world and on a global pollutant, CO2 emissions.

  16. Utica Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, David Robert [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Allen, Gerald Robert [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-12-29

    The Ohio State University (OSU) was awarded a contract on October 1, 2014, from the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) to develop the Utica Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory (USEEL) in the Utica-Point Pleasant shale play of the Appalachian Basin. It was designed to be an environmental and technology development lab that would enable the academic, industry, government, and non-governmental organization (NGO) research communities to better understand unconventional oil and gas (UOG) engineering practices and technology to increase production and safety, and decrease environmental effects. Political and economic consequences necessitated changes in project site location and design, from the Ohio State Eastern Agricultural Research Station (EARS) and the Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District (MWCD) in east-central Ohio to a site located at an Energy Corporation of America (ECA) Marcellus drill pad in Greene County, Pennsylvania. Although the overall project progressed little beyond planning and administration before termination on September 18, 2017, significant research and MS or PhD investigations were completed or continue today. An experimental study design for site specific and regional baseline assessments was developed utilizing ecoregions, United States Geological Survey (USGS) Hydraulic Unit Code watersheds, and GIS technology and databases. This can be utilized to build a defensible and scalable management and research framework for UOG investigations that can be extrapolated for predictive and comparative analyses. The most commonly mentioned perceived risks of shale energy development identified in a socioeconomic analysis included impacts to the environment and water resources, traffic and road deterioration, and crime. Economic benefits, such as the windfall wealth to residents, job opportunities, and the demand for hotels and restaurants emerged, as the main positive impact to the community. Preliminary results

  17. [Personal emergency call system based on human vital and system technical parameters in a Smart Home environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampicke, M; Schadow, B; Rossdeutscher, W; Fellbaum, K; Boenick, U

    2002-11-01

    Progress in microtechnology and radio transmission technology has enabled the development of highly reliable emergency-call systems. The present article describes systems that have been specially designed to improve the safety and independence of handicapped and elderly persons living at home. For such persons immediate help in an emergency situation is of crucial importance. The technical state of the art of emergency-call systems specially developed for use by the elderly, is briefly discussed, in particular the well-known radio emergency-call button, with the aid of which an alarm can be activated manually. This system, however, does not offer adequate safety in all emergency situations. Alternative or complementary systems designed to automatically trigger an alarm on the basis of the recording and evaluation of so-called vital parameters, are therefore proposed. In addition, in a smart-home environment with networked devices, further parameters--so-called environment parameters can be used. It is found that the identification of an emergency situation becomes more reliable as the number of parameters employed increases.

  18. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  19. Fluxes of Methane and Carbon Dioxide from a Subarctic Lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jammet, Mathilde Manon

    ) and carbon dioxide (CO2) with the atmosphere. Yet uncertainties in the magnitude and drivers of these fluxes remain, partly due to a lack of direct observations covering all seasons of the year, but also because of the diversity in measurement methods that often miss components of the transport processes......Ongoing climate warming is expected to affect the carbon functioning of subarctic ecosystems. Lakes and wetlands, which are common ecosystems of the high northern latitudes, are of utmost interest in this context because they exchange large amounts of the climate-forcing gases methane (CH4......-out and the release of CH4 and CO2 was established. These results underline the crucial importance of shoulder seasons in the annual carbon emissions from seasonally frozen lakes. Overall, the lake was an important annual source of carbon to the atmosphere, partially compensating the higher, annual sink function...

  20. Hydrology of two slopes in subarctic Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean K.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    1999-11-01

    Two subarctic forested slopes in central Wolf Creek basin, Yukon, were studied in 1996-1997 to determine the seasonal pattern of the hydrologic processes. A south-facing slope has a dense aspen forest on silty soils with seasonal frost only and a north-facing slope has open stands of black spruce and an organic layer on top of clay sediments with permafrost. Snowmelt is advanced by approximately one month on the south-facing slope due to greater radiation receipt. Meltwater infiltrates its seasonally frozen soil with low ice content, recharging the soil moisture reservoir but yielding no lateral surface or subsurface flow. Summer evaporation depletes this recharged moisture and any additional rainfall input, at the expense of surface or subsurface flow. The north-facing slope with an ice rich substrate hinders deep percolation. Snow meltwater is impounded within the organic layer to produce surface runoff in rills and gullies, and subsurface flow along pipes and within the matrix of the organic soil. During the summer, most subsurface flows are confined to the organic layer which has hydraulic conductivities orders of magnitudes larger than the underlying boulder-clay. Evaporation on the north-facing slope declines as both the frost table and the water table descend in the summer. A water balance of the two slopes demonstrates that vertical processes of infiltration and evaporation dominate moisture exchanges on the south-facing slope, whereas the retardation of deep drainage by frost and by clayey soil on the permafrost slope promotes a strong lateral flow component, principally within the organic layer. These results have the important implication that permafrost slopes and organic horizons are the principal controls on streamflow generation in subarctic catchments.

  1. Compositional Stability of the Bacterial Community in a Climate-Sensitive Sub-Arctic Peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, James T; Kowalchuk, George A; Aerts, Rien; Freriks, Stef; Röling, Wilfred F M; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    The climate sensitivity of microbe-mediated soil processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling offers an interesting case for evaluating the corresponding sensitivity of microbial community composition to environmental change. Better understanding of the degree of linkage between functional and compositional stability would contribute to ongoing efforts to build mechanistic models aiming at predicting rates of microbe-mediated processes. We used an amplicon sequencing approach to test if previously observed large effects of experimental soil warming on C and N cycle fluxes (50-100% increases) in a sub-arctic Sphagnum peatland were reflected in changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community. We found that treatments that previously induced changes to fluxes did not associate with changes in the phylogenetic composition of the soil bacterial community. For both DNA- and RNA-based analyses, variation in bacterial communities could be explained by the hierarchy: spatial variation (12-15% of variance explained) > temporal variation (7-11%) > climate treatment (4-9%). We conclude that the bacterial community in this environment is stable under changing conditions, despite the previously observed sensitivity of process rates-evidence that microbe-mediated soil processes can alter without concomitant changes in bacterial communities. We propose that progress in linking soil microbial communities to ecosystem processes can be advanced by further investigating the relative importance of community composition effects versus physico-chemical factors in controlling biogeochemical process rates in different contexts.

  2. Activity and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria along a Norwegian sub-Arctic glacier forefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Rivera, Alejandro; Øvreås, Lise; Wilson, Bryan; Yde, Jacob C; Finster, Kai W

    2018-05-01

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and identification of its sources and sinks is crucial for the reliability of climate model outputs. Although CH4 production and consumption rates have been reported from a broad spectrum of environments, data obtained from glacier forefields are restricted to a few locations. We report the activities of methanotrophic communities and their diversity along a chronosequence in front of a sub-Arctic glacier using high-throughput sequencing and gas flux measurements. CH4 oxidation rates were measured in the field throughout the growing season during three sampling times at eight different sampling points in combination with laboratory incubation experiments. The overall results showed that the methanotrophic community had similar trends of increased CH4 consumption and increased abundance as a function of soil development and time of year. Sequencing results revealed that the methanotrophic community was dominated by a few OTUs and that a short-term increase in CH4 concentration, as performed in the field measurements, altered slightly the relative abundance of the OTUs.

  3. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1 of 2: Technical standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities

  4. pH gradients in the diffusive boundary layer of subarctic macrophytes

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà , Nú ria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Highly productive macrophytes produce diurnal and seasonal cycles in CO concentrations modulated by metabolic activity, which cause discrepancies between pH in the bulk water and near seaweed blades, especially when entering the diffusion boundary layer (DBL). Calcifying epiphytic organisms living in this environment are therefore exposed to a different pH environment than that of the water column. To evaluate the actual pH environment on blade surfaces, we measured the thickness of the DBL and pH gradients within it for six subarctic macrophytes: Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca, Zostera marina, Saccharina longicruris, and Agarum clathratum. We measured pH under laboratory conditions at ambient temperatures (2–3 °C) and slow, stable flow over the blade surface at five light intensities (dark, 30, 50, 100 and 200 µmol photons m s). Boundary layer thickness ranged between 511 and 1632 µm, while the maximum difference in pH (∆pH) between the blade surface and the water column ranged between 0.4 ± 0.14 (average ± SE; Zostera) and 1.2 ± 0.13 (average ± SE; Ulva) pH units. These differences in pH are larger than predictions for pH changes in the bulk water by the end of the century. A simple quadratic model best described the relationship between light intensity and maximum ∆pH, pointing at relatively low optimum PAR of between 28 and 139 µmol photons m s to reach maximum ∆pH. Elevated pH at the blade surface may provide chemical “refugia” for calcifying epiphytic organisms, especially during summer at higher latitudes where photoperiods are long.

  5. pH gradients in the diffusive boundary layer of subarctic macrophytes

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.

    2017-06-20

    Highly productive macrophytes produce diurnal and seasonal cycles in CO concentrations modulated by metabolic activity, which cause discrepancies between pH in the bulk water and near seaweed blades, especially when entering the diffusion boundary layer (DBL). Calcifying epiphytic organisms living in this environment are therefore exposed to a different pH environment than that of the water column. To evaluate the actual pH environment on blade surfaces, we measured the thickness of the DBL and pH gradients within it for six subarctic macrophytes: Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca, Zostera marina, Saccharina longicruris, and Agarum clathratum. We measured pH under laboratory conditions at ambient temperatures (2–3 °C) and slow, stable flow over the blade surface at five light intensities (dark, 30, 50, 100 and 200 µmol photons m s). Boundary layer thickness ranged between 511 and 1632 µm, while the maximum difference in pH (∆pH) between the blade surface and the water column ranged between 0.4 ± 0.14 (average ± SE; Zostera) and 1.2 ± 0.13 (average ± SE; Ulva) pH units. These differences in pH are larger than predictions for pH changes in the bulk water by the end of the century. A simple quadratic model best described the relationship between light intensity and maximum ∆pH, pointing at relatively low optimum PAR of between 28 and 139 µmol photons m s to reach maximum ∆pH. Elevated pH at the blade surface may provide chemical “refugia” for calcifying epiphytic organisms, especially during summer at higher latitudes where photoperiods are long.

  6. Permafrost Thaw increases Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Subarctic Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, C.; Marushchak, M. E.; Lamprecht, R. E.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Lindgren, A.; Mastepanov, M.; Christensen, T. R.; Granlund, L.; Tahvanainen, T.; Martikainen, P. J.; Biasi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost soils in the Arctic are thawing, exposing not only carbon but also large nitrogen stocks. The decomposition of this vast pool of long-term immobile C and N stocks results in the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Among these, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being studied extensively, and gaseous C release from thawing permafrost is known to be substantial. Most recent studies, however, show that Arctic soils may further be a relevant source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). As N2O is almost 300 times more powerful in warming the climate than CO2 based on a 100-yr time horizon, the release of N2O from thawing permafrost could create a significant non-carbon permafrost-climate feedback. To study the effect of permafrost thaw on N2O fluxes, we collected peat mesocosms from a Subarctic permafrost peatland, and subjected these intact soil-plant systems to sequential thawing from the top of the active layer down to the upper permafrost layer. Measurements of N2O fluxes were coupled with detailed soil analyses and process studies. Since N2O fluxes are highly dependent on moisture conditions and vegetation cover, we applied two distinct moisture treatments (dry vs. wet) and simulated permafrost thaw in vegetated as well as in naturally bare mesocosms. Under dry conditions, permafrost thaw clearly increased N2O emissions. We observed the largest post-thaw emissions from bare peat surfaces, a typical landform in subarctic peatlands previously identified as hot spots for Arctic N2O emissions. There, permafrost thaw caused a five-fold increase in emissions (0.56 vs. 2.81 mg N2O m-2 d-1). While water-logged conditions suppressed N2O emissions, the presence of vegetation lowered, but did not prevent post-thaw N2O release. Based on these findings, we show that one fourth of the Arctic land area could be vulnerable for N2O emissions when permafrost thaws. Our results demonstrate that Arctic N2O emissions may be larger than

  7. Ecohydrological Controls on Intra-Basin Alpine Subarctic Water Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Ziegler, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    In the mountainous Canadian subarctic, elevation gradients control the disposition of vegetation, permafrost, and characteristics of the soil profile. How intra-basin ecosystems combine to control catchment-scale water and biogeochimcal cycling is uncertain. To this end, a multi-year ecohydrological investigation was undertaken in Granger Basin (GB), a 7.6 km2 sub-basin of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. GB was divided into four sub-basins based on the dominant vegetation and permafrost status, and the timing and magnitude of hydrological processes were compared using hydrometric and hydrochemical methods. Vegetation plays an important role in end-of-winter snow accumulation as snow redistribution by wind is controlled by roughness length. In sub-basins of GB with tall shrubs, snow accumulation is enhanced compared with areas of short shrubs and tundra vegetation. The timing of melt was staggered with elevation, although melt-rates were similar among the sub-basins. Runoff was enhanced at the expense of infiltration in tall shrub areas due to high snow water equivalent and antecedent soil moisture. In the high-elevation tundra sub-basin, thin soils with cold ground temperatures resulted in increased surface runoff. For the freshet period, the lower and upper sub-basins accounted for 81 % of runoff while accounting for 58 % of the total basin area. Two-component isotopic hydrograph separation revealed that during melt, pre-event water dominated in all sub-basins, yet those with greater permafrost disposition and taller shrubs had increased event-water. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spiked prior to peak freshet in each sub-basin except for the highest with thin soils, and was associated with flushing of surficial organic soils. For the post-melt period, all sub-basins have similar runoff contributions. Solute and stable isotope data indicate that in sub-basins dominated by permafrost, supra-permafrost runoff pathways predominate as flow

  8. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-11-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

  9. UDASH – Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behrendt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available UDASH (Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography is a unified and high-quality temperature and salinity data set for the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar seas north of 65° N for the period 1980–2015. The archive aims at including all publicly available data and so far consists of 288 532 oceanographic profiles measured mainly with conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD probes, bottles, mechanical thermographs and expendable thermographs. The data were collected by ships, ice-tethered profilers, profiling floats and other platforms. To achieve a uniform quality level, suitable for a wide range of oceanographic analyses, approximately 74 million single measurements of temperature and salinity were thoroughly quality checked. A large number of duplicate and erroneous profiles were detected and not included in the archive. Data outliers were flagged for quick identification. The final archive provides a unique and simple way of accessing most of the available temperature and salinity data for the Arctic Ocean and can be downloaded from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.872931.

  10. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  11. Lagrangian study of transport of subarctic water across the Subpolar Front in the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prants, Sergey V.; Uleysky, Michael Yu.; Budyansky, Maxim V.

    2018-05-01

    The southward near-surface transport of transformed subarctic water across the Subpolar Front in the Japan Sea is simulated and analyzed based on altimeter data from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2017. Computing Lagrangian indicators for a large number of synthetic particles, advected by the AVISO velocity field, we find preferred transport pathways across the Subpolar Front. The southward transport occurs mainly in the central part of the frontal zone due to suitable dispositions of mesoscale eddies promoting propagation of subarctic water to the south. It is documented with the help of Lagrangian origin and L-maps and verified by the tracks of available drifters. The transport of transformed subarctic water to the south is compared with the transport of transformed subtropical water to the north simulated by Prants et al. (Nonlinear Process Geophys 24(1):89-99, 2017c).

  12. Parallel structure among environmental gradients and three trophic levels in a subarctic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, Suzann G.; Piatt, John F.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Parrish, Julia K.

    2005-07-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal variability in the physical environment of a subarctic estuary, and examined concurrent patterns of chlorophyll α abundance (fluorescence), and zooplankton and forage fish community structure. Surveys were conducted in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, during late July and early August from 1997 through 1999. Principle components analysis (PCA) revealed that spatial heterogeneity in the physical oceanographic environment of lower Cook Inlet could be modeled as three marine-estuarine gradients characterized by temperature, salinity, bottom depth, and turbidity. The gradients persisted from 1997 through 1999, and PCA explained 68% to 92% of the variance in physical oceanography for each gradient-year combination. Correlations between chlorophyll α abundance and distribution and the PCA axes were weak. Chlorophyll was reduced by turbidity, and low levels occurred in areas with high levels of suspended sediments. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was used to order the sample sites based on species composition and to order the zooplankton and forage fish taxa based on similarities among sample sites for each gradient-year. Correlations between the structure of the physical environment (PCA axis 1) and zooplankton community structure (DCA axis 1) were strong ( r = 0.43-0.86) in all years for the three marine-estuarine gradients, suggesting that zooplankton community composition was structured by the physical environment. The physical environment (PCA) and forage fish community structure (DCA) were weakly correlated in all years along Gradient 2, defined by halocline intensity and surface temperature and salinity, even though these physical variables were more important for defining zooplankton habitats. However, the physical environment (PCA) and forage fish community structure (DCA) were strongly correlated along the primary marine-estuarine gradient (#1) in 1997 ( r = 0.87) and 1998 ( r = 0.82). The correlation was poor ( r = 0.32) in

  13. Information management architecture for an integrated computing environment for the Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program, Volume 3, Interim technical architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This third volume of the Information Management Architecture for an Integrated Computing Environment for the Environmental Restoration Program--the Interim Technical Architecture (TA) (referred to throughout the remainder of this document as the ER TA)--represents a key milestone in establishing a coordinated information management environment in which information initiatives can be pursued with the confidence that redundancy and inconsistencies will be held to a minimum. This architecture is intended to be used as a reference by anyone whose responsibilities include the acquisition or development of information technology for use by the ER Program. The interim ER TA provides technical guidance at three levels. At the highest level, the technical architecture provides an overall computing philosophy or direction. At this level, the guidance does not address specific technologies or products but addresses more general concepts, such as the use of open systems, modular architectures, graphical user interfaces, and architecture-based development. At the next level, the technical architecture provides specific information technology recommendations regarding a wide variety of specific technologies. These technologies include computing hardware, operating systems, communications software, database management software, application development software, and personal productivity software, among others. These recommendations range from the adoption of specific industry or Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) standards to the specification of individual products. At the third level, the architecture provides guidance regarding implementation strategies for the recommended technologies that can be applied to individual projects and to the ER Program as a whole

  14. Non-technical skills evaluation in the critical care air ambulance environment: introduction of an adapted rating instrument--an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julia A; Powell, David M C; Psirides, Alex; Hathaway, Karyn; Aldington, Sarah; Haney, Michael F

    2016-03-08

    In the isolated and dynamic health-care setting of critical care air ambulance transport, the quality of clinical care is strongly influenced by non-technical skills such as anticipating, recognising and understanding, decision making, and teamwork. However there are no published reports identifying or applying a non-technical skills framework specific to an intensive care air ambulance setting. The objective of this study was to adapt and evaluate a non-technical skills rating framework for the air ambulance clinical environment. In the first phase of the project the anaesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS) framework was adapted to the air ambulance setting, using data collected directly from clinician groups, published literature, and field observation. In the second phase experienced and inexperienced inter-hospital transport clinicians completed a simulated critical care air transport scenario, and their non-technical skills performance was independently rated by two blinded assessors. Observed and self-rated general clinical performance ratings were also collected. Rank-based statistical tests were used to examine differences in the performance of experienced and inexperienced clinicians, and relationships between different assessment approaches and assessors. The framework developed during phase one was referred to as an aeromedical non-technical skills framework, or AeroNOTS. During phase two 16 physicians from speciality training programmes in intensive care, emergency medicine and anaesthesia took part in the clinical simulation study. Clinicians with inter-hospital transport experience performed more highly than those without experience, according to both AeroNOTS non-technical skills ratings (p = 0.001) and general performance ratings (p = 0.003). Self-ratings did not distinguish experienced from inexperienced transport clinicians (p = 0.32) and were not strongly associated with either observed general performance (r(s) = 0.4, p = 0

  15. Technical basis for the initiation and cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels in elevated temperature PWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Section 11 Working Group on Flaw Evaluation of the ASME B and PV Code Committee is considering a Code Case to allow the determination of the conditions under which environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels could occur in PWR primary environments. This paper provides the technical support basis for such an EAC Initiation and Cessation Criterion by reviewing the theoretical and experimental information in support of the proposed Code Case

  16. Technical basis for the initiation and cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels in elevated temperature PWR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, L.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Section 11 Working Group on Flaw Evaluation of the ASME B and PV Code Committee is considering a Code Case to allow the determination of the conditions under which environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels could occur in PWR primary environments. This paper provides the technical support basis for such an EAC Initiation and Cessation Criterion by reviewing the theoretical and experimental information in support of the proposed Code Case.

  17. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  18. Metagenomic Insights Into the Microbial Community and Nutrient Cycling in the Western Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingdong Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP, where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales, and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively. In addition, orders affiliated to Spingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were crucial for sulfate reduction and abundant at 3000 m, whereas orders affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, which harbored the most sulfate reduction genes, were abundant at 1000 m. Additionally, when compared with the East Kamchatka Current, the prokaryotes in the Oyashio Current were likely to consume more energy for synthesizing cellular components. Also, genes encoding iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis proteins were in low abundance, indicating that the iron was not a limiting factor in the Oyashio current. In contrast, in the East Kamchatka Current, prokaryotes were more likely to directly utilize the amino acids and absorb iron from the environment. Overall, our data indicated that the transformation from the East Kamchatka Current to the Oyashio Current reshapes not only the composition of microbial community, but also the function of the metabolic processes. These results extended our knowledge of the microbial composition and potential metabolism in the WSP.

  19. Metagenomic Insights Into the Microbial Community and Nutrient Cycling in the Western Subarctic Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingdong; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Cheung, Shunyan; Suzuki, Koji; Liu, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP), where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales , and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively. In addition, orders affiliated to Spingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were crucial for sulfate reduction and abundant at 3000 m, whereas orders affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria , which harbored the most sulfate reduction genes, were abundant at 1000 m. Additionally, when compared with the East Kamchatka Current, the prokaryotes in the Oyashio Current were likely to consume more energy for synthesizing cellular components. Also, genes encoding iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis proteins were in low abundance, indicating that the iron was not a limiting factor in the Oyashio current. In contrast, in the East Kamchatka Current, prokaryotes were more likely to directly utilize the amino acids and absorb iron from the environment. Overall, our data indicated that the transformation from the East Kamchatka Current to the Oyashio Current reshapes not only the composition of microbial community, but also the function of the metabolic processes. These results extended our knowledge of the microbial composition and potential metabolism in the WSP.

  20. Metagenomic Insights Into the Microbial Community and Nutrient Cycling in the Western Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingdong; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Cheung, Shunyan; Suzuki, Koji; Liu, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP), where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales, and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively. In addition, orders affiliated to Spingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were crucial for sulfate reduction and abundant at 3000 m, whereas orders affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, which harbored the most sulfate reduction genes, were abundant at 1000 m. Additionally, when compared with the East Kamchatka Current, the prokaryotes in the Oyashio Current were likely to consume more energy for synthesizing cellular components. Also, genes encoding iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis proteins were in low abundance, indicating that the iron was not a limiting factor in the Oyashio current. In contrast, in the East Kamchatka Current, prokaryotes were more likely to directly utilize the amino acids and absorb iron from the environment. Overall, our data indicated that the transformation from the East Kamchatka Current to the Oyashio Current reshapes not only the composition of microbial community, but also the function of the metabolic processes. These results extended our knowledge of the microbial composition and potential metabolism in the WSP. PMID:29670596

  1. Microbial biomass dynamics dominate N cycle responses to warming in a sub-arctic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, J. T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G. K.; van Bodegom, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    The balance of primary production and decomposition in sub-arctic peatlands may shift with climate change. Nitrogen availability will modulate this shift, but little is known about the drivers of soil nitrogen dynamics in these environments, and how they are influenced by rising soil temperatures. We used a long-term open top chamber warming experiment in Abisko, Sweden, to test for the interactive effects of spring warming, summer warming and winter snow addition on soil organic and inorganic nitrogen fluxes, potential activities of carbon and nitrogen cycle enzymes, and the structure of the soil-borne microbial communities. Summer warming increased the flux of soil organic nitrogen over the growing season, while simultaneously causing a seasonal decrease in microbial biomass, suggesting that N flux is driven by large late-season dieback of microbes. This change in N cycle dynamics was not reflected in any of the measured potential enzyme activities. Moreover, the soil microbial community structure was stable across treatments, suggesting non-specific microbial dieback. To further test whether the observed patterns were driven by direct temperature effects or indirect effects (via microbial biomass dynamics), we conducted follow-up controlled experiments in soil mesocosms. Experimental additions of dead microbial cells had stronger effects on N pool sizes and enzyme activities than either plant litter addition or a 5 °C alteration in incubation temperatures. Peat respiration was positively affected by both substrate addition and higher incubation temperatures, but the temperature-only effect was not sufficient to account for the increases in respiration observed in previous field experiments. We conclude that warming effects on peatland N cycling (and to some extent C cycling) are dominated by indirect effects, acting through alterations to the seasonal flux of microbe-derived organic matter. We propose that climate change models of soil carbon and nitrogen

  2. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  3. Tillage and straw management affect PM10 emission potential in subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of PM10 (particulates =10 um in diameter regulated by many nations as an air pollutant) from agricultural soils can impact regional air quality. Little information exists that describes the potential for PM10 and airborne dust emissions from subarctic soils or agricultural soils subject to ...

  4. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  5. Wind-driven circulation in the subarctic north Pacific using altimeter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    of the wind stress curl are also related to the variation of the subarctic gyre. Though the correlation .... mum in spring, accounting for 41% of all the vari- ance. This estimate ..... plays an important role as a western boundary and it is also located ...

  6. Moisture effects on temperature sensitivity of CO2 exchange in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Lotte; Christensen, TR; Mastepanov, M

    2004-01-01

    Carbon fluxes between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere have received increased attention in recent years due to the impact they have on climate. In order to investigate independently how soil moisture and temperature control carbon fluxes into and out of a dry subarctic dwarf shrub dominated...

  7. Molecular analyses reveal high species diversity of trematodes in a sub-Arctic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Roháčováa, Jana; Knudsen, Rune; Kuhn, Jesper A.; Henriksen, Eirik H.; Siwertsson, Anna; Shaw, Jenny C.; Kuris, Armand M.; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae). Sampling potential invertebrate hosts allowed matching of sequence data for different stages, thus achieving molecular elucidation of trematode life-cycles and exploration of host-parasite interactions. Phylogenetic analyses also helped identify three major mollusc intermediate hosts (Radix balthica, Pisidium casertanum and Sphaerium sp.) in the lake. Our findings increase the known trematode diversity at the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, showing that digenean diversity is high in this otherwise depauperate sub-Arctic freshwater ecosystem, and indicating that sub-Arctic and Arctic ecosystems may be characterised by unique trematode assemblages.

  8. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  9. Anatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake – calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Nash

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcified coralline red algae are ecologically key organisms in photic benthic environments. In recent decades they have become important climate proxies, especially in the Arctic and subarctic. It has been widely accepted that magnesium content in coralline tissues is directly a function of ambient temperature, and this is a primary basis for their value as a climate archive. In this paper we show for two genera of Arctic/subarctic corallines, Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve, that previously unrecognised complex tissue and cell wall anatomy bears a variety of basal signatures for Mg content, with the accepted temperature relationship being secondary. The interfilament carbonate has lower Mg than adjacent cell walls and the hypothallial cell walls have the highest Mg content. The internal structure of the hypothallial cell walls can differ substantially from the perithallial radial cell wall structure. Using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy and etching we expose the nanometre-scale structures within the cell walls and interfilament. Fibrils concentrate at the internal and external edges of the cell walls. Fibrils  ∼  10 nm thick appear to thread through the radial Mg-calcite grains and form concentric bands within the cell wall. This banding may control Mg distribution within the cell. Similar fibril banding is present in the hypothallial cell walls but not the interfilament. Climate archiving with corallines can achieve greater precision with recognition of these parameters.

  10. Anatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake - calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Merinda C.; Adey, Walter

    2018-02-01

    Calcified coralline red algae are ecologically key organisms in photic benthic environments. In recent decades they have become important climate proxies, especially in the Arctic and subarctic. It has been widely accepted that magnesium content in coralline tissues is directly a function of ambient temperature, and this is a primary basis for their value as a climate archive. In this paper we show for two genera of Arctic/subarctic corallines, Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve, that previously unrecognised complex tissue and cell wall anatomy bears a variety of basal signatures for Mg content, with the accepted temperature relationship being secondary. The interfilament carbonate has lower Mg than adjacent cell walls and the hypothallial cell walls have the highest Mg content. The internal structure of the hypothallial cell walls can differ substantially from the perithallial radial cell wall structure. Using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy and etching we expose the nanometre-scale structures within the cell walls and interfilament. Fibrils concentrate at the internal and external edges of the cell walls. Fibrils ˜ 10 nm thick appear to thread through the radial Mg-calcite grains and form concentric bands within the cell wall. This banding may control Mg distribution within the cell. Similar fibril banding is present in the hypothallial cell walls but not the interfilament. Climate archiving with corallines can achieve greater precision with recognition of these parameters.

  11. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Impact of Future Climate on Sub-Arctic Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endalamaw, A. M.; Bolton, W. R.; Young-Robertson, J. M.; Morton, D.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2016-12-01

    Projected future climate will have a significant impact on the hydrology of interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds, directly though the changes in precipitation and temperature patterns, and indirectly through the cryospheric and ecological impacts. Although the latter is the dominant factor controlling the hydrological processes in the interior Alaska sub-arctic, it is often overlooked in many climate change impact studies. In this study, we aim to quantify and compare the direct and indirect impact of the projected future climate on the hydrology of the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) meso-scale hydrological model will be implemented to simulate the hydrological processes, including runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture dynamics in the Chena River Basin (area = 5400km2), located in the interior Alaska sub-arctic region. Permafrost and vegetation distribution will be derived from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Model (LPJ) model, respectively. All models will be calibrated and validated using historical data. The Scenario Network for Alaskan and Arctic Planning (SNAP) 5-model average projected climate data products will be used as forcing data for each of these models. The direct impact of climate change on hydrology is estimated using surface parameterization derived from the present day permafrost and vegetation distribution, and future climate forcing from SNAP projected climate data products. Along with the projected future climate, outputs of GIPL and LPJ will be incorporated into the VIC model to estimate the indirect and overall impact of future climate on the hydrology processes in the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. Finally, we will present the potential hydrological and ecological changes by the end of the 21st century.

  12. Characterization of subarctic vegetation using ground based remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, D.; Garnello, A.; Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Herrick, C.; Anderson, S. M.; Crill, P. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Stordalen mire is located at 68°21'N and 19°02'E in the Swedish subarctic. Climate monitoring has revealed a warming trend spanning the past 150 years affecting the mires ability to hold stable palsa/hummock mounds. The micro-topography of the landscape has begun to degrade into thaw ponds changing the vegetation cover from ombrothrophic to minerotrophic. Hummocks are ecologically important due to their ability to act as a carbon sinks. Thaw ponds and sphagnum rich transitional zones have been documented as sources of atmospheric CH4. An objective of this project is to determine if a high resolution three band camera (RGB) and a RGNIR camera could detect differences in vegetation over five different site types. Species composition was collected for 50 plots with ten repetitions for each site type: palsa/hummock, tall shrub, semi-wet, tall graminoid, and wet. Sites were differentiated based on dominating species and features consisting of open water presence, sphagnum spp. cover, graminoid spp. cover, or the presence of dry raised plateaus/mounds. A pole based camera mount was used to collect images at a height of ~2.44m from the ground. The images were cropped in post-processing to fit a one-square meter quadrat. Texture analysis was performed on all images, including entropy, lacunarity, and angular second momentum. Preliminary results suggested that site type influences the number of species present. The p-values for the ability to predict site type using a t-test range from use of a stepwise regression of texture variables, actual vs. predicted percent of vegetation coverage provided R squared values of 0.73, 0.71, 0.67, and 0.89 for C. bigelowii, R. chamaemorus, Sphagnum spp., and open water respectively. These data have provided some support to the notion that texture analyses can be used for classification of mire site types. Future work will involve scaling up from the 50 plots through the use of data collected from two unmanned aerial systems (UAS), as

  13. On the use of mulching to mitigate permafrost thaw due to linear disturbances in sub-arctic peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence or absence of permafrost significantly influences the hydrology and ecology of northern watersheds. Resource exploration activities are currently having noticeable effects on hydrological and ecological processes in sub-arctic peatlands. Disturbances such as seismic cutlines can result ...

  14. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Monday 9 February 2004 From 10:00 to 12:00 - IT Auditorium - bldg. 31, 3rd floor ANSOFT High-Frequency Seminar David Prestaux, Application Engineer, ANSOFT F-78535 BUC, France This Technical Training seminar will present two Ansoft application products: Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer. Ansoft HFSS makes use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate field solutions from first principles. It can accurately predict all high-frequency behaviours such as dispersion, mode conversion, and losses due to materials and radiation. Ansoft Designer is a suite of design tools to fully integrate high-frequency, physics-based electromagnetic simulations into a seamless system-level simulation environment. Ansoft Designer uses a simple interface to give complete control over every design task, by a method allowing multiple solvers, Solver on Demand. • Introduction • Overview of the Ansoft Total solution • Ansoft HFSS 9...

  15. Impacts of Climate Change Induced Vegetation Responses on BVOC Emissions from Subarctic Heath Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valolahti, Hanna Maritta

    The role of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affecting Earths’ climate system is one of the greatest uncertainties when modelling the global climate change. BVOCs presence in the atmosphere can have both positive and negative climate feedback mechanisms when they involve atmospheric...... chemistry and physics. Vegetation is the main source of BVOCs. Their production is directly linked to temperature and the foliar biomass. On global scale, vegetation in subarctic and arctic regions has been modeled to have only minor contribution to annual total BVOC emissions. In these regions cold...... temperature has been regulating annual plant biomass production, but ongoing global warming is more pronounced in these regions than what the global average is. This may increase the importance of subarctic and arctic vegetation as a source of BVOC emissions in near future. This thesis aims to increase...

  16. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O2 concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and ...

  17. Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale

  18. Molecular analyses reveal high species diversity of trematodes in a sub-Arctic lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Roháčová, Jana; Knudsen, R.; Kuhn, J. A.; Henriksen, E. H.; Siwertsson, A.; Shaw, J. C.; Kuris, A. M.; Amundsen, P.-A.; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, K. D.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2017), s. 327-345 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14198S; GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode diversity * intermediate hosts * phylogeny * mitochondrial DNA * nuclear DNA * Lake Takvatn * Norway * Sub-Arctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016

  19. Pilot testing of environment-friendly low-emission alternative drive components for city buses. Phase 1. Technical final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doemeland, H.; Haase, G.; Sarnes, J.; Schultheis, S.; Schuenemann, M.; Strauss, A.; Voss, K.; Aepler, E.; Stachel, K.; Wolter, M.; Lenz, W.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes pilot tests of environment-friendly, low-emission city buses with alternative drive systems. The following problems are discussed: Natural gas as primary energy source, natural gas drives, safety requirements, measurement and testing technology for natural gas engines, environmental effects, operating concepts, operating cost. (HW) [de

  20. Evaluation of the technical performance of three different commercial digital breast tomosynthesis systems in the clinical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Ruiz, A.; Castillo, M.; Garayoa, J.; Chevalier, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to research and evaluate the performance of three different digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems in the clinical environment (Siemens Mammomat Inspiration, Hologic Selenia Dimensions, and Fujifilm Amulet Innovality). The characterization included the study of the

  1. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    -gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site......This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy...... Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace...

  2. Allochthonous Carbon--a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Rowe, O F; Paczkowska, J; Legrand, C; Andersson, A

    2016-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60% of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2%. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60%. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  3. Estimation of permafrost thawing rates in a sub-arctic catchment using recession flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lyon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost thawing is likely to change the flow pathways taken by water as it moves through arctic and sub-arctic landscapes. The location and distribution of these pathways directly influence the carbon and other biogeochemical cycling in northern latitude catchments. While permafrost thawing due to climate change has been observed in the arctic and sub-arctic, direct observations of permafrost depth are difficult to perform at scales larger than a local scale. Using recession flow analysis, it may be possible to detect and estimate the rate of permafrost thawing based on a long-term streamflow record. We demonstrate the application of this approach to the sub-arctic Abiskojokken catchment in northern Sweden. Based on recession flow analysis, we estimate that permafrost in this catchment may be thawing at an average rate of about 0.9 cm/yr during the past 90 years. This estimated thawing rate is consistent with direct observations of permafrost thawing rates, ranging from 0.7 to 1.3 cm/yr over the past 30 years in the region.

  4. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  5. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ``Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin`` project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  6. Final Technical Report: Sparse Grid Scenario Generation and Interior Algorithms for Stochastic Optimization in a Parallel Computing Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, Sanjay [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-09-07

    The support from this grant resulted in seven published papers and a technical report. Two papers are published in SIAM J. on Optimization [87, 88]; two papers are published in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems [77, 78]; one paper is published in Smart Grid [79]; one paper is published in Computational Optimization and Applications [44] and one in INFORMS J. on Computing [67]). The works in [44, 67, 87, 88] were funded primarily by this DOE grant. The applied papers in [77, 78, 79] were also supported through a subcontract from the Argonne National Lab. We start by presenting our main research results on the scenario generation problem in Sections 1–2. We present our algorithmic results on interior point methods for convex optimization problems in Section 3. We describe a new ‘central’ cutting surface algorithm developed for solving large scale convex programming problems (as is the case with our proposed research) with semi-infinite number of constraints in Section 4. In Sections 5–6 we present our work on two application problems of interest to DOE.

  7. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300 % over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were  ∼  40–60 % smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq and various biomass burning tracers (BBt across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI  =  (1∕3 × dln(Nliq∕dln(BBt to be  ∼  0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content ( ∼  0.02 g m−3 and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm−3 in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W m−2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the

  8. Contribution of CNESTEN to the developpement of analytical nuclear and conventional technic and their applications to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounakhla, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In CNESTEN (National Center for Energy Sciences and Nuclear Techniques), the NAA is considered a main activity to be developed around the reactor Triga Mark 2 (2 MW) of CEN (Center for Nuclear Studies ) of Maamoura. This method allows determining 40 to 50 elements, many of them affect the environment (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, selenium, etc. ...). It also allows the determination of important elements such as sodium, chlorine and potassium, and many lanthanides. It presents many advantages and is applied in various areas, however, and as it is the case for any analysis method, it has analytical limits. To supplement this method and then allowing to cover a range analytical widest possible in various matrices, CNESTEN has already installed 4 analytical techniques: fluorescence-X Energy Dispersive (ED-XRF), fluorescence-X dispersion wavelength (WD-XRF), SAA and PCI-SEO. For the AAN, the AAN instrumental is already operational while the technique based on the Prompt Gammas is being developed with the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). Using reactors of Pierre Sue Laboratories (Saclay) in France and Jozef Stefan Institute in Slovenia for the AAN and analytical techniques available in CNESTEN and in partner universities in France and Spain, many projects and studies research has been realized in the field of environment and geochemistry, that is in collaboration with national and/or foreign partners [fr

  9. Meeting energy demand in a developing economy without damaging the environment. A case study in Sabah, Malaysia, from technical, environmental and economic perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Siong Lee; Lim, Yun Seng [Department of Physical Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tunku Abdul Rahman University (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    The challenges faced by the developing countries are unique in that they need to meet the increasing energy demands for their economic growths at a competitive price without damaging the environments. In this paper, a case study on the electricity demand issue in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented to investigate potential solutions in addressing this current need for a typical developing economy from the technical, economical and environmental perspectives. Sabah, one of the 13 states in Malaysia, is currently experiencing a serious power shortage, especially at the east coast. A 300 MW coal plant is proposed by the electricity utility company. However, the proposal has been rejected in the past several years due to the negative environmental impacts of the plant. In this paper, a number of alternative solutions were evaluated and proposed with respect to the viability of technologies, financial return and minimum environmental impact in terms of GHG emission. (author)

  10. Meeting energy demand in a developing economy without damaging the environment-A case study in Sabah, Malaysia, from technical, environmental and economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Siong Lee; Lim, Yun Seng

    2010-01-01

    The challenges faced by the developing countries are unique in that they need to meet the increasing energy demands for their economic growths at a competitive price without damaging the environments. In this paper, a case study on the electricity demand issue in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented to investigate potential solutions in addressing this current need for a typical developing economy from the technical, economical and environmental perspectives. Sabah, one of the 13 states in Malaysia, is currently experiencing a serious power shortage, especially at the east coast. A 300 MW coal plant is proposed by the electricity utility company. However, the proposal has been rejected in the past several years due to the negative environmental impacts of the plant. In this paper, a number of alternative solutions were evaluated and proposed with respect to the viability of technologies, financial return and minimum environmental impact in terms of GHG emission.

  11. Open-Source Integrated Design-Analysis Environment For Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling & Simulation Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Patrick [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2017-01-30

    The framework created through the Open-Source Integrated Design-Analysis Environment (IDAE) for Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling & Simulation grant has simplify and democratize advanced modeling and simulation in the nuclear energy industry that works on a range of nuclear engineering applications. It leverages millions of investment dollars from the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy for modeling and simulation of light water reactors and the Office of Nuclear Energy's research and development. The IDEA framework enhanced Kitware’s Computational Model Builder (CMB) while leveraging existing open-source toolkits and creating a graphical end-to-end umbrella guiding end-users and developers through the nuclear energy advanced modeling and simulation lifecycle. In addition, the work deliver strategic advancements in meshing and visualization for ensembles.

  12. Comparative biochemistry and physiology of iron-respiring bacteria from acidic and neutral-pH environments: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, T S

    2009-04-07

    Acidophilic dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) are now being detected in a variety of ‘extreme’ low-pH, radionuclide- and heavy-metal contaminated habitats where Fe(III) reduction is taking place, and may represent a significant proportion of metal-transforming organisms in these environments. Acidiphilium cryptum is our model organism, a facultative iron-respiring Alphaproteobacterium. Major findings of this project have been 1) Discovery of novel outer-membrane and periplasmic cytochromes c in acidophiles that are reactive with Fe and Cr, 2) Discovery of Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms in acidophiles, mediated by c-type cytochromes and other reductase activity, 3) Development of enzyme detection methods specific for Cr-reducing enzymes, 4) Characterization of biofilm formation in A. cryptum, and 5) Annotation of the Acidiphilium cryptum genome (Magnuson, Kusel, and Cummings, DOE-JGI 2005-2006). Two manuscripts and one book chapter have been published, and several more mauscripts are prepared for submission.

  13. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  14. Three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, as a possible paratenic host for salmonid nematodes in a subarctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braicovich, Paola E; Kuhn, Jesper A; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Marcogliese, David J

    2016-03-01

    In Takvatn, a subarctic lake in northern Norway, 35 of 162 three-spined sticklebacks examined were infected with 106 specimens of third-stage larvae of Philonema oncorhynchi. The prevalence and mean intensity of P. oncorhynchi were 10 % and 2.0 in 2013 and 24 % and 3.0 in 2014, respectively. A single specimen of Cystidicola farionis was found in an additional sample. While the latter is considered an accidental infection, three-spined sticklebacks may function as paratenic hosts of P. oncorhynchi, potentially enhancing its transmission to salmonids due to their central role in the lacustrine food web of this subarctic lake.

  15. Sakhalin 2, phase 2 project : meeting the Arctic challenge in a sub-Arctic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, A.; Gerges, A.; Efthymiou, M.; Winkler, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sakhalin Energy's objective is to commercially develop, operate and market the hydrocarbon resources and associated infrastructure governed by the Sakhalin 2 licenses for the sustainable benefit of shareholders, the Russian Federation, the Sakhalin Oblast and the wider community. This presentation discussed Sakhalin Energy's holdings including its investment company and hydrocarbon projects in eastern Russia. The Sakhalin area is a remote island that lacks infrastructure, has a low population density, with a rich onshore and offshore wildlife. It is a seismically active area, with seasonal operating windows, drifting pack ice from December to June, waves up to 18 metre maximum height, and frequent fog in spring and summer. The temperature also varies from 28 degrees Celsius to -40 degrees Celsius. The presentation also addressed the rerouting of offshore pipelines to ensure the least possible disturbance to western gray whale migration. Several photographs and illustrations of the phase 1 project were presented. Open water conditions were also illustrated. The phase 2 project was then outlined. This included illustrations of the platform, plant and export terminal, and onshore processing facility. Other photographs that were shown in the presentation included the offshore pipeline installation; a view of the shore approach to the pipeline installation; oil spill response; and escape, evacuation, and response. The design challenges and design philosophy of the project were also identified. The presentation concluded with a discussion of ice loading and platform response. figs

  16. Radioactive foodchains in the subarctic environment. Progress report, August 15, 1975--August 14, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1976-05-01

    Cesium-137 is accumulated in the foodchain lichen-reindeer-man causing high body burdens in Lapps who have reindeer meat as staple food. A group of Finnish Lapps has been whole body counted for 137 Cs annually since 1961. Results of the measurements made in April 1976 show 18 percent decrease in 137 Cs body burdens from the previous year. A dietary study confirmed that there was no mentionable change in the total amount of reindeer meat consumed although winter consumption has slightly decreased and summer consumption increased in recent years. Plutonium analyses of stockpiled lichen and reindeer samples from 1960 to 1973 were begun in 1973; since then the sampling has continued. Lichen had 200 pCi per kg dry weight in 1963 to 1964, 100 pCi/kg in 1966 to 1970, 20 pCi/kg in 1973 to 1975. Biological half-time of plutonium in lichen is 2 years. Reindeer liver contained about 20 pCi per kg fresh weight in 1963, 2 pCi in 1973. The ratio of plutonium in liver to its lifelong total intake gave a lower limit to absorption in reindeer. Of bones, plutonium concentration is highest in teeth, medium high in sternum, vertebra and humerus, and lowest in solid long bones. Human autopsy samples gave for lungs 0.19 liver 0.02 and bone 0.09 pCi 239 240 Pu per kg of wet weight

  17. Radioactive foodchains in the subarctic environment. Progress report, November 15, 1977--November 14, 1978. [Leading abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J K

    1978-08-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for seven of the eight sections in this report. The eighth section is an introductory paper discussing the nature of the investigations and the data presented in the other seven papers. (ERB)

  18. Sakhalin 2, phase 2 project : meeting the Arctic challenge in a sub-Arctic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, A.; Gerges, A.; Efthymiou, M.; Winkler, M. [Sakhalin Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-15

    Sakhalin Energy's objective is to commercially develop, operate and market the hydrocarbon resources and associated infrastructure governed by the Sakhalin 2 licenses for the sustainable benefit of shareholders, the Russian Federation, the Sakhalin Oblast and the wider community. This presentation discussed Sakhalin Energy's holdings including its investment company and hydrocarbon projects in eastern Russia. The Sakhalin area is a remote island that lacks infrastructure, has a low population density, with a rich onshore and offshore wildlife. It is a seismically active area, with seasonal operating windows, drifting pack ice from December to June, waves up to 18 metre maximum height, and frequent fog in spring and summer. The temperature also varies from 28 degrees Celsius to -40 degrees Celsius. The presentation also addressed the rerouting of offshore pipelines to ensure the least possible disturbance to western gray whale migration. Several photographs and illustrations of the phase 1 project were presented. Open water conditions were also illustrated. The phase 2 project was then outlined. This included illustrations of the platform, plant and export terminal, and onshore processing facility. Other photographs that were shown in the presentation included the offshore pipeline installation; a view of the shore approach to the pipeline installation; oil spill response; and escape, evacuation, and response. The design challenges and design philosophy of the project were also identified. The presentation concluded with a discussion of ice loading and platform response. figs.

  19. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  20. Tolerance of an expanding subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa, to simulated caribou browsing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Champagne

    Full Text Available Densification of the shrub layer has been reported in many subarctic regions, raising questions about the implication for large herbivores and their resources. Shrubs can tolerate browsing and their level of tolerance could be affected by browsing and soils productivity, eventually modifying resource availability for the caribou. Our objective was to assess the compensatory growth potential of a subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa Michx., in relation with caribou browsing and nutriment availability for the plants. We used a simulated browsing (0, 25 and 75% of available shoots and nitrogen-fertilisation (0 and 10 g m(-2 experiment to test two main hypotheses linking tolerance to resource availability, the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis and the Growth Rate Hypothesis as well as the predictions from the Limiting Resource Model. We seek to explicitly integrate the relative browsing pressure in our predictions since the amount of tissues removed could affect the capacity of long-lived plants to compensate. Birches fully compensated for moderate browsing with an overall leaf biomass similar to unbrowsed birches but undercompensated under heavy browsing pressure. The main mechanism explaining compensation appears to be the conversion of short shoots into long shoots. The leaf area increased under heavy browsing pressure but only led to undercompensation. Fertilisation for two consecutive years did not influence the response of birch, thus we conclude that our results support the LRM hypothesis of equal tolerance under both high and low nitrogen availability. Our results highlight that the potential for compensatory growth in dwarf birch is surpassed under heavy browsing pressure independently of the fertilisation regime. In the context of the worldwide decline in caribou herds, the reduction in browsing pressure could act synergistically with global climate change to promote the current shrub expansion reported in subarctic regions.

  1. [BIODIVERSITY OF ACANTHOCEPHALANS (ACANTHOCEPHALA) IN FRESHWATER FISHES OF ASIATIC SUB-ARCTIC REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrashkevich, G I; Mikhailova, E I; Orlovskaya, O M; Pospekhov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of taxonomical and ecological diversity of acanthocephalans in fishes of Asiatic sub-Arctic region freshwaters, summarizing changes in modern views on species composition, life cycles, and ecology of background groups of these parasites is given. A priority role of studies provided by O. N. Bauer and his scientific school in organization and development of these aspects of acanthocephalology is demonstrated. Special attention is paid to the assessment of acanthocephalan biodiversity of the genus Neoechinorhynchus, the background group of freshwater fish parasites of the Asiatic sub-Arctic region, and an original key for their species is given. The distribution of acanthocephalans of the genus Acanthocephalus in northeastern Asia is analyzed and prospective study of this parasite group, evolutionary associated with freshwater isopods of the genus Asellus as intermediate hosts, is outlined. The absence of documented evidences on intermediate hosts of other background parasites of freshwater fishes in the region, acanthocephalans of the genus Metechinorhynchus, is revealed. It is assumed that subsequent taxonomic revisions based both on morphological and molecular genetic studies are necessary for the reliable revealing of species composition in each genus of the background acanthocephalans from freshwater fishes of Northern Asia. Theoretical significance of the study of acanthocephalan life cycles and revealing their natural intermediate hosts for the reliable estimation of structural and functional organization of their host-parasite systems in different parts of the range is substantiated and the possibility of the distribution of taxonomic conclusions in new territories is analyzed. A brief annotated taxonomical list of freshwater acanthocephalans of the Asiatic sub-Arctic region is given.

  2. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces a large centric diatom bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Atsushi; Takeda, Shigenobu; Saito, Hiroaki; Nishioka, Jun; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Kudo, Isao; Kiyosawa, Hiroshi; Shiomoto, Akihiro; Imai, Keiri; Ono, Tsuneo; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Aono, Tatsuo; Hinuma, Akira; Kinugasa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Koji; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Noiri, Yoshifumi; Tani, Heihachiro; Deguchi, Yuji; Tsurushima, Nobuo; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Fukami, Kimio; Kuma, Kenshi; Saino, Toshiro

    2003-05-09

    We have performed an in situ test of the iron limitation hypothesis in the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. A single enrichment of dissolved iron caused a large increase in phytoplankton standing stock and decreases in macronutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide. The dominant phytoplankton species shifted after the iron addition from pennate diatoms to a centric diatom, Chaetoceros debilis, that showed a very high growth rate, 2.6 doublings per day. We conclude that the bioavailability of iron regulates the magnitude of the phytoplankton biomass and the key phytoplankton species that determine the biogeochemical sensitivity to iron supply of high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters.

  3. Ultracoatings: Enabling Energy and Power Solutions in High Contact Stress Environments through next-generation Nanocoatings Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2012-03-20

    A review of current commercially available, industrial-grade, low friction coatings will show that interfacial contact pressures nearing 1GPa ({approx}150ksi) inherently limit surface engineering solutions like WC, TiN, TiAlN, and so forth. Extremely hard coatings, then, are often pursued as the principle path, although they too are not without significant limitations. A majority of these compounds are inherently brittle in nature or may not pair well with their mating substrate. In either case, their durability in high contact stress environments is compromised. In parallel to thin film coatings, many conventional surface treatments do not yield an interface hard enough to withstand extreme stresses under load. New research into advanced, nanocomposite materials like (Ti, Zr)B2 shows great promise. Bulk compacts of this compound have demonstrated an order of magnitude better wear resistance than current offerings, notably materials like tungsten carbide. At a laboratory level, the (Ti,Zr)B2 nanocomposite material exhibited abrasive and erosive wear resistance nearly ten times better than existing mixed-phase boride systems. In ASTM abrasion and erosion testing, these new compositions exhibit wear resistance superior to other known advanced materials such as RocTec 500 and 'Borazon' cubic boron nitride. Many significant challenges exist for mass production of (Ti, Zr)B2, one of which is the necessary processing technology that is capable of minimizing deleterious impurity phases. Secondly, this material's performance is derived from a synergistic effect of the two materials existing as a single phase structure. While the individual constituents of TiB2 and ZrB2 do yield improvements to wear resistance, their singular effects are not as significant. Lastly, deposition of this material on a commercial level requires thorough knowledge of nanocomposite boride solids; the benefits associated with these innovative new materials are just being realized

  4. Feeding ecology of mesopelagic zooplankton of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean determined with fatty acid biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. E.; Steinberg, D. K.; Chu, F.-L. E.; Bishop, J. K. B.

    2010-10-01

    Mesopelagic zooplankton may meet their nutritional and metabolic requirements in a number of ways including consumption of sinking particles, carnivory, and vertical migration. How these feeding modes change with depth or location, however, is poorly known. We analyzed fatty acid (FA) profiles to characterize zooplankton diet and large particle (>51 μm) composition in the mesopelagic zone (base of euphotic zone -1000 m) at two contrasting time-series sites in the subarctic (station K2) and subtropical (station ALOHA) Pacific Ocean. Total FA concentration was 15.5 times higher in zooplankton tissue at K2, largely due to FA storage by seasonal vertical migrators such as Neocalanus and Eucalanus. FA biomarkers specific to herbivory implied a higher plant-derived food source at mesotrophic K2 than at oligotrophic ALOHA. Zooplankton FA biomarkers specific to dinoflagellates and diatoms indicated that diatoms, and to a lesser extent, dinoflagellates were important food sources at K2. At ALOHA, dinoflagellate FAs were more prominent. Bacteria-specific FA biomarkers in zooplankton tissue were used as an indicator of particle feeding, and peaks were recorded at depths where known particle feeders were present at ALOHA (e.g., ostracods at 100-300 m). In contrast, depth profiles of bacterial FA were relatively constant with depth at K2. Diatom, dinoflagellate, and bacterial biomarkers were found in similar proportions in both zooplankton and particles with depth at both locations, providing additional evidence that mesopelagic zooplankton consume sinking particles. Carnivory indices were higher and increased significantly with depth at ALOHA, and exhibited distinct peaks at K2, representing an increase in dependence on other zooplankton for food in deep waters. Our results indicate that feeding ecology changes with depth as well as by location. These changes in zooplankton feeding ecology from the surface through the mesopelagic zone, and between contrasting environments

  5. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 1. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the terrestrial environment of the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This report provides technical details of the terrestrial sampling and measurement campaign undertaken as part of the Study of the Radiological Situation at the Atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa by the Terrestrial Working Group. The primary objective of this group was to evaluate existing French data on the presence of environmental radionuclides on the atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa and Tureia in French Polynesia. All aspects of the terrestrial environments of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls - the sites of atmospheric and underground nuclear tests - were included in the sampling programme. Tureia Atoll - the nearest inhabited island - was also included in the sampling programme, in order to determine whether deposits from atmospheric testing are detectable there. The task required the co-operation of many different parties in order to provide the supporting logistics for the sampling campaign and the expertise for analysing the different radionuclides of interest in the samples collected. Samples were analysed by members of the IAEA's co-ordinated international network of Analytical Laboratories for Measuring Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) and the Agency's laboratories, Seibersdorf. Samples were also sent to the French Service Mixte de Surveillance Radiologique et Biologique (SMSRB)

  6. Building on Sub-Arctic Soil: Geopolymerization of Muskeg to a Densified Load-Bearing Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waetzig, Gregory R; Cho, Junsang; Lacroix, Max; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2017-11-07

    The marshy water-saturated soil typical of the sub-Arctic represents a considerable impediment to the construction of roads, thereby greatly hindering human habitation and geological excavation. Muskeg, the native water-laden topsoil characteristic of the North American sub-Arctic, represents a particularly vexing challenge for road construction. Muskeg must either be entirely excavated, or for direct construction on muskeg, a mix of partial excavation and gradual compaction with the strategic placement of filling materials must be performed. Here, we demonstrate a novel and entirely reversible geopolymerization method for reinforcing muskeg with wood fibers derived from native vegetation with the addition of inorganic silicate precursors and without the addition of extraneous metal precursors. A continuous siloxane network is formed that links together the muskeg, wood fibers, and added silicates yielding a load-bearing and low-subsidence composite. The geopolymerization approach developed here, based on catalyzed formation of a siloxane network with further incorporation of cellulose, allows for an increase of density as well as compressive strength while reducing the compressibility of the composite.

  7. Wintertime phytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supported by continental margin iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2004-01-01

    Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996 in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North Pacific Ocean, a region that is thought to be iron-limited. Here we provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in the subarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from the continental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincident with the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was used to describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of iron in size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis reveals that discrete micron-sized iron-rich hotspots are ubiquitous in the upper 200m at OSP, more than 900km from the closest coast. The specifics of the chemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to the continental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hotspots are a marker for the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm the delivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an ocean general circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at the continental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental margin stimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLC condition

  8. The transformation and fate of sub-Arctic microphytobenthos carbon revealed through 13C-labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oakes, Joanne M.; Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    Microphytobenthos (MPB) at higher latitudes has been poorly studied. This study used pulse-chase C-13-labeling to investigate the production, processing, and fate of MPB-derived carbon (MPB-C) in sub-Arctic intertidal sediments over 31 d. Gross primary production (2.1 mmolCm(-2)h(-1)+/- 0.4 mmol...... accounted for49.8% of this C-13. The C-13 content of sediment organic carbon declined over time, but>31% of the C-13 fixed within the first tidal cycle remained after 31 d, suggesting that sub-Arctic MPB may contribute to coastal carbon retention during the productive season. Over 21 d, 10.6% of the fixed C......-13 was removed via DIC fluxes and 0.3% via DOC fluxes from inundated sediment, and 0.6% as CO2 from exposed sediment. The greatest loss of C-13 (38.2%) was via unmeasured pathways, including resuspension and/or removal by mobile consumers. The rates of MPB-C production and the relative importance...

  9. Evidences of Seasonal Variation in Altimetry Derived Ocean Tides in the Subarctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hok Sum Fok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the barotropic ocean tides in the deep ocean are well modeled to ~2 cm RMS, accurate tidal prediction in the ice-covered polar oceans and near coastal regions remain elusive. A notable reason is that the most accurate satellite altimeters (TOPEX/Jason-1/-2, whose orbits are optimized to minimize the tidal aliasing effect, have spatial coverage limited to largely outside of the polar ocean. Here, we update the assessment of tidal models using 7 contemporary global and regional models, and show that the altimetry sea surface height (SSH anomaly residual after tidal correction is 9 - 12 cm RMS in the Subarctic Ocean. We then address the hypothesis whether plausible evidence of variable tidal signals exist in the seasonally ice-covered Subarctic Ocean, where the sea ice cover is undergoing rapid thinning. We first found a difference in variance reduction for multi-mission altimeter SSH anomaly residuals during the summer and winter seasons, with the residual during winter season 15 - 30% larger than that during the summer season. Experimental seasonal ocean tide solutions derived from satellite altimetry reveals that the recovered winter and summer tidal constituents generally differ by a few cm in amplitude and tens of degrees in phase. Relatively larger seasonal tidal patterns, in particular for M2, S2 and K1 tides, have been identified in the Chukchi Sea study region near eastern Siberia, coincident with the seasonal presence and movement of sea ice.

  10. Doubled volatile organic compound emissions from subarctic tundra under simulated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Asmund; Michelsen, Anders; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Rinnan, Riikka

    2010-07-01

    *Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from arctic ecosystems are important in view of their role in global atmospheric chemistry and unknown feedbacks to global warming. These cold ecosystems are hotspots of climate warming, which will be more severe here than averaged over the globe. We assess the effects of climatic warming on non-methane BVOC emissions from a subarctic heath. *We performed ecosystem-based chamber measurements and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of the BVOCs collected on adsorbent over two growing seasons at a wet subarctic tundra heath hosting a long-term warming and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) litter addition experiment. *The relatively low emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were doubled in response to an air temperature increment of only 1.9-2.5 degrees C, while litter addition had a minor influence. BVOC emissions were seasonal, and warming combined with litter addition triggered emissions of specific compounds. *The unexpectedly high rate of release of BVOCs measured in this conservative warming scenario is far above the estimates produced by the current models, which underlines the importance of a focus on BVOC emissions during climate change. The observed changes have implications for ecological interactions and feedback effects on climate change via impacts on aerosol formation and indirect greenhouse effects.

  11. The importance of colony structure versus shoot morphology for the water balance of 22 subarctic bryophyte species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elumeeva, Tatiana G.; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; During, Heinjo J.; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.

    Questions: What are the water economy strategies of the dominant subarctic bryophytes in terms of colony and shoot traits? Can colony water retention capacity be predicted from morphological traits of both colonies and separate shoots? Are suites of water retention traits consistently related to

  12. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M.; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such

  13. Responses of non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to climate change in boreal and subarctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubert, P.

    2010-07-01

    Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (BVOCs) have important roles in the global atmospheric chemistry but their feedbacks to climate change are still unknown. This thesis reports one of the first estimates of BVOC emissions from boreal and subarctic ecosystems. Most importantly, this thesis assesses the BVOC emission responses to four effects of climate change in these ecosystems: (1) the direct effect of warming, and its indirect effects via (2) water table drawdown, (3) change in the vegetation composition, and (4) enhanced UV-B radiation. BVOC emissions were measured using a conventional chamber method in which the compounds were collected on adsorbent and later analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On a subarctic heath, warming by only 1.9-2.5 degC doubled the monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions. Such a high increase of BVOC emissions under a conservative warming cannot be predicted by the current models, which underlines the importance of a focus on BVOC emissions from the Subarctic under climate change. On a subarctic peatland, enhanced UV-B did not affect the BVOC emissions but the water table level exerted the major effect. The water table drawdown experimentally applied on boreal peatland microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes and other VOCs (BVOCs with a lifetime>1 d) for the hollows (wet microsites) and that of all BVOC groups for the lawns (moderately wet microsites). The warming treatment applied on the lawn microcosms decreased the isoprene emission. The removal of vascular plants in the hummock (dry microsites) microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes while the emissions between the microcosms covered with Sphagnum moss and bare peat were not different. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis indicate that climate change has complex effects on the BVOC emissions. These results make a significant contribution to improving the modeling of BVOC emissions for a better understanding of

  14. Effects of Accelerated Deglaciation on Chemical Characteristics of Sub-arctic Lakes and Rivers in South and West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, M.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers and their associated paraglacial landscapes have changed rapidly over the past century, and may see increased rates of melt as temperatures increase in high latitude environments. As glaciers recede, glacial meltwater subsidies increase to inland freshwater systems, influencing their structure and function. Evidence suggests melting ice influences the chemical characteristics of systems by providing nutrient subsidies, while inputs of glacial flour influence their physical structure by affecting temperature, reducing water clarity and increasing turbidity. Together, changes in physical and chemical structure of these systems have subsequent effects on biota, with the potential to lower taxonomic richness. This study characterized the chemistry of rivers and lakes fed by glacial meltwater in sub-arctic environments of Iceland, where there is limited limnological data. The survey characterized nutrient chemistry, dissolved organic carbon, and ion chemistry. We surveyed glacial meltwater from six glaciers in south and west Iceland, using the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier along the southern coast as a detailed study area to examine the interactions between groundwater and surface runoff. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse, located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Key differences were observed between aquatic environments subsidized with glacial meltwater and those without. This included physical effects, such as lower temperatures and chemical effects such as lower conductivity and higher pH in glacially fed systems. In the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier, lakes formed after the former lagoon was emptied and then partly refilled with debris from jokulhlaups during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. These newly formed lakes resembled non-glacial melt systems despite receiving

  15. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Document Server

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2013-01-01

    For the reporting period, the CMS common systems and infrastructure worked well, without failures that caused significant data losses. One more disconnection of the magnet cold box occurred in the shadow of interruptions in data taking, caused by a series of technical faults. The recognition during 2012 that re-connection can only safely be done at around 2 T implies a minimum magnet recovery time of 12 hours and raises serious concerns about the number of ramping cycles of the magnet these incidents cause. This has triggered studies of how to make the cryo-system of the magnet more robust against failures. The proton-proton run ended just before the end-of-year CERN closure, during which CASTOR was installed on the negative end of CMS and both ZDC calorimeters were installed in TAN absorbers the LHC tunnel, in preparation for the heavy-ion run. The installation of CASTOR was an excellent “engineering test” of procedures for working in an activated environment. Despite some technical pr...

  16. We adapt… but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, Gloria; Saunders, Fred; Sokolova, Tatiana; Börebäck, Kristina; van Laerhoven, F.S.J.; Kokko, Suvi; Tuvendal, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socioenvironmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork,

  17. Paleoproductivity and intermediate-water ventilation in the subarctic Northwest Pacific during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, B.; Ikehara, K.; Sagawa, T.; Shibahara, A.; Yamamoto, M.

    2010-12-01

    Laminated sediments during the last deglaciation in the subarctic North Pacific indicate significant depletion of dissolved oxygen concentration at intermediate water depths. Such a strong oxygen minimum zone results primarily from a combination of high surface water productivity and poor ventilation of intermediate waters. We investigated a variety of paleoclimatic proxies using about 8-m long piston core sediment (GH02-1030; 42o13.770N, 144o12.530E; water depth, 1212 m) obtained from the continental slope off Tokachi (eastern Hokkaido Island), which is the main path of the southwestward Oyashio Current in the subarctic Northwest Pacific. Laminated sediments were identified at the two horizons in the core GH02-1030; the upper one at 11.4-12.2 cal.kyr BP and the lower one at 14.1-14.7 cal.kyr BP, corresponding to Bølling-Allerød (B/A) and Preboreal (PB), respectively. Between these laminated layers, Younger Dryas occurred. Both laminated sediment layers are characterized by Bolivina tumida, B. pacifica, and Buliminella tenuata, indicating dysoxic bottom water conditions. Increased Mg/Ca-derived intermediate-water temperature and δ18OW values at B/A and PB periods suggest the poor ventilation of intermediate water because of the surface water freshening (i.e., decrease of surface-water salinity). UK'37-derived temperature record also supports the increase of surface-water temperature during B/A and PB intervals. During the last deglaciation, short-chain C14-C18 n-fatty acids, derived mainly from marine organisms, showed higher concentrations, indicating the increased surface-water production, and at the same time, abundant lignin reflected more contribution of terrigenous organic matter, supporting increased freshwater discharge. Variation of CaCO3 contents show remarkable double peaks, corresponding to B/A and PB periods, respectively, leading to the increase of TOC contents. Opal contents also follow similar pattern to CaCO3 contents, but are much less than the

  18. Carbon dioxide exchange in subarctic ecosystems measured by a micrometeorological technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, M.

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration and the surface air temperatures have increased since the pre-industrial era, and the increase in both is predicted to continue during the 21st century. The feedback mechanisms between the changing climate and the carbon cycle are complex, and more information is needed about carbon exchange in different ecosystems. Northern Finland lies in the transition zone between boreal forest and tundra where the ecosystems are especially sensitive to any changes in the climate. In 1995-2004, micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements were conducted to yield continuous data on the CO 2 exchange between the atmosphere and the biosphere in northern Finland on four different ecosystems: an aapa mire, a mountain birch forest, a Scots pine forest and a Norway spruce forest. A measurement system enabling year-round measurements in the harsh subarctic conditions was developed and shown to be suitable for long-term exchange studies. A comparison of the CO 2 flux components, photosynthesis and respiration, at different ecosystems in the European subarctic and arctic regions showed that the leaf area index (LAI) is the key determinant of the gross photosynthetic rates, explaining greatest part of the variation between these ecosystems. Respiration did not show such a strong correlation with LAI, but in general, high respiration rates were related to high values of LAI. The first continuous round-the-year measurements of net ecosystem CO 2 exchange on a subarctic wetland were conducted at Kaamanen. The winter-time CO 2 efflux (of about 90 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) was shown to constitute an essential part of the annual CO 2 balance (of -79 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 in 1997-2002). The annual CO 2 balances at all sites in northern Finland were relatively small compared with those in lower latitudes. The interannual variation of the CO 2 balance at Kaamanen was marked (-15 to -195 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) during the years 1997-2002. The most important factor

  19. Technical writing versus technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  20. Monitoring of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata in the subarctic and in alpine areas of southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, David C.; Jónsson, Ingi R.; Cypaité, Vaiva; Ognjanova, Nadja; Ólafsson, Jón S.; Trichkova, Teodora

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades invasive species have been spreading across Europe. Although the perceptions of invasive species are divergent among researchers there is a general consent that invasive species endanger the diversity of native biota and hence should be monitored to initiate appropriate counter measures in drastic cases. Anthropogenic activities and climate change are the main cause for the enhanced spreading of non-native species to new environments. In this presentation we will present preliminary results from two aquatic case studies, one located in subarctic Iceland (River Elliðaár) and one in the high mountains of Bulgaria (the Seven Rila lakes), focusing on the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo). The diatom is a single cell algae which's natural habitat is cold fresh water environments with low nutrient content, i.e. mountainous areas in Europe, Asia and North America. In the last decades Didymo has been increasingly observed in new areas, e.g. Iceland, North America and New Zealand. Within the ESENIAS-TOOLS project two field excursions will identify the existence of Didymo in the two study sites and compare current abundance to previous observations. The preliminary results in the Rila Mountains, including both fossil and recent records, confirm that the occurrence of Didymo is restricted to Lake Bliznaka, the largest of the seven lakes located at lower altitude. In River Elliðaár preliminary results indicate a high abundance of Didymo along all sampling locations, confirming the invasive proliferation described in previous studies. The upscaling of the preliminary results from Elliðaár and Rila Mountains can help us to formulate general conclusions about the spreading of this invasive species. Furthermore, this bilateral cooperation can be further extended to other countries and hence contribute to a better management of invasive alien species in Europe. Acknowledgement: This study is part of ESENIAS - The East and South European

  1. Alternative technologies for remediation of technogenic barrens in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens under the reduction of air pollutant emissions from the Severonikel smelter in the Kola Subarctic is determined largely by the soil state and the technology applied. The covering of the contaminated soils with artificially made material based on organomineral substrates and the following liming and fertilization promoted a sharp and long-term reduction of acidity, decrease in the biological availability of heavy metals, increase in the supply with nutrients, and improvement of the life state of willow and birch plantations. The effect of economically more profitable chemo-phytostabilization is short-term; it requires constant maintenance. Under the current production and a high level of soil contamination, repeated measures are required to optimize the soil reaction, supply with nutrients, and to correct the availability of heavy metals in the soils based on the results of continuous monitoring

  2. Nonvascular contribution to ecosystem NPP in a subarctic heath during early and late growing season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Samson, Roeland; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    significant when vascular plants are less active and ecosystems act as a source of carbon (C). To clarify these dynamics, nonvascular and vascular aboveground NPP was compared for a subarctic heath during two contrasting periods of the growing season, viz. early-mid summer and late summer-early autumn...... measurements of shoot length increase. Vascular NPP was determined by harvesting shrub and herb apical growth and considering production due to stem secondary growth of shrubs. Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi showed highest biomass growth in late summer, whereas for D. elongatum this occurred...... weight m-2 d-1, in early and late summer, respectively, whereas in the same periods vascular NPP was 3.6 and 1.1 g dry weight m-2 d-1. The contribution of nonvascular NPP to total aboveground NPP was therefore minor in early summer but substantial in late summer, when 25% of the C accumulated...

  3. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T N; Gabrielsen, G W; Falk-Petersen, S

    1995-02-01

    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. "mus co shee": Indigenous Plant Foods and Horticultural Imperialism in the Canadian Sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-century arrival of the Hudson's Bay Company in Rupert's Land disrupted Mushkegowuk (Cree) hunter-gatherer society by replacing the collection of indigenous plant foods with a British planted-food model. Within a hundred years of British contact, new foodways relied upon hunting and gardening, bringing a loss in heritage plant food knowledge. Mushkegowuk living in the sub-arctic today have minimal knowledge of edible indigenous plants. Dependence on limited local gardening or imported grocery store vegetables has affected diet, nutrition, and cultural systems. In addition to exploring plant food gathering and gardening history in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, this paper demonstrates how re-discovering lost foodway knowledge can contribute to the health and well-being of those living in the far north.

  5. Organic iron (III) complexing ligands during an iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Obata, Hajime; Furuya, Ken; Johnson, William Keith; Wong, C. S.

    2008-06-01

    Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12-29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the Dilution of the fertilized patch may have contributed to the rapid decreases of the ligands. During the bloom decline, ligand concentration increased again, and the high concentrations persisted for 10 days. The conditional stability constant was not different between inside and outside of the fertilized patch. These results suggest that the chemical speciation of the released iron was strongly affected by formation of the ligands; the production of ligands observed during the bloom decline will strongly impact the iron cycle and bioavailability in the surface water.

  6. Nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem nitrogen pools in relation to vegetation development in the Subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Jonasson, Sven Evert; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem pools of nitrogen were measured in three subarctic ecosystem types differing in soil frost-heaving activity and vegetation cover. N2-fixation was measured by the acetylene reduction assay and converted to absolute N ecosystem input by estimates...... of conversion factors between acetylene reduction and 15N incorporation. One aim was to relate nitrogen fluxes and nitrogen pools to the mosaic of ecosystem types of different stability common in areas of soil frost movements. A second aim was to identify abiotic controls on N2-fixation by simultaneous...... measurements of temperature, light, and soil moisture. Nitrogen fixation rate was high with seasonal input estimated at 1.1 g N m2 on frostheaved sorted circles, which was higher than the total plant N content and exceeded estimated annual plant N uptake several-fold but was lower than the microbial N content...

  7. Methanethiol Concentrations and Sea-Air Fluxes in the Subarctic NE Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, R. P.; Williams, T. E.; Esson, K.; Tortell, P. D.; Dacey, J. W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of volatile organic sulfur from the ocean to the atmosphere impacts the global sulfur cycle and the climate system and is thought to occur mainly via the gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). DMS is produced during degradation of the abundant phytoplankton osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) but bacteria can also convert dissolved DMSP into the sulfur gas methanethiol (MeSH). MeSH has been difficult to measure in seawater because of its high chemical and biological reactivity and, thus, information on MeSH concentrations, distribution and sea-air fluxes is limited. We measured MeSH in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean in July 2016, along transects with strong phytoplankton abundance gradients. Water samples obtained with Niskin bottles were analyzed for MeSH by purge-and-trap gas chromatography. Depth profiles showed that MeSH concentrations were high near the surface and declined with depth. Surface waters (5 m depth) had an average MeSH concentration of 0.75 nM with concentrations reaching up to 3nM. MeSH concentrations were correlated (r = 0.47) with microbial turnover of dissolved DMSP which ranged up to 236 nM per day. MeSH was also correlated with total DMSP (r = 0.93) and dissolved DMS (r = 0.63), supporting the conclusion that DMSP was a major precursor of MeSH. Surface water MeSH:DMS concentration ratios averaged 0.19 and ranged up to 0.50 indicating that MeSH was a significant fraction of the volatile sulfur pool in surface waters. Sea-air fluxes of MeSH averaged 15% of the combined DMS+MeSH flux, therefore MeSH contributed an important fraction of the sulfur emitted to the atmosphere from the subarctic NE Pacific Ocean.

  8. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  9. Intra-basin variability of snowmelt water balance calculations in a subarctic catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Stephen E.; Carey, Sean K.; Pomeroy, John W.

    2006-03-01

    The intra-basin variability of snowmelt and melt-water runoff hydrology in an 8 km2 subarctic alpine tundra catchment was examined for the 2003 melt period. The catchment, Granger Creek, is within the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon, which is typical of mountain subarctic landscapes in northwestern Canada. The study catchment was segmented into nine internally uniform zones termed hydrological response units (HRUs) based on their similar hydrological, physiographic, vegetation and soil properties. Snow accumulation exhibited significant variability among the HRUs, with greatest snow water equivalent in areas of tall shrub vegetation. Melt began first on southerly exposures and at lower elevations, yet average melt rates for the study period varied little among HRUs with the exception of those with steep aspects. In HRUs with capping organic soils, melt water first infiltrated this surface horizon, satisfying its storage capacity, and then percolated into the frozen mineral substrate. Infiltration and percolation into frozen mineral soils was restricted where melt occurred rapidly and organic soils were thin; in this case, melt-water delivery rates exceeded the frozen mineral soil infiltration rate, resulting in high runoff rates. In contrast, where there were slower melt rates and thick organic soils, infiltration was unlimited and runoff was suppressed. The snow water equivalent had a large impact on runoff volume, as soil storage capacity was quickly surpassed in areas of deep snow, diverting the bulk of melt water laterally to the drainage network. A spatially distributed water balance indicated that the snowmelt freshet was primarily controlled by areas with tall shrub vegetation that accumulate large quantities of snow and by alpine areas with no capping organic soils. The intra-basin water balance variability has important implications for modelling freshet in hydrological models.

  10. Interannual Variability of Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Subarctic European Russian Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushchak, M. E.; Voigt, C.; Gil, J.; Lamprecht, R. E.; Trubnikova, T.; Virtanen, T.; Kaverin, D.; Martikainen, P. J.; Biasi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Southern tundra landscapes are particularly vulnerable to climate warming, permafrost thaw and associated landscape rearrangement due to near-zero permafrost temperatures. The large soil C and N stocks of subarctic tundra may create a positive feedback for warming if released to the atmosphere at increased rates. Subarctic tundra in European Russia is a mosaic of land cover types, which all play different roles in the regional greenhouse gas budget. Peat plateaus - massive upheaved permafrost peatlands - are large storehouses of soil carbon and nitrogen, but include also bare peat surfaces that act as hot-spots for both carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions. Tundra wetlands are important for the regional greenhouse gas balance since they show high rates of methane emissions and carbon uptake. The most dominant land-form is upland tundra vegetated by shrubs, lichens and mosses, which displays a close-to-neutral balance with respect to all three greenhouse gases. The study site Seida (67°03'N, 62°56'E), located in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Northeast European Russia, incorporates all these land forms and has been an object for greenhouse gas investigations since 2007. Here, we summarize the growing season fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide measured by chamber techniques over the study years. We analyzed the flux time-series together with the local environmental data in order to understand the drivers of interannual variability. Detailed soil profile measurements of greenhouse gas concentrations, soil moisture and temperature provide insights into soil processes underlying the net emissions to the atmosphere. The multiannual time-series allows us to assess the importance of the different greenhouse gases and landforms to the overall climate forcing of the study region.

  11. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1 °C over ambient using open top chambers) and litter addition (90 g m -2  yr -1 ) treatments in the subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralization to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralization of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralization of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile C inhibited C mineralization is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilization' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralization responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralization. However, C and N mineralization responses derived from the same SOM source must be interpreted together: This suggested that the microbial SOM-use decreased in magnitude and shifted to components richer in N. This finding highlights that only considering SOM in terms of C may be simplistic, and will not capture all changes in SOM decomposition. The selective mining for N increased in climate change treatments with higher fungal dominance. In conclusion, labile C appeared to trigger catabolic responses of the resident microbial community that shifted the SOM mining to N-rich components; an effect that increased with higher fungal dominance. Extrapolating from these findings, the predicted shrub expansion in the subarctic could result in an altered microbial use of SOM, selectively mining it for N-rich components, and leading to a reduced total SOM-use. © 2016 John Wiley

  12. Safety-technical lay-out of the operational environment of a high-power spallation target system of the megawatt class with mercury as target material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butzek, M.

    2005-06-01

    This thesis is concerning the safety relevant layout of the environment of a mercury based 5-Megawatt-spallation target. All safety relevant aspects related to construction, operation and dismantling as well as economical issues were taken into account. Safety concerns are basically driven by the toxic and radioactive inventory as well as the kind and intensity of radiation produced by the spallation process. Due to significant differences in inventory and radiation between a spallation source and a fission reactor, for the design of the spallation source mentioned above the safety philosophy of a fission reactor must not be used unchanged. Rather than this a systematic study of all safety related boundary conditions is necessary. Within this thesis all safety relevant boundary conditions for this specific type of machine are given. Beside the spatial distribution of different areas inside the target station, influence of medias to be used as well as arising radiation and handling requirements are discussed in detail. A general layout of the target station is presented, serving as a basis for all further component and system development. An enclosure concept for the target station was developed, taking into account the safety relevant issues concerning the mercury used as target materials, the water cooling loops containing massive amounts of tritium as well as the materials used for the moderators potentially forming explosive mixtures. Concept and detailed technical layout of the enclosure system was chosen to guarantee safe operation of the source as well as taking care of requirement arising for handling needs. For design of the shielding different suitable materials have been discussed. A design for assembling the shielding is shown taking into account the safety relevant requirements during operation as well as during dismantling. The neutron beam shutters, buried inside the shielding were designed to optimize handling and positioning issued of the inner part

  13. Population dynamics and life history strategies of the dominant copepods in a sub-arctic Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    Investigations of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic pelagic food web have previously focused on the copepod genus Calanus, as they often dominate the mesozooplankton community and serve as a lipid rich food source for higher trophic levels. However, if night samples are considered a different food web...... might emerges with the omnivorous copepod Metridia spp. in a major role. Biology of Metridia is practically unknown but deviates from Calanus e.g. Metridia does not hibernate but stays active yearlong benefiting from being omnivore. In the present study abundance, depth distribution, and egg and pellet...... hibernating Calanus. M. longa might thereby also have a central role in the lipid rich food chain which is a distinct feature for Arctic and Sub-Arctic ecosystems...

  14. Report of the 2004 Workshop on In Situ Iron Enrichment Experiments in the Eastern and Western Subarctic Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Shigenobu; Wong, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Foreword 1. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES (pdf, 0.1 Mb) 2. 2004 WORKSHOP SUMMARY (pdf, < 0.1 Mb) 2.1. What have we learned from the enrichment experiments? 2.2 What are the outstanding questions? 2.3 Recommendations for SEEDS-II 3. EXTENDED ABSTRACTS OF THE 2004 WORKSHOP 3.1 Synthesis of the Iron Enrichment Experiments: SEEDS and SERIES (pdf, 0.5 Mb) Iron fertilization experiment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS) by At...

  15. Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valolahti, Hanna; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-09-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been earlier shown to be highly temperature sensitive in subarctic ecosystems. As these ecosystems experience rapidly advancing pronounced climate warming, we aimed to investigate how warming affects the BVOC emissions in the long term (up to 13 treatment years). We also aimed to assess whether the increased litterfall resulting from the vegetation changes in the warming subarctic would affect the emissions. The study was conducted in a field experiment with factorial open-top chamber warming and annual litter addition treatments on subarctic heath in Abisko, northern Sweden. After 11 and 13 treatment years, BVOCs were sampled from plant communities in the experimental plots using a push-pull enclosure technique and collection into adsorbent cartridges during the growing season and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2 °C caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements. When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions to a fixed temperature, warming still had a significant effect suggesting that emissions were also indirectly increased. This indirect increase appeared to result from increased plant coverage and changes in vegetation composition. The litter addition treatment also caused significant increases in the emission rates of some BVOC groups, especially when combined with warming. The combined treatment had both the largest vegetation changes and the highest BVOC emissions. The increased emissions under litter addition were probably a result of a changed vegetation composition due to alleviated nutrient limitation and stimulated microbial production of BVOCs. We suggest that the changes in the subarctic vegetation composition induced by climate warming will be the major factor

  16. Changing times, changing stories: Generational differences in climate change perspectives from four remote indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Matkin, Elli; Laituri, Melinda J.; Toohey, Ryan C; Massey, Maggie; Elder, Kelly; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities currently are facing a myriad of social and environmental changes. In response to these changes, studies concerning indigenous knowledge (IK) and climate change vulnerability, resiliency, and adaptation have increased dramatically in recent years. Risks to lives and livelihoods are often the focus of adaptation research; however, the cultural dimensions of climate change are equally important because cultural dimensions inform perceptions of risk. Furthermore, many Arctic and Subarctic IK climate change studies document observations of change and knowledge of the elders and older generations in a community, but few include the perspectives of the younger population. These observations by elders and older generations form a historical baseline record of weather and climate observations in these regions. However, many indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities are composed of primarily younger residents. We focused on the differences in the cultural dimensions of climate change found between young adults and elders. We outlined the findings from interviews conducted in four indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska. The findings revealed that (1) intergenerational observations of change were common among interview participants in all four communities, (2) older generations observed more overall change than younger generations interviewed by us, and (3) how change was perceived varied between generations. We defined “observations” as the specific examples of environmental and weather change that were described, whereas “perceptions” referred to the manner in which these observations of change were understood and contextualized by the interview participants. Understanding the differences in generational observations and perceptions of change are key issues in the development of climate change adaptation strategies.

  17. Export production in the subarctic North Pacific over the last 800 kyrs: No evidence for iron fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienast, S.S.; Hendy, I.L.; Crusius, J.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Calvert, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    The subarctic North Pacific is a high nitrate-low chlorophyll (HNLC) region, where phytoplankton growth rates, especially those of diatoms, are enhanced when micro-nutrient Fe is added. Accordingly, it has been suggested that glacial Fe-laden dust might have increased primary production in this region. This paper reviews published palaeoceanographic records of export production over the last 800 kyrs from the open North Pacific (north of ???35??N). We find different patterns of export production change over time in the various domains of the North Pacific (NW and NE subarctic gyres, the marginal seas and the transition zone). However, there is no compelling evidence for an overall increase in productivity during glacials in the subarctic region, challenging the paradigm that dust-born Fe fertilization of this region has contributed to the glacial draw down of atmospheric CO2. Potential reasons for the lack of increased glacial export production include the possibility that Fe-fertilization rapidly drives the ecosystem towards limitation by another nutrient. This effect would have been exacerbated by an even more stable mixed layer compared to today. ?? The Oceanographic Society of Japan.

  18. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

  19. Eighth experts meeting on environmental radioactivity monitoring: Technical and organisational means for an optimised measurement of ambient radioactivity in the environment of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The plant-specific emission monitoring and environmental monitoring near nuclear facilities are part of the items of the agreement between the EC and the IAEA, for mutual rapid information in the case of accidents. The lectures presented to the technical discussion meeting deal with the legal and technical aspects involved. Dispersion models, computer-aided dispersion models, computer-aided information systems and advanced programs as well as measuring techniques and results of the emission monitoring and environmental monitoring near nuclear facilities are the aspects of main interest discussed at the meeting. (DG) [de

  20. Environmental impacts on technical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between an object and its environment is examined by methods of environment simulation. With regard to possible synergisms, technical considerations and holistic thinking are essential. Environmental simulation is mainly concerned with questions of ability to function and the service life of technical products in their environment. The environmental simulation is used to discover cause/effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Questions of artificial ageing and speeded up time tests play a great part here. (orig.) [de

  1. Association of climatic factors with infectious diseases in the Arctic and subarctic region--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Christina; Blomstedt, Yulia; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic and subarctic area are likely to be highly affected by climate change, with possible impacts on human health due to effects on food security and infectious diseases. To investigate the evidence for an association between climatic factors and infectious diseases, and to identify the most climate-sensitive diseases and vulnerable populations in the Arctic and subarctic region. A systematic review was conducted. A search was made in PubMed, with the last update in May 2013. Inclusion criteria included human cases of infectious disease as outcome, climate or weather factor as exposure, and Arctic or subarctic areas as study origin. Narrative reviews, case reports, and projection studies were excluded. Abstracts and selected full texts were read and evaluated by two independent readers. A data collection sheet and an adjusted version of the SIGN methodology checklist were used to assess the quality grade of each article. In total, 1953 abstracts were initially found, of which finally 29 articles were included. Almost half of the studies were carried out in Canada (n=14), the rest from Sweden (n=6), Finland (n=4), Norway (n=2), Russia (n=2), and Alaska, US (n=1). Articles were analyzed by disease group: food- and waterborne diseases, vector-borne diseases, airborne viral- and airborne bacterial diseases. Strong evidence was found in our review for an association between climatic factors and food- and waterborne diseases. The scientific evidence for a link between climate and specific vector- and rodent-borne diseases was weak due to that only a few diseases being addressed in more than one publication, although several articles were of very high quality. Air temperature and humidity seem to be important climatic factors to investigate further for viral- and bacterial airborne diseases, but from our results no conclusion about a causal relationship could be drawn. More studies of high quality are needed to investigate the adverse health impacts of weather and

  2. Quantifying dust input to the Subarctic North Pacific - Results from surface sediments and sea water thorium isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, G.; Serno, S.; Hayes, C.; Anderson, R. F.; Gersonde, R.; Haug, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Subarctic North Pacific is one of the three primary high-nutrient-low chlorophyll regions of the modern ocean, where the biological pump is relatively inefficient at transferring carbon from the atmosphere to the deep sea. The system is thought to be iron-limited. Aeolian dust is a significant source of iron and other nutrients that are essential for the health of marine ecosystems and potentially a controlling factor of the high-nutrient-low chlorophyll status of the Subarctic North Pacific. However, constraining the size of the dust flux to the surface ocean remains difficult. Here we apply two different approaches, based on surface sediment and water column samples, respectively, obtained during the SO202/INOPEX research cruise to the Subarctic North Pacific in 2009. We map the spatial patterns of Th/U isotopes, helium isotopes and rare earth elements across surface sediments from 37 multi-core core-top sediments across the Subarctic North Pacific. In order to deconvolve the detrital endmembers in regions of the North Pacific affected by volcanic material, IRD and hemipelagic input, we use a combination of trace elements with distinct characteristics in the different endmembers. This approach allows us to calculate the relative aeolian fraction, and in combination with Thorium230-normalized mass flux data, to quantify the dust supply. Secondly, we present an innovative approach to use paired Thorium-232 and Thorium-230 concentrations of upper-ocean seawater at 7 stations along the INOPEX track. Thorium-232 in the upper water column is dominantly derived from dissolution of aeolian dust, whereas Thorium-230 data provide a measure of the thorium removal from the surface waters and, thus, allow us to derive Thorium-232 fluxes. Combined with a mean Thorium-232 concentration in dust and estimate of the thorium solubility, the Thorium-232 flux can be translated in a dust flux to the surface ocean. Dust flux estimates for the Subarctic North Pacific will be

  3. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, April Z. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-09-02

    This project aims to explore and develop enabling methodology and techniques for nano-scale characterization of microbe cell surface contact mechanics, interactions and adhesion quantities that allow for identification and quantification of indicative properties related to microorganism migration and transport behavior in porous media and in subsurface environments. Microbe transport has wide impact and therefore is of great interest in various environmental applications such as in situ or enhanced subsurface bioremediation,filtration processes for water and wastewater treatments and protection of drinking water supplies. Although great progress has been made towards understanding the identities and activities of these microorganisms in the subsurface, to date, little is known of the mechanisms that govern the mobility and transport of microorganisms in DOE’s contaminated sites, making the outcomes of in situ natural attenuation or contaminant stability enhancement unpredictable. Conventionally, movement of microorganisms was believed to follows the rules governing solute (particle) transport. However, recent studies revealed that cell surface properties, especially those pertaining to cell attachment/adhesion and aggregation behavior, can cause the microbe behavior to deviate from non-viable particles and hence greatly influence the mobility and distribution of microorganisms in porous media.This complexity highlights the need to obtain detailed information of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions in order to improve and refine the conceptual and quantitative model development for fate and transport of microorganisms and contaminant in subsurface. Traditional cell surface characterization methods are not sufficient to fully predict the deposition rates and transport behaviors of microorganism observed. A breakthrough of methodology that would allow for quantitative and molecular-level description of intrinsic cell surface properties indicative for cell

  4. Is the mineralisation response to root exudation controlled by the microbial stoichiometric demand in subarctic soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Hicks, Lettice; Leizeaga, Ainara; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will expose arctic and subarctic systems to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more rhizosphere labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1˚ C over ambient using open top chambers) and the addition of plant litter (90 g m-2 y-1) or organic nitrogen (N) (fungal fruit bodies; 90 g m-2 y-1) in the Subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralisation to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Root exudation were simulated with the addition of labile organic matter both in the form of only labile C (13C-glucose) or in the form of labile C and N (13C-alanine). We hypothesized that labile C would induce a higher mineralization of N than C sourced from SOM ("N mining"); a response unrelated to microbial growth responses. We also hypothesized that the N mining effect would be more pronounced in climate change simulation treatments of higher C/N (plant litter) than treatments with lower C/N (fungal fruitbodies and warming), with the control treatments intermediate. We also hypothesized that the addition of labile C and N would not result in selective N mining, but instead coupled responses of C and N mineralisation sourced from SOM; a response that would coincide with stimulated microbial growth responses. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralisation of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralisation of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile-C inhibited C mineralisation is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilisation' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralisation responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralisation. However, C and N mineralisation responses

  5. Complex Population Structure of Lyme Borreliosis Group Spirochete Borrelia garinii in Subarctic Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstedt, Pär; Asokliene, Loreta; Eliasson, Ingvar; Olsen, Björn; Wallensten, Anders; Bunikis, Jonas; Bergström, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia garinii, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia, is naturally maintained in marine and terrestrial enzootic cycles, which primarily involve birds, including seabirds and migratory passerines. These bird groups associate with, correspondingly, Ixodes uriae and Ixodes ricinus ticks, of which the latter species may bite and transmit the infection to humans. Studies of the overlap between these two natural cycles of B. garinii have been limited, in part due to the absence of representative collections of this spirochete's samples, as well as of the lack of reliable measure of the genetic heterogeneity of its strains. As a prerequisite for understanding the epidemiological correlates of the complex maintenance of B. garinii, the present study sought to assess the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of this species' strains from its natural hosts and patients with Lyme borreliosis from subarctic Eurasia. We used sequence typing of the partial rrs-rrl intergenic spacer (IGS) of archived and prospective samples of B. garinii from I. uriae ticks collected predominantly on Commander Islands in North Pacific, as well as on the islands in northern Sweden and arctic Norway. We also typed B. garinii samples from patients with Lyme borreliosis and I. ricinus ticks infesting migratory birds in southern Sweden, or found questing in selected sites on the islands in the Baltic Sea and Lithuania. Fifty-two (68%) of 77 B. garinii samples representing wide geographical range and associated with I. ricinus and infection of humans contributed 12 (60%) of total 20 identified IGS variants. In contrast, the remaining 25 (32%) samples recovered from I. uriae ticks from a few islands accounted for as many as 10 (50%) IGS types, suggesting greater local diversity of B. garinii maintained by seabirds and their ticks. Two IGS variants of the spirochete in common for both tick species were found in I. ricinus larvae from migratory birds, an indication that B

  6. Seasonal and spatial patterns of heterotrophic bacterial production, respiration, and biomass in the subarctic NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Nelson D.; Boyd, Philip W.; Sugimoto, Kugako; Harrison, Paul J.

    1999-11-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial biomass, production, and respiration rates were measured during winter, spring, and summer in the subarctic NE Pacific from September 1995 to June 1997. Sampling took place on six cruises at five hydrographic stations along the east/west line-P transect from slope waters at P4 (1200 m depth) to the open-ocean waters at Ocean Station Papa (OSP) (4250 m depth). Interannual variability was small relative to seasonal and spatial variability. Biomass, derived from cell counts (assuming 20 fg C cell -1), was ca. 12 μg C l -1 in the winter and increased to 20-35 μg C l -1 in the spring and summer all along line-P. Bacterial production from [ 3H]-thymidine and [ 14C]-leucine incorporation rates was lowest in the winter (ca. 0.5 μg C l -1 d -1) with little spatial variability. Production increased 10-fold in spring at P4 (to ca. 4.5 μg C l -1 d -1). In contrast, only a 2-fold increase in bacterial production was observed over this period at the more oceanic stations. Rates of production in late summer were highest over the annual cycle at all stations ranging from ca. 6 at P4 to ca. 2 μg C l -1 d -1 at OSP. Bacterial (rates increased >10-fold to ca. 100 μg C l -1 d -1 at P4 in the summer, but, interestingly, did not increase from spring to summer at the more oceanic stations. Thus bacterial growth efficiency, defined as production/(production+respiration), decreased in the spring westwards from the slope waters (P4) to the open-ocean (OSP), but increased westwards in the summer. Bacterial production was highly correlated with temperature at OSP ( r2=0.88) and less so at P4 ( r2=0.50). The observed temporal and spatial trends presented in this study suggest that seasonal changes in bacterial biomass were greatly affected by changes in loss processes, that bacterial biomass is regulated by different processes than bacterial production, and that bacterial production alone, without respiration measurements, is not a robust proxy for bacterial

  7. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...... in cooperation and development of ICTs seems to pass unnoticed. However, since they are aligned into ICTs, technicities impact innovation....

  8. Technical report.Technical advise to the DINAMIGE ( Mining and Energy Directorate) Montevideo - Uruguay in relation to the environment impact which could originate the installation of gold mineral processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piret, N.; Shoukry, B.

    1990-01-01

    In 1990 Dinamige was assisted by a German mission in relation to the environment impact which could originate the installation of mineral of oro processing plants. This study were carried out in two priority zones: Project Mahoma by the Mining San Jose Co. S.A/Retamosa SRL in San Jose district /Stel S.A in Minas de Corrales in Rivera.

  9. Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, K.D.; Knudsen, R.; Primicerio, R.; Klemetsen, A.; Kuris, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Parasites permeate trophic webs with their often complex life cycles, but few studies have included parasitism in food web analyses. Here we provide a highly resolved food web from the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake and explore how the incorporation of parasites alters the topology of the web. 2. Parasites used hosts at all trophic levels and increased both food-chain lengths and the total number of trophic levels. Their inclusion in the network analyses more than doubled the number of links and resulted in an increase in important food-web characteristics such as linkage density and connectance. 3. More than half of the parasite taxa were trophically transmitted, exploiting hosts at multiple trophic levels and thus increasing the degree of omnivory in the trophic web. 4. For trophically transmitted parasites, the number of parasite-host links exhibited a positive correlation with the linkage density of the host species, whereas no such relationship was seen for nontrophically transmitted parasites. Our findings suggest that the linkage density of free-living species affects their exposure to trophically transmitted parasites, which may be more likely to adopt highly connected species as hosts during the evolution of complex life cycles. 5. The study supports a prominent role for parasites in ecological networks and demonstrates that their incorporation may substantially alter considerations of food-web structure and functioning. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

  10. Seasonal changes in the radiation balance of subarctic forest and tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, P.M.; Renzetti, A.V.; Bello, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the seasonal behavior of the components of the radiation budget of subarctic tundra and open forest near Churchill, Manitoba. Data were collected between late February and August 1990. The presence of the winter snowpack is the most important factor which affects the difference in radiation balances of tundra and forest. Overall, net radiation was about four to five times larger over the forest when snow covered the ground. Albedo differences were primarily responsible for this difference in net radiation; however, somewhat smaller net longwave losses were experienced at the tundra site. The step decrease in albedo from winter to summer (i.e. snow-covered to snow-free conditions) was significant at both sites. The forest albedo decreased by about three-fold while the tundra experienced a seven-fold decrease. Net radiation at both sites increased in direct response to the albedo change. Transmissivity of the atmosphere near Churchill also appeared to change at about the same time as the loss of the snow cover and may be related to changing air masses which bring about the final snow melt

  11. Rapid responses of permafrost and vegetation to experimentally increased snow cover in sub-arctic Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Margareta; Bosiö, Julia; Akerman, H Jonas; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin; Christensen, Torben R; Callaghan, Terry V

    2013-01-01

    Increased snow depth already observed, and that predicted for the future are of critical importance to many geophysical and biological processes as well as human activities. The future characteristics of sub-arctic landscapes where permafrost is particularly vulnerable will depend on complex interactions between snow cover, vegetation and permafrost. An experimental manipulation was, therefore, set up on a lowland peat plateau with permafrost, in northernmost Sweden, to simulate projected future increases in winter precipitation and to study their effects on permafrost and vegetation. After seven years of treatment, statistically significant differences between manipulated and control plots were found in mean winter ground temperatures, which were 1.5 ° C higher in manipulated plots. During the winter, a difference in minimum temperatures of up to 9 ° C higher could be found in individual manipulated plots compared with control plots. Active layer thicknesses increased at the manipulated plots by almost 20% compared with the control plots and a mean surface subsidence of 24 cm was recorded in the manipulated plots compared to 5 cm in the control plots. The graminoid Eriophorum vaginatum has expanded in the manipulated plots and the vegetation remained green longer in the season. (letter)

  12. Some factors effecting algal consumption in subarctic Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Simuliidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the factors influencing algal consumption in the mayflies Leptophlebia nebulosa, Cinygmula tarda, Baetis foemina and B. cf. bicaudatus, the plecopterans Arcynopteryx signata, Nemoura cinctipes and N. oregonensis and in the dipterans Simulium arcticum, S. venustum and S. decorum were investigated between June 1975 and June 1976 in several streams in the Canadian subarctic. Algae represented up to 65% of the gut contents of L. nebulosa but only 0--8% in the other mayflies. They were important in the plecopterans (85--90%) but less so (2--13%) in the simuliids. Most of the interspecies variability in algal consumption could be explained in terms of food availability. This factor was in turn dependent on the density and attachment characteristics of the flora and the strength of their cell wall. Feeding intensity in most species was low between October and April, reaching it peak in July and August. From 51 to 83% of intraspecies feeding variability was due to changing temperature, followed in importance by water velocity in the dipterans and food availability in the mayflies. All species in this latter group ceased feeding in the final instar stages.

  13. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  14. Effects of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc enrichments on productivity and biomass in the subarctic Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coale, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    Natural plankton populations from subarctic Pacific surface waters were incubated in 7-d experiments with added concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Small additions of metals were used to simulate natural perturbations in metal concentrations potentially experienced by marine plankton. Trace metal concentrations, phytoplankton productivity, Chl a, and the species composition of phytoplankton and microzooplankton were measured over the course of the experiment. Although the controls indicated little growth, increases in phytoplankton productivity, Chl a, and cell densities were dramatic after the addition of 0.89 nM Fe, indicating that it may limit the rates of algal production in these waters. Similar increases were observed in experiments with 3.9 nM Cu added. The Cu effect is attributed to a decrease in the grazing activities of the microzooplankton and increases in the rates of production. Mn enrichment had its greatest effect on diatom biomass, whereas Zn enrichment had its greatest effect on other autofluorescent organisms. The extent of trace metal adsorption onto carboy walls was also evaluated. These results imply that natural systems may be affected as follows: natural levels of Fe and Cu may influence phytoplankton productivity and trophic structure in open-ocean, high-nutrient, low-biomass systems; rates of net production are not limited by one micronutrient alone

  15. Wintertime pytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supportedby continental margin iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus,Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2004-06-08

    Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North PacificOcean, a region that is thought to beiron-limited. Here we provideevidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in thesubarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from thecontinental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincidentwith the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was usedto describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of ironin size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis revealsthat discrete micron-sized iron-rich hotspots are ubiquitous in the upper200m at OSP, more than 900km from the closest coast. The specifics of thechemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to thecontinental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hotspots are a markerfor the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm thedelivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an oceangeneral circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at thecontinental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental marginstimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLCcondition.

  16. Diverse Mesorhizobium bacteria nodulate native Astragalus and Oxytropis in arctic and subarctic areas in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Lindström, Kristina; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia nodulating native Astragalus and Oxytropis spp. in Northern Europe are not well-studied. In this study, we isolated bacteria from nodules of four Astragalus spp. and two Oxytropis spp. from the arctic and subarctic regions of Sweden and Russia. The phylogenetic analyses were performed by using sequences of three housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoB and recA) and two accessory genes (nodC and nifH). The results of our multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of the three housekeeping genes tree showed that all the 13 isolates belonged to the genus Mesorhizobium and were positioned in six clades. Our concatenated housekeeping gene tree also suggested that the isolates nodulating Astragalus inopinatus, Astragalus frigidus, Astragalus alpinus ssp. alpinus and Oxytropis revoluta might be designated as four new Mesorhizobium species. The 13 isolates were grouped in three clades in the nodC and nifH trees. 15 N analysis suggested that the legumes in association with these isolates were actively fixing nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The Biogeochemical Response to Inter-decadal Atmospheric Forcing Across Watershed Scales in Canada's Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid landscape changes in the circumpolar north have been documented, including degradation of permafrost and alteration of vegetation communities. These are widely expected to have profound impacts on the freshwater fluxes of solutes, carbon and nitrogen across the Arctic domain. However, there have been few attempts to document trends across the diversity of landscapes in the circumpolar north, mostly due to a dearth of long term data. Some of the fastest rates of warming over the last thirty years have occurred in Canada's Northwest Territories, so this region should already exhibit changes in aquatic chemistry. Observations of chemical loads in streams draining the ice-poor discontinuous permafrost subarctic Canadian Shield region were analyzed with the goal of determining how basins across scales have responded to changes in atmospheric forcing. Smaller streams, with much closer linkages to terrestrial processes, experienced a synchrony among hydrological and biogeochemical processes that enhanced chemical flux above that in their larger counterparts. This demonstrates that there are differences in resiliency and resistance across scales to climate change. These results highlight the importance of biogeochemical process understanding to properly explain and predict how chemical loading scales from headwaters to river mouths. This is important information if society is to properly adapt policies for effluent discharge, nearshore marine management, among others.

  18. Phytoplankton growth and herbivory in the subarctic Pacific: A chemotaxonomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welschmeyer, N.; Goericke, R.; Strom, S.; Peterson, W.

    1991-01-01

    Chlorophyll crops in the subarctic Pacific are low and relatively constant throughout the year; however, net growth of phytoplankton occurs when natural water is enclosed in incubation containers and exposed to adequate irradiance. Pigment-based measurements of taxon-specific growth rates and taxon-specific grazing pressure were made in an attempt to understand the dynamic processes leading to the net growth of phytoplankton in bottles. Specific growth rates, determined from 14 C labeling of chromatographically separated pigments showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells (diatoms) were the fastest growing microalgae; a rapid net accumulation of fucoxanthin also occurred. Independent measurements of specific growth rates, determined from chromatographic analysis of microzooplankton dilution experiments, also showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells had the highest specific growth rates. Importantly, microzooplankton grazing rates on fucoxanthin-containing cells were only about half the specific growth rate; hence, the resultant bloom of fucoxanthin. The authors speculate that the lag in chlorophyll growth that has been reported previously is an artifact of subculturing; fast-growing, but dilute, fucoxanthin-containing cells do not become a significant portion of the total chlorophyll signal until late in the experiment. Other diagnostic carotenoids, such as 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin and 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, remained nearly constant through long-term incubations. However, they became actively 14 C labeled and showed positive specific rates of growth. Dilution experiments showed that their specific growth rate was compensated by microzooplankton grazing

  19. Modeling a two-layer flow system at the subarctic, subalpine tree line during snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Erica E.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    2002-10-01

    In the subarctic it is common to encounter a two-layer flow system consisting of a porous organic cover overlying frozen or unfrozen mineral soils with much lower hydraulic conductivities. The "simple lumped reservoir parametric," or "semidistributed land-use-based runoff processes" (SLURP), model was adapted to simulate runoff generated by such a flow system from an upland shrub land to an open woodland downslope. A subalpine site in Wolf Creek, Yukon, Canada, was subdivided into two aggregated simulation areas (ASA), each being a unit characterized by a set of parameters. The model computes the vertical water balance and flow generation from several storages, and then routes the water out of the ASA. When applied to the 1999 snowmelt season, the model simulated the very low lateral flow and a large increase in storage in the mineral soil, as was observed in the field. The model was used to assess the sensitivity of the two-layer flow system under a range of temperature, snow cover, and frost conditions. Results show that within the range of possible climatic conditions, the hydrologic system is unlikely to yield significant runoff across the subalpine tree line, but if ground ice is abundant in the soil pores, percolation will be limited and fast flow from the surface layer is enhanced.

  20. UAV Remote Sensing Surveillance of a Mine Tailings Impoundment in Sub-Arctic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anssi Rauhala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining typically involves extensive areas where environmental monitoring is spatially sporadic. New remote sensing techniques and platforms such as Structure from Motion (SfM and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs may offer one solution for more comprehensive and spatially continuous measurements. We conducted UAV campaigns in three consecutive summers (2015–2017 at a sub-Arctic mining site where production was temporarily suspended. The aim was to monitor a 0.5 km2 tailings impoundment and measure potential subsidence of tailings. SfM photogrammetry was used to produce yearly topographical models of the tailings surface, which allowed the amount of surface displacement between years to be tracked. Ground checkpoints surveyed in stable areas of the impoundment were utilized in assessing the vertical accuracy of the models. Observed surface displacements were linked to a combination of erosion, tailings settlement, and possible compaction of the peat layer underlying the tailings. The accuracy obtained indicated that UAV-assisted monitoring of tailings impoundments is sufficiently accurate for supporting impoundment management operations and for tracking surface displacements in the decimeter range.

  1. Feasibility analysis of a smart grid photovoltaics system for the subarctic rural region in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei

    A smart grid photovoltaics system was developed to demonstrate that the system is feasible for a similar off-grid rural community in the subarctic region in Alaska. A system generation algorithm and a system business model were developed to determine feasibility. Based on forecasts by the PV F-Chart software, a 70° tilt angle in winter, and a 34° tilt angle in summer were determined to be the best angles for electrical output. The proposed system's electricity unit cost was calculated at 32.3 cents/kWh that is cheaper than current unsubsidized electricity price (46.8 cents/kWh) in off-grid rural communities. Given 46.8 cents/kWh as the electricity unit price, the system provider can break even when 17.3 percent of the total electrical revenue through power generated by the proposed system is charged. Given these results, the system can be economically feasible during the life-cycle period. With further incentives, the system may have a competitive advantage.

  2. Habitat quality of a subarctic nursery ground for 0-group plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Vânia; Campos, Joana; Skreslet, Stig; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2010-07-01

    Habitat quality of a subarctic nursery ground in northern Norway for 0-group plaice Pleuronectes platessa was investigated by following settlement, mortality and growth during 2005 and 2006. Newly settled individuals were first observed in the end of May to early June and settlement lasted until mid-July. Densities peaked in early July and were comparable to those reported in temperate nursery grounds. Mortality estimates after settlement differed between 0.062 d -1 in 2005 and 0.025 d -1 in 2006. Potential predators appeared to be rather similar as those reported in other areas: the brown shrimp Crangoncrangon, the shore crab Carcinus maenas and demersal fish species (gadoids). Population mean growth indicated linear growth until August leveling-off afterwards. 0-group plaice reached a lower mean size (5-6 cm) at the end of the growing season than in temperate areas probably due to later settlement timing in combination with lower summer-autumn water temperatures. The comparison of observed growth rates with predictions of maximum growth models indicated a similar pattern as observed in temperate nursery grounds: Growth appeared to be maximal except for the period after summer. Whether or not this was related to changes in food quality throughout the season, to interspecies competition or to emigration remains to be elucidated.

  3. The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Thomas, David; Rysgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the relative effects of biological activity and precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in influencing the air-ice CO2 exchange in sea-ice-covered season is currently lacking. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal occurrence of CaCO3 and other biogeochemical parameters...... in sea ice are still not well described. Here we investigated autotrophic and heterotrophic activity as well as the precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 in subarctic sea ice in South West Greenland. Integrated over the entire ice season (71 days), the sea ice was net autotrophic with a net carbon fixation...... and CaCO3 precipitation. The net biological production could only explain 4 % of this sea-ice-driven CO2 uptake. Abiotic processes contributed to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 1.5 mmol m(-2) sea ice day(-1), and dissolution of CaCO3 increased the air-sea CO2 uptake by 36 % compared to a theoretical estimate...

  4. Late Holocene climate and chemical change at high latitudes: case studies from contaminated sites in subarctic and arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Cooney, Darryl; Crann, Carley; Falck, Hendrik; Howell, Dana; Jamieson, Heather; Macumber, Andrew; Nasser, Nawaf; Palmer, Michael; Patterson, R. Timothy; Parsons, Michael; Roe, Helen M.; Sanei, Hamed; Spence, Christopher; Stavinga, Drew; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability is occurring at unprecedented rates in northern regions of the Earth, yet little is known about the nature of this variability or its influence on chemical cycling in the environment, particularly in areas with a legacy of contamination from past resource development. We use a paleolimnological approach to reconstruct climate and chemical change over centuries and millennia at two sites in the mineral-rich Slave Geologic Province in Northern Canada heavily impacted by gold mining. Such an approach is necessary to define the cumulative effects of climate change on metal loading and can be used to define anthropogenic release of contaminants to support policy and regulation due to a paucity of long-term monitoring data. The Seabridge Gold Inc. Courageous Lake project is a gold exploration project 240 km north of Yellowknife in the central Northwest Territories, Arctic Canada. Mining operations took place within the claim area at the Tundra (1964-1968) and Salmita (1983-1987) mines. Giant Mine is located in the subarctic near the City of Yellowknife and mining at this site represents the longest continuous gold mining operation in Canada (1938 to 2002). Due to the refractory mineralogy of ore, gold was extracted from arsenopyrite by roasting, which resulted in release of substantial quantities of highly toxic arsenic trioxide to the environment. Arsenic (As) is also naturally elevated at these sites due its occurrence in Yellowknife Supergroup greenstone belts and surficial geologic deposits. To attempt to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of As and characterize the role of climate change on metalloid mobility we used a freeze coring technology to capture lake sediments from the properties. Sediments were analyzed for sedimentary grain size and bulk geochemistry using ICP-MS to reconstruct climate and chemical change. Micropaleontological analyses are on-going. Interpretations of the physical, chemical, and biological archive

  5. FAA Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet Fuels & Environment : Annual Technical Report : December, 2016 : For the period September 13, 2013 - September 30, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report covers the period between the initial establishment of the FAA Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet Fuels and Environment on September 13, 2013 through September 30, 2015. The Center was established by the authority of FAA solicitatio...

  6. Report on International Spaceborne Imaging Spectroscopy Technical Committee Calibration and Validation Workshop, National Environment Research Council Field Spectroscopy Facility, University of Edinburgh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, C,; Mueller, A.; Thome, K.; Bachmann, M.; Czapla-Myers, J.; Holzwarth, S.; Khalsa, S. J.; Maclellan, C.; Malthus, T.; Nightingale, J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Calibration and validation are fundamental for obtaining quantitative information from Earth Observation (EO) sensor data. Recognising this and the impending launch of at least five sensors in the next five years, the International Spaceborne Imaging Spectroscopy Technical Committee instigated a calibration and validation initiative. A workshop was conducted recently as part of this initiative with the objective of establishing a good practice framework for radiometric and spectral calibration and validation in support of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy missions. This paper presents the outcomes and recommendations for future work arising from the workshop.

  7. Uptake of pulse injected nitrogen by soil microbes and mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants in a species-diverse subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Jonasson, Sven; Strom, Lena

    2008-01-01

    15N labeled ammonium, glycine or glutamic acid was injected into subarctic heath soil in situ, with the purpose of investigating how the nitrogen added in these pulses was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the acquisition of 15N label in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhiza......15N labeled ammonium, glycine or glutamic acid was injected into subarctic heath soil in situ, with the purpose of investigating how the nitrogen added in these pulses was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the acquisition of 15N label in mycorrhizal and non...

  8. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  9. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  10. Comparative responses of phenology and reproductive development to simulated environmental change in sub-arctic and high arctic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wookey, P A; Welker, J M; Callaghan, T V [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Parsons, A N; Potter, J A; Lee, J A; Press, M C [Dept. of Environmental Biology, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, precipitation and nutrient perturbations, and their interactions, are being assessed on two contrasting arctic ecosystems to simulate impacts of climate change. One, a high arctic polar semi-desert community, is characterized by a sparse, low and aggregated vegetation cover where plant proliferation is by seedlings, whereas the other, a sub-arctic dwarf shrub health, is characterized by a complete, vegetation cover of erect, clonal dwarf shrubs which spread vegetatively. The developmental processes of seed production were shown to be highly sensitive, even within one growing season to specific environmental perturbations which differed between sites. At the polar semi-desert site, there was a striking effect of the temperature enhancement treatments on phenology and seed-setting of Dryas octopetala ssp. octopetala, with almost no seed-setting occurring in plots experiencing ambient temperatures. By contrast, there were no significant effects of temperature enhancement alone on fruit production of Empetrum hermaphroditum at the sub-Arctic dwarf shrub heath site, although fruit production was significantly influenced by the application of nutrients and/or water. The response of dominant high arctic dwarf shrub to increased temperature suggests that any climate warming may stimulate seed-set. This could be particularly important in the high Arctic where colonization can proceed in areas dominated by bare ground and where genetic recombination may be needed to generate tolerance to predicted changes of great magnitude. In the sub-Arctic, however the closed vegetation is dominated by clonally-proliferating species. Plant fitness will increase here in response to any increased vegetative growth resulting from higher nutrient availability in warmer organic soils. (ua) (59 refs.)

  11. Development and application of sedimentary pigments for assessing effects of climatic and environmental changes on subarctic lakes in northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuss, Nina Steenberg; Leavitt, Peter R.; Hall, Roland I.

    2010-01-01

    to the modern tree line. The spatial survey of sedimentary pigments was analyzed using principle components analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). PCA explained 73-83% of variance in pigment abundance and composition, whereas RDA explained 22-32% of variation in fossil assemblages. Dissolved organic...... transitions in the phototrophic community during the late Holocene were less easily interpreted. Terrestrial vegetation development thus appears to be of utmost importance for the regulation of primary production in oligotrophic alpine and subarctic lakes and climate impacts on lakes, whereas other basin...

  12. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...

  13. Wetland development, permafrost history and nutrient cycling inferred from late Holocene peat and lake sediment records in subarctic Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokfelt, U.; Reuss, N.; Struyf, E.

    2010-01-01

    to re-deposition of peat into one of the lakes after ca. 2,100 cal BP, and stimulated primary productivity in the other lake at ca. 1,900-1,800 cal BP. Carbonate precipitation appears to have been suppressed when acidic poor fen and bog (palsa) communities dominated the catchment mire, and permafrost...... insight into nutrient and permafrost dynamics in a subarctic wetland and imply that continued permafrost decay and related vegetation changes towards minerotrophy may increase carbon and nutrient storage of mire deposits and reduce nutrient fluxes in runoff. Rapid permafrost degradation may on the other...

  14. Distributions and seasonal abundances of krill eggs and larvae in the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Frederik Wolff; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Akther, Hasna

    2015-01-01

    The larval krill community (Thysanoessa spp.) was investigated along the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland, in June 2010. In addition, the progress of krill development from egg to furcilia was studied from March to August 2010 in a fjord branching off the Godthåbsfjord. Krill spawned from...... and furcilia stages lasted 22 and 63 d, respectively. The growth rate from metanauplius to calyptopis was 0.12 d−1, while the growth rate across all developmental stages was 0.05 d−1. Mortality rates were calculated as 25% from eggs to nauplii, 48% from eggs to calyptopes and 83% from eggs to furcilia. During...

  15. Macrozoobenthos in the subarctic river Tenojoki as an environmental indicator. Tenojoen pohjaelaeimistoe ympaeristoen laadun kuvaajana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lax, H.G.; Koskenniemi, E.; Sevola, P.; Bagge, P.

    1993-01-01

    The macrozoobenthos of the subarctic river Tenojoki and some of its tributaries was studied in June and September 1989 as a part of the environmental monitoring programme. The river (F = 16 386 km[sup 2], length 300 km, L = 2.4 %, Q varies between 30-400 m[sup 3]/s) is situated on the Finnish-Norwegian border and is characterized by sand bottoms interrupted by shorter reaches of gravel and stone bottoms. The water is usually clear (colour < 40 mg Pt/l) and oligotrophic (tot-P < 10 [mu]g/l). The bottom fauna was sampled from 9 stations in the main river and from one station in each of the 5 major tributaries. The sampling methods used were: kick-sampling and imago hand netting from all stations, colonization substrates (stone baskets and bricks) at 9 stations in the main river. The tax a number of the kick-samples varied from 10-15/station in spring (totally 51 taxa) and from 15-25/station in autumn (totally 69 taxa). In spring the river margin (depth 0-25 cm) seemed to be an important habitat for many species especially in the upper parts of the river. In autumn most of the species occurred on deeper bottoms (depth 50-100 cm). The most common feeding types in spring were the collectors (Amaletus inopinatus, Chironomidae) and in autumn the scrapers (Elmidae, Baetidae, Hydroptllidae) and collectors (Chironomidae). The pollution index (LongScoreSystem) indicated that the conditions in the lower part of the main river was more stressing for the bottom fauna than in the upper part. But up to now it seems as if the organic pollution from settlements have had only positive effects on the benthic community

  16. Observing Trace Gases Of The Arctic And Subarctic Stratosphere By TELIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Doicu, Adrian; Vogt, Peter; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg; Trautmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The Terahertz and submillimeter Limb Sounder (TELIS) is a balloon-borne cryogenic heterodyne spectrometer developed by a consortium of European institutes, which was mounted together with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - Balloon (MIPAS- B) and the mini- Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mini-DOAS) instruments on a stratospheric gondola. The TELIS instrument is designed to monitor the vertical distribution of stratospheric state parameters associated with ozone destruction and climate change in Arctic and subarctic areas. The broad spectral coverage of TELIS is achieved by utilizing three frequency channels: a tunable 1.8THz channel based on a solid state local oscillator and a hot electron bolometer as mixer, a 480-650GHz channel with the Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) technology, and a highly compact 500 GHz channel developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON), and the Rutherford Apple- ton Laboratory (RAL), respectively. Furthermore, an ex- tended spectral range is observed by the combination of TELIS and MIPAS-B, which can be employed for cross validation of several gas concentrations. Between 2009 and 2011 three successful scientific flights have been launched in Kiruna, Sweden and all relevant atmospheric gas species were seen by TELIS over an altitude range of 10-32.5 km. For estimation of concentration profiles from TELIS measurements, a constrained nonlinear least squares fitting framework along with var- ious Tikhonov-type regularization methods has been developed. In this work we present recent retrieval results from latest calibrated spectra during the 2010 flight. Emphasis is placed on ozone (O3) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), and error issues pertaining to the main instrumental uncertainty terms including nonlinearity in the calibration procedure, sideband ratio and pointing offset are investigated. The retrieved profiles are validated against

  17. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-02-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O(2) concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing (clone libraries and 454-pyrotags). Estimates of MGA abundance as a proportion of total bacteria were similar across all three methods although estimates based on CARD-FISH were consistently lower in the OMZ (5.6%±1.9%) than estimates based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (11.0%±3.9%) or pyrotags (9.9%±1.8%). Five previously defined MGA subgroups were recovered in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and five novel subgroups were defined (HF770D10, P262000D03, P41300E03, P262000N21 and A714018). Rarefaction analysis of pyrotag data indicated that the ultimate richness of MGA was very nearly sampled. Spearman's rank analysis of MGA abundances by CARD-FISH and O(2) concentrations resulted in significant correlation. Analyzed in more detail by 16S rRNA pyrotag sequencing, MGA operational taxonomic units affiliated with subgroups Arctic95A-2 and A714018 comprised 0.3-2.4% of total bacterial sequences and displayed strong correlations with decreasing O(2) concentration. This study is the first comprehensive description of MGA diversity using complementary techniques. These results provide a phylogenetic framework for interpreting future studies on ecotype selection among MGA subgroups, and suggest a potentially important role for MGA in the ecology and biogeochemistry of OMZs.

  18. Growth, development, and nutritional physiology of grasshoppers from subarctic and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; Defoliart, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of developmental rate, growth rate, and size at maturity in the life history of poikliotherms, the trade-offs among these traits and selection pressures involved in the evolution of these traits are not well understood. This study compared these traits in a grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes F. (Orthoptera: Acrididae), from two contrasting geographical regions, subarctic Alaska and temperate Idaho. The growing season in the interior of Alaska is about 80 d shorter than at low-elevation sites in Idaho. We hypothesized that the Alaskan grasshoppers would show more rapid growth and development than grasshoppers from Idaho, at the cost of greater sensitivity to food quality. On a diet of lettuce and wheat bran, grasshoppers from Alaska developed from egg hatch to adult more rapidly than those from Idaho at each of three different temperature regimes. Averaged over all temperature treatments, the weight of the Alaskan grasshoppers was about 5% less than that of the Idaho grasshoppers at the adult molt. Feeding and digestive efficiencies were determined for the final two instars using two meridic diets: one with a high concentration of nutrients and the other with the same formulation but diluted with cellulose. Alaskan grasshoppers again developed more rapidly, weighed less, and had faster growth rates than those from Idaho. Alaskan grasshoppers supported their more rapid growth by increasing postingestive efficiencies; that is, they had higher conversion rates of digested matter to biomass on the high-quality diet, greater assimilation of food on the low-quality diet, and greater efficiency of nitrogen assimilation or retention on both diets. There was no evidence that performance of Alaskan grasshoppers suffered any more than that of the Idaho grasshoppers on the low-quality diet.

  19. Ozone variability and halogen oxidation within the Arctic and sub-Arctic springtime boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Gilman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of halogen oxidation on the variabilities of ozone (O3 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs within the Arctic and sub-Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated using field measurements from multiple campaigns conducted in March and April 2008 as part of the POLARCAT project. For the ship-based measurements, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.98 for 544 data points collected north of 68° N was observed between the acetylene to benzene ratio, used as a marker for chlorine and bromine oxidation, and O3 signifying the vast influence of halogen oxidation throughout the ice-free regions of the North Atlantic. Concurrent airborne and ground-based measurements in the Alaskan Arctic substantiated this correlation and were used to demonstrate that halogen oxidation influenced O3 variability throughout the Arctic boundary layer during these springtime studies. Measurements aboard the R/V Knorr in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans provided a unique view of the transport of O3-poor air masses from the Arctic Basin to latitudes as far south as 52° N. FLEXPART, a Lagrangian transport model, was used to quantitatively determine the exposure of air masses encountered by the ship to first-year ice (FYI, multi-year ice (MYI, and total ICE (FYI+MYI. O3 anti-correlated with the modeled total ICE tracer (r = −0.86 indicating that up to 73% of the O3 variability measured in the Arctic marine boundary layer could be related to sea ice exposure.

  20. Future stratospheric ozone depletion will affect a subarctic dwarf shrub ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Ulf

    1997-02-01

    The stratospheric ozone depletion and the concomitant increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation is of global concern due to the effects of UV-B on living organisms. To investigate the effects of increased levels of UV-B, a field irradiation system was established at a subarctic dwarf shrub heath in Northern Sweden (68 deg N). An ozone depletion of 15% under clear sky conditions was simulated over a naturally growing ecosystem. The response of both individual components and processes was studied to reveal changes in ecosystem structure and function. Species with different life strategies (evergreen or deciduous) responded differently both in magnitude and direction. The evergreen species were more responsive to UV-B regarding shoot growth, which could be due to cumulative effects in long-lived tissues, since the retardation in relative growth increased over time of exposure. Leaves of evergreen species became thicker under enhanced UV-B, while leaves of deciduous species became thinner. Decomposition studies (laboratory and in situ) showed that indirect effects of UV-B, due to changes in leaf tissue chemistry affected microbial activity and slowed down the decomposition rate. More directly, UV-B decreased the abundance of some fungal species and hence the composition of species. However, no altered decomposition rate was found when decomposition progressed under high UV-B even if the microorganisms were fewer. This could be due to the increased direct photo degradation of litter that compensates for lower microbial activity. The decomposition rate is therefore strongly dependent on the interception of UV-B at the litter layer. This research has shown that ecosystem components and processes are affected in a number of ways and that there are indications of changes in species composition in a long-term perspective due to differences in responsiveness between the different species. 128 refs, 7 figs

  1. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotander, Anna; Bavel, Bert van; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Polder, Anuschka; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Dam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas was covered. PCN congeners 48, 52, 53, 66 and 69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland and the total PCN content accounted for 0.2% or less of the total non-planar PCB content. No statistically significant trend in contaminant levels could be established for the studied areas. However, in all species except minke whales caught off Norway the lowest ∑PCN concentrations were found in samples from the latest sampling period. - Highlights: ► PCN concentrations are described in a wide variety of marine mammal species. ► A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas is covered. ► Pooled blubber samples covering a time period of 23 years are evaluated. ► Species- and geographic-dependent PCN congener distribution is seen. ► A decrease in the PCN load is indicated in the studied areas in recent years. - Analysis of PCNs in seven marine mammal species sampled over a 23 year period indicates a decline in the PCN load in sub-Arctic and Arctic areas in recent years.

  2. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  3. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 2. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the aquatic environment of the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    A marine monitoring programme was carried out within the framework of the IAEA's project entitled ''Study of the Radiological Situation at Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls'' with the aim of assessing present radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls. The terms of reference of the marine working group (WG2) included a review of the data provided by the French authorities on radionuclide distributions in the littoral and sub-littoral environments at the atolls. Further, using accredited international laboratories, it was decided to carry out sufficient and new independent monitoring work at and around the atolls in order to validate existing French data and, the same time, to provide a representative and high quality data set on current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, with particular reference to the requirement of Task Group A for radiological assessment purposes. This work included measurements of the current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, and estimation of concentration factors and K d values appropriate for the region. The variations in activity concentrations in the lagoons over the past few years are discussed, and the likely sources of activity implied by these data are identified where possible

  4. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin Project management. Technical quarterly progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, J.; Ide, C.F.; O`Connor, S.

    1996-08-01

    This quarterly report summarizes accomplishments for the Project examining hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Among the many research areas summarized are the following: assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure; hazardous wastes in aquatic environment;ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River System; remediation of selected contaminants; rapid on-site immunassay for heavy metal contamination; molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity induced by retinoids and retinoid-like molecules; resuseable synthetic membranes for the removal of aromatic and halogenated organic pollutants from waste water; Effects of steroid receptor activation in neurendocrine cell of the mammalian hypothalamus; modeling and assessment of environmental quality of louisiana bayous and swamps; enhancement of environmental education. The report also contains a summary of publications resulting from this project and an appendix with analytical core protocals and target compounds and metals.

  5. The Arctic-Subarctic Sea Ice System is Entering a Seasonal Regime: Implications for Future Arctic Amplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, T. W. N.; Martin, T.

    2017-12-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is a conspicuous example of climate change. Climate models project ice-free conditions during summer this century under realistic emission scenarios, reflecting the increase in seasonality in ice cover. To quantify the increased seasonality in the Arctic-Subarctic sea ice system, we define a non-dimensional seasonality number for sea ice extent, area, and volume from satellite data and realistic coupled climate models. We show that the Arctic-Subarctic, i.e. the northern hemisphere, sea ice now exhibits similar levels of seasonality to the Antarctic, which is in a seasonal regime without significant change since satellite observations began in 1979. Realistic climate models suggest that this transition to the seasonal regime is being accompanied by a maximum in Arctic amplification, which is the faster warming of Arctic latitudes compared to the global mean, in the 2010s. The strong link points to a peak in sea-ice-related feedbacks that occurs long before the Arctic becomes ice-free in summer.

  6. Effects of a controlled under-ice oil spill on invertebrates of an arctic and a subarctic stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.C.; Stout, J.R.; Alexander, V.

    1986-01-01

    The short-term drift of macroinvertebrates is documented following two controlled oil spills placed under ice in an arctic (Imnavait Creek) and subarctic (Poker-Caribou Creek) stream just as ice covered the water in early winter. No mortality was observed, but several species responded by differentially drifting from the oil-impacted areas during the following days. In the arctic stream, Trichotanypus posticalis (Diptera) showed a significant increase in drift for the first few days. There was also an overall increase in drift of total organisms post spill. Phaenospectra sp. 1, the numerical dominant, decreased its nocturnal drifting compared with the upstream control station in the 5 days post spill. In the subarctic stream, Skwala sp. 1 (Plecoptera), Prosimulium sp. 1 (Simulidae) and Pseudodiamesa sp. 1 showed significant increase din drift post spill. Among the species of benthic invertebrates sampled with a Hess sampler (WILDCO, Saginaw, Mich.), only the density of Nemoura sp. 1 declined significantly post spill. Polar ordinations using percent difference showed that the oil-treated stations separated from the control stations in both the drift and the Hess bottom samples. Colonization of artificial substrates in Imnavait Creek during the winter following the spill was almost non-existent. In Poker-Caribou Creek much colonization took place over the winter with significantly more occurring on unoiled rocks as compared with oiled rocks.

  7. CO2 and CH4 in sea ice from a subarctic fjord under influence of riverine input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabeck, O.; Delille, B.; Thomas, D. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present CH4 concentration [CH4] and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in bulk sea ice from subarctic, land-fast sea ice in the Kapisillit fjord, Greenland. The bulk ice [CH4] ranged from 1.8 to 12.1 nmol L−1, which corresponds to a partial pressure range of 3 to 28 ppmv. This is markedly higher......-saturated compared to the atmosphere (390 ppmv). Our study adds to the few existing studies of CH4 and CO2 in sea ice and concludes that sub-arctic sea can be a sink for atmospheric CO2, while being a net source of CH4. Processes related to the freezing and melting of sea ice represents large unknowns...... to the exchange of CO2 but also CH4. It is therefore imperative to assess the consequences of these unknowns through further field campaigns and targeted research under other sea ice conditions at both hemispheres....

  8. Transformation of leaf litter by insect herbivory in the Subarctic: Consequences for soil biogeochemistry under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, J. A.; Metcalfe, D. B.; Rousk, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming may increase insect herbivore ranges and outbreak intensities in arctic ecosystems. Thorough understanding of the implications of these changes for ecosystem processes is essential to make accurate predictions of surface-atmosphere carbon (C) feedbacks. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of herbivore outbreaks on soil microbial underpinnings of C and nitrogen (N) fluxes. Here, we investigate the growth responses of heterotrophic soil decomposers and C and N mineralisation to simulated defoliator outbreaks in Subarctic birch forests. In microcosms, topsoil was incubated with leaf litter, insect frass, mineral N and combinations of the three; all was added in equal amounts of N. A higher fraction of added C and N was mineralised during outbreaks (frass addition) relative to non-outbreak years (litter addition). However, under high mineral N-availability in the soil of the kind likely under longer periods of enhanced insect herbivory (litter+mineral N), the mineralised fraction of added C decreased while the mineralised fraction of N increased substantially, which suggest a shift towards more N-mining of the organic substrates. This shift was accompanied by higher fungal dominance, and may facilitate soil C-accumulation assuming constant quality of C-inputs. Thus, long-term increases of insect herbivory, of the kind observed in some areas and projected by some models, may facilitate higher ecosystem C-sink capacity in this Subarctic ecosystem.

  9. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 6. Doses due to radioactive materials present in the environment or released from the atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International Advisory Committee, Task Group A

    1998-08-01

    In the previous volumes of this Report the concentrations of residual radioactivity in the environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls have been described, and assessment made of the releases to the environment in the future. The further step in radiological assessment is the derivation of radiation doses that arise to actually or potentially exposed populations, from these concentrations and releases. These doses are estimated in this report. The existence of a hypothetical population resident on Mururoa is postulated as the group which would be most exposed. Doses to this group are estimated together with doses to maximally exposed residents on nearby South Pacific islands, and further afield. An assessment of the potential environmental impact of the residual contaminant radionuclides from the nuclear weapons testing at Mururoa and Fangataufa requires estimates of the incremental dose rates to a variety of marine organisms inhabiting a number of different ecological niches. These estimated dose rates provide the only secure basis for an assessment of the potential radiation effects in the organisms. The approach adopted for this assessment is that employed in a number of recent studies and adapts the dosimetry models for the particular organisms of interest in the atoll environment Refs, figs, tabs. In six volumes

  10. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 6. Doses due to radioactive materials present in the environment or released from the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    In the previous volumes of this Report the concentrations of residual radioactivity in the environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls have been described, and assessment made of the releases to the environment in the future. The further step in radiological assessment is the derivation of radiation doses that arise to actually or potentially exposed populations, from these concentrations and releases. These doses are estimated in this report. The existence of a hypothetical population resident on Mururoa is postulated as the group which would be most exposed. Doses to this group are estimated together with doses to maximally exposed residents on nearby South Pacific islands, and further afield. An assessment of the potential environmental impact of the residual contaminant radionuclides from the nuclear weapons testing at Mururoa and Fangataufa requires estimates of the incremental dose rates to a variety of marine organisms inhabiting a number of different ecological niches. These estimated dose rates provide the only secure basis for an assessment of the potential radiation effects in the organisms. The approach adopted for this assessment is that employed in a number of recent studies and adapts the dosimetry models for the particular organisms of interest in the atoll environment

  11. Tulane/Xavier University hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, January 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-02

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Summaries which describe objectives, goals, and accomplishments are included on ten collaborative cluster projects, two education projects, and six initiation projects. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Effects of climate on organic carbon and the ratio of planktonic to benthic primary producers in a subarctic lake during the past 45 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, Peter; Cunningham, Laura; Vonk, Jorien; Karlsson, Jan

    The effects of climatic variables on lake-water total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and benthic and pelagic primary producers during the past 45 yr were assessed using the sediment records of two subarctic lakes, one with mires and one without mires connected to the lake. The lake with a mire

  13. TIROA/NOAA (Television and Infrared Observation Satellite/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites space environment monitor archive tape documentation: 1988 update. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.J.; Evans, D.S.; Sauer, H.H.

    1988-05-01

    TIROS/NOAA satellite archive tapes containing data obtained with the Medium-Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED), High-Energy Proton and Alpha-Particle Detector (HEPAD), and Total-Energy Detector (TED) are described. Descriptions of the data include orbital and housekeeping details and the information needed to decode and understand the data. Specifications of the data channels are supplied, with the timing information needed to convert the data to usable information. Description of the archive tape format gives the information needed to read the tape and unpack the data. Appendices supply the retrieval routines used by the Space Environment Services Center in Boulder

  14. Technical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    In this report on four patients, we did not use any of these techniques. The existence and the site of the fistulas was clearly demonstrated using basic but important preoperative detailed assessment and two intraoperative findings. The preoperative referral note that indicated the site of technical difficulty during the previous ...

  15. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  16. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience Since the closure of the detector in February, the technical operation of CMS has been quite smooth and reliable. Some minor interventions in UXC were required to cure failures of power supplies, fans, readout boards and rack cooling connections, but all these failures were repaired in scheduled technical stops or parasitically during access dedicated to fixing LHC technical problems. The only occasion when CMS had to request an access between fills was to search for the source of an alarm from the leak-detection cables mounted in the DT racks. After a few minutes of diagnostic search, a leaking air-purge was found. Replacement was complete within 2 hours. This incident demonstrated once more the value of these leak detection cables; the system will be further extended (during the end of year technical stop) to cover more racks in UXC and the floor beneath the detector. The magnet has also been operating reliably and reacted correctly to the 14s power cut on 29 May (see below). In or...

  17. Technical endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalar, K.O.

    1988-01-01

    A survey is provided on different versions of endoscopes, taking into account the new developments of video endoscopy. With a variety of practical examples it is shown that technical tests using endoscopy are a demanding task for nondestructive testing, whose requirements can only be met on a customized basis. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Plutonium, cesium, uranium, and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1982-November 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured radionuclide activities in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported from the tidal Hudson to coastal waters. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion is likely to be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 5 references

  19. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  20. Quantifying landscape-level methane fluxes in subarctic Finland using a multiscale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Iain P; Hill, Timothy C; Wade, Thomas J; Clement, Robert J; Moncrieff, John B; Prieto-Blanco, Ana; Disney, Mathias I; Huntley, Brian; Williams, Mathew; Howden, Nicholas J K; Wookey, Philip A; Baxter, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying landscape-scale methane (CH4 ) fluxes from boreal and arctic regions, and determining how they are controlled, is critical for predicting the magnitude of any CH4 emission feedback to climate change. Furthermore, there remains uncertainty regarding the relative importance of small areas of strong methanogenic activity, vs. larger areas with net CH4 uptake, in controlling landscape-level fluxes. We measured CH4 fluxes from multiple microtopographical subunits (sedge-dominated lawns, interhummocks and hummocks) within an aapa mire in subarctic Finland, as well as in drier ecosystems present in the wider landscape, lichen heath and mountain birch forest. An intercomparison was carried out between fluxes measured using static chambers, up-scaled using a high-resolution landcover map derived from aerial photography and eddy covariance. Strong agreement was observed between the two methodologies, with emission rates greatest in lawns. CH4 fluxes from lawns were strongly related to seasonal fluctuations in temperature, but their floating nature meant that water-table depth was not a key factor in controlling CH4 release. In contrast, chamber measurements identified net CH4 uptake in birch forest soils. An intercomparison between the aerial photography and satellite remote sensing demonstrated that quantifying the distribution of the key CH4 emitting and consuming plant communities was possible from satellite, allowing fluxes to be scaled up to a 100 km(2) area. For the full growing season (May to October), ~ 1.1-1.4 g CH4  m(-2) was released across the 100 km(2) area. This was based on up-scaled lawn emissions of 1.2-1.5 g CH4  m(-2) , vs. an up-scaled uptake of 0.07-0.15 g CH4  m(-2) by the wider landscape. Given the strong temperature sensitivity of the dominant lawn fluxes, and the fact that lawns are unlikely to dry out, climate warming may substantially increase CH4 emissions in northern Finland, and in aapa mire regions in general. © 2015 The

  1. Using 67Cu to study the biogeochemical cycling of copper in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Semeniuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial copper (Cu nutrition and dissolved Cu speciation were surveyed along Line P, a coastal to open ocean transect that extends from the coast of British Columbia, Canada, to the high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC zone of the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean. Steady-state size fractionated Cu uptake rates and Cu:C assimilation ratios were determined at in situ Cu concentrations and speciation using a 67Cu tracer method. The cellular Cu:C ratios that we measured (~30 µmol Cu mol C-1 are similar to recent estimates using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF, suggesting that the 67Cu method can determine in situ metabolic Cu demands. We examined how environmental changes along the Line P transect influenced Cu metabolism in the sub-microplankton community. Cellular Cu:C assimilation ratios and uptake rates were compared with net primary productivity, bacterial abundance and productivity, total dissolved Cu, Cu speciation, and a suite of other chemical and biological parameters. Total dissolved Cu concentrations ([Cu]d were within a narrow range (1.46 to 2.79 nM, and Cu was bound to a ~5-fold excess of strong ligands with conditional stability constants ( of ~1014. Free Cu2+ concentrations were low (pCu 14.4 to 15.1, and total and size fractionated net primary productivity (NPPV; µg C L-1 d-1 were negatively correlated with inorganic Cu concentrations ([Cu′]. We suggest this is due to greater Cu′ drawdown by faster growing phytoplankton populations. Using the relationship between [Cu′] drawdown and NPPV, we calculated a regional photosynthetic Cu:C drawdown export ratio between 1.5 and 15 µmol Cu mol C-1, and a mixed layer residence time (2.5 to 8 years that is similar to other independent estimates (2-12 years. Total particulate Cu uptake rates were between 22 and 125 times faster than estimates of Cu export; this is possibly mediated by rapid cellular Cu uptake and efflux by phytoplankton and bacteria or the effects of grazers and

  2. Differentiating TOC sources, preservation, and potential methane emissions in sub-Arctic lakes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; Wik, M.; Chanton, J.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic carbon-rich sediments from high latitude, shallow lakes and ponds are significant sources of methane throughout the Arctic. The origin and evolution of these lakes and ponds, however, is often not the same. Several lake types have been identified based on (1) hydrological conditions (melt-water fed, rain water fed, groundwater influenced, evaporation dominated, drained) (2) permafrost condition (thermokarst), and (3) time of origin (glacial or post-glacial). Given sufficient time (100's to 1000's years) many of these lake types may morph into others. In sub-Arctic Sweden, near Abisko and within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the elongate glacial lake Torneträsk is fed by several streams draining the surrounding highlands. Lake Tornetrask is one of several NW-SE trending glacial lakes common in the landscape throughout northern and western Sweden. Between and alongside these glacial lakes, several small (ponds exist in low-lying mires. Sediment cores from the lakes in the Stordalen Mire are characterized by high total organic carbon (TOC) content (10-50 wt. %) in the uppermost ~50 cm and commonly underlain by glaciofluvial derived sediments with lower TOC (emissions from several of these lakes has also been measured and is driven by heat input. Coincident young ages of carbon in the sediments and in methane indicate in situ production. A published record from Lake Torneträsk shows sediments there contain significantly less TOC (1-2.5 wt. %) that is derived primarily from old, terrestrial organic carbon delivered via rivers to the lake. Although the larger and deeper glacial lakes currently occupy much of the landscape it is becoming clear that as the Arctic warms TOC preservation and methane production in the smaller lakes and ponds play a more significant, immediate role in emission of methane to the atmosphere. With continued warming in the Arctic, terrestrial TOC will be relinquished from highland watersheds to glacial lakes, but the methane

  3. Response Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Carbon Flushing in a Subarctic Alpine Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2002-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important part of ecosystem-scale carbon balances and in the transport of contaminants as it interacts with other dissolved substances including trace metals. It also can be used as a surrogate hydrological tracer in permafrost regions as near-surface waters are often DOC enriched due to the presence of thick organic soils. In a small subarctic alpine catchment within the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon, Canada, DOC was studied in the summer of 2001 and spring of 2002 to determine the role frost (both permanent and seasonal), snowmelt and summer storms on DOC flushing. Peak DOC concentrations occurred during the snowmelt period, approximately one week prior to peak discharge. However, peak discharge took place several weeks after snow on south facing exposures had melted. Within the hillslopes, DOC concentrations were three to five times greater in wells underlain with permafrost compared with seasonal frost. Groundwater DOC concentrations declined during snowmelt, yet remained at levels above the streamflow. After peaking, streamflow DOC concentrations declined exponentially suggesting a simple flushing mechanism, however there did not appear to be a relation between DOC and topographic position. Following melt, permafrost underlain slopes had near-surface water tables and retained elevated levels of DOC, whereas slopes without permafrost had rapidly declining water tables at upslope locations with low DOC concentrations at all positions except near-stream riparian zones. The influence of summer rainstorms on DOC was monitored on three occasions. In each case DOC peaked on the ascending limb of the runoff hydrograph and declined exponentially on the receding limb and hysteretic behavior occurred between discharge and DOC during all events. Patterns of DOC within the hillslopes and streams suggest that runoff from permafrost-underlain slopes control DOC flushing within the stream during both snowmelt and summer periods. This

  4. Growing season boundary layer climate and surface exchanges in a subarctic lichen woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.

    1994-01-01

    Between June and August 1990, observations were made at two surface micrometeorological towers near Schefferville Quebec (54 deg 52 min N, 66 deg 40.5 min W), one in a fen and one in the subarctic lichen woodland, and at four surface climatological stations. Data from these surface stations were supplemented by regular radiosonde launches. Supporting measurements of radiative components and soil temperatures allowed heat and moisture balances to be obtained at two sites. The overall surface meteorological experiment design and results of micrometeorological observations made on a 30-m tower in the lichen woodland are presented here. Seasonal variation in the heat and water vapor transport characteristics illustrate the marked effect of the late summer climatological shift in air mass type. During the first half of the summer, average valley sidewalls only 100 m high are sufficient to channel winds along the valley in the entire convective boundary layer. Channeling effects at the surface, known for some time at the long-term climate station in Schefferville, are observed both at ridge top and in the valley, possibly the response of the flow to the NW-SE orientation of valleys in the region. Diurnal surface temperature amplitude at ridge top (approximately equal to 10 C) was found to be half that observed in the valley. Relatively large differences in precipitation among these stations and the climatological station at Schefferville airport were observed and attributed to the local topography. Eddy correlation observations of the heat, moisture and momentum transports were obtained from a 30-m tower above a sparse (approximately equal to 616 stems/ha) black spruce lichen woodland. Properties of the turbulent surface boundary layer agree well with previous wind tunnel studies over idealized rough surfaces. Daytime Bowen ratios of 2.5-3 are larger than those reported in previous studies. Surface layer flux data quality was assessed by looking at the surface layer heat

  5. Tracking the origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis for their fast adaptation to subarctic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Librado, Pablo; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    , extremely hairy winter coats, and acute seasonal differences in metabolic activities. The evolutionary origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis of their adaptations remain, however, contentious. Here, we present the complete genomes of nine present-day Yakutian horses and two ancient specimens......, likely due to the comparatively limited standing variation within gene bodies at the time the population was founded. Genes involved in hair development, body size, and metabolic and hormone signaling pathways represent an essential part of the Yakutian horse adaptive genetic toolkit. Finally, we find...

  6. Reactor safety in industrial nuclear power plants. Developments in a political and technical environment as it prevails in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufs, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The present book describes the development of reactor safety in German light-water nuclear power plants from the beginnings with its multifarious links to model solutions seen in other countries, national and international research projects and accidents in conventional and nuclear power plants. It contains detailed, richly illustrated articles on specific safety techniques such as rupture safety of the pressurised envelope, safeguarding of emergency cooling in the event of accidents involving coolant loss, control technology and protection of the surroundings through containment. The results of national and international risk studies are discussed. It is shown how efforts on the part of industry, government and science to enhance safety resources and improve safety culture have been driven by a civic environment in which the use of nuclear energy has become a central issue of political debate. The book is written in readily comprehensible language and offers a wealth of material for further study.

  7. Plutonium, cesium, uranium, and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1981-November 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while 80 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion is likely to be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. Activities of several other nuclides of interest in radioactive waste management ( 238 U, 234 U, 232 Th, 230 Th, 228 Th, 231 Pa) were also found to be orders of magnitude greater in high carbonate waters than in other natural waters

  8. Plutonium, cesium, uranium and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1983-November 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in sediment cores and suspended particle samples from the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co, 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu indicate rapid accumulation in marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations of more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream appears to be retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported. Significant movement of dissolved plutonium into the estuary from adjacent coastal waters may be occurring. Depth profiles of radionuclides are not significantly altered by physical mixing processes in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/yr. Transport of fallout radionuclides appears to have decreased faster than would be calculated from continuous removal from a well-mixed soil reservoir, indicating that sequestering of a substantial portion of the soil fallout burden has occurred in the watershed soils over the past two decades. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities two orders of magnitude greater than that found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ions are likely to be important in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 45 references, 17 figures, 14 tables

  9. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 5. Transport of radioactive material within the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The report discusses the modeling of the transport of radionuclides through the marine environment after their release from the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Modeling included mixing within the lagoons, and transport to the shores of neighbouring islands and distant continents of radioactive material released into the lagoons from sediments and from underground sources (from discharge directly to the ocean through the flanks of the carbonate caps of the atolls). For the purposes of the modelling, the area around the source of radioactivity (i.e. the point at which radionuclides are released into the marine environment) was divided into three major zones: a) the near field (the lagoons); b) the regional field (broadly, the area of French Polynesia); and c) the far field (the South Pacific beyond the regional field). The methodology adopted in this study can be summarized as follows: 1. A model of the mixing of water in the lagoons was developed. This model was used to estimate the radionuclide concentrations in the lagoons for given releases into the lagoons, and the flow rates of radionuclides from the lagoons into the surrounding ocean. 2. The release rates of radionuclides from the lagoon sediments were assessed, leading to estimates of the release rates of plutonium 137 Cs, 90 Sr and tritium from the lagoons to the oceans as a function of time. 3. A model was developed to predict the movement of sediment between the lagoons and the ocean. Estimates were made of the amount of sediment, and the corresponding quantity of plutonium leaving the lagoons annually under average weather conditions, or as consequence of a severe storm. 4. Three compartment models were used to model dispersion of radionuclides in the regional field. These models cover different areas with different resolutions, and each has particular strengths and weaknesses. Taken together, they give an indication of the likely uncertainty in the dispersion estimates, and improve the robustness of

  10. Application of global datasets for hydrological modelling of a remote, snowmelt driven catchment in the Canadian Sub-Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, David; Werner, Micha; Weerts, Albrecht; Schellekens, Jaap; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modelling in the Canadian Sub-Arctic is hindered by the limited spatial and temporal coverage of local meteorological data. Local watershed modelling often relies on data from a sparse network of meteorological stations with a rough density of 3 active stations per 100,000 km2. Global datasets hold great promise for application due to more comprehensive spatial and extended temporal coverage. A key objective of this study is to demonstrate the application of global datasets and data assimilation techniques for hydrological modelling of a data sparse, Sub-Arctic watershed. Application of available datasets and modelling techniques is currently limited in practice due to a lack of local capacity and understanding of available tools. Due to the importance of snow processes in the region, this study also aims to evaluate the performance of global SWE products for snowpack modelling. The Snare Watershed is a 13,300 km2 snowmelt driven sub-basin of the Mackenzie River Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada. The Snare watershed is data sparse in terms of meteorological data, but is well gauged with consistent discharge records since the late 1970s. End of winter snowpack surveys have been conducted every year from 1978-present. The application of global re-analysis datasets from the EU FP7 eartH2Observe project are investigated in this study. Precipitation data are taken from Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) and temperature data from Watch Forcing Data applied to European Reanalysis (ERA)-Interim data (WFDEI). GlobSnow-2 is a global Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) measurement product funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and is also evaluated over the local watershed. Downscaled precipitation, temperature and potential evaporation datasets are used as forcing data in a distributed version of the HBV model implemented in the WFLOW framework. Results demonstrate the successful application of global datasets in local watershed modelling, but

  11. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such changes may substantially affect net primary production and species composition. We aimed to identify the potential impact of increased N-availability due to permafrost thawing on subarctic peatland plant production and species performance, relative to the impact of increased N-availability in superficial organic layers. Therefore, we investigated whether plant roots are present at the thaw-front (45 cm depth) and whether N-uptake ( 15 N-tracer) at the thaw-front occurs during maximum thaw-depth, coinciding with the end of the growing season. Moreover, we performed a unique 3-year belowground fertilization experiment with fully factorial combinations of deep- (thaw-front) and shallow-fertilization (10 cm depth) and controls. We found that certain species are present with roots at the thaw-front (Rubus chamaemorus) and have the capacity (R. chamaemorus, Eriophorum vaginatum) for N-uptake from the thaw-front between autumn and spring when aboveground tissue is largely senescent. In response to 3-year shallow-belowground fertilization (S) both shallow- (Empetrum hermaphroditum) and deep-rooting species increased aboveground biomass and N-content, but only deep-rooting species responded positively to enhanced nutrient supply at the thaw-front (D). Moreover, the effects of shallow-fertilization and thaw-front fertilization on aboveground biomass production of the deep-rooting species were similar in magnitude (S: 71%; D: 111% increase compared to control) and additive (S + D: 181% increase). Our results show that plant-available N released from thawing permafrost can form a thus far overlooked additional N-source for deep-rooting subarctic plant species and increase their

  12. Cognitive environment simulation: An artificial intelligence system for human performance assessment: Modeling human intention formation: [Technical report, May 1986-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.; Pople, H. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Phase II of a three phase research program to develop and validate improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. In Phase II a dynamic simulation capability for modeling how people form intentions to act in NPP emergency situations was developed based on techniques from artificial intelligence. This modeling tool, Cognitive Environment Simulation or CES, simulates the cognitive processes that determine situation assessment and intention formation. It can be used to investigate analytically what situations and factors lead to intention failures, what actions follow from intention failures (e.g., errors of omission, errors of commission, common mode errors), the ability to recover from errors or additional machine failures, and the effects of changes in the NPP person-machine system. The Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (or CREATE) was also developed in Phase II to specify how CES can be used to enhance the measurement of the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. 43 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  13. Cognitive environment simulation: An artificial intelligence system for human performance assessment: Cognitive reliability analysis technique: [Technical report, May 1986-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Phase II of a three phase research program to develop and validate improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. In Phase II a dynamic simulation capability for modeling how people form intentions to act in NPP emergency situations was developed based on techniques from artificial intelligence. This modeling tool, Cognitive Environment Simulation or CES, simulates the cognitive processes that determine situation assessment and intention formation. It can be used to investigate analytically what situations and factors lead to intention failures, what actions follow from intention failures (e.g., errors of omission, errors of commission, common mode errors), the ability to recover from errors or additional machine failures, and the effects of changes in the NPP person-machine system. The Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (or CREATE) was also developed in Phase II to specify how CES can be used to enhance the measurement of the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  15. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

    In this report we will review the main achievements of the Technical Stop and the progress of several centrally-managed projects to support CMS operation and maintenance and prepare the way for upgrades. Overview of the extended Technical Stop  The principal objectives of the extended Technical Stop affecting the detector itself were the installation of the TOTEM T1 telescopes on both ends, the readjustment of the alignment link-disk in YE-2, the replacement of the light-guide sleeves for all PMs of both HFs, and some repairs on TOTEM T2 and CASTOR. The most significant tasks were, however, concentrated on the supporting infrastructure. A detailed line-by-line leak search was performed in the C6F14 cooling system of the Tracker, followed by the installation of variable-frequency drives on the pump motors of the SS1 and SS2 tracker cooling plants to reduce pressure transients during start-up. In the electrical system, larger harmonic filters were installed in ...

  16. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River Estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1977--30 November 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 , 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to (1) addition of reactor 137 Cs and (2) loss of 137 Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 Km upstream of Indian Point and 70 Km south of the reactor. Accumulations of 239 , 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Depth profiles of radionuclides and variations of activities with particle size at low salinities in the Hudson indicate the importance of organic phases, including large flocculent particles greater than 180μ, in binding plutonium, and no evidence of significant chemical migration within the sediments. Measurements of water column fallout 239 , 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments

  17. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of 137 Cs and 239 240 Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to addition of reactor 137 Cs and loss of 137 Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Accumulations of 239 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate, probably primarily due to the accumulation of fine particles containing fallout plutonium in the harbor which have been transported from upstream areas of the Hudson. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulatory plutonium solubility

  18. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Olsen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout 239 240 Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of 239 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of 239 240 Pu. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility

  19. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.; Olsen, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the /sup 137/Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility.

  20. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to addition of reactor /sup 137/Cs and loss of /sup 137/Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Accumulations of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate, probably primarily due to the accumulation of fine particles containing fallout plutonium in the harbor which have been transported from upstream areas of the Hudson. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulatory plutonium solubility.

  1. Short-term variability in bacterial abundance, cell properties, and incorporation of leucine and thymidine in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaartokallio, H.; Sogaard, D. H.; Norman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is a biome of immense size and provides a range of habitats for diverse microbial communities, many of which are adapted to living at low temperatures and high salinities in brines. We measured simultaneous incorporation of thymidine (TdR) and leucine (Leu), bacterial cell abundance...... and cell population properties (by flow cytometry) in subarctic sea ice in SW Greenland. Short-term temporal variability was moderate, and steep environmental gradients, typical for sea ice, were the main drivers of the variability in bacterial cell properties and activity. Low nucleic acid (LNA) bacteria...... and marine biofilm systems. Leu: TdR ratios were high (up to >300) in lowermost ice layers, and when compared to published respiration measurements, these results suggest non-specific Leu incorporation. There was evidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-containing bacteria in the sea ice, shown by brightly...

  2. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing along a sub-Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjord, West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, A.; Riisgaard, Karen; Saiz, E.

    2011-01-01

    the nutrient rich waters in the upwelling area in the vicinity of the glacier. Most of the grazing impact was on the 20 µm microzooplankton, as deducted from additional dilution experiments removing > 20 µm. Overall, little......We evaluated the role of microzooplankton (sensu latto, grazers sea transect in the Greenland subarctic fjord, Godthåbfjord. Based on the distribution of size fractionated chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations...... we established four zones: i) Fyllas Bank, characterized by deep chl a maxima (ca. 30-40 m) consisting of large cells; ii) the mouth and main branch of the fjord, where phytoplankton was relatively homogeneously distributed in the upper 30 m layer; iii) inner waters influenced by glacial melt water...

  3. Nitrogen Uptake During Fall, Winter and Spring Differs Among Plant Functional Groups in a Subarctic Heath Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical resource for plant growth in tundra ecosystems, and species differences in the timing of N uptake may be an important feature regulating community composition and ecosystem productivity. We added 15N-labelled glycine to a subarctic heath tundra dominated by dwarf shrubs...... to 37 ± 7% by April indicating significant microbial N turnover prior to spring thaw. Only the evergreen dwarf shrubs showed active 15N acquisition before early May indicating that they had the highest potential of all functional groups for acquiring nutrients that became available in early spring....... The faster-growing deciduous shrubs did not resume 15N acquisition until after early May indicating that they relied more on nitrogen made available later during the spring/early summer. The graminoids and mosses had no significant increases in 15N tracer recovery or tissue 15N tracer concentrations after...

  4. Temperature and substrate controls on intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration in two subarctic vegetation types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2005-01-01

    significantly to ecosystem respiration during most phases of winter and summer in the two vegetation types. Ecosystem respiration rates through the year did not differ significantly between vegetation types despite substantial differences in biomass pools, soil depth and temperature regime. Most (76...... contributions of bulk soil organic matter and plant-associated carbon pools to ecosystem respiration is critical to predicting the response of arctic ecosystem net carbon balance to climate change. In this study, we determined the variation in ecosystem respiration rates from birch forest understory and heath......-92%) of the intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration rates from these two common mesic subarctic ecosystems was explained using a first-order exponential equation relating respiration to substrate chemical quality and soil temperature. Removal of plants and their current year's litter significantly reduced...

  5. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Switzerland (please sp...

  6. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Swi...

  7. Comparisons between POC and zooplankton swimmer flux from sediment traps in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Naoya; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Minoru; Honda, Makio C.; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal changes in zooplankton swimmer (ZS) abundance, biomass and community structure were evaluated based on samples collected by moored sediment traps at a depth of 200 m in the subarctic (SA) and subtropical (ST) western North Pacific. Based on these samples, we made comparisons on two topics: 1) latitudinal (subarctic vs. subtropical) changes in ZS abundance, biomass and community and 2) quantitative differences between the ZS and particle organic carbon (POC) fluxes based on data from moored or drifting sediment traps. The results showed that the ZS flux was greater in the SA (annual mean: 311 ind. m-2 day-1 or 258 mg C m-2 day-1) than in the ST (135 ind. m-2 day-1 or 38 mg C m-2 day-1). The peak ZS flux was observed from July-August in the SA and from April-May in the ST. The dominant taxa were Copepoda and Chaetognatha in the SA and Ostracoda and Mollusca in the ST. These latitudinal differences are likely related to the dominance of large-sized Copepoda in the SA, regional differences in the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom, and the magnitude and size structure of primary producers. The percent composition of ZS to the total C flux (= ZS+POC flux) varied by region: 85-95% in the SA and 47-75% in the ST. These differences between the ZS composition and the total C flux are most likely caused by the dominance of large-sized Copepoda (Neocalanus spp. and Eucalanus bungii) in the SA.

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze-thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wonjae; Klemm, Sara; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have shown that biostimulation in ex situ systems such as landfarms and biopiles can facilitate remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at sub-Arctic sites during summers when temperatures are above freezing. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of semivolatile (F2: C10-C16) and nonvolatile (F3: C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial respiration and population dynamics at post- and presummer temperatures ranging from -5 to 14 °C. The studies were conducted in pilot-scale tanks with soils obtained from a historically contaminated sub-Arctic site in Resolution Island (RI), Canada. In aerobic, nutrient-amended, unsaturated soils, the F2 hydrocarbons decreased by 32% during the seasonal freeze-thaw phase where soils were cooled from 2 to -5 °C at a freezing rate of -0.12 °C d(-1) and then thawed from -5 to 4 °C at a thawing rate of +0.16 °C d(-1). In the unamended (control) tank, the F2 fraction only decreased by 14% during the same period. Biodegradation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the nutrient-amended soils was also confirmed by comparing their abundance over time to that of the conserved diesel biomarker, bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS). During this period, microbial respiration was observed, even at subzero temperatures when unfrozen liquid water was detected during the freeze-thaw period. An increase in culturable heterotrophs and 16S rDNA copy numbers was noted during the freezing phase, and the (14)C-hexadecane mineralization in soil samples obtained from the nutrient-amended tank steadily increased. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations identified as Corynebacterineae- and Alkanindiges-related strains emerged during the freezing and thawing phases, respectively, indicating there were temperature-based microbial community shifts.

  9. INDOT Technical Training Plan : [Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of job classifications, increasing technical : performance expectations, licensing and certification requirements, : budget restrictions and frequent department : reorganization has made technical training of employees : more difficult, ...

  10. Simulation of long-term influence from technical systems on permafrost with various short-scale and hourly operation modes in Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaganova, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Technogenic and climatic influences have a significant impact on the degradation of permafrost. Long-term forecasts of such changes during long-time periods have to be taken into account in the oil and gas and construction industries in view to development the Arctic and Subarctic regions. There are considered constantly operating technical systems (for example, oil and gas wells) that affect changes in permafrost, as well as the technical systems that have a short-term impact on permafrost (for example, flare systems for emergency flaring of associated gas). The second type of technical systems is rather complex for simulation, since it is required to reserve both short and long-scales in computations with variable time steps describing the complex technological processes. The main attention is paid to the simulation of long-term influence on the permafrost from the second type of the technical systems.

  11. Mesoscale dynamics in the Lofoten Basin - a sub-Arctic "hot spot" of oceanic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, D. L.; Belonenko, T. V.; Foux, V. R.

    2012-12-01

    A sub-Arctic "hot spot" of intense mesoscale variability is observed in the Lofoten Basin (LB) - a topographic depression with a maximum depth of about 3250 m, located in the Norwegian Sea. The standard deviation of sea surface height (SSH), measured with satellite altimetry, reaches nearly 15 cm in the center of the basin (Figure 1a). Using a space-time lagged correlation analysis of altimetry data, we discover a cyclonic propagation of the mesoscale SSH anomalies around the center of the LB with time-averaged phase speeds of 2-4 km/day, strongly linked to bottom topography (Figure 1c). The fact that surface drifter trajectories do not exhibit cyclonic circulation in the LB (Figure 1b) suggests that, at least in the upper ocean, satellite altimetry observes only the propagation of form without the corresponding transfer of mass. Linearly propagating wavelike disturbances that do not trap fluid inside are related to planetary or Rossby waves. Variations in topography may lead to the concentration of wave energy in certain regions or wave trapping. The dispersion analysis suggests that the observed wavelike cyclonic propagation of SSH anomalies in the LB is the manifestation of baroclinic topographic Rossby waves, that we term "the basin waves" in order to distinguish them from the other types of topographic waves, such as shelf or trench waves. We identify two modes of basin waves in the LB: a di-pole mode and a quadri-pole mode. The wavelength of each mode is about 500 km. The frequency of these modes is not constant and the phase speed varies from about 2 to 8 km/day. We show that the cyclonically rotating basin waves are responsible for the observed amplification of SSH variability in the LB. Because the baroclinic basin waves in the LB are probably associated with large vertical displacements of the thermocline and due to possible wave breaking events, they can play an important role in the mixing of the inflowing Atlantic Water with ambient water masses

  12. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    Summary of progress since last CMS week. Ten years of construction work have been completed. CMS is closed, in very close to the ideal low luminosity configuration, and performed well in the first tests with LHC beam. Behind this encouraging news is the story of a summer of intense commitment by many teams (from the collaboration and 3 CERN departments) working together, against the clock and despite many minor setbacks, to ensure that the experiment was ready to play a leading role in the excitement of September 10. Following beampipe bakeout and refill with pure neon, a magnificent effort by the ECAL group and the pt 5 technical crew made it possible to install and commission all 4 ECAL endcap Dees before the end of August. In the shadow of this activity, the barrel and forward pixel trackers and part of the beam monitoring were installed within the vac tank. The pt 5 technical teams then succeeded in safely removing the 20t installation tables and their support blocks from beneath the already installed ...

  13. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

      Operational experience 2011 CMS is approaching the end of a very successful year of operation. Proton- proton running ended in the late afternoon of 30th October with a stunning 5.73 fb–1 delivered by LHC, of which CMS recorded 5.22 fb–1. During heavy-ion operation, which continues until 7th December, both the accelerator and the CMS detector have also performed very well. Despite the encouraging overall reliability of technical operation, several infrastructure failures which occurred since the last Bulletin are worthy of mention, with one leading for the first time to significant data-loss. On 10th July, a CERN-wide power failure brought down essentially all services including the magnet, due to an MCS setting being left in “manual” after the recent technical stop, but there was no significant damage and the detector was operational before the LHC, despite a slow and tortuous recovery (one of several indications this year that there is room for improve...

  14. Decadal Variations of the Western Subarctic Gyre and Main Pycnocline Depth due to Wind Stress Change in the Northern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, A.; Wakita, M.

    2017-12-01

    From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, the western subarctic gyre of the North Pacific, a cyclonic circulation in the western subarctic region, shrank northward associated with a decadal increase of sea surface height (SSH). This gyre change displaced the main pycnocline (halocline) downward and is expected to contribute to the deepening of the overlying temperature minimum layer. This is considered to affect the biogeochemical conditions in the western subarctic region, where is known as substantially slow ocean acidification region. In this study, on the basis of wind stress field data in the subpolar region (40˚N—54˚N, 160˚E—135˚W) during 1979—2014 provided by U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis, we estimated the variation in SSH, solving the vorticity gradient equation on the beta plane. Decadal increase in SSH at Station K2 (47˚N, 160˚E), representative point of the western subarctic region, was well produced by the calculation, and the correlation coefficient with altimetric SSH exceeds 0.6. The calculated SSH variation consists of the variations due to the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby wave modes. The gyre shrinkage is found to be caused primarily by the barotropic response to the wind change in the whole subpolar region and secondary by the first baroclinic response. Meanwhile, the decadal deepening of the main pycnocline at K2 is attributed to the baroclinic responses of the higher (second, third, and fourth) vertical modes to the local wind change.

  15. Technical presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    10 March 2010 DYNEOS 10:00 – 12:00 - Main Building, Room B, 61-1-009 Dyneos AG is active in the fields of photonics, laser and high-precision positioning. Our highly qualified engineer team has more than 30 years of experience in electro-optical solutions sales. The engineers are supported by a technical and administrative team. We are focused on the Swiss market and represent six suppliers (Coherent, PI Physik Instrumente, SIOS, Nanonics Imaging, APE, Ekspla) in order to give a qualified sales and service support to our customers. Our products are dedicated to the research field as well as to industry. In addition to standard catalog products, we offer custom designs to fulfill the specific needs of OEM customers or specific applications.

  16. Technical presentation

    CERN Document Server

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    07 April 2009 Technical presentation by Leuze Electronics: 14.00 – 15.00, Main Building, Room 61-1-017 (Room A) Photoelectric sensors, data identification and transmission systems, image processing systems. We at Leuze Electronics are "the sensor people": we have been specialising in optoelectronic sensors and safety technology for accident prevention for over 40 years. Our dedicated staff are all highly customer oriented. Customers of Leuze Electronics can always rely on one thing – on us! •\tFounded in 1963 •\t740 employees •\t115 MEUR turnover •\t20 subsidiaries •\t3 production facilities in southern Germany Product groups: •\tPhotoelectric sensors •\tIdentification and measurements •\tSafety devices

  17. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2010-01-01

    Overview Once again, the bulk of this article reviews the intense activity of a recently completed shutdown, which, although quite unforeseeable until a few weeks before it started, proved by its success that our often advertised capability to conduct major maintenance within a two month period is real. Although safely completed, on-time to remarkable precision, the activity was not without incident, and highlighted our dependence on many experienced, specialist teams and their precise choreography. Even after the yoke was safely closed, magnet re-commissioning and beampipe pumpdown showed new and thought-provoking behaviour. The struggle to maintain adequate technical resources will be a pre-occupation over the coming months, in parallel with the start of truly sustained operation, for which various procedures are still being put in place. Planning for future shutdowns must now become a high priority, with many working groups and task forces already in existence to prepare infrastructure improvements and to...

  18. Technical presentation

    CERN Document Server

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    RADIOSPARES, the leading catalogue distributor of components (electronic, electrical, automation, etc.) and industrial supplies will be at CERN on Friday 3 October 2008 (Main Building, Room B, from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.) to introduce its new 2008/2009 catalogue. This will be the opportunity for us to present our complete range of products in more detail: 400 000 part numbers available on our web site (Radiospares France, RS International, extended range of components from other manufacturers); our new services: quotations, search for products not included in the catalogue, SBP products (Small Batch Production: packaging in quantities adapted to customers’ requirements); partnership with our focus manufacturers; demonstration of the on-line purchasing tool implemented on our web site in conjunction with CERN. RADIOSPARES will be accompanied by representatives of FLUKE and TYCO ELECTRONICS, who will make presentations, demonstrate materials and answer any technical questio...

  19. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  20. Oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica. Reconstructing changes in surface water hydrography and silicic acid utilization in the late Pleistocene subarctic Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Edith

    2014-03-05

    Deglacial variations in upper ocean nutrient dynamics and stratification in high latitudes, as well as associated changes in thermohaline overturning circulation, are thought to have played a key role in changing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. This thesis examines the relationship between past changes in subarctic Pacific upper ocean stratification and nutrient (silicic acid) utilization, using oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica, for the first time at millennial-scale resolution and analyzed with a new and efficient instrumentation set-up. The isotopic data, presented in three manuscripts, show a consistent picture of millennial-scale variability in upper ocean stratification and silicic acid utilization during the last ∝50 ka BP, e.g. indicating that the subarctic Pacific was a source region for atmospheric CO{sub 2} during the last deglaciation (late Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed). The presented results demonstrate the high potential of combined diatom oxygen and silicon stable isotope analysis especially for, but not restricted to, marine regions characterized by a low biogenic carbonate content like the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

  1. Oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica. Reconstructing changes in surface water hydrography and silicic acid utilization in the late Pleistocene subarctic Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Deglacial variations in upper ocean nutrient dynamics and stratification in high latitudes, as well as associated changes in thermohaline overturning circulation, are thought to have played a key role in changing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. This thesis examines the relationship between past changes in subarctic Pacific upper ocean stratification and nutrient (silicic acid) utilization, using oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica, for the first time at millennial-scale resolution and analyzed with a new and efficient instrumentation set-up. The isotopic data, presented in three manuscripts, show a consistent picture of millennial-scale variability in upper ocean stratification and silicic acid utilization during the last ∝50 ka BP, e.g. indicating that the subarctic Pacific was a source region for atmospheric CO 2 during the last deglaciation (late Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed). The presented results demonstrate the high potential of combined diatom oxygen and silicon stable isotope analysis especially for, but not restricted to, marine regions characterized by a low biogenic carbonate content like the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

  2. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    2013-01-01

      Since the last report, much visible progress has been made, as the LS1 programme approaches the halfway point. From early October, technical and safety shift-crew have been present around the clock, allowing detectors to stay switched on overnight, ensuring that safety systems are operational and instructions for non-expert shift-crew are clear. LS1 progress Throughout the summer, whilst the solenoid vacuum tank and YB0 surfaces were accessible, an extensive installation programme took place to prepare for Tracker colder operation and the PLT installation, in 2014, the Phase 1 Pixel Tracker installation, in 2016–’17, and the HCAL Phase 1 upgrade completion, ending in LS2. This included pipework for N2 or dry air to flush the Tracker bulkhead region, many sensors to monitor temperature and dew point in the Tracker and its service channels, heating wires outside the Tracker cooling bundles, supports for the new vacuum-jacketed, concentric, CO2 Pixel cooling lines, the PLT cool...

  3. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      UXC + detectors As explained in detail in the November 2011 bulletin, the bellows unit at −18.5 m from the CMS interaction point was identified as a prime candidate for the regularly occurring pressure spikes which occasionally led to sustained severe background conditions in 2011, affecting dead time and data quality. Similar regions in LHC with vacuum instabilities were observed to be close to bellows, which radiography showed to have distorted RF-fingers — on removal, they proved to have been severely overheated. The plans for the Year-End Technical Stop were adapted to prioritise radiography of the bellows at 16 m to 18 m either end of CMS. Excellent work by the beam pipe, survey and heavy mechanical teams allowed the X-rays to be taken as planned on 20th December, showing that the bellow at −18.5m had an obvious non-conformity. The RF-fingers were found inside the end of the opposing flared pipe instead of outside. In addition, the overlap between fingers and...

  4. Development of a technical scheme for the management of chemical dangerous substances in hospitable environments; Desarrollo de un esquema tecnico para la gestion de sustancias quimicas peligrosas en ambientes hospitalarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja Amador, C E

    2002-07-01

    The chemical substances that are used in the hospitals, and their remainders, represent risks for the environment, the health and security of those who work in these establishments, and of the civil population. The deficiency of a norm that establishes the directives for the handling responsible for such products in the hospitals that our country has motivated the elaboration of a technical scheme that serves as it guides for the correct manipulation, storage and safe disposition of chemical substances in the twenty-nine hospitals of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, establishing Procedures of Standard Operation for its management. To development of the guideline proposal it took a sample of hospitals that includes three levels of comple complexity: national, regional and peripheral. Applying a methodology of evaluation of risks two factors of risk of hospitable were determined, the zones and the population but affected by the existence of chemical substances, which allowed to identify some operative deficiencies in the product handling diverse. The qualitative analysis of the results lead to the elaboration of a technical scheme that includes an instrument for the identification of risks, guideline for the management responsible for hospitable chemical substances, a friendly tool computations like complementary source of intelligence and the proposal of a governing group in charge of the monitoring of the fulfillment of these lineament. (Author) [Spanish] Las sustancias quimicas que se usan en los hospitales, y sus residuos, representan riesgos para el medio ambiente, para la salud y seguridad de quienes trabajan en estos establecimientos, y de la poblacion civil. La carencia de una normativa que establezca las directrices para el manejo responsable de tales productos en los hospitales de nuestro pais ha motivado la elaboracion de un esquema tecnico que sirva como guia para la correcta manipulacion, almacenamiento y disposicion segura de sustancias

  5. Elemental composition and optical properties reveal changes in dissolved organic matter along a permafrost thaw chronosequence in a subarctic peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkins, Suzanne; Tfaily, Malak M.; Podgorski, David C.; McCalley, Carmody; Saleska, Scott; Crill, Patrick M.; Rich, Virginia; Chanton, Jeffrey; Cooper, William T.

    2016-08-01

    The fate of carbon stored in permafrost-zone peatlands represents a significant uncertainty in global climate modeling. Given that the breakdown of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is often a major pathway for decomposition in peatlands, knowledge of DOM reactivity under different permafrost regimes is critical for determining future climate feedbacks. To explore the effects of permafrost thaw and resultant plant succession on DOM reactivity, we used a combination of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), UV/Vis absorbance, and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) to examine the DOM elemental composition and optical properties of 27 pore water samples gathered from various sites along a permafrost thaw sequence in Stordalen Mire, a thawing subarctic peatland in northern Sweden. The presence of dense Sphagnum moss, a feature that is dominant in the intermediate thaw stages, appeared to be the main driver of variation in DOM elemental composition and optical properties at Stordalen. Specifically, DOM from sites with Sphagnum had greater aromaticity, higher average molecular weights, and greater O/C, consistent with a higher abundance of phenolic compounds that likely inhibit decomposition. These compounds are released by Sphagnum and may accumulate due to inhibition of phenol oxidase activity by the acidic pH at these sites. In contrast, sites without Sphagnum, specifically fully-thawed rich fens, had more saturated, more reduced compounds, which were high in N and S. Optical properties at rich fens were indicated the presence of microbially-derived DOM, consistent with the higher decomposition rates previously measured at these sites. These results indicate that Sphagnum acts as an inhibitor of rapid decomposition and CH4 release in thawing subarctic peatlands, consistent with lower rates of CO2 and CH4 production previously observed at these sites. However, this inhibitory effect may disappear if Sphagnumdominated bogs

  6. Comparison of snow melt properties across multiple spatial scales and landscape units in interior sub-Arctic boreal Alaskan watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Cherry, J. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Interior sub-Arctic Alaskan snow cover is rapidly changing and requires further study for correct parameterization in physically based models. This project undertook field studies during the 2013 snow melt season to capture snow depth, snow temperature profiles, and snow cover extent to compare with observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor at four different sites underlain by discontinuous permafrost. The 2013 melt season, which turned out to be the latest snow melt period on record, was monitored using manual field measurements (SWE, snow depth data collection), iButtons to record temperature of the snow pack, GoPro cameras to capture time lapse of the snow melt, and low level orthoimagery collected at ~1500 m using a Navion L17a plane mounted with a Nikon D3s camera. Sites were selected across a range of landscape conditions, including a north facing black spruce hill slope, a south facing birch forest, an open tundra site, and a high alpine meadow. Initial results from the adjacent north and south facing sites indicate a highly sensitive system where snow cover melts over just a few days, illustrating the importance of high resolution temporal data capture at these locations. Field observations, iButtons and GoPro cameras show that the MODIS data captures the melt conditions at the south and the north site with accuracy (2.5% and 6.5% snow cover fraction present on date of melt, respectively), but MODIS data for the north site is less variable around the melt period, owing to open conditions and sparse tree cover. However, due to the rapid melt rate trajectory, shifting the melt date estimate by a day results in a doubling of the snow cover fraction estimate observed by MODIS. This information can assist in approximating uncertainty associated with remote sensing data that is being used to populate hydrologic and snow models (the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model, coupled with SNOW-17, and the Variable

  7. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Callaghan, T. V.; Chadwick, D.; Robinson, C. H.

    1995-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how UV-B radiation will affect 1) the quality of plant litter grown under different UV-B levels in the Subarctic and 2) decomposition under different UV-B levels. The deciduous dwarf shrubs Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus grew under ambient and enhanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) in a natural heath ecosystem in the Subarctic. After two growing seasons senesced leaves were collected and decomposed in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment under both laboratory conditions for 62 d (V. uliginosum: no UV-B and 10 kJ m{sup -2} d{sup -1} UV- B{sub BE}) and under field conditions for twelve months (V. myrtillus: ambient and enhanced UV-B corresponding 15% ozone depletion). Additionally, colonization and growth of decomposing fungi were studied on leaves decomposed without and with UV-B in the laboratory. The enhanced UV-B during growth changed the litter quality (decrease in α-cellulose, increase in tannins). Subsequently the microbial respiration was decreased. This and the decreased cellulose/lignin ratio may have led to the lower relative mass loss due to treatments as detected both after 62 d decomposition in the laboratory and after twelve months decomposition in the field. The UV-B during decomposition decreased the proportion of lignin in the plant residues, which is possibly due to photodegradation by UV-B. Total microbial respiration decreased, indicating the decomposers' sensitivity to UV-B. In general, the litter decomposing under UV-B was less colonized by fungal decomposers. Mucor hiemalis and Truncatella truncata were significantly more abundant in the control, indicating sensitivity to UV-B radiation, while Penicillium brevicompactum was equally abundant in the UV-B and control. There is strong indication of a change in decomposer fungal community structure due to UV-B. Just one of the three fungal species common on the control litter was dominant on leaves decomposed under UV-B. (author)

  8. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, C [Lund Univ., Dept. of Plant Ecology, Lund (Sweden); Johanson, U [Lund Univ., Dept. of Plant Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Callaghan, T V; Chadwick, D; Robinson, C H [Merlewood Research Station, Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Cumbira (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how UV-B radiation will affect (1) the quality of plant litter grown under differente UV-B levels in the Subarctic and (2) decomposition under different UV-B levels. The deciduous dwarf shrubs Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus grew under ambient and enchanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) in a natural health ecosystem in the Subarctic. After two growing seasons senesced leaves were collected and decomposed in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment under both laboratory conditions for 62 d (V. uliginosum: no UV-B and 10 kJ m{sup -2} d{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE}) and under field conditions for twelve months (V. myrtillus: ambient and enhanced UV-B corresponding 15% ozone depletion). Additionally, colonization and growth of decomposing fungi were studied on leaves decomposed without and with UV-B in the laboratory. The enhanced UV-B during growth changed the litter quality (decrease in {alpha}-cellulose, increase in tannins). Subsequently the microbial respiration was decreased. This and the decreased cellulose/lignin ratio may have led to the lower relative mass loss due to treatments as detected both after 62 d decomposition in the laboratory and after twelve months decompositon in the field. The UV-B during decomposition decreased the proportion of lignin in the plant residues, which is possibly due to photodegradation by UV-B. Total microbial respiration decreased, indicating the decomposers` sensitivity to UV-B. In general, the litter decomposing under UV-B was less colonized by fungal decomposers. Mucor hiemalis and Truncatella truncata were significantly more abundant in the control, indicating sensitivity to UV-B radiation, while Penicillium brevicompactum was equally abundant in the UV-B and control. There is strong indication of a change in decomposer fungal community structure due to UV-B. Just one of the three fungal species common on the control litter was dominant on leaves decomposed under UV-B. (au) (44 refs.)

  9. Elemental composition and optical properties reveal changes in dissolved organic matter along a permafrost thaw chronosequence in a subarctic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Suzanne B.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Podgorski, David C.; McCalley, Carmody K.; Saleska, Scott R.; Crill, Patrick M.; Rich, Virginia I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Cooper, William T.

    2016-08-01

    The fate of carbon stored in permafrost-zone peatlands represents a significant uncertainty in global climate modeling. Given that the breakdown of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is often a major pathway for decomposition in peatlands, knowledge of DOM reactivity under different permafrost regimes is critical for determining future climate feedbacks. To explore the effects of permafrost thaw and resultant plant succession on DOM reactivity, we used a combination of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), UV/Vis absorbance, and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) to examine the DOM elemental composition and optical properties of 27 pore water samples gathered from various sites along a permafrost thaw sequence in Stordalen Mire, a thawing subarctic peatland in northern Sweden. The presence of dense Sphagnum moss, a feature that is dominant in the intermediate thaw stages, appeared to be the main driver of variation in DOM elemental composition and optical properties at Stordalen. Specifically, DOM from sites with Sphagnum had greater aromaticity, higher average molecular weights, and greater O/C, consistent with a higher abundance of phenolic compounds that likely inhibit decomposition. These compounds are released by Sphagnum and may accumulate due to inhibition of phenol oxidase activity by the acidic pH at these sites. In contrast, sites without Sphagnum, specifically fully-thawed rich fens, had more saturated, more reduced compounds, which were high in N and S. Optical properties at rich fens indicated the presence of microbially-derived DOM, consistent with the higher decomposition rates previously measured at these sites. These results indicate that Sphagnum acts as an inhibitor of rapid decomposition and CH4 release in thawing subarctic peatlands, consistent with lower rates of CO2 and CH4 production previously observed at these sites. However, this inhibitory effect may disappear if Sphagnum-dominated bogs

  10. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U.; Callaghan, T.V.; Chadwick, D.; Robinson, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how UV-B radiation will affect 1) the quality of plant litter grown under different UV-B levels in the Subarctic and 2) decomposition under different UV-B levels. The deciduous dwarf shrubs Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus grew under ambient and enhanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) in a natural heath ecosystem in the Subarctic. After two growing seasons senesced leaves were collected and decomposed in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment under both laboratory conditions for 62 d (V. uliginosum: no UV-B and 10 kJ m -2 d -1 UV- B BE ) and under field conditions for twelve months (V. myrtillus: ambient and enhanced UV-B corresponding 15% ozone depletion). Additionally, colonization and growth of decomposing fungi were studied on leaves decomposed without and with UV-B in the laboratory. The enhanced UV-B during growth changed the litter quality (decrease in α-cellulose, increase in tannins). Subsequently the microbial respiration was decreased. This and the decreased cellulose/lignin ratio may have led to the lower relative mass loss due to treatments as detected both after 62 d decomposition in the laboratory and after twelve months decomposition in the field. The UV-B during decomposition decreased the proportion of lignin in the plant residues, which is possibly due to photodegradation by UV-B. Total microbial respiration decreased, indicating the decomposers' sensitivity to UV-B. In general, the litter decomposing under UV-B was less colonized by fungal decomposers. Mucor hiemalis and Truncatella truncata were significantly more abundant in the control, indicating sensitivity to UV-B radiation, while Penicillium brevicompactum was equally abundant in the UV-B and control. There is strong indication of a change in decomposer fungal community structure due to UV-B. Just one of the three fungal species common on the control litter was dominant on leaves decomposed under UV-B. (author)

  11. Ecological and spatial factors drive intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Bustnes, Jan O; Covaci, Adrian; Johnsen, Trond V; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Erikstad, Kjell E; Herzke, Dorte; Sonne, Christian; Ballesteros, Manuel; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    Top predators in northern ecosystems may suffer from exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as this exposure may synergistically interact with already elevated natural stress in these ecosystems. In the present study, we aimed at identifying biological (sex, body condition), ecological (dietary carbon source, trophic level) and spatial factors (local habitat, regional nest location) that may influence intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153), polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE 47), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). During three breeding seasons (2008-2010), we sampled body feathers from fully-grown nestlings of three ecologically distinct predatory bird species in subarctic Norway: Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The present study analysed, for the first time, body feathers for both POPs and carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotopes, thus integrating the dietary carbon source, trophic level and POP exposure for the larger part of the nestling stage. Intraspecific variation in exposure was driven by a combination of ecological and spatial factors, often different for individual compounds. In addition, combinations for individual compounds differed among species. Trophic level and local habitat were the predominant predictors for CB 153, p,p'-DDE and BDE 47, indicating their biomagnification and decreasing levels according to coast>fjord>inland. Variation in exposure may also have been driven by inter-annual variation arisen from primary sources (e.g. p,p'-DDE) and/or possible revolatilisation from secondary sources (e.g. HCB). Interspecific differences in POP exposure were best explained by a combination of trophic level (biomagnification), dietary carbon source (food chain discrimination) and regional nest location (historical POP

  12. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  13. Technical innovation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-15

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  14. Technical innovation and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-01

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  15. Ozone Layer Research and Technical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on research and technical resources related to ozone layer science. This page provides links to research efforts led by organizations such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United Nations Environment Program, an

  16. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    General circulation models consistently predict that regional warming will be most rapid in the Arctic, that this warming will be predominantly in the winter season, and that it will often be accompanied by increasing snowfall. Paradoxically, despite the strong cold season emphasis in these predi...... will respond to climate change during winter because they indicate a threshold (~1 m) above which there would be little effect of increased snow accumulation on wintertime biogeochemical cycling....... in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... subarctic. Ecosystem respiration rates and a wide range of associated environmental and substrate pool size variables were measured in the two most common vegetation types of the region (birch understorey and heath tundra) at four paired sites along a 50 km transect through a strong snow depth gradient...

  17. The physiological effects of oil, dispersant and dispersed oil on the bay mussel, Mytilus trossulus, in Arctic/Subarctic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L

    2018-06-01

    Increasing oil development around Alaska and other Arctic regions elevates the risk for another oil spill. Dispersants are used to mitigate the impact of an oil spill by accelerating natural degradation processes, but the reduced hydrophobicity of dispersed oil may increase its bioavailability to marine organisms. There is limited research on the effect of dispersed oil on cold water species and ecosystems. Therefore, spiked exposure tests were conducted with bay mussels (Mytilus trossulus) in seawater with non-dispersed oil, Corexit 9500 and oil dispersed with different concentrations of Corexit 9500. After three weeks of exposure, acute and chronic physiological impacts were determined. The majority of physiological responses occurred during the first seven days of exposure, with mussels exhibiting significant cytochrome P450 activity, superoxide dismutase activity and heat shock protein levels. Mussels exposed to non-dispersed oil also experienced immune suppression, reduced transcription and higher levels of mortality. After 21 days, mussels in all treatments exhibited evidence of genetic damage, tissue loss and a continued stress response. Bay mussels are useful as indicators of ecosystem health and recovery, and this study was an important step in understanding how non-dispersed oil, dispersant and dispersed oil affect the physiology of this sentinel species in Arctic/subarctic conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Replacement cost valuation of Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) subsistence harvest in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua H.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Dubovsky, James A.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Semmens, Darius J.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Diffendorfer, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory species provide economically beneficial ecosystem services to people throughout their range, yet often, information is lacking about the magnitude and spatial distribution of these benefits at regional scales. We conducted a case study for Northern Pintails (hereafter pintail) in which we quantified regional and sub-regional economic values of subsistence harvest to indigenous communities in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America. As a first step, we used the replacement cost method to quantify the cost of replacing pintail subsistence harvest with the most similar commercially available protein (chicken). For an estimated annual subsistence harvest of ˜15,000 pintail, our mean estimate of the total replacement cost was ˜$63,000 yr−1 ($2010 USD), with sub-regional values ranging from \\$263 yr−1 to \\$21,930 yr−1. Our results provide an order-of-magnitude, conservative estimate of one component of the regional ecosystem-service values of pintails, providing perspective on how spatially explicit values can inform migratory species conservation.

  19. Trends in Ostracoda and Cladocera distribution and water chemistry in subarctic Canada: Churchill (Manitoba lakes and ponds revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A. Viehberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and lakes distributed across northern treeline in the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill (Manitoba were revisited to analyse and document the local ecoclimatic and limnological changes that occurred over the period 1997-2012. Our analyses revealed that single events may cause significant changes in salinity, pH and silicate content because of the limited buffer capacity of the inter-connected waters. Planktic freshwater microcrustaceans (Cladocera presented less diverse assemblages and appeared to favour waters that are situated in the boreal forest, while the diversity of benthic species assemblages (Cladocera and Ostracoda was highest in waters located closer to the coastline and in open tundra vegetation. We identified three species that are distinctive for the boreal ecozone (i.e., Candona acuta, Can. acutula and Can. decora and two species (i.e., Tonnacypris glacialis and Can. rawsoni that are elements of (sub-arctic landscapes and potentially endangered as the northern treeline expands due to rapid warming. These species are thought to be useful indicators for future ecosystem quality assessments and/or ecosystem service management programs. Our findings were compared to other studies completed in the boreal Yukon Territory and revealed that species diversity is closely linked to landscape history.

  20. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from a fire chronosequence in subarctic boreal forests of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    Forest fires are one of the most important natural disturbances in boreal forests, and their occurrence and severity are expected to increase as a result of climate warming. A combination of factors induced by fire leads to a thawing of the near-surface permafrost layer in subarctic boreal forest. Earlier studies reported that an increase in the active layer thickness results in higher carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions. We studied changes in CO 2 , CH 4 and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes in this study, and the significance of several environmental factors that influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at three forest sites that last had fires in 2012, 1990 and 1969, and we compared these to a control area that had no fire for at least 100years. The soils in our study acted as sources of CO 2 and N 2 O and sinks for CH 4 . The elapsed time since the last forest fire was the only factor that significantly influenced all studied GHG fluxes. Soil temperature affected the uptake of CH 4 , and the N 2 O fluxes were significantly influenced by nitrogen and carbon content of the soil, and by the active layer depth. Results of our study confirm that the impacts of a forest fire on GHGs last for a rather long period of time in boreal forests, and are influenced by the fire induced changes in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optically-derived estimates of phytoplankton size class and taxonomic group biomass in the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Rosengard, Sarah Z.; Burt, William; Peña, M. Angelica; Nemcek, Nina; Zeng, Tao; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2018-06-01

    We evaluate several algorithms for the estimation of phytoplankton size class (PSC) and functional type (PFT) biomass from ship-based optical measurements in the Subarctic Northeast Pacific Ocean. Using underway measurements of particulate absorption and backscatter in surface waters, we derived estimates of PSC/PFT based on chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl-a), particulate absorption spectra and the wavelength dependence of particulate backscatter. Optically-derived [Chl-a] and phytoplankton absorption measurements were validated against discrete calibration samples, while the derived PSC/PFT estimates were validated using size-fractionated Chl-a measurements and HPLC analysis of diagnostic photosynthetic pigments (DPA). Our results showflo that PSC/PFT algorithms based on [Chl-a] and particulate absorption spectra performed significantly better than the backscatter slope approach. These two more successful algorithms yielded estimates of phytoplankton size classes that agreed well with HPLC-derived DPA estimates (RMSE = 12.9%, and 16.6%, respectively) across a range of hydrographic and productivity regimes. Moreover, the [Chl-a] algorithm produced PSC estimates that agreed well with size-fractionated [Chl-a] measurements, and estimates of the biomass of specific phytoplankton groups that were consistent with values derived from HPLC. Based on these results, we suggest that simple [Chl-a] measurements should be more fully exploited to improve the classification of phytoplankton assemblages in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

  2. Late Cretaceous climate simulations with different CO2 levels and subarctic gateway configurations: A model-data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgodzki, Igor; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit; Tyszka, Jarosław; Markwick, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the impact of different CO2 levels and different subarctic gateway configurations on the surface temperatures during the latest Cretaceous using the Earth System Model COSMOS. The simulated temperatures are compared with the surface temperature reconstructions based on a recent compilation of the latest Cretaceous proxies. In our numerical experiments, the CO2 level ranges from 1 to 6 times the preindustrial (PI) CO2 level of 280 ppm. On a global scale, the most reasonable match between modeling and proxy data is obtained for the experiments with 3 to 5 × PI CO2 concentrations. However, the simulated low- (high-) latitude temperatures are too high (low) as compared to the proxy data. The moderate CO2 levels scenarios might be more realistic, if we take into account proxy data and the dead zone effect criterion. Furthermore, we test if the model-data discrepancies can be caused by too simplistic proxy-data interpretations. This is distinctly seen at high latitudes, where most proxies are biased toward summer temperatures. Additional sensitivity experiments with different ocean gateway configurations and constant CO2 level indicate only minor surface temperatures changes (greenhouse worlds is best constrained by temperatures in the midlatitudes.

  3. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  4. La Tourette site - Project of extension of the wind farm on the commune of Paizay-Le-Tort. Exploitation authorisation request file for an installation classified for the protection of the environment. Non technical summary of the environmental impact study. Non technical summary of the hazard study, Opinion of the administrative authority competent in the field of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    A first report proposes an analysis of the initial condition of the concerned site through a description of physical (administrative geography, climate, topography and geology, risks, hydrology), natural (remarkable natural spaces, land use, habitats and flora, fauna, green and blue belt), and human (demography, activities, cultural heritage) environments. The next part presents the general context of the project (energy needs, stakes of wind energy, general presentation of the project, implantation hypothesis, project justification in the national context). The next part proposes an analysis of impacts of the project: generalities on development effects, impacts during exploitation, synthesis of the assessment of Natura 2000 effects, synthesis of cumulated effects. The last part of this first report presents measures aimed at suppressing, reducing or compensating project impacts from the development phase until the dismantling phase. Various planning documents and schemes are provided. A report proposes an analysis of risks related to the wind farm project, and more particularly to the presence of wind turbines. The last document states the opinion of the environmental authority

  5. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  6. International environment, enterprise environment and energy environment giving different look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    0he international environment, enterprise environment and energy environment surrounding Japan are changing their looks. In such situation, what Japan should do for the development of the world was discussed. Internationally, in the Western Pacific economical block including Japan and Asian NICs, Japan promotes the international exchange of materials, capital, technology, information and people, and creates various international public properties. Enterprisers should have global mind, and cope with the internationalization, technical innovation and information orientation which are in progress at present through international exchange, interindustrial exchange, industry-university-government exchange and so on. In the aspect of energy environment, Japan carries out the technical development of energy conservation, energy, creation and the exploration of energy resources, in this way, contributes to the stabilization of energy in the world. (3 figs, 1 tab)

  7. Relative importance of plant uptake and plant associated denitrification for removal of nitrogen from mine drainage in sub-arctic wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Sara; Hellman, Maria; Choudhury, Maidul I; Ecke, Frauke

    2015-11-15

    Reactive nitrogen (N) species released from undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives used in mining or other blasting operations are an emerging environmental problem. Wetlands are frequently used to treat N-contaminated water in temperate climate, but knowledge on plant-microbial interactions and treatment potential in sub-arctic wetlands is limited. Here, we compare the relative importance of plant uptake and denitrification among five plant species commonly occurring in sub-arctic wetlands for removal of N in nitrate-rich mine drainage in northern Sweden. Nitrogen uptake and plant associated potential denitrification activity and genetic potential for denitrification based on quantitative PCR of the denitrification genes nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII were determined in plants growing both in situ and cultivated in a growth chamber. The growth chamber and in situ studies generated similar results, suggesting high relevance and applicability of results from growth chamber experiments. We identified denitrification as the dominating pathway for N-removal and abundances of denitrification genes were strong indicators of plant associated denitrification activity. The magnitude and direction of the effect differed among the plant species, with the aquatic moss Drepanocladus fluitans showing exceptionally high ratios between denitrification and uptake rates, compared to the other species. However, to acquire realistic estimates of N-removal potential of specific wetlands and their associated plant species, the total plant biomass needs to be considered. The species-specific plant N-uptake and abundance of denitrification genes on the root or plant surfaces were affected by the presence of other plant species, which show that both multi- and inter-trophic interactions are occurring. Future studies on N-removal potential of wetland plant species should consider how to best exploit these interactions in sub-arctic wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Importance of Ekman transport and gyre circulation change on seasonal variation of surface dissolved iron in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanowatari, Takuya; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Uchimoto, Keisuke; Nishioka, Jun; Mitsudera, Humio; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2017-05-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and it constitutes an important element in the marine carbon cycle in the ocean. This study examined the mechanisms controlling seasonal variation of dissolved Fe (dFe) in the western subarctic North Pacific (WSNP), using an ocean general circulation model coupled with a simple biogeochemical model incorporating a dFe cycle fed by two major sources (atmospheric dust and continental shelf sediment). The model reproduced the seasonal cycle of observed concentrations of dFe and macronutrients at the surface in the Oyashio region with maxima in winter (February-March) and minima in summer (July-September), although the simulated seasonal amplitudes are a half of the observed values. Analysis of the mixed-layer dFe budget indicated that both local vertical entrainment and lateral advection are primary contributors to the wintertime increase in dFe concentration. In early winter, strengthened northwesterly winds excite southward Ekman transport and Ekman upwelling over the western subarctic gyre, transporting dFe-rich water southward. In mid to late winter, the southward western boundary current of the subarctic gyre and the outflow from the Sea of Okhotsk also bring dFe-rich water to the Oyashio region. The contribution of atmospheric dust to the dFe budget is several times smaller than these ocean transport processes in winter. These results suggest that the westerly wind-induced Ekman transport and gyre circulation systematically influence the seasonal cycle of WSNP surface dFe concentration.

  9. Iron availability, nitrate uptake, and exportable new production in the subarctic Pacific. [phytoplankton population growth support and atmospheric CO2 removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Karl

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of experimental data and papers by Martin et al. (1989, 1990), who suggested that the phytoplankton growth is iron-limited and that, small additions of iron to large subarctic ocean areas might be a way of removing significant amounts of atmospheric CO2 by increasing phytoplancton growth. Data are presented to show that, in the summer of 1987, the phytoplankton assemblage as a whole was not iron limited, as measured by the bulk removal of nitrate or by the increase of chlorophyll. It is suggested that grazing normally prevents the phytoplankton from reaching concentrations that reduce the iron (and nitrate) to levels that depress division rates drastically.

  10. Impact of decade-long warming, nutrient addition and shading on emission and carbon isotopic composition of CO2 from two subarctic dwarf shrub heaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nynne R.; Ambus, Per Lennart; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated ecosystem respiration, soil respiration and carbon isotopic composition in CO2 emitted from two subarctic shrub heaths with contrasting moisture regimes. The reported measurements were conducted 22 years (mesic heath) and 12 years (wet heath) upon initiation of in situ...... the growing season. However, there was a tendency across growing season towards an increased δ13C source value after 22 years of warming in the mesic shrub heath, and the effect was statistically significant in June, indicating increased decomposition of 13C enriched material. Hence, although more of the old...

  11. New Desktop Virtual Reality Technology in Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Ausburn, Floyd B.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) that immerses users in a 3D environment through use of headwear, body suits, and data gloves has demonstrated effectiveness in technical and professional education. Immersive VR is highly engaging and appealing to technically skilled young Net Generation learners. However, technical difficulty and very high costs have kept…

  12. Strategy of technical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ga Jong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.

  13. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  14. Environmental Controls on Snow Cover Thickness and Water Equivalent in Two Sub-Arctic Mountain Catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The spatial variability of snow cover characteristics (depth, density, and snow water equivalent [SWE]) has paramount importance for the management of water resources in mountain environments. Passive microwave (PM) inference of SWE from space-borne instrumentation is increasingly used but the reliability of this technique remains limited in mountainous areas. Complex topography and the transition between forest and alpine tundra vegetation zones create large spatial heterogeneities in the sn...

  15. Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a subarctic treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas C; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A

    2015-05-01

    Climate warming at high northern latitudes has caused substantial increases in plant productivity of tundra vegetation and an expansion of the range of deciduous shrub species. However significant the increase in carbon (C) contained within above-ground shrub biomass, it is modest in comparison with the amount of C stored in the soil in tundra ecosystems. Here, we use a 'space-for-time' approach to test the hypothesis that a shift from lower-productivity tundra heath to higher-productivity deciduous shrub vegetation in the sub-Arctic may lead to a loss of soil C that out-weighs the increase in above-ground shrub biomass. We further hypothesize that a shift from ericoid to ectomycorrhizal systems coincident with this vegetation change provides a mechanism for the loss of soil C. We sampled soil C stocks, soil surface CO2 flux rates and fungal growth rates along replicated natural transitions from birch forest (Betula pubescens), through deciduous shrub tundra (Betula nana) to tundra heaths (Empetrum nigrum) near Abisko, Swedish Lapland. We demonstrate that organic horizon soil organic C (SOCorg ) is significantly lower at shrub (2.98 ± 0.48 kg m(-2) ) and forest (2.04 ± 0.25 kg m(-2) ) plots than at heath plots (7.03 ± 0.79 kg m(-2) ). Shrub vegetation had the highest respiration rates, suggesting that despite higher rates of C assimilation, C turnover was also very high and less C is sequestered in the ecosystem. Growth rates of fungal hyphae increased across the transition from heath to shrub, suggesting that the action of ectomycorrhizal symbionts in the scavenging of organically bound nutrients is an important pathway by which soil C is made available to microbial degradation. The expansion of deciduous shrubs onto potentially vulnerable arctic soils with large stores of C could therefore represent a significant positive feedback to the climate system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E; Marushchak, Maija E; Lind, Saara E; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas. As a result of air warming, the seasonal GHG budget of the vegetated tundra surfaces shifted from a GHG sink of -300 to -198 g CO 2 -eq m -2 to a source of 105 to 144 g CO 2 -eq m -2 . At bare peat surfaces, we observed increased release of all three GHGs. While the positive warming response was dominated by CO 2 , we provide here the first in situ evidence of increasing N 2 O emissions from tundra soils with warming. Warming promoted N 2 O release not only from bare peat, previously identified as a strong N 2 O source, but also from the abundant, vegetated peat surfaces that do not emit N 2 O under present climate. At these surfaces, elevated temperatures had an adverse effect on plant growth, resulting in lower plant N uptake and, consequently, better N availability for soil microbes. Although the warming was limited to the soil surface and did not alter thaw depth, it increased concentrations of DOC, CO 2, and CH 4 in the soil down to the permafrost table. This can be attributed to downward DOC leaching, fueling microbial activity at depth. Taken together, our results emphasize the tight linkages between plant and soil processes, and different soil layers, which need to be taken into account when predicting the climate change feedback of the Arctic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Seasonal changes in nutrients, chlorophyll a and the phytoplankton assemblage of the western subarctic gyre in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mamiko; Shiga, Naonobu; Saito, Masaru; Imai, Keiri; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    The standing stock and species composition of phytoplankton (>10 μm) were studied using monthly water samples collected at Stn KNOT (Kyodo North Pacific Ocean Time Series; 44°N, 155°E) in the western subarctic gyre in the Pacific Ocean through June 1998 to June 1999 (except for January-April 1999) and January-February 2000. One-liter water samples were preserved in 1% neutrally buffered formalin. Identification and enumeration of phytoplankton were made with an inverted microscope. Nutrients did not appear to be depleted for phytoplakton growth during any season. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton was primarily restricted by the pycnocline, and the bulk of phytoplankton assemblage existed within the surface mixed layer. In July, however, some senescent cells were observed at 200 m. Phytoplankton abundance clearly showed a spring maximum (i.e. spring bloom) in May. The seasonal change in cell numbers, however, did not coincide closely with the change in chlorophyll a concentration. Centric diatoms, which were composed of Thalassiosira, Chaetoceros, and Coscinodiscus, dominated all year round, and showed temporal succession. Pennate diatoms (mostly Neodenticula seminae and Fragilariopsis) increased only during the spring bloom. Dinoflagellates (mostly Gymnodinium and Prorocentrum) were low in abundance, although they increased in summer when the phytoplankton standing stock was low. Silicoflagellate abundance was extremely low. Comparing the annual species composition of phytoplankton between Stn KNOT and Stn P (50°N, 145°W) in the Alaskan Gyre, there was a remarkable difference between the two sites. The phytoplankton assemblage at Stn P is characterized by a high abundance of Rhizosolenia alata and low abundance of Thalassiosira. In contrast, Thalassiosira dominates at Stn KNOT during most seasons.

  18. Atmospheric iron supply and enhanced vertical carbon flux in the NE subarctic Pacific: Is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, P. W.; Wong, C. S.; Merrill, J.; Whitney, F.; Snow, J.; Harrison, P. J.; Gower, J.

    1998-09-01

    Recent studies have confirmed the relationship between iron supply and phytoplankton growth rates in all three high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) oceanic provinces. However, there is little evidence, so far, of the role of iron in altering the efficiency of the biological pump via increased downward export of particulate organic carbon (POC). The NE subarctic Pacific is unique among HNLC regions in that long time series pelagic observations and deep-moored sediment trap records exist which may provide the best opportunity thus far to test aspects of the iron hypothesis. Episodic elevated levels of chlorophyll a (> 2.0 μg L-1) were observed 6 times between 1964 and 1976 at the former site of Ocean Station Papa (OSP). In addition, between 1984 and 1990 on at least three occasions, concurrent pulses of POC and biogenic silica were recorded in deep-moored traps at OSP. Possible explanations for these events, such as lateral advection of more productive waters, iron-mediated blooms, or grazing by salp swarms are discussed and tested using an existing downward POC flux model. Owing to the episodic nature of such events, no available data are sufficiently comprehensive to unequivocally rule out any of these explanations. Nevertheless, from the data available, the occurrence of pelagic or deep water pulses, approximately once every 3 years, are most consistent with iron-mediated diatom blooms, and of the sinking of POC and biogenic silica (from such a bloom) to depth, respectively. A comparison of the timing of these iron-mediated pulses with that of the transport probabilities of atmospheric dust supply from Asia and Alaska provides an opportunity to assess the likelihood of a coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean.

  19. DNA sequencing, anatomy, and calcification patterns support a monophyletic, subarctic, carbonate reef-forming Clathromorphum (Hapalidiaceae, Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, Walter H; Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Johnson, Gabriel; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2015-02-01

    For the first time, morpho-anatomical characters that were congruent with DNA sequence data were used to characterize several genera in Hapalidiaceae-the major eco-engineers of Subarctic carbonate ecosystems. DNA sequencing of three genes (SSU, rbcL, ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit gene and psbA, photosystem II D1 protein gene), along with patterns of cell division, cell elongation, and calcification supported a monophyletic Clathromorphum. Two characters were diagnostic for this genus: (i) cell division, elongation, and primary calcification occurred only in intercalary meristematic cells and in a narrow vertical band (1-2 μm wide) resulting in a "meristem split" and (ii) a secondary calcification of interfilament crystals was also produced. Neopolyporolithon was resurrected for N. reclinatum, the generitype, and Clathromorphum loculosum was transferred to this genus. Like Clathromorphum, cell division, elongation, and calcification occurred only in intercalary meristematic cells, but in a wider vertical band (over 10-20 μm), and a "meristem split" was absent. Callilithophytum gen. nov. was proposed to accommodate Clathromorphum parcum, the obligate epiphyte of the northeast Pacific endemic geniculate coralline, Calliarthron. Diagnostic for this genus were epithallial cells terminating all cell filaments (no dorsi-ventrality was present), and a distinct "foot" was embedded in the host. Leptophytum, based on its generitype, L. laeve, was shown to be a distinct genus more closely related to Clathromorphum than to Phymatolithon. All names of treated species were applied unequivocally by linking partial rbcL sequences from holotype, isotype, or epitype specimens with field-collected material. Variation in rbcL and psbA sequences suggested that multiple species may be passing under each currently recognized species of Clathromorphum and Neopolyporolithon. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Seasonal variations in methane fluxes in response to summer warming and leaf litter addition in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Emily Pickering; Elberling, Bo; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas controlled by both biotic and abiotic processes. Few studies have investigated CH4 fluxes in subarctic heath ecosystems, and climate change-induced shifts in CH4 flux and the overall carbon budget are therefore largely unknown. Hence, there is an urgent need for long-term in situ experiments allowing for the study of ecosystem processes over time scales relevant to environmental change. Here we present in situ CH4 and CO2 flux measurements from a wet heath ecosystem in northern Sweden subjected to 16 years of manipulations, including summer warming with open-top chambers, birch leaf litter addition, and the combination thereof. Throughout the snow-free season, the ecosystem was a net sink of CH4 and CO2 (CH4 -0.27 mg C m-2 d-1; net ecosystem exchange -1827 mg C m-2 d-1), with highest CH4 uptake rates (-0.70 mg C m-2 d-1) during fall. Warming enhanced net CO2 flux, while net CH4 flux was governed by soil moisture. Litter addition and the combination with warming significantly increased CH4 uptake rates, explained by a pronounced soil drying effect of up to 32% relative to ambient conditions. Both warming and litter addition also increased the seasonal average concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the soil. The site was a carbon sink with a net uptake of 60 g C m-2 over the snow-free season. However, warming reduced net carbon uptake by 77%, suggesting that this ecosystem type might shift from snow-free season sink to source with increasing summer temperatures.

  1. Year-Round Carbon Fluxes in a Subarctic Landscape Show the Importance of Lake Emissions According to Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammet, M.; Crill, P. M.; Friborg, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lakes are increasingly recognized as important components of the global terrestrial carbon budget. Northern lakes are especially of interest due to a high density of open-water ecosystems in Northern latitudes and a potential increase in lake areal extent where permafrost is thawing. A better understanding of lake-atmosphere interactions requires long-term and direct measurement of surface fluxes. This is rarely achieved in Northern landscapes where seasonally ice-covered lakes are mostly studied during the open water season, and measurement methods do not always allow an integration of all gas transport pathways to the atmosphere. We present here ecosystem-scale data from Stordalen (68°20'N, 19°03'E), a thawing permafrost peatland in subarctic Sweden, where an eddy covariance system is used in an innovative way to quantify the importance of methane (CH4) emissions from a shallow lake. After more than a year of surface flux monitoring, it is found that spring is a crucial season for lake-atmosphere CH4 exchange. Despite its shallow depth, more than half of annual CH4 emissions from the lake were recorded at ice-out, suggesting significant winter CH4 production in lake sediments. Lake water dynamics seemed to drive the observed spring release rates. In contrast, summer methane emissions in Stordalen were dominated by the minerotrophic fens. This underlines the importance of considering the full annual budget when assessing the carbon source strength of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Carbon dioxide fluxes were also monitored and will be briefly discussed, as well as the significance of northern lakes spring burst for global atmospheric CH4 budget.

  2. The French Space Operation Act: Technical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchero, J. P.; Lazare, B.

    2010-09-01

    The French Space Operation Act(FSOA) stipulates that a prime objective of the National technical regulations is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these technical regulations is mandatory as of 10 December 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations from French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by the applicant, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting technical regulations are as follows: requirements must as far as possible establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being the state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. Technical regulations are divided into three sections covering common requirements for the launch, control and return of a space object. A dedicated section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the technical regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth’s environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection.

  3. VLLEEM-2 technical workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In order to overcome the limits of the energy-environment models, and to benefit at the same time of their past experiences, the VLEEM project proposes a genuine approach and innovative modelling tools to assess the energy-environment systems over the very long term, which are based on the strengths of existing long term energy models, but focussed on two major objectives: to describe normative futures which fit with a set of overall constraints, like the stabilisation of the concentration of green-house gases in the atmosphere, or the stabilisation of the overall inventory of plutonium and minor actinides, etc...; to describe and formalize the association of causalities necessary to bring the system from the present situation to the targeted future, through a '' back-casting '' approach. This first technical workshop presents the state of the art of the different Work Programmes. WP1:Enhancement of the Conceptual framework. WP2: Data base on conventional demand/supply technologies. WP3: Complement and up-date technology monographs. WP4: Formalization and computing of final VLEEM submodels. WP5: Case study 2030, 2050, 2100. (A.L.B.)

  4. Negotiating cultural encounters narrating intercultural engineering and technical communication

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Han

    2013-01-01

    Discusses the challenges of intercultural communication in engineering, technical, and related professional fields Given today's globalized technical and engineering environment, intercultural communication is an essential topic for engineers, other technical professionals, and technical communicators to learn. Engineering programs, in particular, need to think about how to address the ABET requirement for students to develop global competence and communication skills. This book will help readers learn what intercultural communication is like in the workplace-which is an import

  5. Relationship between intraoperative non-technical performance and technical events in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecso, A B; Kuzulugil, S S; Babaoglu, C; Bener, A B; Grantcharov, T P

    2018-03-30

    The operating theatre is a unique environment with complex team interactions, where technical and non-technical performance affect patient outcomes. The correlation between technical and non-technical performance, however, remains underinvestigated. The purpose of this study was to explore these interactions in the operating theatre. A prospective single-centre observational study was conducted at a tertiary academic medical centre. One surgeon and three fellows participated as main operators. All patients who underwent a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and had the procedures captured using the Operating Room Black Box ® platform were included. Technical assessment was performed using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills and Generic Error Rating Tool instruments. For non-technical assessment, the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) and Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills (SPLINTS) tools were used. Spearman rank-order correlation and N-gram statistics were conducted. Fifty-six patients were included in the study and 90 procedural steps (gastrojejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy) were analysed. There was a moderate to strong correlation between technical adverse events (r s  = 0·417-0·687), rectifications (r s  = 0·380-0·768) and non-technical performance of the surgical and nursing teams (NOTSS and SPLINTS). N-gram statistics showed that after technical errors, events and prior rectifications, the staff surgeon and the scrub nurse exhibited the most positive non-technical behaviours, irrespective of operator (staff surgeon or fellow). This study demonstrated that technical and non-technical performances are related, on both an individual and a team level. Valuable data can be obtained around intraoperative errors, events and rectifications. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. CTBT technical issues handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucca, J.J.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to give the nonspecialist in nuclear explosion physics and nuclear test monitoring an introduction to the topic as it pertains to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The authors have tried to make the handbook visually oriented, with figures paired to short discussions. As such, the handbook may be read straight through or in sections. The handbook covers four main areas and ends with a glossary, which includes both scientific terms and acronyms likely to be encountered during CTBT negotiations. The following topics are covered: (1) Physics of nuclear explosion experiments. This is a description of basic nuclear physics and elementary nuclear weapon design. Also discussed are testing practices. (2) Other nuclear experiments. This section discusses experiments that produce small amounts of nuclear energy but differ from explosion experiments discussed in the first chapter. This includes the type of activities, such as laser fusion, that would continue after a CTBT is in force. (3) Monitoring tests in various environments. This section describes the different physical environments in which a test could be conducted (underground, in the atmosphere, in space, underwater, and in the laboratory); the sources of non-nuclear events (such as earthquakes and mining operations); and the opportunities for evasion. (4) On-site inspections. A CTBT is likely to include these inspections as an element of the verification provisions, in order to resolve the nature of ambiguous events. This chapter describes some technical considerations and technologies that are likely to be useful. (5) Selecting verification measures. This chapter discusses the uncertain nature of the evidence from monitoring systems and how compliance judgments could be made, taking the uncertainties into account. It also discusses how to allocate monitoring resources, given the likelihood of testing by various countries in various environments

  7. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  8. Technical report writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  9. Technical Report Writing Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riordan, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Section 1: Technical Communication Basics (8 chapters on tech com, audiences, tech com process, tech com style, researching, designing pages, using visual aids, describing). Section 2: Technical Communication Applications (7 chapters on sets of instructions, informal reports and email, developing...

  10. Technical training: places available

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  11. Technical training - places available

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  12. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tél : 74924)  

  13. VANDAL technical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, M.D.

    1989-07-01

    This document is concerned with the technicalities of the VANDAL code and covers the technical details of each of the systems modules in turn. Covered are SAMPLING, FLOW, VAULT, GEOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE and TIMESTEPPING. (author)

  14. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  15. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Marie Lahchimi, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  16. Handbook of Technical Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mehler , Alexander; Romary , Laurent; Gibbon , Dafydd

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The handbook "Technical Communication" brings together a variety of topics which range from the role of technical media in human communication to the linguistic, multimodal enhancement of present-day technologies. It covers the area of computer-mediated text, voice and multimedia communication as well as of technical documentation. In doing so, the handbook takes professional and private communication into account. Special emphasis is put on technical communication bas...

  17. Radiation protection research projects. Program report 2015. Report on research program radiation protection of the Federal ministry for environment, nature conservation and reactor safety with technical and administrative steering by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz; Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2015. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela (comps.)

    2016-08-15

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. The tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection involve planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects. This report provides information on results, i. e. preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2015.

  18. Teaching Technical Writing - Towards Technical Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm that ...... of technical writing.......In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm...... that used to govern what the quality of an LSP text should be as opposed to the standpoint, which I advocate. By way of summing up, I will show how a university curriculum is designed so that - upon graduation - the technical translator could also be methodological quite well suited to take on the challenge...

  19. Challenges in modelling isoprene and monoterpene emission dynamics of Arctic plants: a case study from a subarctic tundra heath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Schurgers, Guy; Valolahti, Hanna; Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is warming at twice the global average speed, and the warming-induced increases in biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Arctic plants are expected to be drastic. The current global models' estimations of minimal BVOC emissions from the Arctic are based on very few observations and have been challenged increasingly by field data. This study applied a dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, as a platform to investigate short-term and long-term BVOC emission responses to Arctic climate warming. Field observations in a subarctic tundra heath with long-term (13-year) warming treatments were extensively used for parameterizing and evaluating BVOC-related processes (photosynthesis, emission responses to temperature and vegetation composition). We propose an adjusted temperature (T) response curve for Arctic plants with much stronger T sensitivity than the commonly used algorithms for large-scale modelling. The simulated emission responses to 2 °C warming between the adjusted and original T response curves were evaluated against the observed warming responses (WRs) at short-term scales. Moreover, the model responses to warming by 4 and 8 °C were also investigated as a sensitivity test. The model showed reasonable agreement to the observed vegetation CO2 fluxes in the main growing season as well as day-to-day variability of isoprene and monoterpene emissions. The observed relatively high WRs were better captured by the adjusted T response curve than by the common one. During 1999-2012, the modelled annual mean isoprene and monoterpene emissions were 20 and 8 mg C m-2 yr-1, with an increase by 55 and 57 % for 2 °C summertime warming, respectively. Warming by 4 and 8 °C for the same period further elevated isoprene emission for all years, but the impacts on monoterpene emissions levelled off during the last few years. At hour-day scale, the WRs seem to be strongly impacted by canopy air T, while at the day-year scale, the WRs are a combined

  20. Primary, new and export production in the NW Pacific subarctic gyre during the vertigo K2 experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskens, M.; Brion, N.; Buesseler, K.; Van Mooy, B. A. S.; Boyd, P.; Dehairs, F.; Savoye, N.; Baeyens, W.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents results on tracer experiments using 13C and 15N to estimate uptake rates of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN). Experiments were carried out at station K2 (47°N, 161°E) in the NW Pacific subarctic gyre during July-August 2005. Our goal was to investigate relationships between new and export production. New production was inferred from the tracer experiments using the f ratio concept (0-50 m); while export production was assessed with neutrally buoyant sediment traps (NBSTs) and the e ratio concept (at 150 m). During trap deployments, K2 was characterized both by changes in primary production (523-404 mg C m -2 d -1), new production (119-67 mg C m -2 d -1), export production (68-24 mg C m -2 d -1) and phytoplankton composition (high to low proportion of diatoms). The data indicate that 17-23% of primary production is exportable to deeper layers ( f ratio) but only 6-13% collected as a sinking particle flux at 150 m ( e ratio). Accordingly, >80% of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton would be mineralized in the upper 50 m (1- f), while <11% would be within 50-150 m ( f- e). DIN uptake flux amounted to 0.5 mM m -2 h -1, which was equivalent to about 95% particulate nitrogen (PN) remineralized and/or grazed within the upper 150 m. Most of the shallow PN remineralization occurred just above the depth of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), where a net ammonium production was measured. Below the DCM, while nitrate uptake rates became negligible because of light limitation, ammonium uptake did continue to be significant. The uptake of ammonium by heterotrophic bacteria was estimated to be 14-17% of the DIN assimilation. Less clear are the consequences of this uptake on the phytoplankton community and biogeochemical processes, e.g. new production. It was suggested that competition for ammonium could select for small cells and may force large diatoms to use nitrate. This implies that under Fe stress as observed here, ammonium uptake is

  1. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on terrestrial subarctic ecosystems and implications for interactions with increased atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U.; Bjoern, L.O.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Callaghan, T.V.; Lee, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two predominating types of ecosystems in the Subarctic were exposed to simulated environmental perturbations. A heathland ecosystem was exposed to enhanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) combined with either increased CO 2 (600 ppm) or additional watering. An ombrotrophic peatland ecosystem was exposed to only enhanced UV-B. Responses both at a plant species level, including different growth forms and life strategies, and at a trophic level (decomposition of organic matter) were studied. There were differences both in the magnitude and direction of plant responses to enhanced UV-B. The four dwarf shrub species in the heathland developed shorter stems, though not at a significant level in the two deciduous species. The leaves of the evergreen, thick-leaved V. vitus-idaea grew thicker under enhanced UV-B, while leaves of the two deciduous species V. myrtillus and V. uliginosum grew thinner. The heathland moss H. splendens showed reduced growth after two and three years under enhanced UV-B but when water was applied simultaneously growth was stimulated by enhanced UV-B. The peat moss S. fuscum had 20% less height increment during the first growing season under enhanced UV-B. Mosses tended to respond quicker to a change in UV-B regime than long-lived dwarf shrubs did. They responded in growth and phenological development already after a few weeks of treatment. Enhanced UV-B in the heathland affected decomposition of organic matter. It had direct negative effects on decomposer community function and structure and indirect negative effects on turnover of V. uliginosum leaf litter by changing the tissue quality of the litter. This was confirmed by studies in the field with another deciduous dwarf shrub (V. myrtillus). Increased growth due to enhanced CO 2 was recorded in V. myrtillus during the first growing season. No change in growth was apparent in any of the dwarf shrubs on a longer-term perspective but the number of flowers and berries were increased in

  2. Role of EPS, Dispersant and Nutrients on the Microbial Response and MOS Formation in the Subarctic Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gutierrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the formation of marine oil snow (MOS, its associated microbial community, the factors influencing its formation, and the microbial response to crude oil in surface waters of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC. The FSC is a subarctic region that is hydrodynamically complex located in the northeast Atlantic where oil extraction is currently occurring and where exploration is likely to expand into its deeper waters (>500 m. A major oil spill in this region may mirror the aftermath that ensued following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, where the massive influx of Macondo crude oil triggered the formation of copious quantities of rapidly sinking MOS and successional blooms of opportunistic oil-degrading bacteria. In laboratory experiments, we simulated environmental conditions in sea surface waters of the FSC using water collected from this site during the winter of 2015. We demonstrated that the presence of dispersant triggers the formation of MOS, and that nutrient amendments magnify this. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed the enrichment on MOS of associated oil-degrading (Cycloclasticus, Thalassolituus, Marinobacter and EPS-producing (Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Alteromonas bacteria, and included major representation by Psychrobacter and Cobetia with putative oil-degrading/EPS-producing qualities. The formation of marine snow, in the absence of crude oil and dispersant, in seawater amended with nutrients alone indicated that the de novo synthesis of bacterial EPS is a key factor in MOS formation, and the glycoprotein composition of the MOS aggregates confirmed that its amorphous biopolymeric matrix was of microbial (likely bacterial origin. The presence of dispersants and crude oil with/without nutrients resulted in distinct microbial responses marked by intermittent, and in some cases short-lived, blooms of opportunistic heterotrophs, principally obligate hydrocarbonoclastic (Alcanivorax

  3. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  4. Technical rules in law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  5. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  6. Diverse origins of Arctic and Subarctic methane point source emissions identified with multiply-substituted isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M. J.; Stolper, D. A.; Smith, D. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Winterdahl, M.; Eiler, J. M.; Sessions, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and there are concerns that its natural emissions from the Arctic could act as a substantial positive feedback to anthropogenic global warming. Determining the sources of methane emissions and the biogeochemical processes controlling them is important for understanding present and future Arctic contributions to atmospheric methane budgets. Here we apply measurements of multiply-substituted isotopologues, or clumped isotopes, of methane as a new tool to identify the origins of ebullitive fluxes in Alaska, Sweden and the Arctic Ocean. When methane forms in isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotope measurements indicate the formation temperature. In some microbial methane, however, non-equilibrium isotope effects, probably related to the kinetics of methanogenesis, lead to low clumped isotope values. We identify four categories of emissions in the studied samples: thermogenic methane, deep subsurface or marine microbial methane formed in isotopic equilibrium, freshwater microbial methane with non-equilibrium clumped isotope values, and mixtures of deep and shallow methane (i.e., combinations of the first three end members). Mixing between deep and shallow methane sources produces a non-linear variation in clumped isotope values with mixing proportion that provides new constraints for the formation environment of the mixing end-members. Analyses of microbial methane emitted from lakes, as well as a methanol-consuming methanogen pure culture, support the hypothesis that non-equilibrium clumped isotope values are controlled, in part, by kinetic isotope effects induced during enzymatic reactions involved in methanogenesis. Our results indicate that these kinetic isotope effects vary widely in microbial methane produced in Arctic lake sediments, with non-equilibrium Δ18 values spanning a range of more than 5‰.

  7. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hendriks, I. E.; Meire, L.; Blicher, M. E.; Marbà , N.; Sejr, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    and macrophyte diffusive boundary layers a pH range of up to 0.8 units. Overall, pelagic and benthic metabolism was an important driver of pH and Ωarag producing mosaics of variability from low levels in the dark to peak levels at high irradiance generally appearing favourable for calcification. We suggest that productive coastal environments may form niches of high pH in a future acidified Arctic Ocean.

  8. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, D.

    2015-08-19

    and macrophyte diffusive boundary layers a pH range of up to 0.8 units. Overall, pelagic and benthic metabolism was an important driver of pH and Ωarag producing mosaics of variability from low levels in the dark to peak levels at high irradiance generally appearing favourable for calcification. We suggest that productive coastal environments may form niches of high pH in a future acidified Arctic Ocean.

  9. Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Thursday 4 September From 14:00 to 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium bldg. 593, room 11 The Summit Design VisualElite 4.0 Release Jean Marie St Paul / SUMMIT DESIGN, Europe, Technical Manager Michel Delcroix / SUMMIT DESIGN, Southern Europe, Sales F-95015 CERGY PONTOISE, France Summit Design is an important EDA digital hardware design tool supplier, and the industry leader in the emerging Electronic System Level design domain. Its VisualElite program has been used at CERN for several years. This seminar will include the highlights of the program's latest release. It will be illustrated how Summit Design products can provide a high-level C/C++ and SystemC functional modelling design and verification environment, enabling engineers to analyse system concepts before the implementation stage. The seminar will show how mixed SystemC and HDL simulation can be done, along with solutions for hardware/software development. • HDL new features: Connectivity Table Editor. Xemacs full integration. New NCsim ...

  10. Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Thursday 4 September From 14:00 to 17:00 - Training Centre Auditorium bldg. 593, room 11 The Summit Design VisualElite 4.0 Release Jean Marie St Paul / SUMMIT DESIGN, Europe, Technical Manager Michel Delcroix / SUMMIT DESIGN, Southern Europe, Sales F-95015 CERGY PONTOISE, France Summit Design is an important EDA digital hardware design tool supplier, and the industry leader in the emerging Electronic System Level design domain. Its VisualElite program has been used at CERN for several years. This seminar will include the highlights of the program's latest release. It will be illustrated how Summit Design products can provide a high-level C/C++ and SystemC functional modelling design and verification environment, enabling engineers to analyse system concepts before the implementation stage. The seminar will show how mixed SystemC and HDL simulation can be done, along with solutions for hardware/software development. • HDL new features: Connectivity Table Editor. Xemacs full integration. New NCsi...

  11. Effect of the temperature and the exclusion of UVB radiation on the phenolics and iridoids in Menyanthes trifoliata L. leaves in the subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, Francoise [Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, POB 122, FI-96101 Rovaniemi (Finland); Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, POB 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi (Finland); Turunen, Minna, E-mail: minna.turunen@ulapland.f [Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, POB 122, FI-96101 Rovaniemi (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [Natural Product Research Laboratories, Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, POB 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Lakkala, Kaisa [Arctic Research Centre, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI-ARC), Taehtelaentie, 62, FI-99600 Sodankylae (Finland); Sutinen, Marja-Liisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, POB 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi (Finland); Department of Biology, University of Oulu, POB 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The long-term effects of UVB exclusion and temperature on the methanol extractable (ME) phenolics (flavonoids, phenolic acids) and iridoids of Menyanthes trifoliata L. (Mt) leaves were studied in northern Finland (68 deg. N) using wooden frames covered with filters for UVB exclusion (polyester filter), control (cellulose acetate filter) and ambient (no filter) conditions. Analysis of ambient plots showed no effect of the daily mean temperature (2sigma = 1.58 deg. C) on the leaf ME compound content and composition, but minimum temperatures decreased the flavonol content. UVB exclusion did not affect the total ME compound content but significantly decreased the proportion of flavonols concomitantly with an increase in iridoids. Due to its high iridoid content, Mt appears as an interesting model plant for studying the iridoid biosynthesis and its regulation under stress conditions. - This study shows that exclusion of UVB radiation modified the content of flavonols and iridoids but not chlorogenic acids in leaves of Menyanthes trifoliata in the subarctic.

  12. The fate of 13C15N labelled glycine in permafrost and surface soil at simulated thaw in mesocosms from high arctic and subarctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nynne Marie Rand; Elberling, Bo; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim: Nutrient distribution and carbon fluxes upon spring thaw are compared in mesocosms from high arctic and subarctic ecosystems dominated by Cassiope tetragona or Salix hastata/Salix arctica, in order to evaluate the possibility of plant and microbial utilization of an organic...... compound in thawing permafrost and surface soil. Methods: Double labeled glycine (13C15N) was added to soil columns with vegetation and to permafrost. During thaw conditions ecosystem respiration 13C was measured and 13C and 15N distribution in the ecosystem pools was quantified one day and one month after...... glycine addition. Results: Near-surface soil microbes were more efficient in the uptake of intact glycine immediately upon thaw than plants. After one month plants had gained more 15N whereas microbes seemed to lose 15N originating from glycine. We observed a time lag in glycine degradation upon...

  13. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years...... vascular plant groups. Also, limitation of soil nutrient availability caused by labile C addition decreased the relative proportion of green shoots in evergreen shrubs, although these were expected to cope better with the nutrient limitation than the opportunistic graminoids, which, by contrast, were...... unaffected. Reduced fungal biomass due to benomyl addition was accompanied by increased evergreen shrub and clubmoss biomass. Taken together, the effects of treatments were most pronounced 16 years after initiation of the experiment, but despite changes in biomass the overall plant community composition...

  14. Writing a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C G

    2010-02-01

    A technical note is a short article giving a brief description of a specific development, technique or procedure, or it may describe a modification of an existing technique, procedure or device applicable to medicine. The technique, procedure or device described should have practical value and should contribute to clinical diagnosis or management. It could also present a software tool, or an experimental or computational method. Technical notes are variously referred to as technical innovations or technical developments. The main criteria for publication will be the novelty of concepts involved, the validity of the technique and its potential for clinical applications.

  15. Technical Elements (CCT1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Many of the aspects dealt with in the CA EPBD are closely interlinked with each other and may refer to both new and existing buildings, as well as to inspection and certification. This is also true for technical aspects, such as the calculation methodologies, and how to include technical systems......’ efficiency or how to integrate renewable energy within them. The central team for Technical Elements deals with issues of a technical nature, which are common to new and existing buildings, and/or with minimum demands, certification and inspection. This report focuses on the implementation of Articles 3, 4...

  16. Dynamics of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus during the peak and declining phase of an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the eastern subarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Nishioka, Jun; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all organisms and thus the P cycle plays a key role in determining the dynamics of lower trophic levels in marine ecosystems. P in seawater occurs conceptually in particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic (POP, PIP, DOP, and DIP, respectively) pools and clarification of the dynamics in these P pools is the basis to assess the biogeochemical cycle of P. Despite its importance, behaviors of each P pool with phytoplankton dynamics have not been fully examined. We measured the four operationally defined P pools (POPop, PIPop, DOPop, and SRP) during an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom (as part of the subarctic ecosystem response to iron enrichment study (SERIES)) in the eastern subarctic Pacific in summer 2002. During our observations of the iron-enriched patch from day 15 to day 26 after the iron infusion, chlorophyll-a concentration in the surface layer decreased from 6.3 to 1.2 μg L- 1, indicating the peak through decline phase of the phytoplankton bloom. At the bloom peak, P was partitioned into POPop, PIPop, and DOPop in proportions of 60, 27, and 13%, respectively. While chlorophyll-a and POPop showed similar temporal variations during the declining phase, PIPop showed a different peak timing with a 2 day delay compared to POPop, resulting in a rapid change in the relative proportion of PIPop to total particulate P (TPP = POPop + PIPop) at the peak (25%) and during the declining phase of the bloom (50%). A part of POPop was replaced by PIPop just after slowing down of phytoplankton growth. This process may have a significant role in the subsequent regeneration of P. We conclude that measurement of TPP alone is insufficient to show the interaction between P and phytoplankton dynamics and fractionation of TPP into POPop and PIPop provides useful insights to clarify the biogeochemical cycle of P.

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF DOMOIC ACID PRODUCTION IN OCEANIC PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) FROM IRON-LIMITED WATERS IN THE NORTHEAST SUBARCTIC PACIFIC(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Adrian; Lundholm, Nina; Kotaki, Yuichi; Hubbard, Katherine; Harrison, Paul J; Virginia Armbrust, E

    2008-06-01

    We identified and investigated the potential toxicity of oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia species from Ocean Station Papa (OSP), located in a high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the northeast (NE) subarctic Pacific Ocean. Despite their relatively low abundances in the indigenous phytoplankton assemblage, Pseudo-nitzschia species richness is high. The morphometric characteristics of five oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia isolates from at least four species are described using SEM and TEM. The species identified are Pseudo-nitzschia dolorosa Lundholm et Moestrup, P. granii Hasle, P. heimii Manguin, and P. cf. turgidula (Hust.) Hasle. Additional support for the taxonomic classifications based on frustule morphology is provided through the sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) rDNA. Pseudo-nitzschia species identification was also assessed by the construction of ITS1 clone libraries and using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) for environmental samples collected during the Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study (SERIES), conducted in close proximity to OSP in July of 2002. Based on ITS1 sequences, the presence of P. granii, P. heimii, P. cf. turgidula, and at least five other putative, unidentified Pseudo-nitzschia ITS1 variants was confirmed within iron-enriched phytoplankton assemblages at OSP. None of the oceanic isolates produced detectable levels of particulate domoic acid (DA) when in prolonged stationary phase due to silicic acid starvation. The lack of detectable concentrations of DA suggests that either these strains produce very little or no toxin, or that the physiological conditions required to promote particulate DA production were not met and thus differ from their coastal, toxigenic congeners. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  18. Uncertainty assessment of a polygon database of soil organic carbon for greenhouse gas reporting in Canada’s Arctic and sub-arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Hossain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s Arctic and sub-arctic consist 46% of Canada’s landmass and contain 45% of the total soil organic carbon (SOC. Pronounced climate warming and increasing human disturbances could induce the release of this SOC to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. Canada is committed to estimating and reporting the greenhouse gases emissions and removals induced by land use change in the Arctic and sub-arctic. To assess the uncertainty of the estimate, we compiled a site-measured SOC database for Canada’s north, and used it to compare with a polygon database, that will be used for estimating SOC for the UNFCCC reporting. In 10 polygons where 3 or more measured sites were well located in each polygon, the site-averaged SOC content agreed with the polygon data within ±33% for the top 30 cm and within ±50% for the top 1 m soil. If we directly compared the SOC of the 382 measured sites with the polygon mean SOC, there was poor agreement: The relative error was less than 50% at 40% of the sites, and less than 100% at 68% of the sites. The relative errors were more than 400% at 10% of the sites. These comparisons indicate that the polygon database is too coarse to represent the SOC conditions for individual sites. The difference is close to the uncertainty range for reporting. The spatial database could be improved by relating site and polygon SOC data with more easily observable surface features that can be identified and derived from remote sensing imagery.

  19. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2014-01-01

    Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  20. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad

    Full Text Available Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects. Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  1. Spatial patterns in abundance, taxonomic composition and carbon biomass of nano- and microphytoplankton in Subarctic and Arctic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David W.; Cefarelli, Adrián O.; Wrohan, Ian A.; Wyatt, Shea N.; Varela, Diana E.

    2018-03-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008, we studied assemblages of nano- and microphytoplankton from the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) across five broad oceanographic domains in the seas surrounding northern North America. These domains are the eastern Subarctic North Pacific (ESNP), Bering and Chukchi Seas (BE-CH), Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin (BS-CB), Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), and Baffin Bay and Labrador Sea (BB-LS). Average abundance and total carbon biomass (C) of phytoplankton (>2 μm) varied ∼10-fold and ∼20-fold, respectively, across the five domains. In the BE-CH, CAA and BB-LS, diatoms averaged 35-70% and dinoflagellates 11-45% of total phytoplankton C (>2 μm), whereas in the ESNP and BS-CB, unidentified flagellates/coccoids (2-8 μm) represented a greater proportion of total C (27% and 39% respectively) than in the other domains. In the BE-CH and BB-LS, phytoplankton C (>2 μm) was dominated by dinoflagellates of the genus Gymnodinium, centric diatoms including Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros spp., unidentified flagellates/coccoids (2-8 μm), and cryptomonads. In contrast, diatoms such as Thalassiosira spp. and its resting spores dominated C in the CAA, with dinoflagellates being less significant than in the BE-CH and BB-LS. Unidentified flagellates/coccoids (2-8 μm), Gymnodinium spp., and cryptomonads dominated in the ESNP, and particularly in the BS-CB, where diatoms contributed only 18% of the very low levels of total phytoplankton C (>2 μm). Phytoplankton C (>2 μm) to chlorophyll a ratios (phyto C:chl a) averaged only 31 g C g chl a-1 in the oligotrophic BS-CB domain, and 51-150 g C g chl a-1 in the other domains, whereas ratios of biogenic silica to phytoplankton C (>2 μm) (bSi:phyto C) were lowest in the eastern domains. Estimates of phytoplankton C were highly sensitive to the choice of C to cell volume equations (C:vol) adopted in the calculations, particularly in diatom-rich areas. This study highlights how diatoms and

  2. Technical development of industry for 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book mentions the history for 30 years since 1979 on industrial technology, which records change of system and environment of industrial technology development, like economical and social environment, industrial technology policy, support system on technical development and enterprise institute, assignment for future and product of industrial technology by field such as electric electronic, information and communications, machine material and fiber chemistry, and the way which Korea industrial technology association walked on.

  3. Urology technical and non-technical skills development: the emerging role of simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Prem; Gianduzzo, Troy R J

    2016-04-01

    To review the emerging role of technical and non-technical simulation in urological education and training. A review was conducted to examine the current role of simulation in urology training. A PUBMED search of the terms 'urology training', 'urology simulation' and 'urology education' revealed 11,504 titles. Three hundred and fifty-seven abstracts were identified as English language, peer reviewed papers pertaining to the role of simulation in urology and related topics. Key papers were used to explore themes. Some cross-referenced papers were also included. There is an ongoing need to ensure that training time is efficiently utilised while ensuring that optimal technical and non-technical skills are achieved. Changing working conditions and the need to minimise patient harm by inadvertent errors must be taken into account. Simulation models for specific technical aspects have been the mainstay of graduated step-wise low and high fidelity training. Whole scenario environments as well as non-technical aspects can be slowly incorporated into the curriculum. Doing so should also help define what have been challenging competencies to teach and evaluate. Dedicated time, resources and trainer up-skilling are important. Concurrent studies are needed to help evaluate the effectiveness of introducing step-wise simulation for technical and non-technical competencies. Simulation based learning remains the best avenue of progressing surgical education. Technical and non-technical simulation could be used in the selection process. There are good economic, logistic and safety reasons to pursue the process of ongoing development of simulation co-curricula. While the role of simulation is assured, its progress will depend on a structured program that takes advantage of what can be delivered via this medium. Overall, simulation can be developed further for urological training programs to encompass technical and non-technical skill development at all stages, including

  4. A palliative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2015-01-01

    The findings show a tension between clinical and technical sensory impressions and more aesthetic ones in the hospital environment. Aesthetic elements in an environment dominated by many clinical impressions proved important for the patients’ positive thoughts and feelings. Aesthetic sensory...... impressions caused a sense of homeliness and familiarity in the hospital environment that was perceived by the patients as carrying a positive meaning. Clinical impressions, on the other hand, were generally associated with unfamiliarity and insecurity and were experienced as creating a negative mood....

  5. Technical Training for Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  6. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  7. Developing Technical Skill Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…

  8. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  9. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  10. Technical Writing Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Patrick M.

    2004-01-01

    The main reason engineers, technicians, and programmers write poor technical documents is because they have had little training or experience in that area. This article addresses some of the basics that students can use to master technical writing tasks. The article covers the most common problems writers make and offers suggestions for improving…

  11. Research in Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to list and demonstrate areas in which research needs to be carried out, or questions answered, in order to raise the quality of technical education. Design/methodology/approach: The area of technical education expanded very rapidly in the late 1950s, and there was little comprehensive knowledge regarding the…

  12. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  13. RAMP 2005 technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This technical report provided details of all monitoring activities conducted by the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP), which was initiated in 1997 to examine the impacts of oil sands mining development on aquatic systems in the region. RAMP's objective is to integrate aquatic monitoring activities in order to identify long-term trends and regional issues related to the environment in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. In 2005, RAMP focused on key components of boreal aquatic ecosystems. This report provided full outlines of all climate and hydrology monitoring activities; water and sedimentation analyses; and studies of benthic communities in rivers, lakes, and deltas. Sets of measurements endpoints were used to represent the health and integrity of valued environmental resources. Satellite imager was used to estimate activities related to oil sands developments. The report was divided into subsections which related monitoring activities for various rivers and tributaries in the region. Small and negligible calculated changes were observed in hydrologic conditions in the Athabasca River mainstem. No discernible changes in water and sediment quality were observed that could positively be ascribed to oil sands developments in the region. Very little evidence suggested that fish populations had changed as a result of increased activities in the region. The influence of oil sands development activities on the aquatic resources of the Athabasca River mainstem were minor and mostly undetectable. The results of fish tissue studies from the lower Athabasca River showed that concentrations of mercury in fish tissues occurred at levels that posed a high risk to subsistence fishers. A higher number of metal concentrations in some lakes in the region was attributed to natural causes. The results of a sentinel species monitoring program conducted at the Ells River watershed were also included. Recommendations for further refining RAMP programs were also

  14. Technical Agency in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    ) description of hybrid networks in which human and non-human actants are granted agency without differentiating different kinds of agency, EMCA focuses on the member's perspectives and the situated construction of technical agency that is made relevant within an ongoing interaction. Based on an EMCA analysis......The paper combines the discussion of technical agency and hybrid networks of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) with an ethnomethodological/conversation analytical (EMCA) perspective on situated practices in which participants ascribe agency to technical artefacts. While ANT works with (ethnographic...... of three video recordings of situations in which technical agency is made relevant by the human participants, the paper demonstrates different ways in which agency is granted to technical artefacts. Human participants can treat a technology as communication partner, as an active part (and actant...

  15. Wind farm project on the territory of municipalities of Equennes-Eramecourt, Saulchoy-sous-Poix, Thieulloy-la-Ville (80). Non technical summary of the exploitation authorisation request file. Opinion of the authority for the environment on the impact study and hazard study. Public inquiry report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignier, Jean-Pierre; Gourio, Yann

    2016-01-01

    A first report recalls some general data about wind energy development, exploitation (in the world, Europe and France) and interest. It presents the project which is to be built (installation characteristics, location, wind turbine description, wind turbine safety systems), the requester and its financial and technical capacities, and the authorisation request file. Next parts proposes a brief presentation of the studied area, a description of the initial environment in terms of hydro-geological, hydraulic and hydrographic, and natural environment, cultural heritage, soil use, town planning issues, activities, natural and technological risks, and landscape issues. It proposes an assessment of the potential impact of the project on the environment, evokes substitution solutions, addresses the compliance with planning documents, analyses and characterises potential hazards. The next document states the opinion of the authority of the environment. It presents the project and its context (with its environmental, physical, urban, landscape, and legal aspects); states the opinion on the content of the impact study and hazard study. The last report concerns the public inquiry. It contains some generalities about the legal frameworks and the project, a report of the inquiry organisation and procedure (decrees, modalities, meetings and visits, public information, noticed incidents, general atmosphere), and then the statement of the inquiry commissioner on the various aspects of the project

  16. Responses of fungal root colonization, plant cover and leaf nutrients to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming in a subarctic birch forest understory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Carlsson, Bengt Å.; Svensson, Brita M.

    2010-01-01

    Responses of the mycorrhizal fungal community in terrestrial ecosystems to global change factors are not well understood. However, virtually all land plants form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi, with approximately 20% of the plants' net primary production transported down...... by mycorrhizal and other root-associated fungi to global change factors of all the fungal types studied could have broad implications for plant community structure and biogeochemistry of subarctic ecosystems....

  17. Scaffolding Collaborative Technical Writing with Procedural Facilitation and Synchronous Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shiou-Wen; Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Huang, Jeng-Jia

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of computer technology, researchers and instructors are attempting to devise computer support for effective collaborative technical writing. In this study, a computer-supported environment for collaborative technical writing was developed. This system (Process-Writing Wizard) provides process-oriented scaffolds and a synchronous…

  18. Technical Services in the Age of Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examination of the traditional library technical services functions and how they may change with the advent of widespread computer-based electronic publishing emphasizes ways in which technical services will have to adapt in electronic publishing environment. Implications of electronic publishing for library management and budgeting are explored.…

  19. Improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment. A publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers' - provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment' (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region

  20. Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the growing season than in winter: the results of eight-year field climate manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Aerts, Rien; Nijs, Ivan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Beyens, Louis

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae are widely used in paleoclimate reconstructions as a proxy for climate-induced changes in bogs. However, the sensitivity of proxies to seasonal climate components is an important issue when interpreting proxy records. Here, we studied the effects of summer warming, winter snow addition solely and winter snow addition together with spring warming on testate amoeba assemblages after eight years of experimental field climate manipulations. All manipulations were accomplished using open top chambers in a dry blanket bog located in the sub-Arctic (Abisko, Sweden). We estimated sensitivity of abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in the living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that, in a sub-arctic climate, testate amoebae are more sensitive to climate changes in the growing season than in winter. Summer warming reduced species richness and shifted assemblage composition towards predominance of xerophilous species for the living and empty shell assemblages in both layers. The higher soil temperatures during the growing season also decreased abundance of empty shells in both layers hinting at a possible increase in their decomposition rates. Thus, although possible effects of climate changes on preservation of empty shells should always be taken into account, species diversity and structure of testate amoeba assemblages in dry subarctic bogs are sensitive proxies for climatic changes during the growing season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation-based ureteroscopy skills training curriculum with integration of technical and non-technical skills: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunckhorst, Oliver; Shahid, Shahab; Aydin, Abdullatif; McIlhenny, Craig; Khan, Shahid; Raza, Syed Johar; Sahai, Arun; Brewin, James; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    Current training modalities within ureteroscopy have been extensively validated and must now be integrated within a comprehensive curriculum. Additionally, non-technical skills often cause surgical error and little research has been conducted to combine this with technical skills teaching. This study therefore aimed to develop and validate a curriculum for semi-rigid ureteroscopy, integrating both technical and non-technical skills teaching within the programme. Delphi methodology was utilised for curriculum development and content validation, with a randomised trial then conducted (n = 32) for curriculum evaluation. The developed curriculum consisted of four modules; initially developing basic technical skills and subsequently integrating non-technical skills teaching. Sixteen participants underwent the simulation-based curriculum and were subsequently assessed, together with the control cohort (n = 16) within a full immersion environment. Both technical (Time to completion, OSATS and a task specific checklist) and non-technical (NOTSS) outcome measures were recorded with parametric and non-parametric analyses used depending on the distribution of our data as evaluated by a Shapiro-Wilk test. Improvements within the intervention cohort demonstrated educational value across all technical and non-technical parameters recorded, including time to completion (p technical and non-technical skills teaching is both educationally valuable and feasible. Additionally, the curriculum offers a validated simulation-based training modality within ureteroscopy and a framework for the development of other simulation-based programmes.

  2. Conceptualizing the Organizational Role of Technical Communicators: A Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Teresa M.; Debs, Mary Beth

    1988-01-01

    Uses a systems approach to organizational theory to argue that technical communicators function as "boundary spanners," who make sense of and disseminate information required for coordination between organizational groups, and for effective responses to the environment. (JAD)

  3. SU-F-P-18: Development of the Technical Training System for Patient Set-Up Considering Rotational Correction in the Virtual Environment Using Three-Dimensional Computer Graphic Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, K; Fujibuchi, T; Hirata, H; Kaneko, K; Hamada, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patient set-up skills in radiotherapy treatment room have a great influence on treatment effect for image guided radiotherapy. In this study, we have developed the training system for improving practical set-up skills considering rotational correction in the virtual environment away from the pressure of actual treatment room by using three-dimensional computer graphic (3DCG) engine. Methods: The treatment room for external beam radiotherapy was reproduced in the virtual environment by using 3DCG engine (Unity). The viewpoints to perform patient set-up in the virtual treatment room were arranged in both sides of the virtual operable treatment couch to assume actual performance by two clinical staffs. The position errors to mechanical isocenter considering alignment between skin marker and laser on the virtual patient model were displayed by utilizing numerical values expressed in SI units and the directions of arrow marks. The rotational errors calculated with a point on the virtual body axis as the center of each rotation axis for the virtual environment were corrected by adjusting rotational position of the body phantom wound the belt with gyroscope preparing on table in a real space. These rotational errors were evaluated by describing vector outer product operations and trigonometric functions in the script for patient set-up technique. Results: The viewpoints in the virtual environment allowed individual user to visually recognize the position discrepancy to mechanical isocenter until eliminating the positional errors of several millimeters. The rotational errors between the two points calculated with the center point could be efficiently corrected to display the minimum technique mathematically by utilizing the script. Conclusion: By utilizing the script to correct the rotational errors as well as accurate positional recognition for patient set-up technique, the training system developed for improving patient set-up skills enabled individual user to

  4. SU-F-P-18: Development of the Technical Training System for Patient Set-Up Considering Rotational Correction in the Virtual Environment Using Three-Dimensional Computer Graphic Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, K [Division of Quantum Radiation Science, Department of Health Science, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujibuchi, T; Hirata, H [Department of Health Science, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kaneko, K [Innovation Center for Educational Resource, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hamada, E [Cancer Treatment Center, Tobata Kyoritsu Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patient set-up skills in radiotherapy treatment room have a great influence on treatment effect for image guided radiotherapy. In this study, we have developed the training system for improving practical set-up skills considering rotational correction in the virtual environment away from the pressure of actual treatment room by using three-dimensional computer graphic (3DCG) engine. Methods: The treatment room for external beam radiotherapy was reproduced in the virtual environment by using 3DCG engine (Unity). The viewpoints to perform patient set-up in the virtual treatment room were arranged in both sides of the virtual operable treatment couch to assume actual performance by two clinical staffs. The position errors to mechanical isocenter considering alignment between skin marker and laser on the virtual patient model were displayed by utilizing numerical values expressed in SI units and the directions of arrow marks. The rotational errors calculated with a point on the virtual body axis as the center of each rotation axis for the virtual environment were corrected by adjusting rotational position of the body phantom wound the belt with gyroscope preparing on table in a real space. These rotational errors were evaluated by describing vector outer product operations and trigonometric functions in the script for patient set-up technique. Results: The viewpoints in the virtual environment allowed individual user to visually recognize the position discrepancy to mechanical isocenter until eliminating the positional errors of several millimeters. The rotational errors between the two points calculated with the center point could be efficiently corrected to display the minimum technique mathematically by utilizing the script. Conclusion: By utilizing the script to correct the rotational errors as well as accurate positional recognition for patient set-up technique, the training system developed for improving patient set-up skills enabled individual user to

  5. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  6. The Clussais-la-Pommeraie wind energy project - Non technical summaries of the study of impact on the environment and health, and of the study on hazards. Public inquiry report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemare, Michel

    2013-12-01

    After a presentation of the project (location, site description, wind turbine characteristics, project history), this impact study contains a justification of the project by outlining how wind energy complies with national and local policies, and by reporting the approach adopted to select a site and also an implantation configuration among different scenarios. The next part proposes an assessment of project impacts on the environment during the construction phase, the exploitation phase, and the dismantling phase (with site restoration). A second report presents wind farm characteristics (location, general operation, potential hazards), characteristics of its environment (human, natural and material environment). It presents the risk analysis approach, and reports an assessment of main risks associated with the wind farm (risk identification, risk management measures). The third document reports the public inquiry. It presents the inquiry context and scope, and its procedure and execution. It reports the examination of the installation authorisation file: content description, authorisation request, maps and plans, content of the impact study (analysis of initial condition, site selection, project presentation, impact assessment, compensation and reduction measures, site dismantling and restoration, opinion of the environmental authority), and an analysis of public remarks and questions

  7. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind

  8. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  9. Technical standards in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  10. SAM Technical Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  11. INDOT Technical Training Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The study provides the background documents necessary for the development of a Technical Training Plan and makes recommendations : for the content and structure of such a plan for the District Operations, Operations, Capital Program Management, and E...

  12. social & technical innovations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CHANGE: GAPS BRIDGED BY SMART SOLUTIONS. CHALLENGE: INABILITY TO REACH THOSE IN NEED. SOLAR PANELS. OVERCOME POWER. SUPPLY CHALLENGES. IN BURKINA FASO. SOCIAL & TECHNICAL. INNOVATIONS. BANGLADESH BURKINA FASO ETHIOPIA KENYA LEBANON PERU VIETNAM.

  13. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  14. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  15. NCDC Technical Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCDC Technical Reports is a set of retrospective analyses produced by the Research Customer Service Group and the National Climatic Data Center from 1995 to 2008....

  16. Socio-technical Betwixtness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    the intrinsically social and technical interwovenness of design, and the necessity of including affected people and stakeholders in the design process. This betwixtness of socio-technical design is demonstrated by the analysis of two IT systems for healthcare: a foundational model for electronic healthcare records......This chapter focusses on two challenges for socio-technical design: Having to choose between different rationales for design, and the adequate understanding and depiction of the work to be redesigned. These two challenges betwixt the otherwise strong tenets of socio-technical design of pointing out......, and an IT system organizing hospital porters’ work. The conceptual background for the analysis of the cases is provided by a short introduction to different rationales for organizational design, and by pointing to the differences between a linear, rationalistic versus an interactional depiction of work....

  17. Technical report writing today

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    "Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...

  18. The technical supervision interface

    CERN Document Server

    Sollander, P

    1998-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) is currently using 30 different applications for the remote supervision of the technical infrastructure at CERN. These applications have all been developed with the CERN made Uniform Man Machine Interface (UMMI) tools built in 1990. However, the visualization technology has evolved phenomenally since 1990, the Technical Data Server (TDS) has radically changed our control system architecture, and the standardization and the maintenance of the UMMI applications have become important issues as their number increases. The Technical Supervision Interface is intended to replace the UMMI and solve the above problems. Using a standard WWW-browser for the display, it will be inherently multi-platform and hence available for control room operators, equipment specialists and on-call personnel.

  19. A socio-technical approach to teaching the social impacts of technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a socio-technical approach to teach work environment in an en-gineering education as an alternative to a science-based presentation of each potential harmful factor. The socio-technical approach emphasizes that work environment must be understood in a social context and that ......This paper describes a socio-technical approach to teach work environment in an en-gineering education as an alternative to a science-based presentation of each potential harmful factor. The socio-technical approach emphasizes that work environment must be understood in a social context...

  20. Training for Technical Assistants: Technical Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    shortage of technical ptfesson until such time as English , "speking instructors might be trained, There. would be An aumcation of committed on-calI...12 hours in classroom Instruction, students in English as a Second nel Research and Development Computer.taught students Language. The program Is...hbeels "p.-ogram. A Iot ’ atar boiler arn tank heats týe food enroute to its destination. 1.0. A new tor of dust ptectleon to protect machine .perators

  1. Interannual variations of net community production and air-sea CO2 flux from winter to spring in the western subarctic North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Kan; Nemoto, Kazuhiro; Kamiya, Hitomi; Umeda, Takafumi; Hiraishi, Naotaka; Wada, Akira; Ishii, Masao

    2003-01-01

    The role of spring biological production for the air-sea CO 2 flux was quantified in the Western Subarctic Gyre (48 deg N, 165 deg E), where the vertical profile of temperature revealed the existence of a temperature minimum (Tmin) layer in the North Pacific. The vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC, in the upper water column were significantly variable year by year in spring, 1996-2000. Correspondingly, surface seawater at this site in spring was supersaturated with CO 2 in 1997, 1999 and 2000, but was undersaturated in 1996 and 1998. The concentrations of DIC and nutrients in the winter mixed layer were estimated from those in the Tmin layer in spring with a correction for particle decomposition based on the apparent oxygen utilization. The net community production (NCP) and air-sea CO 2 flux from winter to spring were calculated from the vertically integrated deficits of DIC and nutrients in the upper water column between the two seasons. The calculation of the carbon budget indicated large interannual variations of NCP (0-13 mmol/m 2 /d) and CO 2 efflux (4-16 mmol/m 2 /d) for this period. The CO 2 efflux was generally low in the year when NCP was high. The close coupling between biological production and CO 2 efflux suggested the important role of the changes in the mixed-layer depth, as a key process controlling both processes, especially of the timing, so that a decrease in the mixed-layer depth could result in the activation of biological production. The early biological consumption of the surface DIC concentration could shorten the period for acting as a source for atmospheric CO 2 and depress the CO 2 efflux in the Western Subarctic Gyre from winter to spring in 1996 and 1998. On the contrary, in 1997, persistently deep vertical mixing until late spring could suppress the biological activity and give rise to long-lasting CO 2 efflux

  2. Ten-year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Global emissions of mercury continue to change at the same time as the Arctic is experiencing ongoing climatic changes. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric mercury provides important information about long-term trends in the balance between transport, chemistry, and deposition of this pollutant in the Arctic atmosphere. Ten-year records of total gaseous mercury (TGM from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed from two high Arctic sites at Alert (Nunavut, Canada and Zeppelin Station (Svalbard, Norway; one sub-Arctic site at Kuujjuarapik (Nunavik, Québec, Canada; and three temperate Canadian sites at St. Anicet (Québec, Kejimkujik (Nova Scotia and Egbert (Ontario. Five of the six sites examined showed a decreasing trend over this time period. Overall trend estimates at high latitude sites were: −0.9% yr−1 (95% confidence limits: −1.4, 0 at Alert and no trend (−0.5, +0.7 at Zeppelin Station. Faster decreases were observed at the remainder of the sites: −2.1% yr−1 (−3.1, −1.1 at Kuujjuarapik, −1.9% yr−1 (−2.1, −1.8 at St. Anicet, −1.6% yr−1 (−2.4, −1.0 at Kejimkujik and −2.2% yr−1 (−2.8, −1.7 at Egbert. Trends at the sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites agree with reported decreases in background TGM concentration since 1996 at Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Point, South Africa, but conflict with estimates showing an increase in global anthropogenic emissions over a similar period. Trends in TGM at the two high Arctic sites were not only less negative (or neutral overall but much more variable by season. Possible reasons for differences in seasonal and overall trends at the Arctic sites compared to those at lower latitudes are discussed, as well as implications for the Arctic mercury cycle. The first calculations of multi-year trends in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and total particulate mercury (TPM at Alert were also performed, indicating increases from 2002 to 2009

  3. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9, 2013 from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. This... technical support for webcasts and offers the option of listening to the meeting via phone-bridge for a fee...

  4. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November 29, 2011, from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. and... reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences. The conference also will discuss...

  5. Reactor safety in industrial nuclear power plants. Developments in a political and technical environment as it prevails in the German Federal Republic; Reaktorsicherheit fuer Leistungskernkraftwerke. Die Entwicklung im politischen und technischen Umfeld der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufs, Paul [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The present book describes the development of reactor safety in German light-water nuclear power plants from the beginnings with its multifarious links to model solutions seen in other countries, national and international research projects and accidents in conventional and nuclear power plants. It contains detailed, richly illustrated articles on specific safety techniques such as rupture safety of the pressurised envelope, safeguarding of emergency cooling in the event of accidents involving coolant loss, control technology and protection of the surroundings through containment. The results of national and international risk studies are discussed. It is shown how efforts on the part of industry, government and science to enhance safety resources and improve safety culture have been driven by a civic environment in which the use of nuclear energy has become a central issue of political debate. The book is written in readily comprehensible language and offers a wealth of material for further study.

  6. Natural radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.; Mishra, U.C.; Pillai, K.C.; Sadasivan, S.

    1982-01-01

    The volume presented contains papers presented at the Second Special Symposium on Natural Radiation Environment held at Bombay, India, during January 1981. The papers deal with such topics as : 1)high natural radiation background areas; 2)environmental natural radioactivity; 3)measurement techniques; 4)technologically enhanced radioactivity; 5)indoor radiation environment; 6)radon and daughters in ambient air, and 7)applications in Geosciences. Each of the 87 papers presented has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base

  7. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  8. Integrated Visualization Environment for Science Mission Modeling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work will provide NASA with an integrated visualization environment providing greater insight and a more intuitive representation of large technical...

  9. Technical training: places available

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924)   Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Introduction to VHDL 21-Feb-13 to 22-Feb-13 2 days English Mechanical design Next Session Duration Language ANSYS - Introduction à ANSYS Mechanical APDL 04-Feb-13 to 07-Feb-13 4 days English Applications de la cotation fonctionnelle et du langage ISO 06-Feb-13 to 08-Feb-13 2 days 4 hours French CATIA V5 – Surfacique 14-Jan-13 to 15-Jan-13 2 days French Office software Next Session Duration Language ACCESS 2010 - niveau 2 : ECDL 06-Feb-13 to 07-Feb-13 2 days French Dreamweaver CS3 - Niveau 1 14-Jan-13 to 15-Jan-13 2 d...

  10. Technical training - Places available

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924)   Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Availability Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer (CLAD) 06-Dec-12 to 06-Dec-12 1 hour English One more place available Compatibilité électromagnetique (CEM): Applications 23-Nov-12 to 23-Nov-12 3.5 hours English 3 places available Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM): Introduction 23-Nov-12 to 23-Nov-12 3 hours English 43 places available Effets des Radiations sur les composants et systèmes électroniques 11-Dec-12 to 12-Dec-12 1 day 4 hours French 9 places available LabVIEW for beginners ...

  11. Technical training - places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924) HR Department »Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Availability Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design 08-Oct-12 to 12-Oct-12 5 days English 3 places available Foundations of Electromagnetism and Magnet Design (EMAG) 14-Nov-12 to 27-Nov-12 6 days English 20 places available Impacts de la suppression du plomb (RoHS) en électronique 26-Oct-12 to 26-Oct-12 8 hours French 15 places available Introduction to VHDL 10-Oct-12 to 11-Oct-12 2 days English 7 places available LabVIEW Real Time and FPGA 13-Nov-12 to 16-Nov-12 5 days French 5 places available »Mechanical design Next Se...

  12. Problems of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  13. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  14. Control of the working environment dosimetry and technical radiation protection at the RA reactor, Part I; Deo I: Kontrola radne sredine - poslovi dozimetrije i tehnicke zastite od zracenja kod reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninkovic, N; Bjelanovic, J; Minicic, Z; Komatina, R; Raicevic, J [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1984-12-15

    This report contains data and analysis of the of measured sample results collected during radiation protection control in the working environment of the RA reactor. First part contains basic exposure values and statistical review of the the total number of radiation measurements. It includes contents of radioactive gasses and effluents in the air, as well as the level of surface contamination of clothes and uncovered parts of the personnel bodies. Second part deals with the analysis of personnel doses. It was found that the maximum individual dose from external irradiation amounted to 16.9 mSV during past 10 months. Individual exposures for 9/10 of the personnel were less than 1/10 of the permissible annual exposure. Data are compared to radiation doses for last year and previous five years. Third part of this annex contains basic data about the quantity of collected radioactive waste, total quantity of contaminated and decontaminated surfaces. The last part analyzes accidents occurred at the reactor during 1984. It was found that there have been no accidents that could cause significant contamination of working surfaces and components nor radiation exposure of the personnel.

  15. Exploring the Benefits of Teacher-Modeling Strategies Integrated into Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathers, Thomas J., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined how career and technical education classes function using multiple instructional modeling strategies integrated into vocational and technical training environments. Seven New Jersey public school technical teachers received an introductory overview of the investigation and participated by responding to 10 open-end…

  16. Nineteen-year time-series sediment trap study of Coccolithus pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi (calcareous nannoplankton) fluxes in the Bering Sea and subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hideto; Takahashi, Kozo; Asahi, Hirofumi; Jordan, Richard W.; Nishida, Shiro; Nishiwaki, Niichi; Yamamoto, Sumito

    2016-03-01

    Coccolithophore fluxes at two sediment trap stations, Station AB in the Bering Sea and Station SA in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, were studied over a nineteen-year (August 1990-July 2009) interval. Two major species, Coccolithus pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi, occur at both stations, with Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Braarudosphaera bigelowii, and Syracosphaera spp. as minor components. The mean coccolithophore fluxes at Stations AB and SA increased from 28.9×106 m2 d-1 and 61.9×106 m2 d-1 in 1990-1999 to 54.4×106 m2 d-1 and 130.2×106 m2 d-1 in 2002-2009, respectively. Furthermore, in late 1999 to early 2000, there was a significant shift in the most dominant species from E. huxleyi to C. pelagicus. High abundances of E. huxleyi correspond to the positive mode of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), while those of C. pelagicus respond to the PDO negative mode and are related to water temperature changes at huxleyi. At both stations the mean seawater temperature in the top 45 m from August to October increased ca. 1 °C with linear recurrence from 1990 to 2008. The coccosphere fluxes after Year 2000 at Stations AB and SA, and the shift in species dominance, may have been influenced by this warming.

  17. The Potential Use of Agroforestry Community Gardens as a Sustainable Import-Substitution Strategy for Enhancing Food Security in Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Oelbermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of food insecurity experienced by northern First Nations partially results from dependence on an expensive import-based food system that typically lacks nutritional quality and further displaces traditional food systems. In the present study, the feasibility of import substitution by Agroforestry Community Gardens (AFCGs as socio-ecologically and culturally sustainable means of enhancing food security was explored through a case study of Fort Albany First Nation in subarctic Ontario, Canada. Agroforestry is a diverse tree-crop agricultural system that has enhanced food security in the tropics and subtropics. Study sites were selected for long-term agroforestry research to compare Salix spp. (willow-dominated AFCG plots to a “no tree” control plot in Fort Albany. Initial soil and vegetative analysis revealed a high capacity for all sites to support mixed produce with noted modifications, as well as potential competitive and beneficial willow-crop interactions. It is anticipated that inclusion of willow trees will enhance the long-term productive capacity of the AFCG test plots. As an adaptable and dynamic system, AFCGs have potential to act as a more reliable local agrarian system and a refuge for culturally significant plants in high-latitude First Nation socio-ecological systems, which are particularly vulnerable to rapid cultural, climatic, and ecological change.

  18. New parasites and predators follow the introduction of two fish species to a subarctic lake: implications for food-web structure and functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Knudsen, Rune; Primicerio, Raul; Kristoffersen, Roar; Klemetsen, Anders; Kuris, Armand M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduced species can alter the topology of food webs. For instance, an introduction can aid the arrival of free-living consumers using the new species as a resource, while new parasites may also arrive with the introduced species. Food-web responses to species additions can thus be far more complex than anticipated. In a subarctic pelagic food web with free-living and parasitic species, two fish species (arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) have known histories as deliberate introductions. The effects of these introductions on the food web were explored by comparing the current pelagic web with a heuristic reconstruction of the pre-introduction web. Extinctions caused by these introductions could not be evaluated by this approach. The introduced fish species have become important hubs in the trophic network, interacting with numerous parasites, predators and prey. In particular, five parasite species and four predatory bird species depend on the two introduced species as obligate trophic resources in the pelagic web and could therefore not have been present in the pre-introduction network. The presence of the two introduced fish species and the arrival of their associated parasites and predators increased biodiversity, mean trophic level, linkage density, and nestedness; altering both the network structure and functioning of the pelagic web. Parasites, in particular trophically transmitted species, had a prominent role in the network alterations that followed the introductions.

  19. Flourish or flush: effects of simulated extreme rainfall events on Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Keuper, Frida; Aerts, Rien; Beyens, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Extreme precipitation events are recognised as important drivers of ecosystem responses to climate change and can considerably affect high-latitude ombrotrophic bogs. Therefore, understanding the relationships between increased rainfall and the biotic components of these ecosystems is necessary for an estimation of climate change impacts. We studied overall effects of increased magnitude, intensity and frequency of rainfall on assemblages of Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a field climate manipulation experiment located in a relatively dry subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden). The effects of the treatment were estimated using abundance, species diversity and structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that increased rainfall reduced the mean abundance and species richness of living testate amoebae. Besides, the treatment affected species structure of both living and empty shell assemblages, reducing proportions of hydrophilous species. The effects are counterintuitive as increased precipitation-related substrate moisture was expected to have opposite effects on testate amoeba assemblages in relatively dry biotopes. Therefore, we conclude that other rainfall-related factors such as increased infiltration rates and frequency of environmental disturbances can also affect testate amoeba assemblages in Sphagnum and that hydrophilous species are particularly sensitive to variation in these environmental variables.

  20. Multi-proxy Paleoclimate and CO2 Reconstruction from the Latest Middle Eocene Sedimentary Fill of a Subarctic Kimberlitic Maar Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A. V.; Wolfe, A. P.; Royer, D. L.; Greenwood, D. R.; Tierney, J. E.; Doria, G.; Gagen, M. H.; Siver, P.; Westgate, J.

    2016-12-01

    Eocene paleoclimate reconstructions are rarely accompanied by parallel estimates of CO2, complicating assessment of the equilibrium climate responses to CO2. We reconstruct temperature, precipitation, and CO2 from latest middle Eocene ( 38 Myrs ago) peats in subarctic Canada, preserved in sediments that record infilling of a kimberlite pipe maar crater. Mutual climatic range analyses of pollen, together with oxygen isotope analyses of a-cellulose from unpermineralized wood and inferenecs from branched glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), reveal a high-latitude humid-temperate forest ecosystem with mean annual temperatures (MATs) >17 °C warmer than present, mean coldest month temperatures above 0 °C, and mean annual precipitation 4x present. Metasequoia stomatal indices and gas-exchange modeling produce median CO2 concentrations of 634 and 432 ppm, respectively, with a consensus median estimate of 494 ppm. Reconstructed MATs are >6 °C warmer than those produced by Eocene climate models forced at 560 ppm CO2, underscoring the capacity for exceptional polar amplification of warming and hydrological intensification under relatively modest CO2 concentrations, once both fast and slow feedbacks become expressed.

  1. CNP stoichiometry of a lipid-synthesising zooplankton, Calanus finmarchicus, from winter to spring bloom in a sub-Arctic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, A. B.; Svensen, C.; Hessen, D. O.; Tamelander, T.

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal stoichiometry of the high-latitude lipid-synthesising copepod Calanus finmarchicus and assess how this would affect dietary demands with season, ontogeny and lipid storage. C:N:P ratios in different stages (adults, copepodite V and IV), in eggs and faecal pellets as well as in bulk food (seston) was analysed in a sub-Arctic Norwegian sound (69° 47'N, 19° 19'E) from late February to mid-May 2009. The period covered the phytoplankton bloom and was divided into four sequences of the bloom based on chl a and seston C:chl a ratio variations. The calculation of the somatic elemental C:N and C:P body ratios (without the lipid storage) indicates that nearly homeostatic control in C. finmarchicus is maintained in somatic tissues within stages, while not if the lipid storage pool is included. Nutrient limitation was assessed calculating threshold elemental ratios based on the somatic body ratios and for different sets of assimilation efficiencies, and indicated a predominant C limitation that may reflect demands for lipid storage. The results suggest that stoichiometric composition and demands in such high-latitude, lipid-storing species strongly depend on stage and season, and the large contribution of storage lipids highlights the need for a two-compartment approach for lipid-synthesising species, with different dietary requirements for somatic growth and for lipid storage.

  2. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are you planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual session of this course will take place on 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  3. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one workshop......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  4. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  5. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at Technical.Training@cern.ch

  6. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    You are running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  7. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are you planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  8. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    You are running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced using Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on December 12, 2008 and January 30, 2009. Register using our catalogue : http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at Technical.Training@cern.ch

  9. Technical memory 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The technical memory 2007 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentine Republic, compiles the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, and presented in journals, technical reports, congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 2007. In this edition the documents are presented on: environmental protection; transport of radioactive materials; regulations; research reactors and nuclear power plants; biological radiation effects; therapeutic uses of ionizing radiation and radioprotection of patients; internal dosimetry; physical dosimetry; knowledge management; radioactive waste management [es

  10. Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C. A.; Foley, J. T.

    1980-10-01

    In an effort to determine the environmental intensities to which energy materials in transit may be exposed, a Data Center of technical environmental information has been established by Sandia National Laboratories, Division 5523, for the DOE Office of Transportation Fuel Storage. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest. Access to the information held is not limited to Sandia personnel. The purpose of the Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center is to collect, analyze, store, and make available descriptions of the environment of transportation expressed in engineering terms. The data stored in the Center are expected to be useful in a variety of transportation related analyses. Formulations of environmental criteria for shipment of cargo, risk assessments, and detailed structural analyses of shipping containers are examples where these data have been applied. For purposes of indexing and data retrieval, the data are catalogued under two major headings: Normal and Abnormal Environments.

  11. Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

    1980-10-01

    In an effort to determine the environmental intensities to which energy materials in transit may be exposed, a Data Center of technical environmental information has been established by Sandia National Laboratories, Division 5523, for the DOE Office of Transportation Fuel Storage. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest. Access to the information held is not limited to Sandia personnel. The purpose of the Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center is to collect, analyze, store, and make available descriptions of the environment of transportation expressed in engineering terms. The data stored in the Center are expected to be useful in a variety of transportation related analyses. Formulations of environmental criteria for shipment of cargo, risk assessments, and detailed structural analyses of shipping containers are examples where these data have been applied. For purposes of indexing and data retrieval, the data are catalogued under two major headings: Normal and Abnormal Environments

  12. Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Ghose, Aditya

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The Need for Norm-Aware Systems * Norms in human societies * Why should software systems be norm-aware? * Case Studies of Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems * Human-computer interactions * Virtual environments and multi-player online games * Extracting norms from big data and software repositories * Norms and Sustainability * Sustainability and green ICT * Norm awareness through software systems * Where To, From Here? * Conclusions

  13. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  14. Technical objectives of inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection

  15. NUSC Technical Publications Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Facility personnel especially that of A. Castelluzzo, E. Deland, J. Gesel , and E. Szlosek (all of Code 4343). Reviewed and Approved: 14 July 1980 D...their technical content and format. Review and approve the manual outline, the review manuscript, and the final camera - reproducible copy. Conduct in

  16. ITER EDA technical activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Six years of technical work under the ITER EDA Agreement have resulted in a design which constitutes a complete description of the ITER device and of its auxiliary systems and facilities. The ITER Council commented that the Final Design Report provides the first comprehensive design of a fusion reactor based on well established physics and technology

  17. Technical basis of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, C.

    1975-01-01

    Definition of nuclear materials control. Materials accountancy and physical control as technical possibilities. Legal possibilities and levels of responsibility: material holders, national and international authority. Detection vs. prevention. Physical security and containment surveillance. Accountancy: materials balance concept. Materials measurement: inventory taking, flow determination. IAEA safeguards; verification of operator's statement. (HP) [de

  18. Technical memory 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The technical memory 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, and presented in congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 1999

  19. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: LabVIEW Real-Time (F) : 7 - 9.6.2005 (3 jours) LabVIEW Migration 6 to 7: 14.6.2005 (1 day) IT3T/1 - Read your mail and more with Outlook 2003 : 14.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) IT3T/2 - Creating, managing and using distribution lists with Simba2 : 16.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 2 : 16 & 17.6.2005 (2 jours) Utilisation de fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 6.0 : 20.6.2005 (1journée) Introduction to ANSYS: 21 - 24.6.2005 (4 days) IT3T/3 - Working remotely with Windows XP : 28.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) IT3T/4 - Editing Websites with Frontpage 2003 : 30.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) WORD 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with repetitive tasks /AutoText, AutoFormat, AutoC...

  20. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Ross

    2003-04-30

    The Final Technical Report summarizes research accomplishments and Publications in the period of 5/1/99 to 4/30/03 done on the grant. Extensive progress was made in the period covered by this report in the areas of chemical kinetics of non-linear systems; spatial structures, reaction - diffusion systems, and thermodynamic and stochastic theory of electrochemical and general systems.

  1. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  2. Technical Writing in Hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)

  3. Review of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrich, M.; Scholz, D.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with position and function of technical specifications before and during the manufacturing of reactor components, their structure and reasons for specific regulations due to safety philosophy and explains the cooperation of supplier, manufacturer, utilities and supervisory organizations. (RW)

  4. PISA 2009 Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "PISA 2009 Technical Report" describes the methodology underlying the PISA 2009 survey. It examines additional features related to the implementation of the project at a level of detail that allows researchers to understand and replicate its analyses. The reader will find a wealth of information on the test and sample design,…

  5. PISA 2012 Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "PISA 2012 Technical Report" describes the methodology underlying the PISA 2012 survey, which tested 15-year-olds' competencies in mathematics, reading and science and, in some countries, problem solving and financial literacy. It examines the design and implementation of the project at a level of detail that allows researchers to…

  6. New usable technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.A.; Tomasi, L.T.; Bernier, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    After 2 yr of preparation, 1988 finally saw the nuclear industry writing operator-oriented technical specifications. This effort is a continuation of previous efforts to develop improved and usable standard technical specifications (STSs), and is being conducted by the four nuclear steam supply system vendor owners' groups under the auspices of the Nuclear Management Resources Council. Each participant is currently preparing a set of improved STSs based on a writer's guide that was developed through a combined industry effort. In May of 1987, a Human Factors Improvements to Technical Specifications (HFITS) task group was formed to prepare a writer's guide for improved, industrywide STSs. This task group was composed of two representatives from each owners' group, one with a human factors background and one with some operations background. Two documents were prepared in 6 months, a human factors report laying the groundwork for the considerations to go into technical specifications and a writer's guide for their preparation. This paper reports on the application of this writer's guide to the writing of improved STS

  7. Scientific and Technical Report, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, Henri; Mur, Emmanuelle

    1998-01-01

    This report highlights the most significant scientific and technical achievements of the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety in 1997. In all 23 reports are grouped in the following 7 sections: 1.Reactor safety; 2.Safety of nuclear facility; 3.Safeguards for radioactive materials and transports; 4.Public protection; 5.Environment protection; 6.Radioactive waste safety; 7.Crisis management. Special attention is paid to the pressurized water and fast neutron reactors and, accordingly, the program PHEBUS PF and the first results obtained with it concerning nuclear safety are reported. The safety of nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel storage is addressed in a couple of reports, as well as the problem of inspection, measurement and containers for nuclear materials. Concerning the public and environment protection, studies are reported on medical surveillance of people working with CEA Group, and clinical dosimetric follow-up of radiological events as well as the strategy of contaminated site rehabilitation. In the field of radioactive waste management, the IPSN project of Tournemire tunnel and the project of deep disposal are presented. Finally, the issue of major nuclear accidents is approached through the exercise Becquerel, the SESAME system of predicting the radioactive products release in PWR reactors and ASTRAL, the evaluation system of aftermath of an accidental environmental contamination by radioactive release. Each section of this IPSN report is opened by a review paper

  8. Introducing Heuristics of Cultural Dimensions into the Service-Level Technical Communication Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A significant problem for practitioners of technical communication is to gain the skills to compete in a global, multicultural work environment. Instructors of technical communication can provide future practitioners with the tools to compete and excel in this global environment by introducing heuristics of cultural dimensions into the…

  9. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  10. Sources of technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper shows examples of technical assistance programmes within bilateral cooperation agreements between the Federal Republic of Germany and a number of developing countries of very different characteristics and summarizes the possibilities of technical assistance granted by international organizations, such as IAEA, UNDP, etc. A basic requirement for a successful transfer of technology is a high knowledge level of the indigenous scientists and engineers. Therefore, programmes for training and education and for information exchange are presented. Based on these, the means and methods of planning, performance and quality assurance are explained by practical examples and are related to the progress achieved in the use of nuclear energy and in establishing a national industry in the developing countries. (orig.) [de

  11. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The Joint PVSS JCOP Framework: 14 - 18.6.2004 (5 days) EXCEL 2003 - niveau 2 : 17 & 18.6.2004 (2 jours) MAGNE-04 : Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 6 au 8.7.2004 (3 jours) Technical Training Monique Duval - Tel.74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  12. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  13. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  14. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  15. Technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

  16. Technical Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    the traditional tenets of leadership and management , systems thinking, understanding SOS issues, and thinking and acting holistically. Our research...international element 2.0 Enterprise Leadership and Management UNCLASSIFIED Contract Number: H98230-08-D-0171 DO 002. TO002, RT 004 Report No...mechanisms for leadership of the overall technical effort, for systems engineering, for requirements, management , and for systems integration. o Develop

  17. 1996 DOE technical standards program workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The workshop theme is `The Strategic Standardization Initiative - A Technology Exchange and Global Competitiveness Challenge for DOE.` The workshop goal is to inform the DOE technical standards community of strategic standardization activities taking place in the Department, other Government agencies, standards developing organizations, and industry. Individuals working on technical standards will be challenged to improve cooperation and communications with the involved organizations in response to the initiative. Workshop sessions include presentations by representatives from various Government agencies that focus on coordination among and participation of Government personnel in the voluntary standards process; reports by standards organizations, industry, and DOE representatives on current technology exchange programs; and how the road ahead appears for `information superhighway` standardization. Another session highlights successful standardization case studies selected from several sites across the DOE complex. The workshop concludes with a panel discussion on the goals and objectives of the DOE Technical Standards Program as envisioned by senior DOE management. The annual workshop on technical standards has proven to be an effective medium for communicating information related to standards throughout the DOE community. Technical standards are used to transfer technology and standardize work processes to produce consistent, acceptable results. They provide a practical solution to the Department`s challenge to protect the environment and the health and safety of the public and workers during all facility operations. Through standards, the technologies of industries and governments worldwide are available to DOE. The DOE Technical Standards Program, a Department-wide effort that crosscuts all organizations and disciplines, links the Department to those technologies.

  18. Technical issues for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.O.

    1979-01-01

    Emplacement of wastes in the WIPP will include experiments on various waste types which will provide essential data on waste-rock interaction and repository response. These experiments will include evolution of the synergistic effects of both heat production, radiation, and actual waste forms. While these studies will provide essential data on the validity of waste isolation in bedded salt, they will be preceded by a broad-based experimental program which will resolve many of the current technical issues providing not only an assessment of the safety of performing such experiments but also the technical basis for assurance that the appropriate experiments are performed. Data and predictive modeling techniques, which are currently available, can bound the consequences associated with these technical issues. Predictions of the impact on public safety based on these analyses indicate that safe waste disposal in WIPP salt beds is achievable; however, a major use of WIPP will be to conduct realistic experiments with HLW forms to address some of the unresolved details of these waste/salt interactions

  19. Technical training - Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924) HR Department Electronic Design Next Session Duration Language Availability Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design 08-Oct-12 to 12-Oct-12 5 days English 4 places Electrostatique / Protection ESD 28-Sep-12 to 28-Sep-12 3 hours French 25 places Impacts de la suppression du plomb (RoHS) en électronique 26-Oct-12 to 26-Oct-12 8 hours French 14 places Introduction to VHDL 10-Oct-12 to 11-Oct-12 2 days English 9 places LabVIEW Real Time and FPGA 13-Nov-12 to 16-Nov-12 5 days French 5 places LabVIEW for Experts 24-Sep-12 to 28-Sep-12 5 days English 6 places LabVIEW for beginners 15-Oct-12 to 17-...

  20. Technical Assistance Needs Assessments (TANAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Technical Assistance Needs Assessment (TANA) is a process to identify whether a community requires additional support from EPA in order to understand technical information and have meaningful participation in the Superfund decision-making process.

  1. El Salvador - Formal Technical Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — With a budget of nearly $20 million, the Formal Technical Education Sub-Activity was designed to strengthen technical and vocational educational institutions in the...

  2. Seasonal calcareous nannoplankton and other biogenic particle fluxes for 1990-2009: twenty-year long records from the central subarctic Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kozo; Tsutsui, Hideto

    2017-04-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed for nearly 20 years (1990-2009) at two long-term locations: Station SA (49°N, 174°W, trap depth 4,800 m, water depth 5,400 m) in the central subarctic Pacific, and Station AB (53.5°N, 177°W, trap depth 3,200 m, water depth 3,800 m) in the southern Bering Sea. Among many biogenic particles, calcareous nannoplankton represented nearly half or more of the entire calcium carbonate fluxes of the regions. Dominant taxa include Coccolithus pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi. The flux maxima of the former taxon occurred twice a year during June and October-November, whereas that of the latter taxon only occurred primarily once a year in November at both stations, indicating environmental preferences of the taxa. Among many environmental conditions, the fluxes of Emiliania huxleyi showed strong correlations with both water temperatures above 45 m depth and air temperatures (these parameters taken with one-month lag [earlier values] considering sinking time of ca. a month to the respective trap depths). Coccolithus pelagicus, on the other hand, showed lower values in the correlation with temperatures (Tsutsui et al., 2016), indicating that this taxon is somewhat more dependent on other factors such as nutrients compared to those of E. huxleyi. The timings of the seasonal flux maxima of calcareous nannoplankton are quite different from and later than those of other taxonomic groups such as diatoms and silicoflagellates. The primary seasonal flux maxima of diatoms and silicoflagellates, for example, occurred in May, a month earlier than the June maximum of C. pelagicus, and secondary seasonal flux maxima occurred in August, 2-3 months earlier than those of calcareous nannoplankton at both stations, based on 8 year flux records for diatoms (Onodera and Takahashi, 2009) and 4 year records for silicoflagellates (Onodera and Takahashi, 2012). By examining seasonal changes of nitrate and phosphate concentrations above 50 m depth from ERDDAP

  3. Impact of Euro-Canadian agrarian practices: in search of sustainable import-substitution strategies to enhance food security in subarctic Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelaar, Nicole F; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, food insecurity exists among Aboriginal (Inuit, Metis and First Nations) people living in remote northern communities, in part, because of their reliance on the industrialized, import-based food system. Local food production as a substitute to imports would be an adaptive response, but enhancement of food security via food localization requires reflection on previous failings of conventional agricultural strategies so that informed decisions can be made. In light of potential reintroduction of local food production in remote First Nations communities, we investigated the cultural, social and ecological effects of a 20th century, Euro-Canadian agrarian settlement on the food system of a subarctic First Nation; this will act as the first step in developing a more sustainable local food program and enhancing food security in this community. To investigate the socio-cultural impacts of the Euro-Canadian agrarian initiative on the food system of Fort Albany First Nation, purposive, semi-directive interviews were conducted with elders and other knowledgeable community members. Interview data were placed into themes using inductive analyses. To determine the biophysical impact of the agrarian initiative, soil samples were taken from one site within the cultivated area and from one site in an undisturbed forest area. Soil properties associated with agricultural use and productivity were assessed. To compare the means of a given soil property between the sites, one-tailed t-tests were employed. Vegetative analysis was conducted in both sites to assess disturbance. According to the interviewees, prior to the agrarian initiative, First Nation families harvested wild game and fish, and gathered berries as well as other forms of vegetation for sustenance. With the introduction of the residential school and agrarian initiative, traditional food practices were deemed inadequate, families were forced to work and live in the settlement (becoming less reliant on

  4. Effects of short term and long term soil warming on ecosystem phenology of a sub-arctic grassland: an NDVI-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblans, Niki; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2014-05-01

    % greening was advanced by 23 days at +5°C and by 32 days at +10°C Ts. However, no difference in the date of maximum greening or in the onset of senescence occurred. In contrast, in the long-term warmed grassland, the start of the growing season was not affected by Ts and the 50% greening point occurred only 10 days earlier at +5°C and 15 days earlier at +10°C Ts. However, the timing of maximum greening was advanced by 19 days at +5°C and even by 32 days at +10°C Ts. Again, the onset of senescence did not change with Ts. Significant Ts effects on ecosystem phenology of subarctic grasslands only occurred at warming of 5°C or higher. This study also demonstrates that short-term Ts effects on ecosystem phenology are not necessarily good predictors for long-term changes in sub-arctic grasslands. In the short-term (5 years warming), soil warming induced an early onset of the growing season, which was later compensated by faster greening on colder soils, so that maximum greenness was reached simultaneously irrespective of Ts. In contrast, the long-term Ts warming did not induce earlier onset of the growing season, but it led to faster greening on warm soils, which again led to an advance in timing of maximum greenness. This difference between short- and long-term responses in phenology might be caused by either phenotypic plasticity (acclimation) or by a genetic selection (evolution) of the grass populations where the warming has been ongoing for centuries. Such processes are at present not included in modelling predictions of climate change responses of natural ecosystems, but may offer important negative feedback mechanisms to warming which will reduce its effects.

  5. Growing season CH4 and N2O fluxes from a subarctic landscape in northern Finland; from chamber to landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Kerry J.; Drewer, Julia; Levy, Peter E.; George, Charles; Lohila, Annalea; Aurela, Mika; Skiba, Ute M.

    2017-02-01

    Subarctic and boreal emissions of CH4 are important contributors to the atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) balance and subsequently the global radiative forcing. Whilst N2O emissions may be lower, the much greater radiative forcing they produce justifies their inclusion in GHG studies. In addition to the quantification of flux magnitude, it is essential that we understand the drivers of emissions to be able to accurately predict climate-driven changes and potential feedback mechanisms. Hence this study aims to increase our understanding of what drives fluxes of CH4 and N2O in a subarctic forest/wetland landscape during peak summer conditions and into the shoulder season, exploring both spatial and temporal variability, and uses satellite-derived spectral data to extrapolate from chamber-scale fluxes to a 2 km × 2 km landscape area.From static chamber measurements made during summer and autumn campaigns in 2012 in the Sodankylä region of northern Finland, we concluded that wetlands represent a significant source of CH4 (3.35 ± 0.44 mg C m-2 h-1 during the summer campaign and 0.62 ± 0.09 mg C m-2 h-1 during the autumn campaign), whilst the surrounding forests represent a small sink (-0.06 ± zero across both ecosystems.We found a weak negative relationship between CH4 emissions and water table depth in the wetland, with emissions decreasing as the water table approached and flooded the soil surface and a positive relationship between CH4 emissions and the presence of Sphagnum mosses. Temperature was also an important driver of CH4 with emissions increasing to a peak at approximately 12 °C. Little could be determined about the drivers of N2O emissions given the small magnitude of the fluxes.A multiple regression modelling approach was used to describe CH4 emissions based on spectral data from PLEIADES PA1 satellite imagery across a 2 km × 2 km landscape. When applied across the whole image domain we calculated a CH4 source of 2.05 ± 0.61 mg C m-2 h-1. This was

  6. Determination of aims military-technical policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the aims of military-technical policy are considered. Determination of aims (tasks of military-technical policy, its maintenance, requirements to it and directions of its further development it must come true by the analysis of different factors of external and internal environment. Among such factors: geopolitical and military-political position of Ukraine and its military doctrine; realized and operating programs of development (reformation of the soldiery forming and them technical rigging; terms of future military operations and progress of their maintenance, forms, methods and characteristic signs of battle actions trend; substantive provisions of art of war; conceptions, theories and doctrines of battle application of the soldiery forming of the different states; resources dedicated by the state on development of military-technical sphere and others like that. The fundamental chart of sequence of forming of public military-technical policy is presented in the article.

  7. Competitive success of southern populations of Betula pendula and Sorbus aucuparia under simulated southern climate experiment in the subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Saravesi, Karita; Jylänki, Tanja; Kainulainen, Aila; Pajala, Jonna; Markkola, Annamari; Suominen, Otso; Saikkonen, Kari

    2017-06-01

    Global warming has been commonly accepted to facilitate species' range shifts across latitudes. Cross-latitudinal transplantations support this; many tree species can well adapt to new geographical areas. However, these studies fail to capture species' adaptations to new light environment because the experiments were not designed to explicitly separate species' responses to light and temperature. Here we tested reaction norms of tree seedlings in reciprocal transplantations 1,000 km apart from each other at two latitudes (60°N and 69°N). In contrast to past studies, we exposed our experimental plants to same temperature in both sites (temperature of 60°N growing site is recorded to adjust temperature of 69°N site in real time via Internet connection) while light environment (photoperiod, light quality) remained ambient. Shoot elongation and autumn coloration were studied in seedlings of two deciduous trees ( Betula pendula and Sorbus aucuparia ), which were expected to respond differently to day length. Sorbus as a member of Rosaceae family was assumed to be indifferent to photoperiod, while Betula responds strongly to day length. We hypothesized that (1) southern and northern populations of both species perform differently; (2) southern populations perform better in both sites; (3) autumn phenology of southern populations may delay in the northern site; (4) and Sorbus aucuparia is less dependent on light environment. According to the hypotheses, shoot elongation of northern population was inherently low in both species. An evolutionary consequence of this may be a competitive success of southern populations under warming climate. Southern population of B. pendula was delayed in autumn coloration, but not in growth cessation. Sorbus aucuparia was less responsive to light environment. The results suggest that light provides selection pressure in range shifts, but the response is species dependent.

  8. Diurnal variation in the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and carbon fixation in iron-limited phytoplankton in the NE subarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuback, Nina; Flecken, Mirkko; Maldonado, Maria T.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2016-02-01

    Active chlorophyll a fluorescence approaches, including fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF), have the potential to provide estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. FRRF-derived productivity rates are based on estimates of charge separation in reaction center II (ETRRCII), which must be converted into ecologically relevant units of carbon fixation. Understanding sources of variability in the coupling of ETRRCII and carbon fixation provides physiological insight into phytoplankton photosynthesis and is critical for the application of FRRF as a primary productivity measurement tool. In the present study, we simultaneously measured phytoplankton carbon fixation and ETRRCII in the iron-limited NE subarctic Pacific over the course of a diurnal cycle. We show that rates of ETRRCII are closely tied to the diurnal cycle in light availability, whereas rates of carbon fixation appear to be influenced by endogenous changes in metabolic energy allocation under iron-limited conditions. Unsynchronized diurnal oscillations of the two rates led to 3.5-fold changes in the conversion factor between ETRRCII and carbon fixation (Kc / nPSII). Consequently, diurnal variability in phytoplankton carbon fixation cannot be adequately captured with FRRF approaches if a constant conversion factor is applied. Utilizing several auxiliary photophysiological measurements, we observed that a high conversion factor is associated with conditions of excess light and correlates with the increased expression of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the pigment antenna, as derived from FRRF measurements. The observed correlation between NPQ and Kc / nPSII requires further validation but has the potential to improve estimates of phytoplankton carbon fixation rates from FRRF measurements alone.

  9. Foliar pH as a new plant trait: can it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among subarctic plant species and types?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, J H C; Quested, H M; van Logtestijn, R S P; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N; Gwynn-Jones, D; Díaz, S; Callaghan, T V; Press, M C; Aerts, R

    2006-03-01

    Plant traits have become popular as predictors of interspecific variation in important ecosystem properties and processes. Here we introduce foliar pH as a possible new plant trait, and tested whether (1) green leaf pH or leaf litter pH correlates with biochemical and structural foliar traits that are linked to biogeochemical cycling; (2) there is consistent variation in green leaf pH or leaf litter pH among plant types as defined by nutrient uptake mode and higher taxonomy; (3) green leaf pH can predict a significant proportion of variation in leaf digestibility among plant species and types; (4) leaf litter pH can predict a significant proportion of variation in leaf litter decomposability among plant species and types. We found some evidence in support of all four hypotheses for a wide range of species in a subarctic flora, although cryptogams (fern allies and a moss) tended to weaken the patterns by showing relatively poor leaf digestibility or litter decomposability at a given pH. Among seed plant species, green leaf pH itself explained only up to a third of the interspecific variation in leaf digestibility and leaf litter up to a quarter of the interspecific variation in leaf litter decomposability. However, foliar pH substantially improved the power of foliar lignin and/or cellulose concentrations as predictors of these processes when added to regression models as a second variable. When species were aggregated into plant types as defined by higher taxonomy and nutrient uptake mode, green-specific leaf area was a more powerful predictor of digestibility or decomposability than any of the biochemical traits including pH. The usefulness of foliar pH as a new predictive trait, whether or not in combination with other traits, remains to be tested across more plant species, types and biomes, and also in relation to other plant or ecosystem traits and processes.

  10. Responses of microbial tolerance to heavy metals along a century-old metal ore pollution gradient in a subarctic birch forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Rousk, Kathrin

    2018-05-07

    Heavy metals are some of the most persistent and potent anthropogenic environmental contaminants. Although heavy metals may compromise microbial communities and soil fertility, it is challenging to causally link microbial responses to heavy metals due to various confounding factors, including correlated soil physicochemistry or nutrient availability. A solution is to investigate whether tolerance to the pollutant has been induced, called Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT). In this study, we investigated soil microbial responses to a century-old gradient of metal ore pollution in an otherwise pristine subarctic birch forest generated by a railway source of iron ore transportation. To do this, we determined microbial biomass, growth, and respiration rates, and bacterial tolerance to Zn and Cu in replicated distance transects (1 m-4 km) perpendicular to the railway. Microbial biomass, growth and respiration rates were stable across the pollution gradient. The microbial community structure could be distinguished between sampled distances, but most of the variation was explained by soil pH differences, and it did not align with distance from the railroad pollution source. Bacterial tolerance to Zn and Cu started from background levels at 4 km distance from the pollution source, and remained at background levels for Cu throughout the gradient. Yet, bacterial tolerance to Zn increased 10-fold 100 m from the railway source. Our results show that the microbial community structure, size and performance remained unaffected by the metal ore exposure, suggesting no impact on ecosystem functioning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Twenty-Two Years of Warming, Fertilisation and Shading of Subarctic Heath Shrubs Promote Secondary Growth and Plasticity but Not Primary Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana) at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden) after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses), fertilisation (nutrients addition) and shading (hessian fabric), and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth) and cambial growth (secondary growth), and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming) for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement) likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such plasticity

  12. Combined effects of environmental disturbance and climate warming on insect herbivory in mountain birch in subarctic forests: Results of 26-year monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, M V; Zverev, V; Zvereva, E L

    2017-12-01

    Both pollution and climate affect insect-plant interactions, but the combined effects of these two abiotic drivers of global change on insect herbivory remain almost unexplored. From 1991 to 2016, we monitored the population densities of 25 species or species groups of insects feeding on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) in 29 sites and recorded leaf damage by insects in 21 sites in subarctic forests around the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, north-western Russia. The leaf-eating insects demonstrated variable, and sometimes opposite, responses to pollution-induced forest disturbance and to climate variations. Consequently, we did not discover any general trend in herbivory along the disturbance gradient. Densities of eight species/species groups correlated with environmental disturbance, but these correlations weakened from 1991 to 2016, presumably due to the fivefold decrease in emissions of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals from the smelter. The densities of externally feeding defoliators decreased from 1991 to 2016 and the densities of leafminers increased, while the leaf roller densities remained unchanged. Consequently, no overall temporal trend in the abundance of birch-feeding insects emerged despite a 2-3°C elevation in spring temperatures. Damage to birch leaves by insects decreased during the observation period in heavily disturbed forests, did not change in moderately disturbed forests and tended to increase in pristine forests. The temporal stability of insect-plant interactions, quantified by the inverse of the coefficient of among-year variations of herbivore population densities and of birch foliar damage, showed a negative correlation with forest disturbance. We conclude that climate differently affects insect herbivory in heavily stressed versus pristine forests, and that herbivorous insects demonstrate diverse responses to environmental disturbance and climate variations. This diversity of responses, in combination with the

  13. Ecological and technical situation of flooded oil wells in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuterbekov, K. A.; Kabdrakhimova, G. D.; Nurakhmetov, T. N.; Zhaksigulova, A.; Nukenov, D. N.; Kushkimbaev, B. M.; Nurmukhanbetova, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The data of ecological and technical condition of flooded and inundated wells in Atyrau and Mangystau regions of the West of Kazakhstan is given in this abstract. There is necessary to elaborate methods for liquidation, individual plans of conservations, to produce isolating and liquidation procedures on wells and to estimate environment effects. Also we will provide for estimation technical condition of conservation oil wells on territory of flooded by Caspian sea. (Authors)

  14. Assessing Students' Technical Skill Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2010-01-01

    The Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) is working to comply with the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 (Perkins) to ensure that its graduates have mastered the technical skills needed by business and industry. The legislation requires that each state identify and approve program assessment strategies…

  15. Towards technical interoperability in telemedicine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Richard Layne, II

    2004-05-01

    For telemedicine to realize the vision of anywhere, anytime access to care, the question of how to create a fully interoperable technical infrastructure must be addressed. After briefly discussing how 'technical interoperability' compares with other types of interoperability being addressed in the telemedicine community today, this paper describes reasons for pursuing technical interoperability, presents a proposed framework for realizing technical interoperability, identifies key issues that will need to be addressed if technical interoperability is to be achieved, and suggests a course of action that the telemedicine community might follow to accomplish this goal.

  16. Technical report: mercury in the environment: implications for pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L R; Shannon, M W

    2001-07-01

    Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that causes a wide range of adverse health effects in humans. Three forms of mercury (elemental, inorganic, and organic) exist, and each has its own profile of toxicity. Exposure to mercury typically occurs by inhalation or ingestion. Readily absorbed after its inhalation, mercury can be an indoor air pollutant, for example, after spills of elemental mercury in the home; however, industry emissions with resulting ambient air pollution remain the most important source of inhaled mercury. Because fresh-water and ocean fish may contain large amounts of mercury, children and pregnant women can have significant exposure if they consume excessive amounts of fish. The developing fetus and young children are thought to be disproportionately affected by mercury exposure, because many aspects of development, particularly brain maturation, can be disturbed by the presence of mercury. Minimizing mercury exposure is, therefore, essential to optimal child health. This review provides pediatricians with current information on mercury, including environmental sources, toxicity, and treatment and prevention of mercury exposure.

  17. Alloys for the fusion reactor environment: a technical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This technological assessment involves the following: (1) primary and backup materials of choice, (2) testing and manpower requirements, (3) major milestones, (4) natural resources and industrial capability, and (5) conclusions. The first wall/blanket structure was emphasized in the assessment of materials subject to intense radiation

  18. A Comment on the environment and directed technical change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Heggedal, Tom-Reiel

    2012-07-01

    The major claim in Acemoglu, Aghion, Bursztyn and Hemous (2012) (AABH) is that subsidies for research and development of clean technologies are more important than carbon taxes when dealing with climate change. However, they – unconventionally – assume that a patent only lasts for one period. In this note we introduce long-lived patents into the AABH model. This makes the role of a research subsidy for clean technologies in AABH far less crucial and reestablishes the role of the carbon tax. This is good news as it is far easier to tax emissions than to pick the right technologies to subsidize.(Author)

  19. Technical and Social Environments of Electronic Publishing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Hideshiro

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of introducing electronic publishing into traditional Japanese markets within the context of recent progress in other technologies and mass communications in that country. It is suggested that the content and quality of publications, rather than the media by which they are presented, will determine the acceptance of…

  20. 1997 technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the on-going research and development projects of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in the fields of agriculture, environment and industry, scientific and technological services and nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards.