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Sample records for subarctic environment annual

  1. Controls and variability of solute and sedimentary fluxes in Arctic and sub-Arctic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John

    2015-04-01

    Six major factors consistently emerge as controls on the spatial and temporal variability in sediment and solute fluxes in cold climates. They are climatic, geologic, physiographic or relief, biologic, hydrologic, and regolith factors. The impact of these factors on sediment and solute mass transfer in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments is examined. Comparison of non-glacierized Arctic vs. subarctic drainage basins reveals the effects of these controls. All drainage basins exhibit considerable variability in rates of sediment and solute fluxes. For the non-glacierized drainage basins there is a consistent increase in sediment mass transfer by slope processes and fluvial processes as relief increases. Similarly, a consistent increase in sediment mass transfer by slope and fluvial processes is observed as total precipitation increases. Similar patterns are also observed with respect to solute transport and relief and precipitation. Lithologic factors are most strongly observed in the contrast between volcanic vs. plutonic igneous bedrock substrates. Basins underlain by volcanic rocks display greater mass transfers than those underlain by plutonic rocks. Biologic influences are most strongly expressed by variations in extent of vegetation cover and the degree of human interference, with human impacted basins generating greater fluxes. For glacierized basins the fundamental difference to non-glacierized basins is an overall increase in mean annual mass transfers of sediment and a generally smaller magnitude solute transfer. The principal role of geology is observed with respect to lithology. Catchments underlain by limestone demonstrate substantially greater solute mass transfers than sediment transfer. The influence of relief is seen in the contrast in mass transfers between upland and lowland drainage basins with upland basins generating greater sediment and solute transfers than lowland basins. For glacierized basins the effects of biology and regolith appear to be

  2. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  3. Temperature and substrate controls on intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration in two subarctic vegetation types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2005-01-01

    significantly to ecosystem respiration during most phases of winter and summer in the two vegetation types. Ecosystem respiration rates through the year did not differ significantly between vegetation types despite substantial differences in biomass pools, soil depth and temperature regime. Most (76...... contributions of bulk soil organic matter and plant-associated carbon pools to ecosystem respiration is critical to predicting the response of arctic ecosystem net carbon balance to climate change. In this study, we determined the variation in ecosystem respiration rates from birch forest understory and heath......-92%) of the intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration rates from these two common mesic subarctic ecosystems was explained using a first-order exponential equation relating respiration to substrate chemical quality and soil temperature. Removal of plants and their current year's litter significantly reduced...

  4. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion in the subarctic environment of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jóhannesdóttir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensified agricultural practices have driven biodiversity loss throughout the world, and although many actions aimed at halting and reversing these declines have been developed, their effectiveness depends greatly on the willingness of stakeholders to take part in conservation management. Knowledge of the willingness and capacity of landowners to engage with conservation can therefore be key to designing successful management strategies in agricultural land. In Iceland, agriculture is currently at a relatively low intensity but is very likely to expand in the near future. At the same time, Iceland supports internationally important breeding populations of many ground-nesting birds that could be seriously impacted by further expansion of agricultural activities. To understand the views of Icelandic farmers toward bird conservation, given the current potential for agricultural expansion, 62 farms across Iceland were visited and farmers were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire survey in which respondents indicated of a series of future actions. Most farmers intend to increase the area of cultivated land in the near future, and despite considering having rich birdlife on their land to be very important, most also report they are unlikely to specifically consider bird conservation in their management, even if financial compensation were available. However, as no agri-environment schemes are currently in place in Iceland, this concept is highly unfamiliar to Icelandic farmers. Nearly all respondents were unwilling, and thought it would be impossible, to delay harvest, but many were willing to consider sparing important patches of land and/or maintaining existing pools within fields (a key habitat feature for breeding waders. Farmers' views on the importance of having rich birdlife on their land and their willingness to participate in bird conservation provide a potential platform for the codesign of conservation management with landowners

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions related to landscape elements in the subarctic environment at Churchill, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, J.; Tenuta, M.; Bello, R.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, landscape elements and major environmental regulators was studied. The hydrologic regimes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands are expected to change along with the extent of permafrost and composition of vegetation due to increased levels of GHGs associated with global warming. Two transects were created at a Polygonized-Peat Plateau (PPP) and a Spruce Forest (SF) site in 2005. A sub-set on 4 dominant landscape elements of each transect were used to estimate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitric oxide (N 2 O) on a weekly basis from June to August. In order to obtain a good sampling representation of environmental conditions and of the gradients in plant communities, the entire transect at PPP was sampled monthly. In order to examine the role of soil conditions on the production and consumption of GHG leading to surface fluxes, soil gas samplers were installed at 2 depths at both sites. N 2 O production and consumption were found to be inconsequential at both sites. However, high methane emissions were observed when the volumetric moisture content (VMC) rose higher than 80 per cent at the edge of the ponds. Methane consumption was found to be related to low VMC values (20-40 per cent) for the tops of peat polygons. Soil atmosphere concentrations for CO 2 and CH 4 at PPP were typically much higher at depths of 23-32 cm compared to depths of 5-9 cm. Some of the wettest landscape elements had very high CH 4 content, but had no corresponding CH 4 flux from the soil surface, suggesting that the gas was consumed under aerobic conditions at the soil surface. It was concluded that GHG emissions from both sites were altered by both landscape elements and environmental regulators such as temperature and moisture. Future work will focus on identifying the association of these relationships to processes responsible for GHG emissions in subarctic environments. The impact of global warming on these

  6. Annual report 90 Environment Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This is the second annual report of the Environment Institute of the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Site, of the Commission of the European Communities. The report summarizes the progress accomplished in the course of 1990 in the various projects included in the multiannual (1988-91) Specific Research Programmes tackled by the Institute i.e. Environment Protection and Radioactive Waste Management, the former being focused on environmental chemicals, air pollution and pollutant transport, water pollution, chemical waste, food and drug analysis, the latter on safety assessment for waste disposal in geological formations. The scientific support given to the Commission Services for the implementation of EC directives dealing with chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and radioactive environmental monitoring (REM) is also described. Lastly the outcome of various activities related to work for third parties and to the participation of the Institute in EUREKA and COST projects is shortly outlined. The report includes data on the Institute Structure, human and budget resources and large installations operated by the Institute

  7. Annual report 1991. Environment Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Environment Institute of the Joint Research Centre - Ispra Site - of the Commission of the European Communities. The report summarizes the progress accomplished in the course of 1991 - i.e. the last of the four year (1988-91) Specific Research Programme of the Joint Research Centre - in the projects tackled by the Institute. The activities were mainly focused on the areas of environmental chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and food and drug analysis, included in the programme Environmental Protection, and of safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal in geological formation as a part of the Radioactive Waste Management programme. The scientific support provided to different Commission Services is also described, proper emphasis being given to that provided to the Directorate General Xl (Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection) in the field of chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and radioactive environmental monitoring (REM). The above activities are aimed at the implementation of EC directives in the related fields. The work for third parties and the contribution of the Institute to various EUREKA and COST projects are also shortly described. Lastly the report provides essential data concerning the Institute structure and the human and financial resources

  8. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment…

  9. Radioactive foodchains in the subarctic environment. Progress report, August 15, 1975--August 14, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1976-05-01

    Cesium-137 is accumulated in the foodchain lichen-reindeer-man causing high body burdens in Lapps who have reindeer meat as staple food. A group of Finnish Lapps has been whole body counted for 137 Cs annually since 1961. Results of the measurements made in April 1976 show 18 percent decrease in 137 Cs body burdens from the previous year. A dietary study confirmed that there was no mentionable change in the total amount of reindeer meat consumed although winter consumption has slightly decreased and summer consumption increased in recent years. Plutonium analyses of stockpiled lichen and reindeer samples from 1960 to 1973 were begun in 1973; since then the sampling has continued. Lichen had 200 pCi per kg dry weight in 1963 to 1964, 100 pCi/kg in 1966 to 1970, 20 pCi/kg in 1973 to 1975. Biological half-time of plutonium in lichen is 2 years. Reindeer liver contained about 20 pCi per kg fresh weight in 1963, 2 pCi in 1973. The ratio of plutonium in liver to its lifelong total intake gave a lower limit to absorption in reindeer. Of bones, plutonium concentration is highest in teeth, medium high in sternum, vertebra and humerus, and lowest in solid long bones. Human autopsy samples gave for lungs 0.19 liver 0.02 and bone 0.09 pCi 239 240 Pu per kg of wet weight

  10. A comparison of annual and seasonal carbon dioxide effluxes between subarctic Sweden and high-arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Mats P.; Morgner, Elke; Björk, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    in the literature. Winter emissions varied in their contribution to total annual production between 1 and 18%. Artificial snow drifts shortened the snow-free period by 2 weeks and decreased the annual CO2 emission by up to 20%. This study suggests that future shifts in vegetation zones may increase soil respiration...

  11. Pristine Arctic: Background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína, E-mail: hronn.o.jorundsdottir@matis.is [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jensen, Sophie [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik [Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Svavarsson, Jörundur [University of Iceland, Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Askja - Natural Science Building, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík (Iceland); Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland); El-Taliawy, Haitham [Matis Ltd., Icelandic Food and Biotech R and D, Vinlandsleid 12, 113 Reykjavik (Iceland); Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hoydal, Katrin S. [The Faroese Environment Agency, Traðagøta 38, P.O. Box 2048, FO-165 Argir, the Faroe Islands (Faroe Islands); Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar [The University of Iceland´s Research Centre in Sudurnes, Gardvegi 1, 245 Sandgerdi (Iceland)

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ{sub 16}PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ{sub 16}PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. - Highlights: • Low levels of PAHs in blue mussels from remote areas of the Arctic. • Low

  12. A comparative assessment of heavy metal accumulation in soft parts and byssus of mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szefer, P.; Fowler, S.W.; Ikuta, K.; Osuna, F. Paez; Ali, A.A.; Kim, B.-S.; Fernandes, H.M.; Belzunce, M.-J.; Guterstam, B.; Kunzendorf, H.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Deslous-Paoli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Existing data on metal concentrations in mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical waters were analyzed using multivariate statistics in order to assess regional variations in metal contamination. Potential errors were reduced by only analyzing data from surveys that employed the same protocols, analytical methodologies and analysts. Factor analysis demonstrated that mussels inhabiting extremely contaminated areas (e.g. from Japanese and Swedish metallurgy sources) could be separated from mussels from other contaminated areas, and that metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn could be used to identify heavily contaminated samples while Co, Fe, Cr and Ni concentrations were good markers for exposure to inputs from different industrial sources. Furthermore byssus, like soft tissue, selectively and sensitively reflects variations of certain metal concentrations in ambient waters and thus serves as a reliable biomonitor for these contaminants in a variety of coastal and estuarine areas. - Byssus of mytilids, like soft tissues can be used as efficient biomonitor for heavy metals in the marine environment

  13. A comparative assessment of heavy metal accumulation in soft parts and byssus of mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szefer, P. [Department of Food Sciences, Medical University of Gdansk, Al. Gen. J. Hallera 107, PL 80-416 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: pszef@amg.gda.pl; Fowler, S.W. [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000 (Monaco); Ikuta, K. [Laboratory of Aquatic Environment and Ecology, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Miyazaki University, 889-21 Miyazaki (Japan); Osuna, F. Paez [Institute of Marine Sciences and Limnology, Mazatlan Station, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mazatlan 82000, Sinaloa (Mexico); Ali, A.A. [Faculty of Science, Arts and Education, University of Aden, PO Box 6014, Khormaksar, Aden (Yemen); Kim, B.-S. [School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, 56-1 Shillimdong, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Fernandes, H.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Cz. Postal 37 750 - CEP: 22642-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Belzunce, M.-J. [Instituto Tecnnologico Pesquero y Alimentario, Dpto de Oceanografia y Medio Ambiente Marino, Herrera Kaia, Portualdea z/g, 20110 Pasaia (Gipuzkoa) (Spain); Guterstam, B. [Stensund Ecological Center, 61991 Trosa, Sweden and Global Water Partnership Secretariat, Hantverkargatan 5, SE-112 21 Stockholm (Sweden); Kunzendorf, H. [Gamma Dating Center (GDC), Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgage 10 DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Wolowicz, M. [Laboratory of Estuarine Ecology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Al. Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378, Gdynia (Poland); Hummel, H. [Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Korringaweg 7, 4401 NT Yerseke (Netherlands); Deslous-Paoli, M. [IFREMER, Unite Ecologie Conchylicole, 1, rue Jean Vilar, 34200 Sete (France)

    2006-01-15

    Existing data on metal concentrations in mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical waters were analyzed using multivariate statistics in order to assess regional variations in metal contamination. Potential errors were reduced by only analyzing data from surveys that employed the same protocols, analytical methodologies and analysts. Factor analysis demonstrated that mussels inhabiting extremely contaminated areas (e.g. from Japanese and Swedish metallurgy sources) could be separated from mussels from other contaminated areas, and that metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn could be used to identify heavily contaminated samples while Co, Fe, Cr and Ni concentrations were good markers for exposure to inputs from different industrial sources. Furthermore byssus, like soft tissue, selectively and sensitively reflects variations of certain metal concentrations in ambient waters and thus serves as a reliable biomonitor for these contaminants in a variety of coastal and estuarine areas. - Byssus of mytilids, like soft tissues can be used as efficient biomonitor for heavy metals in the marine environment.

  14. Energy and environment. Annual report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.G.; Lizama, L.R. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following programs: geothermal and geosciences; controlled thermonuclear research; chemical processing; instrument development; environment; energy use and conservation; energy analysis; and engineering sciences.

  15. High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Matthias B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1×1 m). A high-resolution (1 m) land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0-150 cm) is estimated to be 8.3 ± 8.0 kg C m-2 and the SOC stored in the top meter (0-100 cm) to be 7.7 ± 6.2 kg C m-2. The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions > 30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of SOC across all landscape compartments in post-permafrost landscapes.

  16. High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Siewert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1×1 m. A high-resolution (1 m land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0–150 cm is estimated to be 8.3 ± 8.0 kg C m−2 and the SOC stored in the top meter (0–100 cm to be 7.7 ± 6.2 kg C m−2. The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions  >  30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of

  17. Tracking the origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis for their fast adaptation to subarctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel; Jónsson, Hákon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Fumagalli, Matteo; Yang, Melinda A; Gamba, Cristina; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie D; Petersen, Bent; Hoover, Cindi A; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Nedoluzhko, Artem; Boulygina, Eugenia; Tsygankova, Svetlana; Neuditschko, Markus; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Thèves, Catherine; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Popov, Ruslan; Grigoriev, Semyon; Alekseev, Anatoly N; Rubin, Edward M; McCue, Molly; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso; Tikhonov, Alexei; Crubézy, Eric; Slatkin, Montgomery; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Kantanen, Juha; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-12-15

    Yakutia, Sakha Republic, in the Siberian Far East, represents one of the coldest places on Earth, with winter record temperatures dropping below -70 °C. Nevertheless, Yakutian horses survive all year round in the open air due to striking phenotypic adaptations, including compact body conformations, extremely hairy winter coats, and acute seasonal differences in metabolic activities. The evolutionary origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis of their adaptations remain, however, contentious. Here, we present the complete genomes of nine present-day Yakutian horses and two ancient specimens dating from the early 19th century and ∼5,200 y ago. By comparing these genomes with the genomes of two Late Pleistocene, 27 domesticated, and three wild Przewalski's horses, we find that contemporary Yakutian horses do not descend from the native horses that populated the region until the mid-Holocene, but were most likely introduced following the migration of the Yakut people a few centuries ago. Thus, they represent one of the fastest cases of adaptation to the extreme temperatures of the Arctic. We find cis-regulatory mutations to have contributed more than nonsynonymous changes to their adaptation, likely due to the comparatively limited standing variation within gene bodies at the time the population was founded. Genes involved in hair development, body size, and metabolic and hormone signaling pathways represent an essential part of the Yakutian horse adaptive genetic toolkit. Finally, we find evidence for convergent evolution with native human populations and woolly mammoths, suggesting that only a few evolutionary strategies are compatible with survival in extremely cold environments.

  18. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report - Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 annual report of the Charbonnages de France group presents the environmental actions carried out by the group after the Kyoto summit for the reduction of greenhouse gases and the preservation of fossil resources: the goals of the group and its environmental strategy; the use of waste products (bagasse-coal-fueled power plants, recovery of methane from coal mines, valorization of coal washing wastes, valorization of fly-ashes in cement industry); the reduction of pollutant emissions (development of supercritical, combined and hybrid cycles, fluidized bed boilers, reduction of pollutants during the dismantling of shutdown installations); water preservation (processing of acid mine waters, purification of waters from coke factories, cleansing of abandoned sites); sites rehabilitation (backfilling of abandoned mines, soil cleansing of dismantled coal processing facilities, reinforcing of abandoned cavities, prevention of erosion of spoil heaps etc..); improvement of landscapes (rehabilitation, revegetation); research and innovation (hydrological and geological impact studies, soil cleansing processes, phyto-remediation..). (J.S.)

  19. What matters 2010. Annual report of the Federal Environment Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-27

    The annual report under consideration of the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the following themes: (1) Future mobility - Today's best investment; (2) Environmental protection - A barrier to investment for agriculture ?; (3) Emissions trading - The engine of climate policy ?; (4) The Federal Environment Agency (Departmental research, credo, organisation, data and facts, publications).

  20. Indoor Environment Program - 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indoor Environment Program

    1996-11-01

    The forty-five chemists, physicists, biologists, architects, engineers, staff, and students of the Indoor Environment Program are all working to solve the problems of indoor air quality, health, comfort, and energy use associated with the indoor environment. A common thread throughout this work is the importance of ventilation--both for its role in supporting human health and comfort as well as for its liability in requiring large amounts of energy to heat and cool it. The importance of understanding these interactions can be illustrated by two examples: the health and productivity of workers (Fisk and Rosenfeld, 1996) and the performance of sensitive equipment in clean room environments (Faulkner, et d., 1996). During the past year, we estimated the magnitudes of health and productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments. The ratio of the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments to the costs of the improvements ranges between 20 and 50. A second example is from our Clean Room Energy Efficiency Study: Clean rooms utilize large amounts of electricity to operate fans that recirculate air at very high flow rates through particle filters. Usually, the fans operate continuously at full speed, even when the clean room is unused. To reduce the energy use in a research clean room, the rate of air recirculation was controlled in response to real-time measurements of particle concentration. With this new control system, fan energy use decreased by 65% to 85% while maintaining particle concentrations below the allowable limits except during occasional one-minute periods. The estimated payback period for this technology is one to four years.

  1. Indoor environment program: FY 1988 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Indoor Environment Program examines the scientific issues associated with the design and operation of buildings to optimize energy performance and occupant comfort and health. Optimizing occupant health and comfort is addressed in various ways by groups within the Program. To examine energy flow through all elements of the building shell, the Energy Performance of Buildings Group measures air infiltration rates, studies thermal characteristics of structural elements, and develops simplified models of the behavior of complete buildings. Potential savings in the infiltration area are great

  2. Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  3. Indoor environment program - 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  4. Health, safety and environment : annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A natural gas transmission and power services company, TransCanada Pipelines Limited operates approximately 38,000 kilometers of pipeline, thereby supplying the majority of natural gas production facilities in Western Canada. The company is also involved in the power generation industry by building, operating and owning interests in electric power plants. Located in Rhode Island, United States, the largest plant operated by TransCanada is a combined-cycle plant that generates in excess of 500 MW. TransCanada is committed to its health, safety and environment management system. The system is modeled after the elements of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 which sets the standard for environmental management systems. Considerable efforts were expanded to implement programs and initiatives to protect the environment, such as the pipeline reclamation criteria, the hazardous materials and waste management, and proposed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulations, which are currently under consideration by Environment Canada. TransCanada PipeLines Limited has also set up an environmental research program to enable management and workers to minimize the environmental impacts of the business. Its objectives are the enhancement of the health and safety of employees and their communities, the mitigation of effects on lands, air and water. The topics covered by the research are: vegetation and wildlife with several sub-categories. The company is concerned about the effects on climate change, and developed plans and strategies to manage the emissions of greenhouse gases. In the process, it was awarded several awards for its commitment, action and leadership on voluntary reduction program of greenhouse gases. Full-time resources are dedicated to illness prevention and health promotion, employee assistance programs, short and long term disability management and others. During the year 2000, TransCanada invested 4 million dollars in communities

  5. Annual environment report 2012 - EDF Flamanville (annual report 2012 of environment survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delauge, A.

    2013-01-01

    After a presentation of the Flamanville site (history, operation principle of a nuclear plant, life of both units, impacts on the environment, organization, legislation, actions performed in 2012, ability management and communication regarding the management of the environment), this report presents the activity of Flamanville: production, events and incidents. It gives an overview of issues related to the control of impacts on the environment: radioactive releases, chemical and thermal releases, water resource management, dredging operations, conventional and nuclear wastes, radiological cleanliness, noise. Controls and inspections are indicated and briefly reported

  6. New data on the natural environment of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene interglacial periods in the east of the European Subarctic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreicheva, L. N.; Marchenko-Vagapova, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    The data obtained from investigation of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene lake sediments in the European Subarctic Region of Russia are reported. Chirva, Rodionovo (Scklov), Sula (Mikulino), and Byzovaya (Leningrad) sediments were subject to palynological analysis and investigation of particle size distribution and mineral composition. The spore-pollen spectra of the Chirva sediments demonstrate two climatic optima: the lower optimum is dominated by the pollen of Pinus sylvestris and broad-leaved species (up to 10%); the upper optimum is dominated by Picea sp. and Pinus sylvestris, while the pollen of Picea sect. Omorica and broad-leaved species are sporadic. The Rodionovo flora is characterized by a more xerophilous composition relative to the Chirva flora and a higher pollen content of pine, birch, wormseed plants, and wormwood. The climatic optimum of the Sula interglacial is distinguished by boreal vegetation, including spruce, birch, and birch-spruce forests with sparse broad-leaved species. The Byzovaya interstadial is marked by seven stages of changes in the vegetation: from tundra and forest-tundra communities to taiga forests with some broad-leaved species. The natural climatic sedimentation conditions in the Middle and Late Neopleistocene interglacial periods are reconstructed. The mineral composition of sediments was largely formed owing to underlying deposits.

  7. Annual changes in Arctic fjord environment and modern benthic foraminiferal fauna: Evidence from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernas, Patrycja; Klitgaard-Kristensen, Dorthe; Husum, Katrine; Koç, Nalan; Tverberg, Vigdis; Loubere, Paul; Prins, Maarten; Dijkstra, Noortje; Gluchowska, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The relationships between modern Arctic benthic foraminifera and their ecological controls, along with their sensitivity to rapid environmental changes, is still poorly understood. This study examines how modern benthic foraminifera respond to annual environmental changes in the glaciated Arctic fjord Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard. Large environmental gradients due to the inflow of warm and saline Atlantic Water and the influence of tidewater glaciers characterise the fjord hydrography. A transect of six multi-corer stations, from the inner to the outer fjord, was sampled in the late summers of 2005 to 2008 to study the distribution of living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera. Physical properties of the water masses were measured concurrently. In general, nearly the entire Kongsfjorden region was dominated by ubiquitous N. labradorica foraminiferal assemblage that successfully exploited the local food resources and thrived particularly well in the presence of Atlantic-derived Transformed Atlantic Water (TAW). Further, the annual investigation revealed that Kongsfjorden underwent large interannual hydrological changes during the studied years related to variable inflow of warm and saline Atlantic Water. This led to a strong fauna variability particularly at the two marginal sites: the glacially influenced inner fjord and marine influenced shelf region. We also observed significant species shift from the 'cold' to 'warm' years and an expansion of widespread and sub-arctic to boreal species into the fjord.

  8. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements and updates British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety and the Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical groups doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I includes, for each of the Company's sites, annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical groups doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each chapter. (author)

  9. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  10. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  11. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  12. Fluxes of Methane and Carbon Dioxide from a Subarctic Lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jammet, Mathilde Manon

    ) and carbon dioxide (CO2) with the atmosphere. Yet uncertainties in the magnitude and drivers of these fluxes remain, partly due to a lack of direct observations covering all seasons of the year, but also because of the diversity in measurement methods that often miss components of the transport processes......Ongoing climate warming is expected to affect the carbon functioning of subarctic ecosystems. Lakes and wetlands, which are common ecosystems of the high northern latitudes, are of utmost interest in this context because they exchange large amounts of the climate-forcing gases methane (CH4......-out and the release of CH4 and CO2 was established. These results underline the crucial importance of shoulder seasons in the annual carbon emissions from seasonally frozen lakes. Overall, the lake was an important annual source of carbon to the atmosphere, partially compensating the higher, annual sink function...

  13. State of the environment: selected topics, 1979. [Annual report of Executive Director, UN Environment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This annual report of the Executive Director, UN Environment Program, to the Governing Council of the United Nations focuses on four topics of global significance: schistosomiasis, pesticide resistance, noise pollution, and tourism. The four topics, while not the only urgent ones, are important contemporary problems associated with the impacts of development and environmental management. The pressures of man's efforts to increase the agricultural base through irrigation and chemical pesticides have resulted in an unprecedented spread of infectious schistosomiasis and pesticide pollution. Industrialization and urbanization have raised noise levels until they represent serious health hazards. International tourism has grown to such proportions that hundreds of millions of individual trips are taken by the average public each year. The positive and negative aspects of these developments are examined in hopes of stimulating discussions that will lead to more desirable planning and management. 81 references. (DCK)

  14. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The 1987 Annual Report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith Atomic Energy Establishment and monitoring of the environment is given. The report covers waste discharges to the sea and the earth atmosphere and the associated environmental monitoring. (UK)

  15. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements and updates the Company's Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I consists of site papers, one for each of the Company's sites and includes annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical group doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each Site paper. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation regulating the Company's discharges and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (Author)

  16. Impacts of Climate Change Induced Vegetation Responses on BVOC Emissions from Subarctic Heath Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valolahti, Hanna Maritta

    The role of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affecting Earths’ climate system is one of the greatest uncertainties when modelling the global climate change. BVOCs presence in the atmosphere can have both positive and negative climate feedback mechanisms when they involve atmospheric...... chemistry and physics. Vegetation is the main source of BVOCs. Their production is directly linked to temperature and the foliar biomass. On global scale, vegetation in subarctic and arctic regions has been modeled to have only minor contribution to annual total BVOC emissions. In these regions cold...... temperature has been regulating annual plant biomass production, but ongoing global warming is more pronounced in these regions than what the global average is. This may increase the importance of subarctic and arctic vegetation as a source of BVOC emissions in near future. This thesis aims to increase...

  17. The world bank and the environment, exercise 1992. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment

  18. Health, Safety, and Environment Division: Annual progress report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.A. (comp.)

    1988-04-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environment protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Many disciplines are required to meet the responsibilities, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health and safety problems arise occasionally from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory. Research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed to study specific problems for the Department of Energy and to help develop better occupational health and safety practices.

  19. Health, Safety, and Environment Division: Annual progress report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.A.

    1988-04-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environment protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Many disciplines are required to meet the responsibilities, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health and safety problems arise occasionally from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory. Research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed to study specific problems for the Department of Energy and to help develop better occupational health and safety practices

  20. FZR annual report 2003: Research for men and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: A multi-purpose experimental facility for the model development of two-phase flows, the first nuclear-physics experiments with bremsstrahlung at the ELBE accelerator, the molecular mechanisms of vision and general principles of the cellular signal processing, colloids in environment, protein oxidation and sickness, nondestructive study on glass pretiosa using proton beams. (HSI)

  1. Energy and Environment Division, annual report FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osowitt, M. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    This report covers research in: energy analysis; energy efficiency studies; solar energy; chemical process; energy-efficient buildings; environmental pollutant studies; combustion research; laser spectroscopy and trace elements; and oil shale and coal research. An energy and environment personnel listing is appended. Separate projects are indexed individually for the database. (PSB)

  2. Health, Safety, and Environment Division annual report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Many disciplines are required to meet the responsibilities, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health and safety problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory. Research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy and to help develop better occupational health and safety practices. 52 refs

  3. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  4. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  5. Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Howard E; Myers-Smith, Isla; Walker, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    We present a focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on the ‘Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation’. The focus issue includes three perspective articles (Verbyla 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041003, Williams et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041004, Loranty and Goetz 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 011005) and 22 research articles. The focus issue arose as a result of heightened interest in the response of high-latitude vegetation to natural and anthropogenic changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and the consequences that these vegetation changes might have for northern ecosystems. A special session at the December 2010 American Geophysical Union Meeting on the ‘Greening of the Arctic’ spurred the call for papers. Many of the resulting articles stem from intensive research efforts stimulated by International Polar Year projects and the growing acknowledgment of ongoing climate change impacts in northern terrestrial ecosystems. (synthesis and review)

  6. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolow, R.H. [ed.] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Anderson, D. [ed.] [Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Harte, J. [ed.] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  7. Energy and environment annual report 1974. [Environmental Research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, C. (ed.)

    1974-01-01

    Research in the Division's environmental science program includes air pollution, water pollution, and the effects of pollutants on man and natural ecosystems. Work has focused on the chemistry and physics of particle surfaces. Using the technique of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), surface reactions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds have been studied, and results include the identification of new chemical forms of nitrogen on particle surfaces and evidence for the importance of particle surfaces in the catalysis of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid. The Division's work in water pollution has been devoted to the study of trace metals in the estuarine environment, especially in San Francisco Bay. Studies on the effect of dredging operations on trace metals in the Mare Island ship channel and on the distribution of cadmium in Bay sediments have been performed. Research has also been conducted on the distribution of trace elements between bound states on suspended particles and in solution in Bay waters. Research is being conducted on a variety of problems relating to effects of pollutants. Biological studies seeking to discover effects of specific environmental insults such as oxidants at the cellular level have been done, and epidemiological studies have been initiated on the impacts of trace metals on human health. Theoretical studies in an attempt to develop a basis for assessing the stability of ecological systems are also being undertaken.

  8. Bacterial community structure and soil properties of a subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Jung, Ji Young; Yergeau, Etienne; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Hinzman, Larry; Nam, Sungjin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-08-01

    The subarctic region is highly responsive and vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the structure of subarctic soil microbial communities is essential for predicting the response of the subarctic soil environment to climate change. To determine the composition of the bacterial community and its relationship with soil properties, we investigated the bacterial community structure and properties of surface soil from the moist acidic tussock tundra in Council, Alaska. We collected 70 soil samples with 25-m intervals between sampling points from 0-10 cm to 10-20 cm depths. The bacterial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and the following soil properties were analyzed: soil moisture content (MC), pH, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-). The community compositions of the two different depths showed that Alphaproteobacteria decreased with soil depth. Among the soil properties measured, soil pH was the most significant factor correlating with bacterial community in both upper and lower-layer soils. Bacterial community similarity based on jackknifed unweighted unifrac distance showed greater similarity across horizontal layers than through the vertical depth. This study showed that soil depth and pH were the most important soil properties determining bacterial community structure of the subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  9. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Health and Safety Annual Report of British Nuclear Fuels plc by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. This report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. The sites involved are: Sellafield where the main activities are irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing and the Calder Hall nuclear station; the Drigg radioactive waste storage and disposal site; the Chapelcross nuclear power station; Springfields Works which manufactures nuclear fuels; Capenhurst Works where uranium isotopic enrichment plants are operated. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  10. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Health and Safety Annual Report of British Nuclear Fuels plc by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. This report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. The sites involved are: Sellafield where the main activities are irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing and the Calder Hall nuclear station; the Drigg radioactive waste storage and disposal site; the Chapelcross nuclear power station; Springfields Works which manufactures nuclear fuels; Capenhurst Works where uranium isotopic enrichment plants are operated. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  11. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna...... and the human activity are all very important interacting factors affecting epidemiology. In Greenland, where only sylvatic trichinellosis is present, the high prevalence in wildlife appears closely connected with polar bear hunting. In the Scandinavian countries, the prevalence of both sylvatic and domestic...

  12. Human paleoecological integration in subarctic eastern Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoë, François B.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Holmes, Charles E.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-11-01

    We contribute to the understanding of megafauna extinction and human dispersal in subarctic eastern Beringia by focusing on changes in the trophic dynamics of the large mammal community as well as the ecological role of humans as a predator and competitor. We reconstruct habitat use by megafauna and humans throughout the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary based on zooarchaeological data and stable isotope ratios of collagen. Our results are consistent with habitat heterogeneity and availability being important factors in the changing abundance of large herbivores. We argue that an increase in herbivore diversity and biomass at the beginning of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and a relative lack of competitors favored the initial human colonization of subarctic eastern Beringia. As herbivore resources dwindled later in the Late Glacial, people increasingly relied on bison and wapiti. By efficiently extracting some of the highest-ranked resources in the landscape, people are likely to have contributed to the trophic displacement or regional extirpation of other large predators. The ecological patterns that we observe in subarctic eastern Beringia are consistent with a mixture of both top-down and bottom-up controls over biotic turnover.

  13. Sub-arctic hydrology and climate change : a case study of the Tana River Basin in Northern Fennoscandia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Rutger

    2002-01-01

    The most significant changes in climate, due to the well-known enhanced greenhouse effect, are generally expected to occur at northern high latitudes. Sub-arctic environments, that are dominated by the presence of a seasonal snow cover, may therefore be particularly sensitive to global warming. The

  14. 6th Annual Homeland Security and Defense Education Summit, Developing an Adaptive Homeland Security Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    6th Annual Homeland Security and Defense Education Summit Developing an Adaptive Homeland Security Environment, Burlington, MA, September 26-28, 2013 2013 Summit Agenda Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security In Partnership With Northeastern University, Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Guard Homeland Security Institute, National Homeland Defense Foundation Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and S...

  15. Annual report of the Committee for the environment-effect-reporting for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report over 1988 presents a general survey of the activities of the Dutch Committee for the environment-effect-reporting (m.e.r.). Besides two themes are discussed in depth: the signifcance of m.e.r. in the decision-making and the discharging from the m.e.r. duty. The appendices contain an overview of the assembly of the Committee, of the gaps in knowledge and information observed in environment-effect reports, the durations of the projects, descriptions of the state of affairs per project and a list of advises brought out by the Committee. (author)

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  17. Carbon monoxide and methane in the North American Arctic and Subarctic troposphere - July-August 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriss, R.C.; Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K.B.; Collins, J.E.; Steele, L.P.; Novelli, P.C. (New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States) NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) Lockheed Engineering Sciences Co., Hampton, VA (United States) Science and Technology Corp., Hampton, VA (United States) Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Enhanced concentrations of CH4 in the unpolluted atmospheric mixed layer over both Arctic and subarctic tundra landscapes are documented here using data from the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The CH4 concentration gradients were determined mainly by interactions of biogenic emission from wet tundra and turbulent mixing proceses. The gradient were most frequently associated with intrusion of upper tropospheric or stratospheric air into the midtroposphere, emissions from forest and tundra fires, and long-range transport of enhanced concentration of these gases from unidentified sources. Summertime haze layers exhibited midtropospheric enhancements of CH4 similar to those measured in winter Arctic events. The observations confirm the importance of Arctic and Subarctic wetland environments as a regional source of global atmospheric CH4. 33 refs.

  18. Carbon monoxide and methane in the North American Arctic and Subarctic troposphere - July-August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, Robert C.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Wade, Larry; Bartlett, Karen B.; Collins, James E.; Steele, L. P.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Enhanced concentrations of CH4 in the unpolluted atmospheric mixed layer over both Arctic and subarctic tundra landscapes are documented here using data from the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The CH4 concentration gradients were determined mainly by interactions of biogenic emission from wet tundra and turbulent mixing proceses. The gradient were most frequently associated with intrusion of upper tropospheric or stratospheric air into the midtroposphere, emissions from forest and tundra fires, and long-range transport of enhanced concentration of these gases from unidentified sources. Summertime haze layers exhibited midtropospheric enhancements of CH4 similar to those measured in winter Arctic events. The observations confirm the importance of Arctic and Subarctic wetland environments as a regional source of global atmospheric CH4.

  19. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Stephanie Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective: Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design: A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT, other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods: Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling from 3 plots (A, B, and C in Fort Albany (on the mainland, subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results: The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusions: Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  20. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  1. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  2. Review of annual radioecological studies carried out since 1991 in the French nuclear power plants environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Gontier, G.; Renaud, P.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1991, the IRSN carries out annual radioecological studies in the environment of the French Nuclear Power Plants. More than 5,000 samples, collected in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems around the 20 studied plants, have been analysed by low-level gamma spectrometry. This paper presents the main goals and methods for such studies, and the lessons learnt from 11 years results. The French NPP routine atmospheric releases do not lead to detectable radioactive inputs into their surroundings. For this reason, IRSN decided to reduce the number of analysis concerning terrestrial samples since 2000. On the other hand, NPP liquid discharges into rivers are responsible for the presence of low 60 Co, 58 Co, 110m Ag and 54 Mn activities and significant difference in 137 Cs/ 134 Cs activity ratios measured in aquatic compartments. Radioactive discharges of artificial gamma emitters are also detectable in the Channel marine environment around NPP. Nevertheless, this influence is often concealed by radionuclides released by COGEMA-La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. Beyond important evaluations concerning the presence of artificial radionuclides in NPP's environment, studies conducted since 1991 give us an important database that can be used for a better knowledge of transfers and distribution of radioactivity through the environment. (author)

  3. Annual killifish adaptations to ephemeral environments: Diapause i in two austrolebias species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezo, María José; Papa, Nicolás G; Berois, Nibia; Clivio, Graciela; Montagne, Jimena; De la Piedra, Soledad

    2017-11-01

    Many organisms are able to survive in extreme environments by entering a state of dormancy. In dormancy, vital activities are reduced until environmental conditions are compatible with active life. Annual killifishes show a special developmental pattern characterized by a phase of dispersion-reaggregation of the blastomeres that separates epiboly from organogenesis, and the capability to enter dormancy in diapause. High tolerance to environmental stress confers annual killifish embryos the condition of extremophiles. At present, the questions of our research group are focused on the understanding of the mechanisms involved in diapause regulation through an interdisciplinary approach. As a first step, it is necessary to characterize diapauses at morphological and physiological levels and to evaluate induction cues under laboratory conditions. In this context, we characterized diapause I in two Austrolebias species. Our experimental approach to induce diapause I was successful and revealed the co-existence of two diapause I phenotypes named A and B instead of one. These phenotypes showed a tendency for lower total extractable RNA content compared with active developmental stages (80-100% epiboly and early reaggregate). These phenotypes are alternative diapause I stages and may have ecological relevance because both were found in embryos in natural ponds. Developmental Dynamics 246:848-857, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Moraski, R.V.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  6. Radioecology of tritiated water in subarctic soils and vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Miettinen, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The residence times of tritium in various types of soils and plants have been determined in southern and northern Finland. The experiments were conducted in forest and agricultural environments where tritiated water was applied to the soil surface in the form of a single fall of rain. After that the movement and loss of tritiated water from the unsaturated zone was followed over a 2-4-year period in some forest areas. Uptake and loss of tritium in the tissue-free water and organic compounds of some native plants was studied in each area. The results indicated that in the subarctic area the half-residence times of tritium in soils and plants were greatly dependent on the climatic conditions at the time of the labelling and during the short growing seasons and also on the rate of water movement in the soil. In the experiments started during the best growing season the half-residence times in soil and plants do not differ from those determined in more temperate latitudes. (author)

  7. Carbon dioxide exchange in subarctic ecosystems measured by a micrometeorological technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, M.

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration and the surface air temperatures have increased since the pre-industrial era, and the increase in both is predicted to continue during the 21st century. The feedback mechanisms between the changing climate and the carbon cycle are complex, and more information is needed about carbon exchange in different ecosystems. Northern Finland lies in the transition zone between boreal forest and tundra where the ecosystems are especially sensitive to any changes in the climate. In 1995-2004, micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements were conducted to yield continuous data on the CO 2 exchange between the atmosphere and the biosphere in northern Finland on four different ecosystems: an aapa mire, a mountain birch forest, a Scots pine forest and a Norway spruce forest. A measurement system enabling year-round measurements in the harsh subarctic conditions was developed and shown to be suitable for long-term exchange studies. A comparison of the CO 2 flux components, photosynthesis and respiration, at different ecosystems in the European subarctic and arctic regions showed that the leaf area index (LAI) is the key determinant of the gross photosynthetic rates, explaining greatest part of the variation between these ecosystems. Respiration did not show such a strong correlation with LAI, but in general, high respiration rates were related to high values of LAI. The first continuous round-the-year measurements of net ecosystem CO 2 exchange on a subarctic wetland were conducted at Kaamanen. The winter-time CO 2 efflux (of about 90 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) was shown to constitute an essential part of the annual CO 2 balance (of -79 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 in 1997-2002). The annual CO 2 balances at all sites in northern Finland were relatively small compared with those in lower latitudes. The interannual variation of the CO 2 balance at Kaamanen was marked (-15 to -195 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) during the years 1997-2002. The most important factor

  8. Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valolahti, Hanna; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-09-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been earlier shown to be highly temperature sensitive in subarctic ecosystems. As these ecosystems experience rapidly advancing pronounced climate warming, we aimed to investigate how warming affects the BVOC emissions in the long term (up to 13 treatment years). We also aimed to assess whether the increased litterfall resulting from the vegetation changes in the warming subarctic would affect the emissions. The study was conducted in a field experiment with factorial open-top chamber warming and annual litter addition treatments on subarctic heath in Abisko, northern Sweden. After 11 and 13 treatment years, BVOCs were sampled from plant communities in the experimental plots using a push-pull enclosure technique and collection into adsorbent cartridges during the growing season and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2 °C caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements. When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions to a fixed temperature, warming still had a significant effect suggesting that emissions were also indirectly increased. This indirect increase appeared to result from increased plant coverage and changes in vegetation composition. The litter addition treatment also caused significant increases in the emission rates of some BVOC groups, especially when combined with warming. The combined treatment had both the largest vegetation changes and the highest BVOC emissions. The increased emissions under litter addition were probably a result of a changed vegetation composition due to alleviated nutrient limitation and stimulated microbial production of BVOCs. We suggest that the changes in the subarctic vegetation composition induced by climate warming will be the major factor

  9. Bacterial carbon cycling in a subarctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Sejr, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    of viruses on bacterial mortality (4–36% of cell production) and carbon cycling. Heterotrophic bacterial consumption was closely coupled with autochthonous BDOC production, and the majority of the primary production was consumed by pelagic bacteria at all seasons. The relatively low measured BGE emphasized......In this seasonal study, we examined the environmental controls and quantitative importance of bacterial carbon consumption in the water column and the sediment in the subarctic Kobbefjord, Greenland. Depth-integrated bacterial production in the photic zone varied from 5.0 ± 2.7 mg C m−2 d−1...... in February to 42 ± 28 mg C m−2 d−1 in May and 34 ± 7 mg C m−2 d−1 in September, corresponding to a bacterial production to primary production ratio of 0.34 ± 0.14, 0.07 ± 0.04, and 0.08 ± 0.06, respectively. Based on measured bacterial growth efficiencies (BGEs) of 0.09–0.10, pelagic bacterial carbon...

  10. The Reading Environment; Proceedings of the Annual Reading Conference (8th, Terre Haute, Indiana, June 15-16, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, David C., Comp.; Gibbs, Vanita M., Comp.

    The papers presented in this annual reading conference report focus on various aspects of the topic, "The Reading Environment." The opening address advocates establishing reading programs that correspond to the developmental stages of individual children--programs that consider the needs of the whole child. The other papers delivered at the…

  11. Annual limits on intake for members of the public and derived reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A proposal is presented recommending the introduction in Australia of Annual Limits on Intake of radionuclides for members of the public and of corresponding reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The proposal is related to recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and draft recommendations under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 2 supplement, ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1981-06-01

    This supplement replaces the list of Publications and Presentations in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1980 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, PNL-3700 PT2, Ecological Sciences. The listings in the report as previously distributed were incomplete owing to changeovers in the bibliographic-tracking system.

  13. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1993. V. 2: Certificates of authorisation and environmental monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc's Certificates of Authorisation, under which it operates, are reproduced in the second volume of the 1993 Annual Report on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment. The report also includes environmental monitoring programmes relating to discharge authorisation for each of the Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst sites. (UK)

  14. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) provides a comprehensive range of nuclear fuel cycle services, ie the purification and processing of uranium ore concentrates, the enrichment of uranium, the manufacture of uranium and plutonium based fuels, the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and the conditioning and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive wastes. Some of these activities give rise to discharges of radioactive isotopes to the environment. This annual report follows the pattern established in 1977 in that it gives information on radioactive discharges, through authorised and scheduled outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of the Company's Works and sites, ie Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfield Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the significance of the discharges from the latter. It also includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population (the critical group) for the most important environmental pathways in the vicinity of each site. Information for the period 1971-76 inclusive has also been published by BNFL and prior to 1971, the year in which BNFL was formed, information was published by the UKAEA. An appendix contains certificates of Authorisation granted by the DOE, MAFF and Scottish Office imposing limits and conditions relating to methods of disposal and quantities to be discharged. (author)

  15. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This annual report, the seventh, aims to provide full information on our discharges and environmental monitoring. The report is mainly graphical, comparing past and current levels with authorised limits, derived limits or the recommended limits of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Discharges from Winfrith are subject to Authorisations issued jointly by the Department of the Environment (DOE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). These Authorisations, one for discharges to the sea and one for discharges to the atmosphere, require that Winfrith establish a need to discharge; that we apply Best Practicable Means (BPM) to reduce our discharges; that our discharges are below set Authorised Limits; and that schedules of effluent and environmental monitoring are established. As a 'back stop', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population - the critical group -exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. In September 1990 Winfrith's Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) was shut down therefore the pattern of discharges for 1991 differs from previous years. Discharges are generally reduced resulting in an even lower dose to the critical group, well below 1% of the ICRP limit and much less than 1% of the UK average natural background dose. (author)

  16. Conceptualising the interactive effects of climate change and biological invasions on subarctic freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J; Hayden, Brian; Kahilainen, Kimmo K

    2017-06-01

    Climate change and species invasions represent key threats to global biodiversity. Subarctic freshwaters are sentinels for understanding both stressors because the effects of climate change are disproportionately strong at high latitudes and invasion of temperate species is prevalent. Here, we summarize the environmental effects of climate change and illustrate the ecological responses of freshwater fishes to these effects, spanning individual, population, community and ecosystem levels. Climate change is modifying hydrological cycles across atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic components of subarctic ecosystems, causing increases in ambient water temperature and nutrient availability. These changes affect the individual behavior, habitat use, growth and metabolism, alter population spawning and recruitment dynamics, leading to changes in species abundance and distribution, modify food web structure, trophic interactions and energy flow within communities and change the sources, quantity and quality of energy and nutrients in ecosystems. Increases in temperature and its variability in aquatic environments underpin many ecological responses; however, altered hydrological regimes, increasing nutrient inputs and shortened ice cover are also important drivers of climate change effects and likely contribute to context-dependent responses. Species invasions are a complex aspect of the ecology of climate change because the phenomena of invasion are both an effect and a driver of the ecological consequences of climate change. Using subarctic freshwaters as an example, we illustrate how climate change can alter three distinct aspects of species invasions: (1) the vulnerability of ecosystems to be invaded, (2) the potential for species to spread and invade new habitats, and (3) the subsequent ecological effects of invaders. We identify three fundamental knowledge gaps focused on the need to determine (1) how environmental and landscape characteristics influence the

  17. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J Lembrechts

    Full Text Available Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  18. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrechts, Jonas J; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  19. Analysis of anaerobic BTX biodegradation in a subarctic aquifer using isotopes and benzylsuccinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R; Lindstrom, Jon E; Beller, Harry R; Richmond, Sharon A; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-12-01

    In situ biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer near Fairbanks, Alaska was assessed using carbon and hydrogen compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of benzene and toluene and analysis of signature metabolites for toluene (benzylsuccinate) and xylenes (methylbenzylsuccinates). Carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of benzene were between -25.9 per thousand and -26.8 per thousand for delta13C and -119 per thousand and -136 per thousand for delta2H, suggesting that biodegradation of benzene is unlikely at this site. However, biodegradation of both xylenes and toluene were documented in this subarctic aquifer. Biodegradation of xylenes was indicated by the presence of methylbenzylsuccinates with concentrations of 17-50 microg/L in three wells. Anaerobic toluene biodegradation was also indicated by benzylsuccinate concentrations of 10-49 microg/L in the three wells with the highest toluene concentrations (1500-5000 microg/L toluene). Since benzylsuccinate typically accounts for a very small fraction of the toluene present in groundwater (generally data is particularly valuable given the challenge of verifying biodegradation in subarctic environments where degradation rates are typically much slower than in temperate environments.

  20. Annual Financial Statements as Way of Communicate the Accounting Information in the Economic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidia DOINEA

    2008-01-01

    The accounting synthesis documents represents an informing social system created for the satisfaction of the informing user’s needs, needs determined by political and social purposes. The financial informing policies described by the annual synthesis accounting documents architecture are different in accordance with their needs. The official documents for presenting the financial – economical situation are the annual financial statements.

  1. Nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem nitrogen pools in relation to vegetation development in the Subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Jonasson, Sven Evert; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem pools of nitrogen were measured in three subarctic ecosystem types differing in soil frost-heaving activity and vegetation cover. N2-fixation was measured by the acetylene reduction assay and converted to absolute N ecosystem input by estimates...... of conversion factors between acetylene reduction and 15N incorporation. One aim was to relate nitrogen fluxes and nitrogen pools to the mosaic of ecosystem types of different stability common in areas of soil frost movements. A second aim was to identify abiotic controls on N2-fixation by simultaneous...... measurements of temperature, light, and soil moisture. Nitrogen fixation rate was high with seasonal input estimated at 1.1 g N m2 on frostheaved sorted circles, which was higher than the total plant N content and exceeded estimated annual plant N uptake several-fold but was lower than the microbial N content...

  2. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This annual report, the sixth of its type, aims to provide full information on discharges and environmental monitoring. The report is mainly graphical, comparing past and current levels with authorised limits, derived limits or the recommended limits of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). All the data are presented at the end of the report in tabular form. Discharges from Winfrith are subject to Authorisations issued jointly by the Department of the Environment (DOE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). The numerical values of the Authorised Limits are based on past performance, future requirements and the application of Best Practicable Means (BPM). As a ''back stop'', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population - the critical group - exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. In September 1990 Winfrith's Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) was shut down and a decision taken, later, that reactor operation would cease. The pattern of discharges thus changed in the last quarter of the year and discharges in future will be lower, and of a different pattern, than those of the past twenty years. The dose to the critical group, which is already less than 2% of the ICRP limit and less than 1% of the UK average natural background dose will drop further in future years. (Author)

  3. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  4. Selected References on Arctic and Subarctic Prehistory and Ethnology. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William, Comp.; Loring, Stephen, Comp.

    This bibliography provides an introduction to the current literature, in English, on arctic and subarctic prehistory and ethnology. Leads for further research will be found in section 1. Publications listed are not available from the Smithsonian Institution but copies may be found in larger libraries or obtained through inter-library loan.…

  5. Life-Histories of Sub-Arctic Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Jürgen

    1993-01-01

    Ant species belonging to seven genera occur in habitats near the tree line in the Northern Hemisphere. An analysis of colony founding strategies suggests that in addition to physiological cold resistance, behavioral and sociometric adaptations might be important for survival and propagation of ants in subarctic biomes.

  6. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report supplements BNFL's Health and Safety Annual Report and lists 1988 discharges and environmental monitoring for the following sites: Sellafield, Chapelcross, Drigg Storage and Disposal Site, Springfields Works, Capenhurst Works. (UK)

  7. Contrasting distributions of dissolved gaseous mercury concentration and evasion in the North Pacific Subarctic Gyre and the Subarctic Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Rhee, Tae Siek; Hahm, Doshik; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Yang, Jisook; Han, Seunghee

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and the oxidation-reduction processes of mercury (Hg) in the surface and subsurface ocean are currently understudied despite their importance in ocean-atmosphere interactions. We investigated the Hg(0) evasion and the DGM distribution at water depths of 2-500 m in the Subarctic Front, Western Subarctic Gyre, and Bering Sea of the Northwestern Pacific. The mean DGM concentration in the surface mixed water (evasion flux were significantly higher in the Subarctic Front (125±5.0 fM and 15 pmol m-2 h-1, respectively), which typically has lower nutrient levels and higher primary production, than in the Western Subarctic Gyre and the Bering Sea (74±18 fM and 3.2±1.2 pmol m-2 h-1, respectively). The variation in the chlorophyll-a concentration and extracellular protease activity predicted 54% and 48% of the DGM variation, respectively, in the euphotic zone (2-50 m). The DGM concentration in aphotic intermediate water (415±286 fM) was positively correlated to the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU; r2=0.94 and pevasion is closely linked to primary production in euphotic water and organic remineralization in aphotic intermediate water. The oceanic alterations in these factors may induce significant modification in Hg redox speciation in the Northwestern Pacific.

  8. Aufeis accumulations in stream bottoms in arctic and subarctic environments as a possible indicator of geologic structure: Chapter F in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Day, Warren C.; Gough, Larry P.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    Thick accumulations of ice, called “aufeis,” form during winter along stream and river valleys in arctic and subarctic regions. In high-gradient alpine streams, aufeis forms mostly as a result of ground-water discharge into the stream channel. The ice occludes this discharge, perturbing the steady-state condition, and causing an incremental rise in the local water table until discharge occurs higher on the stream bank above the previously formed ice. Successive freezing of onlapping ice layers can lead to aufeis accumulations several meters thick.

  9. GSF Research Center for Environment and Health, Hydrological Institute. 1994 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The 1994 annual report of the Institute of Hyrdology presents the findings of 12 current research projects on different subjects in hyrdology. It is supplemented by information on cooperation with other scientific institutions in the form of lists of publications and reports, lectures and posters, university teaching projects, and finished and current dissertations. (VHE) [de

  10. Annual energy and environment analysis of solarized steam injection gas turbine (STIG) cycle for Indian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwynraj, A. Immanuel; Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Livshits, Maya; Polonsky, Guy; Kribus, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study on the influence of local climatic conditions on solar STIG cycle is presented. • The annual solar to electricity efficiency ranges between 11.2 and 17.1% and the solar fraction ranges 9.3–41.7%. • The range of annual specific CO_2 emission is 312–408 kg/MWh and incremental CO_2 avoidance is 4.2–104 kg/MWh. • The levelized tariff (LT) is 0.2–0.23 $/kWh, and the solar levelized tariff (SLT) ranges from 0.11 to 0.27 $/kWh. - Abstract: The solarized steam injection gas turbine (STIG) cycle uses both the fuel and solar heat simultaneously for power generation. The annual thermodynamic performances of the cycle for sites in India with local climatic conditions such as ambient temperature, relative humidity and availability of direct normal irradiance (DNI) to the solar concentrators under two modes of constant and variable power are presented in this paper. The results reveal that the solar to electricity efficiency of solar hybrid STIG plant with a simple parabolic trough collector (PTC) is similar to existing solar thermal technologies, and also higher solar share is obtained. The study also reveals that the annual CO_2 emission is similar to combined cycle plants and lower than gas turbine technologies. The incremental CO_2 avoidance is also computed due to solar participation. The annual values of exergetic solar fraction and exergetic efficiency at Indore are higher than Jaipur. Results of an improved economic assessment show that the levelized tariff (LT) of solar hybrid STIG plant is 0.2–0.23 $/kWh and the levelized tariff (solar only) or solar levelized tariff (SLT) of solar STIG plant ranges from 0.11 to 0.27 $/kWh for both constant and variable power scenarios.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  12. Biodiversity Monitoring Using NGS Approaches on Unusual Substrates (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Tom Gilbert of the Natural History Museum of Denmark on "Biodiversity monitoring using NGS approaches on unusual substrates" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  13. New Approaches and Technologies to Sequence de novo Plant reference Genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Jeremy Schmutz of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology on New approaches and technologies to sequence de novo plant reference genomes at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, CA.

  14. Environmental programs of the Department of Energy and Environment annual highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manowitz, B.

    1978-12-01

    Environmental Sciences is one of the four areas comprising the Department of Energy and Environment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It carries out a wide range of activities in atmospheric sciences, environmental chemistry, oceanographic sciences, and land and freshwater environmental sciences. In general, these programs are concerned with identification and measurement of pollutants introduced into the environment by energy-related activities and the evaluation and prediction of the effects or potential effects of these pollutants on the environment. This highlights report for Environmental Programs covers the year 1978 and describes the objectives and funding levels of each of the programs, major accomplishments during the year, planned future activities, and current publications

  15. Environmental programs of the Department of Energy and Environment annual highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B

    1978-12-01

    Environmental Sciences is one of the four areas comprising the Department of Energy and Environment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It carries out a wide range of activities in atmospheric sciences, environmental chemistry, oceanographic sciences, and land and freshwater environmental sciences. In general, these programs are concerned with identification and measurement of pollutants introduced into the environment by energy-related activities and the evaluation and prediction of the effects or potential effects of these pollutants on the environment. This highlights report for Environmental Programs covers the year 1978 and describes the objectives and funding levels of each of the programs, major accomplishments during the year, planned future activities, and current publications.

  16. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report - Environment; Charbonnages de France. Rapport annuel 1998 - Environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This 1998 annual report of the Charbonnages de France group presents the environmental actions carried out by the group after the Kyoto summit for the reduction of greenhouse gases and the preservation of fossil resources: the goals of the group and its environmental strategy; the use of waste products (bagasse-coal-fueled power plants, recovery of methane from coal mines, valorization of coal washing wastes, valorization of fly-ashes in cement industry); the reduction of pollutant emissions (development of supercritical, combined and hybrid cycles, fluidized bed boilers, reduction of pollutants during the dismantling of shutdown installations); water preservation (processing of acid mine waters, purification of waters from coke factories, cleansing of abandoned sites); sites rehabilitation (backfilling of abandoned mines, soil cleansing of dismantled coal processing facilities, reinforcing of abandoned cavities, prevention of erosion of spoil heaps etc..); improvement of landscapes (rehabilitation, revegetation); research and innovation (hydrological and geological impact studies, soil cleansing processes, phyto-remediation..). (J.S.)

  17. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  18. The World Bank and the environment, fiscal 1992, exercise 92. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment

  19. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in aquatic environments. Annual progress report, 1975--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The present work is a combination of studies on natural radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in aquatic environments and on the biogeochemistry of the transuranium elements 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am, in the Bikini Lagoon. The objectives of the biogeochemical studies are to evaluate the cycling of the radionuclides in the aquatic environment from their sources, their distribution within ecosystems, their uptake by biota, and their sinks. Detailed studies of the conditions which now exist some 17 years since the last nuclear detonations at Bikini should give a basis for predicting the effects of large-scale or low-level continuous releases of nuclear waste products in the marine environment

  20. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Report of the Executive Director, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This report to the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was prepared to provide the governments of member nations with information on what UNEP had done during 1985, and to serve as a communications mechanism to replace the usual meeting of the Governing Council in 1986. It contains chapters on: (1) the year in…

  1. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Report of the Executive Director, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the major activities, programs, events, and developments within the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1983. Its purpose is to provide a broad understanding of what UNEP is, how it functions, and what it does with the money it has at its disposal. Chapter I summarizes 1983 in terms of…

  2. Development of wind turbines for safe operation in alpine environments - Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, S.; Abhari, R.

    2009-08-15

    Many favourable sites for wind farms, particularly in the Swiss Alps, are located in cold, wet regions where the build-up of ice is a risk and therefore limits the installation of wind turbines. The aim of this work is to quantify and understand in detail the effects of blade icing on wind turbine performance and to propose mitigation strategies. The project is unique in that it is carried out using a multi-disciplinary approach that combines (1) analysis of field data, (2) controlled experiments on a sub-scale wind turbine model and (3) 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics. In part (1) the wind data and full-scale wind turbine power and icing measurements from the Alpine Test Site Guetsch over one year are analysed. Icing on the blades is estimated to cause approximately a 2% loss in Annual Energy Production (AEP). Other losses due to the particular location of the turbine in complex terrain are found to reduce the expected AEP by up to 23%. These major losses must be further investigated in controlled experiments. The analysis of photographs of ice on the blades, alongside numerical simulations, enables five ice geometries to be defined for Guetsch atmospheric conditions (altitude: 2331 m above sea level). One further 'extreme' ice shape is also defined, which is representative of ice formed on wind turbines installed at lower altitude sites such as the Berne Jura (altitude: 800 to 1500 m). In part (2), experiments are undertaken in the new sub-scale wind turbine test facility at ETH Zuerich using a novel method to quantify performance. The defined ice shapes are attached to the blades and the performance compared. The five shapes representative of the ice formed at Guetsch are found to reduce the Annual Energy Production by up to 2%. However, the 'extreme' ice shape could result in a loss in Annual Energy Production of up to 17%. Furthermore, the presence of ice on the most outboard 5% of the blade is found to be key to performance. Ice removal or

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health - Part 5: Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  4. World in transition: basic structure of global people-environment interactions. 1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In spring 1992, increasingly concerned about the preservation of the natural basis for the life and development of humanity, the Federal Government of Germany established the German Advisory Council on Global Change. In its 1993 Annual Report, the Council endeavours to provide a holistic analysis of the Earth System, whereby the central focus is directed at the principal interactions between nature and society. The aim here is to demonstrate the complexity of environmental problems, on the one hand, and to create, on the other, the analytical basis for assessing the impact of current trends (increased greenhouse effect, declining biodiversity, loss of fertile soils, population growth, etc.) on the system as a whole. In-depth treatment of core topics will be related back continually to this global perspective, and vice versa, in order to contribute towards continuous improvement of our understanding of the system. The Report begins with a circumscription of its subject, i.e. a definition of what is meant by ''global environmental change''. This leads inevitably to the issue of ''sustainable development'', which will be dealt with in one of the Reports to follow. The highly condensed description of the ecosphere and the anthroposphere, and an analysis of the linkages between the two spheres in the Earth System, is followed by the examination of the main components and the relevant trends of global environmental change. (orig./UA)

  5. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The numerical values of the authorised limits are based on past performance, future requirements and the application of BPM. As a 'back-stop', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population -the critical group - exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. During 1989 some small changes took place in our discharge patterns, our environmental monitoring and in the assessment of critical group doses. These changes are discussed in the introductions to the two parts of this report where the relevant Authorisations are also discussed. This report, the fifth of our annual series, has as its aim the provision, to the general public, of full information on discharges from the SGHWR reactor and other smaller sources at Winfrith and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Some improvements in presentation have been made. The data, mainly provided graphically in the main text, are still compared with authorised limits or derived levels, but numerical values are now given. The graphs refer to specifically authorised radio-nuclides e.g. tritium, rather than to gross activity. Previous reports were restricted to monitoring at the site boundary and to off-site monitoring. Some data are now given in the report for on-site monitoring. (author)

  6. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    A report is given on radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of British Nuclear Fuels Limited Works and Sites, i.e. the Windscale and Calder Works and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. The report includes information on liquid and airborne radioactive effluents and solid radioactive waste at each of the Company's Works and Sites. Assessments are made of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public expressed in terms of limits based on ICRP recommendations and in accordance with advice given by the NRPB. The report showed that at no time during 1980 did discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets at any of the Works exceed those laid down in any of the Authorisations. Environmental monitoring studies also showed that the radiation exposure in 1980 of the most highly exposed groups of the general population was significantly lower than the Annual Limit recommended by the ICRP. (U.K.)

  7. Annual Site Environment Report Summary Pamphlet, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Sandia collects environmental data to determine and report the impact of existing SNL/NM operations on the environment. Sandia’s environmental programs include air and water quality, environmental monitoring and surveillance, and activities associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Sandia’s objective is to maintain compliance with federal, state, and local requirements, and to affect the corporate culture so that environmental compliance practices continue to be an integral part of operations.

  8. Final annual report of the Partial monitoring system 'Radioactivity of the environment' 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.; Cabanekova, H.; Bodorova, J.

    2016-05-01

    The present report evaluates activities of radiation monitoring of Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMI) in 2015. Analytical part focuses on detailed statistical analysis of monitored data. Detailed knowledge of the course of time series during uneventful period enables early detect and analyze potential increase of radioactivity levels in the environment originating from domestic or foreign sources. SHMI is responsible for international data exchange with the European Commission and with partners in Austria and Hungary.

  9. Final annual report of the Partial monitoring system 'Radioactivity of the environment' 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.; Cabanekova, H.; Bodorova, J.

    2017-05-01

    The present report evaluates activities of radiation monitoring of Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMI) in 2016. Analytical part focuses on detailed statistical analysis of monitored data. Detailed knowledge of the course of time series during uneventful period enables early detect and analyze potential increase of radioactivity levels in the environment originating from domestic or foreign sources. SHMI is responsible for international data exchange with the European Commission and with partners in Austria and Hungary.

  10. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment, 1996. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL)'s 1996 report on radioactive discharges from its various sites and monitoring of the surrounding environments are described. For each of the Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst sites, details are given on normal operations, radioactive discharges in gaseous, liquid or solid forms, environmental monitoring routines and collective dose and critical group estimates. The second, linked, volume of this report covers certificates of authorisation issued to the company. (UK)

  11. Trophic strategy of Atlantirivulus riograndensis (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae, a non-annual rivulid threatened by extinction, in a perennial environment, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laísa Wociechoski Cavalheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rivulidae includes non-annual fish of perennial habitats and annual fish of temporary wetlands. The objective of this research was to investigate the trophic strategy of Atlantirivulus riograndensis in a perennial environment. Sampling occurred in an environmental conservation unit in the Pampa biome, Brazil. Quantification of the diet followed the volumetric method. Consumption of autochthonous material as the main food source of the species followed the pattern of Rivulidae. Species is zooplanktonic when young. Food spectrum is broadened and insectivorousness increases with ontogeny, revealing a specialist trend in the feeding strategy of A. riograndensis. The most diverse feeding occurs in the spring and summer seasons in which the presence of larger fish was more frequent than in other seasons. The increased consumption of microcrustaceans in the fall was related to smaller individuals, captured in greater quantities in this post-reproductive period. The lowest diversity of dietary items occurs during the winter and may reflect the lower diversity of food resources available in this season or the transition from juvenile to adult diet, with consumption of autochthonous Diptera by medium sized fish.

  12. Soil Compressibility under Irrigated Perennial and Annual Crops in a Semi-Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Watanabe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In irrigated soils, a continuous state of high moisture reduces resistance of the soil to applied external forces, favouring compaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility to compaction of developed calcareous soils in irrigated annual and perennial cropping systems of the Apodi Plateau, located in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Four areas of irrigated crops were evaluated: banana after two (B2 and 15 (B15 years cultivation, pasture (P, and a corn and beans succession (MB, as well as the reference areas for soil quality and corresponding natural vegetation (NVB2, NVB15, NVP and NVMB. Samples were collected at layers of 0.00-0.10 and 0.20-0.30 m; and for B2 and B15, samples were collected in the row and inter-row spaces. The following properties were determined: degree of compactness (DC, preconsolidation pressure (σp, compression index (Cc, maximum density (ρmax, critical water content (WCcrit, total organic carbon (TOC and carbon of light organic matter (Clom. Mean values were compared by the t-test at 5, 10, 15 and 20 % probability. An increase was seen in DC at a layer of 0.20-0.30 m in MB (p<0.15, showing the deleterious effects of preparing the soil by ploughing and chiselling, together with the cumulative traffic of heavy machinery. The TOC had a greater influence on ρmax than the stocks of Clom. Irrigation caused a reduction in Cc, and there was no effect on σp at field capacity. The planting rows showed different behaviour for Cc, ρmax, and WCcrit,, and in general the physical properties displayed better conditions than the inter-row spaces. Values for σp and Cc showed that agricultural soils display greater load-bearing capacity and are less susceptible to compaction in relation to soils under natural vegetation.

  13. Annual limits on intake for aerosols in the working environment on Magnox power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, F.G.C.; Harte, G.A.

    1983-09-01

    Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) for inhaled radionuclides given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection are derived for single isotopes and for an aerosol size (AMAD) of 1 micron. A recent investigation into aerosols in the pond hall of a Magnox Power Station has demonstrated that the aerosol in the pond hall consists of particles of corroded fuel and that the size distribution has an AMAD nearer 6 microns than 1 micron. Experiments in rodents with a simulated pond hall aerosol indicate that clearance characteristics of these particles in the lung are closer to ICRP's class W classification than to any other. Accordingly ALIs were calculated as a function of particle size and for various cooling times for Magnox-fuel of burnup 3500 MWd/t and 7000 MWd/t. Separate values for alpha and beta activity were derived, based on stochastic and non-stochastic dose limits. For a 6 micron aerosol the ALI (α-activity) based on limiting the committed dose to bone surfaces lies between 120 and 320 Bq, depending on fuel burnup and cooling time. The ALI (β-activity) in the same circumstances lies between 10 4 and 8 x 10 4 Bq. Beta activity in the aerosol is dominated by the fission products but dose is overwhelmingly due to the actinides in the fuel. In addition an attempt was made to construct or to find a lung model which more closely represented the observed clearance to blood in the animal experiments. A recent model for large inhaled particles derived at the NRPB was found to give the best fit to the experimental data. ALIs derived on the basis of this model, for a 6 micron aerosol, are roughly 2 times higher than those based completely on the ICRP recommendations. (author)

  14. Annual Research Review: The role of the environment in the developmental psychopathology of autism spectrum condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Lai, Meng-Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Although autism spectrum condition (ASC) is strongly genetic in origin, accumulating evidence points to the critical roles of various environmental influences on its emergence and subsequent developmental course. A developmental psychopathology framework was used to synthesise literature on environmental factors associated with the onset and course of ASC (based on a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, PsychInfo and Google Scholar databases). Particular emphasis was placed on gene-environment interplay, including gene-environment interaction (G × E) and gene-environment correlation (rGE). Before conception, advanced paternal and maternal ages may independently enhance offspring risk for ASC. Exogenous prenatal risks are evident (e.g. valproate and toxic chemicals) or possible (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), and processes endogenous to the materno-foeto-placental unit (e.g. maternal diabetes, enhanced steroidogenic activities and maternal immune activation) likely heighten offspring vulnerability to ASC. Folate intake is a prenatal protective factor, with a particular window of action around 4 weeks preconception and during the first trimester. These prenatal risks and protective mechanisms appear to involve G × E and potentially rGE. A variety of perinatal risks are related to offspring ASC risk, possibly reflecting rGE. Postnatal social factors (e.g. caregiver-infant interaction, severe early deprivation) during the first years of life may operate through rGE to influence the likelihood of manifesting a full ASC phenotype from a 'prodromal' phase (a proposal distinct to the discredited and harmful 'refrigerator mother hypothesis'); and later postnatal risks, after the full manifestation of ASC, shape life span development through transactions mediated by rGE. There is no evidence that vaccination is a postnatal risk for ASC. Future investigations should consider the specificity of risks for ASC versus other atypical

  15. The James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment annual report, 1990-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment (JBACE) was established under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement as the preferred, official form for the Quebec and Canadian governments as well as for aboriginal groups and territorial municipalities when they wish to formulate laws and regulations relating to the environment and social milieu of the territory falling under the Agreement. JBACE activities for 1990-91 included action regarding an environmental impact study of the Great Whale hydroelectric development project, a response to provincial hearings on electricity in Quebec, and a study of forest management plans for the James Bay region. In response to a Quebec environmental ministry notice that planned roads and airports for the Great Whale project should have a separate environmental assessment, the JBACE recommended that there should be only one assessment for all aspects of the Great Whale project. The committee also presented a brief regarding its views on hydroelectric megaprojects in Quebec, the need to examine their environmental impacts as a whole, and the need to standardize environmental assessment procedures. 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. The James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment annual report, 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment (JBACE) was established under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement as the preferred, official form for the Quebec and Canadian governments as well as for aboriginal groups and territorial municipalities when they wish to formulate laws and regulations relating to the environment and social milieu of the territory falling under the Agreement. JBACE activities for 1991-92 included action regarding an environmental impact study of the Great Whale hydroelectric development project, an environmental assessment of a proposed 735-kV transmission line, language policies under the Agreement, and a study of forest management plans for the James Bay region. In response to a Quebec environmental ministry notice that planned access and accomodation infrastructures for the Great Whale project should have a separate environmental assessment, the JBACE had recommended that there should be only one assessment for all aspects of the Great Whale project. In January 1992, a memorandum of agreement was signed satisfying JBACE's requests on the environmental assessment. 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Biocide by-products in aquatic environments. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments Program is composed of analytical chemistry and biological phases with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objectives of the analytical studies are: to identify those chloroorganic chemical compounds that result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater; to develop methods for detecting chlorinated organics in the effluents discharged to receiving water bodies from nuclear stations; and to verify laboratory findings through analysis for chlorination by-products in water and biota samples from cooling water bodies of nuclear power stations. The objectives of the biological studies are: to investigate the immediate toxicity of specific chlorination by-products (chloroform in freshwater and bromoform in marine waters); to evaluate the chronic toxicity of chlorination by-products; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification of halogenated hydrocarbons on selected aquatic or marine biota

  18. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: satu.huttunen@oulu.fi; Lappalainen, N.M. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland); Turunen, J. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A{sub 280-320nm}) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time.

  19. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.; Lappalainen, N.M.; Turunen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A 280-320nm ) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time

  20. Annual cycle of size-resolved organic aerosol characterization in an urbanized desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas M.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of size-resolved organic speciation of aerosols are still relatively rare and are generally only conducted over short durations. However, size-resolved organic data can both suggest possible sources of the aerosols and identify the human exposure to the chemicals since different aerosol sizes have different lung capture efficiencies. The objective of this study was to conduct size-resolved organic aerosol speciation for a calendar year in Phoenix, Arizona to determine the seasonal variations in both chemical concentrations and size profiles. The results showed large seasonal differences in combustion pollutants where the highest concentrations were observed in winter. Summertime aerosols have a greater proportion of biological compounds (e.g. sugars and fatty acids) and the biological compounds represent the largest fraction of the organic compounds detected. These results suggest that standard organic carbon (OC) measurements might be heavily influenced by primary biological compounds particularly if the samples are PM10 and TSP samples. Several large dust storms did not significantly alter the organic aerosol profile since Phoenix resides in a dusty desert environment, so the soil and plant tracer of trehalose was almost always present. The aerosol size profiles showed that PAHs were generally most abundant in the smallest aerosol size fractions, which are most likely to be captured by the lung, while the biological compounds were almost exclusively found in the coarse size fraction.

  1. Areva - 2013 annual results: breakeven free operating cash flow objective reached despite a difficult environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperray, Julien; Grange, Aurelie; Rosso, Jerome; Thebault, Alexandre; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2014-01-01

    The Areva group reached a major milestone in 2013 in turning performance around by meeting a key objective of its Action 2016 plan: the return to breakeven of free operating cash flow. For the first time since 2005, cash generated by the Group's operations allowed it to fully fund strategic capital expenditures essential to the group's profitable growth. To achieve this result, Areva built on robust growth in nuclear operations, on contributions from its cost reduction plan and on strict management of capital spending. However, two projects launched in the previous decade (OL3 and a power plant modernization) and the Renewable Energies business impacted negatively the group's 2013 net income. On the Renewable Energies market, in a situation marked by a reduction of capital spending by customers, AREVA anticipated the consolidation required in the sector by implementing industrial partnerships such as the joint venture project with Gamesa, which aims to create a European champion in offshore wind. Similar initiatives were undertaken in solar energy and energy storage. The Group continues to implement the Action 2016 plan to pursue its recovery. While the economic environment remains uncertain and projects launched in the previous decade remain a burden, the Group forecasts further performance improvement and significant growth in cash flow generation by the end of the plan

  2. Annual highlights, Environmental Programs of the Department of Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Brief summaries are presented of some 35 individual programs covering a wide range of activities in the atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial ecology areas. In general, these programs are involved with the study of pollutants resulting from the production of energy and their effects or potential effects on the environment. Programs include meteorology and plume dispersion, with emphasis on tracing plumes from the tall stacks of fossil-fuel burning power plants, and implementation of MAP3S (the Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study), including both field and modeling studies related to atmospheric pollutants in the Northeastern United States, the meteorology of the coastal land-sea interface, the development of long-distance tracer systems for following movements of air masses, the measurement of a series of pollutants at ambient levels in real time, and laboratory and field studies on the collection and behavior of aerosol particulates, including work on the speciation and quantification of sulfate particulates. The objective of programs in oceanographic sciences is to assess the potential impact of energy-related activities (reactor releases, oil spills, etc.) on the Northeast coastal zone and its biota. A capability for the study of environmental virology has been established. Another major program is the study of the effects of acid rain on forest ecosystems and on selected crops.

  3. Annual highlights, Environmental Programs of the Department of Energy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Brief summaries are presented of some 35 individual programs covering a wide range of activities in the atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial ecology areas. In general, these programs are involved with the study of pollutants resulting from the production of energy and their effects or potential effects on the environment. Programs include meteorology and plume dispersion, with emphasis on tracing plumes from the tall stacks of fossil-fuel burning power plants, and implementation of MAP3S (the Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study), including both field and modeling studies related to atmospheric pollutants in the Northeastern United States, the meteorology of the coastal land-sea interface, the development of long-distance tracer systems for following movements of air masses, the measurement of a series of pollutants at ambient levels in real time, and laboratory and field studies on the collection and behavior of aerosol particulates, including work on the speciation and quantification of sulfate particulates. The objective of programs in oceanographic sciences is to assess the potential impact of energy-related activities (reactor releases, oil spills, etc.) on the Northeast coastal zone and its biota. A capability for the study of environmental virology has been established. Another major program is the study of the effects of acid rain on forest ecosystems and on selected crops

  4. Long-term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.; Hakonson, T.E.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Whicker, F.W.; Whicker, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    'The mobility of actinides in surface soils is a key issue of concern at several DOE facilities in arid and semiarid environments, including Rocky Flats, Hanford, Nevada Test Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Key sources of uncertainty in assessing Pu mobility are the magnitudes of mobility resulting from three modes of transport: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depend on numerous environmental factors and they compete with one another, particularly for actinides in very shallow soils (∼ 1 mm). The overall goal of the study is to quantify the mobility of soil actinides from all three modes. The authors study is using field measurements, laboratory experiments, and ecological modeling to address these three processes at three DOE facilities where actinide kinetics are of concern: WIPP, Rocky Flats, and Hanford. Wind erosion is being measured with suite of monitoring equipment, water erosion is being studied with rainfall simulation experiments, vertical migration is being studied in controlled laboratory experiments, and the three processes are being integrated using ecological modeling. Estimates for clean up of soil actinides for the extensive tracts of DOE land range to hundreds of billion $ in the US. Without studies of these processes, unnecessary clean-up of these areas may waste billions of dollars and cause irreparable ecological damage through the soil removal. Further, the outcomes of litigation against DOE are dependent on quantifying the mobility of actinides in surface soils.'

  5. LASER SPECTROSCOPY AND TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various, Authors

    1981-05-01

    In order to control pollutants resulting from energy production and utilization, adequate methods are required for monitoring the level of various substances often present at low concentrations. The Energy and Environment Division Applied Research in Laser Spectroscopy & Analytical Techniques Program is directed toward meeting these needs, Emphasis is on the development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques. The advantages, now widely recognized, include ultra-high sensitivity coupled with minimal sample preparation. In some instances physical methods provide multi-parameter measurements which often provide the only means of achiev·ing the sensitivity necessary for the detection of trace contaminants. Work is reported in these areas: APPLIED PHYSICS AND LASER SPECTROSCOPY RESEARCH; MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETER FOR TRACE METALS ANALYSIS IN WATER; THE SURVEY OF INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING; THE POSSIBLE CHRONDRITIC NATURE OF THE DANISH CRETACEOUS~TERTIARY BOUNDARY; IMPROVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVITY AND PRECISION OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF SOME ELEMENTS IN PLANKTON AND PLANKTONIC FISH; and SOURCES OF SOME SECONDARILY WORKED OBSIDIAN ARTIFACTS FROM TIKAL, GUATEMALA.

  6. Fourth annual workshop on management in basic and applied research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.W. [ed.

    1993-11-01

    The struggle to develop quality management concepts that ``map`` onto the cultural and work practices found in basic and applied research environments has been (for better or for worse) an attempt to differentiate basic and applied research from the nuclear industry. In the first (1990) edition of this ``Music Book`` proceedings, almost every laboratory that participated had a quality program that was traceable to, based on, influenced by, or in reaction to the nuclear quality standard ASME-NQA-1. This 1993 edition of the ``Music Book`` is very different in that almost every laboratory has developed a quality program that is based on, traceable to, or heavily influenced by DOE 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) and the DOE Standard; Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92). In order to construct a context for what follows and properly introduce the contents of this book, we want to briefly recount some of the highlights of the events that brought about this change, from the perspective of one who participated in the process.

  7. Examining the relationship between mercury and organic matter in lake sediments along a latitudinal transect in subarctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Sanei, Hamed; Parsons, Michael; Swindles, Graeme T.; Macumber, Andrew L.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Palmer, Michael; Falck, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of Hg in aquatic environments at both high and low latitudes can be controlled by organic matter through algal scavenging, thus complicating the interpretation of historical Hg profiles in lake sediments1,2,3. However, other recent studies suggest that algal scavenging is not important in governing Hg flux to sediments4, in some cases because of dilution by inorganic materials5. This study examines relationships between Hg and organic matter (OM) in over 100 lakes located between 60.5 and 65.4 °N and crossing the latitudinal tree-line in subarctic Canada. The latitudinal gradient approach in our study offers an opportunity to better understand climate and environmental controls on OM accumulation and its role in influencing Hg deposition in subarctic lacustrine environments. We used Rock Eval 6 pyrolysis to determine total organic carbon (TOC%), S1 (soluble OM consisting of degradable lipids and algal pigments), S2 (OM derived from highly aliphatic biomacromolecule structure of algal cell walls), and S3 (OM dominated by carbohydrates, lignins, and plant materials). Total Hg in sediments was measured using thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In these lake sediments, S2 composes the majority of TOC (Pearson's r = 0.978, porganic matter and mercury in recent lake sediment: the physical-geochemical aspects. Appl Geochem 21: 1900-12. 2Outridge, P.M., Sanei, H., Stern, G.A., Hamilton, P.B., Goodarzi, F. 2007. Evidence for control of mercury accumulation rates in Canadian high Arctic lake sediments by variations of aquatic primary productivity. Environ Sci Technol 41: 5259-65. 3Wu, F., Zu, L., Liao, H., Guo, F., Zhao, X., Giesy, J. 2013. Relationship between mercury and organic carbon in sediment cores from Lakes Qinghai and Chenghai, China. J Soils Sediments 13: 1084-1092.4Kirk, J.L., Muir, D.C.G., Antoniades, D., Douglas, M.S.V., Evans, M.S., Jackson, T.A., Kling, H., Lamoureux, S., Lim, D.S.S., Pienitz, R

  8. Seasonal and spatial patterns of heterotrophic bacterial production, respiration, and biomass in the subarctic NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Nelson D.; Boyd, Philip W.; Sugimoto, Kugako; Harrison, Paul J.

    1999-11-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial biomass, production, and respiration rates were measured during winter, spring, and summer in the subarctic NE Pacific from September 1995 to June 1997. Sampling took place on six cruises at five hydrographic stations along the east/west line-P transect from slope waters at P4 (1200 m depth) to the open-ocean waters at Ocean Station Papa (OSP) (4250 m depth). Interannual variability was small relative to seasonal and spatial variability. Biomass, derived from cell counts (assuming 20 fg C cell -1), was ca. 12 μg C l -1 in the winter and increased to 20-35 μg C l -1 in the spring and summer all along line-P. Bacterial production from [ 3H]-thymidine and [ 14C]-leucine incorporation rates was lowest in the winter (ca. 0.5 μg C l -1 d -1) with little spatial variability. Production increased 10-fold in spring at P4 (to ca. 4.5 μg C l -1 d -1). In contrast, only a 2-fold increase in bacterial production was observed over this period at the more oceanic stations. Rates of production in late summer were highest over the annual cycle at all stations ranging from ca. 6 at P4 to ca. 2 μg C l -1 d -1 at OSP. Bacterial (rates increased >10-fold to ca. 100 μg C l -1 d -1 at P4 in the summer, but, interestingly, did not increase from spring to summer at the more oceanic stations. Thus bacterial growth efficiency, defined as production/(production+respiration), decreased in the spring westwards from the slope waters (P4) to the open-ocean (OSP), but increased westwards in the summer. Bacterial production was highly correlated with temperature at OSP ( r2=0.88) and less so at P4 ( r2=0.50). The observed temporal and spatial trends presented in this study suggest that seasonal changes in bacterial biomass were greatly affected by changes in loss processes, that bacterial biomass is regulated by different processes than bacterial production, and that bacterial production alone, without respiration measurements, is not a robust proxy for bacterial

  9. Deciphering the adjustment between environment and life history in annuals: lessons from a geographically-explicit approach in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Piedras, Esperanza; Marcer, Arnald; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Picó, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The role that different life-history traits may have in the process of adaptation caused by divergent selection can be assessed by using extensive collections of geographically-explicit populations. This is because adaptive phenotypic variation shifts gradually across space as a result of the geographic patterns of variation in environmental selective pressures. Hence, large-scale experiments are needed to identify relevant adaptive life-history traits as well as their relationships with putative selective agents. We conducted a field experiment with 279 geo-referenced accessions of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana collected across a native region of its distribution range, the Iberian Peninsula. We quantified variation in life-history traits throughout the entire life cycle. We built a geographic information system to generate an environmental data set encompassing climate, vegetation and soil data. We analysed the spatial autocorrelation patterns of environmental variables and life-history traits, as well as the relationship between environmental and phenotypic data. Almost all environmental variables were significantly spatially autocorrelated. By contrast, only two life-history traits, seed weight and flowering time, exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation. Flowering time, and to a lower extent seed weight, were the life-history traits with the highest significant correlation coefficients with environmental factors, in particular with annual mean temperature. In general, individual fitness was higher for accessions with more vigorous seed germination, higher recruitment and later flowering times. Variation in flowering time mediated by temperature appears to be the main life-history trait by which A. thaliana adjusts its life history to the varying Iberian environmental conditions. The use of extensive geographically-explicit data sets obtained from field experiments represents a powerful approach to unravel adaptive patterns of variation. In a

  10. Enzymology under global change: organic nitrogen turnover in alpine and sub-Arctic soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weedon, J.T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding global change impacts on the globally important carbon storage in alpine, Arctic and sub-Arctic soils requires knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the balance between plant primary productivity and decomposition. Given that nitrogen availability limits both processes, understanding

  11. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alatalo, J.M.; Jägerbrand, A.K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, December (2015), s. 18161 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Collembola * alpine subarctic sites * experimental warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  12. Enzymology under global change: organic nitrogen turnover in alpine and sub-Arctic soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weedon, J.T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding global change impacts on the globally important carbon storage in alpine, Arctic and sub-Arctic soils requires knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the balance between plant primary productivity and decomposition. Given that nitrogen availability limits both processes, understanding

  13. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Arctic and Subarctic Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Arctic and Subarctic Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in arctic and subarctic climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  14. Application of global datasets for hydrological modelling of a remote, snowmelt driven catchment in the Canadian Sub-Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, David; Werner, Micha; Weerts, Albrecht; Schellekens, Jaap; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2017-04-01

    that validation of actual frozen precipitation and snowpack conditions is very difficult. The distributed hydrological model shows good streamflow simulation performance based on statistical model evaluation techniques. Results are also promising for inter-annual variability, spring snowmelt onset and time to peak flows. It is expected that data assimilation of stream flow using an Ensemble Kalman Filter will further improve model performance. This study shows that global re-analysis datasets hold great potential for understanding the hydrology and snowpack dynamics of the expansive and data sparse sub-Arctic. However, global SWE products will require further validation and algorithm improvements, particularly over boreal forest and lake-rich regions.

  15. Hydrology of two slopes in subarctic Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean K.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    1999-11-01

    Two subarctic forested slopes in central Wolf Creek basin, Yukon, were studied in 1996-1997 to determine the seasonal pattern of the hydrologic processes. A south-facing slope has a dense aspen forest on silty soils with seasonal frost only and a north-facing slope has open stands of black spruce and an organic layer on top of clay sediments with permafrost. Snowmelt is advanced by approximately one month on the south-facing slope due to greater radiation receipt. Meltwater infiltrates its seasonally frozen soil with low ice content, recharging the soil moisture reservoir but yielding no lateral surface or subsurface flow. Summer evaporation depletes this recharged moisture and any additional rainfall input, at the expense of surface or subsurface flow. The north-facing slope with an ice rich substrate hinders deep percolation. Snow meltwater is impounded within the organic layer to produce surface runoff in rills and gullies, and subsurface flow along pipes and within the matrix of the organic soil. During the summer, most subsurface flows are confined to the organic layer which has hydraulic conductivities orders of magnitudes larger than the underlying boulder-clay. Evaporation on the north-facing slope declines as both the frost table and the water table descend in the summer. A water balance of the two slopes demonstrates that vertical processes of infiltration and evaporation dominate moisture exchanges on the south-facing slope, whereas the retardation of deep drainage by frost and by clayey soil on the permafrost slope promotes a strong lateral flow component, principally within the organic layer. These results have the important implication that permafrost slopes and organic horizons are the principal controls on streamflow generation in subarctic catchments.

  16. Comparisons between POC and zooplankton swimmer flux from sediment traps in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Naoya; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Minoru; Honda, Makio C.; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal changes in zooplankton swimmer (ZS) abundance, biomass and community structure were evaluated based on samples collected by moored sediment traps at a depth of 200 m in the subarctic (SA) and subtropical (ST) western North Pacific. Based on these samples, we made comparisons on two topics: 1) latitudinal (subarctic vs. subtropical) changes in ZS abundance, biomass and community and 2) quantitative differences between the ZS and particle organic carbon (POC) fluxes based on data from moored or drifting sediment traps. The results showed that the ZS flux was greater in the SA (annual mean: 311 ind. m-2 day-1 or 258 mg C m-2 day-1) than in the ST (135 ind. m-2 day-1 or 38 mg C m-2 day-1). The peak ZS flux was observed from July-August in the SA and from April-May in the ST. The dominant taxa were Copepoda and Chaetognatha in the SA and Ostracoda and Mollusca in the ST. These latitudinal differences are likely related to the dominance of large-sized Copepoda in the SA, regional differences in the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom, and the magnitude and size structure of primary producers. The percent composition of ZS to the total C flux (= ZS+POC flux) varied by region: 85-95% in the SA and 47-75% in the ST. These differences between the ZS composition and the total C flux are most likely caused by the dominance of large-sized Copepoda (Neocalanus spp. and Eucalanus bungii) in the SA.

  17. Compositional Stability of the Bacterial Community in a Climate-Sensitive Sub-Arctic Peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, James T; Kowalchuk, George A; Aerts, Rien; Freriks, Stef; Röling, Wilfred F M; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    The climate sensitivity of microbe-mediated soil processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling offers an interesting case for evaluating the corresponding sensitivity of microbial community composition to environmental change. Better understanding of the degree of linkage between functional and compositional stability would contribute to ongoing efforts to build mechanistic models aiming at predicting rates of microbe-mediated processes. We used an amplicon sequencing approach to test if previously observed large effects of experimental soil warming on C and N cycle fluxes (50-100% increases) in a sub-arctic Sphagnum peatland were reflected in changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community. We found that treatments that previously induced changes to fluxes did not associate with changes in the phylogenetic composition of the soil bacterial community. For both DNA- and RNA-based analyses, variation in bacterial communities could be explained by the hierarchy: spatial variation (12-15% of variance explained) > temporal variation (7-11%) > climate treatment (4-9%). We conclude that the bacterial community in this environment is stable under changing conditions, despite the previously observed sensitivity of process rates-evidence that microbe-mediated soil processes can alter without concomitant changes in bacterial communities. We propose that progress in linking soil microbial communities to ecosystem processes can be advanced by further investigating the relative importance of community composition effects versus physico-chemical factors in controlling biogeochemical process rates in different contexts.

  18. Activity and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria along a Norwegian sub-Arctic glacier forefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Rivera, Alejandro; Øvreås, Lise; Wilson, Bryan; Yde, Jacob C; Finster, Kai W

    2018-05-01

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and identification of its sources and sinks is crucial for the reliability of climate model outputs. Although CH4 production and consumption rates have been reported from a broad spectrum of environments, data obtained from glacier forefields are restricted to a few locations. We report the activities of methanotrophic communities and their diversity along a chronosequence in front of a sub-Arctic glacier using high-throughput sequencing and gas flux measurements. CH4 oxidation rates were measured in the field throughout the growing season during three sampling times at eight different sampling points in combination with laboratory incubation experiments. The overall results showed that the methanotrophic community had similar trends of increased CH4 consumption and increased abundance as a function of soil development and time of year. Sequencing results revealed that the methanotrophic community was dominated by a few OTUs and that a short-term increase in CH4 concentration, as performed in the field measurements, altered slightly the relative abundance of the OTUs.

  19. pH gradients in the diffusive boundary layer of subarctic macrophytes

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà , Nú ria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Highly productive macrophytes produce diurnal and seasonal cycles in CO concentrations modulated by metabolic activity, which cause discrepancies between pH in the bulk water and near seaweed blades, especially when entering the diffusion boundary layer (DBL). Calcifying epiphytic organisms living in this environment are therefore exposed to a different pH environment than that of the water column. To evaluate the actual pH environment on blade surfaces, we measured the thickness of the DBL and pH gradients within it for six subarctic macrophytes: Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca, Zostera marina, Saccharina longicruris, and Agarum clathratum. We measured pH under laboratory conditions at ambient temperatures (2–3 °C) and slow, stable flow over the blade surface at five light intensities (dark, 30, 50, 100 and 200 µmol photons m s). Boundary layer thickness ranged between 511 and 1632 µm, while the maximum difference in pH (∆pH) between the blade surface and the water column ranged between 0.4 ± 0.14 (average ± SE; Zostera) and 1.2 ± 0.13 (average ± SE; Ulva) pH units. These differences in pH are larger than predictions for pH changes in the bulk water by the end of the century. A simple quadratic model best described the relationship between light intensity and maximum ∆pH, pointing at relatively low optimum PAR of between 28 and 139 µmol photons m s to reach maximum ∆pH. Elevated pH at the blade surface may provide chemical “refugia” for calcifying epiphytic organisms, especially during summer at higher latitudes where photoperiods are long.

  20. pH gradients in the diffusive boundary layer of subarctic macrophytes

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.

    2017-06-20

    Highly productive macrophytes produce diurnal and seasonal cycles in CO concentrations modulated by metabolic activity, which cause discrepancies between pH in the bulk water and near seaweed blades, especially when entering the diffusion boundary layer (DBL). Calcifying epiphytic organisms living in this environment are therefore exposed to a different pH environment than that of the water column. To evaluate the actual pH environment on blade surfaces, we measured the thickness of the DBL and pH gradients within it for six subarctic macrophytes: Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca, Zostera marina, Saccharina longicruris, and Agarum clathratum. We measured pH under laboratory conditions at ambient temperatures (2–3 °C) and slow, stable flow over the blade surface at five light intensities (dark, 30, 50, 100 and 200 µmol photons m s). Boundary layer thickness ranged between 511 and 1632 µm, while the maximum difference in pH (∆pH) between the blade surface and the water column ranged between 0.4 ± 0.14 (average ± SE; Zostera) and 1.2 ± 0.13 (average ± SE; Ulva) pH units. These differences in pH are larger than predictions for pH changes in the bulk water by the end of the century. A simple quadratic model best described the relationship between light intensity and maximum ∆pH, pointing at relatively low optimum PAR of between 28 and 139 µmol photons m s to reach maximum ∆pH. Elevated pH at the blade surface may provide chemical “refugia” for calcifying epiphytic organisms, especially during summer at higher latitudes where photoperiods are long.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D.

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  3. Atoms for Power, Health and the Environment. 31st annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 34th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and Canadian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The 31st Annual Conference of the CNS and 34th Annual Student Conference of the CNS and CNA was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on May 24-27, 2010. The theme of the conference, 'Atoms for Power, Health, and the Environment', brought together scientists, engineers, technologists and students interested in all aspects and applications of energy from the atom. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. There were over 400 attendees and more than 100 technical papers, as well as plenary sessions that addressed broad industrial and commercial developments in the field.

  4. Permafrost Thaw increases Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Subarctic Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, C.; Marushchak, M. E.; Lamprecht, R. E.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Lindgren, A.; Mastepanov, M.; Christensen, T. R.; Granlund, L.; Tahvanainen, T.; Martikainen, P. J.; Biasi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost soils in the Arctic are thawing, exposing not only carbon but also large nitrogen stocks. The decomposition of this vast pool of long-term immobile C and N stocks results in the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Among these, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being studied extensively, and gaseous C release from thawing permafrost is known to be substantial. Most recent studies, however, show that Arctic soils may further be a relevant source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). As N2O is almost 300 times more powerful in warming the climate than CO2 based on a 100-yr time horizon, the release of N2O from thawing permafrost could create a significant non-carbon permafrost-climate feedback. To study the effect of permafrost thaw on N2O fluxes, we collected peat mesocosms from a Subarctic permafrost peatland, and subjected these intact soil-plant systems to sequential thawing from the top of the active layer down to the upper permafrost layer. Measurements of N2O fluxes were coupled with detailed soil analyses and process studies. Since N2O fluxes are highly dependent on moisture conditions and vegetation cover, we applied two distinct moisture treatments (dry vs. wet) and simulated permafrost thaw in vegetated as well as in naturally bare mesocosms. Under dry conditions, permafrost thaw clearly increased N2O emissions. We observed the largest post-thaw emissions from bare peat surfaces, a typical landform in subarctic peatlands previously identified as hot spots for Arctic N2O emissions. There, permafrost thaw caused a five-fold increase in emissions (0.56 vs. 2.81 mg N2O m-2 d-1). While water-logged conditions suppressed N2O emissions, the presence of vegetation lowered, but did not prevent post-thaw N2O release. Based on these findings, we show that one fourth of the Arctic land area could be vulnerable for N2O emissions when permafrost thaws. Our results demonstrate that Arctic N2O emissions may be larger than

  5. Ecohydrological Controls on Intra-Basin Alpine Subarctic Water Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Ziegler, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    In the mountainous Canadian subarctic, elevation gradients control the disposition of vegetation, permafrost, and characteristics of the soil profile. How intra-basin ecosystems combine to control catchment-scale water and biogeochimcal cycling is uncertain. To this end, a multi-year ecohydrological investigation was undertaken in Granger Basin (GB), a 7.6 km2 sub-basin of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. GB was divided into four sub-basins based on the dominant vegetation and permafrost status, and the timing and magnitude of hydrological processes were compared using hydrometric and hydrochemical methods. Vegetation plays an important role in end-of-winter snow accumulation as snow redistribution by wind is controlled by roughness length. In sub-basins of GB with tall shrubs, snow accumulation is enhanced compared with areas of short shrubs and tundra vegetation. The timing of melt was staggered with elevation, although melt-rates were similar among the sub-basins. Runoff was enhanced at the expense of infiltration in tall shrub areas due to high snow water equivalent and antecedent soil moisture. In the high-elevation tundra sub-basin, thin soils with cold ground temperatures resulted in increased surface runoff. For the freshet period, the lower and upper sub-basins accounted for 81 % of runoff while accounting for 58 % of the total basin area. Two-component isotopic hydrograph separation revealed that during melt, pre-event water dominated in all sub-basins, yet those with greater permafrost disposition and taller shrubs had increased event-water. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spiked prior to peak freshet in each sub-basin except for the highest with thin soils, and was associated with flushing of surficial organic soils. For the post-melt period, all sub-basins have similar runoff contributions. Solute and stable isotope data indicate that in sub-basins dominated by permafrost, supra-permafrost runoff pathways predominate as flow

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W.

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects

  7. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-11-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

  8. UDASH – Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behrendt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available UDASH (Unified Database for Arctic and Subarctic Hydrography is a unified and high-quality temperature and salinity data set for the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar seas north of 65° N for the period 1980–2015. The archive aims at including all publicly available data and so far consists of 288 532 oceanographic profiles measured mainly with conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD probes, bottles, mechanical thermographs and expendable thermographs. The data were collected by ships, ice-tethered profilers, profiling floats and other platforms. To achieve a uniform quality level, suitable for a wide range of oceanographic analyses, approximately 74 million single measurements of temperature and salinity were thoroughly quality checked. A large number of duplicate and erroneous profiles were detected and not included in the archive. Data outliers were flagged for quick identification. The final archive provides a unique and simple way of accessing most of the available temperature and salinity data for the Arctic Ocean and can be downloaded from https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.872931.

  9. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  10. Lagrangian study of transport of subarctic water across the Subpolar Front in the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prants, Sergey V.; Uleysky, Michael Yu.; Budyansky, Maxim V.

    2018-05-01

    The southward near-surface transport of transformed subarctic water across the Subpolar Front in the Japan Sea is simulated and analyzed based on altimeter data from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2017. Computing Lagrangian indicators for a large number of synthetic particles, advected by the AVISO velocity field, we find preferred transport pathways across the Subpolar Front. The southward transport occurs mainly in the central part of the frontal zone due to suitable dispositions of mesoscale eddies promoting propagation of subarctic water to the south. It is documented with the help of Lagrangian origin and L-maps and verified by the tracks of available drifters. The transport of transformed subarctic water to the south is compared with the transport of transformed subtropical water to the north simulated by Prants et al. (Nonlinear Process Geophys 24(1):89-99, 2017c).

  11. Parallel structure among environmental gradients and three trophic levels in a subarctic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, Suzann G.; Piatt, John F.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Parrish, Julia K.

    2005-07-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal variability in the physical environment of a subarctic estuary, and examined concurrent patterns of chlorophyll α abundance (fluorescence), and zooplankton and forage fish community structure. Surveys were conducted in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, during late July and early August from 1997 through 1999. Principle components analysis (PCA) revealed that spatial heterogeneity in the physical oceanographic environment of lower Cook Inlet could be modeled as three marine-estuarine gradients characterized by temperature, salinity, bottom depth, and turbidity. The gradients persisted from 1997 through 1999, and PCA explained 68% to 92% of the variance in physical oceanography for each gradient-year combination. Correlations between chlorophyll α abundance and distribution and the PCA axes were weak. Chlorophyll was reduced by turbidity, and low levels occurred in areas with high levels of suspended sediments. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was used to order the sample sites based on species composition and to order the zooplankton and forage fish taxa based on similarities among sample sites for each gradient-year. Correlations between the structure of the physical environment (PCA axis 1) and zooplankton community structure (DCA axis 1) were strong ( r = 0.43-0.86) in all years for the three marine-estuarine gradients, suggesting that zooplankton community composition was structured by the physical environment. The physical environment (PCA) and forage fish community structure (DCA) were weakly correlated in all years along Gradient 2, defined by halocline intensity and surface temperature and salinity, even though these physical variables were more important for defining zooplankton habitats. However, the physical environment (PCA) and forage fish community structure (DCA) were strongly correlated along the primary marine-estuarine gradient (#1) in 1997 ( r = 0.87) and 1998 ( r = 0.82). The correlation was poor ( r = 0.32) in

  12. Active Layer Monitoring, Arctic and Subarctic Canada, Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project involves measuring regional and site variability in maximum annual active layer development and vertical surface movement over permafrost, and...

  13. Metagenomic Insights Into the Microbial Community and Nutrient Cycling in the Western Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingdong Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP, where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales, and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively. In addition, orders affiliated to Spingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were crucial for sulfate reduction and abundant at 3000 m, whereas orders affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, which harbored the most sulfate reduction genes, were abundant at 1000 m. Additionally, when compared with the East Kamchatka Current, the prokaryotes in the Oyashio Current were likely to consume more energy for synthesizing cellular components. Also, genes encoding iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis proteins were in low abundance, indicating that the iron was not a limiting factor in the Oyashio current. In contrast, in the East Kamchatka Current, prokaryotes were more likely to directly utilize the amino acids and absorb iron from the environment. Overall, our data indicated that the transformation from the East Kamchatka Current to the Oyashio Current reshapes not only the composition of microbial community, but also the function of the metabolic processes. These results extended our knowledge of the microbial composition and potential metabolism in the WSP.

  14. Metagenomic Insights Into the Microbial Community and Nutrient Cycling in the Western Subarctic Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingdong; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Cheung, Shunyan; Suzuki, Koji; Liu, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP), where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales , and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively. In addition, orders affiliated to Spingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were crucial for sulfate reduction and abundant at 3000 m, whereas orders affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria , which harbored the most sulfate reduction genes, were abundant at 1000 m. Additionally, when compared with the East Kamchatka Current, the prokaryotes in the Oyashio Current were likely to consume more energy for synthesizing cellular components. Also, genes encoding iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis proteins were in low abundance, indicating that the iron was not a limiting factor in the Oyashio current. In contrast, in the East Kamchatka Current, prokaryotes were more likely to directly utilize the amino acids and absorb iron from the environment. Overall, our data indicated that the transformation from the East Kamchatka Current to the Oyashio Current reshapes not only the composition of microbial community, but also the function of the metabolic processes. These results extended our knowledge of the microbial composition and potential metabolism in the WSP.

  15. Metagenomic Insights Into the Microbial Community and Nutrient Cycling in the Western Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingdong; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Cheung, Shunyan; Suzuki, Koji; Liu, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    The composition and metabolic functions of prokaryotic communities in the western subarctic Pacific (WSP), where strong mixing of waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Kamchatka Current result in transfer to the Oyashio Current, were investigated using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Functional metabolic genes related to nutrient cycling of nitrogen, sulfur, carbohydrates, iron and amino acids were differently distributed between the surface and deep waters of the WSP. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were mainly found in deep waters, where Thaumarchaeaota, Sphingomonadales, and Pseudomonadales were closely associated and performing important roles in ammonia oxidation, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes, respectively. In addition, orders affiliated to Spingobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were crucial for sulfate reduction and abundant at 3000 m, whereas orders affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, which harbored the most sulfate reduction genes, were abundant at 1000 m. Additionally, when compared with the East Kamchatka Current, the prokaryotes in the Oyashio Current were likely to consume more energy for synthesizing cellular components. Also, genes encoding iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis proteins were in low abundance, indicating that the iron was not a limiting factor in the Oyashio current. In contrast, in the East Kamchatka Current, prokaryotes were more likely to directly utilize the amino acids and absorb iron from the environment. Overall, our data indicated that the transformation from the East Kamchatka Current to the Oyashio Current reshapes not only the composition of microbial community, but also the function of the metabolic processes. These results extended our knowledge of the microbial composition and potential metabolism in the WSP. PMID:29670596

  16. Microbial biomass dynamics dominate N cycle responses to warming in a sub-arctic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, J. T.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G. K.; van Bodegom, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    The balance of primary production and decomposition in sub-arctic peatlands may shift with climate change. Nitrogen availability will modulate this shift, but little is known about the drivers of soil nitrogen dynamics in these environments, and how they are influenced by rising soil temperatures. We used a long-term open top chamber warming experiment in Abisko, Sweden, to test for the interactive effects of spring warming, summer warming and winter snow addition on soil organic and inorganic nitrogen fluxes, potential activities of carbon and nitrogen cycle enzymes, and the structure of the soil-borne microbial communities. Summer warming increased the flux of soil organic nitrogen over the growing season, while simultaneously causing a seasonal decrease in microbial biomass, suggesting that N flux is driven by large late-season dieback of microbes. This change in N cycle dynamics was not reflected in any of the measured potential enzyme activities. Moreover, the soil microbial community structure was stable across treatments, suggesting non-specific microbial dieback. To further test whether the observed patterns were driven by direct temperature effects or indirect effects (via microbial biomass dynamics), we conducted follow-up controlled experiments in soil mesocosms. Experimental additions of dead microbial cells had stronger effects on N pool sizes and enzyme activities than either plant litter addition or a 5 °C alteration in incubation temperatures. Peat respiration was positively affected by both substrate addition and higher incubation temperatures, but the temperature-only effect was not sufficient to account for the increases in respiration observed in previous field experiments. We conclude that warming effects on peatland N cycling (and to some extent C cycling) are dominated by indirect effects, acting through alterations to the seasonal flux of microbe-derived organic matter. We propose that climate change models of soil carbon and nitrogen

  17. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W. (eds.)

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects.

  20. NIRE annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts.

  1. Tillage and straw management affect PM10 emission potential in subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of PM10 (particulates =10 um in diameter regulated by many nations as an air pollutant) from agricultural soils can impact regional air quality. Little information exists that describes the potential for PM10 and airborne dust emissions from subarctic soils or agricultural soils subject to ...

  2. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  3. Wind-driven circulation in the subarctic north Pacific using altimeter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    of the wind stress curl are also related to the variation of the subarctic gyre. Though the correlation .... mum in spring, accounting for 41% of all the vari- ance. This estimate ..... plays an important role as a western boundary and it is also located ...

  4. Moisture effects on temperature sensitivity of CO2 exchange in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Lotte; Christensen, TR; Mastepanov, M

    2004-01-01

    Carbon fluxes between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere have received increased attention in recent years due to the impact they have on climate. In order to investigate independently how soil moisture and temperature control carbon fluxes into and out of a dry subarctic dwarf shrub dominated...

  5. Molecular analyses reveal high species diversity of trematodes in a sub-Arctic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Roháčováa, Jana; Knudsen, Rune; Kuhn, Jesper A.; Henriksen, Eirik H.; Siwertsson, Anna; Shaw, Jenny C.; Kuris, Armand M.; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae). Sampling potential invertebrate hosts allowed matching of sequence data for different stages, thus achieving molecular elucidation of trematode life-cycles and exploration of host-parasite interactions. Phylogenetic analyses also helped identify three major mollusc intermediate hosts (Radix balthica, Pisidium casertanum and Sphaerium sp.) in the lake. Our findings increase the known trematode diversity at the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, showing that digenean diversity is high in this otherwise depauperate sub-Arctic freshwater ecosystem, and indicating that sub-Arctic and Arctic ecosystems may be characterised by unique trematode assemblages.

  6. Replacement cost valuation of Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) subsistence harvest in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua H.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Dubovsky, James A.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Semmens, Darius J.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Diffendorfer, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory species provide economically beneficial ecosystem services to people throughout their range, yet often, information is lacking about the magnitude and spatial distribution of these benefits at regional scales. We conducted a case study for Northern Pintails (hereafter pintail) in which we quantified regional and sub-regional economic values of subsistence harvest to indigenous communities in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America. As a first step, we used the replacement cost method to quantify the cost of replacing pintail subsistence harvest with the most similar commercially available protein (chicken). For an estimated annual subsistence harvest of ˜15,000 pintail, our mean estimate of the total replacement cost was ˜$63,000 yr−1 ($2010 USD), with sub-regional values ranging from \\$263 yr−1 to \\$21,930 yr−1. Our results provide an order-of-magnitude, conservative estimate of one component of the regional ecosystem-service values of pintails, providing perspective on how spatially explicit values can inform migratory species conservation.

  7. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  8. Anatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake – calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Nash

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcified coralline red algae are ecologically key organisms in photic benthic environments. In recent decades they have become important climate proxies, especially in the Arctic and subarctic. It has been widely accepted that magnesium content in coralline tissues is directly a function of ambient temperature, and this is a primary basis for their value as a climate archive. In this paper we show for two genera of Arctic/subarctic corallines, Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve, that previously unrecognised complex tissue and cell wall anatomy bears a variety of basal signatures for Mg content, with the accepted temperature relationship being secondary. The interfilament carbonate has lower Mg than adjacent cell walls and the hypothallial cell walls have the highest Mg content. The internal structure of the hypothallial cell walls can differ substantially from the perithallial radial cell wall structure. Using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy and etching we expose the nanometre-scale structures within the cell walls and interfilament. Fibrils concentrate at the internal and external edges of the cell walls. Fibrils  ∼  10 nm thick appear to thread through the radial Mg-calcite grains and form concentric bands within the cell wall. This banding may control Mg distribution within the cell. Similar fibril banding is present in the hypothallial cell walls but not the interfilament. Climate archiving with corallines can achieve greater precision with recognition of these parameters.

  9. Anatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake - calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Merinda C.; Adey, Walter

    2018-02-01

    Calcified coralline red algae are ecologically key organisms in photic benthic environments. In recent decades they have become important climate proxies, especially in the Arctic and subarctic. It has been widely accepted that magnesium content in coralline tissues is directly a function of ambient temperature, and this is a primary basis for their value as a climate archive. In this paper we show for two genera of Arctic/subarctic corallines, Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve, that previously unrecognised complex tissue and cell wall anatomy bears a variety of basal signatures for Mg content, with the accepted temperature relationship being secondary. The interfilament carbonate has lower Mg than adjacent cell walls and the hypothallial cell walls have the highest Mg content. The internal structure of the hypothallial cell walls can differ substantially from the perithallial radial cell wall structure. Using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy and etching we expose the nanometre-scale structures within the cell walls and interfilament. Fibrils concentrate at the internal and external edges of the cell walls. Fibrils ˜ 10 nm thick appear to thread through the radial Mg-calcite grains and form concentric bands within the cell wall. This banding may control Mg distribution within the cell. Similar fibril banding is present in the hypothallial cell walls but not the interfilament. Climate archiving with corallines can achieve greater precision with recognition of these parameters.

  10. Ecological and spatial factors drive intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Bustnes, Jan O; Covaci, Adrian; Johnsen, Trond V; Halley, Duncan J; Moum, Truls; Ims, Rolf A; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Erikstad, Kjell E; Herzke, Dorte; Sonne, Christian; Ballesteros, Manuel; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    Top predators in northern ecosystems may suffer from exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as this exposure may synergistically interact with already elevated natural stress in these ecosystems. In the present study, we aimed at identifying biological (sex, body condition), ecological (dietary carbon source, trophic level) and spatial factors (local habitat, regional nest location) that may influence intra- and interspecific variation in exposure of subarctic predatory bird nestlings to polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153), polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE 47), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). During three breeding seasons (2008-2010), we sampled body feathers from fully-grown nestlings of three ecologically distinct predatory bird species in subarctic Norway: Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The present study analysed, for the first time, body feathers for both POPs and carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotopes, thus integrating the dietary carbon source, trophic level and POP exposure for the larger part of the nestling stage. Intraspecific variation in exposure was driven by a combination of ecological and spatial factors, often different for individual compounds. In addition, combinations for individual compounds differed among species. Trophic level and local habitat were the predominant predictors for CB 153, p,p'-DDE and BDE 47, indicating their biomagnification and decreasing levels according to coast>fjord>inland. Variation in exposure may also have been driven by inter-annual variation arisen from primary sources (e.g. p,p'-DDE) and/or possible revolatilisation from secondary sources (e.g. HCB). Interspecific differences in POP exposure were best explained by a combination of trophic level (biomagnification), dietary carbon source (food chain discrimination) and regional nest location (historical POP

  11. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Impact of Future Climate on Sub-Arctic Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endalamaw, A. M.; Bolton, W. R.; Young-Robertson, J. M.; Morton, D.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2016-12-01

    Projected future climate will have a significant impact on the hydrology of interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds, directly though the changes in precipitation and temperature patterns, and indirectly through the cryospheric and ecological impacts. Although the latter is the dominant factor controlling the hydrological processes in the interior Alaska sub-arctic, it is often overlooked in many climate change impact studies. In this study, we aim to quantify and compare the direct and indirect impact of the projected future climate on the hydrology of the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) meso-scale hydrological model will be implemented to simulate the hydrological processes, including runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture dynamics in the Chena River Basin (area = 5400km2), located in the interior Alaska sub-arctic region. Permafrost and vegetation distribution will be derived from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Model (LPJ) model, respectively. All models will be calibrated and validated using historical data. The Scenario Network for Alaskan and Arctic Planning (SNAP) 5-model average projected climate data products will be used as forcing data for each of these models. The direct impact of climate change on hydrology is estimated using surface parameterization derived from the present day permafrost and vegetation distribution, and future climate forcing from SNAP projected climate data products. Along with the projected future climate, outputs of GIPL and LPJ will be incorporated into the VIC model to estimate the indirect and overall impact of future climate on the hydrology processes in the interior Alaskan sub-arctic watersheds. Finally, we will present the potential hydrological and ecological changes by the end of the 21st century.

  12. Characterization of subarctic vegetation using ground based remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, D.; Garnello, A.; Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Herrick, C.; Anderson, S. M.; Crill, P. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Stordalen mire is located at 68°21'N and 19°02'E in the Swedish subarctic. Climate monitoring has revealed a warming trend spanning the past 150 years affecting the mires ability to hold stable palsa/hummock mounds. The micro-topography of the landscape has begun to degrade into thaw ponds changing the vegetation cover from ombrothrophic to minerotrophic. Hummocks are ecologically important due to their ability to act as a carbon sinks. Thaw ponds and sphagnum rich transitional zones have been documented as sources of atmospheric CH4. An objective of this project is to determine if a high resolution three band camera (RGB) and a RGNIR camera could detect differences in vegetation over five different site types. Species composition was collected for 50 plots with ten repetitions for each site type: palsa/hummock, tall shrub, semi-wet, tall graminoid, and wet. Sites were differentiated based on dominating species and features consisting of open water presence, sphagnum spp. cover, graminoid spp. cover, or the presence of dry raised plateaus/mounds. A pole based camera mount was used to collect images at a height of ~2.44m from the ground. The images were cropped in post-processing to fit a one-square meter quadrat. Texture analysis was performed on all images, including entropy, lacunarity, and angular second momentum. Preliminary results suggested that site type influences the number of species present. The p-values for the ability to predict site type using a t-test range from use of a stepwise regression of texture variables, actual vs. predicted percent of vegetation coverage provided R squared values of 0.73, 0.71, 0.67, and 0.89 for C. bigelowii, R. chamaemorus, Sphagnum spp., and open water respectively. These data have provided some support to the notion that texture analyses can be used for classification of mire site types. Future work will involve scaling up from the 50 plots through the use of data collected from two unmanned aerial systems (UAS), as

  13. On the use of mulching to mitigate permafrost thaw due to linear disturbances in sub-arctic peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence or absence of permafrost significantly influences the hydrology and ecology of northern watersheds. Resource exploration activities are currently having noticeable effects on hydrological and ecological processes in sub-arctic peatlands. Disturbances such as seismic cutlines can result ...

  14. Year-Round Carbon Fluxes in a Subarctic Landscape Show the Importance of Lake Emissions According to Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammet, M.; Crill, P. M.; Friborg, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lakes are increasingly recognized as important components of the global terrestrial carbon budget. Northern lakes are especially of interest due to a high density of open-water ecosystems in Northern latitudes and a potential increase in lake areal extent where permafrost is thawing. A better understanding of lake-atmosphere interactions requires long-term and direct measurement of surface fluxes. This is rarely achieved in Northern landscapes where seasonally ice-covered lakes are mostly studied during the open water season, and measurement methods do not always allow an integration of all gas transport pathways to the atmosphere. We present here ecosystem-scale data from Stordalen (68°20'N, 19°03'E), a thawing permafrost peatland in subarctic Sweden, where an eddy covariance system is used in an innovative way to quantify the importance of methane (CH4) emissions from a shallow lake. After more than a year of surface flux monitoring, it is found that spring is a crucial season for lake-atmosphere CH4 exchange. Despite its shallow depth, more than half of annual CH4 emissions from the lake were recorded at ice-out, suggesting significant winter CH4 production in lake sediments. Lake water dynamics seemed to drive the observed spring release rates. In contrast, summer methane emissions in Stordalen were dominated by the minerotrophic fens. This underlines the importance of considering the full annual budget when assessing the carbon source strength of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Carbon dioxide fluxes were also monitored and will be briefly discussed, as well as the significance of northern lakes spring burst for global atmospheric CH4 budget.

  15. FZR annual report 2003: Research for men and environment; FZR-Jahresbericht 2003: Forschung fuer Mensch und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The following topics are dealt with: A multi-purpose experimental facility for the model development of two-phase flows, the first nuclear-physics experiments with bremsstrahlung at the ELBE accelerator, the molecular mechanisms of vision and general principles of the cellular signal processing, colloids in environment, protein oxidation and sickness, nondestructive study on glass pretiosa using proton beams. (HSI)

  16. Semi-annual report of the Department of Energy, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environment, Quality Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, C.G.; Scarpitta, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results from the analysis of the 34th set of environmental quality assessment samples (QAP 34) that were received on or before June 10, 1991. This Quality Assessment Program (QAP) is designed to test the quality of the environmental measurements being reported to the Department of Energy by its contractors. Since 1976, real or synthetic environmental samples that have been prepared and thoroughly analyzed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) have been distributed at first quarterly and then semi-annually to these contractors. Their results, which are returned to EML within 90 days, are compiled with EML's results and are reported back to the participating contractors 30 days later. A summary of the reported results is available to the participants 3 days after the reporting deadline via a modem-telephone connection to the EML computer. The ''EML value'' listed in the tables to which the contractors' results are compared is the mean of replicate determination for each nuclide. The EML uncertainty is the standard error of the mean. All other uncertainties are as reported by the participants

  17. Final annual report of the Partial monitoring system 'Radioactivity of the environment' 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.; Cabanekova, H.; Bodorova, J.

    2015-01-01

    The present report evaluates activities of radiation monitoring of Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMI) in 2014. Analytical part focuses on detailed statistical analysis of monitored data. Detailed knowledge of the course of time series during uneventful period enables early detect and analyze potential increase of radioactivity levels in the environment originating from domestic or foreign sources. SHMI is responsible for international data exchange with the European Commission and with partners in Austria and Hungary.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1980-02-01

    Research in Environment, Health, and Safety conducted during fiscal year 1979 is reported. This volume consists of project reports from the Ecological Sciences research department. The reports are grouped under the following subject areas: National Environmental Research Park and land use; Alaskan resource research; shale oil; synfuels; nuclear waste; fission; marine research programs; statistical development of field research; nuclear fusion; pumped storage and hydroelectric development; pathways modelling, assessment and Hanford project support; electric field and microwave research; and energy research for other agencies

  19. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  20. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ``Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin`` project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 2. Ecological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, B.E.

    1980-02-01

    Research in Environment, Health, and Safety conducted during fiscal year 1979 is reported. This volume consists of project reports from the Ecological Sciences research department. The reports are grouped under the following subject areas: National Environmental Research Park and land use; Alaskan resource research; shale oil; synfuels; nuclear waste; fission; marine research programs; statistical development of field research; nuclear fusion; pumped storage and hydroelectric development; pathways modelling, assessment and Hanford project support; electric field and microwave research; and energy research for other agencies. (ACR)

  2. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O2 concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and ...

  3. Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale

  4. Molecular analyses reveal high species diversity of trematodes in a sub-Arctic lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Roháčová, Jana; Knudsen, R.; Kuhn, J. A.; Henriksen, E. H.; Siwertsson, A.; Shaw, J. C.; Kuris, A. M.; Amundsen, P.-A.; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, K. D.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2017), s. 327-345 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14198S; GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode diversity * intermediate hosts * phylogeny * mitochondrial DNA * nuclear DNA * Lake Takvatn * Norway * Sub-Arctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016

  5. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    -gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site......This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy...... Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace...

  6. Allochthonous Carbon--a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Rowe, O F; Paczkowska, J; Legrand, C; Andersson, A

    2016-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60% of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2%. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60%. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  7. Estimation of permafrost thawing rates in a sub-arctic catchment using recession flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lyon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost thawing is likely to change the flow pathways taken by water as it moves through arctic and sub-arctic landscapes. The location and distribution of these pathways directly influence the carbon and other biogeochemical cycling in northern latitude catchments. While permafrost thawing due to climate change has been observed in the arctic and sub-arctic, direct observations of permafrost depth are difficult to perform at scales larger than a local scale. Using recession flow analysis, it may be possible to detect and estimate the rate of permafrost thawing based on a long-term streamflow record. We demonstrate the application of this approach to the sub-arctic Abiskojokken catchment in northern Sweden. Based on recession flow analysis, we estimate that permafrost in this catchment may be thawing at an average rate of about 0.9 cm/yr during the past 90 years. This estimated thawing rate is consistent with direct observations of permafrost thawing rates, ranging from 0.7 to 1.3 cm/yr over the past 30 years in the region.

  8. Contrasting seasonal and aseasonal environments across stages of the annual cycle in the Rufous-collared Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis: differences in endocrine function, proteome, and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Paulina L; Echeverria, Valentina; Estades, Cristian F; Perez, Jonathan H; Krause, Jesse S; Sabat, Pablo; Li, Jonathon; Kültz, Dietmar; Wingfield, John C

    2018-05-09

    1.The timing and duration of life history stages (LHS) within the annual cycle can be affected by local environmental cues which are integrated through endocrine signaling mechanisms and changes in protein function. Most animals express a single LHS within a given period of the year because synchronous expression of LHSs is thought to be too costly energetically. However, in very rare and extremely stable conditions, breeding and molt have been observed to overlap extensively in Rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) living in valleys of the Atacama Desert - one of the most stable and aseasonal environments on Earth. 2.To examine how LHS traits at different levels of organization are affected by environmental variability we compared the temporal organization and duration of LHSs in populations in the Atacama Desert with those in the semiarid Fray Jorge National Park in the north of Chile - an extremely seasonal climate but with unpredictable droughts and heavy rainy seasons. 3.We studied the effects of environmental variability on morphological variables related to body condition, endocrine traits, and proteome. Birds living in the seasonal environment had a strict temporal division LHSs while birds living in the aseasonal environment failed to maintain a temporal division of LHSs resulting in direct overlap of breeding and molt. Further, higher circulating glucocorticoids and androgen concentrations were found in birds from seasonal compared to aseasonal populations. Despite these differences, body condition variables and protein expression were not related to the degree of seasonality but rather showed a strong relationship with hormone levels. 4.These results suggest that animals adjust to their environment through changes in behavioral and endocrine traits and may be limited by less labile traits such as morphological variables or expression of specific proteins under certain circumstances. These data on free-living birds shed light on how different

  9. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  10. Exascale Co-Design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx) Annual Report - Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germann, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McPherson, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-25

    All activities of the Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (Ex- MatEx) are focused on the two ultimate goals of the project: (1) demonstrating and delivering a prototype scale-bridging materials science application based upon adaptive physics refinement, and (2) identifying the requirements for the exascale ecosystem that are necessary to perform computational materials science simulations (both single- and multi-scale). During the first year of ExMatEx, our focus was on establishing how we do computational materials science, by developing an initial suite of flexible proxy applications. These “proxy apps” are the primary vehicle for the co-design process, involving assessments and tradeoff evaluations both within the ExMatEx team, and with the entire exascale ecosystem. These interactions have formed the basis of our second year activities. The set of artifacts from these co-design interactions are the lessons learned, that are used to re-express the applications and algorithms within the context of emerging architectures, programming models, and runtime systems.

  11. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300 % over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were  ∼  40–60 % smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq and various biomass burning tracers (BBt across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI  =  (1∕3 × dln(Nliq∕dln(BBt to be  ∼  0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content ( ∼  0.02 g m−3 and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm−3 in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W m−2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the

  12. Seasonal changes in nutrients, chlorophyll a and the phytoplankton assemblage of the western subarctic gyre in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mamiko; Shiga, Naonobu; Saito, Masaru; Imai, Keiri; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    The standing stock and species composition of phytoplankton (>10 μm) were studied using monthly water samples collected at Stn KNOT (Kyodo North Pacific Ocean Time Series; 44°N, 155°E) in the western subarctic gyre in the Pacific Ocean through June 1998 to June 1999 (except for January-April 1999) and January-February 2000. One-liter water samples were preserved in 1% neutrally buffered formalin. Identification and enumeration of phytoplankton were made with an inverted microscope. Nutrients did not appear to be depleted for phytoplakton growth during any season. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton was primarily restricted by the pycnocline, and the bulk of phytoplankton assemblage existed within the surface mixed layer. In July, however, some senescent cells were observed at 200 m. Phytoplankton abundance clearly showed a spring maximum (i.e. spring bloom) in May. The seasonal change in cell numbers, however, did not coincide closely with the change in chlorophyll a concentration. Centric diatoms, which were composed of Thalassiosira, Chaetoceros, and Coscinodiscus, dominated all year round, and showed temporal succession. Pennate diatoms (mostly Neodenticula seminae and Fragilariopsis) increased only during the spring bloom. Dinoflagellates (mostly Gymnodinium and Prorocentrum) were low in abundance, although they increased in summer when the phytoplankton standing stock was low. Silicoflagellate abundance was extremely low. Comparing the annual species composition of phytoplankton between Stn KNOT and Stn P (50°N, 145°W) in the Alaskan Gyre, there was a remarkable difference between the two sites. The phytoplankton assemblage at Stn P is characterized by a high abundance of Rhizosolenia alata and low abundance of Thalassiosira. In contrast, Thalassiosira dominates at Stn KNOT during most seasons.

  13. Annual changes of bacterial mortality due to viruses and protists in an oligotrophic coastal environment (NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boras, Julia A; Sala, M Montserrat; Vázquez-Domínguez, Evaristo; Weinbauer, Markus G; Vaqué, Dolors

    2009-05-01

    The impact of viruses and protists on bacterioplankton mortality was examined monthly during 2 years (May 2005-April 2007) in an oligotrophic coastal environment (NW Mediterranean Sea). We expected that in such type of system, (i) bacterial losses would be caused mainly by protists, and (ii) lysogeny would be an important type of virus-host interaction. During the study period, viruses and grazers together were responsible for 50.6 +/- 40.1% day(-1) of bacterial standing stock losses (BSS) and 59.7 +/- 44.0% day(-1) of bacterial production losses (BP). Over the first year (May 2005-April 2006), protists were the principal cause of bacterial mortality, removing 29.9 +/- 20.4% day(-1) of BSS and 33.9 +/- 24.3% day(-1) of BP, whereas viral lysis removed 13.5 +/- 17.0% day(-1) of BSS and 12.3 +/- 12.3% day(-1) of BP. During the second year (May 2006-April 2007), viruses caused comparable bacterial losses (29.2 +/- 14.8% day(-1) of BSS and 40.9 +/- 20.7% day(-1) of BP) to protists (28.6 +/- 25.5% day(-1) of BSS and 32.4 +/- 20.0% day(-1) of BP). In 37% of cases higher losses of BP due to viruses than due to protists were found. Lysogenic infection was detected in 11 of 24 samplings. Contrary to our expectations, lytic infections dominated over the two years, and viruses resulted to be a significant source of bacterial mortality in this oligotrophic site.

  14. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  15. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  16. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  17. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2004-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2003 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  18. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  19. Multi-proxy Paleoclimate and CO2 Reconstruction from the Latest Middle Eocene Sedimentary Fill of a Subarctic Kimberlitic Maar Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A. V.; Wolfe, A. P.; Royer, D. L.; Greenwood, D. R.; Tierney, J. E.; Doria, G.; Gagen, M. H.; Siver, P.; Westgate, J.

    2016-12-01

    Eocene paleoclimate reconstructions are rarely accompanied by parallel estimates of CO2, complicating assessment of the equilibrium climate responses to CO2. We reconstruct temperature, precipitation, and CO2 from latest middle Eocene ( 38 Myrs ago) peats in subarctic Canada, preserved in sediments that record infilling of a kimberlite pipe maar crater. Mutual climatic range analyses of pollen, together with oxygen isotope analyses of a-cellulose from unpermineralized wood and inferenecs from branched glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), reveal a high-latitude humid-temperate forest ecosystem with mean annual temperatures (MATs) >17 °C warmer than present, mean coldest month temperatures above 0 °C, and mean annual precipitation 4x present. Metasequoia stomatal indices and gas-exchange modeling produce median CO2 concentrations of 634 and 432 ppm, respectively, with a consensus median estimate of 494 ppm. Reconstructed MATs are >6 °C warmer than those produced by Eocene climate models forced at 560 ppm CO2, underscoring the capacity for exceptional polar amplification of warming and hydrological intensification under relatively modest CO2 concentrations, once both fast and slow feedbacks become expressed.

  20. Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University

    2013-03-01

    Wayne Reeve of Murdoch University on "Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  1. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  2. Three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, as a possible paratenic host for salmonid nematodes in a subarctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braicovich, Paola E; Kuhn, Jesper A; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Marcogliese, David J

    2016-03-01

    In Takvatn, a subarctic lake in northern Norway, 35 of 162 three-spined sticklebacks examined were infected with 106 specimens of third-stage larvae of Philonema oncorhynchi. The prevalence and mean intensity of P. oncorhynchi were 10 % and 2.0 in 2013 and 24 % and 3.0 in 2014, respectively. A single specimen of Cystidicola farionis was found in an additional sample. While the latter is considered an accidental infection, three-spined sticklebacks may function as paratenic hosts of P. oncorhynchi, potentially enhancing its transmission to salmonids due to their central role in the lacustrine food web of this subarctic lake.

  3. Sakhalin 2, phase 2 project : meeting the Arctic challenge in a sub-Arctic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, A.; Gerges, A.; Efthymiou, M.; Winkler, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sakhalin Energy's objective is to commercially develop, operate and market the hydrocarbon resources and associated infrastructure governed by the Sakhalin 2 licenses for the sustainable benefit of shareholders, the Russian Federation, the Sakhalin Oblast and the wider community. This presentation discussed Sakhalin Energy's holdings including its investment company and hydrocarbon projects in eastern Russia. The Sakhalin area is a remote island that lacks infrastructure, has a low population density, with a rich onshore and offshore wildlife. It is a seismically active area, with seasonal operating windows, drifting pack ice from December to June, waves up to 18 metre maximum height, and frequent fog in spring and summer. The temperature also varies from 28 degrees Celsius to -40 degrees Celsius. The presentation also addressed the rerouting of offshore pipelines to ensure the least possible disturbance to western gray whale migration. Several photographs and illustrations of the phase 1 project were presented. Open water conditions were also illustrated. The phase 2 project was then outlined. This included illustrations of the platform, plant and export terminal, and onshore processing facility. Other photographs that were shown in the presentation included the offshore pipeline installation; a view of the shore approach to the pipeline installation; oil spill response; and escape, evacuation, and response. The design challenges and design philosophy of the project were also identified. The presentation concluded with a discussion of ice loading and platform response. figs

  4. Radioactive foodchains in the subarctic environment. Progress report, November 15, 1977--November 14, 1978. [Leading abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J K

    1978-08-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for seven of the eight sections in this report. The eighth section is an introductory paper discussing the nature of the investigations and the data presented in the other seven papers. (ERB)

  5. Sakhalin 2, phase 2 project : meeting the Arctic challenge in a sub-Arctic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, A.; Gerges, A.; Efthymiou, M.; Winkler, M. [Sakhalin Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-15

    Sakhalin Energy's objective is to commercially develop, operate and market the hydrocarbon resources and associated infrastructure governed by the Sakhalin 2 licenses for the sustainable benefit of shareholders, the Russian Federation, the Sakhalin Oblast and the wider community. This presentation discussed Sakhalin Energy's holdings including its investment company and hydrocarbon projects in eastern Russia. The Sakhalin area is a remote island that lacks infrastructure, has a low population density, with a rich onshore and offshore wildlife. It is a seismically active area, with seasonal operating windows, drifting pack ice from December to June, waves up to 18 metre maximum height, and frequent fog in spring and summer. The temperature also varies from 28 degrees Celsius to -40 degrees Celsius. The presentation also addressed the rerouting of offshore pipelines to ensure the least possible disturbance to western gray whale migration. Several photographs and illustrations of the phase 1 project were presented. Open water conditions were also illustrated. The phase 2 project was then outlined. This included illustrations of the platform, plant and export terminal, and onshore processing facility. Other photographs that were shown in the presentation included the offshore pipeline installation; a view of the shore approach to the pipeline installation; oil spill response; and escape, evacuation, and response. The design challenges and design philosophy of the project were also identified. The presentation concluded with a discussion of ice loading and platform response. figs.

  6. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  7. Tolerance of an expanding subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa, to simulated caribou browsing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Champagne

    Full Text Available Densification of the shrub layer has been reported in many subarctic regions, raising questions about the implication for large herbivores and their resources. Shrubs can tolerate browsing and their level of tolerance could be affected by browsing and soils productivity, eventually modifying resource availability for the caribou. Our objective was to assess the compensatory growth potential of a subarctic shrub, Betula glandulosa Michx., in relation with caribou browsing and nutriment availability for the plants. We used a simulated browsing (0, 25 and 75% of available shoots and nitrogen-fertilisation (0 and 10 g m(-2 experiment to test two main hypotheses linking tolerance to resource availability, the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis and the Growth Rate Hypothesis as well as the predictions from the Limiting Resource Model. We seek to explicitly integrate the relative browsing pressure in our predictions since the amount of tissues removed could affect the capacity of long-lived plants to compensate. Birches fully compensated for moderate browsing with an overall leaf biomass similar to unbrowsed birches but undercompensated under heavy browsing pressure. The main mechanism explaining compensation appears to be the conversion of short shoots into long shoots. The leaf area increased under heavy browsing pressure but only led to undercompensation. Fertilisation for two consecutive years did not influence the response of birch, thus we conclude that our results support the LRM hypothesis of equal tolerance under both high and low nitrogen availability. Our results highlight that the potential for compensatory growth in dwarf birch is surpassed under heavy browsing pressure independently of the fertilisation regime. In the context of the worldwide decline in caribou herds, the reduction in browsing pressure could act synergistically with global climate change to promote the current shrub expansion reported in subarctic regions.

  8. [BIODIVERSITY OF ACANTHOCEPHALANS (ACANTHOCEPHALA) IN FRESHWATER FISHES OF ASIATIC SUB-ARCTIC REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrashkevich, G I; Mikhailova, E I; Orlovskaya, O M; Pospekhov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of taxonomical and ecological diversity of acanthocephalans in fishes of Asiatic sub-Arctic region freshwaters, summarizing changes in modern views on species composition, life cycles, and ecology of background groups of these parasites is given. A priority role of studies provided by O. N. Bauer and his scientific school in organization and development of these aspects of acanthocephalology is demonstrated. Special attention is paid to the assessment of acanthocephalan biodiversity of the genus Neoechinorhynchus, the background group of freshwater fish parasites of the Asiatic sub-Arctic region, and an original key for their species is given. The distribution of acanthocephalans of the genus Acanthocephalus in northeastern Asia is analyzed and prospective study of this parasite group, evolutionary associated with freshwater isopods of the genus Asellus as intermediate hosts, is outlined. The absence of documented evidences on intermediate hosts of other background parasites of freshwater fishes in the region, acanthocephalans of the genus Metechinorhynchus, is revealed. It is assumed that subsequent taxonomic revisions based both on morphological and molecular genetic studies are necessary for the reliable revealing of species composition in each genus of the background acanthocephalans from freshwater fishes of Northern Asia. Theoretical significance of the study of acanthocephalan life cycles and revealing their natural intermediate hosts for the reliable estimation of structural and functional organization of their host-parasite systems in different parts of the range is substantiated and the possibility of the distribution of taxonomic conclusions in new territories is analyzed. A brief annotated taxonomical list of freshwater acanthocephalans of the Asiatic sub-Arctic region is given.

  9. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces a large centric diatom bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Atsushi; Takeda, Shigenobu; Saito, Hiroaki; Nishioka, Jun; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Kudo, Isao; Kiyosawa, Hiroshi; Shiomoto, Akihiro; Imai, Keiri; Ono, Tsuneo; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Aono, Tatsuo; Hinuma, Akira; Kinugasa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Koji; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Noiri, Yoshifumi; Tani, Heihachiro; Deguchi, Yuji; Tsurushima, Nobuo; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Fukami, Kimio; Kuma, Kenshi; Saino, Toshiro

    2003-05-09

    We have performed an in situ test of the iron limitation hypothesis in the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. A single enrichment of dissolved iron caused a large increase in phytoplankton standing stock and decreases in macronutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide. The dominant phytoplankton species shifted after the iron addition from pennate diatoms to a centric diatom, Chaetoceros debilis, that showed a very high growth rate, 2.6 doublings per day. We conclude that the bioavailability of iron regulates the magnitude of the phytoplankton biomass and the key phytoplankton species that determine the biogeochemical sensitivity to iron supply of high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters.

  10. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  11. Animistic pragmatism and native ways of knowing: adaptive strategies for overcoming the struggle for food in the sub-Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Anthony

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subsistence norms are part of the “ecosophy” or ecological philosophy of Alaska Native Peoples in the sub-Arctic, such as the Inupiat of Seward Peninsula. This kind of animistic pragmatism is a special source of practical wisdom that spans over thousands of years and which has been instrumental in the Iñupiat’s struggle to survive and thrive in harsh and evolving environments. Objective. I hope to show how narrative in relationship to the “ecosophy” of Alaska Native peoples can help to promote a more ecological orientation to address food insecurity in rural communities in Alaska. Alaska Native ecosophy recommends central values and virtues necessary to help address concerns in Alaska’s rural communities. Design. Here, I will tease out the nature of this “ecosophy” in terms of animistic pragmatism and then show why this form of pragmatism can be instrumental for problematizing multi-scalar, intergenerational, uncertain and complex environmental challenges like food security. Results. Native elders have been the embodiment of trans-generational distributed cognition,1 for example, collective memory, norms, information, knowledge, technical skills and experimental adaptive strategies. They are human “supercomputers,” historical epistemologists and moral philosophers of a sort who use narrative, a form of moral testimony, to help their communities face challenges and seize opportunities in the wake of an ever-changing landscape. Conclusions. The “ecosophy” of the Iñupiat of Seward Peninsula offers examples of “focal practices”, which are essential for environmental education. These focal practices instil key virtues, namely humility, gratitude, self-reliance, attentiveness, responsibility and responsiveness, that are necessary for subsistence living.

  12. Feeding ecology of mesopelagic zooplankton of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean determined with fatty acid biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. E.; Steinberg, D. K.; Chu, F.-L. E.; Bishop, J. K. B.

    2010-10-01

    Mesopelagic zooplankton may meet their nutritional and metabolic requirements in a number of ways including consumption of sinking particles, carnivory, and vertical migration. How these feeding modes change with depth or location, however, is poorly known. We analyzed fatty acid (FA) profiles to characterize zooplankton diet and large particle (>51 μm) composition in the mesopelagic zone (base of euphotic zone -1000 m) at two contrasting time-series sites in the subarctic (station K2) and subtropical (station ALOHA) Pacific Ocean. Total FA concentration was 15.5 times higher in zooplankton tissue at K2, largely due to FA storage by seasonal vertical migrators such as Neocalanus and Eucalanus. FA biomarkers specific to herbivory implied a higher plant-derived food source at mesotrophic K2 than at oligotrophic ALOHA. Zooplankton FA biomarkers specific to dinoflagellates and diatoms indicated that diatoms, and to a lesser extent, dinoflagellates were important food sources at K2. At ALOHA, dinoflagellate FAs were more prominent. Bacteria-specific FA biomarkers in zooplankton tissue were used as an indicator of particle feeding, and peaks were recorded at depths where known particle feeders were present at ALOHA (e.g., ostracods at 100-300 m). In contrast, depth profiles of bacterial FA were relatively constant with depth at K2. Diatom, dinoflagellate, and bacterial biomarkers were found in similar proportions in both zooplankton and particles with depth at both locations, providing additional evidence that mesopelagic zooplankton consume sinking particles. Carnivory indices were higher and increased significantly with depth at ALOHA, and exhibited distinct peaks at K2, representing an increase in dependence on other zooplankton for food in deep waters. Our results indicate that feeding ecology changes with depth as well as by location. These changes in zooplankton feeding ecology from the surface through the mesopelagic zone, and between contrasting environments

  13. Animistic pragmatism and native ways of knowing: adaptive strategies for overcoming the struggle for food in the sub-Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Background Subsistence norms are part of the “ecosophy” or ecological philosophy of Alaska Native Peoples in the sub-Arctic, such as the Inupiat of Seward Peninsula. This kind of animistic pragmatism is a special source of practical wisdom that spans over thousands of years and which has been instrumental in the Iñupiat's struggle to survive and thrive in harsh and evolving environments. Objective I hope to show how narrative in relationship to the “ecosophy” of Alaska Native peoples can help to promote a more ecological orientation to address food insecurity in rural communities in Alaska. Alaska Native ecosophy recommends central values and virtues necessary to help address concerns in Alaska's rural communities. Design Here, I will tease out the nature of this “ecosophy” in terms of animistic pragmatism and then show why this form of pragmatism can be instrumental for problematizing multi-scalar, intergenerational, uncertain and complex environmental challenges like food security. Results Native elders have been the embodiment of trans-generational distributed cognition,1 for example, collective memory, norms, information, knowledge, technical skills and experimental adaptive strategies. They are human “supercomputers,” historical epistemologists and moral philosophers of a sort who use narrative, a form of moral testimony, to help their communities face challenges and seize opportunities in the wake of an ever-changing landscape. Conclusions The “ecosophy” of the Iñupiat of Seward Peninsula offers examples of “focal practices”, which are essential for environmental education. These focal practices instil key virtues, namely humility, gratitude, self-reliance, attentiveness, responsibility and responsiveness, that are necessary for subsistence living. PMID:23986900

  14. EDF - 2011 full-year results: Solid results and commitments upheld amid a troubled environment. Excellent industrial performance. Annual results 2011, Consolidated financial statements at December 31, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proglio, Henri

    2012-01-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2011 annual results and Consolidated financial statements of the Group at 31 December 2011: Group accounting standards; comparability; significant events and transactions; regulatory events in France; changes in the scope of consolidation; segment reporting; sales; fuel and energy purchases; other external expenses; personnel expenses; taxes other than income taxes; other operating income and expenses; prolongation of the transition tariff system (TaRTAM) - laws of June 7 and December 7, 2010; impairment / reversals; other income and expenses; financial result; income taxes; basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share; operating assets and liabilities, equity; goodwill; other intangible assets; property, plant and equipment operated under French public electricity distribution concessions; property, plant and equipment operated under concessions for other activities; property, plant and equipment used in generation and other tangible assets owned by the group; investments in associates; inventories; trade receivables; other receivables; equity; provisions; provisions related to nuclear generation - back-end nuclear cycle, plant decommissioning and last cores; provisions for decommissioning of non-nuclear facilities; provisions for employee benefits; other provisions; special French public electricity distribution concession liabilities for existing assets and assets to be replaced; trade payable; other liabilities; current and non-current financial assets; cash and cash equivalents; current and non-current financial

  15. Building on Sub-Arctic Soil: Geopolymerization of Muskeg to a Densified Load-Bearing Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waetzig, Gregory R; Cho, Junsang; Lacroix, Max; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2017-11-07

    The marshy water-saturated soil typical of the sub-Arctic represents a considerable impediment to the construction of roads, thereby greatly hindering human habitation and geological excavation. Muskeg, the native water-laden topsoil characteristic of the North American sub-Arctic, represents a particularly vexing challenge for road construction. Muskeg must either be entirely excavated, or for direct construction on muskeg, a mix of partial excavation and gradual compaction with the strategic placement of filling materials must be performed. Here, we demonstrate a novel and entirely reversible geopolymerization method for reinforcing muskeg with wood fibers derived from native vegetation with the addition of inorganic silicate precursors and without the addition of extraneous metal precursors. A continuous siloxane network is formed that links together the muskeg, wood fibers, and added silicates yielding a load-bearing and low-subsidence composite. The geopolymerization approach developed here, based on catalyzed formation of a siloxane network with further incorporation of cellulose, allows for an increase of density as well as compressive strength while reducing the compressibility of the composite.

  16. Wintertime phytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supported by continental margin iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2004-01-01

    Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996 in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North Pacific Ocean, a region that is thought to be iron-limited. Here we provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in the subarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from the continental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincident with the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was used to describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of iron in size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis reveals that discrete micron-sized iron-rich hotspots are ubiquitous in the upper 200m at OSP, more than 900km from the closest coast. The specifics of the chemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to the continental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hotspots are a marker for the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm the delivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an ocean general circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at the continental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental margin stimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLC condition

  17. The transformation and fate of sub-Arctic microphytobenthos carbon revealed through 13C-labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oakes, Joanne M.; Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    Microphytobenthos (MPB) at higher latitudes has been poorly studied. This study used pulse-chase C-13-labeling to investigate the production, processing, and fate of MPB-derived carbon (MPB-C) in sub-Arctic intertidal sediments over 31 d. Gross primary production (2.1 mmolCm(-2)h(-1)+/- 0.4 mmol...... accounted for49.8% of this C-13. The C-13 content of sediment organic carbon declined over time, but>31% of the C-13 fixed within the first tidal cycle remained after 31 d, suggesting that sub-Arctic MPB may contribute to coastal carbon retention during the productive season. Over 21 d, 10.6% of the fixed C......-13 was removed via DIC fluxes and 0.3% via DOC fluxes from inundated sediment, and 0.6% as CO2 from exposed sediment. The greatest loss of C-13 (38.2%) was via unmeasured pathways, including resuspension and/or removal by mobile consumers. The rates of MPB-C production and the relative importance...

  18. Evidences of Seasonal Variation in Altimetry Derived Ocean Tides in the Subarctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hok Sum Fok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the barotropic ocean tides in the deep ocean are well modeled to ~2 cm RMS, accurate tidal prediction in the ice-covered polar oceans and near coastal regions remain elusive. A notable reason is that the most accurate satellite altimeters (TOPEX/Jason-1/-2, whose orbits are optimized to minimize the tidal aliasing effect, have spatial coverage limited to largely outside of the polar ocean. Here, we update the assessment of tidal models using 7 contemporary global and regional models, and show that the altimetry sea surface height (SSH anomaly residual after tidal correction is 9 - 12 cm RMS in the Subarctic Ocean. We then address the hypothesis whether plausible evidence of variable tidal signals exist in the seasonally ice-covered Subarctic Ocean, where the sea ice cover is undergoing rapid thinning. We first found a difference in variance reduction for multi-mission altimeter SSH anomaly residuals during the summer and winter seasons, with the residual during winter season 15 - 30% larger than that during the summer season. Experimental seasonal ocean tide solutions derived from satellite altimetry reveals that the recovered winter and summer tidal constituents generally differ by a few cm in amplitude and tens of degrees in phase. Relatively larger seasonal tidal patterns, in particular for M2, S2 and K1 tides, have been identified in the Chukchi Sea study region near eastern Siberia, coincident with the seasonal presence and movement of sea ice.

  19. Doubled volatile organic compound emissions from subarctic tundra under simulated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Asmund; Michelsen, Anders; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Rinnan, Riikka

    2010-07-01

    *Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from arctic ecosystems are important in view of their role in global atmospheric chemistry and unknown feedbacks to global warming. These cold ecosystems are hotspots of climate warming, which will be more severe here than averaged over the globe. We assess the effects of climatic warming on non-methane BVOC emissions from a subarctic heath. *We performed ecosystem-based chamber measurements and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of the BVOCs collected on adsorbent over two growing seasons at a wet subarctic tundra heath hosting a long-term warming and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) litter addition experiment. *The relatively low emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were doubled in response to an air temperature increment of only 1.9-2.5 degrees C, while litter addition had a minor influence. BVOC emissions were seasonal, and warming combined with litter addition triggered emissions of specific compounds. *The unexpectedly high rate of release of BVOCs measured in this conservative warming scenario is far above the estimates produced by the current models, which underlines the importance of a focus on BVOC emissions during climate change. The observed changes have implications for ecological interactions and feedback effects on climate change via impacts on aerosol formation and indirect greenhouse effects.

  20. The importance of colony structure versus shoot morphology for the water balance of 22 subarctic bryophyte species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elumeeva, Tatiana G.; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; During, Heinjo J.; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.

    Questions: What are the water economy strategies of the dominant subarctic bryophytes in terms of colony and shoot traits? Can colony water retention capacity be predicted from morphological traits of both colonies and separate shoots? Are suites of water retention traits consistently related to

  1. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M.; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such

  2. Responses of non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to climate change in boreal and subarctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubert, P.

    2010-07-01

    Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (BVOCs) have important roles in the global atmospheric chemistry but their feedbacks to climate change are still unknown. This thesis reports one of the first estimates of BVOC emissions from boreal and subarctic ecosystems. Most importantly, this thesis assesses the BVOC emission responses to four effects of climate change in these ecosystems: (1) the direct effect of warming, and its indirect effects via (2) water table drawdown, (3) change in the vegetation composition, and (4) enhanced UV-B radiation. BVOC emissions were measured using a conventional chamber method in which the compounds were collected on adsorbent and later analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On a subarctic heath, warming by only 1.9-2.5 degC doubled the monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions. Such a high increase of BVOC emissions under a conservative warming cannot be predicted by the current models, which underlines the importance of a focus on BVOC emissions from the Subarctic under climate change. On a subarctic peatland, enhanced UV-B did not affect the BVOC emissions but the water table level exerted the major effect. The water table drawdown experimentally applied on boreal peatland microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes and other VOCs (BVOCs with a lifetime>1 d) for the hollows (wet microsites) and that of all BVOC groups for the lawns (moderately wet microsites). The warming treatment applied on the lawn microcosms decreased the isoprene emission. The removal of vascular plants in the hummock (dry microsites) microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes while the emissions between the microcosms covered with Sphagnum moss and bare peat were not different. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis indicate that climate change has complex effects on the BVOC emissions. These results make a significant contribution to improving the modeling of BVOC emissions for a better understanding of

  3. Challenges in modelling isoprene and monoterpene emission dynamics of Arctic plants: a case study from a subarctic tundra heath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Schurgers, Guy; Valolahti, Hanna; Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is warming at twice the global average speed, and the warming-induced increases in biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Arctic plants are expected to be drastic. The current global models' estimations of minimal BVOC emissions from the Arctic are based on very few observations and have been challenged increasingly by field data. This study applied a dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, as a platform to investigate short-term and long-term BVOC emission responses to Arctic climate warming. Field observations in a subarctic tundra heath with long-term (13-year) warming treatments were extensively used for parameterizing and evaluating BVOC-related processes (photosynthesis, emission responses to temperature and vegetation composition). We propose an adjusted temperature (T) response curve for Arctic plants with much stronger T sensitivity than the commonly used algorithms for large-scale modelling. The simulated emission responses to 2 °C warming between the adjusted and original T response curves were evaluated against the observed warming responses (WRs) at short-term scales. Moreover, the model responses to warming by 4 and 8 °C were also investigated as a sensitivity test. The model showed reasonable agreement to the observed vegetation CO2 fluxes in the main growing season as well as day-to-day variability of isoprene and monoterpene emissions. The observed relatively high WRs were better captured by the adjusted T response curve than by the common one. During 1999-2012, the modelled annual mean isoprene and monoterpene emissions were 20 and 8 mg C m-2 yr-1, with an increase by 55 and 57 % for 2 °C summertime warming, respectively. Warming by 4 and 8 °C for the same period further elevated isoprene emission for all years, but the impacts on monoterpene emissions levelled off during the last few years. At hour-day scale, the WRs seem to be strongly impacted by canopy air T, while at the day-year scale, the WRs are a combined

  4. Effects of Accelerated Deglaciation on Chemical Characteristics of Sub-arctic Lakes and Rivers in South and West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, M.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers and their associated paraglacial landscapes have changed rapidly over the past century, and may see increased rates of melt as temperatures increase in high latitude environments. As glaciers recede, glacial meltwater subsidies increase to inland freshwater systems, influencing their structure and function. Evidence suggests melting ice influences the chemical characteristics of systems by providing nutrient subsidies, while inputs of glacial flour influence their physical structure by affecting temperature, reducing water clarity and increasing turbidity. Together, changes in physical and chemical structure of these systems have subsequent effects on biota, with the potential to lower taxonomic richness. This study characterized the chemistry of rivers and lakes fed by glacial meltwater in sub-arctic environments of Iceland, where there is limited limnological data. The survey characterized nutrient chemistry, dissolved organic carbon, and ion chemistry. We surveyed glacial meltwater from six glaciers in south and west Iceland, using the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier along the southern coast as a detailed study area to examine the interactions between groundwater and surface runoff. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse, located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Key differences were observed between aquatic environments subsidized with glacial meltwater and those without. This included physical effects, such as lower temperatures and chemical effects such as lower conductivity and higher pH in glacially fed systems. In the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier, lakes formed after the former lagoon was emptied and then partly refilled with debris from jokulhlaups during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. These newly formed lakes resembled non-glacial melt systems despite receiving

  5. We adapt… but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, Gloria; Saunders, Fred; Sokolova, Tatiana; Börebäck, Kristina; van Laerhoven, F.S.J.; Kokko, Suvi; Tuvendal, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socioenvironmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork,

  6. Paleoproductivity and intermediate-water ventilation in the subarctic Northwest Pacific during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, B.; Ikehara, K.; Sagawa, T.; Shibahara, A.; Yamamoto, M.

    2010-12-01

    Laminated sediments during the last deglaciation in the subarctic North Pacific indicate significant depletion of dissolved oxygen concentration at intermediate water depths. Such a strong oxygen minimum zone results primarily from a combination of high surface water productivity and poor ventilation of intermediate waters. We investigated a variety of paleoclimatic proxies using about 8-m long piston core sediment (GH02-1030; 42o13.770N, 144o12.530E; water depth, 1212 m) obtained from the continental slope off Tokachi (eastern Hokkaido Island), which is the main path of the southwestward Oyashio Current in the subarctic Northwest Pacific. Laminated sediments were identified at the two horizons in the core GH02-1030; the upper one at 11.4-12.2 cal.kyr BP and the lower one at 14.1-14.7 cal.kyr BP, corresponding to Bølling-Allerød (B/A) and Preboreal (PB), respectively. Between these laminated layers, Younger Dryas occurred. Both laminated sediment layers are characterized by Bolivina tumida, B. pacifica, and Buliminella tenuata, indicating dysoxic bottom water conditions. Increased Mg/Ca-derived intermediate-water temperature and δ18OW values at B/A and PB periods suggest the poor ventilation of intermediate water because of the surface water freshening (i.e., decrease of surface-water salinity). UK'37-derived temperature record also supports the increase of surface-water temperature during B/A and PB intervals. During the last deglaciation, short-chain C14-C18 n-fatty acids, derived mainly from marine organisms, showed higher concentrations, indicating the increased surface-water production, and at the same time, abundant lignin reflected more contribution of terrigenous organic matter, supporting increased freshwater discharge. Variation of CaCO3 contents show remarkable double peaks, corresponding to B/A and PB periods, respectively, leading to the increase of TOC contents. Opal contents also follow similar pattern to CaCO3 contents, but are much less than the

  7. Monitoring of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata in the subarctic and in alpine areas of southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, David C.; Jónsson, Ingi R.; Cypaité, Vaiva; Ognjanova, Nadja; Ólafsson, Jón S.; Trichkova, Teodora

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades invasive species have been spreading across Europe. Although the perceptions of invasive species are divergent among researchers there is a general consent that invasive species endanger the diversity of native biota and hence should be monitored to initiate appropriate counter measures in drastic cases. Anthropogenic activities and climate change are the main cause for the enhanced spreading of non-native species to new environments. In this presentation we will present preliminary results from two aquatic case studies, one located in subarctic Iceland (River Elliðaár) and one in the high mountains of Bulgaria (the Seven Rila lakes), focusing on the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo). The diatom is a single cell algae which's natural habitat is cold fresh water environments with low nutrient content, i.e. mountainous areas in Europe, Asia and North America. In the last decades Didymo has been increasingly observed in new areas, e.g. Iceland, North America and New Zealand. Within the ESENIAS-TOOLS project two field excursions will identify the existence of Didymo in the two study sites and compare current abundance to previous observations. The preliminary results in the Rila Mountains, including both fossil and recent records, confirm that the occurrence of Didymo is restricted to Lake Bliznaka, the largest of the seven lakes located at lower altitude. In River Elliðaár preliminary results indicate a high abundance of Didymo along all sampling locations, confirming the invasive proliferation described in previous studies. The upscaling of the preliminary results from Elliðaár and Rila Mountains can help us to formulate general conclusions about the spreading of this invasive species. Furthermore, this bilateral cooperation can be further extended to other countries and hence contribute to a better management of invasive alien species in Europe. Acknowledgement: This study is part of ESENIAS - The East and South European

  8. Alternative technologies for remediation of technogenic barrens in the Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens under the reduction of air pollutant emissions from the Severonikel smelter in the Kola Subarctic is determined largely by the soil state and the technology applied. The covering of the contaminated soils with artificially made material based on organomineral substrates and the following liming and fertilization promoted a sharp and long-term reduction of acidity, decrease in the biological availability of heavy metals, increase in the supply with nutrients, and improvement of the life state of willow and birch plantations. The effect of economically more profitable chemo-phytostabilization is short-term; it requires constant maintenance. Under the current production and a high level of soil contamination, repeated measures are required to optimize the soil reaction, supply with nutrients, and to correct the availability of heavy metals in the soils based on the results of continuous monitoring

  9. Nonvascular contribution to ecosystem NPP in a subarctic heath during early and late growing season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Samson, Roeland; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    significant when vascular plants are less active and ecosystems act as a source of carbon (C). To clarify these dynamics, nonvascular and vascular aboveground NPP was compared for a subarctic heath during two contrasting periods of the growing season, viz. early-mid summer and late summer-early autumn...... measurements of shoot length increase. Vascular NPP was determined by harvesting shrub and herb apical growth and considering production due to stem secondary growth of shrubs. Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi showed highest biomass growth in late summer, whereas for D. elongatum this occurred...... weight m-2 d-1, in early and late summer, respectively, whereas in the same periods vascular NPP was 3.6 and 1.1 g dry weight m-2 d-1. The contribution of nonvascular NPP to total aboveground NPP was therefore minor in early summer but substantial in late summer, when 25% of the C accumulated...

  10. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T N; Gabrielsen, G W; Falk-Petersen, S

    1995-02-01

    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. "mus co shee": Indigenous Plant Foods and Horticultural Imperialism in the Canadian Sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-century arrival of the Hudson's Bay Company in Rupert's Land disrupted Mushkegowuk (Cree) hunter-gatherer society by replacing the collection of indigenous plant foods with a British planted-food model. Within a hundred years of British contact, new foodways relied upon hunting and gardening, bringing a loss in heritage plant food knowledge. Mushkegowuk living in the sub-arctic today have minimal knowledge of edible indigenous plants. Dependence on limited local gardening or imported grocery store vegetables has affected diet, nutrition, and cultural systems. In addition to exploring plant food gathering and gardening history in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, this paper demonstrates how re-discovering lost foodway knowledge can contribute to the health and well-being of those living in the far north.

  12. Organic iron (III) complexing ligands during an iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Obata, Hajime; Furuya, Ken; Johnson, William Keith; Wong, C. S.

    2008-06-01

    Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12-29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the Dilution of the fertilized patch may have contributed to the rapid decreases of the ligands. During the bloom decline, ligand concentration increased again, and the high concentrations persisted for 10 days. The conditional stability constant was not different between inside and outside of the fertilized patch. These results suggest that the chemical speciation of the released iron was strongly affected by formation of the ligands; the production of ligands observed during the bloom decline will strongly impact the iron cycle and bioavailability in the surface water.

  13. Methanethiol Concentrations and Sea-Air Fluxes in the Subarctic NE Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, R. P.; Williams, T. E.; Esson, K.; Tortell, P. D.; Dacey, J. W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of volatile organic sulfur from the ocean to the atmosphere impacts the global sulfur cycle and the climate system and is thought to occur mainly via the gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). DMS is produced during degradation of the abundant phytoplankton osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) but bacteria can also convert dissolved DMSP into the sulfur gas methanethiol (MeSH). MeSH has been difficult to measure in seawater because of its high chemical and biological reactivity and, thus, information on MeSH concentrations, distribution and sea-air fluxes is limited. We measured MeSH in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean in July 2016, along transects with strong phytoplankton abundance gradients. Water samples obtained with Niskin bottles were analyzed for MeSH by purge-and-trap gas chromatography. Depth profiles showed that MeSH concentrations were high near the surface and declined with depth. Surface waters (5 m depth) had an average MeSH concentration of 0.75 nM with concentrations reaching up to 3nM. MeSH concentrations were correlated (r = 0.47) with microbial turnover of dissolved DMSP which ranged up to 236 nM per day. MeSH was also correlated with total DMSP (r = 0.93) and dissolved DMS (r = 0.63), supporting the conclusion that DMSP was a major precursor of MeSH. Surface water MeSH:DMS concentration ratios averaged 0.19 and ranged up to 0.50 indicating that MeSH was a significant fraction of the volatile sulfur pool in surface waters. Sea-air fluxes of MeSH averaged 15% of the combined DMS+MeSH flux, therefore MeSH contributed an important fraction of the sulfur emitted to the atmosphere from the subarctic NE Pacific Ocean.

  14. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  15. Intra-basin variability of snowmelt water balance calculations in a subarctic catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Stephen E.; Carey, Sean K.; Pomeroy, John W.

    2006-03-01

    The intra-basin variability of snowmelt and melt-water runoff hydrology in an 8 km2 subarctic alpine tundra catchment was examined for the 2003 melt period. The catchment, Granger Creek, is within the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon, which is typical of mountain subarctic landscapes in northwestern Canada. The study catchment was segmented into nine internally uniform zones termed hydrological response units (HRUs) based on their similar hydrological, physiographic, vegetation and soil properties. Snow accumulation exhibited significant variability among the HRUs, with greatest snow water equivalent in areas of tall shrub vegetation. Melt began first on southerly exposures and at lower elevations, yet average melt rates for the study period varied little among HRUs with the exception of those with steep aspects. In HRUs with capping organic soils, melt water first infiltrated this surface horizon, satisfying its storage capacity, and then percolated into the frozen mineral substrate. Infiltration and percolation into frozen mineral soils was restricted where melt occurred rapidly and organic soils were thin; in this case, melt-water delivery rates exceeded the frozen mineral soil infiltration rate, resulting in high runoff rates. In contrast, where there were slower melt rates and thick organic soils, infiltration was unlimited and runoff was suppressed. The snow water equivalent had a large impact on runoff volume, as soil storage capacity was quickly surpassed in areas of deep snow, diverting the bulk of melt water laterally to the drainage network. A spatially distributed water balance indicated that the snowmelt freshet was primarily controlled by areas with tall shrub vegetation that accumulate large quantities of snow and by alpine areas with no capping organic soils. The intra-basin water balance variability has important implications for modelling freshet in hydrological models.

  16. Interannual Variability of Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Subarctic European Russian Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushchak, M. E.; Voigt, C.; Gil, J.; Lamprecht, R. E.; Trubnikova, T.; Virtanen, T.; Kaverin, D.; Martikainen, P. J.; Biasi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Southern tundra landscapes are particularly vulnerable to climate warming, permafrost thaw and associated landscape rearrangement due to near-zero permafrost temperatures. The large soil C and N stocks of subarctic tundra may create a positive feedback for warming if released to the atmosphere at increased rates. Subarctic tundra in European Russia is a mosaic of land cover types, which all play different roles in the regional greenhouse gas budget. Peat plateaus - massive upheaved permafrost peatlands - are large storehouses of soil carbon and nitrogen, but include also bare peat surfaces that act as hot-spots for both carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions. Tundra wetlands are important for the regional greenhouse gas balance since they show high rates of methane emissions and carbon uptake. The most dominant land-form is upland tundra vegetated by shrubs, lichens and mosses, which displays a close-to-neutral balance with respect to all three greenhouse gases. The study site Seida (67°03'N, 62°56'E), located in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Northeast European Russia, incorporates all these land forms and has been an object for greenhouse gas investigations since 2007. Here, we summarize the growing season fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide measured by chamber techniques over the study years. We analyzed the flux time-series together with the local environmental data in order to understand the drivers of interannual variability. Detailed soil profile measurements of greenhouse gas concentrations, soil moisture and temperature provide insights into soil processes underlying the net emissions to the atmosphere. The multiannual time-series allows us to assess the importance of the different greenhouse gases and landforms to the overall climate forcing of the study region.

  17. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1 °C over ambient using open top chambers) and litter addition (90 g m -2  yr -1 ) treatments in the subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralization to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralization of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralization of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile C inhibited C mineralization is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilization' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralization responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralization. However, C and N mineralization responses derived from the same SOM source must be interpreted together: This suggested that the microbial SOM-use decreased in magnitude and shifted to components richer in N. This finding highlights that only considering SOM in terms of C may be simplistic, and will not capture all changes in SOM decomposition. The selective mining for N increased in climate change treatments with higher fungal dominance. In conclusion, labile C appeared to trigger catabolic responses of the resident microbial community that shifted the SOM mining to N-rich components; an effect that increased with higher fungal dominance. Extrapolating from these findings, the predicted shrub expansion in the subarctic could result in an altered microbial use of SOM, selectively mining it for N-rich components, and leading to a reduced total SOM-use. © 2016 John Wiley

  18. Annual Report - ESCELSA - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; market overview; market expansion; customers; technological stream; measuring quality; electric system; investments; protecting the environment; and resource allocation

  19. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  20. Population dynamics and life history strategies of the dominant copepods in a sub-arctic Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    Investigations of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic pelagic food web have previously focused on the copepod genus Calanus, as they often dominate the mesozooplankton community and serve as a lipid rich food source for higher trophic levels. However, if night samples are considered a different food web...... might emerges with the omnivorous copepod Metridia spp. in a major role. Biology of Metridia is practically unknown but deviates from Calanus e.g. Metridia does not hibernate but stays active yearlong benefiting from being omnivore. In the present study abundance, depth distribution, and egg and pellet...... hibernating Calanus. M. longa might thereby also have a central role in the lipid rich food chain which is a distinct feature for Arctic and Sub-Arctic ecosystems...

  1. Annual report and accounts 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Southern Electric Group presents the Chairman's statement, and a review by the Chief Executive which covers productivity and efficiency, VAT, subsidiaries, associated activity, energy efficiency, safety and caring for the environment. This is followed by a financial review, the director's report, and the annual accounts for the year ended 31 March 1994. (UK)

  2. Report of the 2004 Workshop on In Situ Iron Enrichment Experiments in the Eastern and Western Subarctic Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Shigenobu; Wong, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Foreword 1. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES (pdf, 0.1 Mb) 2. 2004 WORKSHOP SUMMARY (pdf, < 0.1 Mb) 2.1. What have we learned from the enrichment experiments? 2.2 What are the outstanding questions? 2.3 Recommendations for SEEDS-II 3. EXTENDED ABSTRACTS OF THE 2004 WORKSHOP 3.1 Synthesis of the Iron Enrichment Experiments: SEEDS and SERIES (pdf, 0.5 Mb) Iron fertilization experiment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS) by At...

  3. Changing times, changing stories: Generational differences in climate change perspectives from four remote indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Matkin, Elli; Laituri, Melinda J.; Toohey, Ryan C; Massey, Maggie; Elder, Kelly; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities currently are facing a myriad of social and environmental changes. In response to these changes, studies concerning indigenous knowledge (IK) and climate change vulnerability, resiliency, and adaptation have increased dramatically in recent years. Risks to lives and livelihoods are often the focus of adaptation research; however, the cultural dimensions of climate change are equally important because cultural dimensions inform perceptions of risk. Furthermore, many Arctic and Subarctic IK climate change studies document observations of change and knowledge of the elders and older generations in a community, but few include the perspectives of the younger population. These observations by elders and older generations form a historical baseline record of weather and climate observations in these regions. However, many indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities are composed of primarily younger residents. We focused on the differences in the cultural dimensions of climate change found between young adults and elders. We outlined the findings from interviews conducted in four indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska. The findings revealed that (1) intergenerational observations of change were common among interview participants in all four communities, (2) older generations observed more overall change than younger generations interviewed by us, and (3) how change was perceived varied between generations. We defined “observations” as the specific examples of environmental and weather change that were described, whereas “perceptions” referred to the manner in which these observations of change were understood and contextualized by the interview participants. Understanding the differences in generational observations and perceptions of change are key issues in the development of climate change adaptation strategies.

  4. Transportation Statistics Annual Report, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report describes the Nations transportation system, the systems performance, its contributions to the economy, and its effects on people and the environment. This 22nd edition of the report is based on infor...

  5. Transportation statistics annual report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 20th edition of the report is : base...

  6. Transportation statistics annual report, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 18th edition of the report is : base...

  7. Export production in the subarctic North Pacific over the last 800 kyrs: No evidence for iron fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienast, S.S.; Hendy, I.L.; Crusius, J.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Calvert, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    The subarctic North Pacific is a high nitrate-low chlorophyll (HNLC) region, where phytoplankton growth rates, especially those of diatoms, are enhanced when micro-nutrient Fe is added. Accordingly, it has been suggested that glacial Fe-laden dust might have increased primary production in this region. This paper reviews published palaeoceanographic records of export production over the last 800 kyrs from the open North Pacific (north of ???35??N). We find different patterns of export production change over time in the various domains of the North Pacific (NW and NE subarctic gyres, the marginal seas and the transition zone). However, there is no compelling evidence for an overall increase in productivity during glacials in the subarctic region, challenging the paradigm that dust-born Fe fertilization of this region has contributed to the glacial draw down of atmospheric CO2. Potential reasons for the lack of increased glacial export production include the possibility that Fe-fertilization rapidly drives the ecosystem towards limitation by another nutrient. This effect would have been exacerbated by an even more stable mixed layer compared to today. ?? The Oceanographic Society of Japan.

  8. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

  9. Annual report 1999 - Brazil Nuclear Industry (INB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the 1999 annual report covering the following activities: nuclear fuel, resources and application, ISO 9001, environment social activities, personnel, financial indicators, and countability

  10. Association of climatic factors with infectious diseases in the Arctic and subarctic region--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Christina; Blomstedt, Yulia; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic and subarctic area are likely to be highly affected by climate change, with possible impacts on human health due to effects on food security and infectious diseases. To investigate the evidence for an association between climatic factors and infectious diseases, and to identify the most climate-sensitive diseases and vulnerable populations in the Arctic and subarctic region. A systematic review was conducted. A search was made in PubMed, with the last update in May 2013. Inclusion criteria included human cases of infectious disease as outcome, climate or weather factor as exposure, and Arctic or subarctic areas as study origin. Narrative reviews, case reports, and projection studies were excluded. Abstracts and selected full texts were read and evaluated by two independent readers. A data collection sheet and an adjusted version of the SIGN methodology checklist were used to assess the quality grade of each article. In total, 1953 abstracts were initially found, of which finally 29 articles were included. Almost half of the studies were carried out in Canada (n=14), the rest from Sweden (n=6), Finland (n=4), Norway (n=2), Russia (n=2), and Alaska, US (n=1). Articles were analyzed by disease group: food- and waterborne diseases, vector-borne diseases, airborne viral- and airborne bacterial diseases. Strong evidence was found in our review for an association between climatic factors and food- and waterborne diseases. The scientific evidence for a link between climate and specific vector- and rodent-borne diseases was weak due to that only a few diseases being addressed in more than one publication, although several articles were of very high quality. Air temperature and humidity seem to be important climatic factors to investigate further for viral- and bacterial airborne diseases, but from our results no conclusion about a causal relationship could be drawn. More studies of high quality are needed to investigate the adverse health impacts of weather and

  11. Quantifying dust input to the Subarctic North Pacific - Results from surface sediments and sea water thorium isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, G.; Serno, S.; Hayes, C.; Anderson, R. F.; Gersonde, R.; Haug, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Subarctic North Pacific is one of the three primary high-nutrient-low chlorophyll regions of the modern ocean, where the biological pump is relatively inefficient at transferring carbon from the atmosphere to the deep sea. The system is thought to be iron-limited. Aeolian dust is a significant source of iron and other nutrients that are essential for the health of marine ecosystems and potentially a controlling factor of the high-nutrient-low chlorophyll status of the Subarctic North Pacific. However, constraining the size of the dust flux to the surface ocean remains difficult. Here we apply two different approaches, based on surface sediment and water column samples, respectively, obtained during the SO202/INOPEX research cruise to the Subarctic North Pacific in 2009. We map the spatial patterns of Th/U isotopes, helium isotopes and rare earth elements across surface sediments from 37 multi-core core-top sediments across the Subarctic North Pacific. In order to deconvolve the detrital endmembers in regions of the North Pacific affected by volcanic material, IRD and hemipelagic input, we use a combination of trace elements with distinct characteristics in the different endmembers. This approach allows us to calculate the relative aeolian fraction, and in combination with Thorium230-normalized mass flux data, to quantify the dust supply. Secondly, we present an innovative approach to use paired Thorium-232 and Thorium-230 concentrations of upper-ocean seawater at 7 stations along the INOPEX track. Thorium-232 in the upper water column is dominantly derived from dissolution of aeolian dust, whereas Thorium-230 data provide a measure of the thorium removal from the surface waters and, thus, allow us to derive Thorium-232 fluxes. Combined with a mean Thorium-232 concentration in dust and estimate of the thorium solubility, the Thorium-232 flux can be translated in a dust flux to the surface ocean. Dust flux estimates for the Subarctic North Pacific will be

  12. Is the mineralisation response to root exudation controlled by the microbial stoichiometric demand in subarctic soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Hicks, Lettice; Leizeaga, Ainara; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will expose arctic and subarctic systems to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more rhizosphere labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1˚ C over ambient using open top chambers) and the addition of plant litter (90 g m-2 y-1) or organic nitrogen (N) (fungal fruit bodies; 90 g m-2 y-1) in the Subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralisation to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Root exudation were simulated with the addition of labile organic matter both in the form of only labile C (13C-glucose) or in the form of labile C and N (13C-alanine). We hypothesized that labile C would induce a higher mineralization of N than C sourced from SOM ("N mining"); a response unrelated to microbial growth responses. We also hypothesized that the N mining effect would be more pronounced in climate change simulation treatments of higher C/N (plant litter) than treatments with lower C/N (fungal fruitbodies and warming), with the control treatments intermediate. We also hypothesized that the addition of labile C and N would not result in selective N mining, but instead coupled responses of C and N mineralisation sourced from SOM; a response that would coincide with stimulated microbial growth responses. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralisation of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralisation of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile-C inhibited C mineralisation is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilisation' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralisation responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralisation. However, C and N mineralisation responses

  13. Complex Population Structure of Lyme Borreliosis Group Spirochete Borrelia garinii in Subarctic Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstedt, Pär; Asokliene, Loreta; Eliasson, Ingvar; Olsen, Björn; Wallensten, Anders; Bunikis, Jonas; Bergström, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia garinii, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia, is naturally maintained in marine and terrestrial enzootic cycles, which primarily involve birds, including seabirds and migratory passerines. These bird groups associate with, correspondingly, Ixodes uriae and Ixodes ricinus ticks, of which the latter species may bite and transmit the infection to humans. Studies of the overlap between these two natural cycles of B. garinii have been limited, in part due to the absence of representative collections of this spirochete's samples, as well as of the lack of reliable measure of the genetic heterogeneity of its strains. As a prerequisite for understanding the epidemiological correlates of the complex maintenance of B. garinii, the present study sought to assess the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of this species' strains from its natural hosts and patients with Lyme borreliosis from subarctic Eurasia. We used sequence typing of the partial rrs-rrl intergenic spacer (IGS) of archived and prospective samples of B. garinii from I. uriae ticks collected predominantly on Commander Islands in North Pacific, as well as on the islands in northern Sweden and arctic Norway. We also typed B. garinii samples from patients with Lyme borreliosis and I. ricinus ticks infesting migratory birds in southern Sweden, or found questing in selected sites on the islands in the Baltic Sea and Lithuania. Fifty-two (68%) of 77 B. garinii samples representing wide geographical range and associated with I. ricinus and infection of humans contributed 12 (60%) of total 20 identified IGS variants. In contrast, the remaining 25 (32%) samples recovered from I. uriae ticks from a few islands accounted for as many as 10 (50%) IGS types, suggesting greater local diversity of B. garinii maintained by seabirds and their ticks. Two IGS variants of the spirochete in common for both tick species were found in I. ricinus larvae from migratory birds, an indication that B

  14. FAA Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet Fuels & Environment : Annual Technical Report : December, 2016 : For the period September 13, 2013 - September 30, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report covers the period between the initial establishment of the FAA Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet Fuels and Environment on September 13, 2013 through September 30, 2015. The Center was established by the authority of FAA solicitatio...

  15. Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, K.D.; Knudsen, R.; Primicerio, R.; Klemetsen, A.; Kuris, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Parasites permeate trophic webs with their often complex life cycles, but few studies have included parasitism in food web analyses. Here we provide a highly resolved food web from the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake and explore how the incorporation of parasites alters the topology of the web. 2. Parasites used hosts at all trophic levels and increased both food-chain lengths and the total number of trophic levels. Their inclusion in the network analyses more than doubled the number of links and resulted in an increase in important food-web characteristics such as linkage density and connectance. 3. More than half of the parasite taxa were trophically transmitted, exploiting hosts at multiple trophic levels and thus increasing the degree of omnivory in the trophic web. 4. For trophically transmitted parasites, the number of parasite-host links exhibited a positive correlation with the linkage density of the host species, whereas no such relationship was seen for nontrophically transmitted parasites. Our findings suggest that the linkage density of free-living species affects their exposure to trophically transmitted parasites, which may be more likely to adopt highly connected species as hosts during the evolution of complex life cycles. 5. The study supports a prominent role for parasites in ecological networks and demonstrates that their incorporation may substantially alter considerations of food-web structure and functioning. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

  16. Seasonal changes in the radiation balance of subarctic forest and tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, P.M.; Renzetti, A.V.; Bello, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the seasonal behavior of the components of the radiation budget of subarctic tundra and open forest near Churchill, Manitoba. Data were collected between late February and August 1990. The presence of the winter snowpack is the most important factor which affects the difference in radiation balances of tundra and forest. Overall, net radiation was about four to five times larger over the forest when snow covered the ground. Albedo differences were primarily responsible for this difference in net radiation; however, somewhat smaller net longwave losses were experienced at the tundra site. The step decrease in albedo from winter to summer (i.e. snow-covered to snow-free conditions) was significant at both sites. The forest albedo decreased by about three-fold while the tundra experienced a seven-fold decrease. Net radiation at both sites increased in direct response to the albedo change. Transmissivity of the atmosphere near Churchill also appeared to change at about the same time as the loss of the snow cover and may be related to changing air masses which bring about the final snow melt

  17. Rapid responses of permafrost and vegetation to experimentally increased snow cover in sub-arctic Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Margareta; Bosiö, Julia; Akerman, H Jonas; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin; Christensen, Torben R; Callaghan, Terry V

    2013-01-01

    Increased snow depth already observed, and that predicted for the future are of critical importance to many geophysical and biological processes as well as human activities. The future characteristics of sub-arctic landscapes where permafrost is particularly vulnerable will depend on complex interactions between snow cover, vegetation and permafrost. An experimental manipulation was, therefore, set up on a lowland peat plateau with permafrost, in northernmost Sweden, to simulate projected future increases in winter precipitation and to study their effects on permafrost and vegetation. After seven years of treatment, statistically significant differences between manipulated and control plots were found in mean winter ground temperatures, which were 1.5 ° C higher in manipulated plots. During the winter, a difference in minimum temperatures of up to 9 ° C higher could be found in individual manipulated plots compared with control plots. Active layer thicknesses increased at the manipulated plots by almost 20% compared with the control plots and a mean surface subsidence of 24 cm was recorded in the manipulated plots compared to 5 cm in the control plots. The graminoid Eriophorum vaginatum has expanded in the manipulated plots and the vegetation remained green longer in the season. (letter)

  18. Some factors effecting algal consumption in subarctic Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Simuliidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the factors influencing algal consumption in the mayflies Leptophlebia nebulosa, Cinygmula tarda, Baetis foemina and B. cf. bicaudatus, the plecopterans Arcynopteryx signata, Nemoura cinctipes and N. oregonensis and in the dipterans Simulium arcticum, S. venustum and S. decorum were investigated between June 1975 and June 1976 in several streams in the Canadian subarctic. Algae represented up to 65% of the gut contents of L. nebulosa but only 0--8% in the other mayflies. They were important in the plecopterans (85--90%) but less so (2--13%) in the simuliids. Most of the interspecies variability in algal consumption could be explained in terms of food availability. This factor was in turn dependent on the density and attachment characteristics of the flora and the strength of their cell wall. Feeding intensity in most species was low between October and April, reaching it peak in July and August. From 51 to 83% of intraspecies feeding variability was due to changing temperature, followed in importance by water velocity in the dipterans and food availability in the mayflies. All species in this latter group ceased feeding in the final instar stages.

  19. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  20. Effects of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc enrichments on productivity and biomass in the subarctic Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coale, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    Natural plankton populations from subarctic Pacific surface waters were incubated in 7-d experiments with added concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Small additions of metals were used to simulate natural perturbations in metal concentrations potentially experienced by marine plankton. Trace metal concentrations, phytoplankton productivity, Chl a, and the species composition of phytoplankton and microzooplankton were measured over the course of the experiment. Although the controls indicated little growth, increases in phytoplankton productivity, Chl a, and cell densities were dramatic after the addition of 0.89 nM Fe, indicating that it may limit the rates of algal production in these waters. Similar increases were observed in experiments with 3.9 nM Cu added. The Cu effect is attributed to a decrease in the grazing activities of the microzooplankton and increases in the rates of production. Mn enrichment had its greatest effect on diatom biomass, whereas Zn enrichment had its greatest effect on other autofluorescent organisms. The extent of trace metal adsorption onto carboy walls was also evaluated. These results imply that natural systems may be affected as follows: natural levels of Fe and Cu may influence phytoplankton productivity and trophic structure in open-ocean, high-nutrient, low-biomass systems; rates of net production are not limited by one micronutrient alone

  1. Wintertime pytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supportedby continental margin iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus,Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2004-06-08

    Heightened biological activity was observed in February 1996in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) subarctic North PacificOcean, a region that is thought to beiron-limited. Here we provideevidence supporting the hypothesis that Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in thesubarctic Pacific received a lateral supply of particulate iron from thecontinental margin off the Aleutian Islands in the winter, coincidentwith the observed biological bloom. Synchrotron X-ray analysis was usedto describe the physical form, chemistry, and depth distributions of ironin size fractionated particulate matter samples. The analysis revealsthat discrete micron-sized iron-rich hotspots are ubiquitous in the upper200m at OSP, more than 900km from the closest coast. The specifics of thechemistry and depth profiles of the Fe hot spots trace them to thecontinental margins. We thus hypothesize that iron hotspots are a markerfor the delivery of iron from the continental margin. We confirm thedelivery of continental margin iron to the open ocean using an oceangeneral circulation model with an iron-like tracer source at thecontinental margin. We suggest that iron from the continental marginstimulated a wintertime phytoplankton bloom, partially relieving the HNLCcondition.

  2. Diverse Mesorhizobium bacteria nodulate native Astragalus and Oxytropis in arctic and subarctic areas in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Lindström, Kristina; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia nodulating native Astragalus and Oxytropis spp. in Northern Europe are not well-studied. In this study, we isolated bacteria from nodules of four Astragalus spp. and two Oxytropis spp. from the arctic and subarctic regions of Sweden and Russia. The phylogenetic analyses were performed by using sequences of three housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoB and recA) and two accessory genes (nodC and nifH). The results of our multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of the three housekeeping genes tree showed that all the 13 isolates belonged to the genus Mesorhizobium and were positioned in six clades. Our concatenated housekeeping gene tree also suggested that the isolates nodulating Astragalus inopinatus, Astragalus frigidus, Astragalus alpinus ssp. alpinus and Oxytropis revoluta might be designated as four new Mesorhizobium species. The 13 isolates were grouped in three clades in the nodC and nifH trees. 15 N analysis suggested that the legumes in association with these isolates were actively fixing nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The Biogeochemical Response to Inter-decadal Atmospheric Forcing Across Watershed Scales in Canada's Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid landscape changes in the circumpolar north have been documented, including degradation of permafrost and alteration of vegetation communities. These are widely expected to have profound impacts on the freshwater fluxes of solutes, carbon and nitrogen across the Arctic domain. However, there have been few attempts to document trends across the diversity of landscapes in the circumpolar north, mostly due to a dearth of long term data. Some of the fastest rates of warming over the last thirty years have occurred in Canada's Northwest Territories, so this region should already exhibit changes in aquatic chemistry. Observations of chemical loads in streams draining the ice-poor discontinuous permafrost subarctic Canadian Shield region were analyzed with the goal of determining how basins across scales have responded to changes in atmospheric forcing. Smaller streams, with much closer linkages to terrestrial processes, experienced a synchrony among hydrological and biogeochemical processes that enhanced chemical flux above that in their larger counterparts. This demonstrates that there are differences in resiliency and resistance across scales to climate change. These results highlight the importance of biogeochemical process understanding to properly explain and predict how chemical loading scales from headwaters to river mouths. This is important information if society is to properly adapt policies for effluent discharge, nearshore marine management, among others.

  4. Phytoplankton growth and herbivory in the subarctic Pacific: A chemotaxonomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welschmeyer, N.; Goericke, R.; Strom, S.; Peterson, W.

    1991-01-01

    Chlorophyll crops in the subarctic Pacific are low and relatively constant throughout the year; however, net growth of phytoplankton occurs when natural water is enclosed in incubation containers and exposed to adequate irradiance. Pigment-based measurements of taxon-specific growth rates and taxon-specific grazing pressure were made in an attempt to understand the dynamic processes leading to the net growth of phytoplankton in bottles. Specific growth rates, determined from 14 C labeling of chromatographically separated pigments showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells (diatoms) were the fastest growing microalgae; a rapid net accumulation of fucoxanthin also occurred. Independent measurements of specific growth rates, determined from chromatographic analysis of microzooplankton dilution experiments, also showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells had the highest specific growth rates. Importantly, microzooplankton grazing rates on fucoxanthin-containing cells were only about half the specific growth rate; hence, the resultant bloom of fucoxanthin. The authors speculate that the lag in chlorophyll growth that has been reported previously is an artifact of subculturing; fast-growing, but dilute, fucoxanthin-containing cells do not become a significant portion of the total chlorophyll signal until late in the experiment. Other diagnostic carotenoids, such as 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin and 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, remained nearly constant through long-term incubations. However, they became actively 14 C labeled and showed positive specific rates of growth. Dilution experiments showed that their specific growth rate was compensated by microzooplankton grazing

  5. Modeling a two-layer flow system at the subarctic, subalpine tree line during snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Erica E.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    2002-10-01

    In the subarctic it is common to encounter a two-layer flow system consisting of a porous organic cover overlying frozen or unfrozen mineral soils with much lower hydraulic conductivities. The "simple lumped reservoir parametric," or "semidistributed land-use-based runoff processes" (SLURP), model was adapted to simulate runoff generated by such a flow system from an upland shrub land to an open woodland downslope. A subalpine site in Wolf Creek, Yukon, Canada, was subdivided into two aggregated simulation areas (ASA), each being a unit characterized by a set of parameters. The model computes the vertical water balance and flow generation from several storages, and then routes the water out of the ASA. When applied to the 1999 snowmelt season, the model simulated the very low lateral flow and a large increase in storage in the mineral soil, as was observed in the field. The model was used to assess the sensitivity of the two-layer flow system under a range of temperature, snow cover, and frost conditions. Results show that within the range of possible climatic conditions, the hydrologic system is unlikely to yield significant runoff across the subalpine tree line, but if ground ice is abundant in the soil pores, percolation will be limited and fast flow from the surface layer is enhanced.

  6. UAV Remote Sensing Surveillance of a Mine Tailings Impoundment in Sub-Arctic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anssi Rauhala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining typically involves extensive areas where environmental monitoring is spatially sporadic. New remote sensing techniques and platforms such as Structure from Motion (SfM and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs may offer one solution for more comprehensive and spatially continuous measurements. We conducted UAV campaigns in three consecutive summers (2015–2017 at a sub-Arctic mining site where production was temporarily suspended. The aim was to monitor a 0.5 km2 tailings impoundment and measure potential subsidence of tailings. SfM photogrammetry was used to produce yearly topographical models of the tailings surface, which allowed the amount of surface displacement between years to be tracked. Ground checkpoints surveyed in stable areas of the impoundment were utilized in assessing the vertical accuracy of the models. Observed surface displacements were linked to a combination of erosion, tailings settlement, and possible compaction of the peat layer underlying the tailings. The accuracy obtained indicated that UAV-assisted monitoring of tailings impoundments is sufficiently accurate for supporting impoundment management operations and for tracking surface displacements in the decimeter range.

  7. Feasibility analysis of a smart grid photovoltaics system for the subarctic rural region in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei

    A smart grid photovoltaics system was developed to demonstrate that the system is feasible for a similar off-grid rural community in the subarctic region in Alaska. A system generation algorithm and a system business model were developed to determine feasibility. Based on forecasts by the PV F-Chart software, a 70° tilt angle in winter, and a 34° tilt angle in summer were determined to be the best angles for electrical output. The proposed system's electricity unit cost was calculated at 32.3 cents/kWh that is cheaper than current unsubsidized electricity price (46.8 cents/kWh) in off-grid rural communities. Given 46.8 cents/kWh as the electricity unit price, the system provider can break even when 17.3 percent of the total electrical revenue through power generated by the proposed system is charged. Given these results, the system can be economically feasible during the life-cycle period. With further incentives, the system may have a competitive advantage.

  8. Habitat quality of a subarctic nursery ground for 0-group plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Vânia; Campos, Joana; Skreslet, Stig; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2010-07-01

    Habitat quality of a subarctic nursery ground in northern Norway for 0-group plaice Pleuronectes platessa was investigated by following settlement, mortality and growth during 2005 and 2006. Newly settled individuals were first observed in the end of May to early June and settlement lasted until mid-July. Densities peaked in early July and were comparable to those reported in temperate nursery grounds. Mortality estimates after settlement differed between 0.062 d -1 in 2005 and 0.025 d -1 in 2006. Potential predators appeared to be rather similar as those reported in other areas: the brown shrimp Crangoncrangon, the shore crab Carcinus maenas and demersal fish species (gadoids). Population mean growth indicated linear growth until August leveling-off afterwards. 0-group plaice reached a lower mean size (5-6 cm) at the end of the growing season than in temperate areas probably due to later settlement timing in combination with lower summer-autumn water temperatures. The comparison of observed growth rates with predictions of maximum growth models indicated a similar pattern as observed in temperate nursery grounds: Growth appeared to be maximal except for the period after summer. Whether or not this was related to changes in food quality throughout the season, to interspecies competition or to emigration remains to be elucidated.

  9. The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Thomas, David; Rysgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the relative effects of biological activity and precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in influencing the air-ice CO2 exchange in sea-ice-covered season is currently lacking. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal occurrence of CaCO3 and other biogeochemical parameters...... in sea ice are still not well described. Here we investigated autotrophic and heterotrophic activity as well as the precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 in subarctic sea ice in South West Greenland. Integrated over the entire ice season (71 days), the sea ice was net autotrophic with a net carbon fixation...... and CaCO3 precipitation. The net biological production could only explain 4 % of this sea-ice-driven CO2 uptake. Abiotic processes contributed to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 1.5 mmol m(-2) sea ice day(-1), and dissolution of CaCO3 increased the air-sea CO2 uptake by 36 % compared to a theoretical estimate...

  10. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2006. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2006 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  11. Risoe annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    An explanation of Risoe National Laboratory's function within the Danish research system is followed by brief accounts of research activities at Risoe during 1987. Energy resources, technology and policy are discussed, the annual accounts are presented, a guide to the National Laboratory and a list of its publications are given. Some of the research activities that took place in 1987 described in more detail are within the fields of chemistry and the environment, superconductivity, new aspects of powdery mildew, polymers and robotics. (AB)

  12. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiboda, G [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented.

  13. OPEC annual report 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This annual report is concerned with the following items: the general economic situation of OPEC member countries, other developing countries and the industrial countries; energy market developments (environment, crude oil, crude oil prices, oil stock movements); upstream and downstream activities (exploration, production and reserves, refining, petrochemicals, hydrocarbon transportation, legislation, contracts and agreements in Member Countries); activities of the Secretariat. The annexes contain statistical data, press releases and resolutions and a schedule of member Country representatives and officials of the Secretariat.

  14. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  15. Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiboda, G [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented.

  16. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  17. Expectancy Theory as a Predictor of Grade-Point Averages, Satisfaction, and Participation in the College Environment. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; And Others

    The ability of Vroom's expectancy motivation theory to predict student satisfaction with the college environment, student participation at school, and student academic performance was studied. Specific objectives of the study were as follows: to test the ability of Vroom's valence model to predict student satisfaction, to test the ability of…

  18. Seasonal calcareous nannoplankton and other biogenic particle fluxes for 1990-2009: twenty-year long records from the central subarctic Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kozo; Tsutsui, Hideto

    2017-04-01

    and NOAA, it appears likely that siliceous phytoplankton such as diatoms and silicoflagellates is more dependent on high nutrient conditions than calcareous nannoplankton requires. Calcareous nannoplankton, on the other hand, appears to require rather narrow own species range of temperatures while nutrient requirement may not be as strict as those by siliceous microplankton. Within the two calcareous nannoplankton taxa, it is clear that C. pelagicus has higher nutrient dependency than E. huxleyi. Essentially, calcareous nannoplankton can still produce in November [actual production in surface water in October] when solar intensity decreases significantly, as long as temperatures are still appropriate. By this time of the year most siliceous phytoplankton had more or less completed bulk of their annual production. Exceptions for this are rather limited characteristic species that are adapted in dim light but high nutrients such as Coscinodiscus marginatus (diatom) and Dictyocha mandarai (silicoflagellate) in the subarctic Pacific (Takahashi et al., 1989).

  19. Late Holocene climate and chemical change at high latitudes: case studies from contaminated sites in subarctic and arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Cooney, Darryl; Crann, Carley; Falck, Hendrik; Howell, Dana; Jamieson, Heather; Macumber, Andrew; Nasser, Nawaf; Palmer, Michael; Patterson, R. Timothy; Parsons, Michael; Roe, Helen M.; Sanei, Hamed; Spence, Christopher; Stavinga, Drew; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability is occurring at unprecedented rates in northern regions of the Earth, yet little is known about the nature of this variability or its influence on chemical cycling in the environment, particularly in areas with a legacy of contamination from past resource development. We use a paleolimnological approach to reconstruct climate and chemical change over centuries and millennia at two sites in the mineral-rich Slave Geologic Province in Northern Canada heavily impacted by gold mining. Such an approach is necessary to define the cumulative effects of climate change on metal loading and can be used to define anthropogenic release of contaminants to support policy and regulation due to a paucity of long-term monitoring data. The Seabridge Gold Inc. Courageous Lake project is a gold exploration project 240 km north of Yellowknife in the central Northwest Territories, Arctic Canada. Mining operations took place within the claim area at the Tundra (1964-1968) and Salmita (1983-1987) mines. Giant Mine is located in the subarctic near the City of Yellowknife and mining at this site represents the longest continuous gold mining operation in Canada (1938 to 2002). Due to the refractory mineralogy of ore, gold was extracted from arsenopyrite by roasting, which resulted in release of substantial quantities of highly toxic arsenic trioxide to the environment. Arsenic (As) is also naturally elevated at these sites due its occurrence in Yellowknife Supergroup greenstone belts and surficial geologic deposits. To attempt to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of As and characterize the role of climate change on metalloid mobility we used a freeze coring technology to capture lake sediments from the properties. Sediments were analyzed for sedimentary grain size and bulk geochemistry using ICP-MS to reconstruct climate and chemical change. Micropaleontological analyses are on-going. Interpretations of the physical, chemical, and biological archive

  20. NIRE annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of `ecotechnology` that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts on such topics as: emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from advanced coal combustors; catalysts for diesel NO{sub x} removal; measuring dust from stationary sources; software for life cycle assessment; marine disposal of CO{sub 2}; emissions of greenhouse gases from coal mines in Japan; structural changes in coal particles during gasification; solubilization and desulfurization of high sulfur coal with trifluoromethane sulfuroic acid; and oxidation mechanisms of H{sub 2}S.

  1. GKSS annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, one of the national research centers, carries out R and D work on conservation of resources and environment, improvement of working conditions and on increase of economic competitiveness. The activities fall into the fields energy research and technology, basic technologies, marine research and techniques, health-environment-biotechnology. The annual report contains selected research work in summaries, the report on R and D work in reactor safety, materials research, environmental and climate research as well as environmental, and underwater techniques, describes the research institutes, cooperation with external partners, the organization, the budget, personnel, publications, including patent applications, and lectures. (HK) [de

  2. Uptake of pulse injected nitrogen by soil microbes and mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants in a species-diverse subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Jonasson, Sven; Strom, Lena

    2008-01-01

    15N labeled ammonium, glycine or glutamic acid was injected into subarctic heath soil in situ, with the purpose of investigating how the nitrogen added in these pulses was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the acquisition of 15N label in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhiza......15N labeled ammonium, glycine or glutamic acid was injected into subarctic heath soil in situ, with the purpose of investigating how the nitrogen added in these pulses was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the acquisition of 15N label in mycorrhizal and non...

  3. Comparative responses of phenology and reproductive development to simulated environmental change in sub-arctic and high arctic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wookey, P A; Welker, J M; Callaghan, T V [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Parsons, A N; Potter, J A; Lee, J A; Press, M C [Dept. of Environmental Biology, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, precipitation and nutrient perturbations, and their interactions, are being assessed on two contrasting arctic ecosystems to simulate impacts of climate change. One, a high arctic polar semi-desert community, is characterized by a sparse, low and aggregated vegetation cover where plant proliferation is by seedlings, whereas the other, a sub-arctic dwarf shrub health, is characterized by a complete, vegetation cover of erect, clonal dwarf shrubs which spread vegetatively. The developmental processes of seed production were shown to be highly sensitive, even within one growing season to specific environmental perturbations which differed between sites. At the polar semi-desert site, there was a striking effect of the temperature enhancement treatments on phenology and seed-setting of Dryas octopetala ssp. octopetala, with almost no seed-setting occurring in plots experiencing ambient temperatures. By contrast, there were no significant effects of temperature enhancement alone on fruit production of Empetrum hermaphroditum at the sub-Arctic dwarf shrub heath site, although fruit production was significantly influenced by the application of nutrients and/or water. The response of dominant high arctic dwarf shrub to increased temperature suggests that any climate warming may stimulate seed-set. This could be particularly important in the high Arctic where colonization can proceed in areas dominated by bare ground and where genetic recombination may be needed to generate tolerance to predicted changes of great magnitude. In the sub-Arctic, however the closed vegetation is dominated by clonally-proliferating species. Plant fitness will increase here in response to any increased vegetative growth resulting from higher nutrient availability in warmer organic soils. (ua) (59 refs.)

  4. Tulane/Xavier University hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, January 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-02

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Summaries which describe objectives, goals, and accomplishments are included on ten collaborative cluster projects, two education projects, and six initiation projects. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Development and application of sedimentary pigments for assessing effects of climatic and environmental changes on subarctic lakes in northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuss, Nina Steenberg; Leavitt, Peter R.; Hall, Roland I.

    2010-01-01

    to the modern tree line. The spatial survey of sedimentary pigments was analyzed using principle components analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). PCA explained 73-83% of variance in pigment abundance and composition, whereas RDA explained 22-32% of variation in fossil assemblages. Dissolved organic...... transitions in the phototrophic community during the late Holocene were less easily interpreted. Terrestrial vegetation development thus appears to be of utmost importance for the regulation of primary production in oligotrophic alpine and subarctic lakes and climate impacts on lakes, whereas other basin...

  6. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...

  7. Wetland development, permafrost history and nutrient cycling inferred from late Holocene peat and lake sediment records in subarctic Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokfelt, U.; Reuss, N.; Struyf, E.

    2010-01-01

    to re-deposition of peat into one of the lakes after ca. 2,100 cal BP, and stimulated primary productivity in the other lake at ca. 1,900-1,800 cal BP. Carbonate precipitation appears to have been suppressed when acidic poor fen and bog (palsa) communities dominated the catchment mire, and permafrost...... insight into nutrient and permafrost dynamics in a subarctic wetland and imply that continued permafrost decay and related vegetation changes towards minerotrophy may increase carbon and nutrient storage of mire deposits and reduce nutrient fluxes in runoff. Rapid permafrost degradation may on the other...

  8. Distributions and seasonal abundances of krill eggs and larvae in the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Frederik Wolff; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Akther, Hasna

    2015-01-01

    The larval krill community (Thysanoessa spp.) was investigated along the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland, in June 2010. In addition, the progress of krill development from egg to furcilia was studied from March to August 2010 in a fjord branching off the Godthåbsfjord. Krill spawned from...... and furcilia stages lasted 22 and 63 d, respectively. The growth rate from metanauplius to calyptopis was 0.12 d−1, while the growth rate across all developmental stages was 0.05 d−1. Mortality rates were calculated as 25% from eggs to nauplii, 48% from eggs to calyptopes and 83% from eggs to furcilia. During...

  9. Characterizing the annual cycle of African dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America and its impact on the environment and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Collard, François-Xavier; Molinié, Jack; Jeannot, Alexis

    2014-07-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Satellite aerosol products suggest that in spring, there is a comparable transport to northeastern South America. Here we characterize the complete annual cycle of dust transport to the western Atlantic by linking the Barbados record to multiyear records of airborne particulate matter less than 10 µm diameter (PM10) measured in air quality programs at Cayenne (French Guiana) and Guadeloupe. Comparisons of PM10 at these sites with concurrent dust measurements at Barbados demonstrate that high PM10 levels are almost entirely due to dust. Cayenne PM10 peaks in spring in a cycle which is consistent with satellite aerosol optical depth and suggests that the Sahel is the dominant source. The persistent transport of dust during much of the year could impact a wide range of environmental processes over a broad region that extends from the southern United States to the Amazon Basin. Finally, the average 24 h PM10 concentrations at Cayenne and Guadeloupe frequently exceed the World Health Organization air quality guideline. Thus soil dust PM10 could be a significant, but generally unrecognized, health factor at western Atlantic sites and also in other relatively remote regions affected by long-range dust from Africa. Because dust emissions and transport are highly sensitive to climate variability, climate change in coming decades could greatly affect a wide range of biogeochemical processes and human health in this region.

  10. First annual report of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee to the Secretaries of State for the Environment, Scotland and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.

    1980-05-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: summary; introduction; current radioactive waste management practices; research into radioactive waste management; high level waste conditioning and disposal; A Nuclear Waste Disposal Corporation; and future work. Annexes cover the following: membership of Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee; terms of reference of other bodies; objectives of radioactive waste management; diagram of radiation exposure of the population of the United Kingdom; the categorisation of wastes; deep sea dumping; and geological research programme (text of the Committee's letter to the Secretary of State for the Environment). (U.K.)

  11. Macrozoobenthos in the subarctic river Tenojoki as an environmental indicator. Tenojoen pohjaelaeimistoe ympaeristoen laadun kuvaajana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lax, H.G.; Koskenniemi, E.; Sevola, P.; Bagge, P.

    1993-01-01

    The macrozoobenthos of the subarctic river Tenojoki and some of its tributaries was studied in June and September 1989 as a part of the environmental monitoring programme. The river (F = 16 386 km[sup 2], length 300 km, L = 2.4 %, Q varies between 30-400 m[sup 3]/s) is situated on the Finnish-Norwegian border and is characterized by sand bottoms interrupted by shorter reaches of gravel and stone bottoms. The water is usually clear (colour < 40 mg Pt/l) and oligotrophic (tot-P < 10 [mu]g/l). The bottom fauna was sampled from 9 stations in the main river and from one station in each of the 5 major tributaries. The sampling methods used were: kick-sampling and imago hand netting from all stations, colonization substrates (stone baskets and bricks) at 9 stations in the main river. The tax a number of the kick-samples varied from 10-15/station in spring (totally 51 taxa) and from 15-25/station in autumn (totally 69 taxa). In spring the river margin (depth 0-25 cm) seemed to be an important habitat for many species especially in the upper parts of the river. In autumn most of the species occurred on deeper bottoms (depth 50-100 cm). The most common feeding types in spring were the collectors (Amaletus inopinatus, Chironomidae) and in autumn the scrapers (Elmidae, Baetidae, Hydroptllidae) and collectors (Chironomidae). The pollution index (LongScoreSystem) indicated that the conditions in the lower part of the main river was more stressing for the bottom fauna than in the upper part. But up to now it seems as if the organic pollution from settlements have had only positive effects on the benthic community

  12. Observing Trace Gases Of The Arctic And Subarctic Stratosphere By TELIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Doicu, Adrian; Vogt, Peter; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg; Trautmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The Terahertz and submillimeter Limb Sounder (TELIS) is a balloon-borne cryogenic heterodyne spectrometer developed by a consortium of European institutes, which was mounted together with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - Balloon (MIPAS- B) and the mini- Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mini-DOAS) instruments on a stratospheric gondola. The TELIS instrument is designed to monitor the vertical distribution of stratospheric state parameters associated with ozone destruction and climate change in Arctic and subarctic areas. The broad spectral coverage of TELIS is achieved by utilizing three frequency channels: a tunable 1.8THz channel based on a solid state local oscillator and a hot electron bolometer as mixer, a 480-650GHz channel with the Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) technology, and a highly compact 500 GHz channel developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON), and the Rutherford Apple- ton Laboratory (RAL), respectively. Furthermore, an ex- tended spectral range is observed by the combination of TELIS and MIPAS-B, which can be employed for cross validation of several gas concentrations. Between 2009 and 2011 three successful scientific flights have been launched in Kiruna, Sweden and all relevant atmospheric gas species were seen by TELIS over an altitude range of 10-32.5 km. For estimation of concentration profiles from TELIS measurements, a constrained nonlinear least squares fitting framework along with var- ious Tikhonov-type regularization methods has been developed. In this work we present recent retrieval results from latest calibrated spectra during the 2010 flight. Emphasis is placed on ozone (O3) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), and error issues pertaining to the main instrumental uncertainty terms including nonlinearity in the calibration procedure, sideband ratio and pointing offset are investigated. The retrieved profiles are validated against

  13. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-02-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O(2) concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing (clone libraries and 454-pyrotags). Estimates of MGA abundance as a proportion of total bacteria were similar across all three methods although estimates based on CARD-FISH were consistently lower in the OMZ (5.6%±1.9%) than estimates based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (11.0%±3.9%) or pyrotags (9.9%±1.8%). Five previously defined MGA subgroups were recovered in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and five novel subgroups were defined (HF770D10, P262000D03, P41300E03, P262000N21 and A714018). Rarefaction analysis of pyrotag data indicated that the ultimate richness of MGA was very nearly sampled. Spearman's rank analysis of MGA abundances by CARD-FISH and O(2) concentrations resulted in significant correlation. Analyzed in more detail by 16S rRNA pyrotag sequencing, MGA operational taxonomic units affiliated with subgroups Arctic95A-2 and A714018 comprised 0.3-2.4% of total bacterial sequences and displayed strong correlations with decreasing O(2) concentration. This study is the first comprehensive description of MGA diversity using complementary techniques. These results provide a phylogenetic framework for interpreting future studies on ecotype selection among MGA subgroups, and suggest a potentially important role for MGA in the ecology and biogeochemistry of OMZs.

  14. Growth, development, and nutritional physiology of grasshoppers from subarctic and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; Defoliart, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of developmental rate, growth rate, and size at maturity in the life history of poikliotherms, the trade-offs among these traits and selection pressures involved in the evolution of these traits are not well understood. This study compared these traits in a grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes F. (Orthoptera: Acrididae), from two contrasting geographical regions, subarctic Alaska and temperate Idaho. The growing season in the interior of Alaska is about 80 d shorter than at low-elevation sites in Idaho. We hypothesized that the Alaskan grasshoppers would show more rapid growth and development than grasshoppers from Idaho, at the cost of greater sensitivity to food quality. On a diet of lettuce and wheat bran, grasshoppers from Alaska developed from egg hatch to adult more rapidly than those from Idaho at each of three different temperature regimes. Averaged over all temperature treatments, the weight of the Alaskan grasshoppers was about 5% less than that of the Idaho grasshoppers at the adult molt. Feeding and digestive efficiencies were determined for the final two instars using two meridic diets: one with a high concentration of nutrients and the other with the same formulation but diluted with cellulose. Alaskan grasshoppers again developed more rapidly, weighed less, and had faster growth rates than those from Idaho. Alaskan grasshoppers supported their more rapid growth by increasing postingestive efficiencies; that is, they had higher conversion rates of digested matter to biomass on the high-quality diet, greater assimilation of food on the low-quality diet, and greater efficiency of nitrogen assimilation or retention on both diets. There was no evidence that performance of Alaskan grasshoppers suffered any more than that of the Idaho grasshoppers on the low-quality diet.

  15. Ozone variability and halogen oxidation within the Arctic and sub-Arctic springtime boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Gilman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of halogen oxidation on the variabilities of ozone (O3 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs within the Arctic and sub-Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated using field measurements from multiple campaigns conducted in March and April 2008 as part of the POLARCAT project. For the ship-based measurements, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.98 for 544 data points collected north of 68° N was observed between the acetylene to benzene ratio, used as a marker for chlorine and bromine oxidation, and O3 signifying the vast influence of halogen oxidation throughout the ice-free regions of the North Atlantic. Concurrent airborne and ground-based measurements in the Alaskan Arctic substantiated this correlation and were used to demonstrate that halogen oxidation influenced O3 variability throughout the Arctic boundary layer during these springtime studies. Measurements aboard the R/V Knorr in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans provided a unique view of the transport of O3-poor air masses from the Arctic Basin to latitudes as far south as 52° N. FLEXPART, a Lagrangian transport model, was used to quantitatively determine the exposure of air masses encountered by the ship to first-year ice (FYI, multi-year ice (MYI, and total ICE (FYI+MYI. O3 anti-correlated with the modeled total ICE tracer (r = −0.86 indicating that up to 73% of the O3 variability measured in the Arctic marine boundary layer could be related to sea ice exposure.

  16. Future stratospheric ozone depletion will affect a subarctic dwarf shrub ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Ulf

    1997-02-01

    The stratospheric ozone depletion and the concomitant increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation is of global concern due to the effects of UV-B on living organisms. To investigate the effects of increased levels of UV-B, a field irradiation system was established at a subarctic dwarf shrub heath in Northern Sweden (68 deg N). An ozone depletion of 15% under clear sky conditions was simulated over a naturally growing ecosystem. The response of both individual components and processes was studied to reveal changes in ecosystem structure and function. Species with different life strategies (evergreen or deciduous) responded differently both in magnitude and direction. The evergreen species were more responsive to UV-B regarding shoot growth, which could be due to cumulative effects in long-lived tissues, since the retardation in relative growth increased over time of exposure. Leaves of evergreen species became thicker under enhanced UV-B, while leaves of deciduous species became thinner. Decomposition studies (laboratory and in situ) showed that indirect effects of UV-B, due to changes in leaf tissue chemistry affected microbial activity and slowed down the decomposition rate. More directly, UV-B decreased the abundance of some fungal species and hence the composition of species. However, no altered decomposition rate was found when decomposition progressed under high UV-B even if the microorganisms were fewer. This could be due to the increased direct photo degradation of litter that compensates for lower microbial activity. The decomposition rate is therefore strongly dependent on the interception of UV-B at the litter layer. This research has shown that ecosystem components and processes are affected in a number of ways and that there are indications of changes in species composition in a long-term perspective due to differences in responsiveness between the different species. 128 refs, 7 figs

  17. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotander, Anna; Bavel, Bert van; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Polder, Anuschka; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Dam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas was covered. PCN congeners 48, 52, 53, 66 and 69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland and the total PCN content accounted for 0.2% or less of the total non-planar PCB content. No statistically significant trend in contaminant levels could be established for the studied areas. However, in all species except minke whales caught off Norway the lowest ∑PCN concentrations were found in samples from the latest sampling period. - Highlights: ► PCN concentrations are described in a wide variety of marine mammal species. ► A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas is covered. ► Pooled blubber samples covering a time period of 23 years are evaluated. ► Species- and geographic-dependent PCN congener distribution is seen. ► A decrease in the PCN load is indicated in the studied areas in recent years. - Analysis of PCNs in seven marine mammal species sampled over a 23 year period indicates a decline in the PCN load in sub-Arctic and Arctic areas in recent years.

  18. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  19. Plutonium, cesium, uranium, and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1982-November 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured radionuclide activities in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported from the tidal Hudson to coastal waters. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion is likely to be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 5 references

  20. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  1. Plutonium, cesium, uranium, and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1981-November 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while 80 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion is likely to be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. Activities of several other nuclides of interest in radioactive waste management ( 238 U, 234 U, 232 Th, 230 Th, 228 Th, 231 Pa) were also found to be orders of magnitude greater in high carbonate waters than in other natural waters

  2. Plutonium, cesium, uranium and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1983-November 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in sediment cores and suspended particle samples from the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co, 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu indicate rapid accumulation in marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations of more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream appears to be retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported. Significant movement of dissolved plutonium into the estuary from adjacent coastal waters may be occurring. Depth profiles of radionuclides are not significantly altered by physical mixing processes in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/yr. Transport of fallout radionuclides appears to have decreased faster than would be calculated from continuous removal from a well-mixed soil reservoir, indicating that sequestering of a substantial portion of the soil fallout burden has occurred in the watershed soils over the past two decades. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities two orders of magnitude greater than that found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ions are likely to be important in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 45 references, 17 figures, 14 tables

  3. The Arctic-Subarctic Sea Ice System is Entering a Seasonal Regime: Implications for Future Arctic Amplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, T. W. N.; Martin, T.

    2017-12-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is a conspicuous example of climate change. Climate models project ice-free conditions during summer this century under realistic emission scenarios, reflecting the increase in seasonality in ice cover. To quantify the increased seasonality in the Arctic-Subarctic sea ice system, we define a non-dimensional seasonality number for sea ice extent, area, and volume from satellite data and realistic coupled climate models. We show that the Arctic-Subarctic, i.e. the northern hemisphere, sea ice now exhibits similar levels of seasonality to the Antarctic, which is in a seasonal regime without significant change since satellite observations began in 1979. Realistic climate models suggest that this transition to the seasonal regime is being accompanied by a maximum in Arctic amplification, which is the faster warming of Arctic latitudes compared to the global mean, in the 2010s. The strong link points to a peak in sea-ice-related feedbacks that occurs long before the Arctic becomes ice-free in summer.

  4. Effects of a controlled under-ice oil spill on invertebrates of an arctic and a subarctic stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.C.; Stout, J.R.; Alexander, V.

    1986-01-01

    The short-term drift of macroinvertebrates is documented following two controlled oil spills placed under ice in an arctic (Imnavait Creek) and subarctic (Poker-Caribou Creek) stream just as ice covered the water in early winter. No mortality was observed, but several species responded by differentially drifting from the oil-impacted areas during the following days. In the arctic stream, Trichotanypus posticalis (Diptera) showed a significant increase in drift for the first few days. There was also an overall increase in drift of total organisms post spill. Phaenospectra sp. 1, the numerical dominant, decreased its nocturnal drifting compared with the upstream control station in the 5 days post spill. In the subarctic stream, Skwala sp. 1 (Plecoptera), Prosimulium sp. 1 (Simulidae) and Pseudodiamesa sp. 1 showed significant increase din drift post spill. Among the species of benthic invertebrates sampled with a Hess sampler (WILDCO, Saginaw, Mich.), only the density of Nemoura sp. 1 declined significantly post spill. Polar ordinations using percent difference showed that the oil-treated stations separated from the control stations in both the drift and the Hess bottom samples. Colonization of artificial substrates in Imnavait Creek during the winter following the spill was almost non-existent. In Poker-Caribou Creek much colonization took place over the winter with significantly more occurring on unoiled rocks as compared with oiled rocks.

  5. CO2 and CH4 in sea ice from a subarctic fjord under influence of riverine input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabeck, O.; Delille, B.; Thomas, D. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present CH4 concentration [CH4] and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in bulk sea ice from subarctic, land-fast sea ice in the Kapisillit fjord, Greenland. The bulk ice [CH4] ranged from 1.8 to 12.1 nmol L−1, which corresponds to a partial pressure range of 3 to 28 ppmv. This is markedly higher......-saturated compared to the atmosphere (390 ppmv). Our study adds to the few existing studies of CH4 and CO2 in sea ice and concludes that sub-arctic sea can be a sink for atmospheric CO2, while being a net source of CH4. Processes related to the freezing and melting of sea ice represents large unknowns...... to the exchange of CO2 but also CH4. It is therefore imperative to assess the consequences of these unknowns through further field campaigns and targeted research under other sea ice conditions at both hemispheres....

  6. Transformation of leaf litter by insect herbivory in the Subarctic: Consequences for soil biogeochemistry under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, J. A.; Metcalfe, D. B.; Rousk, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming may increase insect herbivore ranges and outbreak intensities in arctic ecosystems. Thorough understanding of the implications of these changes for ecosystem processes is essential to make accurate predictions of surface-atmosphere carbon (C) feedbacks. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of herbivore outbreaks on soil microbial underpinnings of C and nitrogen (N) fluxes. Here, we investigate the growth responses of heterotrophic soil decomposers and C and N mineralisation to simulated defoliator outbreaks in Subarctic birch forests. In microcosms, topsoil was incubated with leaf litter, insect frass, mineral N and combinations of the three; all was added in equal amounts of N. A higher fraction of added C and N was mineralised during outbreaks (frass addition) relative to non-outbreak years (litter addition). However, under high mineral N-availability in the soil of the kind likely under longer periods of enhanced insect herbivory (litter+mineral N), the mineralised fraction of added C decreased while the mineralised fraction of N increased substantially, which suggest a shift towards more N-mining of the organic substrates. This shift was accompanied by higher fungal dominance, and may facilitate soil C-accumulation assuming constant quality of C-inputs. Thus, long-term increases of insect herbivory, of the kind observed in some areas and projected by some models, may facilitate higher ecosystem C-sink capacity in this Subarctic ecosystem.

  7. Effects of climate on organic carbon and the ratio of planktonic to benthic primary producers in a subarctic lake during the past 45 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, Peter; Cunningham, Laura; Vonk, Jorien; Karlsson, Jan

    The effects of climatic variables on lake-water total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and benthic and pelagic primary producers during the past 45 yr were assessed using the sediment records of two subarctic lakes, one with mires and one without mires connected to the lake. The lake with a mire

  8. GKSS annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, as a national research center, carries out development work on behalf of the Federal Government's research and technology policy in order to deepen scientific knowledge, conserve resources and environment, improve living and working conditions, and increase economic efficiency and competitiveness. The center carries out work on energy research and energy technology, basic technologies, marine research and techniques, health-environment-biotechnology. The annual report contains in summary selected research work, the report on R and D activities in reactor safety, materials, environment and climate, underwater and environmental techniques. The research institutes, cooperation with external partners, the organization, budget, personnel, publications, including patent applications, and lectures are described. (HK) [de

  9. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  10. Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment annual review, 1989. Association petrolier pour la conservation de l'environnement Canadien compte rendu annuel, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) is a national, nonprofit, voluntary association formed by integrated Canadian oil companies to deal with environmental and health issues common to the manufacturing and distribution of petroleum products. PACE makes interventions before government bodies on public policy issues, and conducts research programs in its field of interest. In 1989, PACE has represented the petroleum industry in two major public consultation exercises, one on NOx and volatile organic carbon management, and one on future vehicle emission programs. The occurrence of two major marine spills on the west coast prompted the formation of a task force to study the state of contingency planning and response capability in the Canadian petroleum products industry, and a number of opportunities for improvement were determined. PACE has an ongoing program to produce visual aids and manuals for training emergency response personnel and effluent treatment plant operators. Guidelines for waste mangement at petroleum refineries, published in 1986, were updated. A major continuing project is development of environmental performance measures for refineries and to provide guidelines for using hazardous materials. Research studies were conducted on topics including service station effluents, the costs of sulfur emission reductions by desulfurization of fuels, the use of passive hydrocarbon dosimetry, and bioremediation of contaminated groundwater.

  11. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River Estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1977--30 November 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 , 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to (1) addition of reactor 137 Cs and (2) loss of 137 Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 Km upstream of Indian Point and 70 Km south of the reactor. Accumulations of 239 , 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Depth profiles of radionuclides and variations of activities with particle size at low salinities in the Hudson indicate the importance of organic phases, including large flocculent particles greater than 180μ, in binding plutonium, and no evidence of significant chemical migration within the sediments. Measurements of water column fallout 239 , 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments

  12. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of 137 Cs and 239 240 Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to addition of reactor 137 Cs and loss of 137 Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Accumulations of 239 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate, probably primarily due to the accumulation of fine particles containing fallout plutonium in the harbor which have been transported from upstream areas of the Hudson. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulatory plutonium solubility

  13. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Olsen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout 239 240 Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of 239 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of 239 240 Pu. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility

  14. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.; Olsen, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the /sup 137/Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility.

  15. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. General distributions of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to addition of reactor /sup 137/Cs and loss of /sup 137/Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Accumulations of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate, probably primarily due to the accumulation of fine particles containing fallout plutonium in the harbor which have been transported from upstream areas of the Hudson. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulatory plutonium solubility.

  16. What matters 2013. Construction and housing: Homes of tomorrow and beyond. Noise: Leaf blowers and engines. Protection of the marine environment: A blue economy - Threat or opportunity for the oceans? Annual report of the Federal Environment Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-01

    As of 2011, more people worldwide live in cities than in the country. The global consumption of resources, energy of heating, cooling or light, and daily environmental conditions such as air and noise pollution are very much characterised by the way we organise our cities. Although at the beginning of the industrial age, cities often were hostile, dirty and noisy places, they appealed greatly to the rural population. Today, the environmental quality of urban spaces in highly-developed countries has improved immensely. Hence, even in German, urban areas have been able to show a small population increase in the past few years. Under this aspect, the paper under consideration consists of the following contributions: (a) The EU and the two-degree limit (The many advantages of Germany's pioneering role); (b) Homes of tomorrow and beyond (A central sector for climate and site protection, the energy revolution and health); (c) Leaf blowers and engines (The struggle against noise pollution must include people); (d) A blue economy - threat or opportunity for the oceans? (Overfishing, enthrophication, contaminants and litter are threatening the oceans, but there are solutions); (e) Certificate for renewable energy (Te Federal Environment Agency's proof of origin); (f) On the gas trail (Our air monitoring network records air pollution, across borders and globally); (g) the environmental specimen bank (Environmental observation with samples from humans and the environment).

  17. What matters 2013. Construction and housing: Homes of tomorrow and beyond. Noise: Leaf blowers and engines. Protection of the marine environment: A blue economy - Threat or opportunity for the oceans? Annual report of the Federal Environment Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-01

    As of 2011, more people worldwide live in cities than in the country. The global consumption of resources, energy of heating, cooling or light, and daily environmental conditions such as air and noise pollution are very much characterised by the way we organise our cities. Although at the beginning of the industrial age, cities often were hostile, dirty and noisy places, they appealed greatly to the rural population. Today, the environmental quality of urban spaces in highly-developed countries has improved immensely. Hence, even in German, urban areas have been able to show a small population increase in the past few years. Under this aspect, the paper under consideration consists of the following contributions: (a) The EU and the two-degree limit (The many advantages of Germany's pioneering role); (b) Homes of tomorrow and beyond (A central sector for climate and site protection, the energy revolution and health); (c) Leaf blowers and engines (The struggle against noise pollution must include people); (d) A blue economy - threat or opportunity for the oceans? (Overfishing, enthrophication, contaminants and litter are threatening the oceans, but there are solutions); (e) Certificate for renewable energy (Te Federal Environment Agency's proof of origin); (f) On the gas trail (Our air monitoring network records air pollution, across borders and globally); (g) the environmental specimen bank (Environmental observation with samples from humans and the environment).

  18. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  19. Quantifying landscape-level methane fluxes in subarctic Finland using a multiscale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Iain P; Hill, Timothy C; Wade, Thomas J; Clement, Robert J; Moncrieff, John B; Prieto-Blanco, Ana; Disney, Mathias I; Huntley, Brian; Williams, Mathew; Howden, Nicholas J K; Wookey, Philip A; Baxter, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying landscape-scale methane (CH4 ) fluxes from boreal and arctic regions, and determining how they are controlled, is critical for predicting the magnitude of any CH4 emission feedback to climate change. Furthermore, there remains uncertainty regarding the relative importance of small areas of strong methanogenic activity, vs. larger areas with net CH4 uptake, in controlling landscape-level fluxes. We measured CH4 fluxes from multiple microtopographical subunits (sedge-dominated lawns, interhummocks and hummocks) within an aapa mire in subarctic Finland, as well as in drier ecosystems present in the wider landscape, lichen heath and mountain birch forest. An intercomparison was carried out between fluxes measured using static chambers, up-scaled using a high-resolution landcover map derived from aerial photography and eddy covariance. Strong agreement was observed between the two methodologies, with emission rates greatest in lawns. CH4 fluxes from lawns were strongly related to seasonal fluctuations in temperature, but their floating nature meant that water-table depth was not a key factor in controlling CH4 release. In contrast, chamber measurements identified net CH4 uptake in birch forest soils. An intercomparison between the aerial photography and satellite remote sensing demonstrated that quantifying the distribution of the key CH4 emitting and consuming plant communities was possible from satellite, allowing fluxes to be scaled up to a 100 km(2) area. For the full growing season (May to October), ~ 1.1-1.4 g CH4  m(-2) was released across the 100 km(2) area. This was based on up-scaled lawn emissions of 1.2-1.5 g CH4  m(-2) , vs. an up-scaled uptake of 0.07-0.15 g CH4  m(-2) by the wider landscape. Given the strong temperature sensitivity of the dominant lawn fluxes, and the fact that lawns are unlikely to dry out, climate warming may substantially increase CH4 emissions in northern Finland, and in aapa mire regions in general. © 2015 The

  20. Using 67Cu to study the biogeochemical cycling of copper in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Semeniuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial copper (Cu nutrition and dissolved Cu speciation were surveyed along Line P, a coastal to open ocean transect that extends from the coast of British Columbia, Canada, to the high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC zone of the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean. Steady-state size fractionated Cu uptake rates and Cu:C assimilation ratios were determined at in situ Cu concentrations and speciation using a 67Cu tracer method. The cellular Cu:C ratios that we measured (~30 µmol Cu mol C-1 are similar to recent estimates using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF, suggesting that the 67Cu method can determine in situ metabolic Cu demands. We examined how environmental changes along the Line P transect influenced Cu metabolism in the sub-microplankton community. Cellular Cu:C assimilation ratios and uptake rates were compared with net primary productivity, bacterial abundance and productivity, total dissolved Cu, Cu speciation, and a suite of other chemical and biological parameters. Total dissolved Cu concentrations ([Cu]d were within a narrow range (1.46 to 2.79 nM, and Cu was bound to a ~5-fold excess of strong ligands with conditional stability constants ( of ~1014. Free Cu2+ concentrations were low (pCu 14.4 to 15.1, and total and size fractionated net primary productivity (NPPV; µg C L-1 d-1 were negatively correlated with inorganic Cu concentrations ([Cu′]. We suggest this is due to greater Cu′ drawdown by faster growing phytoplankton populations. Using the relationship between [Cu′] drawdown and NPPV, we calculated a regional photosynthetic Cu:C drawdown export ratio between 1.5 and 15 µmol Cu mol C-1, and a mixed layer residence time (2.5 to 8 years that is similar to other independent estimates (2-12 years. Total particulate Cu uptake rates were between 22 and 125 times faster than estimates of Cu export; this is possibly mediated by rapid cellular Cu uptake and efflux by phytoplankton and bacteria or the effects of grazers and

  1. Differentiating TOC sources, preservation, and potential methane emissions in sub-Arctic lakes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; Wik, M.; Chanton, J.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic carbon-rich sediments from high latitude, shallow lakes and ponds are significant sources of methane throughout the Arctic. The origin and evolution of these lakes and ponds, however, is often not the same. Several lake types have been identified based on (1) hydrological conditions (melt-water fed, rain water fed, groundwater influenced, evaporation dominated, drained) (2) permafrost condition (thermokarst), and (3) time of origin (glacial or post-glacial). Given sufficient time (100's to 1000's years) many of these lake types may morph into others. In sub-Arctic Sweden, near Abisko and within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the elongate glacial lake Torneträsk is fed by several streams draining the surrounding highlands. Lake Tornetrask is one of several NW-SE trending glacial lakes common in the landscape throughout northern and western Sweden. Between and alongside these glacial lakes, several small (ponds exist in low-lying mires. Sediment cores from the lakes in the Stordalen Mire are characterized by high total organic carbon (TOC) content (10-50 wt. %) in the uppermost ~50 cm and commonly underlain by glaciofluvial derived sediments with lower TOC (emissions from several of these lakes has also been measured and is driven by heat input. Coincident young ages of carbon in the sediments and in methane indicate in situ production. A published record from Lake Torneträsk shows sediments there contain significantly less TOC (1-2.5 wt. %) that is derived primarily from old, terrestrial organic carbon delivered via rivers to the lake. Although the larger and deeper glacial lakes currently occupy much of the landscape it is becoming clear that as the Arctic warms TOC preservation and methane production in the smaller lakes and ponds play a more significant, immediate role in emission of methane to the atmosphere. With continued warming in the Arctic, terrestrial TOC will be relinquished from highland watersheds to glacial lakes, but the methane

  2. Response Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Carbon Flushing in a Subarctic Alpine Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2002-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important part of ecosystem-scale carbon balances and in the transport of contaminants as it interacts with other dissolved substances including trace metals. It also can be used as a surrogate hydrological tracer in permafrost regions as near-surface waters are often DOC enriched due to the presence of thick organic soils. In a small subarctic alpine catchment within the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon, Canada, DOC was studied in the summer of 2001 and spring of 2002 to determine the role frost (both permanent and seasonal), snowmelt and summer storms on DOC flushing. Peak DOC concentrations occurred during the snowmelt period, approximately one week prior to peak discharge. However, peak discharge took place several weeks after snow on south facing exposures had melted. Within the hillslopes, DOC concentrations were three to five times greater in wells underlain with permafrost compared with seasonal frost. Groundwater DOC concentrations declined during snowmelt, yet remained at levels above the streamflow. After peaking, streamflow DOC concentrations declined exponentially suggesting a simple flushing mechanism, however there did not appear to be a relation between DOC and topographic position. Following melt, permafrost underlain slopes had near-surface water tables and retained elevated levels of DOC, whereas slopes without permafrost had rapidly declining water tables at upslope locations with low DOC concentrations at all positions except near-stream riparian zones. The influence of summer rainstorms on DOC was monitored on three occasions. In each case DOC peaked on the ascending limb of the runoff hydrograph and declined exponentially on the receding limb and hysteretic behavior occurred between discharge and DOC during all events. Patterns of DOC within the hillslopes and streams suggest that runoff from permafrost-underlain slopes control DOC flushing within the stream during both snowmelt and summer periods. This

  3. Growing season boundary layer climate and surface exchanges in a subarctic lichen woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.

    1994-01-01

    Between June and August 1990, observations were made at two surface micrometeorological towers near Schefferville Quebec (54 deg 52 min N, 66 deg 40.5 min W), one in a fen and one in the subarctic lichen woodland, and at four surface climatological stations. Data from these surface stations were supplemented by regular radiosonde launches. Supporting measurements of radiative components and soil temperatures allowed heat and moisture balances to be obtained at two sites. The overall surface meteorological experiment design and results of micrometeorological observations made on a 30-m tower in the lichen woodland are presented here. Seasonal variation in the heat and water vapor transport characteristics illustrate the marked effect of the late summer climatological shift in air mass type. During the first half of the summer, average valley sidewalls only 100 m high are sufficient to channel winds along the valley in the entire convective boundary layer. Channeling effects at the surface, known for some time at the long-term climate station in Schefferville, are observed both at ridge top and in the valley, possibly the response of the flow to the NW-SE orientation of valleys in the region. Diurnal surface temperature amplitude at ridge top (approximately equal to 10 C) was found to be half that observed in the valley. Relatively large differences in precipitation among these stations and the climatological station at Schefferville airport were observed and attributed to the local topography. Eddy correlation observations of the heat, moisture and momentum transports were obtained from a 30-m tower above a sparse (approximately equal to 616 stems/ha) black spruce lichen woodland. Properties of the turbulent surface boundary layer agree well with previous wind tunnel studies over idealized rough surfaces. Daytime Bowen ratios of 2.5-3 are larger than those reported in previous studies. Surface layer flux data quality was assessed by looking at the surface layer heat

  4. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  5. Tracking the origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis for their fast adaptation to subarctic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Librado, Pablo; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    , extremely hairy winter coats, and acute seasonal differences in metabolic activities. The evolutionary origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis of their adaptations remain, however, contentious. Here, we present the complete genomes of nine present-day Yakutian horses and two ancient specimens......, likely due to the comparatively limited standing variation within gene bodies at the time the population was founded. Genes involved in hair development, body size, and metabolic and hormone signaling pathways represent an essential part of the Yakutian horse adaptive genetic toolkit. Finally, we find...

  6. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  7. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management [fr

  8. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report presents the CEA (Atomic Energy Research Center) activities and research programs during the year 2002. the first part is devoted to the scientific development in the defense, nuclear energy, technology, fundamental research and valuation domains. The second and third parts present respectively the development conditions with the environment safety and the means of development with the human resources, the information technology, the training and the public relations. The fourth part situates the Cea enterprise in the economy and the fifth part the Cea development in the Europe and the world. The last part is the financial accounting. (A.L.B.)

  9. Institute annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  10. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such changes may substantially affect net primary production and species composition. We aimed to identify the potential impact of increased N-availability due to permafrost thawing on subarctic peatland plant production and species performance, relative to the impact of increased N-availability in superficial organic layers. Therefore, we investigated whether plant roots are present at the thaw-front (45 cm depth) and whether N-uptake ( 15 N-tracer) at the thaw-front occurs during maximum thaw-depth, coinciding with the end of the growing season. Moreover, we performed a unique 3-year belowground fertilization experiment with fully factorial combinations of deep- (thaw-front) and shallow-fertilization (10 cm depth) and controls. We found that certain species are present with roots at the thaw-front (Rubus chamaemorus) and have the capacity (R. chamaemorus, Eriophorum vaginatum) for N-uptake from the thaw-front between autumn and spring when aboveground tissue is largely senescent. In response to 3-year shallow-belowground fertilization (S) both shallow- (Empetrum hermaphroditum) and deep-rooting species increased aboveground biomass and N-content, but only deep-rooting species responded positively to enhanced nutrient supply at the thaw-front (D). Moreover, the effects of shallow-fertilization and thaw-front fertilization on aboveground biomass production of the deep-rooting species were similar in magnitude (S: 71%; D: 111% increase compared to control) and additive (S + D: 181% increase). Our results show that plant-available N released from thawing permafrost can form a thus far overlooked additional N-source for deep-rooting subarctic plant species and increase their

  11. Environmental review, 1995. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Annual report on the environment, outlining environmental initiatives and programs and plans for the future, together with assessments and performance guidelines. Highlights of the year are included, along with details on major compensation programs, and activities in fish and water, land and wildlife, air quality, waste management, recreation, socio-economic issues, electric and magnetic fields, energy management, and research and development.

  12. NIRE annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 38 recent research efforts topics including: life cycle assessment; ocean circulation inverse method for the evaluation of fate of sequestered CO{sub 2} in Western-North Pacific; studies on hydrogasification of coal; computational studies on the reactions of N{sub 2}O with O{sup 3}P and CO; and motion control of bucket of wheel loader based on resistance force at scooping; personal exposure to air pollutants; and development of a quantitative type dust generator. NIRE has coal mine safety research centers at Hokkaido and Kyusyn and an experimental coal mine at Usui. Brief details are given of budget and staff for FY 2000.

  13. CMS Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Rubia, T D; Shang, S P; Rennie, G; Fluss, M; Westbrook, C

    2005-01-01

    Glance at the articles in this report, and you will sense the transformation that is reshaping the landscape of materials science and chemistry. This transformation is bridging the gaps among chemistry, materials science, and biology--ushering in a wealth of innovative technologies with broad scientific impact. The emergence of this intersection is reinvigorating our strategic investment into areas that build on our strength of interdisciplinary science. It is at the intersection that we position our strategic vision into a future where we will provide radical materials innovations and solutions to our national-security programs and other sponsors. Our 2004 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. We have organized this report into two major sections: research themes and our dynamic teams. The research-theme sections focus on achievements arising from earlier investments while addressing future challenges. The dynamic teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure of divisions, centers, and institutes that support a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national-security mission. By maintaining an organizational structure that offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, we are able to nurture the discoveries and breakthroughs required for future successes

  14. Short-term variability in bacterial abundance, cell properties, and incorporation of leucine and thymidine in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaartokallio, H.; Sogaard, D. H.; Norman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is a biome of immense size and provides a range of habitats for diverse microbial communities, many of which are adapted to living at low temperatures and high salinities in brines. We measured simultaneous incorporation of thymidine (TdR) and leucine (Leu), bacterial cell abundance...... and cell population properties (by flow cytometry) in subarctic sea ice in SW Greenland. Short-term temporal variability was moderate, and steep environmental gradients, typical for sea ice, were the main drivers of the variability in bacterial cell properties and activity. Low nucleic acid (LNA) bacteria...... and marine biofilm systems. Leu: TdR ratios were high (up to >300) in lowermost ice layers, and when compared to published respiration measurements, these results suggest non-specific Leu incorporation. There was evidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-containing bacteria in the sea ice, shown by brightly...

  15. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing along a sub-Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjord, West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, A.; Riisgaard, Karen; Saiz, E.

    2011-01-01

    the nutrient rich waters in the upwelling area in the vicinity of the glacier. Most of the grazing impact was on the 20 µm microzooplankton, as deducted from additional dilution experiments removing > 20 µm. Overall, little......We evaluated the role of microzooplankton (sensu latto, grazers sea transect in the Greenland subarctic fjord, Godthåbfjord. Based on the distribution of size fractionated chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations...... we established four zones: i) Fyllas Bank, characterized by deep chl a maxima (ca. 30-40 m) consisting of large cells; ii) the mouth and main branch of the fjord, where phytoplankton was relatively homogeneously distributed in the upper 30 m layer; iii) inner waters influenced by glacial melt water...

  16. Nitrogen Uptake During Fall, Winter and Spring Differs Among Plant Functional Groups in a Subarctic Heath Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical resource for plant growth in tundra ecosystems, and species differences in the timing of N uptake may be an important feature regulating community composition and ecosystem productivity. We added 15N-labelled glycine to a subarctic heath tundra dominated by dwarf shrubs...... to 37 ± 7% by April indicating significant microbial N turnover prior to spring thaw. Only the evergreen dwarf shrubs showed active 15N acquisition before early May indicating that they had the highest potential of all functional groups for acquiring nutrients that became available in early spring....... The faster-growing deciduous shrubs did not resume 15N acquisition until after early May indicating that they relied more on nitrogen made available later during the spring/early summer. The graminoids and mosses had no significant increases in 15N tracer recovery or tissue 15N tracer concentrations after...

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze-thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wonjae; Klemm, Sara; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have shown that biostimulation in ex situ systems such as landfarms and biopiles can facilitate remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at sub-Arctic sites during summers when temperatures are above freezing. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of semivolatile (F2: C10-C16) and nonvolatile (F3: C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial respiration and population dynamics at post- and presummer temperatures ranging from -5 to 14 °C. The studies were conducted in pilot-scale tanks with soils obtained from a historically contaminated sub-Arctic site in Resolution Island (RI), Canada. In aerobic, nutrient-amended, unsaturated soils, the F2 hydrocarbons decreased by 32% during the seasonal freeze-thaw phase where soils were cooled from 2 to -5 °C at a freezing rate of -0.12 °C d(-1) and then thawed from -5 to 4 °C at a thawing rate of +0.16 °C d(-1). In the unamended (control) tank, the F2 fraction only decreased by 14% during the same period. Biodegradation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the nutrient-amended soils was also confirmed by comparing their abundance over time to that of the conserved diesel biomarker, bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS). During this period, microbial respiration was observed, even at subzero temperatures when unfrozen liquid water was detected during the freeze-thaw period. An increase in culturable heterotrophs and 16S rDNA copy numbers was noted during the freezing phase, and the (14)C-hexadecane mineralization in soil samples obtained from the nutrient-amended tank steadily increased. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations identified as Corynebacterineae- and Alkanindiges-related strains emerged during the freezing and thawing phases, respectively, indicating there were temperature-based microbial community shifts.

  18. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  19. Hazards Control Department 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G.W.

    1996-09-19

    This annual report of the Hazards Control Department activities in 1995 is part of the department`s efforts to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where every person desire to work safely.

  20. Hazards Control Department 1995 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This annual report of the Hazards Control Department activities in 1995 is part of the department's efforts to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where every person desire to work safely

  1. Energy and Environment Division annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, J.A. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities of this Division are reported under nine separate programs, namely: Energy Analysis; Solar Energy; Energy-Efficient Buildings; Chemical Process Research and Development; Environmental Research; Atmospheric Aerosol Research; Oil Shale Research; Instrumentation Development; and Combustion Research. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the nine programs, each of which contained several individual research summaries, with responsible researchers listed. All of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and five will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  2. Mesoscale dynamics in the Lofoten Basin - a sub-Arctic "hot spot" of oceanic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, D. L.; Belonenko, T. V.; Foux, V. R.

    2012-12-01

    A sub-Arctic "hot spot" of intense mesoscale variability is observed in the Lofoten Basin (LB) - a topographic depression with a maximum depth of about 3250 m, located in the Norwegian Sea. The standard deviation of sea surface height (SSH), measured with satellite altimetry, reaches nearly 15 cm in the center of the basin (Figure 1a). Using a space-time lagged correlation analysis of altimetry data, we discover a cyclonic propagation of the mesoscale SSH anomalies around the center of the LB with time-averaged phase speeds of 2-4 km/day, strongly linked to bottom topography (Figure 1c). The fact that surface drifter trajectories do not exhibit cyclonic circulation in the LB (Figure 1b) suggests that, at least in the upper ocean, satellite altimetry observes only the propagation of form without the corresponding transfer of mass. Linearly propagating wavelike disturbances that do not trap fluid inside are related to planetary or Rossby waves. Variations in topography may lead to the concentration of wave energy in certain regions or wave trapping. The dispersion analysis suggests that the observed wavelike cyclonic propagation of SSH anomalies in the LB is the manifestation of baroclinic topographic Rossby waves, that we term "the basin waves" in order to distinguish them from the other types of topographic waves, such as shelf or trench waves. We identify two modes of basin waves in the LB: a di-pole mode and a quadri-pole mode. The wavelength of each mode is about 500 km. The frequency of these modes is not constant and the phase speed varies from about 2 to 8 km/day. We show that the cyclonically rotating basin waves are responsible for the observed amplification of SSH variability in the LB. Because the baroclinic basin waves in the LB are probably associated with large vertical displacements of the thermocline and due to possible wave breaking events, they can play an important role in the mixing of the inflowing Atlantic Water with ambient water masses

  3. Decadal Variations of the Western Subarctic Gyre and Main Pycnocline Depth due to Wind Stress Change in the Northern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, A.; Wakita, M.

    2017-12-01

    From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, the western subarctic gyre of the North Pacific, a cyclonic circulation in the western subarctic region, shrank northward associated with a decadal increase of sea surface height (SSH). This gyre change displaced the main pycnocline (halocline) downward and is expected to contribute to the deepening of the overlying temperature minimum layer. This is considered to affect the biogeochemical conditions in the western subarctic region, where is known as substantially slow ocean acidification region. In this study, on the basis of wind stress field data in the subpolar region (40˚N—54˚N, 160˚E—135˚W) during 1979—2014 provided by U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis, we estimated the variation in SSH, solving the vorticity gradient equation on the beta plane. Decadal increase in SSH at Station K2 (47˚N, 160˚E), representative point of the western subarctic region, was well produced by the calculation, and the correlation coefficient with altimetric SSH exceeds 0.6. The calculated SSH variation consists of the variations due to the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby wave modes. The gyre shrinkage is found to be caused primarily by the barotropic response to the wind change in the whole subpolar region and secondary by the first baroclinic response. Meanwhile, the decadal deepening of the main pycnocline at K2 is attributed to the baroclinic responses of the higher (second, third, and fourth) vertical modes to the local wind change.

  4. Oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica. Reconstructing changes in surface water hydrography and silicic acid utilization in the late Pleistocene subarctic Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Edith

    2014-03-05

    Deglacial variations in upper ocean nutrient dynamics and stratification in high latitudes, as well as associated changes in thermohaline overturning circulation, are thought to have played a key role in changing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. This thesis examines the relationship between past changes in subarctic Pacific upper ocean stratification and nutrient (silicic acid) utilization, using oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica, for the first time at millennial-scale resolution and analyzed with a new and efficient instrumentation set-up. The isotopic data, presented in three manuscripts, show a consistent picture of millennial-scale variability in upper ocean stratification and silicic acid utilization during the last ∝50 ka BP, e.g. indicating that the subarctic Pacific was a source region for atmospheric CO{sub 2} during the last deglaciation (late Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed). The presented results demonstrate the high potential of combined diatom oxygen and silicon stable isotope analysis especially for, but not restricted to, marine regions characterized by a low biogenic carbonate content like the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

  5. Oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica. Reconstructing changes in surface water hydrography and silicic acid utilization in the late Pleistocene subarctic Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Deglacial variations in upper ocean nutrient dynamics and stratification in high latitudes, as well as associated changes in thermohaline overturning circulation, are thought to have played a key role in changing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. This thesis examines the relationship between past changes in subarctic Pacific upper ocean stratification and nutrient (silicic acid) utilization, using oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica, for the first time at millennial-scale resolution and analyzed with a new and efficient instrumentation set-up. The isotopic data, presented in three manuscripts, show a consistent picture of millennial-scale variability in upper ocean stratification and silicic acid utilization during the last ∝50 ka BP, e.g. indicating that the subarctic Pacific was a source region for atmospheric CO 2 during the last deglaciation (late Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed). The presented results demonstrate the high potential of combined diatom oxygen and silicon stable isotope analysis especially for, but not restricted to, marine regions characterized by a low biogenic carbonate content like the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

  6. Annual Energy Review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  7. Annual Energy Review 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  8. Annual Energy Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  9. Annual Energy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  10. Annual Energy Review 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  11. Significance of cold-season respiration and photosynthesis in a subarctic heath ecosystem in Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Jonasson, S.

    2007-01-01

    While substantial cold-season respiration has been documented in most arctic and alpine ecosystems in recent years, the significance of cold-season photosynthesis in these biomes is still believed to be small. In a mesic, subartic heath during both the cold and warm season, we measured in situ...... ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis with a chamber technique at ambient conditions and at artificially, increased frequency of freeze-thaw (FT) cycles during fall and spring. We fitted the measured ecosystem exchange rates to respiration and photosynthesis models with R-2-values ranging from 0.81 to 0.......85. As expected, estimated cold-season (October, November, April and May) respiration was significant and accounted for at least 22% of the annual respiratory CO2 flux. More surprisingly, estimated photosynthesis during this period accounted for up to 19% of the annual gross CO2 uptake, suggesting that cold...

  12. Annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2001. The report outlines the IAEA activities in the following fields: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management technology, comparative assessment for sustainable energy development; food and agriculture, human health, marine environment and water resources, applications of physical and chemical sciences, nuclear safety, radiation safety, radioactive waste safety, co-ordination of safety activities, safeguards, security of material, verification in Iraq pursuant to UNSC resolutions, management of technical co-operation for development, policy-making, management and support

  13. Annual report 83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report from the Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin gathers the different department activity reports. The scientific activity of the Institut is grouped into ''colleges'' with particular interests: one has been active in various fields of condensed matter and nuclear physics research. Work of another covers nuclear structure studies, fission, ultracold neutrons, neutron-antineutrino oscillation. Experiments carried in another relate to studies of lattice dynamics, magnetic and structural phase transitions and magnetic excitations. Fundamental physics of quantum liquids to the applied field of irradiation damage in solids is the scientific field of another. Biochemistry, chemistry, crystal and magnetic structure are also studied. In instruments and methods department among the highlights of the year are: monochromators, polarisers and mirrors, sample environments

  14. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 1999 annual report of the Authorities of Nuclear Safety presents the main technical topics of the year: time evolution of nuclear installations, crisis and particular plan of intervention, impacts of the nuclear activities on the human and the environment, the criticality risk, EdF, the EPR project, the ANDRA, transportation events and the nuclear safety at the East. It provides also information on nuclear safety, organization of nuclear safety supervision, BIN regulatory provisions, plant supervision, information of the public, international relations, emergency response, radiation protection, radioactive material transportation, radioactive waste, PWR reactors, research reactors and other installations, nuclear fuel cycle installations and final shutdown and dismantling of nuclear installations. (A.L.B.)

  15. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report provides information on the energies and raw materials policy for 2002. The first part, devoted to the supplying safety, deals with the petroleum situation in 2002, the new perspectives for the continental shelf exploitation, the heavy metals prices evolution and the renewable energies promotion. The second part on the markets opening presents the new legislation of the energy markets, the new juridical framework of the natural gas transportation network, EdF, GdF and the National Company of the Rhone situation, the markets liberalization. The third part deals with the today subjects as the sustainable development, the nuclear situation, the high voltage power lines and the environment, the end of the mines exploitation in France, the energy policy facing the climatic change, the National Debate on the energies, the directive on the energy efficiency of buildings. (A.L.B.)

  16. Elemental composition and optical properties reveal changes in dissolved organic matter along a permafrost thaw chronosequence in a subarctic peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkins, Suzanne; Tfaily, Malak M.; Podgorski, David C.; McCalley, Carmody; Saleska, Scott; Crill, Patrick M.; Rich, Virginia; Chanton, Jeffrey; Cooper, William T.

    2016-08-01

    The fate of carbon stored in permafrost-zone peatlands represents a significant uncertainty in global climate modeling. Given that the breakdown of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is often a major pathway for decomposition in peatlands, knowledge of DOM reactivity under different permafrost regimes is critical for determining future climate feedbacks. To explore the effects of permafrost thaw and resultant plant succession on DOM reactivity, we used a combination of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), UV/Vis absorbance, and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) to examine the DOM elemental composition and optical properties of 27 pore water samples gathered from various sites along a permafrost thaw sequence in Stordalen Mire, a thawing subarctic peatland in northern Sweden. The presence of dense Sphagnum moss, a feature that is dominant in the intermediate thaw stages, appeared to be the main driver of variation in DOM elemental composition and optical properties at Stordalen. Specifically, DOM from sites with Sphagnum had greater aromaticity, higher average molecular weights, and greater O/C, consistent with a higher abundance of phenolic compounds that likely inhibit decomposition. These compounds are released by Sphagnum and may accumulate due to inhibition of phenol oxidase activity by the acidic pH at these sites. In contrast, sites without Sphagnum, specifically fully-thawed rich fens, had more saturated, more reduced compounds, which were high in N and S. Optical properties at rich fens were indicated the presence of microbially-derived DOM, consistent with the higher decomposition rates previously measured at these sites. These results indicate that Sphagnum acts as an inhibitor of rapid decomposition and CH4 release in thawing subarctic peatlands, consistent with lower rates of CO2 and CH4 production previously observed at these sites. However, this inhibitory effect may disappear if Sphagnumdominated bogs

  17. Comparison of snow melt properties across multiple spatial scales and landscape units in interior sub-Arctic boreal Alaskan watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Cherry, J. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Interior sub-Arctic Alaskan snow cover is rapidly changing and requires further study for correct parameterization in physically based models. This project undertook field studies during the 2013 snow melt season to capture snow depth, snow temperature profiles, and snow cover extent to compare with observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor at four different sites underlain by discontinuous permafrost. The 2013 melt season, which turned out to be the latest snow melt period on record, was monitored using manual field measurements (SWE, snow depth data collection), iButtons to record temperature of the snow pack, GoPro cameras to capture time lapse of the snow melt, and low level orthoimagery collected at ~1500 m using a Navion L17a plane mounted with a Nikon D3s camera. Sites were selected across a range of landscape conditions, including a north facing black spruce hill slope, a south facing birch forest, an open tundra site, and a high alpine meadow. Initial results from the adjacent north and south facing sites indicate a highly sensitive system where snow cover melts over just a few days, illustrating the importance of high resolution temporal data capture at these locations. Field observations, iButtons and GoPro cameras show that the MODIS data captures the melt conditions at the south and the north site with accuracy (2.5% and 6.5% snow cover fraction present on date of melt, respectively), but MODIS data for the north site is less variable around the melt period, owing to open conditions and sparse tree cover. However, due to the rapid melt rate trajectory, shifting the melt date estimate by a day results in a doubling of the snow cover fraction estimate observed by MODIS. This information can assist in approximating uncertainty associated with remote sensing data that is being used to populate hydrologic and snow models (the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model, coupled with SNOW-17, and the Variable

  18. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Callaghan, T. V.; Chadwick, D.; Robinson, C. H.

    1995-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how UV-B radiation will affect 1) the quality of plant litter grown under different UV-B levels in the Subarctic and 2) decomposition under different UV-B levels. The deciduous dwarf shrubs Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus grew under ambient and enhanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) in a natural heath ecosystem in the Subarctic. After two growing seasons senesced leaves were collected and decomposed in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment under both laboratory conditions for 62 d (V. uliginosum: no UV-B and 10 kJ m{sup -2} d{sup -1} UV- B{sub BE}) and under field conditions for twelve months (V. myrtillus: ambient and enhanced UV-B corresponding 15% ozone depletion). Additionally, colonization and growth of decomposing fungi were studied on leaves decomposed without and with UV-B in the laboratory. The enhanced UV-B during growth changed the litter quality (decrease in α-cellulose, increase in tannins). Subsequently the microbial respiration was decreased. This and the decreased cellulose/lignin ratio may have led to the lower relative mass loss due to treatments as detected both after 62 d decomposition in the laboratory and after twelve months decomposition in the field. The UV-B during decomposition decreased the proportion of lignin in the plant residues, which is possibly due to photodegradation by UV-B. Total microbial respiration decreased, indicating the decomposers' sensitivity to UV-B. In general, the litter decomposing under UV-B was less colonized by fungal decomposers. Mucor hiemalis and Truncatella truncata were significantly more abundant in the control, indicating sensitivity to UV-B radiation, while Penicillium brevicompactum was equally abundant in the UV-B and control. There is strong indication of a change in decomposer fungal community structure due to UV-B. Just one of the three fungal species common on the control litter was dominant on leaves decomposed under UV-B. (author)

  19. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, C [Lund Univ., Dept. of Plant Ecology, Lund (Sweden); Johanson, U [Lund Univ., Dept. of Plant Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Callaghan, T V; Chadwick, D; Robinson, C H [Merlewood Research Station, Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Cumbira (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how UV-B radiation will affect (1) the quality of plant litter grown under differente UV-B levels in the Subarctic and (2) decomposition under different UV-B levels. The deciduous dwarf shrubs Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus grew under ambient and enchanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) in a natural health ecosystem in the Subarctic. After two growing seasons senesced leaves were collected and decomposed in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment under both laboratory conditions for 62 d (V. uliginosum: no UV-B and 10 kJ m{sup -2} d{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE}) and under field conditions for twelve months (V. myrtillus: ambient and enhanced UV-B corresponding 15% ozone depletion). Additionally, colonization and growth of decomposing fungi were studied on leaves decomposed without and with UV-B in the laboratory. The enhanced UV-B during growth changed the litter quality (decrease in {alpha}-cellulose, increase in tannins). Subsequently the microbial respiration was decreased. This and the decreased cellulose/lignin ratio may have led to the lower relative mass loss due to treatments as detected both after 62 d decomposition in the laboratory and after twelve months decompositon in the field. The UV-B during decomposition decreased the proportion of lignin in the plant residues, which is possibly due to photodegradation by UV-B. Total microbial respiration decreased, indicating the decomposers` sensitivity to UV-B. In general, the litter decomposing under UV-B was less colonized by fungal decomposers. Mucor hiemalis and Truncatella truncata were significantly more abundant in the control, indicating sensitivity to UV-B radiation, while Penicillium brevicompactum was equally abundant in the UV-B and control. There is strong indication of a change in decomposer fungal community structure due to UV-B. Just one of the three fungal species common on the control litter was dominant on leaves decomposed under UV-B. (au) (44 refs.)

  20. Elemental composition and optical properties reveal changes in dissolved organic matter along a permafrost thaw chronosequence in a subarctic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Suzanne B.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Podgorski, David C.; McCalley, Carmody K.; Saleska, Scott R.; Crill, Patrick M.; Rich, Virginia I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Cooper, William T.

    2016-08-01

    The fate of carbon stored in permafrost-zone peatlands represents a significant uncertainty in global climate modeling. Given that the breakdown of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is often a major pathway for decomposition in peatlands, knowledge of DOM reactivity under different permafrost regimes is critical for determining future climate feedbacks. To explore the effects of permafrost thaw and resultant plant succession on DOM reactivity, we used a combination of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), UV/Vis absorbance, and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) to examine the DOM elemental composition and optical properties of 27 pore water samples gathered from various sites along a permafrost thaw sequence in Stordalen Mire, a thawing subarctic peatland in northern Sweden. The presence of dense Sphagnum moss, a feature that is dominant in the intermediate thaw stages, appeared to be the main driver of variation in DOM elemental composition and optical properties at Stordalen. Specifically, DOM from sites with Sphagnum had greater aromaticity, higher average molecular weights, and greater O/C, consistent with a higher abundance of phenolic compounds that likely inhibit decomposition. These compounds are released by Sphagnum and may accumulate due to inhibition of phenol oxidase activity by the acidic pH at these sites. In contrast, sites without Sphagnum, specifically fully-thawed rich fens, had more saturated, more reduced compounds, which were high in N and S. Optical properties at rich fens indicated the presence of microbially-derived DOM, consistent with the higher decomposition rates previously measured at these sites. These results indicate that Sphagnum acts as an inhibitor of rapid decomposition and CH4 release in thawing subarctic peatlands, consistent with lower rates of CO2 and CH4 production previously observed at these sites. However, this inhibitory effect may disappear if Sphagnum-dominated bogs

  1. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes in Vaccinium leaves from the Subarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U.; Callaghan, T.V.; Chadwick, D.; Robinson, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how UV-B radiation will affect 1) the quality of plant litter grown under different UV-B levels in the Subarctic and 2) decomposition under different UV-B levels. The deciduous dwarf shrubs Vaccinium uliginosum and V. myrtillus grew under ambient and enhanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) in a natural heath ecosystem in the Subarctic. After two growing seasons senesced leaves were collected and decomposed in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment under both laboratory conditions for 62 d (V. uliginosum: no UV-B and 10 kJ m -2 d -1 UV- B BE ) and under field conditions for twelve months (V. myrtillus: ambient and enhanced UV-B corresponding 15% ozone depletion). Additionally, colonization and growth of decomposing fungi were studied on leaves decomposed without and with UV-B in the laboratory. The enhanced UV-B during growth changed the litter quality (decrease in α-cellulose, increase in tannins). Subsequently the microbial respiration was decreased. This and the decreased cellulose/lignin ratio may have led to the lower relative mass loss due to treatments as detected both after 62 d decomposition in the laboratory and after twelve months decomposition in the field. The UV-B during decomposition decreased the proportion of lignin in the plant residues, which is possibly due to photodegradation by UV-B. Total microbial respiration decreased, indicating the decomposers' sensitivity to UV-B. In general, the litter decomposing under UV-B was less colonized by fungal decomposers. Mucor hiemalis and Truncatella truncata were significantly more abundant in the control, indicating sensitivity to UV-B radiation, while Penicillium brevicompactum was equally abundant in the UV-B and control. There is strong indication of a change in decomposer fungal community structure due to UV-B. Just one of the three fungal species common on the control litter was dominant on leaves decomposed under UV-B. (author)

  2. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  3. Health and safety annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This 1989 annual report on Health and Safety in BNFL is intended to give the public a general review of the impact of the Company's activities on its workforce, the public and the environment. The activities at Sellafield, Springfields, Chapelcross, Drigg and Capenhurst are outlined, together with sections on medical services and transport, and radiation monitoring of workforce and the environment. (author)

  4. Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950-2002 remotely sensed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, B.; Verbyla, D.; McGuire, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, Alaska has experienced a warming climate with longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration, and permafrost warming. Research from the Seward Peninsula and Kenai Peninsula has demonstrated a substantial landscape-level trend in the reduction of surface water and number of closed-basin ponds. We investigated whether this drying trend occurred at nine other regions throughout Alaska. One study region was from the Arctic Coastal Plain where depp permafrost occurs continuously across the landscape. The other eight study regions were from the boreal forest regions where discontinuous permafrost occurs. Mean annual precipitation across the study regions ranged from 100 to over 700 min yr-1. We used remotely sensed imagery from the 1950s to 2002 to inventory over 10,000 closed-basin ponds from at least three periods from this time span. We found a reduction in the area and number of shallow, closed-basin ponds for all boreal regions. In contrast, the Arctic Coastal Plain region had negligible change in the area of closed-basin ponds. Since the 1950s, surface water area of closed-basin ponds included in this analysis decreased by 31 to 4 percent, and the total number of closed-basin ponds surveyed within each study region decreased from 54 to 5 percent. There was a significant increasing trend in annual mean temperature and potential evapotranspiration since the 1950s for all study regions. There was no significant trend in annual precipitation during the same period. The regional trend of shrinking ponds may be due to increased drainage as permafrost warms, or increased evapotranspiration during a warmer and extended growing season. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. IRSN annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IRSN, a public authority with industrial and commercial activities, was set up under Article 5 of French Act No. 2001-398 of May 9, 2001, enacted through Order No. 2002-254 of February 22, 2002. This Order was amended on April 7, 2007. The Institute is placed under the joint authority of the Ministries of Defense, the Environment, Industry, Research, and Health. It is the nation's public service expert in nuclear and radiation risks, and its activities cover all the related scientific and technical issues. Its areas of specialization include the environment and radiological emergency response, human radiation protection in both a medical and professional capacity, and in both normal and post-accident situations, the prevention of major accidents, nuclear reactor safety, as well as safety in plants and laboratories, transport and waste treatment, and nuclear defense expertise. IRSN interacts with all parties concerned by these risks (public authorities, in particular nuclear safety and security authorities, local authorities, companies, research organizations, stakeholders' associations, etc.) to contribute to public policy issues relating to nuclear safety, human and environmental protection against ionizing radiation, and the protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and transport against the risk of malicious acts. In this annual activity reports, IRSN presents the scientific and technical challenges that defines the Contract of Objectives (COB) signed between the Government and IRSN

  6. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    General circulation models consistently predict that regional warming will be most rapid in the Arctic, that this warming will be predominantly in the winter season, and that it will often be accompanied by increasing snowfall. Paradoxically, despite the strong cold season emphasis in these predi...... will respond to climate change during winter because they indicate a threshold (~1 m) above which there would be little effect of increased snow accumulation on wintertime biogeochemical cycling....... in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... subarctic. Ecosystem respiration rates and a wide range of associated environmental and substrate pool size variables were measured in the two most common vegetation types of the region (birch understorey and heath tundra) at four paired sites along a 50 km transect through a strong snow depth gradient...

  7. The physiological effects of oil, dispersant and dispersed oil on the bay mussel, Mytilus trossulus, in Arctic/Subarctic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L

    2018-06-01

    Increasing oil development around Alaska and other Arctic regions elevates the risk for another oil spill. Dispersants are used to mitigate the impact of an oil spill by accelerating natural degradation processes, but the reduced hydrophobicity of dispersed oil may increase its bioavailability to marine organisms. There is limited research on the effect of dispersed oil on cold water species and ecosystems. Therefore, spiked exposure tests were conducted with bay mussels (Mytilus trossulus) in seawater with non-dispersed oil, Corexit 9500 and oil dispersed with different concentrations of Corexit 9500. After three weeks of exposure, acute and chronic physiological impacts were determined. The majority of physiological responses occurred during the first seven days of exposure, with mussels exhibiting significant cytochrome P450 activity, superoxide dismutase activity and heat shock protein levels. Mussels exposed to non-dispersed oil also experienced immune suppression, reduced transcription and higher levels of mortality. After 21 days, mussels in all treatments exhibited evidence of genetic damage, tissue loss and a continued stress response. Bay mussels are useful as indicators of ecosystem health and recovery, and this study was an important step in understanding how non-dispersed oil, dispersant and dispersed oil affect the physiology of this sentinel species in Arctic/subarctic conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trends in Ostracoda and Cladocera distribution and water chemistry in subarctic Canada: Churchill (Manitoba lakes and ponds revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A. Viehberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and lakes distributed across northern treeline in the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill (Manitoba were revisited to analyse and document the local ecoclimatic and limnological changes that occurred over the period 1997-2012. Our analyses revealed that single events may cause significant changes in salinity, pH and silicate content because of the limited buffer capacity of the inter-connected waters. Planktic freshwater microcrustaceans (Cladocera presented less diverse assemblages and appeared to favour waters that are situated in the boreal forest, while the diversity of benthic species assemblages (Cladocera and Ostracoda was highest in waters located closer to the coastline and in open tundra vegetation. We identified three species that are distinctive for the boreal ecozone (i.e., Candona acuta, Can. acutula and Can. decora and two species (i.e., Tonnacypris glacialis and Can. rawsoni that are elements of (sub-arctic landscapes and potentially endangered as the northern treeline expands due to rapid warming. These species are thought to be useful indicators for future ecosystem quality assessments and/or ecosystem service management programs. Our findings were compared to other studies completed in the boreal Yukon Territory and revealed that species diversity is closely linked to landscape history.

  9. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from a fire chronosequence in subarctic boreal forests of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    Forest fires are one of the most important natural disturbances in boreal forests, and their occurrence and severity are expected to increase as a result of climate warming. A combination of factors induced by fire leads to a thawing of the near-surface permafrost layer in subarctic boreal forest. Earlier studies reported that an increase in the active layer thickness results in higher carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions. We studied changes in CO 2 , CH 4 and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes in this study, and the significance of several environmental factors that influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at three forest sites that last had fires in 2012, 1990 and 1969, and we compared these to a control area that had no fire for at least 100years. The soils in our study acted as sources of CO 2 and N 2 O and sinks for CH 4 . The elapsed time since the last forest fire was the only factor that significantly influenced all studied GHG fluxes. Soil temperature affected the uptake of CH 4 , and the N 2 O fluxes were significantly influenced by nitrogen and carbon content of the soil, and by the active layer depth. Results of our study confirm that the impacts of a forest fire on GHGs last for a rather long period of time in boreal forests, and are influenced by the fire induced changes in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optically-derived estimates of phytoplankton size class and taxonomic group biomass in the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Rosengard, Sarah Z.; Burt, William; Peña, M. Angelica; Nemcek, Nina; Zeng, Tao; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2018-06-01

    We evaluate several algorithms for the estimation of phytoplankton size class (PSC) and functional type (PFT) biomass from ship-based optical measurements in the Subarctic Northeast Pacific Ocean. Using underway measurements of particulate absorption and backscatter in surface waters, we derived estimates of PSC/PFT based on chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl-a), particulate absorption spectra and the wavelength dependence of particulate backscatter. Optically-derived [Chl-a] and phytoplankton absorption measurements were validated against discrete calibration samples, while the derived PSC/PFT estimates were validated using size-fractionated Chl-a measurements and HPLC analysis of diagnostic photosynthetic pigments (DPA). Our results showflo that PSC/PFT algorithms based on [Chl-a] and particulate absorption spectra performed significantly better than the backscatter slope approach. These two more successful algorithms yielded estimates of phytoplankton size classes that agreed well with HPLC-derived DPA estimates (RMSE = 12.9%, and 16.6%, respectively) across a range of hydrographic and productivity regimes. Moreover, the [Chl-a] algorithm produced PSC estimates that agreed well with size-fractionated [Chl-a] measurements, and estimates of the biomass of specific phytoplankton groups that were consistent with values derived from HPLC. Based on these results, we suggest that simple [Chl-a] measurements should be more fully exploited to improve the classification of phytoplankton assemblages in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

  11. Late Cretaceous climate simulations with different CO2 levels and subarctic gateway configurations: A model-data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgodzki, Igor; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit; Tyszka, Jarosław; Markwick, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the impact of different CO2 levels and different subarctic gateway configurations on the surface temperatures during the latest Cretaceous using the Earth System Model COSMOS. The simulated temperatures are compared with the surface temperature reconstructions based on a recent compilation of the latest Cretaceous proxies. In our numerical experiments, the CO2 level ranges from 1 to 6 times the preindustrial (PI) CO2 level of 280 ppm. On a global scale, the most reasonable match between modeling and proxy data is obtained for the experiments with 3 to 5 × PI CO2 concentrations. However, the simulated low- (high-) latitude temperatures are too high (low) as compared to the proxy data. The moderate CO2 levels scenarios might be more realistic, if we take into account proxy data and the dead zone effect criterion. Furthermore, we test if the model-data discrepancies can be caused by too simplistic proxy-data interpretations. This is distinctly seen at high latitudes, where most proxies are biased toward summer temperatures. Additional sensitivity experiments with different ocean gateway configurations and constant CO2 level indicate only minor surface temperatures changes (greenhouse worlds is best constrained by temperatures in the midlatitudes.

  12. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  13. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    , to the end of the century? What happened to the relationship between growth and energy consumption? How did the fuel mix change over this period? What are the effects of energy usage on our environment? What level of consumption will the United States—and the world—record in the Annual Energy Review 2025? We present this edition of the Annual Energy Review to help investigate these important questions and to stimulate and inform our thinking about what the future holds.

  14. Responses of vegetation and soil microbial communities to warming and simulated herbivory in a subarctic heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Stark, Sari; Tolvanen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Climate warming increases the cover of deciduous shrubs in arctic ecosystems and herbivory is also known to have a strong influence on the biomass and composition of vegetation. However, research combining herbivory with warming is largely lacking. Our study describes how warming and simulated...... setup of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX). Wounding of the dominant deciduous dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus L. to simulate herbivory was carried out annually. We measured vegetation cover in 2003 and 2007, soil nutrient concentrations in 2003 and 2006, soil microbial respiration in 2003...... and herbivory. 6 Synthesis. Our results show that warming increases the cover of V. myrtillus, which seems to enhance the nutrient sink strength of vegetation in the studied ecosystem. However, herbivory partially negates the effect of warming on plant N uptake and interacts with the effect of warming...

  15. Seasonal and inter-annual variation in the chlorophyll content of three co-existing Sphagnum species exceeds the effect of solar UV reduction in a subarctic peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyryläinen, Anna; Rautio, Pasi; Turunen, Minna; Huttunen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    We measured chlorophyll (chl) concentration and chl a/b ratio in Sphagnum balticum, S. jensenii, and S. lindbergii, sampled after 7 and 8 years of ultraviolet-B (UVB) and temperature manipulation in an open field experiment in Finnish Lapland (68°N). We used plastic filters with different transmittance of UVB radiation to manipulate the environmental conditions. The plants were exposed to (1) attenuated UVB and increased temperature, (2) ambient UVB and increased temperature and (3) ambient conditions. Chlorophyll was extracted from the capitula of the mosses and the content and a/b ratio were measured spectrophotometrically. Seasonal variation of chlorophyll concentration in the mosses was species specific. Temperature increase to 0.5-1 °C and/or attenuation of solar UVB radiation to ca. one fifth of the ambient (on average 12 vs. 59 uW/cm(2)) had little effect on the chlorophyll concentration or its seasonal variation. In the dominant S. lindbergii, UVB attenuation under increased temperature led to a transient decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Altogether, species-specific patterns of seasonal chlorophyll variation in the studied Sphagna were more pronounced than temperature and UVB treatment effects.

  16. Individual inter-annual nest-site relocation behaviour drives dynamics of a recently established Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis colony in sub-arctic Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagicheva, Julia; Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Dobrynin, Dmitry; Saveliev, Anatoly; Rozenfeld, Sofia; Pokrovskaya, Olga; Stahl, Julia; Prop, Jouke; Litvin, Konstantin

    Avian breeding colonies are generally in a continuous state of flux, some parts growing whilst others shrink as individuals move within the colony on the search for better nest-sites. We examined the role of experience in breeding patch choice by individually marked Barnacle Geese Branta leucopsis

  17. Relative importance of plant uptake and plant associated denitrification for removal of nitrogen from mine drainage in sub-arctic wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Sara; Hellman, Maria; Choudhury, Maidul I; Ecke, Frauke

    2015-11-15

    Reactive nitrogen (N) species released from undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives used in mining or other blasting operations are an emerging environmental problem. Wetlands are frequently used to treat N-contaminated water in temperate climate, but knowledge on plant-microbial interactions and treatment potential in sub-arctic wetlands is limited. Here, we compare the relative importance of plant uptake and denitrification among five plant species commonly occurring in sub-arctic wetlands for removal of N in nitrate-rich mine drainage in northern Sweden. Nitrogen uptake and plant associated potential denitrification activity and genetic potential for denitrification based on quantitative PCR of the denitrification genes nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII were determined in plants growing both in situ and cultivated in a growth chamber. The growth chamber and in situ studies generated similar results, suggesting high relevance and applicability of results from growth chamber experiments. We identified denitrification as the dominating pathway for N-removal and abundances of denitrification genes were strong indicators of plant associated denitrification activity. The magnitude and direction of the effect differed among the plant species, with the aquatic moss Drepanocladus fluitans showing exceptionally high ratios between denitrification and uptake rates, compared to the other species. However, to acquire realistic estimates of N-removal potential of specific wetlands and their associated plant species, the total plant biomass needs to be considered. The species-specific plant N-uptake and abundance of denitrification genes on the root or plant surfaces were affected by the presence of other plant species, which show that both multi- and inter-trophic interactions are occurring. Future studies on N-removal potential of wetland plant species should consider how to best exploit these interactions in sub-arctic wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Importance of Ekman transport and gyre circulation change on seasonal variation of surface dissolved iron in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanowatari, Takuya; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Uchimoto, Keisuke; Nishioka, Jun; Mitsudera, Humio; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2017-05-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and it constitutes an important element in the marine carbon cycle in the ocean. This study examined the mechanisms controlling seasonal variation of dissolved Fe (dFe) in the western subarctic North Pacific (WSNP), using an ocean general circulation model coupled with a simple biogeochemical model incorporating a dFe cycle fed by two major sources (atmospheric dust and continental shelf sediment). The model reproduced the seasonal cycle of observed concentrations of dFe and macronutrients at the surface in the Oyashio region with maxima in winter (February-March) and minima in summer (July-September), although the simulated seasonal amplitudes are a half of the observed values. Analysis of the mixed-layer dFe budget indicated that both local vertical entrainment and lateral advection are primary contributors to the wintertime increase in dFe concentration. In early winter, strengthened northwesterly winds excite southward Ekman transport and Ekman upwelling over the western subarctic gyre, transporting dFe-rich water southward. In mid to late winter, the southward western boundary current of the subarctic gyre and the outflow from the Sea of Okhotsk also bring dFe-rich water to the Oyashio region. The contribution of atmospheric dust to the dFe budget is several times smaller than these ocean transport processes in winter. These results suggest that the westerly wind-induced Ekman transport and gyre circulation systematically influence the seasonal cycle of WSNP surface dFe concentration.

  19. Iron availability, nitrate uptake, and exportable new production in the subarctic Pacific. [phytoplankton population growth support and atmospheric CO2 removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Karl

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of experimental data and papers by Martin et al. (1989, 1990), who suggested that the phytoplankton growth is iron-limited and that, small additions of iron to large subarctic ocean areas might be a way of removing significant amounts of atmospheric CO2 by increasing phytoplancton growth. Data are presented to show that, in the summer of 1987, the phytoplankton assemblage as a whole was not iron limited, as measured by the bulk removal of nitrate or by the increase of chlorophyll. It is suggested that grazing normally prevents the phytoplankton from reaching concentrations that reduce the iron (and nitrate) to levels that depress division rates drastically.

  20. Impact of decade-long warming, nutrient addition and shading on emission and carbon isotopic composition of CO2 from two subarctic dwarf shrub heaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nynne R.; Ambus, Per Lennart; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated ecosystem respiration, soil respiration and carbon isotopic composition in CO2 emitted from two subarctic shrub heaths with contrasting moisture regimes. The reported measurements were conducted 22 years (mesic heath) and 12 years (wet heath) upon initiation of in situ...... the growing season. However, there was a tendency across growing season towards an increased δ13C source value after 22 years of warming in the mesic shrub heath, and the effect was statistically significant in June, indicating increased decomposition of 13C enriched material. Hence, although more of the old...

  1. Secretary's annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    This second annual report of the DOE covers activities of all elements of the department except the independent FERC, which issues its own annual report. Individual chapters concern a posture statement, conservation, solar and other renewable energy, fossil energy, electric energy, nuclear energy, the environment, defense programs, international programs, general science programs, energy information, economic regulation, energy production, and support operations. The following appendixes are also included: foreign direct investments in US energy sources and supplies, exports of energy resources by foreign companies, major recipients of DOE funding, actions taken regarding disclosure of energy assets by DOE employees, financial assistance programs for alternative fuel demonstration facilities, and 1978 budget summary. 16 figures, 56 tables. (RWR)

  2. JAEA Takasaki annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shigeru

    2008-11-01

    JAEA Takasaki annual report 2007 describes research and development activities performed from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2008 with Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA, four ion accelerators), and electron/gamma-ray irradiation facilities (an electron accelerator and three 60 Co gamma-ray irradiation facilities) at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA Takasaki). These activities are classified into four research fields: 1) space, nuclear and energy engineering, 2) environment conservation and resource security, 3) biotechnology and medical application, and 4) advanced materials, analysis and novel technology. This annual report contains 174 reports consisting of 166 research papers and 8 status reports on operation/maintenance of the irradiation facilities described above, and a list of publications, related press-releases, TV programs, patents, and the type of research collaborations as Appendices. (author)

  3. Environmental Controls on Snow Cover Thickness and Water Equivalent in Two Sub-Arctic Mountain Catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The spatial variability of snow cover characteristics (depth, density, and snow water equivalent [SWE]) has paramount importance for the management of water resources in mountain environments. Passive microwave (PM) inference of SWE from space-borne instrumentation is increasingly used but the reliability of this technique remains limited in mountainous areas. Complex topography and the transition between forest and alpine tundra vegetation zones create large spatial heterogeneities in the sn...

  4. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The annual report of SE, a. s., contains information for the year of 2003 and summarises SE's most important financial data for the stated period. The joint stock company Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. (Slovak Power Plants) was established on January 21, 2002, when it was entered into the Commercial Register as a new business entity formed by splitting the former Slovenska elektrarne, a. s. (SE, a. s.) into three independent business entities: Slovenska elektrarne, a. s. (SE, a. s.), Slovenska elektrizacna prenosova sustava, a. s. (Slovak Transmission Grid), and Teplaren Kosice, a. s. (Heating Plant Kosice). Data regarding electricity and heat generation and operational and financial results of the company are stated for the year of 2003, without providing a comparison to the previous year. The reason is that 2002 data do not cover the whole year, as the new SE a. s. was established on January 21, 2002 with changed mix of heat and electricity generation assets. Comparison data for previous years are provided only for certain technical parameters regarding nuclear safety, environment and human resources. This report contains the following headings: (1) SE Board of directors; (2) Supervisory Board; (3) Address by the Chairman of the Board of directors; (4) Year in brief; (5) Organisational structure of the company; (6) Participating interests held by the company; (7) Company strategy; (8) Heat and electricity generation; (9) Sales of electricity, ancillary services and heat; (10) Investments; (11) International cooperation; (12) Nuclear safety; (13) Environment; (14) Human resources; (15) Business report and financial statements; (16) Auditor's report; (17) List of abbreviations

  5. Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a subarctic treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas C; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A

    2015-05-01

    Climate warming at high northern latitudes has caused substantial increases in plant productivity of tundra vegetation and an expansion of the range of deciduous shrub species. However significant the increase in carbon (C) contained within above-ground shrub biomass, it is modest in comparison with the amount of C stored in the soil in tundra ecosystems. Here, we use a 'space-for-time' approach to test the hypothesis that a shift from lower-productivity tundra heath to higher-productivity deciduous shrub vegetation in the sub-Arctic may lead to a loss of soil C that out-weighs the increase in above-ground shrub biomass. We further hypothesize that a shift from ericoid to ectomycorrhizal systems coincident with this vegetation change provides a mechanism for the loss of soil C. We sampled soil C stocks, soil surface CO2 flux rates and fungal growth rates along replicated natural transitions from birch forest (Betula pubescens), through deciduous shrub tundra (Betula nana) to tundra heaths (Empetrum nigrum) near Abisko, Swedish Lapland. We demonstrate that organic horizon soil organic C (SOCorg ) is significantly lower at shrub (2.98 ± 0.48 kg m(-2) ) and forest (2.04 ± 0.25 kg m(-2) ) plots than at heath plots (7.03 ± 0.79 kg m(-2) ). Shrub vegetation had the highest respiration rates, suggesting that despite higher rates of C assimilation, C turnover was also very high and less C is sequestered in the ecosystem. Growth rates of fungal hyphae increased across the transition from heath to shrub, suggesting that the action of ectomycorrhizal symbionts in the scavenging of organically bound nutrients is an important pathway by which soil C is made available to microbial degradation. The expansion of deciduous shrubs onto potentially vulnerable arctic soils with large stores of C could therefore represent a significant positive feedback to the climate system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E; Marushchak, Maija E; Lind, Saara E; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas. As a result of air warming, the seasonal GHG budget of the vegetated tundra surfaces shifted from a GHG sink of -300 to -198 g CO 2 -eq m -2 to a source of 105 to 144 g CO 2 -eq m -2 . At bare peat surfaces, we observed increased release of all three GHGs. While the positive warming response was dominated by CO 2 , we provide here the first in situ evidence of increasing N 2 O emissions from tundra soils with warming. Warming promoted N 2 O release not only from bare peat, previously identified as a strong N 2 O source, but also from the abundant, vegetated peat surfaces that do not emit N 2 O under present climate. At these surfaces, elevated temperatures had an adverse effect on plant growth, resulting in lower plant N uptake and, consequently, better N availability for soil microbes. Although the warming was limited to the soil surface and did not alter thaw depth, it increased concentrations of DOC, CO 2, and CH 4 in the soil down to the permafrost table. This can be attributed to downward DOC leaching, fueling microbial activity at depth. Taken together, our results emphasize the tight linkages between plant and soil processes, and different soil layers, which need to be taken into account when predicting the climate change feedback of the Arctic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Atmospheric iron supply and enhanced vertical carbon flux in the NE subarctic Pacific: Is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, P. W.; Wong, C. S.; Merrill, J.; Whitney, F.; Snow, J.; Harrison, P. J.; Gower, J.

    1998-09-01

    Recent studies have confirmed the relationship between iron supply and phytoplankton growth rates in all three high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) oceanic provinces. However, there is little evidence, so far, of the role of iron in altering the efficiency of the biological pump via increased downward export of particulate organic carbon (POC). The NE subarctic Pacific is unique among HNLC regions in that long time series pelagic observations and deep-moored sediment trap records exist which may provide the best opportunity thus far to test aspects of the iron hypothesis. Episodic elevated levels of chlorophyll a (> 2.0 μg L-1) were observed 6 times between 1964 and 1976 at the former site of Ocean Station Papa (OSP). In addition, between 1984 and 1990 on at least three occasions, concurrent pulses of POC and biogenic silica were recorded in deep-moored traps at OSP. Possible explanations for these events, such as lateral advection of more productive waters, iron-mediated blooms, or grazing by salp swarms are discussed and tested using an existing downward POC flux model. Owing to the episodic nature of such events, no available data are sufficiently comprehensive to unequivocally rule out any of these explanations. Nevertheless, from the data available, the occurrence of pelagic or deep water pulses, approximately once every 3 years, are most consistent with iron-mediated diatom blooms, and of the sinking of POC and biogenic silica (from such a bloom) to depth, respectively. A comparison of the timing of these iron-mediated pulses with that of the transport probabilities of atmospheric dust supply from Asia and Alaska provides an opportunity to assess the likelihood of a coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean.

  8. DNA sequencing, anatomy, and calcification patterns support a monophyletic, subarctic, carbonate reef-forming Clathromorphum (Hapalidiaceae, Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, Walter H; Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Johnson, Gabriel; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2015-02-01

    For the first time, morpho-anatomical characters that were congruent with DNA sequence data were used to characterize several genera in Hapalidiaceae-the major eco-engineers of Subarctic carbonate ecosystems. DNA sequencing of three genes (SSU, rbcL, ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit gene and psbA, photosystem II D1 protein gene), along with patterns of cell division, cell elongation, and calcification supported a monophyletic Clathromorphum. Two characters were diagnostic for this genus: (i) cell division, elongation, and primary calcification occurred only in intercalary meristematic cells and in a narrow vertical band (1-2 μm wide) resulting in a "meristem split" and (ii) a secondary calcification of interfilament crystals was also produced. Neopolyporolithon was resurrected for N. reclinatum, the generitype, and Clathromorphum loculosum was transferred to this genus. Like Clathromorphum, cell division, elongation, and calcification occurred only in intercalary meristematic cells, but in a wider vertical band (over 10-20 μm), and a "meristem split" was absent. Callilithophytum gen. nov. was proposed to accommodate Clathromorphum parcum, the obligate epiphyte of the northeast Pacific endemic geniculate coralline, Calliarthron. Diagnostic for this genus were epithallial cells terminating all cell filaments (no dorsi-ventrality was present), and a distinct "foot" was embedded in the host. Leptophytum, based on its generitype, L. laeve, was shown to be a distinct genus more closely related to Clathromorphum than to Phymatolithon. All names of treated species were applied unequivocally by linking partial rbcL sequences from holotype, isotype, or epitype specimens with field-collected material. Variation in rbcL and psbA sequences suggested that multiple species may be passing under each currently recognized species of Clathromorphum and Neopolyporolithon. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Seasonal variations in methane fluxes in response to summer warming and leaf litter addition in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Emily Pickering; Elberling, Bo; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas controlled by both biotic and abiotic processes. Few studies have investigated CH4 fluxes in subarctic heath ecosystems, and climate change-induced shifts in CH4 flux and the overall carbon budget are therefore largely unknown. Hence, there is an urgent need for long-term in situ experiments allowing for the study of ecosystem processes over time scales relevant to environmental change. Here we present in situ CH4 and CO2 flux measurements from a wet heath ecosystem in northern Sweden subjected to 16 years of manipulations, including summer warming with open-top chambers, birch leaf litter addition, and the combination thereof. Throughout the snow-free season, the ecosystem was a net sink of CH4 and CO2 (CH4 -0.27 mg C m-2 d-1; net ecosystem exchange -1827 mg C m-2 d-1), with highest CH4 uptake rates (-0.70 mg C m-2 d-1) during fall. Warming enhanced net CO2 flux, while net CH4 flux was governed by soil moisture. Litter addition and the combination with warming significantly increased CH4 uptake rates, explained by a pronounced soil drying effect of up to 32% relative to ambient conditions. Both warming and litter addition also increased the seasonal average concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the soil. The site was a carbon sink with a net uptake of 60 g C m-2 over the snow-free season. However, warming reduced net carbon uptake by 77%, suggesting that this ecosystem type might shift from snow-free season sink to source with increasing summer temperatures.

  10. Syncrude annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd. is the world's largest producer of custom made crude oil from the oil sands, and the largest single source of oil in Canada. This annual report claimed many outstanding achievements for 1994. A new production record resulted in higher revenue, lower unit operating costs, increased cash flow, improved productivity, and higher net income. With a focus on technology development and continuous improvement in operations, including environment, health and safety performance, operating results are projected to improve further. The formation of the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD) early in 1994 was a major step assuring maximum leverage from every dollar expended to realize this objective. Production of Syncrude Sweet Blend is expected to rise by over 10 million barrels to 81 million barrels a year at an average cash operating expenditure of Can$12.00/ barrel by the year 2000. The Corporation's business plans include capital investments for major projects, such as the North Mine hydrotransport, product quality enhancements, and upgrading facilities expansion. 4 tabs., 1 fig

  11. 2014 HPC Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Barbara [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Our commitment is to support you through delivery of an IT environment that provides mission value by transforming the way you use, protect, and access information. We approach this through technical innovation, risk management, and relationships with our workforce, Laboratories leadership, and policy makers nationwide. This second edition of our HPC Annual Report continues our commitment to communicate the details and impact of Sandia’s large-scale computing resources that support the programs associated with our diverse mission areas. A key tenet to our approach is to work with our mission partners to understand and anticipate their requirements and formulate an investment strategy that is aligned with those Laboratories priorities. In doing this, our investments include not only expanding the resources available for scientific computing and modeling and simulation, but also acquiring large-scale systems for data analytics, cloud computing, and Emulytics. We are also investigating new computer architectures in our advanced systems test bed to guide future platform designs and prepare for changes in our code development models. Our initial investments in large-scale institutional platforms that are optimized for Informatics and Emulytics work are serving a diverse customer base. We anticipate continued growth and expansion of these resources in the coming years as the use of these analytic techniques expands across our mission space. If your program could benefit from an investment in innovative systems, please work through your Program Management Unit ’s Mission Computing Council representatives to engage our teams.

  12. Reconstruction of historic sea ice conditions in a sub-Arctic lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrich, Chris; Tivy, Adrienne C.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Historical sea ice conditions were reconstructed for Izembek Lagoon, Bering Sea, Alaska. This lagoon is a crucial staging area during migration for numerous species of avian migrants and a major eelgrass (Zostera marina) area important to a variety of marine and terrestrial organisms, especially Pacific Flyway black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans). Ice cover is a common feature of the lagoon in winter, but appears to be declining, which has implications for eelgrass distribution and abundance, and its use by wildlife. We evaluated ice conditions from a model based on degree days, calibrated to satellite observations, to estimate distribution and long-term trends in ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon. Model results compared favorably with ground observations and 26 years of satellite data, allowing ice conditions to be reconstructed back to 1943. Specifically, periods of significant (limited access to eelgrass areas) and severe (almost complete ice coverage of the lagoon) ice conditions could be identified. The number of days of severe ice within a single season ranged from 0 (e.g., 2001) to ≥ 67 (e.g., 2000). We detected a slight long-term negative trend in ice conditions, superimposed on high inter-annual variability in seasonal aggregate ice conditions. Based on reconstructed ice conditions, the seasonally cumulative number of significant or severe ice days correlated linearly with mean air temperature from January until March. Further, air temperature at Izembek Lagoon was correlated with wind direction, suggesting that ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon were associated with synoptic-scale weather patterns. Methods employed in this analysis may be transferable to other coastal locations in the Arctic.

  13. Spatial variability of hillslope water balance, wolf creek basin, subarctic yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean K.; Woo, Ming-Ko

    2001-11-01

    A hydrological study was conducted between 1997 and 1999 in the subalpine open woodland of the Wolf Creek Basin, Yukon, to assess the interslope water balance variability. The water balance during the snowmelt and summer periods on four hillslopes revealed strong contrasts in process magnitudes and highlighted important factors including frost, vegetation, soils and microclimate that controlled vertical and lateral fluxes of water. Snow accounted for approximately half the annual water input, while differences in accumulation among hillslopes were related to interception properties of vegetation. Available energy at the snow surface controlled the melt sequence and the snow on some slopes disappeared up to two months earlier than others. Snowmelt runoff was confined to slopes with ice-rich substrates that inhibited deep percolation, with the runoff magnitude governed by the snow storage and the antecedent moisture of the desiccated organic soils prior to melt. During summer, evapotranspiration exceeded rainfall, largely sustained by water from the soil moisture reservoir recharged during the melt period. Differences in net radiation on slopes controlled the potential evapotranspiration, with the actual rates limited by the phenology of the deciduous forests and shrubs. Evapotranspiration was further suppressed on slopes where the organic soils became dry in late summer. Summer runoff was confined to slopes with porous organic layers overlying mineral soils to form a two-layer flow system: (1) quickflow in the surface organic layer and (2) slowflow in the mineral soil. Differences in the rates of flow were related to the position of the water table which may rise into the organic layer to activate quickflow. The presence of ice-rich frost and permafrost impeded vertical drainage and indirectly regulated the position of the water table. The location of the hillslope within a basin influenced recharge and discharge dynamics. Slope segments with large inflows sustained

  14. Annual Report 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    As a result of an amendment to the Environment Protection (Alligator River Region) Act 1979 - EP(ARR) in December 1993, the Supervising Scientist and his support organisation has been amalgamated with the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), in the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories (DEST). All corporate information, including financial and personnel matters, relating to the operation of the Supervising Scientist during 1993-94 has therefore been incorporated in the DEST 1993-94 Annual Report. This report contains the information required in the EP(ARR) Act, namely: any directions given to the Supervising Scientist by the minister; information on the collection and assessment of information relating to the environmental effects of mining in the Alligator Rivers Region; standards, practices and procedures in relation to mining operations adopted or changed during the year, and the environmental effects of those changes; measures taken to protect or restore the environment from the effects of mining in the region; requirements forming prescribed instruments which were enacted, made, adopted or issued and which relate to the environment; implementation of the prescribed instruments related to the environment; and a statement of the cost of operations of the Supervising Scientist. The changes in organisational and operational arrangements introduced as a consequence of the 1993 amendment to the EP(ARR) Act are also described, as are results of research undertaken to underpin the supervisory and assessment roles of the Supervising Scientist. Details of all published and unpublished papers are included in the Appendix 4. 18 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  16. NUKEM annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of this important undertaking in the German nuclear industry informs about its structure, holdings and activities in 1981. The report of the management is followed by remarks on the annual statement of accounts (annual balance, profit-loss accounting) and the report of the Supervisory Board. In the annex the annual balance of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH as per December 31, 1981, and the profit-loss accounting of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH for the business year 1981 are presented. (UA) [de

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. IRSN annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    IRSN, a public authority with industrial and commercial activities, was set up under Article 5 of French Act No. 2001-398 of May 9, 2001, enacted through Order No. 2002-254 of February 22, 2002. This Order was amended on April 7, 2007. The Institute is placed under the joint authority of the Ministries of Defense, the Environment, Industry, Research, and Health. It is the nation's public service expert in nuclear and radiation risks, and its activities cover all the related scientific and technical issues. Its areas of specialization include the environment and radiological emergency response, human radiation protection in both a medical and professional capacity, and in both normal and post-accident situations, the prevention of major accidents, nuclear reactor safety, as well as safety in plants and laboratories, transport and waste treatment, and nuclear defense expertise. IRSN interacts with all parties concerned by these risks (public authorities, in particular nuclear safety and security authorities, local authorities, companies, research organizations, stakeholders' associations, etc.) to contribute to public policy issues relating to nuclear safety, human and environmental protection against ionizing radiation, and the protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and transport against the risk of malicious acts. This document is the 2011 annual report of IRSN. It presents the Organization, Progress and main activities in 2011, Transparency and communications policy, safety and radiation protection culture of IRSN. The main activities in 2011 are presented in details: 1 - Safety: Safety of existing facilities: Monitoring reactors, Monitoring fuel cycle facilities and experimental reactors, Containment and fire, Natural hazards, Fuels, Accidents, About defense; Conducting assessments of future facilities: Future waste repositories, Reactors of the future; 2 - Security and non-proliferation: Protection against malicious act; Activities of the advisory

  14. RTE - annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    RTE is the French electricity transmission system operator responsible for operation, maintenance and development, With a system which is the largest in Europe - 100,000 kilometres of high voltage and extra-high voltage circuits and 46 cross-border interconnections, plus a key location at the geographical hub - RTE is playing a key role in the development of the European electricity market. RTE is a public service company guaranteeing the efficient operation and reliability of the French power system, and providing equitable access to all system users. The company is part of the EDF Group, but has totally independent management and administration, as required by law. In 2005, RTE became a limited liability company with an Executive Board and Supervisory Board; this corporate status guarantees due neutrality in providing service to all players on the electricity market. RTE is the Number 1 electricity transmission system in Europe with 8,300 employees and 4 billion euros turnover. This activity report presents: 1 - Background: The RTE Transmission System, Message from the Chairman of the Executive Board; 2 - A High Performance Public Service Company at the Hub of the European Electricity Market: 2006 overview and Highlights, RTE Governance and Organisation; 3 - A Year with Many Developments: Satisfied Customers on a More Efficient Market, Reliable, Upgraded Industrial Facilities, A Commitment to Environmentally Friendly Public Service, New Foundations for Human Resources Policy, International Business on the Move, A Good Improvement in Financial Performance; 4 - Glossary; 5 - Management Report: Financial and Legal Information (Highlights in 2006, Market Trends, Business and Results for 2006, Capital, Financial Structure, Prospects for 2007, Other Financial and Legal Information), Information on the Environment (Environment Policy - Review, Respect for Natural Environments and Landscapes, Consultation and Consideration, Research, Continuing Improvement, Environmental

  15. Annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This First Annual Report of the Safety Review Committee describes the Committee's operations for the year ending 30 June 1988. The Committee was established on 27 April 1987 in accordance with Section 26 of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Act. The report provides an overview of ANSTO's Lucas Heights site, its facilities and resources and the potential of its operations for off-site consequences. The safety of the HIFAR and MOATA reactors, the HIFAR refurbishing program, the management of radioactive wastes, and occupational health and safety are discussed as well as the regulatory environment in which ANSTO operates

  16. 2011 ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A.; Eddy, T.; Jannik, T.; Terry, B.; Cauthen, K.; Coward, L.; Dunaway-Ackerman, J.; Wilson, M.; Hutchison, J.; O' Quinn, S.

    2012-10-01

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2011 (SRNS-STI-2012-00200) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1 B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting." The annual SRS Environmental Report has been produced for more than 50 years. Several hundred copies are and interested individuals. The report’s purpose is to: present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; describe compliance status with respect to environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant programs and efforts.

  17. Annual report 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The tenth annual report of the Supervising Scientist on the operation of the Environment Protection (Alligator Rivers Region) Act 1978 covers the period 1 July 1987 to 30 June 1988. Significant developments include the adequacy of water and sediment runoff control measures at Coronation Hill, the options aimed at reducing the chance of water release from the Ranger Uranium Mine site during the Wet season and an incident involving an overflow of material from a tailings neutralisation tank at the Ranger mine site on 1-2 February 1988

  18. CSIR Annual report 1965

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  19. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. CSIR Annual report 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 86 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. CSIR Annual report 1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 75 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. CSIR Annual report 1978

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 78 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  5. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  6. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  7. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  8. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  9. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  10. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N; Mika, J R; Wieteska, K [eds.

    1999-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  11. Annual results 2004; Resultats annuels 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  12. Annual energy review 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a historical data report that tells many stories. It describes, in numbers, the changes that have occurred in US energy markets since the midpoint of the 20th century. In many cases, those markets differ vastly from those of a half-century ago. By studying the graphs and data tables presented in this report, readers can learn about past energy supply and usage in the United States and gain an understanding of the issues in energy and the environment now before use. While most of this year`s report content is similar to last year`s, there are some noteworthy developments. Table 1.1 has been restructured into more summarized groupings -- fossil fuels, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy -- to aid analysts in their examination of the basic trends in those broad categories. Readers` attention is also directed to the electricity section, where considerable reformatting of the tables and graphs has been carried out to help clarify past and recent trends in the electric power industry as it enters a period of radical restructuring. Table 9.1, which summarizes US nuclear generating units, has been redeveloped to cover the entire history of the industry in this country and to provide categories relevant in assessing the future of the industry, such as the numbers of ordered generating units that have been canceled and those that were built and later shut down. In general, the AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics. Sections 1 through 10 and Section 12 are devoted mostly to US data; Section 11 reports on international statistics and world totals. 140 figs., 141 tabs.

  13. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The GKSS (Society for the Utilization of Nuclear Energy in Shipbuilding and Nautics) gives in this annual report a comprehensive survey of the research and development efforts carried out and a survey on the organisation and its sociological position. More detailed and generally explicable presentations of selected spheres of research deal this year with solid combustible neutron poisons, water desalination systems, pollution at the Elbe-mouth, trace analysis with x-ray fluor essence, heat conduction in water and under-water systems. The research and development programme is, in comparison with previous years better understandable. The range of tasks, 'utilization of nuclear energy', especially covers projects on the field of reactor safety research which were comprised in one project and fully integrated in the reactor safety programme of the Fed. Ministry for Research and Technology. Furthermore, nuclear energy ship development and works concerning working material technology are being carried out, to a smaller extent. The project of a nuclear container ship which run over a period of 5 years, was finished in 1977. Profitability calculations show that nuclear trade ships can be used in a profitable way, when the oil price has increased three-fold. This might be the case in about 15-20 years. Further plans of the GKSS on the field of nuclear energy ship development take into account this result. The range of tasks 'utilization of the sea and the shores' was comprised in a frame programme and divided in the research, fields of environment technique, water desalination, resources, and sea technique. These works are, beside reactor safety research, the main range of works of the GKSS. (orig./HK) [de

  14. Annual energy review 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherin E. [Energy Information Adminstration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-09-30

    The Annual Energy Review 2003 is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States in modern times. Data are presented for all major forms of energy by production (extraction of energy from the earth, water, and other parts of the environment), consumption by end-user sector, trade with other nations, storage changes, and pricing. Much of the data provided covers the fossil fuels—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are nature’s batteries; they have stored the sun’s energy over millennia past. It is primarily that captured energy that we are drawing on today to fuel the activities of the modern economy. Data in this report measure the extraordinary expansion of our use of fossil fuels from 29 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1949 to 84 quadrillion Btu in 2003. In recent years, fossil fuels accounted for 86 percent of all energy consumed in the United States. This report also records the development of an entirely new energy industry—the nuclear electric power industry. The industry got its start in this country in 1957 when the Shippingport, Pennsylvania, nuclear electric power plant came on line. Since that time, the industry has grown to account for 20 percent of our electrical output and 8 percent of all energy used in the country. Renewable energy is a third major category of energy reported in this volume. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite in supply, renewable energy is essentially inexhaustible because it can be replenished. Types of energy covered in the renewable category include conventional hydroelectric power, which is power derived from falling water; wood; waste; alcohol fuels; geothermal; solar; and wind. Together, these forms of energy accounted for about 6 percent of all U.S. energy consumption in recent years.

  15. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development

  16. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 13, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2005. The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Cooperation Report. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is also provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency?s iaea.org web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2005/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Technologies; Capacity Building and Nuclear Knowledge Maintenance for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environment; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to Safety and Security discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation and Transport Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Nuclear Security. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate

  17. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development

  18. Primary, new and export production in the NW Pacific subarctic gyre during the vertigo K2 experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskens, M.; Brion, N.; Buesseler, K.; Van Mooy, B. A. S.; Boyd, P.; Dehairs, F.; Savoye, N.; Baeyens, W.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents results on tracer experiments using 13C and 15N to estimate uptake rates of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN). Experiments were carried out at station K2 (47°N, 161°E) in the NW Pacific subarctic gyre during July-August 2005. Our goal was to investigate relationships between new and export production. New production was inferred from the tracer experiments using the f ratio concept (0-50 m); while export production was assessed with neutrally buoyant sediment traps (NBSTs) and the e ratio concept (at 150 m). During trap deployments, K2 was characterized both by changes in primary production (523-404 mg C m -2 d -1), new production (119-67 mg C m -2 d -1), export production (68-24 mg C m -2 d -1) and phytoplankton composition (high to low proportion of diatoms). The data indicate that 17-23% of primary production is exportable to deeper layers ( f ratio) but only 6-13% collected as a sinking particle flux at 150 m ( e ratio). Accordingly, >80% of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton would be mineralized in the upper 50 m (1- f), while <11% would be within 50-150 m ( f- e). DIN uptake flux amounted to 0.5 mM m -2 h -1, which was equivalent to about 95% particulate nitrogen (PN) remineralized and/or grazed within the upper 150 m. Most of the shallow PN remineralization occurred just above the depth of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), where a net ammonium production was measured. Below the DCM, while nitrate uptake rates became negligible because of light limitation, ammonium uptake did continue to be significant. The uptake of ammonium by heterotrophic bacteria was estimated to be 14-17% of the DIN assimilation. Less clear are the consequences of this uptake on the phytoplankton community and biogeochemical processes, e.g. new production. It was suggested that competition for ammonium could select for small cells and may force large diatoms to use nitrate. This implies that under Fe stress as observed here, ammonium uptake is

  19. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on terrestrial subarctic ecosystems and implications for interactions with increased atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U.; Bjoern, L.O.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Callaghan, T.V.; Lee, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two predominating types of ecosystems in the Subarctic were exposed to simulated environmental perturbations. A heathland ecosystem was exposed to enhanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) combined with either increased CO 2 (600 ppm) or additional watering. An ombrotrophic peatland ecosystem was exposed to only enhanced UV-B. Responses both at a plant species level, including different growth forms and life strategies, and at a trophic level (decomposition of organic matter) were studied. There were differences both in the magnitude and direction of plant responses to enhanced UV-B. The four dwarf shrub species in the heathland developed shorter stems, though not at a significant level in the two deciduous species. The leaves of the evergreen, thick-leaved V. vitus-idaea grew thicker under enhanced UV-B, while leaves of the two deciduous species V. myrtillus and V. uliginosum grew thinner. The heathland moss H. splendens showed reduced growth after two and three years under enhanced UV-B but when water was applied simultaneously growth was stimulated by enhanced UV-B. The peat moss S. fuscum had 20% less height increment during the first growing season under enhanced UV-B. Mosses tended to respond quicker to a change in UV-B regime than long-lived dwarf shrubs did. They responded in growth and phenological development already after a few weeks of treatment. Enhanced UV-B in the heathland affected decomposition of organic matter. It had direct negative effects on decomposer community function and structure and indirect negative effects on turnover of V. uliginosum leaf litter by changing the tissue quality of the litter. This was confirmed by studies in the field with another deciduous dwarf shrub (V. myrtillus). Increased growth due to enhanced CO 2 was recorded in V. myrtillus during the first growing season. No change in growth was apparent in any of the dwarf shrubs on a longer-term perspective but the number of flowers and berries were increased in

  20. Role of EPS, Dispersant and Nutrients on the Microbial Response and MOS Formation in the Subarctic Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gutierrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the formation of marine oil snow (MOS, its associated microbial community, the factors influencing its formation, and the microbial response to crude oil in surface waters of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC. The FSC is a subarctic region that is hydrodynamically complex located in the northeast Atlantic where oil extraction is currently occurring and where exploration is likely to expand into its deeper waters (>500 m. A major oil spill in this region may mirror the aftermath that ensued following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, where the massive influx of Macondo crude oil triggered the formation of copious quantities of rapidly sinking MOS and successional blooms of opportunistic oil-degrading bacteria. In laboratory experiments, we simulated environmental conditions in sea surface waters of the FSC using water collected from this site during the winter of 2015. We demonstrated that the presence of dispersant triggers the formation of MOS, and that nutrient amendments magnify this. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed the enrichment on MOS of associated oil-degrading (Cycloclasticus, Thalassolituus, Marinobacter and EPS-producing (Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Alteromonas bacteria, and included major representation by Psychrobacter and Cobetia with putative oil-degrading/EPS-producing qualities. The formation of marine snow, in the absence of crude oil and dispersant, in seawater amended with nutrients alone indicated that the de novo synthesis of bacterial EPS is a key factor in MOS formation, and the glycoprotein composition of the MOS aggregates confirmed that its amorphous biopolymeric matrix was of microbial (likely bacterial origin. The presence of dispersants and crude oil with/without nutrients resulted in distinct microbial responses marked by intermittent, and in some cases short-lived, blooms of opportunistic heterotrophs, principally obligate hydrocarbonoclastic (Alcanivorax

  1. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  2. Diverse origins of Arctic and Subarctic methane point source emissions identified with multiply-substituted isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M. J.; Stolper, D. A.; Smith, D. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Winterdahl, M.; Eiler, J. M.; Sessions, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and there are concerns that its natural emissions from the Arctic could act as a substantial positive feedback to anthropogenic global warming. Determining the sources of methane emissions and the biogeochemical processes controlling them is important for understanding present and future Arctic contributions to atmospheric methane budgets. Here we apply measurements of multiply-substituted isotopologues, or clumped isotopes, of methane as a new tool to identify the origins of ebullitive fluxes in Alaska, Sweden and the Arctic Ocean. When methane forms in isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotope measurements indicate the formation temperature. In some microbial methane, however, non-equilibrium isotope effects, probably related to the kinetics of methanogenesis, lead to low clumped isotope values. We identify four categories of emissions in the studied samples: thermogenic methane, deep subsurface or marine microbial methane formed in isotopic equilibrium, freshwater microbial methane with non-equilibrium clumped isotope values, and mixtures of deep and shallow methane (i.e., combinations of the first three end members). Mixing between deep and shallow methane sources produces a non-linear variation in clumped isotope values with mixing proportion that provides new constraints for the formation environment of the mixing end-members. Analyses of microbial methane emitted from lakes, as well as a methanol-consuming methanogen pure culture, support the hypothesis that non-equilibrium clumped isotope values are controlled, in part, by kinetic isotope effects induced during enzymatic reactions involved in methanogenesis. Our results indicate that these kinetic isotope effects vary widely in microbial methane produced in Arctic lake sediments, with non-equilibrium Δ18 values spanning a range of more than 5‰.

  3. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hendriks, I. E.; Meire, L.; Blicher, M. E.; Marbà , N.; Sejr, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    and macrophyte diffusive boundary layers a pH range of up to 0.8 units. Overall, pelagic and benthic metabolism was an important driver of pH and Ωarag producing mosaics of variability from low levels in the dark to peak levels at high irradiance generally appearing favourable for calcification. We suggest that productive coastal environments may form niches of high pH in a future acidified Arctic Ocean.

  4. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, D.

    2015-08-19

    and macrophyte diffusive boundary layers a pH range of up to 0.8 units. Overall, pelagic and benthic metabolism was an important driver of pH and Ωarag producing mosaics of variability from low levels in the dark to peak levels at high irradiance generally appearing favourable for calcification. We suggest that productive coastal environments may form niches of high pH in a future acidified Arctic Ocean.

  5. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  6. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  7. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  8. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  9. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  10. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  11. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  12. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  13. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  14. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  15. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  16. Annual Report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The annual report gives the specific scientific results in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and data processing with a list of publications. (orig.) [de

  17. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  18. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  19. Foreword. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: My Foreword to the 2002 Annual Report ended with a handful of best wishes for the year 2003. One of them, rather highly pitched, was addressed to our funding authorities: may their preaching about a ''Knowledge Based Society in Poland'' come true ! There is, unfortunately, little evidence that this preaching is taken seriously by the preachers, even though the time for that in a unifying Europe is high. I hope that this Annual Report bears witness that at least we are doing our bit in this direction. Thus: We have published 203 papers in international journals. Several of them quickly gain international recognition. There was hard competition for our internal awards. The four emerging winners are behind the contributions: on the creation of circular vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates (contribution 8.23), on our share in the NA49 experiment at CERN (contribution 6.4), on our use of solid state nuclear track detectors, SSNTD, in the hostile environment of hot plasma experiments (contribution 5.5) and on some special detectors for positron emission tomography to be applied in hadron therapy (contribution 3.7). We have also contributed to the general education by, e.g., having over 7000 young guests at our Training Department (see Chapter 11 ), taking part in the Science Festival in Warsaw and Lodz, or starting the ''Roland Maze project'' in that city. The project aims at involving a large number of high school pupils in active research concerning extensive air showers at highest energies (contribution 7.6). Very importantly, it has gained approval and financial support of the local authorities in Lodz. Two international meetings were organized by our Institute: the 28 Mazurian Lakes Conference, ''The Atomic Nucleus as a Laboratory for Fundamental Processes'', EPS sponsored, see e.g. CERN Courier 44 (2004), and the ''Conference on Plasma Research and Applications, PLASMA 2003'', biannual gathering of plasma physics its. Our attempts at obtaining EU

  20. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  1. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  2. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  3. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  4. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  5. Effect of the temperature and the exclusion of UVB radiation on the phenolics and iridoids in Menyanthes trifoliata L. leaves in the subarctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, Francoise [Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, POB 122, FI-96101 Rovaniemi (Finland); Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, POB 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi (Finland); Turunen, Minna, E-mail: minna.turunen@ulapland.f [Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, POB 122, FI-96101 Rovaniemi (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [Natural Product Research Laboratories, Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, POB 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Lakkala, Kaisa [Arctic Research Centre, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI-ARC), Taehtelaentie, 62, FI-99600 Sodankylae (Finland); Sutinen, Marja-Liisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, POB 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi (Finland); Department of Biology, University of Oulu, POB 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The long-term effects of UVB exclusion and temperature on the methanol extractable (ME) phenolics (flavonoids, phenolic acids) and iridoids of Menyanthes trifoliata L. (Mt) leaves were studied in northern Finland (68 deg. N) using wooden frames covered with filters for UVB exclusion (polyester filter), control (cellulose acetate filter) and ambient (no filter) conditions. Analysis of ambient plots showed no effect of the daily mean temperature (2sigma = 1.58 deg. C) on the leaf ME compound content and composition, but minimum temperatures decreased the flavonol content. UVB exclusion did not affect the total ME compound content but significantly decreased the proportion of flavonols concomitantly with an increase in iridoids. Due to its high iridoid content, Mt appears as an interesting model plant for studying the iridoid biosynthesis and its regulation under stress conditions. - This study shows that exclusion of UVB radiation modified the content of flavonols and iridoids but not chlorogenic acids in leaves of Menyanthes trifoliata in the subarctic.

  6. The fate of 13C15N labelled glycine in permafrost and surface soil at simulated thaw in mesocosms from high arctic and subarctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nynne Marie Rand; Elberling, Bo; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim: Nutrient distribution and carbon fluxes upon spring thaw are compared in mesocosms from high arctic and subarctic ecosystems dominated by Cassiope tetragona or Salix hastata/Salix arctica, in order to evaluate the possibility of plant and microbial utilization of an organic...... compound in thawing permafrost and surface soil. Methods: Double labeled glycine (13C15N) was added to soil columns with vegetation and to permafrost. During thaw conditions ecosystem respiration 13C was measured and 13C and 15N distribution in the ecosystem pools was quantified one day and one month after...... glycine addition. Results: Near-surface soil microbes were more efficient in the uptake of intact glycine immediately upon thaw than plants. After one month plants had gained more 15N whereas microbes seemed to lose 15N originating from glycine. We observed a time lag in glycine degradation upon...

  7. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years...... vascular plant groups. Also, limitation of soil nutrient availability caused by labile C addition decreased the relative proportion of green shoots in evergreen shrubs, although these were expected to cope better with the nutrient limitation than the opportunistic graminoids, which, by contrast, were...... unaffected. Reduced fungal biomass due to benomyl addition was accompanied by increased evergreen shrub and clubmoss biomass. Taken together, the effects of treatments were most pronounced 16 years after initiation of the experiment, but despite changes in biomass the overall plant community composition...

  8. Dynamics of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus during the peak and declining phase of an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the eastern subarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Nishioka, Jun; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all organisms and thus the P cycle plays a key role in determining the dynamics of lower trophic levels in marine ecosystems. P in seawater occurs conceptually in particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic (POP, PIP, DOP, and DIP, respectively) pools and clarification of the dynamics in these P pools is the basis to assess the biogeochemical cycle of P. Despite its importance, behaviors of each P pool with phytoplankton dynamics have not been fully examined. We measured the four operationally defined P pools (POPop, PIPop, DOPop, and SRP) during an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom (as part of the subarctic ecosystem response to iron enrichment study (SERIES)) in the eastern subarctic Pacific in summer 2002. During our observations of the iron-enriched patch from day 15 to day 26 after the iron infusion, chlorophyll-a concentration in the surface layer decreased from 6.3 to 1.2 μg L- 1, indicating the peak through decline phase of the phytoplankton bloom. At the bloom peak, P was partitioned into POPop, PIPop, and DOPop in proportions of 60, 27, and 13%, respectively. While chlorophyll-a and POPop showed similar temporal variations during the declining phase, PIPop showed a different peak timing with a 2 day delay compared to POPop, resulting in a rapid change in the relative proportion of PIPop to total particulate P (TPP = POPop + PIPop) at the peak (25%) and during the declining phase of the bloom (50%). A part of POPop was replaced by PIPop just after slowing down of phytoplankton growth. This process may have a significant role in the subsequent regeneration of P. We conclude that measurement of TPP alone is insufficient to show the interaction between P and phytoplankton dynamics and fractionation of TPP into POPop and PIPop provides useful insights to clarify the biogeochemical cycle of P.

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF DOMOIC ACID PRODUCTION IN OCEANIC PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) FROM IRON-LIMITED WATERS IN THE NORTHEAST SUBARCTIC PACIFIC(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Adrian; Lundholm, Nina; Kotaki, Yuichi; Hubbard, Katherine; Harrison, Paul J; Virginia Armbrust, E

    2008-06-01

    We identified and investigated the potential toxicity of oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia species from Ocean Station Papa (OSP), located in a high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the northeast (NE) subarctic Pacific Ocean. Despite their relatively low abundances in the indigenous phytoplankton assemblage, Pseudo-nitzschia species richness is high. The morphometric characteristics of five oceanic Pseudo-nitzschia isolates from at least four species are described using SEM and TEM. The species identified are Pseudo-nitzschia dolorosa Lundholm et Moestrup, P. granii Hasle, P. heimii Manguin, and P. cf. turgidula (Hust.) Hasle. Additional support for the taxonomic classifications based on frustule morphology is provided through the sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) rDNA. Pseudo-nitzschia species identification was also assessed by the construction of ITS1 clone libraries and using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) for environmental samples collected during the Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study (SERIES), conducted in close proximity to OSP in July of 2002. Based on ITS1 sequences, the presence of P. granii, P. heimii, P. cf. turgidula, and at least five other putative, unidentified Pseudo-nitzschia ITS1 variants was confirmed within iron-enriched phytoplankton assemblages at OSP. None of the oceanic isolates produced detectable levels of particulate domoic acid (DA) when in prolonged stationary phase due to silicic acid starvation. The lack of detectable concentrations of DA suggests that either these strains produce very little or no toxin, or that the physiological conditions required to promote particulate DA production were not met and thus differ from their coastal, toxigenic congeners. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Uncertainty assessment of a polygon database of soil organic carbon for greenhouse gas reporting in Canada’s Arctic and sub-arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Hossain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s Arctic and sub-arctic consist 46% of Canada’s landmass and contain 45% of the total soil organic carbon (SOC. Pronounced climate warming and increasing human disturbances could induce the release of this SOC to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. Canada is committed to estimating and reporting the greenhouse gases emissions and removals induced by land use change in the Arctic and sub-arctic. To assess the uncertainty of the estimate, we compiled a site-measured SOC database for Canada’s north, and used it to compare with a polygon database, that will be used for estimating SOC for the UNFCCC reporting. In 10 polygons where 3 or more measured sites were well located in each polygon, the site-averaged SOC content agreed with the polygon data within ±33% for the top 30 cm and within ±50% for the top 1 m soil. If we directly compared the SOC of the 382 measured sites with the polygon mean SOC, there was poor agreement: The relative error was less than 50% at 40% of the sites, and less than 100% at 68% of the sites. The relative errors were more than 400% at 10% of the sites. These comparisons indicate that the polygon database is too coarse to represent the SOC conditions for individual sites. The difference is close to the uncertainty range for reporting. The spatial database could be improved by relating site and polygon SOC data with more easily observable surface features that can be identified and derived from remote sensing imagery.

  11. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2014-01-01

    Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  12. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad

    Full Text Available Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects. Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  13. Spatial patterns in abundance, taxonomic composition and carbon biomass of nano- and microphytoplankton in Subarctic and Arctic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David W.; Cefarelli, Adrián O.; Wrohan, Ian A.; Wyatt, Shea N.; Varela, Diana E.

    2018-03-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008, we studied assemblages of nano- and microphytoplankton from the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) across five broad oceanographic domains in the seas surrounding northern North America. These domains are the eastern Subarctic North Pacific (ESNP), Bering and Chukchi Seas (BE-CH), Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin (BS-CB), Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), and Baffin Bay and Labrador Sea (BB-LS). Average abundance and total carbon biomass (C) of phytoplankton (>2 μm) varied ∼10-fold and ∼20-fold, respectively, across the five domains. In the BE-CH, CAA and BB-LS, diatoms averaged 35-70% and dinoflagellates 11-45% of total phytoplankton C (>2 μm), whereas in the ESNP and BS-CB, unidentified flagellates/coccoids (2-8 μm) represented a greater proportion of total C (27% and 39% respectively) than in the other domains. In the BE-CH and BB-LS, phytoplankton C (>2 μm) was dominated by dinoflagellates of the genus Gymnodinium, centric diatoms including Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros spp., unidentified flagellates/coccoids (2-8 μm), and cryptomonads. In contrast, diatoms such as Thalassiosira spp. and its resting spores dominated C in the CAA, with dinoflagellates being less significant than in the BE-CH and BB-LS. Unidentified flagellates/coccoids (2-8 μm), Gymnodinium spp., and cryptomonads dominated in the ESNP, and particularly in the BS-CB, where diatoms contributed only 18% of the very low levels of total phytoplankton C (>2 μm). Phytoplankton C (>2 μm) to chlorophyll a ratios (phyto C:chl a) averaged only 31 g C g chl a-1 in the oligotrophic BS-CB domain, and 51-150 g C g chl a-1 in the other domains, whereas ratios of biogenic silica to phytoplankton C (>2 μm) (bSi:phyto C) were lowest in the eastern domains. Estimates of phytoplankton C were highly sensitive to the choice of C to cell volume equations (C:vol) adopted in the calculations, particularly in diatom-rich areas. This study highlights how diatoms and

  14. Annual report 1998-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Sustainable Development Fund was created in October 1989 to provide financial assistance towards the development, implementation and promotion of innovative projects, activities, research and developments which support sustainable development. The Fund provides grants in support of innovative projects that further the sustainability of Manitoba's economy, environment, human health and social well-being, and encourages partnerships to make a contribution towards these same ends. Revenue for the Fund is derived from an environmental protection tax on glass liquor bottles and disposable diapers. During 1998/1999 the Fund provided financial assistance to 81 projects, expending a total of $2,520,743. Twenty-three projects were carried over from 1997/1998; funding for these projects totalled $ 263,401. The fund supported projects in eco-tourism (2 projects); education (15 projects); energy conservation (two projects); natural environment (13 projects); sustainable agriculture (five projects); sustainable development policy (two projects); urban/community environment (30 projects); waste management (five projects); water conservation (three projects); and Tax equivalency grants and broad allocations (4 projects). Fund-approved projects are submitted to Cabinet for review and final approval. Approved projects over $ 25,000 also require the approval of Treasury Board. The annual report provides a statistical summary of all projects by categories, and all associated expenditures.Text of Chapter 270 of the Sustainable Development Act under which this Fund was created, is appended.

  15. Annual report 1992-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The mission of the AECB is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This is accomplished by controlling the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and by participating on behalf of Canada in international measure of control. The AECB achieves regulatory control of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials through a comprehensive licensing system. This control also extends to the import and export of nuclear materials and it involves Canadian participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as compliance with the requirements of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The control covers both domestic and international security of nuclear materials and technology

  16. Annual report 1992-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is to ensure that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health, safety and the environment, and in it's function is supported by various Advisory Committees. The annual report of AERB for the year 1992-93 contains brief safety reviews of the new and existing nuclear power plants in India, details about the safety standards, codes and guidelines being followed in the nuclear facilities, regulatory procedures to be adopted in all the installations using radioactive materials and relevant details of other important activities of the Board. The report also contains annexures which give details about the constitution of various committees of the Board and AERB. (M.K.V.)

  17. Annual report 1993-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This is the forty-seventh annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The mission of the AECB is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This is accomplished by controlling the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and by participating on behalf of Canada in international measure of control. The AECB achieves regulatory control of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials through a comprehensive licensing system. This control also extends to the import and export of nuclear materials and it involves Canadian participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as compliance with the requirements of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The control covers both domestic and international security of nuclear materials and technology.

  18. Annual report 1992-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This is the forty-sixth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The mission of the AECB is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This is accomplished by controlling the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and by participating on behalf of Canada in international measure of control. The AECB achieves regulatory control of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials through a comprehensive licensing system. This control also extends to the import and export of nuclear materials and it involves Canadian participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as compliance with the requirements of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The control covers both domestic and international security of nuclear materials and technology.

  19. Annual report, 1991-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This is the forty-fifth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The mission of the AECB is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This is accomplished by controlling the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and by participating on behalf of Canada in international measure of control. The AECB achieves regulatory control of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials through a comprehensive licensing system. This control also extends to the import and export of nuclear materials and it involves Canadian participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as compliance with the requirements of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The control covers both domestic and international security of nuclear materials and technology.

  20. Annual report 1991-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted on November 15, 1983 to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions. The mission of the Board is to ensure that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health, safety and the environment. The annual report of AERB for the year 1991-1992 contains a brief review of the safety aspects of Indian nuclear power plants, and other nuclear facilities, safety standards and guidelines being adopted in these installations, and the development and implementation of regulatory procedures and a comprehensive statement about the other activities of the Board. It also gives a list of training courses and seminars organised and research programmes being undertaken along with the public information campaigns. The report also contains annexures in which details about the constitution of the AERB and its various committees are given. (M.K.V.)

  1. Annual Report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of The Supervising Scientist (OSS) underwent several significant changes during 1992-1993. Thus, the Sydney office was relocated to Canberra, and by May 1993 all OSS operations outside of the Northern Territory were being carried out at that locality. The relocation provided an opportunity to review the staff structure and increase efficiency. The annual report describes in detail work being undertaken, both nationally and internationally in developing radiation protection concepts that are appropriate for uranium mining industry. The emphasis of OSS research program is oriented towards effects on the environment. The report also provides a summary of of the progress of all active projects of the Alligator Rivers Region Institute. Details of all published and unpublished papers as well as the financial statement for the OSS are included in Appendixes. 16 tabs.; 28 figs

  2. Annual report 1993-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the forty-seventh annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The mission of the AECB is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This is accomplished by controlling the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and by participating on behalf of Canada in international measure of control. The AECB achieves regulatory control of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials through a comprehensive licensing system. This control also extends to the import and export of nuclear materials and it involves Canadian participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as compliance with the requirements of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The control covers both domestic and international security of nuclear materials and technology

  3. Annual report, 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The mission of the AECB is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This is accomplished by controlling the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and by participating on behalf of Canada in international measure of control. The AECB achieves regulatory control of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials through a comprehensive licensing system. This control also extends to the import and export of nuclear materials and it involves Canadian participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as compliance with the requirements of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The control covers both domestic and international security of nuclear materials and technology

  4. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This annual report is the fifth issued in English from the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Uppsala since research was started in November 1970. It covers work performed during the calendar year 1976 and updates information given in earlier annual reports with regard to laboratory facilities such as computer configuration and layout of the experimental area. The descriptions of the research projects are also in general more detailed than usual and may sometime contain results obtained before 1976 in order to avoid too many references to earlier annual reports. It has, for instance, been thought of interest to make the sections on the study of beam foil excitation of atoms and on the measurements of nuclear deformations by the REPREC method quite extensive. (Auth.)

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  6. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney W. Brook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how climate change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first-year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  7. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  8. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  9. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  10. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  11. Responses of fungal root colonization, plant cover and leaf nutrients to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming in a subarctic birch forest understory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Carlsson, Bengt Å.; Svensson, Brita M.

    2010-01-01

    Responses of the mycorrhizal fungal community in terrestrial ecosystems to global change factors are not well understood. However, virtually all land plants form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi, with approximately 20% of the plants' net primary production transported down...... by mycorrhizal and other root-associated fungi to global change factors of all the fungal types studied could have broad implications for plant community structure and biogeochemistry of subarctic ecosystems....

  12. Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the growing season than in winter: the results of eight-year field climate manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Aerts, Rien; Nijs, Ivan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Beyens, Louis

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae are widely used in paleoclimate reconstructions as a proxy for climate-induced changes in bogs. However, the sensitivity of proxies to seasonal climate components is an important issue when interpreting proxy records. Here, we studied the effects of summer warming, winter snow addition solely and winter snow addition together with spring warming on testate amoeba assemblages after eight years of experimental field climate manipulations. All manipulations were accomplished using open top chambers in a dry blanket bog located in the sub-Arctic (Abisko, Sweden). We estimated sensitivity of abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in the living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that, in a sub-arctic climate, testate amoebae are more sensitive to climate changes in the growing season than in winter. Summer warming reduced species richness and shifted assemblage composition towards predominance of xerophilous species for the living and empty shell assemblages in both layers. The higher soil temperatures during the growing season also decreased abundance of empty shells in both layers hinting at a possible increase in their decomposition rates. Thus, although possible effects of climate changes on preservation of empty shells should always be taken into account, species diversity and structure of testate amoeba assemblages in dry subarctic bogs are sensitive proxies for climatic changes during the growing season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Variação anual de hormônios tireoideanos e características termorreguladoras de vacas leiteiras em ambiente quente Annual thyroid hormone variation and thermo regulators traits of milk cows in hot environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha Morais

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento anual de características termorreguladoras de 200 vacas leiteiras. Durante dois anos consecutivos, foram registradas a freqüência respiratória (FR e a temperatura retal (TR, bem como coletada uma amostra de sangue para dosagens de triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4. Foram também registradas a temperatura e a umidade do ar e calculados o índice de temperatura de globo e umidade (ITGU e a carga térmica radiante (CTR, nos mesmos dias de coleta. Houve efeito significativo do ano para a maioria das variáveis estudadas, no entanto, os efeitos do mês de coleta e do rebanho foram significativos para todas. Todos os valores de TR estiveram dentro da amplitude de normalidade, indicando homeotermia. A FR foi alterada em todas as épocas do ano e rebanhos, confirmando a necessidade constante de termólise. No rebanho de maior TR e a FR, houve redução da secreção de T3 e T4. Nas épocas de maiores ITGU e CTR, houve aumento da TR, seguido de maiores FR e menores concentrações plasmáticas de T3 e T4.This work was carried out with the objective to study the annual behavior of thermo regulators traits in dairy cows. Two hundred cows were used during two consecutive years and the respiratory rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT, as well as a blood sample was collected for triiodothyronin (T3 and thyroxin (T4 dosages, were recorded. Air temperature and humidity were also recorded and the black globe humidity index (BGHI and radiant heat load (RHL were calculated in the same days of data collection. There was no significative effect of the year for the majority of studied variables, however, the effects of month of collection and herd were significative for all variables. All values of RT were inside of the amplitude of normality, indicating homoeothermic condition. The RR was altered in every seasons of the year and herds, showing a constant necessity of thermolisys. In herds with

  14. The VAEC - Annual report for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan; Le Van Hong; Nguyen Hoang Anh; Nguyen Trong Trang; Dang Thi Hong

    2010-03-01

    The VAEC Annual Report for 2008 has been prepared as an account of works carried out at the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) for the year 2008. The Report contains mains results from the VAEC's activities of research and development in following fields: nuclear physics; reactor physics, reactors and nuclear power; instrumentation; industrial applications; radiation protection and radioactive waste management; applications in ecology, geology and environment; applications in biology, agriculture and medicine; radiation technology, radiochemistry and materials sciences, computation and other topics. (NHA)

  15. The VAEC - Annual Report for 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan; Le Van Hong; Nguyen Hoang Anh; Nguyen Trong Trang; Dang Thi Hong

    2007-12-01

    The VAEC Annual Report for 2006 has been prepared as an account of works carried out at the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) for the year 2006. The Report contains mains results from the VAEC's activities of research and development in following fields: nuclear physics, reactor physics and nuclear energy, nuclear methods, radiation protection and radioactive waste management, ecology and environment, biotechnology and agriculture, radiation technology, radiochemistry and materials sciences, computation and other topics. (NHA)

  16. The VAEC - Annual Report for 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Vuong Huu; Hong, Le Van; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Trang, Nguyen Trong; Hong, Dang Thi [eds.

    2007-12-15

    The VAEC Annual Report for 2006 has been prepared as an account of works carried out at the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) for the year 2006. The Report contains mains results from the VAEC's activities of research and development in following fields: nuclear physics, reactor physics and nuclear energy, nuclear methods, radiation protection and radioactive waste management, ecology and environment, biotechnology and agriculture, radiation technology, radiochemistry and materials sciences, computation and other topics. (NHA)

  17. The VAEC - Annual report for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Vuong Huu; Hong, Le Van; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Trang, Nguyen Trong; Hong, Dang Thi [eds.

    2007-11-15

    The VAEC Annual Report for 2007 has been prepared as an account of works carried out at the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) for the year 2007. The Report contains mains results from the VAEC's activities of research and development in following fields: nuclear physics; reactor physics, reactors and nuclear power; instrumentation; industrial applications; radiation protection and radioactive waste management; applications in ecology, geology and environment; applications in biology, agriculture and medicine; radiation technology, radiochemistry and materials sciences, computation and other topics. (NHA)

  18. The VAEC - Annual report for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan; Le Van Hong; Nguyen Hoang Anh; Nguyen Trong Trang; Dang Thi Hong

    2007-11-01

    The VAEC Annual Report for 2007 has been prepared as an account of works carried out at the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) for the year 2007. The Report contains mains results from the VAEC's activities of research and development in following fields: nuclear physics; reactor physics, reactors and nuclear power; instrumentation; industrial applications; radiation protection and radioactive waste management; applications in ecology, geology and environment; applications in biology, agriculture and medicine; radiation technology, radiochemistry and materials sciences, computation and other topics. (NHA)

  19. The VINATOM - Annual Report for 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Chi Thanh; Cao Dinh Thanh; Nguyen Hoang Anh; Nguyen Thi Kim Dung; Nguyen Thi Dinh; Nguyen Thi Phuong Lan

    2014-11-01

    The VINATOM Annual Report for 2013 has been prepared as an account of works carried out at the Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VINATOM) for the year 2013. The Report contains mains results from the VINATOM activities of research and development in following fields: nuclear physics; reactor physics, reactors and nuclear power; instrumentation; industrial applications; radiation protection and radioactive waste management; applications in ecology, geology and environment; applications in biology, agriculture and medicine; radiation technology, radiochemistry and materials sciences, computation and other topics. (NHA)

  20. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This annual report of the Charbonnages de France (CdF) group presents the financial results of the group for 1998: coal market, CdF's financial results (turnover, exploitation result, financial result, debt); power production (Snet, Cerchar, Surschiste, Sidec, and CdF Ingenierie activities); coal industry activities (coal mines, coke factories, coal products, environment); progressive ceasing of coal extraction (safety, manpower, reduction of working time, training, management of abandoned sites, rehabilitation, cleansing); management of industrialization and patrimony. (J.S.)